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Sample records for stigma stig stegt

  1. ["StigMa" - Evaluation of a Psychological Therapy Program for Stigma-Management].

    PubMed

    Schenner, Manuela; Kohlbauer, Daniela; Meise, Ullrich; Haller, Christina; Pixner-Huber, Martina; Stürz, Kristina; Günther, Verena

    2017-04-03

    Objective The project "Stigma Management - StigMa" aims on the evaluation of an adaptive therapy program for patients with psychiatric illness to help them in managing internalized stigma and self-stigmatization. Methods The patients for this pilot-study were recruited in day-hospitals of pro mente tirol. 26 patients participated in 11 group sessions, following 6 modules: "Education", "Activation of Resources", "Social Network", "Self-Esteem", "Social competence in public places" and "My personal stigma management". The control group consisted of 20 patients who did not participate in StigMa. Pre-post-evaluation was done by the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Scale 1. Results No significant interaction effects could be observed, although in the treatment group, the burden of perceived discrimination was significantly less pronounced after training than before it.The program, however, was evaluated as being extremely positive by the participants. Conclusions The program StigMa will be adapted in accordance with the suggestions of the participants and reevaluated taking into consideration methodological optimization. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    PubMed

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  3. STIG1 Controls Exudate Secretion in the Pistil of Petunia and Tobacco1[w

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Tamara; Feron, Richard; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Edqvist, Johan; Gerats, Tom; Derksen, Jan; Mariani, Celestina

    2005-01-01

    The lipid-rich, sticky exudate covering the stigma of solanaceous species such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and petunia (Petunia hybrida) contains several proteins, of which only some have been characterized to date. Proteome analysis of the stigmatic exudate in both species revealed the presence of a cysteine-rich, slightly acidic 12-kD protein called stigma-specific protein 1 (STIG1). In both tobacco and petunia, Stig1 is highly expressed at the mRNA level in very young and developing flowers, whereas hardly any Stig1 transcript is detected in mature flowers. This expression pattern coincides with the differentiation of the secretory zone, forming the intercellular spaces into which the exudate is secreted. Using reverse genetics, we show that STIG1 is involved in the secretion and merging of exudate lipids in the intercellular spaces of the secretory zone and that plants lacking STIG1 show an accelerated deposition of exudate onto the stigmatic surface. This phenotype was observed both in a petunia knockout mutant and in tobacco transgenic plants. We therefore propose that STIG1 plays a role in the temporal regulation of the essential exudate secretion onto the stigma. PMID:15821148

  4. Tomato pistil factor STIG1 promotes in vivo pollen tube growth by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and the extracellular domain of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The speed of pollen tube growth is a major determinant of reproductive success in flowering plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) STIGMA-SPECIFIC PROTEIN1 (STIG1), a small Cys-rich protein from the pistil, was previously identified as a binding partner of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and shown ...

  5. Female sterile tobacco plants are produced by stigma-specific cell ablation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M H; Goldberg, R B; Mariani, C

    1994-01-01

    We identified a tobacco stigma-specific gene, designated STIG1. The STIG1 gene is developmentally regulated and expressed specifically in the stigmatic secretory zone. We used a chimeric STIG1-GUS gene to show that the stigma-specific STIG1 gene expression pattern is controlled primarily at the transcriptional level. We constructed a stigma-specific cytotoxic gene by fusing the STIG1 gene 5' regulatory region with the coding sequence of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens barnase gene, to assess the role of the stigmatic secretory zone in the pollination process. Pistils of transgenic STIG1-barnase tobacco plants undergo normal development, but lack the stigmatic secretory zone and are female sterile. Pollen grains germinate on the ablated 'stigmatic' surface, but are unable to penetrate the transmitting tissue of the style. Application of stigmatic exudate from wild-type pistils to the ablated surface increases the efficiency of pollen tube germination and growth and restores the capacity of pollen tubes to penetrate the style. Our data demonstrate the importance of the stigmatic secretory zone in the pollination process and provide an approach to identify compounds produced by the stigma that are critical for successful pollination and fertilization to occur. Images PMID:8039494

  6. FOREWORD: The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2010-09-01

    It is not easy to assess, or even to describe correctly a long and distinguished career that started about the time when I was born. In 1964 Stig Stenholm got both an engineering degree at the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), and an MSc degree (in Mathematics) at the University of Helsinki. The two degrees demonstrate Stig's ability to understand both complex mathematics and experimental physics. Statistical physics or rather, quantum liquids, was the field in which Stig got his DPhil at Oxford in 1967, under the guidance of Dirk ter Haar. It is interesting that together they worked on studying fermions in a bosonic background [1]; at the time this meant, of course, 3He atoms as impurities in 4He liquid, but nowadays one would immediately connect such systems to the physics of cold atomic gases. The postdoctoral period in 1967-1968 at Yale University brought Stig in contact with Willis Lamb and laser physics [2]. Back in Finland, Stig's career in the 1970s was dominated by theoretical studies of gas lasers, especially pressure and collision effects on spectral lines and saturation spectroscopy, together with his first PhD student, Rainer Salomaa. A professorship at the University of Helsinki came in 1974, and in 1980 an important era started as Stig became the scientific director of the Research Institute for Theoretical Physics (TFT). At that time he also developed the semiclassical theory of laser cooling especially with Juha Javanainen. The laser spectroscopy work led to a textbook in 1984 [3], and the semiclassical laser cooling theory was summarized in a review article in 1986 [4]. These were not, of course, his only interests, as he also worked on free-electron lasers, ring-laser gyroscopes, multiphoton processes and quantum amplifiers. In an article written in 1990 in honour of Olli Lounasmaa [5], the founder of the famous Low Temperature Laboratory at HUT, Stig mentions that one of his most memorable achievements was acting as a bridge between the

  7. A simulation methodology to evaluate BIG-STIG systems in sugar and alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, A.C.; Bajay, S.V.; Nogueira, L.A.H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a simulation procedure to assess BIG-STIG -- Biomass Integrated Gasifier/Steam Injected Gas Turbine -- systems in sugar-cane mills. Two configurations are considered: one in which the conventional steam cycle is the bottoming part of a combined cycle and another one in which the gas turbine is used as the only power machine. Both the operation during the harvest season and the operation between such seasons -- when the steam injection in the gas turbines occurs -- are simulated. The four main modules of a BIG-STIG system are simulated here: the gas turbine -- GT, the heat recovery steam generator -- HRSG, the biomass gasification plant and the conventional back-pressure steam turbine cogeneration unit. Three gas turbines of different capacities were studied and the corresponding results compared to those available in some references. The modelling allows the analysis of the process steam requirements, the blast air extractions and the main HRSG operational constraints, like the minimum pinch-point temperature at the HRSG and the minimum HRSG stack gas value.

  8. Stigma power.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo

    2014-02-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource "stigma power" and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987, 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or "misrecognized." To explore the utility of the stigma-power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed - precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma-power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stigma Power

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo

    2015-01-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource “stigma power” and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987; 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or “misrecognized.” To explore the utility of the stigma power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed –precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. PMID:24507908

  10. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  11. Stigma in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Štrkalj-Ivezić, Slađana

    2013-09-01

    Much more is known about attitudes toward mental illness and social stigma, the viscious cycle of its consequences and how to fight the social stigma in public, but much less is known about how to combat the stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. Stigma theories have not been enough to understand the feelings and experience of people with mental illness. Conceptual framework that understands stigma as consisting of difficulties of knowledge (ignorance or misinformation), problems of attitudes (prejudice), and problems of behaviour (discrimination) have not o been enough to understand stigma dynamics in the patient therapist interaction. Understanding the psychodynamic aspects of internalized stereotype of mental illness in the patient- therapist relationship may improve our competency to deal with stigma and self stigma in clinical practice.

  12. Is Stigma Internalized? The Longitudinal Impact of Public Stigma on Self-Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Bitman, Rachel L.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Stigma is considered an important barrier to seeking mental health services. Two types of stigma exist: public stigma and self-stigma. Theoretically, it has been argued that public stigma leads to the development of self-stigma. However, the empirical support for this assertion is limited to cross-sectional data. Therefore, the goal of this…

  13. Is Stigma Internalized? The Longitudinal Impact of Public Stigma on Self-Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Bitman, Rachel L.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Stigma is considered an important barrier to seeking mental health services. Two types of stigma exist: public stigma and self-stigma. Theoretically, it has been argued that public stigma leads to the development of self-stigma. However, the empirical support for this assertion is limited to cross-sectional data. Therefore, the goal of this…

  14. [Stigma and stigma reduction: lessons learned].

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews stigma and its consequences for mental health consumers, presents results from three large scale stigma-reduction programs that have been implemented at national and international levels, and focuses on the specific experiences of the Canadian Pilot Program of the World Health Organizations Global Program to Fight Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia in order to draw lessons for better practices for anti-stigma programming. Experiences to date suggest that the most cost-effective interventions are likely to be carefully targeted to specific sub-populations. Broad-based public education campaigns have been disappointing and are unlikely to produce meaningful change in attitudes or behaviours. Approaches that employ contact with mental health consumers in the context of anti-stigma education appear most promising.

  15. Predictors of depression stigma.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F

    2008-04-18

    To investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression. Three samples were surveyed to investigate the predictors: a national sample of 1,001 Australian adults; a local community sample of 5,572 residents of the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan aged 18 to 50 years; and a psychologically distressed subset (n = 487) of the latter sample. Personal and Perceived Stigma were measured using the two subscales of the Depression Stigma Scale. Potential predictors included demographic variables (age, gender, education, country of birth, remoteness of residence), psychological distress, awareness of Australia's national depression initiative beyondblue, depression literacy and level of exposure to depression. Not all predictors were used for all samples. Personal stigma was consistently higher among men, those with less education and those born overseas. It was also associated with greater current psychological distress, lower prior contact with depression, not having heard of a national awareness raising initiative, and lower depression literacy. These findings differed from those for perceived stigma except for psychological distress which was associated with both higher personal and higher perceived stigma. Remoteness of residence was not associated with either type of stigma. The findings highlight the importance of treating the concepts of personal and perceived stigma separately in designing measures of stigma, in interpreting the pattern of findings in studies of the predictors of stigma, and in designing, interpreting the impact of and disseminating interventions for stigma.

  16. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  17. The Stigma Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  18. Situating stigma in stratified reproduction: Abortion stigma and miscarriage stigma as barriers to reproductive healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bommaraju, Aalap; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Hou, Melody Y; Bessett, Danielle

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether race and reported history of abortion are associated with abortion stigma and miscarriage stigma, both independently and comparatively. Self-administered surveys with 306 new mothers in Boston and Cincinnati, United States. Abortion stigma perception (ASP); miscarriage stigma perception (MSP); and comparative stigma perception (CSP: abortion stigma perception net of miscarriage stigma perception). Regardless of whether or not they reported having an abortion, white women perceived abortion (ASP) to be more stigmatizing than Black and Latina women. Perceptions of miscarriage stigma (MSP), on the other hand, were dependent on reporting an abortion. Among those who reported an abortion, Black women perceived more stigma from miscarriage than white women, but these responses were flipped for women who did not report abortion. Reporting abortion also influenced our comparative measure (CSP). Among those who did report an abortion, white women perceived more stigma from abortion than miscarriage, while Black and Latina women perceived more stigma from miscarriage than abortion. By measuring abortion stigma in comparison to miscarriage stigma, we can reach a more nuanced understanding of how perceptions of reproductive stigmas are stratified by race and reported reproductive history. Clinicians should be aware that reproductive stigmas do not similarly affect all groups. Stigma from specific reproductive outcomes is more or less salient dependent upon a woman's social position and lived experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From stigma to strategy.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, P; Harty, C

    This article outlines the Mental Health Awareness Project's (MHAP) innovative strategy to address the stigma associated with mental illness, and what concerns there should be for nurses--from the social inclusion agenda, through current legislation to clinical governance.

  20. The Stigma of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Young, William B.; Park, Jung E.; Tian, Iris X.; Kempner, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background People who have a disease often experience stigma, a socially and culturally embedded process through which individuals experience stereotyping, devaluation, and discrimination. Stigma has great impact on quality of life, behavior, and life chances. We do not know whether or not migraine is stigmatizing. Methods We studied 123 episodic migraine patients, 123 chronic migraine patients, and 62 epilepsy patients in a clinical setting to investigate the extent to which stigma attaches to migraine, using epilepsy as a comparison. We used the stigma scale for chronic illness, a 24-item questionnaire suitable for studying chronic neurologic diseases, and various disease impact measures. Results Patients with chronic migraine had higher scores (54.0±20.2) on the stigma scale for chronic illness than either episodic migraine (41.7±14.8) or epilepsy patients (44.6±16.3) (p<0.001). Subjects with migraine reported greater inability to work than epilepsy subjects. Stigma correlated most strongly with the mental component score of the short form of the medical outcomes health survey (SF-12), then with ability to work and migraine disability score for chronic and episodic migraine and the Liverpool impact on epilepsy scale for epilepsy. Analysis of covariance showed adjusted scores for the stigma scale for chronic illness were similar for chronic migraine (49.3; 95% confidence interval, 46.2 to 52.4) and epilepsy (46.5; 95% confidence interval, 41.6 to 51.6), and lower for episodic migraine (43.7; 95% confidence interval, 40.9 to 46.6). Ability to work was the strongest predictor of stigma as measured by the stigma scale for chronic illness. Conclusion In our model, adjusted stigma was similar for chronic migraine and epilepsy, which were greater than for episodic migraine. Stigma correlated most strongly with inability to work, and was greater for chronic migraine than epilepsy or episodic migraine because chronic migraine patients had less ability to work. PMID

  1. Stigma and work.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses what is known about workplace stigma and employment inequity for people with mental and emotional problems. For people with serious mental disorders, studies show profound consequences of stigma, including diminished employability, lack of career advancement and poor quality of working life. People with serious mental illnesses are more likely to be unemployed or to be under-employed in inferior positions that are incommensurate with their skills or training. If they return to work following an illness, they often face hostility and reduced responsibilities. The result may be self-stigma and increased disability. Little is yet known about how workplace stigma affects those with less disabling psychological or emotional problems, even though these are likely to be more prevalent in workplace settings. Despite the heavy burden posed by poor mental health in the workplace, there is no regular source of population data relating to workplace stigma, and no evidence base to support the development of best-practice solutions for workplace anti-stigma programs. Suggestions for research are made in light of these gaps.

  2. Stigma resistance in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan M; Murray, Stuart B; Thornton, Chris; Touyz, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Stigma resistance, described as the capacity to counteract or remain unaffected by the stigma of mental illness, may play a crucial role in the fight against stigma. Little is known, however, about stigma resistance and its correlates in people with eating disorders. This study investigated stigma resistance in people currently diagnosed (n = 325) and recovered (n = 127) from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and EDNOS. Participants completed an Internet survey that included the Stigma Resistance subscale of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale together with a battery of psychosocial and psychiatric measures. A minimal-to-low level of stigma resistance was exhibited by 26.5% of currently diagnosed participants compared to just 5.5% of recovered participants. Stigma resistance was significantly higher among the recovered than the currently diagnosed (Cohen's d = 0.25) after controlling for differences in eating disorder and depression symptoms, attitudes about seeking psychological help, self-esteem, years between symptom onset and diagnosis, and years since diagnosis. Greater stigma resistance among the currently diagnosed was associated with less marked eating disorder and depression symptoms, higher self-esteem, more positive attitudes about seeking psychological treatment, and lower internalized stigma. Stigma resistance is a promising concept that warrants further study. Researchers should consider designing interventions that specifically cultivate stigma resistance in people with eating disorders as a complement to current interventions that target public perceptions of eating disorders. Clinicians may consider incorporating the concept into their practice to help patients rebuff the adverse effects of mental illness stigmatization.

  3. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.; Nair, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination. PMID:22028525

  4. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  5. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  6. Appearances, Stigma, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the practical aspects of clothing are compared to effective practices in special education. Actual competence is more important than the appearance, or cloak, of competence. It is argued that speaking openly about disability will do more to reduce its stigma than will euphemisms. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Provider lived experience and stigma.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Irene; Leskela, Jennie; Hoffman-Konn, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite professional values about advocacy for people managing mental health challenges, research on mental health providers indicates that this group expresses as much or more stigma than laypeople. This article reports on a continuing education needs assessment of 101 mental health providers, including evaluation of (a) knowledge about recovery-oriented care, (b) work engagement, (c) provider lived experience with mental health challenges, and (d) stigma, measured as disidentification. In this group of providers, recovery knowledge, lived experience, and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward clients. Recovery knowledge and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward other providers with lived experience, but having lived experience was not associated with stigma toward other providers with lived experience. Findings suggest that the professional culture of nondisclosure may be a factor that increases provider stigma and should be a topic for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358

  9. Teenage Mothers' Experiences of Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with exploring the impact of stigma upon teenage mothers. Drawing upon the findings of in-depth interviews with 20 teenage mothers, the study explores the ways and contexts within which stigma is experienced and identifies differential effects and coping mechanisms reported by the participants. Thereafter, it is suggested…

  10. Teenage Mothers' Experiences of Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with exploring the impact of stigma upon teenage mothers. Drawing upon the findings of in-depth interviews with 20 teenage mothers, the study explores the ways and contexts within which stigma is experienced and identifies differential effects and coping mechanisms reported by the participants. Thereafter, it is suggested…

  11. Stigma, status, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Lucas, Jeffrey W.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Taylor, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by “social ordering schemas” that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between “normals” and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma’s impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of

  12. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean A

    2007-04-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd SA (2003) Child Adol Social Work J 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed significant associations between perceived stigma due to homeless status and sexual orientation, pan handling and sex trade involvement, and amount of time homeless. Higher perceived stigma was also related to low self esteem, loneliness, feeling trapped, and suicidal ideation, with guilt/self-blame due to homeless status having the strongest impact on mental health variables.

  13. Changing stigma through a consumer-based stigma reduction program.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W; Buchholz, Blythe; Brown, Jennifer; Arthur, Thomas; Netter, Clarissa; Macdonald-Wilson, Kim L

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the Anti-Stigma Project workshop, a contact/education intervention developed by On Our Own of Maryland, Inc. and the Maryland Mental Hygiene Administration. Two separate randomized controlled trials administered pre- and post-test questionnaire assessments. One included people with mental illness (N = 127) and a second included mental health providers (N = 131). Post-intervention, people with mental illness were more aware of stigma, had lower levels of prejudice, and increased belief in recovery. Providers were more aware of stigma, had lower levels of prejudice, and increased concurrence in self-determination of people with mental illness. Increasing providers' stigma awareness and recognition can promote higher quality service delivery. Increasing stigma awareness and recognition for people with mental illness can foster confidence in overcoming psychiatric disabilities. Using a participatory action research team, our protocol included extant and newly developed stigma change tools. Organizations seeking to conduct effective evaluation studies should consider collaborative processes including the expertise of affected constituents.

  14. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  15. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Hughes, David

    2014-04-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health.

  16. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; Hughes, David

    2014-01-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  17. Family Stigma and Caregiver Burden in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Perla; Mittelman, Mary S.; Goldstein, Dovrat; Heinik, Jeremia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The stigma experienced by the family members of an individual with a stigmatized illness is defined by 3 dimensions: caregiver stigma, lay public stigma, and structural stigma. Research in the area of mental illness suggests that caregivers' perception of stigma is associated with increased burden. However, the effect of stigma on…

  18. Family Stigma and Caregiver Burden in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Perla; Mittelman, Mary S.; Goldstein, Dovrat; Heinik, Jeremia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The stigma experienced by the family members of an individual with a stigmatized illness is defined by 3 dimensions: caregiver stigma, lay public stigma, and structural stigma. Research in the area of mental illness suggests that caregivers' perception of stigma is associated with increased burden. However, the effect of stigma on…

  19. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  20. Combating Stigma Resulting from Deformity and Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard Wood Memorial for the Eradication of Leprosy, New York, NY.

    Summarized are the proceedings of a seminar concerned with methods of combating stigma resulting from facial disfigurement, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and leprosy. The purpose was to determine how theories about stigma can help in the development of new methods of public education in order to change public attitudes and reduce social stigma.…

  1. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  2. Disease and Stigma: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of literature pertaining to disease and stigma. Specifically, a definition of stigma is provided along with an historical overview of disease and stigma and research trends related to three public health perils-AIDS, mental illness, and obesity.

  3. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  4. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  5. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  6. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  7. Mental illness stigma and suicidality: the role of public and individual stigma.

    PubMed

    Oexle, N; Waldmann, T; Staiger, T; Xu, Z; Rüsch, N

    2016-12-06

    Suicide rates are increased among unemployed individuals and mental illness stigma can contribute to both unemployment and suicidality. Persons with mental illness perceive negative attitudes among the general public and experience discrimination in their everyday life (=public stigma components) potentially leading to self-stigma and anticipated discrimination (=individual stigma components). Previous research found evidence for an association between aspects of mental illness stigma and suicidality, but has not yet clarified the underlying pathways explaining how different stigma components interact and contribute to suicidal ideation. Public and individual stigma components and their association with suicidal ideation were examined among 227 unemployed persons with mental illness. A path model linking public stigma components (experienced discrimination, perceived stigma) with suicidal ideation, mediated by individual stigma components (anticipated discrimination, self-stigma), was examined using structural equation modelling within Mplus. Our sample was equally split in terms of gender, on average 43 years old and about half reported no suicidal ideation during the past 30 days. In bivariate analyses all stigma components were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. In the path model and controlling for symptoms, the association between experienced discrimination and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by anticipated discrimination and self-stigma. Perceived stigma's contribution to suicidal ideation was fully mediated by anticipated discrimination, but not by self-stigma. In general, programmes addressing multiple stigma components seem to be most effective in improving suicide prevention. Besides interventions targeting negative attitudes and discriminating behaviours of the general public, programmes to support persons with mental illness in coping with perceived and experienced stigma could improve suicide prevention. Future studies should test

  8. Aspects of the Aging Stigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luken, Paul C.

    Although social gerontologists recognize the heterogeneous nature of elderly populations, they have relied on the use of aggregate data and chronological age rather than sociological variables in their research. The notion of stigma, as developed by Goffman (1963), applied to the elderly focuses on social relationships rather than individual…

  9. Curing the stigma of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Joy

    2005-06-01

    The stigma of leprosy is a real phenomenon in many people's lives that affects their physical, psychological, social and economical well-being. There are many causes for this damaging image of leprosy. There is no one easy answer to dispelling this image; it is something that has to be done in partnership with communities and patients. Many papers document the effects of stigma, but few discuss or trial solutions. Education and media campaigns counteract false beliefs about leprosy and raise awareness of new advances in the field. Leprosy care is increasingly provided in an integrated setting showing patients and their communities that leprosy is not a disease apart. Physical and socio-economic rehabilitation is worthwhile in restoring self worth and status in the community and helps patients to find employment. Group counselling can allow those with leprosy to talk about their feelings and experiences to empower one another. Gradually attitudes towards leprosy are changing, but there is still much to be done if the underlying menace of stigma is to be dealt with. We as health professionals must be prepared to make the first move and give that first touch. Certainly more research is needed. In the highly endemic countries the road to elimination may yet be long. Perhaps with effort we will one day be able not only to treat the disease, but also to cure the stigma of leprosy, and make that road an easier one.

  10. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  11. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  12. Understanding and Coping with Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Having a disability or chronic health condition saddles the person with more than just the physical complaint. One has to struggle with the social meaning of that disorder as well. Often society is not very accepting of illness and disability and the person affected becomes stigmatized as a result. Stigma is a common problem among the disabled…

  13. Single Mothers: Issues of Stigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worell, Judith

    This paper examines psychological and social issues for single mothers in the context of therapeutic strategies for effective intervention. Never married, previously married, and Lesbian mothers are considered in terms of sociocultural myths and sources of stigma; research findings related to these myths; and interventions targeting the…

  14. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed…

  15. Transgender Stigma and Health: A Critical Review of Stigma Determinants, Mechanisms, and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Pachankis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Transgender people in the United States experience widespread prejudice, discrimination, violence, and other forms of stigma. Objective This critical review aims to integrate the literature on stigma towards transgender people in the US. Results This review demonstrates that transgender stigma limits opportunities and access to resources in a number of critical domains (e.g., employment, healthcare), persistently affecting the physical and mental health of transgender people. The applied social ecological model employed here elucidates that transgender stigma operates at multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, structural) to impact health. Stigma prevention and coping interventions hold promise for reducing stigma and its adverse health-related effects in transgender populations. Conclusion Additional research is needed to document the causal relationship between stigma and adverse health as well as the mediators and moderators of stigma in US transgender populations. Multi-level interventions to prevent stigma towards transgender people are warranted. PMID:26599625

  16. Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions.

    PubMed

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L; Pachankis, John E

    2015-12-01

    Transgender people in the United States experience widespread prejudice, discrimination, violence, and other forms of stigma. This critical review aims to integrate the literature on stigma towards transgender people in the U.S. This review demonstrates that transgender stigma limits opportunities and access to resources in a number of critical domains (e.g., employment, healthcare), persistently affecting the physical and mental health of transgender people. The applied social ecological model employed here elucidates that transgender stigma operates at multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, structural) to impact health. Stigma prevention and coping interventions hold promise for reducing stigma and its adverse health-related effects in transgender populations. Additional research is needed to document the causal relationship between stigma and adverse health as well as the mediators and moderators of stigma in US transgender populations. Multi-level interventions to prevent stigma towards transgender people are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stigma resistance and its association with internalised stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying Wen; Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-07-14

    Studies have suggested that stigma resistance plays an important role in the recovery from mental illness. However, there has been limited research in Asian countries that has examined the benefits of stigma resistance among the mentally ill in Asian populations. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of stigma resistance and establish the socio-demographic correlates of stigma resistance, as well as its association with internalised stigma and psychosocial outcomes among a multi-ethnic population of 280 outpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders in Singapore. Prevalence of stigma resistance measured using the Stigma Resistance subscale of the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale was 82.9%. ANOVA and logistic regressions were conducted and results revealed that: (i) Stigma resistance was positively associated with being separated/divorced/widowed but negatively associated with depression diagnosis; (ii) Psychosocial outcomes such as self-esteem and psychological health were positively associated with stigma resistance; and (iii) Internalised stigma was negatively associated with stigma resistance. Moving forward, treatments could emphasize on improving the self-esteem and psychological health of patients to increase their stigma resistance for counteracting effects of public and internalised stigma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. How Anticipated and Experienced Stigma Can Contribute to Self-Stigma: The Case of Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem gambling examined whether aspects of the public characterization of problem gambling, anticipated reactions to problem gamblers, and experiences of devaluation and discrimination predicted anticipated level of public stigma and self-stigma. The study found that self-stigma increases with expectations that the public applies a range of negative stereotypes to people with gambling problems, holds demeaning and discriminatory attitudes toward them, and considers them to lead highly disrupted lives. These variables directly predicted anticipated level of public stigma and indirectly predicted self-stigma. These findings lend weight to conceptualizations of self-stigma as an internalization of actual or anticipated public stigma. They also highlight the need for stigma reduction efforts, particularly those that lower negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes, to improve currently low rates of help-seeking amongst people with gambling problems. PMID:28270787

  19. How Anticipated and Experienced Stigma Can Contribute to Self-Stigma: The Case of Problem Gambling.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem gambling examined whether aspects of the public characterization of problem gambling, anticipated reactions to problem gamblers, and experiences of devaluation and discrimination predicted anticipated level of public stigma and self-stigma. The study found that self-stigma increases with expectations that the public applies a range of negative stereotypes to people with gambling problems, holds demeaning and discriminatory attitudes toward them, and considers them to lead highly disrupted lives. These variables directly predicted anticipated level of public stigma and indirectly predicted self-stigma. These findings lend weight to conceptualizations of self-stigma as an internalization of actual or anticipated public stigma. They also highlight the need for stigma reduction efforts, particularly those that lower negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes, to improve currently low rates of help-seeking amongst people with gambling problems.

  20. Stigma for Seeking Therapy: Self-Stigma, Social Stigma, and Therapeutic Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Thomas, LeKeldric; Rodolfa, Emil

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among clients' perceptions of self- and social stigma for seeking help, session outcomes, and working alliance. Ninety-one clients were treated by 26 therapists, at a large university counseling center. All clients were currently in therapy. We expected that clients' perceptions of self- and social…

  1. Stigma for Seeking Therapy: Self-Stigma, Social Stigma, and Therapeutic Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Thomas, LeKeldric; Rodolfa, Emil

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among clients' perceptions of self- and social stigma for seeking help, session outcomes, and working alliance. Ninety-one clients were treated by 26 therapists, at a large university counseling center. All clients were currently in therapy. We expected that clients' perceptions of self- and social…

  2. [Stigma and related factors basing on mental illness stigma].

    PubMed

    Dyduch, Agnieszka; Grzywa, Anna

    2009-03-01

    Stigmatization is a common problem to overcome for people suffering from chronic diseases. It usually follows infectious diseases, disabilities and mental disorders. In our study we explained basic concepts concerning stigma, particularly health-related one, and then we presented the most important socio-demographic factors influencing attitudes towards mentally ill people exemplifying them by scientific literature on mental illness stigma. Profession, frequency of contact with mentally ill persons, level of mental health literacy, own experience, education level, culture-related factors, overall value orientation, gender and age are the most relevant factors which influence perception of people suffering from mental disorders. A review of surveys on dependencies between those factors and attitudes towards mentally ill people and tendencies to stigmatize with mental illness was presented. Mental health literacy is the most easily modifiable factor among all the presented here. Majority of campaigns concerning change of attitude towards mentally ill people consist in enhancement of mental health awareness in society.

  3. [The social stigma of obesity].

    PubMed

    De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José

    2014-01-01

    People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition.

  4. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping.

  5. Measurement of Stigma in People with HIV: A Reexamination of the HIV Stigma Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E.; Miller, Carol; Forehand, Rex

    2007-01-01

    Stigma associated with HIV infection can unfavorably impact the lives and behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS. The HIV Stigma Scale was designed to measure the perception of stigma by those who are HIV infected. Reanalysis of the psychometric properties of this scale was conducted in a new sample of 157 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in…

  6. Measuring stigma in people with lung cancer: psychometric testing of the cataldo lung cancer stigma scale.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Slaughter, Robert; Jahan, Thierry M; Pongquan, Voranan L; Hwang, Won Ju

    2011-01-01

    to develop an instrument to measure the stigma perceived by people with lung cancer based on the HIV Stigma Scale. psychometric analysis. online survey. 186 patients with lung cancer. an exploratory factor analysis with a common factor model using alpha factor extraction. lung cancer stigma, depression, and quality of life. four factors emerged: stigma and shame, social isolation, discrimination, and smoking. Inspection of unrotated first-factor loadings showed support for a general stigma factor. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs: self-esteem, depression, social support, and social conflict. Coefficient alphas ranging from 0.75-0.97 for the subscales (0.96 for stigma and shame, 0.97 for social isolation, 0.9 for discrimination, and 0.75 for smoking) and 0.98 for the 43-item Cataldo Lung Cancer Stigma Scale (CLCSS) provided evidence of reliability. The final version of the CLCSS was 31 items. Coefficient alpha was recalculated for the total stigma scale (0.96) and the four subscales (0.97 for stigma and shame, 0.96 for social isolation, 0.92 for discrimination, and 0.75 for smoking). the CLCSS is a reliable and valid measure of health-related stigma in this sample of people with lung cancer. the CLCSS can be used to identify the presence and impact of lung cancer stigma and allow for the development of effective stigma interventions for patients with lung cancer.

  7. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

  8. Predictors of Generalized Anxiety Disorder stigma.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Barney, Lisa J; Parsons, Alison

    2013-04-30

    The stigma associated with mental illness can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including delaying or avoiding help seeking. Identifying the characteristics of people who are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes enables the development of targeted stigma reduction programs. However, no previous research has systematically examined the predictors of anxiety stigma. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) to assess the predictors of personal stigma and perceived stigma associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. A community sample of 617 Australian adults completed a survey that included the GASS, the Depression Stigma Scale, exposure to anxiety disorders, emotional distress and a range of demographic characteristics. Linear regression models indicated that women, people with greater exposure to anxiety disorders and people reporting a previous anxiety diagnosis had lower personal stigma toward anxiety. Higher exposure to anxiety disorders and rurality were significantly associated with higher perceived anxiety stigma. Results also suggested that respondents who had only been exposed to anxiety disorders through the media tended to be no more stigmatizing than respondents who had direct contact with people with an anxiety disorder. Media campaigns may be an effective vehicle for decreasing stigmatizing views in the community.

  9. The Reciprocal Relationship between Suicidality and Stigma.

    PubMed

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Although suicidality is frequently the cause of stigma, it is conversely true that stigma may be the cause of suicidality. The present paper focuses on the complex relationships that exist between suicidal behavior and stigmatizing attitudes. A narrative review of the topic will be presented on the basis of the relevant literature collected from an electronic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, using stigma, public stigma, structural stigma, perceived stigma, self-stigma, suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidality as key words. A negative perception is frequently held of suicidal people, labeling them as weak and unable to cope with their problems, or selfish. Individuals who have attempted suicide are subject to similar processes of stigmatization and "social distancing"; insurance policies include an exclusion clause against death by suicide. Subjects with a direct personal experience of depression or suicide strongly endorse a feeling of self-stigma; those who have attempted suicide are often ashamed and embarrassed by their behavior and tend to hide the occurrence as much as possible. Similar processes are observed among family members of subjects who have committed suicide or made a suicide attempt, with a higher perceived stigma present in those bereaved by suicide. Perceived or internalized stigma produced by mental or physical disorders, or through belonging to a minority group, may represent a significant risk factor for suicide, being severely distressing, reducing self-esteem and acting as a barrier in help-seeking behaviors. With the aim of preventing suicide, greater efforts should be made to combat the persisting stigmatizing attitudes displayed toward mental disorders and suicide itself. Indeed, the role of stigma as a risk factor for suicide should further motivate and spur more concerted efforts to combat public stigma and support those suffering from perceived or internalized stigma. Experts and scientific societies

  10. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  11. Intersectionality of internalized HIV stigma and internalized substance use stigma: Implications for depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Smith, Laramie R; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Copenhaver, Michael M

    2015-08-01

    We adopted an intersectionality framework and examined whether the relationship between internalized HIV stigma and depressive symptoms is moderated by internalized substance use stigma. A total of 85 people living with HIV with a history of substance use in the Bronx, New York, completed a survey. Results revealed evidence of moderation: Participants who internalized HIV stigma experienced greater depressive symptoms only if they also internalized substance use stigma. Researchers should examine stigma associated with multiple socially devalued characteristics to best understand how stigma impacts mental health among people living with HIV. Healthcare providers should address stigma associated with the full range of socially devalued characteristics with which people living with HIV live. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  13. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  14. How Stigma Interferes with Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Many people who would benefit from mental health services opt not to pursue them or fail to fully participate once they have begun. One of the reasons for this disconnect is stigma; namely, to avoid the label of mental illness and the harm it brings, people decide not to seek or fully participate in care. Stigma yields 2 kinds of harm that may…

  15. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  16. Stigma and GPs' perceptions of dementia.

    PubMed

    Gove, D; Downs, M; Vernooij-Dassen, M; Small, N

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are crucial to improving timely diagnosis, but little is reported about how they perceive dementia, and whether their perceptions display any elements of stigma. The aim of this study was to explore how GPs' perceptions of dementia map onto current conceptualizations of stigma and whether GPs feel that stigma affects timely diagnosis. Twenty-three GPs from England were interviewed by telephone. Data were analyzed by means of content analysis. This involved open coding followed by the application of a coding framework derived from the literature to explore how and to what extent their perceptions relate to stigma as well as the unique nature of their perceptions. Three themes emerged from the analysis: (1) 'making sense of dementia', (2) 'relating perceptions of dementia to oneself' and (3) 'considering the consequences of dementia'. GPs' perceptions of dementia mapped onto current conceptualizations of stigma. Perceptions about dementia that were linked to their own existential anxiety and to a perceived similarity between people with dementia and themselves were particularly salient. GPs perceived dementia as a stigma which was gradually being overcome but that stigma still hindered timely diagnosis. They provided examples of structural discrimination within the health service, including lack of time for patients and shortcomings in training that were to the detriment of people with dementia. Measures to involve GPs in tackling stigma should include training and opportunities to explore how they perceive dementia, as well as support to address structural discrimination.

  17. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya; Sartorius, Norman

    2007-03-01

    The term stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). Most research in this area has been based on attitude surveys, media representations of mental illness and violence, has only focused upon schizophrenia, has excluded direct participation by service users, and has included few intervention studies. However, there is evidence that interventions to improve public knowledge about mental illness can be effective. The main challenge in future is to identify which interventions will produce behaviour change to reduce discrimination against people with mental illness.

  18. From Discrimination to Internalized Mental Illness Stigma: The Mediating Roles of Anticipated Discrimination and Anticipated Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Weisz, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future, and how anticipation of stigma, in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Method Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Results Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one’s mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Experiences of discrimination over the lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. PMID:25844910

  19. From discrimination to internalized mental illness stigma: The mediating roles of anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Diane M; Williams, Michelle K; Weisz, Bradley M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future and how anticipation of stigma in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one's mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Experiences of discrimination over one's lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Reexamining epilepsy-associated stigma: validation of the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Ryan P.; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mbewe, Edward; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy-associated stigma is an important patient-centered outcome, yet quantification remains challenging. Jacoby’s 3-item Stigma Scale is commonly used to assess felt stigma among people with epilepsy (PWE) yet has ceiling effects. The Stigma Scale of Epilepsy (SSE) is a 24-item instrument that measures felt stigma among PWE and stigmatizing attitudes among others. If cross-culturally valid, the SSE may elucidate stigma determinants and provide an outcome measure for interventions. Methods We assessed the properties of the SSE in 102 Zambian PWE using exploratory and confirmatory item response theories and compared the latent traits assessed by the SSE to those assessed by Jacoby’s Stigma Scale. Differential item functioning based on forced disclosure of epilepsy was examined. Results The SSE yielded two latent traits—the first reflected difficulties faced by PWE; the second reflected emotions associated with epilepsy. Jacoby’s Stigma Scale was associated only with the first latent trait. Forced disclosure was associated with “worry” and “pity” that were associated with the second latent trait. Conclusions In Zambian PWE, the SSE captured two latent traits. One trait represents feelings associated with epilepsy, which is theorized as a substantial yet unmeasured part of stigma. The SSE performs well across cultures and may more comprehensively assess felt stigma than other instruments. Further validation is required to determine whether the SSE adequately assesses stigmatizing attitudes among people without epilepsy. PMID:25416086

  1. Adaptation into Spanish of the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness scale to assess personal stigma.

    PubMed

    Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Santacoloma-Cabero, Iciar; Gómez de Tojeiro-Roce, Juan; García-Polavieja, Bárbara; Santos-Zorrozúa, Borja; Gil-Sanz, David

    2016-03-09

    Patients with schizophrenia sometimes internalise social stigma associated to mental illness, and they develop personal stigma. Personal stigma includes self-stigma (internalisation of negative stereotypes), perceived stigma (perception of rejection), and experienced stigma (experiences of discrimination). Personal stigma is linked with a poorer treatment adherence, and worst social functioning. For this reason, it is important to have good measurements of personal stigma. One of the most frequently used measurements is the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. There is a Spanish version of the scale available, although its psychometric properties have not been studied. The main aim of this study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a new Spanish version of the ISMI scale. The new version was translated as Estigma Interiorizado de Enfermedad Mental (EIEM). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated in a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The rate of patients showing personal stigma was also studied, as well as the relationship between personal stigma and sociodemographic and clinical variables. The adapted version obtained good values of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, for the total score of the scale (0.91 and 0.95 respectively), as well as for the five subscales of the EIEM, except for the Stigma Resistance subscale (Cronbach's alpha 0.42). EIEM is an appropriate measurement tool to assess personal stigma in a Spanish population with severe mental disorder, at least in those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España.

  2. Legal Change and Stigma in Surrogacy and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2015-01-01

    Stigma marks both surrogacy and abortion. Legal change lessens stigma but may not remove it altogether. Post-legalization regulation may reinstall stigma by surrounding a legalized practice with barriers that make exercise of that right more difficult. As a result, law may reenact stigma even as it purports to take it away.

  3. More than Skin Deep: Perceptions of, and Stigma against, Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Benjamin A.; Dula, Chris S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research indicates stigmas can produce feelings of fear, isolation, and discrimination, and that negative stigma has been and still is, associated with tattooing. Due to the rise in tattoo popularity, a method to analyze stigma against tattooed individuals is needed. The Martin Stigma Against Tattoos Survey (MSATS), was created, taken by…

  4. More than Skin Deep: Perceptions of, and Stigma against, Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Benjamin A.; Dula, Chris S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research indicates stigmas can produce feelings of fear, isolation, and discrimination, and that negative stigma has been and still is, associated with tattooing. Due to the rise in tattoo popularity, a method to analyze stigma against tattooed individuals is needed. The Martin Stigma Against Tattoos Survey (MSATS), was created, taken by…

  5. Epilepsy stigma and stigma by association in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Parfene, Cristina; Stewart, Tracie L; King, Tricia Z

    2009-08-01

    In the first experimental study of epilepsy-based discrimination in the workplace, we examined the influence of stigmatization on the workplace outcomes of hypothetical employees who were associated with epilepsy, but who did not have epilepsy themselves (stigma by association). Participants (40 women, 16 men), acting as employers, evaluated one of six randomly assigned employee work portfolios that were identical except that the employee was either male or female and had taken leave during the past year to care for a child with either epilepsy or asthma, or for whom no leave was mentioned. They then evaluated the employee and made recommendations concerning the employee's workplace rewards (promotion, raise) and penalties (job termination). Work quality evaluation was similar across conditions. However, parents of a child with epilepsy received fewer workplace rewards and greater workplace penalties than did employees in the other conditions. Implications for mental health and antibias interventions are discussed.

  6. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. Within group analyses indicated that the mediating effect of internalized stigma was significant for whites only. Among African Americans, internalized stigma did not mediate public stigma; it was directly related to attitudes toward mental health treatment. The internalization of stigma is key in the development of negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and future research should focus on this aspect of stigma in both individual and community-based efforts to reduce stigma. PMID:21274407

  8. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie; Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources…

  9. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie; Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources…

  10. Measurement of stigma in people with HIV: a reexamination of the HIV Stigma Scale.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E; Miller, Carol; Forehand, Rex

    2007-06-01

    Stigma associated with HIV infection can unfavorably impact the lives and behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS. The HIV Stigma Scale was designed to measure the perception of stigma by those who are HIV infected. Reanalysis of the psychometric properties of this scale was conducted in a new sample of 157 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in rural New England. This resulted in revision of the scale: shortening it from 40 to 32 items and retaining the original four factors but renaming one: Enacted Stigma (formerly Personalized Stigma), Disclosure Concerns, Negative Self-image, and Concern With Public Attitudes. These four subscales have been refined such that each consists of unique items. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from .90 to .97, and .95 for the overall scale, indicating internal consistency. Correlations with other scales confirmed the validity of the HIV Stigma Scale in another sample of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Felt and Enacted Stigma Among HIV/HCV-Coinfected Adults: The Impact of Stigma Layering

    PubMed Central

    Lekas, Helen-Maria; Siegel, Karolynn; Leider, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The realization that many persons with HIV/AIDS are subjected to multiple layers of stigmatization because they belong to socially deviant and disenfranchised groups (e.g., injection drug users, racial/ethnic and sexual minorities) accounts for an increasing interest in the phenomenon of stigma layering. The stigma associated with HCV has also been conceptualized as layered. However, researchers have overlooked the fact that HCV adds a layer to the HIV stigma and vice versa. Qualitative interviews with 132 HIV/HCV coinfected patients were analyzed to explore how they experience the two layers of stigma. Most participants hierarchically ordered the stigmas associated with each disease and regarded HIV as the more stigmatizing of the two. A small number perceived HIV and HCV as equally stigmatizing. The impact of the hierarchical and non-hierarchical ordering of the two stigmas on coinfected patients’ felt and enacted stigmatization is explored and implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:21498828

  12. Identity threat and stigma in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Marziliano, Allison; Moyer, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stigma has undergone an important transformation in recent decades. In general, this disease no longer fits squarely into Goffman’s classic taxonomy of stigmatized conditions. This review will demonstrate that, with important adaptations, an identity-threat model of stigma can be used to organize cancer stigma research post-Goffman. This adapted model postulates that one’s personal attributions, responses to situational threat, and disease/treatment characteristics can be used to predict identity threat and well-being of individuals with cancer. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:28070343

  13. The Self-Stigma Process in Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly E.; Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Upon conviction, individuals receive the stigmatizing label “criminal offender.” Existing stereotypes about criminal offenders may be integrated into the self-concept, a phenomenon known as self-stigma. In many stigmatized groups, self-stigma is a robust predictor of poor functioning (Livingston & Boyd, 2010; Schomerus et al., 2011). However, little is known about how self-stigma occurs (Corrigan et al., 2006), and there has been limited research with criminal offenders. This study examines a theoretical model of self-stigma in which perceived stigma leads to stereotype agreement, internalized stigma, and then to anticipated stigma. A sample of 203 male jail inmates completed assessments of these constructs just prior to release. Results show a significant indirect path from perceived stigma to stereotype agreement to internalized stigma, but not to anticipated stigma. However, perceived stigma was directly related to anticipated stigma. In conclusion, perceived stigma affects the self through two processes: it indirectly leads to internalized stigma through one avenue, and directly leads to anticipated stigma through a separate avenue. Race, criminal identity, and attitudes toward criminals were examined as moderators. PMID:27761521

  14. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  15. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). Conclusion: This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation

  16. Stigma Resistance in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sibitz, Ingrid; Unger, Annemarie; Woppmann, Andreas; Zidek, Thomas; Amering, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Background: An individual's capacity to counteract the stigma of mental illness, stigma resistance (SR), is considered as playing a crucial role in fighting stigma. However, little is known about SR and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Aim: Exploring SR in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Method: One hundred fifty-seven participants completed the “Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness” (ISMI) Scale including its subscale on SR. Measures of perceived devaluation and discrimination, depression, self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life, and demographic and clinical variables were obtained. Results: Two-thirds of all patients showed high SR. SR correlated positively with self-esteem, empowerment, and quality of life and negatively with stigma measures and depression. A social network with a sufficient number of friends, being single or married, in contrast to being separated, as well as receiving outpatient treatment, was associated with higher SR. Conclusions: SR is a new and promising concept. The development of stigma-resisting beliefs might help individuals in their hope of finding a fulfilling life and in their recovery from mental illness. PMID:19487336

  17. Stigma resistance in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sibitz, Ingrid; Unger, Annemarie; Woppmann, Andreas; Zidek, Thomas; Amering, Michaela

    2011-03-01

    An individual's capacity to counteract the stigma of mental illness, stigma resistance (SR), is considered as playing a crucial role in fighting stigma. However, little is known about SR and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Exploring SR in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. One hundred fifty-seven participants completed the "Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness" (ISMI) Scale including its subscale on SR. Measures of perceived devaluation and discrimination, depression, self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life, and demographic and clinical variables were obtained. Two-thirds of all patients showed high SR. SR correlated positively with self-esteem, empowerment, and quality of life and negatively with stigma measures and depression. A social network with a sufficient number of friends, being single or married, in contrast to being separated, as well as receiving outpatient treatment, was associated with higher SR. SR is a new and promising concept. The development of stigma-resisting beliefs might help individuals in their hope of finding a fulfilling life and in their recovery from mental illness.

  18. Leprosy stigma: ironing out the creases.

    PubMed

    Kazeem, Omobolanle; Adegun, Temitayo

    2011-06-01

    Oft-cited as a deterrent to elimination of the disease, stigma is still a critical feature of the leprosy landscape leading to ostracism, loss of employment, loss of housing, ridicule and rejection from society. The reason for leprosy-stigma rests historically and culturally on the mythology about the disease's origin and transmission, and its aesthetic features such as the enigmatic physical disfigurement, and the distinctive ulcers consequent of untreated leprosy. While the literature on leprosy has been consistent in showing that stigma is a social complication of the condition worldwide, there is seldom recognition of processes of stigmatisation in broader contexts. Effective and sustainable interventions directed at curbing leprosy stigma and so improving its social course must, however, be informed by an appreciation of such contexts; particularly in the light of the goal to eliminate the disease worldwide. Examining stigma in the broader contexts of historical, social, economic, political contexts is the aim of this paper. The paper also has implications for broad ranging intervention efforts aimed at de-constructing leprosy-stigma in order to craft a more accommodating ambiance of acceptance, care and support for people affected by leprosy.

  19. Development of parallel scales to measure HIV-related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Maretha J.; Kershaw, Trace; Makin, Jennifer D.; Forsyth, Brian W.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigma is a multidimensional concept which has pervasive effects on the lives of HIV-infected people as well as serious consequences for the management of HIV/AIDS. In this research three parallel stigma scales were developed to assess personal views of stigma, stigma attributed to others, and internalized stigma experienced by HIV-infected individuals. The stigma scales were administered in two samples: a community sample of 1077 respondents and 317 HIV-infected pregnant women recruited at clinics from the same community in Tshwane (South Africa). A two-factor structure referring to moral judgment and interpersonal distancing was confirmed across scales and sample groups. The internal consistency of the scales was acceptable and evidence of validity is reported. Parallel scales to assess and compare different perspectives of stigma provide opportunities for research aimed at understanding of stigma, assessing the consequences or evaluating possible interventions aimed at reducing stigma. PMID:18266101

  20. Stigma and help seeking for mental health among college students.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Downs, Marilyn F; Golberstein, Ezra; Zivin, Kara

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness stigma has been identified by national policy makers as an important barrier to help seeking for mental health. Using a random sample of 5,555 students from a diverse set of 13 universities, we conducted one of the first empirical studies of the association of help-seeking behavior with both perceived public stigma and people's own stigmatizing attitudes (personal stigma). There were three main findings: (a) Perceived public stigma was considerably higher than personal stigma; (b) personal stigma was higher among students with any of the following characteristics: male, younger, Asian, international, more religious, or from a poor family; and (c) personal stigma was significantly and negatively associated with measures of help seeking (perceived need and use of psychotropic medication, therapy, and nonclinical sources of support), whereas perceived stigma was not significantly associated with help seeking. These findings can help inform efforts to reduce the role of stigma as a barrier to help seeking.

  1. Development of parallel scales to measure HIV-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha J; Kershaw, Trace; Makin, Jennifer D; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2008-09-01

    HIV-related stigma is a multidimensional concept which has pervasive effects on the lives of HIV-infected people as well as serious consequences for the management of HIV/AIDS. In this research three parallel stigma scales were developed to assess personal views of stigma, stigma attributed to others, and internalised stigma experienced by HIV-infected individuals. The stigma scales were administered in two samples: a community sample of 1,077 respondents and 317 HIV-infected pregnant women recruited at clinics from the same community in Tshwane (South Africa). A two-factor structure referring to moral judgment and interpersonal distancing was confirmed across scales and sample groups. The internal consistency of the scales was acceptable and evidence of validity is reported. Parallel scales to assess and compare different perspectives of stigma provide opportunities for research aimed at understanding stigma, assessing the consequences or evaluating possible interventions aimed at reducing stigma.

  2. Self Stigma in People with Intellectual Disabilities and Courtesy Stigma in Family Carers: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Afia; Hassiotis, Angela; Strydom, Andre; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    People with intellectual disability are one of the most stigmatised groups in society. Despite this, research in this area has been limited. This paper provides a review of studies examining self stigma in people with intellectual disability, and courtesy and affiliate stigma in family carers. An electronic search of studies published between 1990…

  3. Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: a Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS).

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-08-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman's notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking "difference". Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results.

  4. Self Stigma in People with Intellectual Disabilities and Courtesy Stigma in Family Carers: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Afia; Hassiotis, Angela; Strydom, Andre; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    People with intellectual disability are one of the most stigmatised groups in society. Despite this, research in this area has been limited. This paper provides a review of studies examining self stigma in people with intellectual disability, and courtesy and affiliate stigma in family carers. An electronic search of studies published between 1990…

  5. Weight stigma and eating behaviors on a college campus: Are students immune to stigma's effects?

    PubMed

    Brewis, Alexandra; Brennhofer, Stephanie; van Woerden, Irene; Bruening, Meg

    2016-12-01

    College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit) and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students. Study 2 included a measure of weight responsibility and multiple measures of eating (food frequency, alcohol intake, and 24-hour dietary recalls), among freshman students (n = 202, n = 157 with 24-hour dietary recalls). Study 1 showed that the three types of stigmas were prevalent. Study 2 had a high prevalence of weight stigma attitudes and demonstrated the occurrence of unhealthful eating and binge drinking behaviors. Both studies found no relationship between weight stigma/responsibility and eating behaviors regardless of weight status. Beyond considering limitations of the study design, we propose two possible reasons for college students' relative immunity to the effects of weight stigma. Those with very high levels of stigma could be suppressing stigmatizing attitudes based on what they think others think is acceptable in a liberal college setting, or the chaotic form of "normal" eating in this population hides the effects of weight stigma.

  6. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie; Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources as well. Because stigma has important implications for the mental health and recovery efforts of people in treatment, it is critical to better understand these experiences of stigma. Therefore, we characterize drug addiction stigma from multiple sources using qualitative methodology to advance understandings of how drug addiction stigma is experienced among methadone maintenance therapy patients and from whom. Results demonstrate that methadone maintenance therapy patients experience prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination from friends and family, coworkers and employers, healthcare workers, and others. Discussion highlights similarities and differences in stigma experienced from these sources.

  7. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources as well. Because stigma has important implications for the mental health and recovery efforts of people in treatment, it is critical to better understand these experiences of stigma. Therefore, we characterize drug addiction stigma from multiple sources using qualitative methodology to advance understandings of how drug addiction stigma is experienced among methadone maintenance therapy patients and from whom. Results demonstrate that methadone maintenance therapy patients experience prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination from friends and family, coworkers and employers, healthcare workers, and others. Discussion highlights similarities and differences in stigma experienced from these sources. PMID:23956702

  8. [Self-Awareness of Disease Stigma: Reflections of Healthcare Professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Wang, Ying-Ting; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2017-06-01

    People who suffer from disease frequently experience disease-related stigmas. Stigma presents in daily life during normal human interactions. The stereotypes promoted by the media often impact public opinion significantly. Moreover, healthcare professionals may exacerbate stigmatization due to their misunderstanding of patients and their disease issues. Therefore, the reflection on stigma of healthcare professionals cannot be ignored. The present article illustrates the issue of stigmas held by healthcare professionals, their related stigmas, and their self-awareness. It is hoped that all healthcare professionals may cooperate to develop an anti-stigma strategy and to become true spokespersons for their patients.

  9. Perceived HIV-Associated Stigma among HIV-Seropositive Men: Psychometric Study of HIV Stigma Scale.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adrian; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Zambrano, Farith Francisco; Urriola, Karla Elizabeth; Sánchez, Luis Antonio; Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21), to provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and to describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Seventy-five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg's self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated version of the Zung's Depression Scale. HSS-21 showed high reliability and validity; its factor structure included four components: concern with public attitudes; negative self-image; disclosure concerns; and enacted stigma. The level of stigma was high in 27 out of 75 (36%) participants; nevertheless, the score found in the component related to disclosure concerns indicated high level of stigma in 68% of participants. The score of HSS-21 was positively correlated with the score of depression and negatively correlated with the score of self-esteem. Results demonstrated high reliability for the HSS-21; correlations with other scales supported its validity. This scale demonstrated to be a practical tool for assessing stigma among Mexican HIV-positive MSM. High level of stigma was found only in the factor related to disclosure concerns. Identifying HIV-associated stigma through a short, reliable, and validated instrument will allow the development of interventions that cope and manage stigma in HIV-positive MSM. HSS-21 distinguishes between different dimensions of stigma and will contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  10. Internalized stigma in psoriasis: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Erkan; Polat, Mualla; FettahlıoGlu-Karaman, Bilge; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Kartal-Durmazlar, Pelin; YalCın, Basak; Emre, Selma; Didar-Balcı, Didem; Bilgic-Temel, Asli; Arca, Ercan; Koca, Rafet; Gunduz, Kamer; Borlu, Murat; Ergun, Tulin; Dogruk-Kacar, Seval; Cordan-Yazici, Ayca; Dursun, Pınar; BilgiC, Ozlem; Gunes-Bilgili, Serap; Sendur, Neslihan; Baysal, Ozge; Halil-Yavuz, Ibrahim; Yagcioglu, Gizem; Yilmaz, Ertan; Kavuzlu, Ufuk; Senol, Yesim

    2017-08-01

    Internalized stigma is the adoption of negative attitudes and stereotypes of the society regarding a person's illness. It causes decreased self-esteem and life-satisfaction, increased depression and suicidality, and difficulty in coping with the illness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the internalized stigma state of psoriatic patients and to identify the factors influencing internalized stigma. The secondary aim was to identify the correlation of internalized stigma with quality of life and perceived health status. This multicentre, cross-sectional study comprised 1485 patients. There was a significant positive correlation between mean values of Psoriasis Internalized Stigma Scale (PISS) and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Body Surface Area, Dermatological Life Quality Index and General Health Questionnaire-12 (P < 0.001 in all). Lower percieved health score (P = 0.001), early onset psoriasis (P = 0.016), family history of psoriasis (P = 0.0034), being illiterate (P < 0.001) and lower income level (P < 0.001) were determinants of high PISS scores. Mean PISS values were higher in erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis. Involvement of scalp, face, hand, genitalia and finger nails as well as arthropathic and inverse psoriasis were also related to significantly higher PISS scores (P = 0.001). Our findings imply that psoriatic patients experience high levels of internalized stigma which are associated with psoriasis severity, involvement of visible body parts, genital area, folds or joints, poorer quality of life, negative perceptions of general health and psychological illnesses. Therefore, internalized stigma may be one of the major factors responsible from psychosocial burden of the disease. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  12. Effect of neighborhood stigma on economic transactions

    PubMed Central

    Besbris, Max; Faber, Jacob William; Rich, Peter; Sharkey, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others. PMID:25848041

  13. Exploring diabetes type 1-related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Samereh; Abazari, Parvaneh; Mardanian, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of people with diabetes means integrating diabetes with identity. However, others’ stigmatization can influence it. Although diabetes is so prevalent among Iranians, there is little knowledge about diabetes-related stigma in Iran. The present study explored diabetes-related stigma in people living with type 1 diabetes in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A conventional content analysis was used with in-depth interview with 26 people with and without diabetes from November 2011 to July 2012. Results: A person with type 1 diabetes was stigmatized as a miserable human (always sick and unable, death reminder, and intolerable burden), rejected marriage candidate (busy spouse, high-risk pregnant), and deprived of a normal life [prisoner of (to must), deprived of pleasure]. Although, young adults with diabetes undergo all aspects of the social diabetes-related stigma; in their opinion they were just deprived of a normal life Conclusion: It seems that in Isfahan, diabetes-related stigma is of great importance. In this way, conducting an appropriate intervention is necessary to improve the empowerment process in people with type 1 diabetes in order to reduce the stigma in the context. PMID:23983731

  14. Stigma and depression during pregnancy: does race matter?

    PubMed

    O'Mahen, Heather A; Henshaw, Erin; Jones, Janelle M; Flynn, Heather A

    2011-04-01

    Rates of depression treatment are low in pregnant women, particularly Black women. Stigma is an important barrier to treatment, but little research has examined how depression stigma differs in Blacks and Whites; a key purpose of this study. Participants were 532 pregnant women recruited in obstetrics settings, who responded to measures of stigma and mood. Black women reported more depression stigma than White women, regardless of their depression status, and were more likely to endorse the view that depression should be kept secret, than White women. In White women, stigma increased as a function of depression status (current, past, never). White women's perceptions of depression stigma were positively correlated with their beliefs about keeping depression secret. Secrecy and depression stigma were uncorrelated in Black women. There are important racial differences in the way depression stigma functions in pregnant women. Implications for engaging women in mental health treatment are discussed.

  15. Proteomic profiling reveals insights into Triticeae stigma development and function.

    PubMed

    Nazemof, Nazila; Couroux, Philippe; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim; Robert, Laurian S

    2014-11-01

    To our knowledge, this study represents the first high-throughput characterization of a stigma proteome in the Triticeae. A total of 2184 triticale mature stigma proteins were identified using three different gel-based approaches combined with mass spectrometry. The great majority of these proteins are described in a Triticeae stigma for the first time. These results revealed many proteins likely to play important roles in stigma development and pollen-stigma interactions, as well as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative comparison of the triticale stigma transcriptome and proteome showed poor correlation, highlighting the importance of having both types of analysis. This work makes a significant contribution towards the elucidation of the Triticeae stigma proteome and provides novel insights into its role in stigma development and function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Disentangling self-stigma: are mental illness and help-seeking self-stigmas different?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jeritt R; Hammer, Joseph H; Vogel, David L; Bitman, Rachel L; Wade, Nathaniel G; Maier, Emily J

    2013-10-01

    Two established but disparate lines of research exist: studies examining the self-stigma associated with mental illness and studies examining the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Whereas some researchers have implicitly treated these 2 constructs as synonymous, others have made the argument that they are theoretically and empirically distinct. To help clarify this debate, we examined in the present investigation the overlap and uniqueness of the self-stigmas associated with mental illness and with seeking psychological help. Data were collected from a sample of college undergraduates experiencing clinical levels of psychological distress (N = 217) and a second sample of community members with a self-reported history of mental illness (N = 324). Confirmatory factor analyses provide strong evidence for the factorial independence of the 2 types of self-stigma. Additionally, results of regression analyses in both samples suggest that the 2 self-stigmas uniquely predict variations in stigma-related constructs (i.e., shame, self-blame, and social inadequacy) and attitudes and intentions to seek help. Implications for researchers and clinicians interested in understanding stigma and enhancing mental health service utilization are discussed.

  17. Measuring HIV stigma at the family level: psychometric assessment of the Chinese Courtesy Stigma Scales (CCSSs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Xu, Yongfang; Sun, Yehuan; Dumenci, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Courtesy stigma is the stigmatization a person perceives or experiences due to their association with a stigmatized individual or group. Most HIV-related stigma scales have been developed for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), but not for their HIV-uninfected family members. To date, few measurement scales have been designed to measure the degree of stigma among both PLWHAs and their HIV-uninfected family members at the family level. We developed a set of courtesy stigma scales and estimated their reliability and validity from 256 PLWHAs and 256 of their HIV-uninfected family members. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed in two independent samples: a development sample (N = 216) and a validation sample (N = 296), respectively. Two factors ("public stigma" and "self-perceived stigma") had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.83-0.90) and good construct validity (standardized factor loading range: 0.37-0.95) in both samples. These findings document that the newly developed brief instrument is a psychometrically sound measure of HIV-related stigma among both PLWHAs and their HIV-uninfected family members.

  18. Internalized stigma and stigma resistance among patients with mental illness in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping; Chang, Hsin-An; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Chien-Wen; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that accurate measurement is essential in evaluating internalized stigma and abilities to combat with stigma for treatment compliances and outcomes in individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS-C), which is one of the few tools available to measure internalized stigma and stigma resistance (SR) simultaneously. A total of 160 outpatients with (n = 103) and without (n = 57) psychotic disorders were administrated with the ISMIS-C, and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Overall, the 29-item ISMIS-C was presented to be internal reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90), and reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.36-0.73). The construct validity of the ISMIS-C derived from the factor analysis was nearly identical to the original version. ISMIS-C dimension scores were well correlated with each other and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Our data also demonstrated that psychotic patients experienced higher internalized stigma scores than those without psychotic diagnoses, but endorsed indifferently on SR scores. This scale can be used as an informative device when investigating "internalized stigma" and "SR" among individuals with or without psychotic disorders.

  19. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  20. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  1. Hepatitis C, stigma and cure.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Rui Tato; Barreira, David Pires

    2013-10-28

    The infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important global chronic viral infections worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 3% of the world population, about 170-200 million people. Great part of the infections are asymptomatic, the patient can be a chronic carrier for decades without knowing it. The most severe consequences of the chronic infection are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which appears in 20%-40% of the patients, leading to hepatic failure and death. The HCV was discovered 25 years ago in 1989, is a RNA virus and classified by the World Health Organization as an oncogenic one. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most important cancers, the fifth worldwide in terms of mortality. It has been increasing in the Ocidental world, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is not only a liver disease and a cause of cirrhosis, but also a mental, psychological, familiar, and social disease. The stigma that the infected person sometimes carries is tremendous having multiple consequences. The main cause is lack of adequate information, even in the health professionals setting. But, besides the "drama" of being infected, health professionals, family, society and the infected patients, must be aware of the chance of real cure and total and definitive elimination of the virus. The treatment for hepatitis C has begun in the last 80's with a percentage of cure of 6%. Step by step the efficacy of the therapy for hepatitis C is rapidly increasing and nowadays with the very new medications, the so called Direct Antiviral Agents-DAAs of new generation, is around 80%-90%.

  2. Mental illness, stigma, and the media.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Alastair

    2007-01-01

    Society is ingrained with prejudice toward mental illness, and sufferers are often widely perceived to be dangerous or unpredictable. Reinforcement of these popular myths through the media can perpetuate the stigma surrounding mental illness, precipitating shame, self-blame, and secrecy, all of which discourage affected individuals from seeking treatment. Efforts aimed at countering stigma in mental illness are faced with the challenge of centuries of discrimination and must, therefore, replace existing stereotypes with coverage of positive outcomes, as a first step in achieving the daunting task of overcoming these negative stereotypes. Long-term anti-stigma campaigns that encompass human-rights-based, normalization, and educational approaches are needed. The involvement of the media is essential for success, but, in order for the media to be used effectively, its motivations and limitations must first be recognized and understood.

  3. Masculinity and the persistence of AIDS stigma

    PubMed Central

    Wyrod, Robert

    2011-01-01

    With the expansion of access to HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa, questions have emerged if stigma remains a useful concept for understanding the effects of AIDS. There is, however, a paucity of research on how HIV-positive Africans—especially African men—experience living with AIDS. This paper addresses this gap and draws on findings from ethnographic fieldwork in 2004 and 2009 with a support group for HIV-positive men in Kampala, Uganda. The paper demonstrates that stigma is central to how men in this context coped with HIV and AIDS, and it provides a conceptual framework that links men’s experiences of AIDS stigma to conceptions of masculinity. In so doing, findings highlight both the possibilities and challenges of involving African men more fully in HIV prevention. PMID:21246426

  4. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  5. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  6. The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…

  7. Stigma of Psychotherapy: It's Not OK To Get Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavet, James D.; Parker, Lisa; Kitowicz, Jennifer M.; MacDonald, Marian L.

    This paper describes two studies conducted to determine whether there is a stigma associated with being in psychotherapy and if so, how that stigma compares with the well-documented stigma associated with mental illness (Wahl, 1995). In the first study, community members (n=89) were asked to listen to an audiotaped statement from a young man. All…

  8. The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…

  9. Best practices: Strategic stigma change (SSC): five principles for social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2011-08-01

    This column describes strategic stigma change (SSC), which comprises five principles and corresponding practices developed as a best practice to erase prejudice and discrimination associated with mental illness and promote affirming behaviors and social inclusion. SSC principles represent more than ten years of insights from the National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment. The principles, which are centered on consumer contact that is targeted, local, credible, and continuous, were developed to inform the growth of large-scale social marketing campaigns supported by governments and nongovernmental organizations. Future social marketing efforts to address stigma and the need for evidence to determine SSC's penetration and impact are also discussed.

  10. Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    One major approach to weight stigma reduction consists of decreasing beliefs about the personal controllability of—and responsibility for—obesity by educating about its biogenetic causes. Evidence on the efficacy of this approach is mixed, and it remains unclear whether this would create a deterministic view, potentially leading to detrimental side-effects. Two independent studies from Germany using randomized designs with delayed-intervention control groups served to (1) develop and pilot a brief, interactive stigma reduction intervention to educate N = 128 university students on gene × environment interactions in the etiology of obesity; and to (2) evaluate this intervention in the general population (N = 128) and determine mechanisms of change. The results showed (1) decreased weight stigma and controllability beliefs two weeks post-intervention in a student sample; and (2) decreased internal attributions and increased genetic attributions, knowledge, and deterministic beliefs four weeks post-intervention in a population sample. Lower weight stigma was longitudinally predicted by a decrease in controllability beliefs and an increase in the belief in genetic determinism, especially in women. The results underline the usefulness of a brief, interactive intervention promoting an interactionist view of obesity to reduce weight stigma, at least in the short term, lending support to the mechanisms of change derived from attribution theory. The increase in genetic determinism that occurred despite the intervention’s gene × environment focus had no detrimental side-effect on weight stigma, but instead contributed to its reduction. Further research is warranted on the effects of how biogenetic causal information influences weight management behavior of individuals with obesity. PMID:27631384

  11. Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    One major approach to weight stigma reduction consists of decreasing beliefs about the personal controllability of-and responsibility for-obesity by educating about its biogenetic causes. Evidence on the efficacy of this approach is mixed, and it remains unclear whether this would create a deterministic view, potentially leading to detrimental side-effects. Two independent studies from Germany using randomized designs with delayed-intervention control groups served to (1) develop and pilot a brief, interactive stigma reduction intervention to educate N = 128 university students on gene × environment interactions in the etiology of obesity; and to (2) evaluate this intervention in the general population (N = 128) and determine mechanisms of change. The results showed (1) decreased weight stigma and controllability beliefs two weeks post-intervention in a student sample; and (2) decreased internal attributions and increased genetic attributions, knowledge, and deterministic beliefs four weeks post-intervention in a population sample. Lower weight stigma was longitudinally predicted by a decrease in controllability beliefs and an increase in the belief in genetic determinism, especially in women. The results underline the usefulness of a brief, interactive intervention promoting an interactionist view of obesity to reduce weight stigma, at least in the short term, lending support to the mechanisms of change derived from attribution theory. The increase in genetic determinism that occurred despite the intervention's gene × environment focus had no detrimental side-effect on weight stigma, but instead contributed to its reduction. Further research is warranted on the effects of how biogenetic causal information influences weight management behavior of individuals with obesity.

  12. Mental illness-related stigma in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mantler, Ed; Szeto, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Mental illness-related stigma, including that which exists in the healthcare system and among healthcare providers, creates serious barriers to access and quality care. It is also a major concern for healthcare practitioners themselves, both as a workplace culture issue and as a barrier for help seeking. This article provides an overview of the main barriers to access and quality care created by stigmatization in healthcare, a consideration of contributing factors, and a summary of Canadian-based research into promising practices and approaches to combatting stigma in healthcare environments.

  13. Self-stigma: A personal journey.

    PubMed

    Lipfird, Awilda Correa

    2015-06-01

    This contribution describes a personal recovery journey and highlights the value and importance of engagement in peer-to-peer services to help promote growth and transformation. In this contribution, the author emphasizes the significance of educating and supporting others to overcome the barriers of self-stigma to gain both a positive self-image and self-esteem. Personal life experiences are shared and resource information is provided as a guide for readers. Encouraging individuals with a lived experience of mental illness to tell their stories is a way of educating people about mental illness and reducing stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Paves, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment seeking can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma has received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care. PMID:24889842

  15. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Paves, Andrew P

    2014-09-30

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma have received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The stigma of childhood mental disorders: A conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children’s mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus on theory and measurement. 145 articles in PsychInfo and 77 articles in MEDLINE met search criteria. The review process involved identifying and appraising literature convergence on the definition of critical dimensions of stigma, antecedents, and outcomes reported in empirical studies. Results We found concurrence on three dimensions of stigma (negative stereotypes, devaluation and discrimination), two contexts of stigma (self, general public), and two targets of stigma (self/individual, family). Theory and empirics on institutional and self stigma in child populations were sparse. Literature reports few theoretic frameworks and conceptualizations of child mental illness stigma. One model of help-seeking (the FINIS) explicitly acknowledges the role of stigma in children’s access and utilization of mental health services. Conclusions Compared to adults, children are subject to unique stigmatizing contexts that have not been adequately studied. The field needs conceptual frameworks that get closer to stigma experiences that are causally linked to how parents/caregivers cope with children’s emotional and behavioral problems such as seeking professional help. To further research in child mental illness, we suggest an approach to adapting current theoretical frameworks and operationalizing stigma highlighting three dimensions of stigma, three contexts of stigma (including institutions), and three targets of stigma (self/child, family and services). PMID:20215931

  17. Measuring stigma in people with HIV: psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale.

    PubMed

    Berger, B E; Ferrans, C E; Lashley, F R

    2001-12-01

    An instrument to measure the stigma perceived by people with HIV was developed based on the literature on stigma and psychosocial aspects of having HIV. Items surviving two rounds of content review were assembled in a booklet and distributed through HIV-related organizations across the United States. Psychometric analysis was performed on 318 questionnaires returned by people with HIV (19% women, 21% African American, 8% Hispanic). Four factors emerged from exploratory factor analysis: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes toward people with HIV. Extraction of one higher-order factor provided evidence of a single overall construct. Construct validity also was supported by relationships with related constructs: self-esteem, depression, social support, and social conflict. Coefficient alphas between .90 and .93 for the subscales and .96 for the 40-item instrument provided evidence of internal consistency reliability. The HIV Stigma Scale was reliable and valid with a large, diverse sample of people with HIV.

  18. Stigma in the Area of Intellectual Disabilities: Examining a Conceptual Model of Public Stigma.

    PubMed

    Werner, Shirli

    2015-09-01

    Studies in the area of intellectual disability (ID) stigma are few and atheoretical. This study examined the adequacy of the conceptual framework of stigma from the mental illness field regarding ID. Telephone interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample of 304 adults in Israel. Participants were read a vignette describing a man with ID and answered items related to cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions. Behavioral dimensions included: Withdrawal, Social distance, and Helping behaviors. The stigma process leading to Withdrawal was drawn through Negative affect, whereas the process to Social distance was drawn through Calm affect. One unique aspect of the stigma process in ID is the importance of Calm affect, which helped reduce Social distance.

  19. Lung cancer stigma, anxiety, depression, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brown Johnson, Cati G; Brodsky, Jennifer L; Cataldo, Janine K

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated lung cancer stigma, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL) and validated variable similarities between ever and never smokers. Patients took online self-report surveys. Variable contributions to QOL were investigated using hierarchical multiple regression. Patients were primarily White females with smoking experience. Strong negative relationships emerged between QOL and anxiety, depression and lung cancer stigma. Lung cancer stigma provided significant explanation of the variance in QOL beyond covariates. No difference emerged between smoker groups for study variables. Stigma may play a role in predicting QOL. Interventions promoting social and psychological QOL may enhance stigma resistance skills.

  20. Lung Cancer Stigma, Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Cati G.; Brodsky, Jennifer; Cataldo, Janine K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated lung cancer stigma, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL), and validated variable similarities between ever and never smokers. Patients took online self-report surveys. Variable contributions to QOL were investigated using hierarchical multiple regression. Patients were primarily Caucasian females with smoking experience. Strong negative relationships emerged between QOL and anxiety, depression and lung cancer stigma. Lung cancer stigma provided significant explanation of the variance in QOL beyond covariates. No difference emerged between smoker groups for study variables. Stigma may play a role in predicting QOL. Interventions promoting social and psychological QOL may enhance stigma resistance skills. PMID:24428251

  1. Stigma in families of individuals in early stages of psychotic illness: family stigma and early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Celine; Davidson, Larry; Anglin, Deirdre; Link, Bruce; Gerson, Ruth; Malaspina, Dolores; McGlashan, Thomas; Corcoran, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Aim Stigma is pervasive among families of individuals with psychotic disorders and includes both general and ‘associative’ stigma – that is, the process by which a person is stigmatized by virtue of association with another stigmatized individual. These forms of stigma may present a barrier to help seeking. However, little is known about stigma in the early stages of evolving psychotic disorder. Methods Family members of 11 individuals at clinical high risk and of nine patients with recent-onset psychosis were evaluated for generalized and associative stigma using the Opinions about Mental Illness (modified) and the Family Experiences Interview Schedule. Results In this small study, the level of stigma was low, as families endorsed many supportive statements, for example, patients should be encouraged to vote, patients want to work, mental illness should be protected legally as a disability and parity should exist in insurance coverage. Families also endorsed that both talking and a belief in God and prayer can help someone get better. Only ethnic minority families of individuals with recent-onset psychosis endorsed a sense of shame and need to conceal the patient's illness. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that family stigma is low in the early stages of psychotic disorder, a finding that requires further investigation in a larger and more representative sample. This may be an opportune time to engage young people and families, so as to reduce duration of untreated illness. Ethnic differences in stigma, if replicated, highlight the need for cultural sensitivity in engaging individuals and their families in treatment. PMID:19777087

  2. Mental Illness Sexual Stigma: Implications for Health and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Milton L.; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M.; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Among people in psychiatric care worldwide, the majority is sexually active, and sharply elevated rates of HIV infection compared to the general population have been shown. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Method 641 sexually active adults attending eight public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Results Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on Individual Discrimination and Structural Stigma mechanisms than those with non-severe mental illness diagnoses, while there was no difference on the Social Psychological Processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examining the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. PMID:27030909

  3. Pain, objectivity and history: understanding pain stigma.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2017-02-21

    The primary claim of this paper is that understanding the stigma so commonly endured by chronic pain sufferers today in the USA and the UK is unlikely without proper appreciation of the history of pain. Ameliorating such stigma is an ethical imperative, and yet most approaches eschew even an attempt to trace connections between historical attitudes, practices and beliefs towards pain and the stigmatisation so many pain sufferers currently endure. The manuscript aims to help fill this gap by framing pain in the modern era in context of two crucial intellectual schemes that waxed in the 19th and 20th centuries: mechanical objectivity and somaticism. The analysis explains these frameworks and applies them to exploration of primary sources connected to contested pain conditions such as railway spine. By properly situating the historical roots of what it means to cite the 'subjectivity' of pain as a problem, the modern roots of stigmatising attitudes and practices towards chronic pain sufferers become much clearer. The manuscript concludes by suggesting that interventions expressly intended to target the root causes of such stigma are much more likely to be successful than approaches that proceed in ignorance of the historical forces shaping and driving pain stigma in the present.

  4. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  5. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  6. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  7. The stigma of disability: Croatian experiences.

    PubMed

    Buljevac, Marko; Majdak, Marijana; Leutar, Zdravka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to get an insight into understanding the stigma of disability based on the experience and perception of people with disabilities and professionals who work with them. Qualitative research methods were used with two focus groups: one with people with disabilities (five participants) and other with professionals (seven participants). After data were collected, a qualitative content analysis was made. The results indicated that participants perceived and experienced stigma of disability through intrinsic and extrinsic elements of stigmatization. The intrinsic elements refer to the feeling of being different as a result of negative attitudes, prejudices and stereotypes. The extrinsic elements derive from the relationship of the system towards people with disabilities: discrimination and labelling. Some of the major findings of this research are that the stigma of disability is shown through the inability of the people with disabilities to make their own decisions, the perception of the disability as the main feature of the person, the lack of criteria during education, perceiving disability as a precondition in choosing a partner and parental capability, parents' decision-making about their children's lives, overprotection and stigmatization in education and employment. Stigmatization leads to social exclusion and influences the quality of life. The stigma of disability is manifested through the impossibility of realizing basic human rights, of living life independently and of taking equal part in a local community.

  8. Stigma and Schizophrenia: Directions in Student Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Miller, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The persistence of stigma related to schizophrenia is addressed as a continuing challenge for social work students working in mental health. Student education is best grounded in direct clinical work with clients in conjunction with field supervision and classroom education. Through direct practice in individual and group sessions, students learn…

  9. Why Frankenstein is a Stigma Among Scientists.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Wylie, Ruth; Eschrich, Joey; Finn, Ed

    2017-06-26

    As one of the best known science narratives about the consequences of creating life, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is an enduring tale that people know and understand with an almost instinctive familiarity. It has become a myth reflecting people's ambivalent feelings about emerging science: they are curious about science, but they are also afraid of what science can do to them. In this essay, we argue that the Frankenstein myth has evolved into a stigma attached to scientists that focalizes the public's as well as the scientific community's negative reactions towards certain sciences and scientific practices. This stigma produces ambivalent reactions towards scientific artifacts and it leads to negative connotations because it implies that some sciences are dangerous and harmful. We argue that understanding the Frankenstein stigma can empower scientists by helping them revisit their own biases as well as responding effectively to people's expectations for, and attitudes towards, scientists and scientific artifacts. Debunking the Frankenstein stigma could also allow scientists to reshape their professional identities so they can better show the public what ethical and moral values guide their research enterprises.

  10. The Stigma Has Lost Its Sting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral A.

    1982-01-01

    At Northern High School in Detroit, efforts to provide vocational programs have been complicated by the negative image of vocational education that is commonly held. But the stigma is diminishing and enrollments are increasing, due in part to improvements in career guidance. (SK)

  11. Using "Shrek" to Teach about Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchiori, Kala J.; Mallett, Robyn K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an active learning exercise to teach students about social stigma. After lecturing on the topic, the instructor distributes a worksheet and shows several clips from the movie "Shrek," pausing after each clip to lead a discussion of the concepts. We provide information about the movie scenes, the student worksheet, and…

  12. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  13. The Stigma Has Lost Its Sting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral A.

    1982-01-01

    At Northern High School in Detroit, efforts to provide vocational programs have been complicated by the negative image of vocational education that is commonly held. But the stigma is diminishing and enrollments are increasing, due in part to improvements in career guidance. (SK)

  14. Using "Shrek" to Teach about Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchiori, Kala J.; Mallett, Robyn K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an active learning exercise to teach students about social stigma. After lecturing on the topic, the instructor distributes a worksheet and shows several clips from the movie "Shrek," pausing after each clip to lead a discussion of the concepts. We provide information about the movie scenes, the student worksheet, and…

  15. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures.

  16. HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: a test of the HIV stigma framework.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Smith, Laramie R; Chaudoir, Stephenie R; Amico, K Rivet; Copenhaver, Michael M

    2013-06-01

    The current work evaluates the HIV Stigma Framework in a sample of 95 people living with HIV recruited from an inner-city clinic in the Bronx, NY. To determine the contributions of each HIV stigma mechanism (internalized, enacted, and anticipated) on indicators of health and well-being, we conducted an interviewer-delivered survey and abstracted data from medical records. Results suggest that internalized stigma associates significantly with indicators of affective (i.e., helplessness regarding, acceptance of, and perceived benefits of HIV) and behavioral (i.e., days in medical care gaps and ARV non-adherence) health and well-being. Enacted and anticipated stigma associate with indicators of physical health and well-being (i.e., CD4 count less than 200 and chronic illness comorbidity respectively). By differentiating between HIV stigma mechanisms, researchers may gain a more nuanced understanding of how HIV stigma impacts health and well-being and better inform targeted interventions to improve specific outcomes among people living with HIV.

  17. Measuring Stigma Across Neurological Conditions: The Development of the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI)

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Choi, Seung W.; Victorson, David; Bode, Rita; Peterman, Amy; Heinemann, Allen; Cella, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Most measures of stigma are illness-specific and do not allow for comparisons across conditions. As part of a study of health-related quality of life for people with neurological disorders, our team developed an instrument to assess the stigma for people with chronic illnesses. Methods We based item content on literature review, responses from focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We then administered the items to people with neurological disorders for psychometric testing. Results Five hundred and eleven participants completed items of the stigma scale. Exploratory factor analysis produced 2 factors that were highly correlated (r = 0.81). Confirmatory factor analysis produced high standardized loadings on an overall stigma factor (0.68 to 0.94), with poorer loadings on the two sub-domains (−0.12 to 0.53). These results demonstrated a sufficiently unidimensional scale that corresponded with the bifactor model. Item response theory modeling suggested good model fit, and differential item functioning analyses indicated that the 24-item scale showed potential for measurement equivalence across conditions. Conclusions Our efforts produced a stigma scale that had promising psychometric properties. Further study can provide additional information about the SSCI and its benefit in measuring the impact of stigma across conditions. PMID:19396572

  18. Measuring stigma across neurological conditions: the development of the stigma scale for chronic illness (SSCI).

    PubMed

    Rao, Deepa; Choi, Seung W; Victorson, David; Bode, Rita; Peterman, Amy; Heinemann, Allen; Cella, David

    2009-06-01

    Most measures of stigma are illness specific and do not allow for comparisons across conditions. As part of a study of health-related quality of life for people with neurological disorders, our team developed an instrument to assess the stigma for people with chronic illnesses. We based item content on literature review, responses from focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We then administered the items to people with neurological disorders for psychometric testing. Five hundred eleven participants completed items of the stigma scale. Exploratory factor analysis produced two factors that were highly correlated (r = 0.81). Confirmatory factor analysis produced high standardized loadings on an overall stigma factor (0.68-0.94), with poorer loadings on the two sub-domains (-0.12 to 0.53). These results demonstrated a sufficiently unidimensional scale that corresponded with the bifactor model. Item response theory modeling suggested good model fit, and differential item functioning analyses indicated that the 24-item scale showed potential for measurement equivalence across conditions. Our efforts produced a stigma scale that had promising psychometric properties. Further study can provide additional information about the SSCI and its benefit in measuring the impact of stigma across conditions.

  19. Mental health stigma: what is being done to raise awareness and reduce stigma in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Kakuma, R; Kleintjes, S; Lund, C; Drew, N; Green, A; Flisher, A J

    2010-05-01

    Stigma plays a major role in the persistent suffering, disability and economic loss associated with mental illnesses. There is an urgent need to find effective strategies to increase awareness about mental illnesses and reduce stigma and discrimination. This study surveys the existing anti-stigma programmes in South Africa. The World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems Version 2.2 and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data on mental health education programmes in South Africa. Numerous anti-stigma campaigns are in place in both government and non-government organizations across the country. All nine provinces have had public campaigns between 2000 and 2005, targeting various groups such as the general public, youth, different ethnic groups, health care professionals, teachers and politicians. Some schools are setting up education and prevention programmes and various forms of media and art are being utilized to educate and discourage stigma and discrimination. Mental health care users are increasingly getting involved through media and talks in a wide range of settings. Yet very few of such activities are systematically evaluated for the effectiveness and very few are being published in peer-review journals or in reports where experiences and lessons can be shared and potentially applied elsewhere. A pool of evidence for anti-stigma and awareness-raising strategies currently exists that could potentially make a scientific contribution and inform policy in South Africa as well as in other countries.

  20. The Stigma of Suicide Scale. Psychometric properties and correlates of the stigma of suicide.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There are presently no validated scales to adequately measure the stigma of suicide in the community. The Stigma of Suicide Scale (SOSS) is a new scale containing 58 descriptors of a "typical" person who completes suicide. To validate the SOSS as a tool for assessing stigma toward suicide, to examine the scale's factor structure, and to assess correlates of stigmatizing attitudes. In March 2010, 676 staff and students at the Australian National University completed the scale in an online survey. The construct validity of the SOSS was assessed by comparing its factors with factors extracted from the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ). Three factors were identified: stigma, isolation/depression, and glorification/normalization. Each factor had high internal consistency and strong concurrent validity with the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. More than 25% of respondents agreed that people who suicided were "weak," "reckless," or "selfish." Respondents who were female, who had a psychology degree, or who spoke only English at home were less stigmatizing. A 16-item version of the scale also demonstrated robust psychometric properties. The SOSS is the first attitudes scale designed to directly measure the stigma of suicide in the community. Results suggest that psychoeducation may successfully reduce stigma.

  1. Exploring Smoking Stigma, Alternative Tobacco Product Use, & Quit Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; Popova, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigate smoking stigma among different tobacco user types. Methods US adults (N=1,812) responded to an online survey, including non-smokers, smokeless tobacco users, exclusive smokers, and smokeless and cigarette “dual users”. Results Dual users perceived the highest smoking stigma. Stigma was higher for smokers open to quitting by switching to smokeless. E-cigarette users (smokers) reported higher stigma than non-users. Making a past-year quit attempt was predicted by smoking stigma, and smokeless and/or e-cigarette use. Conclusions Smoking stigma and dual use of smokeless tobacco and/or e-cigarettes with cigarettes predict quit attempts. However, smoking stigma might prevent smokers from consulting doctors and induce use of alternative tobacco products as cessation aids. PMID:27088103

  2. Dual Perspectives On Stigma: Reports of Experienced and Enacted Stigma by Those Affected and Unaffected by Podoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayode, Desta; Tora, Abebayehu; Farrell, David; Tadele, Getnet; Davey, Gail; McBride, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disease-related stigma is a public health concern steadily gaining global attention. Evidence consistently shows that an individual’s attribution of disease cause can prompt or justify interpersonal stigma. However, few studies have explored causal beliefs about inherited disease and their influence on stigmatising behaviours in low and middle income countries. Design and methods: The study was conducted in 2013, in six communities in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 1800 respondents took part in the study, 600 were affected by an inherited disease and 1200 were unaffected neighbours. Two versions of the interviewer-administered survey were created, with measures assessed in parallel on experienced stigma for the affected and enacted stigma for unaffected respondents. Results: Mean levels of enacted stigma reported by unaffected respondents were slightly lower (2.0, SD=0.7) than experienced stigma reported by affected respondents [2.2 (standard deviation=1.1)]. Beliefs that podoconiosis was hereditary were significantly and positively associated with levels of enacted stigma reported by unaffected respondents and experienced stigma reported by affected respondents (P<0.001). There was no association of reported levels of stigma experienced by affected respondents with levels of enacted stigma reported by the neighbouring unaffected respondents. Males consistently reported significantly lower levels of experienced and enacted stigma than females, P<0.0001. Conclusions: If stigma reduction interventions are to be successful, culturally tailored, gender inclusive and innovative health education programs are required, directed at the general community as well as individuals affected by inherited diseases. Significance for public health Disease-related stigma is a public health concern steadily gaining global attention. In this report, we evaluated dual perspectives of stigma, that is, we compared reports of stigma experienced by families

  3. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services. METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26538100

  4. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma.

    PubMed

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual's perception and attitudes regarding dental services. One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients' HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.

  5. Vicious Circle of Perceived Stigma, Enacted Stigma and Depressive Symptoms among Children affected by HIV/AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a deleterious impact of stigma on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of stigma and children’s mental health. This study explores the longitudinal reciprocal effects of depressive symptoms and stigma, specifically enacted stigma and perceived stigma, among children affected by HIV/AIDS aged 6 to 12. Longitudinal data were collected from 272 children orphaned by AIDS and 249 children of HIV-positive parents in rural China. Cross-lagged panel analysis was conducted in the study. Results showed that the autoregressive effects were stable for depressive symptoms, perceived stigma and enacted stigma suggesting the substantially stable individual differences over time. The cross-lagged effects indicated a vicious circle among the three variables in an order of enacted stigma→depressive symptom→perceived stigma→enacted stigma. The possibility of employing equal constraints on cross-lagged paths suggested that the cross-lagged effects were repeatable over time. The dynamic interplay of enacted stigma, perceived stigma and depressive symptoms suggests the need of a multilevel intervention in stigma reduction programming to promote mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:24158487

  6. Perspectives on perceived stigma and self-stigma in adult male patients with depression

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There are two principal types of stigma in mental illness, ie, “public stigma” and “self-stigma”. Public stigma is the perception held by others that the mentally ill individual is socially undesirable. Stigmatized persons may internalize perceived prejudices and develop negative feelings about themselves. The result of this process is “self-stigma”. Stigma has emerged as an important barrier to the treatment of depression and other mental illnesses. Gender and race are related to stigma. Among depressed patients, males and African-Americans have higher levels of self-stigma than females and Caucasians. Perceived stigma and self-stigma affect willingness to seek help in both genders and races. African-Americans demonstrate a less positive attitude towards mental health treatments than Caucasians. Religious beliefs play a role in their coping with mental illness. Certain prejudicial beliefs about mental illness are shared globally. Structural modeling indicates that conformity to dominant masculine gender norms (“boys don’t cry”) leads to self-stigmatization in depressed men who feel that they should be able to cope with their illness without professional help. These findings suggest that targeting men’s feelings about their depression and other mental health problems could be a more successful approach to change help-seeking attitudes than trying to change those attitudes directly. Further, the inhibitory effect of traditional masculine gender norms on help-seeking can be overcome if depressed men feel that a genuine connection leading to mutual understanding has been established with a health care professional. PMID:25114531

  7. Stigma predicts residential treatment length for substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Jason B; Kulesza, Magdalena; Hayes, Steven C; Kohlenberg, Barbara; Larimer, Mary

    2014-05-01

    Stigma has been suggested as a possible contributor to the high rates of treatment attrition in substance-dependent individuals, but no published empirical studies have examined this association. The present paper assessed the relationship between baseline stigma variables and length of treatment stay in a sample of patients in a residential addictions treatment unit. The relationship between baseline stigma variables (self-stigma, enacted stigma, and shame) and length of stay for participants (n=103) in a residential addictions treatment unit was examined. Higher self-stigma predicted longer stay in residential addictions treatment, even after controlling for age, marital status, race, overall mental health, social support, enacted stigma, and internalized shame. However, other stigma variables (i.e. internalized shame, stigma-related rejection) did not reliably predict length of treatment stay. These results are consistent with other findings suggesting that people with higher self-stigma may have a lowered sense of self-efficacy and heightened fear of being stigmatized and therefore retreat into more protected settings such as residential treatment, potentially resulting in higher treatment costs. Specialized clinical interventions may be necessary to help participants cope with reduced self-efficacy and fear of being stigmatized.

  8. Bipolar disorder and self-stigma: A comparison with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karidi, M V; Vassilopoulou, D; Savvidou, E; Vitoratou, S; Maillis, A; Rabavilas, A; Stefanis, C N

    2015-09-15

    Even though numerous studies have focused on the effects of self-stigma on patients with schizophrenia, little is known about self-stigma of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, a self-administered scale of self-stigmatising attitudes of patients with BD and schizophrenia was used to explore these attitudes, examine the potential differences between the two groups and study the factors that influence stigma within groups. Self-stigma of 120 patients with schizophrenia and BD was assessed with the Self-stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness (SIMI). Presence of clinical symptoms, overall functioning and level of self-esteem were also evaluated. Self-stigma is present in both groups but differs in its intensity. Patients with BD experience self-stigma in a lesser degree without affecting their social life or overall functioning. Patients with schizophrenia adopt more intense self-stigmatising attitudes leading to social exclusion and lower level of overall functioning. The results are limited by the small sample size, whereas the inclusion of other questionnaires would broaden our insight to self-stigma. Self-stigma has a direct effect on overall functioning of patients with BD and schizophrenia tampering the clinical outcome of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it should be incorporated in every treatment plan and be addressed as a clinical symptom of the mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving Toward Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, Davird R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations at the structural level (e.g., residential segregation) as well as the individual level among perceivers (e.g., discrimination) and targets (e.g., internalized stigma). We then review evidence of these associations. Because racial/ethnic minorities at risk of and living with HIV often possess multiple stigmas (e.g., HIV-positive, substance use), we adopt an intersectionality framework and conceptualize interdependence among co-occurring stigmas. We further propose a resilience agenda and suggest that intervening on modifiable strength-based moderators of the association between societal stigma and disparities can reduce disparities. Strengthening economic and community empowerment and trust at the structural level, creating common ingroup identities and promoting contact with people living with HIV among perceivers at the individual level, and enhancing social support and adaptive coping among targets at the individual level can improve resilience to societal stigma and ultimately reduce racial/ethnic HIV disparities. PMID:23688090

  10. Association between Patient-Provider Communication and Lung Cancer Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Hamann, Heidi A.; Thomas, Anna J.; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The majority (95%) of lung cancer patients report stigma, with 48% of lung cancer patients specifically reporting feeling stigmatized by their medical providers. Typically associated with the causal link to smoking and the historically poor prognosis, lung cancer stigma can be seen as a risk factor for poor psychosocial and medical outcomes in the context of lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. Thus, modifiable targets for lung cancer stigma-reducing interventions are needed. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma. Methods Lung cancer patients (n=231) across varying stages of disease, participated in a cross-sectional, multi-site study designed to understand lung cancer stigma. Patients completed several survey measures, including demographic and clinical characteristics, a measure of patient-provider communication (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Program or CAHPS), and a measure of lung cancer stigma (Cataldo Lung Cancer Stigma Scale). Results As hypothesized, results indicated that good patient-provider communication was associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma (r=-.18, p<.05). These results remained significant, even when controlling for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics (Stan. Β = −.15, p<.05). Conclusions Results indicate that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma, suggesting that improving patient-provider communication may be a good intervention target for reducing lung cancer stigma. PMID:26553030

  11. Association between patient-provider communication and lung cancer stigma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Hamann, Heidi A; Thomas, Anna J; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2016-05-01

    The majority (95 %) of lung cancer patients report stigma, with 48 % of lung cancer patients specifically reporting feeling stigmatized by their medical providers. Typically associated with the causal link to smoking and the historically poor prognosis, lung cancer stigma can be seen as a risk factor for poor psychosocial and medical outcomes in the context of lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. Thus, modifiable targets for lung cancer stigma-reducing interventions are needed. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma. Lung cancer patients (n = 231) across varying stages of disease participated in a cross-sectional, multisite study designed to understand lung cancer stigma. Patients completed several survey measures, including demographic and clinical characteristics, a measure of patient-provider communication (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Program or CAHPS), and a measure of lung cancer stigma (Cataldo Lung Cancer Stigma Scale). As hypothesized, results indicated that good patient-provider communication was associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma (r = -0.18, p < 0.05). These results remained significant, even when controlling for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics (Stan. β = -0.15, p < 0.05). Results indicate that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma, suggesting that improving patient-provider communication may be a good intervention target for reducing lung cancer stigma.

  12. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-09-01

    To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18-49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels in accordance with the bioecological model. The results of this study

  13. Stigma-Stop: A Serious Game against the Stigma toward Mental Health in Educational Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cangas, Adolfo J.; Navarro, Noelia; Parra, José M. A.; Ojeda, Juan J.; Cangas, Diego; Piedra, Jose A.; Gallego, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia) and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe the characters are psychologically well, and if they think they could help these individuals. Similarly, a variety of reactions are provided for players to choose from when they encounter the characters with these problems. A total of 552 students between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which used Stigma-Stop, or the control group, which utilized a video game completely unrelated to mental health. Both video games were used for similar lengths of time. Following the application of Stigma-Stop, a statistically significant decrease was obtained in levels of stigma toward schizophrenia, both in terms of stereotypes and, to a greater extent, its potential dangerousness. However, this was not the case in the control group. Results thus demonstrate the video game’s usefulness toward eradicating erroneous notions about serious mental disorders like schizophrenia. PMID:28878702

  14. Stigma-Stop: A Serious Game against the Stigma toward Mental Health in Educational Settings.

    PubMed

    Cangas, Adolfo J; Navarro, Noelia; Parra, José M A; Ojeda, Juan J; Cangas, Diego; Piedra, Jose A; Gallego, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia) and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe the characters are psychologically well, and if they think they could help these individuals. Similarly, a variety of reactions are provided for players to choose from when they encounter the characters with these problems. A total of 552 students between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which used Stigma-Stop, or the control group, which utilized a video game completely unrelated to mental health. Both video games were used for similar lengths of time. Following the application of Stigma-Stop, a statistically significant decrease was obtained in levels of stigma toward schizophrenia, both in terms of stereotypes and, to a greater extent, its potential dangerousness. However, this was not the case in the control group. Results thus demonstrate the video game's usefulness toward eradicating erroneous notions about serious mental disorders like schizophrenia.

  15. Stigma Among California's Medical Marijuana Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all. PMID:25715067

  16. A questionnaire to assess social stigma.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Tavormina, Romina; Nemoianni, Eugenio; Tavormina, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Psychiatric patients often suffer for two reasons: due to the illness and due to the social stigma of mental illness, that increases the uneasiness and psychic pain of the person suffering from serious psychiatric disorder. This unwell person is often the object of stigma because he is "different" from others, and he also can be margenalised by society. In this study we intend to assess whether these margenalising attitudes might be also present among mental health professionals who have presented psychic problems in a previous period of their life, against sick persons suffering of the same illness even if he is a mental health professional. Two questionnaires have been developed, one for professionals and another for the patients, with the aim of identifying these marginalising attitudes. We intend that this study shall be a multicenter, observational and international study, promoted by the Mental Health Dept. of Naples (ASL Naples 3 South, Italy).

  17. Stigma and mental disorder: phenomena and terminology.

    PubMed

    Clausen, J A

    1981-11-01

    My aim in this paper is to examine the application of the concept stigma to mental disorder and to the mentally ill. I believe that the loose use of this term serves to obscure the real issues that must be confronted in attempting to change public response to mental disorder. I shall examine recent, and in my opinion ill-advised, use of the concept stigma and then present some data that bear upon social responses to mentally ill patients and former patients in contemporary America. My data are derived from a long-term study of mental patients and their families, and I shall document that their feelings of stigmatization are not so much a consequence of the response of others to their having been hospitalized for mental illness or labeled mentally ill as of self-doubts or chronic manifestations of mental illness.

  18. DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Young, Michael A; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2010-08-01

    Stigma associated with mental illness has been shown to have devastating effects on the lives of people with psychiatric disorders, their families, and those who care for them. In the current article, the relationship between diagnostic labels and stigma is examined in the context of the forthcoming DSM-V. Three types of negative outcomes are reviewed in detail - public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. The article illustrates how a clinical diagnosis may exacerbate these forms of stigma through socio-cognitive processes of groupness, homogeneity, and stability. Initial draft revisions recently proposed by the DSM-V work groups are presented, and their possible future implications for stigma associated with mental illness are discussed.

  19. Structuration Theory: A Conceptual Framework for HIV/AIDS Stigma.

    PubMed

    Misir, Prem

    2015-01-01

    The continuing paucity of effective interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma is troubling, given that stigma has long been recognized as a significant barrier to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. Ineffectual HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions are the product of inadequate conceptual frameworks and methodological tools. And while there is a paucity of effective interventions to reduce stigma, there is no shortage of conceptual frameworks intending to offer a comprehensive understanding of stigma, ranging from sociocognitive models at the individual level to structural models at the macrolevel. Observations highlighting inadequacies in the individualistic and structural models are offered, followed by the theory of structuration as a possible complementary conceptual base for designing HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions.

  20. Structuration Theory: A Conceptual Framework for HIV/AIDS Stigma.

    PubMed

    Misir, Prem

    2013-04-05

    The continuing paucity of effective interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma is troubling, given that stigma has long been recognized as a significant barrier to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. Ineffectual HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions are the product of inadequate conceptual frameworks and methodological tools. And while there is a paucity of effective interventions to reduce stigma, there is no shortage of conceptual frameworks intending to offer a comprehensive understanding of stigma, ranging from sociocognitive models at the individual level to structural models at the macrolevel. Observations highlighting inadequacies in the individualistic and structural models are offered, followed by the theory of structuration as a possible complementary conceptual base for designing HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions.

  1. Stigma, sex work, and substance use: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Cecilia; McCarthy, Bill; Jansson, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Stigma is a widely used concept in social science research and an extensive literature claims that stigmatisation contributes to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies compare groups that vary in the extent to which they are stigmatised and even fewer studies examine stigma's independent and mediating effects. This article addresses these gaps in a comparative study of perceived stigma and drug use among three low-income feminised service occupations: sex work, food and alcoholic beverage serving, and barbering and hairstyling. An analysis of longitudinal data shows positive associations between sex work, perceived stigma, and socially less acceptable drug use (for example, heroin and cocaine), and that stigma mediates part of the link between sex work and the use of these drugs. Our overall findings suggest that perceived stigma is pronounced among those who work in the sex industry and negatively affects health independently of sex work involvement.

  2. The Stigma of Failure in Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    one” ( Goffman , 1963, p. 3; Sutton & Callahan, 1987, p. 406). For example, while failed entrepreneurs are often stigmatized in France and Japan, a...criminals and traitors to advertise their moral status as unfit for society ( Goffman , 1963). In the middle ages, the ritual pollution of...32), 333–350. Goffman , E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Engelwood Cliffs: Simon and Schuster. Gromb, D

  3. Mental Health Stigma in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    distress or impairment • Anxious or irritable • Reduced self -control • Poor focus • More severe or persistent distress or impairment • Leaves lasting...encourage continued engagement in care once the person has reached out. Most civilian approaches to overcoming self -stigma for people engaged in care ...effects on mental health (e.g., reduce self -esteem). These findings and the feedback of the expert panel guided the development of the 13 priorities

  4. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-12-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy`s Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989.

  5. How does stigma affect people with psoriasis?

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Kamil; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is associated with a major additional psychological burden. Aim To investigate whether the extent of skin involvement, stigmatization, and perceived social support are related to depressive symptoms in psoriasis patients. Material and methods One hundred and forty-eight psoriasis patients completed in the BSA, the Beck Depression Inventory, Stigmatization Scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results Almost 13% of participants obtained a BDI total score indicating moderate depressive symptoms. The results of regression analysis revealed that greater depression severity in psoriasis patients is associated with higher levels of psoriasis-related stigma, lower perceived social support, female gender and a shorter duration of the disease, explaining 43% of the variance of depression. The stigmatization was the most powerful predictor of depressive symptoms for psoriasis patients and accounted for 33% of the variance. Conclusions The extent of psoriasis does not directly lead to mood disturbance in these patients. Rather, social stigma accounted for this relationship. Strategies for reducing the stigma attached to patients with psoriasis are required. PMID:28261029

  6. Abortion providers, stigma and professional quality of life.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-12-01

    The Providers Share Workshop (PSW) provides abortion providers safe space to discuss their work experiences. Our objectives were to assess changes in abortion stigma over time and explore how stigma is related to aspects of professional quality of life, including compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue for providers participating in the workshops. Seventy-nine providers were recruited to the PSW study. Surveys were completed prior to, immediately following and 1 year after the workshops. The outcome measures were the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) survey. Baseline ProQOL scores were compared to published averages using t tests. Changes in abortion stigma and aspects of professional quality of life were assessed by fitting a two-level random-effects model with repeated measures at level 1 (period-level) and static measures (e.g., demographic data) at level 2 (person-level). Potential covariates included age, parenting status, education, organizational tenure, job type and clinic type (stand-alone vs. hospital-based clinics). Compared to other healthcare workers, abortion providers reported higher compassion satisfaction (t=2.65, p=.009) and lower burnout (t=5.13, p<.0001). Repeated-measures analysis revealed statistically significant decreases in stigma over time. Regression analysis identified abortion stigma as a significant predictor of lower compassion satisfaction, higher burnout and higher compassion fatigue. Participants in PSW reported a reduction in abortion stigma over time. Further, stigma is an important predictor of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue, suggesting that interventions aimed at supporting the abortion providing workforce should likely assess abortion stigma. Stigma is an important predictor of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue among abortion care providers. Therefore, strengthening human resources for abortion care requires stigma

  7. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  8. Perception of stigma toward mental illness in South India

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Bhumika T.; Andrews, Teddy; Mayya, Sreemathi S.; Singh, Mannat M.; Parsekar, Shradha S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stigma associated with mental illnesses is one of the principal causes for mentally ill people not receiving adequate mental health care and treatment. The study was conducted to assess the extent of stigma associated with mental illness and knowledge of mental illness among the community. Materials and Methods: Community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 445 respondents from Udupi district; the community attitude toward the mentally ill (CAMI) scale was used to assess stigma. The probability proportional to sampling size technique was adopted to select the wards/blocks. Household from blocks/wards were selected using convenience sampling. Self- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Results: Of the total 445 respondents, the prevalence of stigma toward mentally ill people was 74.61% (95% confidence interval, 0.7057, 0.7866). The prevalence of stigma was high under all the four domains of CAMI scale. High prevalence of stigma was seen among females and people with higher income. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of stigma toward PWMI was found to be high. The stigma toward PWMI was associated with gender with respect to AU, BE and CMHI. Hence, the study suggests that there is a strong need to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness to improve the mental health status of the region. PMID:26288791

  9. Pride and prejudice--identity and stigma in leprosy work.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kristine

    2011-06-01

    This article sets out to expand the way stigma, and those affected by it, are understood within leprosy discourse and to apply these insights to the analysis of the experiences of leprosy workers. The term stigma is often used simply as shorthand for 'negative social experience'. However, to reduce the negative aspects of complex everyday life experiences to a single word is often overly simplistic and can serve to objectify, rather than illuminate, the experiences of those affected. This article argues that in order to understand the lived experience of stigma we must come to understand stigma as an ongoing, dialectical social process and develop an approach to stigma that analytically separates stigma from its negative social consequences. The article applies these insights to data collected during 14 months of fieldwork with front-line leprosy workers in India, which suggests that falling leprosy prevalence rates and a rapidly changing policy landscape have led to leprosy workers feeling marginalised and stigmatised within their own organisation. The article argues that, rather than seeing stigma merely as a negative process in which leprosy workers are passive victims, we must recognise that stigma also plays a key role in the creation and maintenance of leprosy workers' identity and is utilised as a strategic tool in the struggle for influence between different groups within the organisation. Finally, the article argues for the benefit of expanding our understanding of stigma across public health and of applying these insights to designing future interventions.

  10. Structural stigma: Research evidence and implications for psychological science.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2016-11-01

    Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on microlevel interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and well-being of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (a) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity), (b) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions, and (c) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups-ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality-indicating that structural stigma represents an underrecognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Study on differences and similarities in the concept and origin of leprosy stigma in relation to other health-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S

    2010-01-01

    While the experienced or enacted stigma may be the same for all health related stigma, in terms of isolation, discrimination and social participation restrictions of the affected persons; the concept and origin of stigma varies from one disease to another. An understanding of the cause of stigma is, therefore, essential to formulate effective strategies for its reduction/elimination. This is especially imperative in the case of leprosy where the basis of stigma is significantly different from other health related stigma. In this paper, a comparison is made between the concept and origin of leprosy stigma with that of other stigmatised diseases.

  12. Stigma- and non-stigma-related treatment barriers to mental healthcare reported by service users and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Lisa; Jeffery, Debra; Schauman, Oliver; Williams, Paul; Farrelly, Simone; Bonnington, Oliver; Gabbidon, Jheanell; Lassman, Francesca; Szmukler, George; Thornicroft, Graham; Clement, Sarah

    2015-08-30

    Delayed treatment seeking for people experiencing symptoms of mental illness is common despite available mental healthcare. Poor outcomes are associated with untreated mental illness and caregivers may eventually need to seek help on the service user's behalf. More attention has recently focused on the role of stigma in delayed treatment seeking. This study aimed to establish the frequency of stigma- and non-stigma-related treatment barriers reported by 202 service users and 80 caregivers; to compare treatment barriers reported by service users and caregivers; and to investigate demographic predictors of reporting stigma-related treatment barriers. The profile of treatment barriers differed between service users and caregivers. Service users were more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers than caregivers across all stigma-related items. Service users who were female, had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or with GCSEs (UK qualifications usually obtained at age 16) were significantly more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers. Caregivers who were female or of Black ethnicities were significantly more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers. Multifaceted approaches are needed to reduce barriers to treatment seeking for both service users and caregivers, with anti-stigma interventions being of particular importance for the former group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients: findings from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-08-29

    To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Data were collected in relation to self-stigma, perceived stigma, self-esteem, functioning and quality of life. In order to examine the mediating role of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes, bootstrapping mediation analyses were used. Mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes was subject to the effects of self-stigma among the overall sample. Separate mediation analyses were conducted by diagnoses and showed differences in the mediating effects of self-stigma. Among the whole sample and the subsample with OCD, self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and all psychosocial outcomes. For those with anxiety, depression and schizophrenia, the mediating effects of self-stigma were present in all relationships except (1) perceived stigma with physical health in the anxiety sample, (2) perceived stigma with social relationships in the depression sample and (3) perceived stigma with physical health in the schizophrenia sample. The mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and various psychosocial outcomes are evident and differ across diagnoses. Interventions to address and reduce the effects of self-stigma along with targeted treatments and psychoeducation to assist people with mental illness overcome or better manage self-stigma while providing them the skills to counteract public stigma are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  14. The experience of SARS-related stigma at Amoy Gardens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing; Chan, Lydia Y Y; Chau, Annie M Y; Kwok, Kathleen P S; Kleinman, Arthur

    2005-11-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) possesses characteristics that render it particularly prone to stigmatization. SARS-related stigma, despite its salience for public health and stigma research, has had little examination. This study combines survey and case study methods to examine subjective stigma among residents of Amoy Gardens (AG), the first officially recognized site of community outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong. A total of 903 residents of AG completed a self-report questionnaire derived from two focus groups conducted toward the end of the 3-month outbreak. Case studies of two residents who lived in Block E, the heart of the SARS epidemic at AG, complement the survey data. Findings show that stigma affected most residents and took various forms of being shunned, insulted, marginalized, and rejected in the domains of work, interpersonal relationships, use of services and schooling. Stigma was also associated with psychosomatic distress. Residents' strategies for diminishing stigma varied with gender, age, education, occupation, and proximity to perceived risk factors for SARS such as residential location, previous SARS infection and the presence of ex-SARS household members. Residents attributed stigma to government mismanagement, contagiousness of the mysterious SARS virus, and alarmist media reporting. Stigma clearly decreased, but never completely disappeared, after the outbreak. The findings confirm and add to existing knowledge on the varied origins, correlates, and impacts of stigma. They also highlight the synergistic roles of inconsistent health policy responses and risk miscommunication by the media in rapidly amplifying stigma toward an unfamiliar illness. While recognizing the intrinsically stigmatizing nature of public health measures to control SARS, we recommend that a consistent inter-sectoral approach is needed to minimize stigma and to make an effective health response to future outbreaks.

  15. Framing Mechanisms Linking HIV-Related Stigma, Adherence to Treatment, and Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent; Hatcher, Abigail M; Weiser, Sheri D; Johnson, Mallory O; Rice, Whitney S; Turan, Janet M

    2017-06-01

    We present a conceptual framework that highlights how unique dimensions of individual-level HIV-related stigma (perceived community stigma, experienced stigma, internalized stigma, and anticipated stigma) might differently affect the health of those living with HIV. HIV-related stigma is recognized as a barrier to both HIV prevention and engagement in HIV care, but little is known about the mechanisms through which stigma leads to worse health behaviors or outcomes. Our conceptual framework posits that, in the context of intersectional and structural stigmas, individual-level dimensions of HIV-related stigma operate through interpersonal factors, mental health, psychological resources, and biological stress pathways. A conceptual framework that encompasses recent advances in stigma science can inform future research and interventions aiming to address stigma as a driver of HIV-related health.

  16. Lessons on Stigma: Teaching about HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; DeCoster, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the sociology of HIV/AIDS involves teaching about the causes and effects of stigma. We describe a Sociology of HIV/AIDS course at the University of Alabama in which stigma reduction was assessed as a primary objective. The syllabus involved theory-based instruction, class visits, service learning, and student research on community…

  17. Stigma and disability in schizophrenia: developing countries' perspective.

    PubMed

    Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Chennaveerachari Naveen

    2012-10-01

    Stigma and disability are two important consequences of schizophrenia that individuals afflicted with it experience. Sociocultural milieu can influence these. We review the literature on stigma and disability experienced by individuals with schizophrenia in the developing countries. We searched English-language literature from developing countries on stigma and disability in schizophrenia using PubMed and Scopus databases. As individual studies adopted widely varying methodologies, the retrieved papers did not yield themselves for a systematic review. We present a narrative review. Much of the literature on stigma and disability in schizophrenia has come from India and only a few other developing countries. Stigma associated with schizophrenia is highly prevalent across regions and across patients themselves, families, communities and professionals. Research is scanty with regard to determinants of stigma and interventions against stigma. A number of tools have been developed for assessment of disability. Preliminary evidence suggests that initiation and continuation of antipsychotic medications is associated with lesser disability. Psychosocial interventions may reduce disability further. Comprehensive, prospective studies evaluating the determinants of stigma and disability need to be conducted in the developing countries. Models of interventions to minimize these adverse consequences, developed based on their results, need to be tested.

  18. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  19. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  20. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  1. Editorial: Global action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Stangl, Anne L

    2013-11-13

    There is no question that the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS can be reduced through intervention. The inclusion of stigma and discrimination reduction as a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation in recent UNAIDS, UN and PEPFAR political initiatives is promising. Yet national governments need evidence on effective interventions at the individual, community and societal levels in order to strategically incorporate stigma and discrimination reduction into national AIDS plans. Currently, the heterogeneity of stigma and discrimination reduction approaches and measurement makes it challenging to compare and contrast evaluated interventions. Moving forward, it is critical for the research community to: (1) clearly link intervention activities to the domains of stigma to be shifted; (2) assess the stigma domains in a consistent manner; and (3) link stigma and discrimination reduction with HIV prevention, care and treatment outcomes (e.g., uptake, adherence and retention of ART). These steps would further advance the scientific evidence base of stigma and discrimination reduction and allow for the identification of effective interventions that could be scaled up by national governments.

  2. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma.

  3. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  4. BDSM Disclosure and Stigma Management: Identifying Opportunities for Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezreh, Tanya; Weinberg, Thomas S.; Edgar, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    While participation in the activities like bondage, domination, submission/sadism, masochism that fall under the umbrella term BDSM is widespread, stigma surrounding BDSM poses risks to practitioners who wish to disclose their interest. We examined risk factors involved with disclosure to posit how sex education might diffuse stigma and warn of…

  5. Global action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Stangl, Anne L

    2013-01-01

    There is no question that the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS can be reduced through intervention. The inclusion of stigma and discrimination reduction as a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation in recent UNAIDS, UN and PEPFAR political initiatives is promising. Yet national governments need evidence on effective interventions at the individual, community and societal levels in order to strategically incorporate stigma and discrimination reduction into national AIDS plans. Currently, the heterogeneity of stigma and discrimination reduction approaches and measurement makes it challenging to compare and contrast evaluated interventions. Moving forward, it is critical for the research community to: (1) clearly link intervention activities to the domains of stigma to be shifted; (2) assess the stigma domains in a consistent manner; and (3) link stigma and discrimination reduction with HIV prevention, care and treatment outcomes (e.g., uptake, adherence and retention of ART). These steps would further advance the scientific evidence base of stigma and discrimination reduction and allow for the identification of effective interventions that could be scaled up by national governments. PMID:24242269

  6. Lessons on Stigma: Teaching about HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; DeCoster, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the sociology of HIV/AIDS involves teaching about the causes and effects of stigma. We describe a Sociology of HIV/AIDS course at the University of Alabama in which stigma reduction was assessed as a primary objective. The syllabus involved theory-based instruction, class visits, service learning, and student research on community…

  7. Stigma Development and Receptivity in Almond (Prunus dulcis)

    PubMed Central

    YI, WEIGUANG; LAW, S. EDWARD; MCCOY, DENNIS; WETZSTEIN, HAZEL Y.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Fertilization is essential in almond production, and pollination can be limiting in production areas. This study investigated stigma receptivity under defined developmental stages to clarify the relationship between stigma morphology, pollen germination, tube growth and fruit set. • Methods Light and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine stigma development at seven stages of flower development ranging from buds that were swollen to flowers in which petals were abscising. Flowers at different stages were hand pollinated and pollen germination and tube growth assessed. Artificial pollinations in the field were conducted to determine the effect of flower age on fruit set. • Key Results Later stages of flower development exhibited greater stigma receptivity, i.e. higher percentages of pollen germination and more extensive tube growth occurred in older (those opened to the flat petal stage or exhibiting petal fall) than younger flowers. Enhanced stigma receptivity was associated with elongation of stigmatic papillae and increased amounts of stigmatic exudate that inundated papillae at later developmental stages. Field pollinations indicated that the stigma was still receptive and nut set was maintained in older flowers. • Conclusions Stigma receptivity in almond does not become optimal until flowers are past the fully open stage. The stigma is still receptive and fruit set is maintained in flowers even at the stage when petals are abscising. Strategies to enhance pollination and crop yield, including the timing and placement of honey bees, should consider the effectiveness of developmentally advanced flowers. PMID:16287904

  8. Stigma development and receptivity in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Yi, Weiguang; Law, S Edward; McCoy, Dennis; Wetzstein, Hazel Y

    2006-01-01

    Fertilization is essential in almond production, and pollination can be limiting in production areas. This study investigated stigma receptivity under defined developmental stages to clarify the relationship between stigma morphology, pollen germination, tube growth and fruit set. Light and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine stigma development at seven stages of flower development ranging from buds that were swollen to flowers in which petals were abscising. Flowers at different stages were hand pollinated and pollen germination and tube growth assessed. Artificial pollinations in the field were conducted to determine the effect of flower age on fruit set. Later stages of flower development exhibited greater stigma receptivity, i.e. higher percentages of pollen germination and more extensive tube growth occurred in older (those opened to the flat petal stage or exhibiting petal fall) than younger flowers. Enhanced stigma receptivity was associated with elongation of stigmatic papillae and increased amounts of stigmatic exudate that inundated papillae at later developmental stages. Field pollinations indicated that the stigma was still receptive and nut set was maintained in older flowers. Stigma receptivity in almond does not become optimal until flowers are past the fully open stage. The stigma is still receptive and fruit set is maintained in flowers even at the stage when petals are abscising. Strategies to enhance pollination and crop yield, including the timing and placement of honey bees, should consider the effectiveness of developmentally advanced flowers.

  9. The Impact of Teacher Credentials on ADHD Stigma Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lindsay; Long, Susanne; Garvan, Cynthia; Bussing, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is associated with high levels of stigma, which may lead to treatment barriers, self-fulfilling prophecies, and social rejection. This study established the reliability of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire…

  10. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  11. Depression Stigma, Race, and Treatment Seeking Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related…

  12. Initial Validation of the Mental Health Provider Stigma Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Abell, Neil; Mennicke, Annelise

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an initial validation of the mental health provider stigma inventory (MHPSI). The MHPSI assesses stigma within the service provider--client relationship on three domains--namely, attitudes, behaviors, and coworker influence. Methods: Initial validation of the MHPSI was conducted with a sample of 212 mental health employees…

  13. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  14. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  15. BDSM Disclosure and Stigma Management: Identifying Opportunities for Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezreh, Tanya; Weinberg, Thomas S.; Edgar, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    While participation in the activities like bondage, domination, submission/sadism, masochism that fall under the umbrella term BDSM is widespread, stigma surrounding BDSM poses risks to practitioners who wish to disclose their interest. We examined risk factors involved with disclosure to posit how sex education might diffuse stigma and warn of…

  16. The Impact of Teacher Credentials on ADHD Stigma Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lindsay; Long, Susanne; Garvan, Cynthia; Bussing, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is associated with high levels of stigma, which may lead to treatment barriers, self-fulfilling prophecies, and social rejection. This study established the reliability of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire…

  17. Mental Health Stigma: Society, Individuals, and the Profession

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedani, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession. PMID:22211117

  18. Service-Learning with the Mentally Ill: Softening the Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Steve T.; Corser, Grant C.; White, Lynn H.

    2010-01-01

    Stigmas toward those who have mental illnesses are wide-spread and detrimental to the health and well-being of those suffering from these debilitating conditions, and to society as a whole. Stigma-reducing programs are plentiful but many are only marginally effective. In this paper we describe and evaluate a course in Psychopathology that included…

  19. Depression Stigma, Race, and Treatment Seeking Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related…

  20. Does mental health stigma change across the deployment cycle?

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Boasso, Alyssa M; Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on mental health stigma in military personnel has been cross-sectional. We prospectively examined the course of perceived mental health stigma in a cohort of deployed U.S. combat Marines. Participants (N = 768) were assessed 1 month before a 7-month deployment to Afghanistan, and again at 1, 5, and 8 months postdeployment. We also examined three predictors of the course of stigma: post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, vertical and horizontal unit cohesion, and mental health treatment utilization while deployed. Perceptions of stigma remained largely stable across the deployment cycle, with latent growth curve analyses revealing a statistically significant but small decrease in stigma over time. Lower post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and greater perceived vertical and horizontal support predicted decreases in stigma over time, whereas mental health treatment utilization in theater did not predict the course of stigma. Perceived stigma was low and largely stable over time. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. My secret: The social meaning of HIV/AIDS stigma

    PubMed Central

    Judgeo, N.; Moalusi, K.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study uses Goffman's [1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall] theory of stigma as an intellectual scaffold to help understand the social meaning of HIV/AIDS stigma from People Living with HIV/AIDS. The study adopts a qualitative approach because of its appropriateness for unravelling subjective phenomena such as the experiences of HIV/AIDS stigma. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 HIV-positive employees of a retailing company located in the Western Cape province of South Africa who volunteered to participate in the study. The participants with the discreditable stigma internalised society's prejudice towards those living with the virus. As a result, the participants relied on self-isolation and social withdrawal to cope with enacted stigma. Managing information about one's status and deciding whether, who, when, etc., to tell are crucial questions. The participants feared being devalued by family, friends, co-workers and the community. In concurrence with Goffman [1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall] the HIV/AIDS stigma is seen as about relationships. PMID:24980478

  2. The multidimensional nature of HIV stigma: evidence from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Maria A; Arias, Rosario; Figueroa, Maria E

    2017-03-01

    HIV stigma continues to be a major challenge to addressing HIV/AIDS in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique. This paper explores the multidimensional nature of HIV stigma through the thematic analysis of five qualitative studies conducted in high HIV prevalence provinces in Mozambique between 2009 and 2012. These studies included 23 interviews with people living with HIV (PLHIV) (10 women and 13 men); 6 focus groups with 32 peer educators (24 women and 8 men) working for community-based organisations (CBOs) providing services to PLHIV; 17 focus groups with community members (72 men and 70 women); 6 interviews (4 women and 2 men) with people who had family members living with HIV/AIDS; 24 focus groups (12 with men and 12 with women) and 6 interviews with couples. Our findings indicate that HIV stigma is a barrier to HIV testing and counselling, status disclosure, partner notification, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and adherence, and that moral stigma seems to be more common than physical stigma. Additionally, the findings highlight that HIV stigma is a dynamic social process that is conceptualised as being tied to personal responsibility. To effectively diminish HIV stigma in Mozambique, future interventions should address moral stigma and re-conceptualise HIV as a chronic disease.

  3. Managing stigma in adolescent HIV: silence, secrets and sanctioned spaces.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sarah J; Chapman, Gwenneth E; Cadell, Susan

    2011-03-01

    HIV is conceived as a disease that combines stigma elements of perceived contagion and socially undesirable behaviours. Drawing on in-depth interviews with professional adolescent service providers from Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA, this paper explores HIV stigma and stigma management in the lives of HIV-positive young people. Findings elucidate how additional layers of stigma relating to 'adolescent rights' and 'embodied innocence' are added to HIV stigma as it is more usually conceived. This study suggests that managing this stigma entails managing silence in the context of the social worlds of the young person, the family and the service provider. Silence emerged as a key theme in the participant narratives and was embedded in the descriptions of young people's lived experiences. Crucially, silence is a product of oppression and inequity but is also a tool for resistance. Silence defends secrets and exists in the spaces, both physical and social, that are created for them in order to manage the stigma in young people's lives. Silences associated with HIV therefore need to be exposed if we are to better understand what HIV truly means to seropositive young people and how 'silences' may minimise or exacerbate their experience of HIV stigma inside and outside the context of programmes.

  4. Can AIDS stigma be reduced to poverty stigma? Exploring Zimbabwean children's representations of poverty and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Mupambireyi, Z; Madanhire, C; Robertson, L; Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective We use children's drawings to investigate social stigmatization of AIDS-affected and poverty-affected children by their peers, in the light of suggestions that the stigmatization of AIDS-affected children might derive more from the poverty experienced by these children than from their association with AIDS. Methods A qualitative study, in rural Zimbabwe, used draw-and-write techniques to elicit children's (10–12 years) representations of AIDS-affected children (n= 30) and poverty-affected children (n= 33) in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Results Representations of children affected by AIDS and by poverty differed significantly. The main problems facing AIDS-affected children were said to be the psychosocial humiliations of AIDS stigma and children's distress about sick relatives. Contrastingly, poverty-affected children were depicted as suffering from physical and material neglect and deprivation. Children affected by AIDS were described as caregivers of parents whom illness prevented from working. This translated into admiration and respect for children's active contribution to household survival. Poverty-affected children were often portrayed as more passive victims of their guardians' inability or unwillingness to work or to prioritize their children's needs, with these children having fewer opportunities to exercise agency in response to their plight. Conclusions The nature of children's stigmatization of their AIDS-affected peers may often be quite distinct from poverty stigma, in relation to the nature of suffering (primarily psychosocial and material respectively), the opportunities for agency offered by each affliction, and the opportunities each condition offers for affected children to earn the respect of their peers and community. We conclude that the particular nature of AIDS stigma offers greater opportunities for stigma reduction than poverty stigma. PMID:21985490

  5. Asthma episodes: stigma, children, and Hollywood films.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cindy Dell

    2012-03-01

    Asthma has been systematically stigmatized in Hollywood feature films, including films seen by children. Through content analysis of 66 movies containing one or more scenes showing asthma, and through informant interviews with a dozen U.S. children about representative scenes, the study explores how stigmatizing portrayals are interpreted, accepted, or resisted. Children suffering from asthma actively counterargued with incriminating excerpts, but in some respects their healthy friends were less critical. Overall, children viewed stigmatizing scenes in terms of the social interaction and the social ethics entailed. They did not scrutinize the characters for damaged selfhood, per se, but dwelled on the social processes out of which stigma is erected.

  6. [Bipolar disorders and self-stigma].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lepouriel, H

    2015-09-16

    Despite wide media coverage in recent years, the stigmatization of people with bipolar disorder still exists. Bipolar people also have their own tendency to self-stigmatize that is to integrate their beliefs, prejudices and stigmatizing behaviors. The consequences are important: shame, guilt, withdrawal and renunciation to lead one's own life according to personal values increasing therefore the risk of mood relapses. Self-stigma is rarely assessed in clinical practice and few strategies have been designed to face them efficiently. Recognizing self-stigmatizing beliefs and challenging them are the first steps of this vast endeavour.

  7. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Brohan, Elaine; Kassam, Aliya; Lewis-Holmes, Elanor

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i) direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii) social marketing at the population level. PMID:18405393

  8. Stroke-related stigma among West Africans: Patterns and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Nichols, Michelle; Qanungo, Suparna; Teklehaimanot, Abeba; Singh, Arti; Mensah, Nathaniel; Saulson, Raelle; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ezinne, Uvere; Owolabi, Mayowa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-04-15

    Disability-adjusted life-years lost after stroke in Low & Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is almost seven times those lost in High-income countries. Although individuals living with chronic neurological and mental disorders are prone to stigma, there is a striking paucity of literature on stroke-related stigma particularly from LMICs. To assess the prevalence, severity, determinants and psycho-social consequences of stigma among LMIC stroke survivors. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 200 consecutive stroke survivors attending a neurology clinic in a tertiary medical center in Ghana. The validated 8-Item Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI-8) questionnaire was administered to study participants to assess internalized and enacted domains of stigma at the personal dimension with further adaptation to capture family and community stigma experienced by stroke participants. Responses on the SSCI-8 were scored from 1 to 5 for each item, where 1=never, 2=rarely, 3=sometimes, 4=often and 5=always with a score range of 8-40. Demographic and clinical data on stroke type and severity as well as depression and Health-Related Quality of Life indicators were also collected. Predictors of stroke-related stigma were assessed using Linear Models (GLM) via Proc GENMOD in SAS 9.4. 105 (52.5%) subjects recruited were males and the mean±SD age of stroke survivors in this survey was 62.0±14.4years. Mean SSCI-8 score was highest for personal stigma (13.7±5.7), which was significantly higher than family stigma (11.9±4.6; p=0.0005) and social/community stigma (11.4±4.4; p<0.0001). Approximately 80% of the cohort reported experiencing mild-to-moderate degrees of stigma. A graded increase in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale was observed across the three categories. Living in an urban setting was associated with higher SSCI-8 scores. Moreover, stroke subjects with more

  9. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520

  10. The infection of bad company: stigma by association.

    PubMed

    Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Monroe, Andrew E

    2012-02-01

    Stigma by association represents the process through which the companions of stigmatized persons are discredited. Conduits for stigma by association range from the strong and enduring bonds of kinship to the arbitrary occasions of being seen in the company of someone who is stigmatized. A theoretical model is proposed in which both deliberative and spontaneous processes result in the spread of stigma to the companions of stigmatized persons. Support for this model was found across 3 studies that examined how explicit and implicit stigma-relevant attitudes moderate stigma-by-association effects. When social relationships were meaningful (e.g., kinship), both explicit and implicit attitudes moderated the devaluation of stigmatized persons' companions. On the other hand, when social relationships appeared coincidental only implicit attitudes moderated companion devaluation.

  11. Exploring the Concept of HIV-Related Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; De Santis, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND HIV infection is a chronic, manageable illness. Despite advances in the care and treatment of people living with HIV infection, HIV-related stigma remains a challenge to HIV testing, care, and prevention. Numerous studies have documented the impact of HIV-related stigma among various groups of people living with HIV infection, but the concept of HIV-related stigma remains unclear. PURPOSE Concept exploration of HIV-related stigma via an integrative literature review was conducted in order to examine the existing knowledge base of this concept. METHODS Search engines were employed to review the existing knowledge base of this concept. CONCLUSION After the integrative literature review, an analysis of HIV-related stigma emerged. Implications for future concept analysis, research, and practice are included. PMID:22861652

  12. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  13. AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

  14. Stigma Management in Normal-Stigmatized Interactions: Test of the Disclosure Hypothesis and a Model of Stigma Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibold, David R.; Thompson, Teresa L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the efficacy of disclosure as a stigma management strategy in normal-stigmatized interactions. Path analysis of the data indicates a process leading from uncertainty, tension, and attraction to acceptance/rejection, as expected. Findings are discussed in terms of stigma attributions and relational development. (JMF)

  15. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  16. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  17. Stigma towards PLWHA: The Role of Internalized Homosexual Stigma in Latino Gay/Bisexual Male and Transgender Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection. PMID:23631713

  18. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. Background HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. Design The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. Methods This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18–49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Results Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. Conclusions The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels

  19. Perceived stigma in Korean adolescents with epilepsy: Effects of knowledge about epilepsy and maternal perception of stigma.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Uk; Lee, Sang-Ahm; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Heung-Dong

    2015-01-01

    There has been little research on whether the knowledge that adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) or their family have about the condition reduces their perception of stigma. In this study we determine the relation between AWE's perceived stigma of, and knowledge about, epilepsy and maternal perception of stigma. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study involving AWE and their mothers from 25 secondary or tertiary hospitals in Korea. The level of knowledge about epilepsy was assessed using 34 medical items of the Epilepsy Knowledge Profile-General (EKP-M). Additional questionnaires included the Child Stigma Scale, Parent Stigma Scale, and the Maternal Disclosure Management Scale. A total of 243 AWE and their mothers were included. The mean EKP-M score was 20.7 (range, 12-31) for AWE and 22.0 (range, 11-31) for their mothers. AWE and mothers had a neutral perception of stigma on average, but the maternal concealment behavior was high. Multiple linear regression indicated that AWE's knowledge about epilepsy was significantly related to their perception of stigma. Unexpectedly, AWE with a low level of knowledge reported a higher perception of stigma than those with a very low level of knowledge (β=0.280, p=0.040). In addition, higher maternal concealment behavior (β=0.070, p=0.002) and receiving polytherapy (β=0.240, p=0.046) were independent factors predicting higher perception of stigma in AWE. The knowledge that the AWE had about their epilepsy, maternal concealment behavior, and receiving polytherapy were significantly related to the AWE's perception of stigma. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

  1. Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

  2. My secret: the social meaning of HIV/AIDS stigma.

    PubMed

    Judgeo, N; Moalusi, K P

    2014-01-01

    This study uses Goffman's [1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall] theory of stigma as an intellectual scaffold to help understand the social meaning of HIV/AIDS stigma from People Living with HIV/AIDS. The study adopts a qualitative approach because of its appropriateness for unravelling subjective phenomena such as the experiences of HIV/AIDS stigma. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 HIV-positive employees of a retailing company located in the Western Cape province of South Africa who volunteered to participate in the study. The participants with the discreditable stigma internalised society's prejudice towards those living with the virus. As a result, the participants relied on self-isolation and social withdrawal to cope with enacted stigma. Managing information about one's status and deciding whether, who, when, etc., to tell are crucial questions. The participants feared being devalued by family, friends, co-workers and the community. In concurrence with Goffman [1963], the HIV/AIDS stigma is seen as about relationships.

  3. Stakeholder Perspectives on the Stigma of Suicide Attempt Survivors.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Lindsay L; Corrigan, Patrick W; Al-Khouja, Maya A

    2017-03-01

    Past scholarly efforts to describe and measure the stigma surrounding suicide have largely viewed suicide stigma from the perspective of the general public. In the spirit of community-based participatory research (CBPR), the current study brought together a diverse stakeholder team to qualitatively investigate the suicide stigma as experienced by those most intimately affected by suicide. Seven focus groups (n = 62) were conducted with suicide attempt survivors, family members of those who died by suicide, and suicide loss therapists. Themes were derived for stereotypes (n = 30), prejudice (n = 3), and discrimination (n = 4). People who attempted suicide were seen as attention-seeking, selfish, incompetent, emotionally weak, and immoral. Participants described personal experiences of prejudice and discrimination, including those with health professionals. Participants experienced public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. Analyses reveal that the stigma of suicide shares similarities with stereotypes of mental illness, but also includes some important differences. Attempt survivors may be subject to double stigma, which impedes recovery and access to care.

  4. HIV in Harare: the role and relevance of social stigma.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2014-01-01

    HIV is a significant social, political and economic problem in Zimbabwe. However, few researchers have explored peoples' experiences of living with HIV in that country. Drawing on 60 qualitative interviews conducted with Zimbabweans living in Harare in 2010, this paper focuses on how people from four different urban communities cope with HIV-related social stigma. To provide theoretical context to this issue, we utilised the ideas of Erving Goffman for exploring the individual experience of stigma and the concept of structural violence to understand stigma as a social phenomenon. This paper considers the relevance and role of stigma in the context of a country undergoing significant social, political and economic crisis. We investigated the strategies adopted by the Zimbabwean state and the influence of traditional and religious interpretations to appreciate the historical roots of HIV-related stigma. We took into account the ways in which the articulation of HIV with gender has caused women to experience stigma differently than men, and more intensely, and how grassroots activism and biomedical technologies have transformed the experience of stigma.

  5. Depression in lung cancer patients: the role of perceived stigma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Brian D; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has shown that lung cancer patients are at an increased risk for depressive symptomatology; however, little is known about the factors contributing to depression in these patients. This study focused on the possible association between perceived stigma related to a lung cancer diagnosis and depressive symptomatology. It was hypothesized that greater perceived stigma would be related to greater depressive symptomatology and that perceived stigma would account for variance in depressive symptomatology above and beyond that accounted for by relevant clinical, demographic, and psychosocial variables. A sample of 95 participants receiving chemotherapy for stage II-IV non-small cell lung cancer was recruited during routine outpatient chemotherapy visits. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and self-report measures assessing perceived stigma, depressive symptomatology, and other psychosocial variables. A medical chart review was conducted to assess clinical factors. As hypothesized, there was a positive association between perceived stigma and depressive symptomatology, r = 0.46, p<0.001. Perceived stigma also accounted for significant unique variance in depressive symptomatology above and beyond that accounted for by relevant demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, β = 0.19, p<0.05. Future research should aim to replicate and extend these findings in longitudinal studies and explore whether lung cancer patients' depressive symptomatology can be ameliorated by targeting perceived stigma. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Media depictions of health topics: challenge and stigma formats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article explored the notion that media depictions of health concerns come in one of two formats: challenge and stigma. After explicating the five features that should appear in challenge format and the seven features of stigma formats, we analyzed the content of health messages in magazines, brochures, and posters (n = 75) in a metropolitan area. The results of a two-factor confirmatory factor model showed that the five suggested features for challenge formats did, indeed, appear together (alpha = .76), and the seven features for stigma formats, also, appeared together (alpha = .90), and showed no residual relationship. In other words, the results suggest that media depictions of health topics appear in either challenge or stigma formats (r = - .87). Health issues appearing in magazine advertisements and articles presented messages in challenge formats, while brochures and posters from largely nonprofit and government groups depicted health issues in stigma formats. Some health topics appeared most often in challenge formats (including cancer, heart disease, and scoliosis), while others appeared in stigma formats (including tuberculosis, hepatitis, smoking, and sexually transmitted diseases [STDs]). Findings suggest that media depictions of health differ, and the implications of stigma and challenge formats are discussed.

  7. Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-06-01

    For persons with mental illness, stigma diminishes employment and independent living opportunities as well as participation in psychiatric care. Public stigma interventions have sought to ameliorate these consequences. Evaluation of anti-stigma programs' impact is typically accomplished with self-report questionnaires. However, cultural mores encourage endorsement of answers that are socially preferred rather than one's true belief. This problem, social desirability, has been circumvented through development of faux knowledge tests (KTs) (i.e., Error-Choice Tests); written to assess prejudice. Our KT uses error-choice test methodology to assess stigmatizing attitudes. Test content was derived from review of typical KTs for façade reinforcement. Answer endorsement suggests bias or stigma; such determinations were based on the empirical literature. KT psychometrics were examined in samples of college students, community members and mental health providers and consumers. Test-retest reliability ranged from fair (0.50) to good (0.70). Construct validity analyses of public stigma indicated a positive relationship with the Attribution Questionnaire and inverse relationships with Self-Determination and Empowerment Scales. No significant relationships were observed with self-stigma measures (recovery, empowerment). This psychometric evaluation study suggests that a self-administered questionnaire may circumvent social desirability and have merit as a stigma measurement tool.

  8. Tuberculosis stigma and perceptions in the US-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Moya, Eva M; Lusk, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    To examine the experiences and perspectives on the disease and stigma from the vantage point of the persons affected by TB in El Paso, Texas, and Juárez, México to inform research on health-related stigma and interventions. Semi-structured interviews to study TB-related stigma and the impact on access and health-seeking behaviors with 30 Mexican-origin adults (18 years and older) undergoing TB treatment. Barriers to accessing health services for TB; emotional distress due to their deteriorated physical and emotional condition; reactions ranging from depression, sadness; doubt, anger, and fear of rejection; distancing, fear of contagion, stigma, and feeling of discriminated against, and isolation from loved ones were reported. Stigma associated with TB is a barrier to health care access and to quality of life in tuberculosis management. Stigma adversely shapes the experience of treatment and recovery. Stigma is not a naturally occurring phenomenon, but something created by people and as such it can be "un-done" by those people as part of a collective which comprises society.

  9. Adaptation of the HIV Stigma Scale in Spaniards with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria José; Molero, Fernando; Holgado, Francisco Pablo; Ubillos, Silvia

    2015-09-15

    The primary goal of this study was to adapt Berger, Ferrans, & Lahley (2001) HIV Stigma Scale in Spain, using Bunn, Solomon, Miller, & Forehand (2007) version. A second goal assessed whether the four-factor structure of the adapted scale could be explained by two higher-order dimensions, perceived external stigma and internalized stigma. A first qualitative study (N = 40 people with HIV, aged 28-59) was used to adapt the items and test content validity. A second quantitative study analyzed construct and criterion validity. In this study participants were 557 people with HIV, aged 18-76. The adapted HIV Stigma Scale for use in Spain (HSSS) showed a good internal consistency (α = .88) and good construct validity. Confirmatory Factor Analyses yielded a first-order, four-factor structure and a higher-order, bidimensional structure with the two expected factors (RMSEA = .051, 90% CI [.046, .056]; RMR = .073; GFI = .96; AGFI = .96; CFI = .98). Negative relations were found between stigma and quality of life (r = -.39; p < .01), self-efficacy to cope with stigma (r = -.50; p < .01) and the degree of HIV status disclosure (r = -.35; p < .01). Moreover, the people who had suffered AIDS-related opportunistic infections had a higher score in the Perceived External Stigma dimension than those who had not suffered them, t (493) = 3.02, p = .003, d = 0.26.

  10. Stigma Perceived by Women Following Surgery for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Lopamudra; Datta, Soumitra Shankar; Agrawal, Sanjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Sanjoy; Ahmed, Rosina

    2017-01-01

    Women undergoing treatment for breast cancer often have psychological morbidity and body image difficulties. The risk factors for increased levels of stigma in women with breast cancer have not been adequately studied. This study aimed at investigating the associations of high levels of stigma in women with breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a comprehensive cancer center in India and recruited women (n = 134) undergoing surgical treatment for breast cancer. Body image difficulties, including stigma and affective symptoms, were quantified, alongside disease- and treatment-related variables using standardized questionnaires. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was performed to find the risk factors of high levels of stigma related to body image. In the univariate analysis, high levels of stigma were associated with lesser educational attainment (odds ratio [OR] =2.92, confidence interval [CI] 1.25-6.8, P = 0.01), breast conservation surgery (BCS) as opposed to mastectomy (OR = 4.78, CI 2.07-11.03, P < 0.001), having an anxiety disorder (OR = 2.4, CI 1.09-5.33, P = 0.03), and depression (OR = 3.08, CI 1.37-6.89, P < 0.01). On multivariate logistic regression, with stigma as the dependent variable, being less educated (adjusted OR [AOR] 3.08, CI 1.18-8.04, P = 0.02) and opting for BCS (AOR 6.12, CI 2.41-15.5, P < 0.001) were associated with higher stigma. Women with breast cancer should be screened for distress and stigma. Women opting for BCS may still have unmet emotional needs on completion of surgery and should have access to psychological interventions to address stigma, affective symptoms, and body image problems.

  11. The role of stigmas in mental health: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Idemudia, Erhabor S; Matamela, Nyambeni A

    2012-06-26

    HIV (Human immunodeficiency Virus), AIDS and cancer are feared terminal diseases. HIV sufferers are known to be stigmatized. The stigma surrounding cancer, unfortunately, is hardly the focus of psychological investigations, and hence this provoked the need to compare the stigma suffered by both groups, and how these have impacted on the psychological functioning of the disease sufferer. The study had two main objectives, firstly, to explore whether HIV patients suffer more stigma than cancer patients or not, and secondly, to understand the most common type of stigma and if stigma is associated with psychopathology. Psychopathology is measured with GHQ-28 which evaluates somatic complaints, anxiety, depression and social dysfunction. The study was a survey, and descriptive in nature, and anchored on two hypotheses: Firstly, that HIV patients will experience more stigmas than cancer patients and consequently report more psychological dysfunctions. Secondly that there will be a significant difference between types of stigma and the symptoms reported about them. Data were collected from a conveniently sampled group of 50 HIV positive patients and another 50 patients diagnosed with cancer, in two clinics and a hospital around the Gauteng Province. The majority of the participants were females, numbering 62 (62, 0%), whilst 38 (38.0%) were males. The age of the respondents ranged from 20-73 years with a mean age of 44.4 years (s.d. = 11.6). Results revealed a significant main effect for enacted stigma F = (1.98), = 17.629, p < .001 and anxiety F = (1.98) = 5.750, p < .001. A post hoc Bonferroni also showed that HIV patients had a higher mean score of enacted stigma (X-bar = 4.22) than cancer patients (X-bar = 1.28) and also HIV patients reported more anxiety (X-bar = 8.81) than cancer patients (X-bar = 6.42). Enacted stigma significantly influenced the GHQ Total (F = (98) = 1.700, p < .05); anxiety (F = (97) = 2.578, p < .004); and depression (F = (97) = 3.390 p < .001

  12. The Effects and Stigma of Mental Illness in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarıkoç, Gamze; Öz, Fatma

    2016-04-01

    This study was planned to determine internalized stigma of patients who were monitored in the psychiatry clinics due to mental problems. It was determined that there was significant difference between the patients' mean internalized stigma total scores between subscale scores and their gender, job, the place that the patient was raised in, educational status, working status, income level, the period spent after the diagnosis, hospitalization status, the hospital monitoring the patient and the diagnosis. It is suggested that counseling services should be planned in order to identify negative impact of the factors that influence coping with internalized stigma.

  13. Parents with serious mental illness: differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Maristán stigma scale: a standardized international measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and other psychoses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with schizophrenia face prejudice and discrimination from a number of sources including professionals and families. The degree of stigma perceived and experienced varies across cultures and communities. We aimed to develop a cross-cultural measure of the stigma perceived by people with schizophrenia. Method Items for the scale were developed from qualitative group interviews with people with schizophrenia in six countries. The scale was then applied in face-to-face interviews with 164 participants, 103 of which were repeated after 30 days. Principal Axis Factoring and Promax rotation evaluated the structure of the scale; Horn’s parallel combined with bootstrapping determined the number of factors; and intra-class correlation assessed test-retest reliability. Results The final scale has 31 items and four factors: informal social networks, socio-institutional, health professionals and self-stigma. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.84 for the Factor 1; 0.81 for Factor 2; 0.74 for Factor 3, and 0.75 for Factor 4. Correlation matrix among factors revealed that most were in the moderate range [0.31-0.49], with the strongest occurring between perception of stigma in the informal network and self-stigma and there was also a weaker correlation between stigma from health professionals and self-stigma. Test-retest reliability was highest for informal networks [ICC 0.76 [0.67 -0.83

  15. Homophobia, stigma and HIV in Jamaican prisons

    PubMed Central

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma, and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica, and is an important issue to address in other low and middle income post-colonialist societies. PMID:20972916

  16. Homophobia, stigma and HIV in Jamaican prisons.

    PubMed

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2011-02-01

    Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.

  17. World survey of mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton

    2016-01-15

    To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stigma Sensitivity and the Duration of Temporary Closure Are Affected by Pollinator Identity in Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae), a Species with Bilobed Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-Fang; Ye, Zhong-Ming; Amboka, Grace M.; Wang, Qing-Feng; Yang, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    A sensitive bilobed stigma is thought to assure reproduction, avoid selfing and promote outcrossing. In addition, it may also play a role in pollinator selection since only pollinators with the appropriate body size can trigger this mechanism. However, no experimental study has investigated how the sensitive stigma responds to different pollinators and its potential effects on pollination. Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae), a plant with a bilobed stigma was studied to investigate the relationship between stigma behaviors and its multiple insect pollinators. The reaction time of stigma closure after touched, duration of temporary closure, and factors determining permanent closure of the stigma were studied when flowers were exposed to different visitors and conducted with hand pollination. Manual stimulation was also used to detect the potential differences in stigmas when touched with different degrees of external forces. Results indicated that, compared to pollinators with a small body size, larger pollinators transferred more pollen grains to the stigma, causing a rapid stigma response and resulting in a higher percentage of permanent closures. Duration of temporary closure was negatively correlated with the speed of stigma closure; a stigma that closed more rapidly reopened more slowly. Manual stimulation showed that reaction time of stigma closure was likely a response to external mechanical forces. Hand pollination treatments revealed that the permanent closure of a stigma was determined by the size of stigmatic pollen load. For large pollinators, the speedy reaction of the stigma might help to reduce pollen loss, enhance pollen germination and avoid obstructing pollen export. Stigmas showed low sensitivity when touched by inferior pollinators, which may have increased the possibility of pollen deposition by subsequent visits. Therefore, the stigma behavior in M. miquelii is likely a mechanism of pollinator selection to maximize pollination success. PMID:28539934

  19. Stigma as a Fundamental Cause of Population Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.

    2013-01-01

    Bodies of research pertaining to specific stigmatized statuses have typically developed in separate domains and have focused on single outcomes at 1 level of analysis, thereby obscuring the full significance of stigma as a fundamental driver of population health. Here we provide illustrative evidence on the health consequences of stigma and present a conceptual framework describing the psychological and structural pathways through which stigma influences health. Because of its pervasiveness, its disruption of multiple life domains (e.g., resources, social relationships, and coping behaviors), and its corrosive impact on the health of populations, stigma should be considered alongside the other major organizing concepts for research on social determinants of population health. PMID:23488505

  20. CalMHSA Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Online Resources

    PubMed Central

    Cerully, Jennifer L.; Kase, Courtney Ann; Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Yu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reports on an evaluation of online resources developed by the California Mental Health Services Authority's stigma and discrimination reduction initiative program partners and provides an overview of these resources and the use of partner websites. PMID:28083401

  1. Ethnic stigma, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated that ethnic-minority children reported higher stigma awareness than European American children. For all children, stigma awareness was associated with higher academic anxiety and lower intrinsic motivation. Despite these associations, ethnic-minority children reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation than their European American peers. A significant portion of the higher intrinsic motivation among Dominican students was associated with their higher levels of school belonging, suggesting that supportive school environments may be important sources of intrinsic motivation among some ethnic-minority children.

  2. Understanding HIV-related stigma among Indonesian nurses.

    PubMed

    Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J; Levy, Judith; Norr, Kathleen F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates widespread stigmatization of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia. Such attitudes among health care workers could impede the country's policies for effective diagnosis and medical treatment of PLWH. Nonetheless, research to guide interventions to reduce stigma in health care settings is lacking. Also, the contributions of workplace, religion, and HIV knowledge to nurses' HIV-related stigma are poorly understood. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe factors associated with nurses' stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH. Four hundred nurses recruited from four hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia, were surveyed using the Nurse AIDS Attitude Scale to measure stigma. Stigmatizing attitudes were significantly predicted by education, HIV training, perceived workplace stigma, religiosity, Islamic religious identification, and affiliation with the Islamic hospital. HIV knowledge was not a significant predictor of stigmatizing attitudes. Organization changes fostering workplace diversity are likely to substantially reduce stigmatizing attitudes in nurses. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding HIV-related stigma among Indonesian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J.; Levy, Judith; Norr, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates widespread stigmatization of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia. Such attitudes among health care workers could impede the country’s policies for effective diagnosis and medical treatment of PLWH. Nonetheless, research to guide interventions to reduce stigma in health care settings is lacking. Also, the contributions of workplace, religion, and HIV knowledge to nurses’ HIV-related stigma are poorly understood. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe factors associated with nurses’ stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH. Four hundred nurses recruited from 4 hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia, were surveyed using the Nurse AIDS Attitude Scale (NAAS) to measure stigma. Stigmatizing attitudes were significantly predicted by education, HIV training, perceived workplace stigma, religiosity, Islamic religious identification, and affiliation with the Islamic hospital. HIV knowledge was not a significant predictor of stigmatizing attitudes. Organization changes fostering workplace diversity are likely to substantially reduce stigmatizing attitudes in nurses. PMID:24759060

  4. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gillen-O’Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African-American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6–11) and diverse (African-American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European-American) students. Results indicated that ethnic-minority children reported higher stigma awareness than European-American children. For all children, stigma awareness was associated with higher academic anxiety and lower intrinsic motivation. Despite these associations, ethnic-minority children reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation than their European-American peers. A significant portion of the higher intrinsic motivation among Dominican students was associated with their higher levels of school belonging, suggesting that supportive school environments may be important sources of intrinsic motivation among some ethnic-minority children. PMID:21883152

  5. The stigma of being a long-term foster carer.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Stacy L; Jackson, Debra; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Wilkes, Lesley

    2012-05-01

    Stigma is a powerful social phenomenon with insidious health implications. Understanding stigma as it applies to various populations is imperative for nurses as it enables nurses to enhance individual patient care and nurses are well positioned to influence both social and health care policies which may exacerbate the experience of stigma. This article is a report of a study to explore the experiences of women who provide long-term foster care. Interviews were conducted with 20 women who provided long-term foster care in Australia. Data were coded according to the components of stigma described by Link and Phelan (2001). Findings reveal participants rejected the label of foster carer to avoid the negative stereotype. When unable to conceal their foster carer label, participants experienced social isolation and status loss. Moreover, participants felt marginalized and disempowered within the governing systems.

  6. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use.

  7. Structural Stigma and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2000–2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931

  8. HIV and tuberculosis: the construction and management of double stigma.

    PubMed

    Daftary, Amrita

    2012-05-01

    Mitigation of the tuberculosis (TB) and HIV syndemic is undermined by critical clinical, operational and social challenges of which the social aspects have been least explored. This paper examines the lived experience of TB disease and HIV from the perspective of affected individuals to analyze how they may think about their dual illness; how they understand their illness with TB in relation to HIV, and vice versa; and how they characterize their (stigmatized) experiences in the context of their perceptions and identities. From February-August 2009, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 adults with HIV and TB disease at three ambulatory clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Subjective meanings of illness experience were analyzed using modified grounded-theory. Emergent themes on illness perception and disclosure revealed how patients constructed dichotomous identities associated with TB and HIV through social constructs of moral susceptibility and (im)permanence. Each identity was associated with relatively disparate degrees of stigma as a product of labeling, negative stereotyping and discrimination. HIV bore the least desirable identity and invoked the greatest stigma. However, the confluence of the two epidemics rendered TB symbolic and symptomatic of HIV, and enhanced the visibility of AIDS. Dual illness thus introduced a paradox to patients' identity constructions, and produced a unique, overlapping double stigma. This facilitated new forms of stigma against TB, and aggravated existing stigma against HIV. It also conferred visibility to some forms of extra-pulmonary TB. Patients managed their double stigmas through novel forms of information sharing that relied on segregating their dual illness identities. Patients deflected the dominant stigma of HIV through concurrent processes of HIV 'othering' - their symbolic distancing from persons affected by HIV, and 'covering' - their selective disclosure of illness (and identity associated

  9. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder) according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S]) and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]). Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, the severity of the disorder rated by a psychiatrist, and the difference between the objective rating and the subjective rating of the severity of the disorder. Conclusion Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, who have undergone a higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, who dispose of a higher severity of the disorder and show a higher discrepancy between their rating of the severity and the psychiatric rating, showed a greater degree of self-stigma. The management of

  10. Impact of Perceived Stigma on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Tiffany H.; Keefer, Laurie; Leonhard, Christoph; Nealon-Woods, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background Perceived stigma has been linked to disease outcome in several chronic illnesses. Stigmatization of illness often leads to increased psychological distress and poorer quality of life. While body stigma has been identified as a specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient concern, no study to date has systematically investigated the presence of stigma in IBD or its effects on disease course and management. Methods Participants were recruited online and through the Illinois chapter of the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America. A screening measure was used to identify an established IBD diagnosis. Patients completed the Perceived Stigma Scale in IBS, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Rating Form of IBD Patient Concerns. Results A total of 211 patients (156 CD, 55 UC) with a confirmed diagnosis for a minimum of 6 months completed the study. Eighty-four percent of participants reported perceived stigma. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that perceived stigma accounted for 10%–22% of the variance in health-related quality of life scores, 4%–16% for psychological distress, 5% for medication adherence, 19% for self-esteem, and 8% for self-efficacy. Effect sizes were small, but comparable with more traditionally evaluated patient variables. Conclusions The majority of IBD patients report some perceived stigmatization. These results suggest that perceived stigma is a significant predictor of poorer outcomes in patients with IBD when controlling for illness and demographic variables. Perceived stigma is a potentially important psychosocial factor in IBD patient care and warrants further investigation. PMID:19180581

  11. Consequences of perceived stigma among patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Vaughn-Sandler, Valerie; Sherman, Carey; Aronsohn, Andrew; Volk, Michael L

    2014-03-01

    Among patients with diseases such as HIV, cancer and mental illness, perceived stigma is common and is linked to quality of life (QOL), depression and healthcare-seeking behavior. We aimed to determine the prevalence and consequences of stigma in patients with cirrhosis. A survey was developed and mailed to 300 patients with cirrhosis from a variety of etiologies. Among the 149 respondents, stigma was measured using a composite of previously validated scales. Correlates of stigma were measured using an a priori theoretical construct in order to investigate hypothesized consequences such as impaired social support, depression and reduction in healthcare-seeking behavior. Eighty-nine percent of respondents chose "agree" or "strongly agree" for at least one of the 18 stigma-related questions, indicating they felt stigmatized in at least one aspect of their lives. Patient factors associated with more perceived stigma on multivariable linear regression included younger age (p = 0.008), and hepatitis C (p = 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.01) as the etiology of liver disease. Patients with higher levels of perceived stigma had less social support (r (2) = 0.898, p < 0.001), were less likely to seek medical care (r (2) = 0.108, p < 0.001), suffered from more depression (r (2) = 0.17 p < 0.001) and had worse QOL (r (2) = 0.175, p < 0.001). Perceived stigma is common among patients with cirrhosis, and is associated with adverse attitudes and behaviors such as decreased healthcare-seeking behavior. Healthcare providers need to be aware of these perceptions and their potential impact on patients' interaction with the medical system.

  12. Stigma experiences in bipolar patients: the impact upon functioning.

    PubMed

    Thomé, E S; Dargél, A A; Migliavacca, F M; Potter, W A; Jappur, D M C; Kapczinski, F; Ceresér, K M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of self-rated stigma and functioning in patients with bipolar disorder in South Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study. Sixty participants with bipolar disorder were recruited from an outpatient Bipolar Disorder Program. Experiences with and impact of perceived stigma were evaluated using the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences. Functional impairment was assessed with the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). Higher scores of self-perceived stigma were correlated with higher FAST scores, indicating more disability. After linear correlation analysis, current depressive symptoms, age at onset of treatment, age at diagnosis and functioning were correlated with self-perceived stigma. The study demonstrated a correlation between stigma and poor functioning in bipolar disorder. Perceived stigma is really important to individuals with bipolar disorder, both to how they experience their illness and to its results on functioning. Potential consequences of such results for mental health care professionals are discussed. Differential clinical features, sociocultural factors and the sample size limit the generalization of the present findings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    PubMed

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes.

  14. The Stigma of Reproductive Health Services Utilization by Unmarried Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fear of the stigma associated with reproductive health services has always been one of the reasons why youth and unmarried individuals avoid making use of such services. This stigma imposes a great deal of mental stress, fear, and depression on patients and causes delays in the diagnosis and treatment of their conditions. Objectives: This paper explores the concept of stigma in the context of the utilization of reproductive health services by unmarried women. Patients and Methods: This study is qualitative in nature. Purposive sampling was employed, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 unmarried women, five midwives, and two physicians. The data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results: Four main categories constituted the general concept concerning the stigma suffered by unmarried women for using reproductive health services, i.e., prevalent stereotypical thinking patterns in society, the fear of being judged and labeled by others, discrimination, and feeling ashamed of seeking reproductive health services. Conclusions: The findings indicated that society associates reproductive health issues with sexual relations, which in turn shapes the stigma and places limitations on unmarried women for using reproductive health services. Thus, while reproductive health services are planned and provided to unmarried women, strategies are demanded for overcoming this stigma. PMID:27247794

  15. Does stigma predict a belief in dealing with depression alone?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Crisp, Dimity A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen

    2011-08-01

    Community surveys indicate that many people with depressive disorders do not obtain professional help and that a preference for self-reliance is an important factor in this treatment gap. The current study sought to investigate whether stigmatising attitudes predict a belief in the helpfulness of dealing with depression without external assistance. Data were collected as part of a national household survey of 2000 Australian adults aged 18 years and above. Participants were presented with either a vignette depicting depression (n=1001) or a vignette depicting depression with suicidal ideation (n=999) and asked if it would be helpful or harmful to deal alone with the problem. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if belief in dealing with depression alone was predicted by personal stigma, perceived stigma or sociodemographic characteristics. Higher levels of personal stigma independently predicted a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with both depression and depression with suicidal ideation. By contrast, lower levels of perceived stigma were associated with a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with depression without suicidal ideation. Personal stigma is associated with a belief in the helpfulness of self-reliance in coping with depression. Public health programs should consider the possibility that a belief in self-reliance is partly attributable to stigma. The findings also point to the potential importance of providing evidence-based self-help programs for those who believe in self-care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mental Illness Stigma Expressed by Police to Police.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes mental health related stigma expressed by police to police using a newly developed 11-item Police Officer Stigma Scale and reports on the preliminary psychometric properties (factor structure and internal reliability) of this scale. The scale used an indirect measurement approach adapted from the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale. Five themes appropriate to police culture were adapted and six additional items were added. Responses were rated on a 5-point agreement scale with an additional don't know option. Data were collected from officers attending a mandatory workshop (90.5% response). Exploratory factor analysis showed the scale to be unidimensional and internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha was 0.82). The most endorsed items pertained to avoiding disclosure to a supervisor/manager or to a colleague (85% agreement), that most officers would expect discrimination at work (62%), and that most officers would not want a supervisor or manager who had a mental illness (62%). Findings highlight that (a) Police-to-police mental illness stigma may be a particularly strong feature of police cultures; (b) police should be a focus for targeted anti-stigma interventions; and (c) though further psychometric testing is needed, the Police Office Stigma Scale may provide important insights into the nature and functioning of police-to-police stigma in police cultures in future research.

  17. Components of Implicit Stigma against Mental Illness among Chinese Students

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

    2012-01-01

    Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

  18. Stigma as 'othering' among Christian theology students in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Breda, Adrian D

    2012-11-01

    HIV is a health and developmental crisis that has profoundly challenged the Christian church in sub-Saharan Africa. Responding to stigma and prejudice against HIV and people living with HIV and AIDS has been a major concern of theologians and Christian leaders. However, Christians themselves and the church as a community are equally prone to stigma and prejudice. The author contends that this stigma is grounded in the dynamic of 'othering', which, among Christians, takes on religious or theological overtones. Drawing on qualitative data from theology students in South Africa, the paper assembles a model of AIDS stigma as othering. The central story or axis of the model is the dynamic of othering, comprising three themes, viz. lack of empathic contact, disconnection, and distancing. There are three main dynamics that appear to contribute to or feed into othering, viz. emotions related to sexuality and HIV, theology of health and judgement, and contextualised knowledge of HIV. Finally, the model presents two primary results of othering, viz. disengagement from HIV through passivity and hopelessness, and prejudice against those living with HIV. The paper endeavours to reveal the possible biblical roots of AIDS stigma. Through this, the deep violence embedded in such stigma is exposed and contrasted with a theology of inclusiveness and engagement.

  19. 'This is a natural process': managing menstrual stigma in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Mary; Menger, Lauren M; Kaufman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual stigma has been demonstrated in many societies. However, there is little research on menstrual attitudes in South Asia, despite religiously-based menstrual restrictions imposed on women. To understand menstrual stigma in this context, we conducted qualitative research with women in Nepal. Nepali Hinduism forbids menstruating women to enter a temple or kitchen, share a bed with a husband or touch a male relative. During menstruation, women are 'untouchable'. There has been virtually no research on how Nepali women make meaning of these practices. The current study employed focus groups and individual interviews to understand how some Nepali women experience menarche and menstrual stigma. We explored how women describe their experiences and the strategies they adopt to manage age-old stigma in a rapidly modernising society where they have multiple roles as workers, wives and mothers. Participants reported they experienced menarche with little preparation, which caused distress, and were subjected to ongoing stigmatisation as menstruating women. They described coping strategies to reduce the effects of this stigma. This study provides a unique perspective on coping with menstrual stigma in South Asia.

  20. On the self-stigma of mental illness: stages, disclosure, and strategies for change.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Rao, Deepa

    2012-08-01

    People with mental illness have long experienced prejudice and discrimination. Researchers have been able to study this phenomenon as stigma and have begun to examine ways of reducing this stigma. Public stigma is the most prominent form observed and studied, as it represents the prejudice and discrimination directed at a group by the larger population. Self-stigma occurs when people internalize these public attitudes and suffer numerous negative consequences as a result. In our article, we more fully define the concept of self-stigma and describe the negative consequences of self-stigma for people with mental illness. We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of disclosure in reducing the impact of stigma. In addition, we argue that a key to challenging self-stigma is to promote personal empowerment. Lastly, we discuss individual- and societal-level methods for reducing self-stigma, programs led by peers as well as those led by social service providers.

  1. Exploring Factors Associated with the Psychosocial Impact of Stigma Among People with Schizophrenia or Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Świtaj, Piotr; Chrostek, Anna; Grygiel, Paweł; Wciórka, Jacek; Anczewska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Stigmatization can exert a variety of pernicious effects on the lives of persons with mental illnesses. The purpose of this study was to explore factors related to the psychosocial impact of stigma among 229 people receiving psychiatric treatment: 123 with schizophrenia [International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10): F20] and 106 with affective disorders (ICD-10: F31-F33). In the whole sample, the factors most prominently associated with a greater impact of stigma on personal and family life were schizophrenia diagnosis, current inpatient treatment, actually experienced stigma and self-stigma. However, the patterns of predictors varied between the two diagnostic categories. For the schizophrenia group, only self-stigma significantly contributed to a stronger stigma impact. In the affective group, a more severe impact of stigma was significantly predicted by inpatient status and experienced stigma. Anti-stigma programs should address the specific features of stigmatization associated with various psychiatric diagnoses.

  2. Quality of life and self-stigma in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tang, I-Chen; Wu, Hui-Ching

    2012-12-01

    Recent mental illness stigma research has almost exclusively studied community and family responses to the stigmas of mental illness. Too little has been done to understand the current subjective experience of psychiatric patients. Our study explores the influence of self-stigma on the quality of life of mentally disabled people. Participating in the survey were 100 people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Using Ritsher's internalized stigma of mental illness scale, which incorporates alienation, stereotype endorsement, discrimination experience, social withdrawal, and social resistance subscales, along with the standard SF-12, helped us evaluate the subjective experience of mental illness stigma. According to our survey data, self-stigma correlates negatively with all of the quality of life measures except the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness subscale's 'stigma resistance', which did not correlate significantly. Improved stigma resistance requires an understanding of one's sociocultural background and a strong social network to provide the sense of comfort and security that enables a fulfilling life.

  3. On the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness: Stages, Disclosure, and Strategies for Change

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Rao, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    People with mental illness have long experienced prejudice and discrimination. Researchers have been able to study this phenomenon as stigma and have begun to examine ways of reducing this stigma. Public stigma is the most prominent form observed and studied, as it represents the prejudice and discrimination directed at a group by the larger population. Self-stigma occurs when people internalize these public attitudes and suffer numerous negative consequences as a result. In this article, we more fully define the concept of self-stigma and describe the negative consequences of self-stigma for people with mental illness. We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of disclosure in reducing the impact of stigma. In addition, we argue that a key to challenging self-stigma is to promote personal empowerment. Lastly, we discuss individual and societal level methods for reducing self-stigma, programs led by peers as well as those led by social service providers. PMID:22854028

  4. Stigma, Social Structure, and the Biomedical Framework: Exploring the Stigma Experiences of Inpatient Service Users in Two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2016-05-31

    The study discusses the stigma experiences of service users in mental health care, within the debate on the role of the biomedical framework for mental health care and power relations in society. Interview data of inpatient users (n = 42) and care providers (n = 43) from two Belgian psychiatric hospitals were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach: Findings offer insight into how stigma experiences are affected by social structure. Stigma seemed to be related to the relation between care providers and service users their social position. The concept "mental health literacy" is used to frame this finding. In paying attention to the specific cultural and normative context, which influences the relationship between mental health literacy and stigma, it is further possible to cast some light on the meaning of the biomedical model for the construction and maintenance of power relations in mental health care and broader society.

  5. Stigma rises despite antiretroviral roll-out: a longitudinal analysis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    Stigma is a recognised problem for effective prevention, treatment, and care of HIV/AIDS. However, few studies have measured changes in the magnitude and character of stigma over time. This paper provides the first quantitative evaluation in Africa of the changing nature of stigma and the potential determinants of these changes. More specifically, it evaluates the dynamic relationship between stigma and (1) increased personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS and (2) knowing people who died of AIDS. Panel survey data collected in Cape town 2003 and 2006 for 1074 young adults aged 14-22 years were used to evaluate changes in three distinct dimensions of stigma: behavioural intentions towards people living with HIV/AIDS; instrumental stigma; and symbolic stigma. Individual fixed effects regression models are used to evaluate factors that influence stigma over time. Each dimension of stigma increased in the population as a whole, and for all racial and gender sub-groups. Symbolic stigma increased the most, followed by instrumental stigma, while negative behavioural intentions showed a modest increase. Knowing someone who died of AIDS was significantly associated with an increase in instrumental stigma and symbolic stigma, while increased personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS was not significantly associated with any changes in stigma. Despite interventions, such as public-sector provision of antiretroviral treatment (which some hoped would have reduced stigma), stigma increased among a sample highly targeted with HIV-prevention messages. These findings emphasise that changes in stigma are difficult to predict and thus important to monitor. They also indicate the imperative for renewed efforts to reduce stigma, perhaps through interventions to weaken the association between HIV/AIDS and death, to reduce fear of HIV/AIDS, and to recast HIV as a chronic manageable disease.

  6. Managing Stigma Effectively: What Social Psychology and Social Neuroscience Can Teach Us.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James L; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family, community, or workplace; (2) ameliorating internalized stigma among patients; (3) conducting effective treatment from a stigmatized position due to prejudice from medical colleagues or patients' family members; and (4) facilitating patient treatment plans when stigma precludes engagement with mental health professionals. This curriculum addresses the need for educating trainees to manage stigma in clinical settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate changes in clinical practices and patient outcomes as a result of social neuroscience-based training on managing stigma.

  7. Predictors of personal, perceived and self-stigma towards anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Busby Grant, J; Bruce, C P; Batterham, P J

    2016-06-01

    Stigma towards individuals experiencing a mental illness is associated with a range of negative psychological, social and financial outcomes. Factors associated with stigma remain unclear; the relationship between stigma and various personal factors may depend on both the type of disorder being stigmatised and what type of stigma is assessed. Different forms of stigma include personal stigma (negative attitudes towards others), perceived stigma (perceived attitudes of others) and self-stigma (self-attribution of others' negative attitudes). Three hundred and fifty university students and members of the general public completed an online survey assessing contact with and knowledge of both depression and anxiety, age, gender, current depression and anxiety symptoms, and personal, perceived and self-stigma for both depression and anxiety. Greater contact with, and knowledge of that illness predicted lower personal stigma for both anxiety and depression. Participants with greater levels of current depression symptomatology and females, reported higher perceived stigma towards depression. Males reported higher personal stigma for anxiety. For both anxiety and depression, higher current symptomatology was associated with greater levels of self-stigma towards the illness. Findings confirm the role of contact and knowledge in personal stigma for both disorders, consistent with previous findings. This finding also supports evidence that interventions addressing these factors are associated with a decline in personal stigma. However, lack of relationship between contact with, and knowledge of a mental illness and perceived and self-stigma for either depression or anxiety suggests that these factors may not play a major role in perceived or self-stigma. The identification of symptomatology as a key factor associated with self-stigma for both anxiety and depression is significant, and has implications for community-wide interventions aiming to increase help-seeking behaviour

  8. Managing Stigma Effectively: What Social Psychology and Social Neuroscience Can Teach Us

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, James L.; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family, community, or workplace; (2) ameliorating internalized stigma among patients; (3) conducting effective treatment from a stigmatized position due to prejudice from medical colleagues or patients’ family members; and (4) facilitating patient treatment plans when stigma precludes engagement with mental health professionals. This curriculum addresses the need for educating trainees to manage stigma in clinical settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate changes in clinical practices and patient outcomes as a result of social neuroscience-based training on managing stigma. PMID:26162463

  9. Understanding the importance of "symbolic interaction stigma": How expectations about the reactions of others adds to the burden of mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce G; Wells, Jennifer; Phelan, Jo C; Yang, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Important components of stigma include imagining what others might think of a stigmatized status, anticipating what might transpire in an interaction with others, and rehearsing what one might do if something untoward occurs. These imagined relations are here called symbolic interaction stigma and can have an impact even if the internalization of negative stereotypes fails to occur. Concepts and measures that capture symbolic interaction stigma are introduced, and a preliminary assessment of their impact is provided. Four self-report measures of symbolic interaction stigma (perceived devaluation discrimination, anticipation of rejection, stigma consciousness, and concern with staying in) were developed or adapted and administered to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness (N = 65). Regression analyses examined whether forms of symbolic interaction stigma were associated with withdrawal, self-esteem, and isolation from relatives independent of measures of internalization of stigma and rejection experiences. As evidenced by scores on 4 distinct measures, symbolic interaction stigma was relatively common in the sample, somewhat more common than the internalization of stigma. In addition, measures of symbolic interaction stigma were significantly associated with withdrawal, self-esteem, and isolation from relatives even when a measure of the internalization of stigma was statistically controlled. The study suggests the potential importance of considering symbolic interaction forms of stigma in understanding and addressing stigma and its consequences. Being aware of symbolic interaction stigma could be useful in enhancing rehabilitation goals if an approach to counteracting the negative effects of these aspects of stigma can be developed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among people with a mental illness in six countries: Pan European stigma study.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Christin; Burazeri, Genc; Brand, Helmut

    2013-12-30

    A cross-sectional study including 796 individuals with a psychiatric disorder was conducted in Croatia, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Sweden in 2010 aiming to assess correlates of self-stigma. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) was used to measure self-stigma, whereas the Boston University Empowerment Scale was used to measure the self-efficacy/self-esteem (SESE) and sense of power/powerlessness (PP). Perceived discrimination and devaluation was measured with the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) Scale. Thirty three percent of participants had moderate-to-high ISMI scores. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, significant 'predictors' of high ISMI scores were: age-group of 50-59 years, current employment, lower social contacts, and minimal-to-low SESE and PP scores. Remarkably, no significant association between ISMI and PDD was evident. Furthermore, there was evidence of a significant interaction between SESE and country. Study participants might not be representative to all individuals with mental disorders in countries included in this survey. Our findings indicate that people with psychiatric diseases suffer both self-stigma and perceived discrimination and devaluation. This is one of the very few reports highlighting country differences and diagnosis disparities of self-stigma among individuals with mental illnesses. Between-country differences should be considered and carefully addressed in the process of policy formulation and interventional programs against stigma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does lung cancer attract greater stigma than other cancer types?

    PubMed

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Cancer stigma can have widespread effects, influencing the behaviour and wellbeing of patients as well as the community and even research funding. Patients with lung cancer report feeling particularly stigmatised because of the association with a behaviour (smoking) that is perceived to be personally controllable. However, there are other dimensions of cancer stigma, that might be more severe for other cancers. The present study therefore examined differences in attitudes towards lung cancer and four other cancer types, using a multidimensional measure of cancer stigma, to extend findings beyond personal responsibility attributions. Participants were a non-patient sample (n=1205) who were randomised to complete a survey online relating to one of five cancer types (lung, colorectal, skin, breast and cervical). Stigma was assessed using the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS). There were significant differences across the five cancer types on all CASS subscales: awkwardness (F(4, 1009)=5.16, p<0.001), severity (F(4, 984)=26.24, p<0.001), avoidance (F(4, 1008)=5.38, p<0.001), policy opposition (F(4, 1009)=8.38, p<0.001), personal responsibility (F(4, 995)=31.67, p<0.001) and financial discrimination (F(4, 957)=9.45, p<0.001). Lung cancer attracted higher stigma scores than breast and cervical cancer on all subscales. Lung cancer was similar to skin cancer on personal responsibility, avoidance, and policy opposition, but attracted higher stigma in the domains of awkwardness, severity and financial discrimination. Lung cancer was similar to colorectal cancer for awkwardness, but significantly higher on all other subscales. Lung cancer stigma extends beyond personal responsibility attributions to other dimensions, particularly perceived severity of the disease and tolerance of financial discrimination against patients with the disease. Future work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions designed to limit cancer stigma for patients, health professionals and the community

  12. THE EFFECT OF STIGMA ON CRIMINAL OFFENDERS’ FUNCTIONING: A LONGITUDINAL MEDIATIONAL MODEL*

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly E.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Tangney, June P.

    2015-01-01

    Research has rarely considered criminal offenders’ psychological responses to stigma, but these responses may significantly influence behavior after release from jail/prison. Jail inmates’ perceived and anticipated stigma was assessed prior to release from jail/prison (N = 163), and outcomes were assessed one year post-release (N = 371). We hypothesized that perceived stigma would predict poor adjustment in several domains (i.e. recidivism, substance dependence, mental health symptoms, community adjustment) through anticipated stigma. Results showed that perceived stigma predicted worse community adjustment through anticipated stigma, and this varied by race. Results are explored from an interdisciplinary perspective. PMID:26973364

  13. Mental health consumer and caregiver perceptions of stigma in Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; Mey, Amary; Fowler, Jane L; Kelly, Fiona; McConnell, Denise; Hattingh, Laetitia; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2014-09-01

    The stigma of mental illness can be a barrier to effective medication management in the community pharmacy setting. This article explored mental health consumers' or caregivers' experiences of stigma in Australian community pharmacies. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of consumers or caregivers (n = 74). Interview transcripts were analysed using a general inductive approach. Stigma presented a barrier to effective mental health management. Self-stigma impeded consumers' community pharmacy engagement. Positive relationships with knowledgeable staff are fundamental to reducing stigma. Findings provide insight into the stigma of mental illness in community pharmacies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  15. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  16. Labeling of mental disorders and stigma in young people.

    PubMed

    Wright, Annemarie; Jorm, Anthony F; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2011-08-01

    Mental disorders are common in young people, yet many do not seek help. The use of psychiatric labels to describe mental disorders is associated with effective help-seeking choices, and is promoted in community awareness initiatives designed to improve help-seeking. However these labels may also be coupled with stigmatizing beliefs and therefore inhibit help-seeking: lay mental health or non-specific labels may be less harmful. We examined the association between labeling of mental disorders and stigma in youth using data from a national telephone survey of 2802 Australians aged 12-25 years conducted from June 2006 to August 2006. Label use and stigmatizing beliefs were assessed in response to vignettes of a young person experiencing depression, psychosis or social phobia. Logistic regressions examined the association between a range of labels commonly used, including psychiatric labels, and a range of stigma components. There were no significant associations between label use and the stigma components of "stigma perceived in others", "reluctance to disclose" and for the most part "social distance". Most mental health labels were associated with seeing the person as "sick" rather than "weak" and accurate psychiatric labels had the strongest effect sizes. However, for the psychosis vignette, the "dangerous/unpredictable" component was predicted by the labels "schizophrenia/psychosis", "mental illness" and "psychological problem", and the accurate psychiatric label showed the strongest association. For all vignettes, generic lay labels were not associated with stigma, but also rarely had a counter stigma effect. These findings suggest that the use of accurate psychiatric labels by young people is seldom associated with stigma and may assist young people by reducing perceptions of weakness. However, community education that promotes accurate labeling of psychosis should proceed with caution and address beliefs about dangerousness and unpredictability. Copyright

  17. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.

  18. Decreasing the stigma burden of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Diane B

    2013-10-01

    To describe stigmatizing experiences in a group of Mexican-American women with chronic pain and provide clinical implications for decreasing stigma. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semistructured interviews, participant observations, and fieldwork. Participants provided detailed descriptions of communicating about chronic pain symptoms, treatment, and management. The sample consisted of 15 English-speaking Mexican-American women 21-65 years old (average age = 45.6 years) who had nonmalignant chronic pain symptoms for 1 year or more. The cultural and social norm in the United States is the expectation for objective evidence (such as an injury) to be present if a pain condition exists. In this study, this norm created suspicion and subsequent stigmatization on the part of family, co-workers, and even those with the pain syndromes, that the painful condition was imagined instead of real. To decrease stigmatization of chronic pain, providers must understand their own misconceptions about chronic pain, possess the skills and resources to access and use the highest level of practice evidence available, and become an advocate for improved pain care at local, state, and national levels. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Reducing stigma in high school youth.

    PubMed

    Koller, M; Stuart, H

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated 21 contact-based education interventions in 5047 Canadian high school students and identified student characteristics associated with success. We used a one-group pretest/posttest design with standardized instruments to measure changes in behavioural intent. Variability across interventions was assessed using meta-analysis, and a mixed-effects logistic regression was used to identify student characteristics. Interventions were heterogeneous (I(2)  = 62.4%) but generally successful. The odds of getting an A grade was 2.57 times greater on the posttest than the pretest (95% CI = 2.18, 3.03). Males were less likely to achieve a passing score overall; however, males who self-disclosed a mental illness were more likely to pass. Three percent of students experienced a large drop in social acceptance following the intervention. These were more likely to be male [OR = 1.5 (95% CI = 1.0, 2.1)]. Contact-based education is a promising practice for reducing stigma in high school students, although the field would benefit from fidelity criteria to reduce variation across interventions. Males and females react differently to antistigma programming; particularly those with self-reported mental illnesses and a small proportion may become more intolerant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Attentional Bias Associated with Habitual Self-Stigma in People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin K S; Mak, Winnie W S

    2015-01-01

    As habitual self-stigma can have a tremendous negative impact on people with mental illness, it is of paramount importance to identify its risk factors. The present study aims to examine the potential contributory role of attentional bias in habitual self-stigma. People with mental illness having strong (n = 47) and weak (n = 47) habitual self-stigma completed a computerized emotional Stroop task which included stigma-related, positive, and non-affective words as stimuli. The strong habit group was found to exhibit faster color-naming of stigma-related words (compared to non-affective words), whereas the weak habit group showed no difference in the speed of response to different stimuli. These findings suggest that people with stronger habitual self-stigma may be more able to ignore the semantic meaning of stigma-related words and focus on the color-naming task. Moreover, people with stronger habitual self-stigma may have greater attentional avoidance of stigma-related material. The present study is the first to demonstrate a specific relationship between habitual self-stigma and biased processing of stigma-related information. In order to further determine the role and the nature of attentional bias in habitual self-stigma, future research should employ a broader range of experimental paradigms and measurement techniques to examine stigma-related attentional bias in people with mental illness.

  1. Stigma of mental illnesses as perceived by north korean defectors living in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors.

  2. Understanding the Importance of “Symbolic Interaction Stigma:” How Expectations about the Reactions of Others Adds to the Burden of Mental illness Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce G.; Wells, Jennifer; Phelan, Jo C.; Yang, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Objective Important components of stigma include imagining what others might think of a stigmatized status, anticipating what might transpire in an interaction with others, and rehearsing what one might do if something untoward occurs. These imagined relations are here called “symbolic interaction stigma” and can be impactful even if the internalization of negative stereotypes fails to occur. Concepts and measures that capture symbolic interaction stigma are introduced and a preliminary assessment of their impact provided. Methods Four self-report measures of symbolic interaction stigma (perceived devaluation discrimination, anticipation of rejection, stigma consciousness and concern with staying in) were developed or adapted and administered to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness (N=65). Regression analyses examined whether forms of symbolic interaction stigma were associated with withdrawal, self-esteem and isolation from relatives independent of measures of internalization of stigma and rejection experiences. Results As evidenced by scores on four distinct measures symbolic interaction stigma was relatively common in the sample, somewhat more common than the internalization of stigma. Additionally, measures of symbolic interaction stigma were significantly associated with withdrawal, self-esteem and isolation from relatives even when a measure of the internalization of stigma was statistically controlled. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The study suggests the potential importance of considering symbolic interaction forms of stigma in understanding and addressing stigma and its consequences. Being aware of symbolic interaction stigma could be useful in enhancing rehabilitation goals if an approach to counteracting the negative effects of these aspects of stigma can be developed. PMID:26075528

  3. Assessment of stigma associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Psychometric evaluation of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11–19 years at high (n = 192) and low risk (n = 109) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three factor structure with highly correlated subscales of Disclosure Concerns, Negative Self Image, and Concern with Public Attitudes, and a Schmid-Leiman analysis supported an overall stigma factor. Test-retest stability was assessed after two-weeks (n = 45) and found to be adequate for all three subscales. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs, including clinical maladjustment, depression, self-esteem and emotional symptoms and the absence of a relationship with school maladjustment. Findings indicate that the ASQ has acceptable psychometric properties in a large community sample of adolescents, some of whom met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. PMID:20580842

  4. Measuring Type 1 diabetes stigma: development and validation of the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1).

    PubMed

    Browne, J L; Ventura, A D; Mosely, K; Speight, J

    2017-09-11

    To develop and validate a self-report measure designed to assess perceived and experienced stigma for adults with Type 1 diabetes: the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale. A large item-pool (64 items) was drafted based on qualitative data from interviews with 27 adults with Type 1 diabetes. Eleven adults with Type 1 diabetes completed the draft questionnaire (responding to items using a five-point Likert scale), and participated in cognitive debriefing interviews. Based on their feedback, the item-pool was reduced and refined. Adults with Type 1 diabetes (N=898) completed an online survey including the draft stigma questionnaire (41 items) and other validated measures. Psychometric validation included principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (split samples), internal consistency reliability assessment and Spearman's rho correlations. Scale reduction techniques resulted in 19 items (α=0.93). An unforced three-factor solution suggested three subscales: Treated Differently (six items, α=0.89); Blame and Judgement (six items, α=0.88); and Identity Concerns (seven items, α=0.89). This was corroborated with a confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated reasonable model fit with the three factors; less so for a single-factor model. Satisfactory concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated. The 19-item Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale is a valid and reliable measure of the perceptions and experiences of Type 1 diabetes stigma. This novel, relatively brief measure has satisfactory psychometric properties. The Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale is now available for investigations into the nature and magnitude of the relationships between diabetes stigma and diabetes self-care behaviours and outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. AIDS stigma in health services in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Abell, Neil; Padmore, Jacqueline; McCann, Theresa J

    2009-01-01

    Stigma obstructs HIV/AIDS prevention and care worldwide, including in the Caribbean, where the prevalence of AIDS is second only to sub-Saharan Africa. To contextualise the experience of AIDS stigma in health services in Grenada and Trinidad and Tobago, we conducted eight focus groups with 51 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), families, and service providers. Quasi-deductive content analysis revealed consonance with Western and Northern conceptualisations of AIDS stigma wherein stigma is enacted upon marginalized populations and reinforced through psycho-sociological processes comparing 'in' and 'out' groups. Socially constructed to be physically contagious and socially deviant, PLHA are scorned by some service providers, especially when they are perceived to be gay or bisexual. PLHA and providers identified passive neglect and active refusal by hospital and clinic staff to provide care to PLHA. Institutional practices for safeguarding patient confidentiality are perceived as marginally enforced. Interventions are needed to reduce provider stigma so the public will access HIV testing and PLHA will seek treatment.

  6. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosis control programs in Ethiopia. An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Interventions that reduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity.

  7. Hepatitis-related stigma in chronic patients: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    HassanpourDehkordi, Ali; Mohammadi, Nooredin; NikbakhatNasrabadi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis is one of health problems throughout the world. It has numerous consequences on patients' life. Stigma, depression, social marginalization and financial problems are some of the challenges in these patients. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine hepatitis-related stigma and discrimination in patients living with chronic hepatitis in Iranian society. This present study was designed as a qualitative method, and this article shows up the results of a qualitative research study undertaken with patients living with hepatitis in Iran. The study uses a content analysis method. A purposive sample of 18 patients was chosen. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field note that the researchers will take during participants' observation. Data analysis process was performed on the texts which were generated from verbatim transcripts of the participants interviews. Participants were between 18 and 61 years old. The main theme, Stigma, emerged from three themes during the process data analysis in this study. These themes were including fear to lose of family and social support, fear to present in public and fear of transmission. This research indicates that stigma presents major challenges not only for patients living with chronic hepatitis but also for nurses, other healthcare practitioners, family and social networks, institutions and society. The researcher suggests that interventions to reduce or eliminate stigma should require individual, structural, cultural thought, society and systemic changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  9. Self-Stigma in People With Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C.; Corrigan, Patrick; Larson, Jonathon E.; Sells, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Persons with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia may internalize mental illness stigma and experience diminished self-esteem and self-efficacy. In this article, we describe a model of self-stigma and examine a hierarchy of mediational processes within the model. Seventy-one individuals with serious mental illness were recruited from a community support program at an outpatient psychiatry department of a community hospital. All participants completed the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale along with measures of group identification (GI), perceived legitimacy (PL), self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Models examining the steps involved in self-stigma process were tested. Specifically, after conducting preliminary bivariate analyses, we examine stereotype agreement as a mediator of GI and PL on stigma self-concurrence (SSC); SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-efficacy; and SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-esteem. Findings provide partial support for the proposed mediational processes and point to GI, PL, and stereotype agreement as areas to be considered for intervention. PMID:17255118

  10. Self-stigma in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Corrigan, Patrick; Larson, Jonathon E; Sells, Molly

    2007-11-01

    Persons with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia may internalize mental illness stigma and experience diminished self-esteem and self-efficacy. In this article, we describe a model of self-stigma and examine a hierarchy of mediational processes within the model. Seventy-one individuals with serious mental illness were recruited from a community support program at an outpatient psychiatry department of a community hospital. All participants completed the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale along with measures of group identification (GI), perceived legitimacy (PL), self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Models examining the steps involved in self-stigma process were tested. Specifically, after conducting preliminary bivariate analyses, we examine stereotype agreement as a mediator of GI and PL on stigma self-concurrence (SSC); SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-efficacy; and SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-esteem. Findings provide partial support for the proposed mediational processes and point to GI, PL, and stereotype agreement as areas to be considered for intervention.

  11. Cancer and facial disfigurement: reducing survivors' stigma in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Alessandro; Esmaeli, Bita

    2012-04-01

    Patients with orbital and periorbital cancer expect to be cured or survive for several years after their malignancy is detected and surgically removed. However, despite advancements in reconstructive surgery, survivors often remain facially disfigured and spend significant portions of their lives dealing with stigma, a mark of social disgrace. Although research remains limited, this article describes a qualitative study of social interaction leading to stigma in individuals with facial disfigurement caused by cancer surgery, as well as the experiences of their family members. In particular, the current study focused on interaction between patients and strangers and acquaintances (secondary groups). In-depth interviews with patients and their family members were conducted and analyzed using Grounded Theory. Three primary patterns of interaction were identified: intrusion, sympathy, and benign neglect. Those patterns refer to conditions that are decreasingly favorable to the creation of stigma, where intrusion and sympathy foster stigma but benign neglect does not. Through that knowledge, oncology nurses will be able to better inform patients and family members on the conditions leading to stigma.

  12. Stigma and substance use disorders: an international phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Wong, Liang Y; Grivel, Margaux M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-09-01

    To collect and update published information on the stigma associated with substance abuse in nonclinical samples, which has not been recently reviewed. Searching large databases, a total of only 17 articles were published since 1999, with the majority of studies conducted outside the United States. Using major stigma concepts from a sociological framework (stereotyping, devaluation in terms of status loss, discrimination, and negative emotional reactions), the studies reviewed predominantly indicated that the public holds very stigmatized views toward individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), and that the level of stigma was higher toward individuals with SUDs than toward those with other psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of SUDs is increasing in the US general population, but these disorders remain seriously undertreated. Stigma can reduce willingness of policymakers to allocate resources, reduce willingness of providers in nonspecialty settings to screen for and address substance abuse problems, and may limit willingness of individuals with such problems to seek treatment. All of these factors may help explain why so few individuals with SUDs receive treatment. Public education that reduces stigma and provides information about treatment is needed.

  13. The Dynamic Relationship Between Social Support and HIV-Related Stigma in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D.; Kumbakumba, Elias; Muzoora, Conrad; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter W.; Haberer, Jessica E.; Kawuma, Annet; Bangsberg, David R.; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma is negatively correlated with social support. Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the bidirectional relationship between social support and HIV stigma. Methods We collected quarterly data from a cohort of 422 people living with HIV in Uganda, followed for a median of 2.1 years. We used multilevel regression to model the contemporaneous and 3-month-lagged associations between social support and both enacted and internalized stigma. Results Lagged enacted stigma was negatively correlated with emotional and instrumental social support, and lagged instrumental social support was negatively correlated with enacted stigma. Internalized stigma and emotional social support had reciprocal lagged associations. Conclusions Interventions to reduce enacted stigma may strengthen social support for people living with HIV. Improved social support may in turn have a protective influence against future enacted and internalized stigma. PMID:24500077

  14. Application of mental illness stigma theory to Chinese societies: synthesis and new directions.

    PubMed

    Yang, L H

    2007-11-01

    The rapidly-evolving literature concerning stigma towards psychiatric illnesses among Chinese groups has demonstrated pervasive negative attitudes and discriminatory treatment towards people with mental illness. However, a systematic integration of current stigma theories and empirical findings to examine how stigma processes may occur among Chinese ethnic groups has yet to be undertaken. This paper first introduces several major stigma models, and specifies how these models provide a theoretical basis as to how stigma broadly acts on individuals with schizophrenia through three main mechanisms: direct individual discrimination, internalisation of negative stereotypes, and structural discrimination. In Chinese societies, the particular manifestations of stigma associated with schizophrenia are shaped by cultural meanings embedded within Confucianism, the centrality of "face", and pejorative aetiological beliefs of mental illnesses. These cultural meanings are reflected in severe and culturally-specific expressions of stigma in Chinese societies. Implications and directions to advance stigma research within Chinese cultural settings are provided.

  15. Experiences of Social and Structural Forms of Stigma Among Chinese Immigrant Consumers with Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah; Tu, Ming-Che; Li, Vanessa A; Chang, Rachel W; Yang, Lawrence Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Chinese immigrants tend to rely on family and close community for support given their vulnerable societal position. Yet stigma, especially from structural and familial sources, may have a particularly harmful impact upon Chinese immigrants with psychosis. Using a descriptive analysis based upon grounded theory, we examined stigma experiences of 50 Chinese immigrant consumers with psychosis, paying particular attention to frequency, sources, and themes of social and structural stigma. Although past research indicates that family is a recipient of stigma, we found instead that family members were common perpetuators of social forms of stigma. We also found that perceptions of work deficit underlie many forms of stigma, suggesting this is "what matters most" in this community. Lack of financial resources and language barriers comprised most frequent forms of structural stigma. Anti-stigma efforts should aim to improve consumer's actual and perceived employability to target what is most meaningful in Chinese immigrant communities.

  16. Gender differences among discrimination & stigma experienced by depressive patients in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nashi; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khalid, Adeela; Farooq, Anum

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine Gender Difference in the level of Discrimination and Stigma experienced by people diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that Women diagnosed with Depression are likely to be experiencing more Discrimination and Internalized Stigma in comparison to Men. This is a Cross Sectional Study. Thirty eight patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder recruited from different Government Sector Hospitals of Lahore; were approached after obtaining informed consent. Discrimination and Stigma were measured through Discrimination and Stigma Scale and Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Inventory respectively. Both Men and Women experience considerably high level of associated Stigma and Discrimination due to their Mental Illness. However, Women in comparison to Men experience significantly greater level of Internalized Stigma especially in domains of Discrimination Experience and Social Withdrawal. The findings of this study highlight the fact that people with Depression can be more benefited with psychological treatment if dealing with Stigma and Discrimination is also addressed in Intervention Plans.

  17. Stigma as ego depletion: how being the target of prejudice affects self-control.

    PubMed

    Inzlicht, Michael; McKay, Linda; Aronson, Joshua

    2006-03-01

    This research examined whether stigma diminishes people's ability to control their behaviors. Because coping with stigma requires self-regulation, and self-regulation is a limited-capacity resource, we predicted that individuals belonging to stigmatized groups are less able to regulate their own behavior when they become conscious of their stigmatizing status or enter threatening environments. Study 1 uncovered a correlation between stigma sensitivity and self-regulation; the more Black college students were sensitive to prejudice, the less self-control they reported having. By experimentally activating stigma, Studies 2 and 3 provided causal evidence for stigma's ego-depleting qualities: When their stigma was activated, stigmatized participants (Black students and females) showed impaired self-control in two very different domains (attentional and physical self-regulation). These results suggest that (a) stigma is ego depleting and (b) coping with it can weaken the ability to control and regulate one's behaviors in domains unrelated to the stigma.

  18. Stigma and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia attending a general hospital psychiatric unit

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aakanksha; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very few studies from India have studied stigma experienced by patients with schizophrenia. Aim of the Study: To study stigma in patients with schizophrenia (in the form of internalized stigma, perceived stigma and social-participation-restriction stigma) and its relationship with specified demographic and clinical variables (demographic variables, clinical profile, level of psychopathology, knowledge about illness, and insight). Materials and Methods: Selected by purposive random sampling, 100 patients with schizophrenia in remission were evaluated on internalized stigma of mental illness scale (ISMIS), explanatory model interview catalog stigma scale, participation scale (P-scale), positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia, global assessment of functioning scale, scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder, and knowledge of mental illness scale. Results: On ISMIS scale, 81% patients experienced alienation and 45% exhibited stigma resistance. Stereotype endorsement was seen in 26% patients, discrimination experience was faced by 21% patients, and only 16% patients had social withdrawal. Overall, 29% participants had internalized stigma when total ISMIS score was taken into consideration. On P-scale, 67% patients experienced significant restriction, with a majority reporting moderate to mild restriction. In terms of associations between stigma and sociodemographic variables, no consistent correlations emerged, except for those who were not on paid job, had higher participation restriction. Of the clinical variables, level of functioning was the only consistent predictor of stigma. While better knowledge about the disorder was associated with lower level of stigma, there was no association between stigma and insight. Conclusion: Significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia experience stigma and stigma is associated with lower level of functioning and better knowledge about illness is associated with lower level of stigma. PMID

  19. Stigma and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia attending a general hospital psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aakanksha; Mattoo, Surendra K; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies from India have studied stigma experienced by patients with schizophrenia. To study stigma in patients with schizophrenia (in the form of internalized stigma, perceived stigma and social-participation-restriction stigma) and its relationship with specified demographic and clinical variables (demographic variables, clinical profile, level of psychopathology, knowledge about illness, and insight). Selected by purposive random sampling, 100 patients with schizophrenia in remission were evaluated on internalized stigma of mental illness scale (ISMIS), explanatory model interview catalog stigma scale, participation scale (P-scale), positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia, global assessment of functioning scale, scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder, and knowledge of mental illness scale. On ISMIS scale, 81% patients experienced alienation and 45% exhibited stigma resistance. Stereotype endorsement was seen in 26% patients, discrimination experience was faced by 21% patients, and only 16% patients had social withdrawal. Overall, 29% participants had internalized stigma when total ISMIS score was taken into consideration. On P-scale, 67% patients experienced significant restriction, with a majority reporting moderate to mild restriction. In terms of associations between stigma and sociodemographic variables, no consistent correlations emerged, except for those who were not on paid job, had higher participation restriction. Of the clinical variables, level of functioning was the only consistent predictor of stigma. While better knowledge about the disorder was associated with lower level of stigma, there was no association between stigma and insight. Significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia experience stigma and stigma is associated with lower level of functioning and better knowledge about illness is associated with lower level of stigma.

  20. Stigma and Sexual Health Risk in HIV-Positive African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Nathan; Hawkins, Linda A.; Gaskins, Clare S.; Beidas, Rinad; Rudy, Bret J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the multiple forms of stigma experienced by young HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men and how they relate to sexual risk behaviors is essential to design effective HIV prevention programs. This study of 40 African American young MSM found that 90% of those surveyed experienced sexual minority stigma, 88% experienced HIV stigma, and 78% experienced dual stigma. Sexual minority stigma was characterized by experiences of social avoidance, and HIV stigma, by shame. Individuals with high HIV stigma were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected sex while high or intoxicated. Associations between stigma and sexual practices were examined; youth endorsing higher levels of sexual minority stigma engaged in less insertive anal intercourse. Individuals endorsing more HIV stigma reported more receptive anal intercourse. These findings support the development of stigma-informed secondary prevention interventions for African American HIV-positive young MSM. PMID:20673080

  1. Unpacking the public stigma of problem gambling: The process of stigma creation and predictors of social distancing

    PubMed Central

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.; Gainsbury, Sally M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and why stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures. This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people experiencing problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this public stigma. Methods An online panel of adults from Victoria, Australia (N = 2,000) was surveyed. Measures were based on a vignette for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Results People with gambling problems attracted substantial negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss/discrimination. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, and disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized. Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors. PMID:27513611

  2. Aspects of perceived stigma: the Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness, its development, latent structure and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Karidi, Maria Veroniki; Vasilopoulou, Despoina; Savvidou, Eugenia; Vitoratou, Silia; Rabavilas, Andreas D; Stefanis, Constantinos N

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new brief and easy to administer self-stigma scale for mental illness as well as to assess the correlations between self-stigma and psychopathology of chronic schizophrenic patients. The Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness (SIMI) was administered to 100 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Psychopathology and overall functioning were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment Scale (GAS), respectively. The final scale consists of 12 items. Factor analysis concluded to two dimensions: perceptions of social stigma and self-efficacy. Both factors were found to be reliable (high internal consistency and stability coefficients). Significant correlations were present with psychopathology, functioning and selected items from the Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) inventory. The SIMI scale is a reliable and valid psychometric tool that can be used to assess patient's self-stigma and self-efficacy. The findings suggest also that psychopathology has an immediate effect on endorsing self-stigmatizing attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Unpacking the public stigma of problem gambling: The process of stigma creation and predictors of social distancing.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and why stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures. This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people experiencing problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this public stigma. Methods An online panel of adults from Victoria, Australia (N = 2,000) was surveyed. Measures were based on a vignette for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Results People with gambling problems attracted substantial negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss/discrimination. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, and disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized. Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors.

  4. The California Assessment of Stigma Change: A Short Battery to Measure Improvements in the Public Stigma of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Gause, Michael; Michaels, Patrick J; Buchholz, Blythe A; Larson, Jonathon E

    2015-08-01

    Contact-based anti-stigma programs delivered by people with lived experience yields stigma change. This study examined psychometrics and sensitivity of the California Assessment of Stigma Change (CASC). CASC assesses prejudicial beliefs, affirming attitudes, and willingness to seek mental healthcare. Four samples, two high school groups, college students, and hotel desk clerks, completed CASC immediately before and after a contact-based program. Two samples completed follow-up: one of the high school groups and the college students. CASC assesses stigma with a 9-item Attribution Questionnaire (AQ9), personal empowerment with a 3-item scale (ES), recovery orientation with a 3-item scale (RS), and psychological help seeking willingness with a 6-item questionnaire (CSQ). Internal consistencies ranged adequate to satisfactory for AQ9, ES, and CSQ. Concurrent validity was partially supported. Change sensitivity was demonstrated among at least half of each construct's analyses. CASC seems a psychometrically valid way to efficiently monitor attitudinal and care seeking intentions changes. Outcome monitoring can strengthen contact-based anti-stigma programs, an emerging evidence-based practice.

  5. Family Stigma Associated With Epilepsy: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nabi Amjad, Reza; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Navab, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Harmful nature of epilepsy can affect the patient and their parent. Stigma, arising from it, affects the patient and their family. To relieve it understanding the experiences of the parent are useful. This study was aimed at understanding the experiences of parent of child with epilepsy in Iran. Methods: In this interpretative phenomenological study, 10 parents who took care of their child with epilepsy were participated. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. After transcription, data were analyzed using Van Manen’s method. Results: Family stigma emerged as a main theme in data analysis with three subthemes including becoming verbally abusive, a dull and heavy shadowed look, and associates interference. Conclusion: Family stigma is a major challenge for parents of child with epilepsy need to special attention by health system. Nurses, as a big part of the system, can play an important role to manage this problem. PMID:28299298

  6. BDSM Disclosure and Stigma Management: Identifying Opportunities for Sex Education

    PubMed Central

    Bezreh, Tanya; Weinberg, Thomas S.; Edgar, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    While participation in the activities like bondage, domination, submission/sadism, masochism that fall under the umbrella term BDSM is widespread, stigma surrounding BDSM poses risks to practitioners who wish to disclose their interest. We examined risk factors involved with disclosure to posit how sex education might diffuse stigma and warn of risks. Semi-structured interviews asked 20 adults reporting an interest in BDSM about their disclosure experiences. Most respondents reported their BDSM interests starting before age 15, sometimes creating a phase of anxiety and shame in the absence of reassuring information. As adults, respondents often considered BDSM central to their sexuality, thus disclosure was integral to dating. Disclosure decisions in nondating situations were often complex considerations balancing desire for appropriateness with a desire for connection and honesty. Some respondents wondered whether their interests being found out would jeopardize their jobs. Experiences with stigma varied widely. PMID:22754406

  7. Felt stigma and obesity: introducing the generalized other.

    PubMed

    Barlösius, Eva; Philipps, Axel

    2015-04-01

    People with a big body are tainted in western societies. Although most research on obesity occurs in the medical context, few studies investigate characteristics and effects of feelings and fears related to the fat stigma in the absence of overt discrimination. By linking Norbert Elias's and George H. Mead's theoretical frameworks, this paper offers a different approach to understanding and investigating felt stigma. The study is based on secondary data (25 semistructured interviews with children and adolescents). It explores internalized societal perspectives on overweight and obesity and inquires into the way in which interviewees handle the blame frame of personal responsibility during their interview. The preliminary findings suggest that specific forms of managing one's self-presentation in interviews indicate felt stigma. Consequently, the paper argues for an analytical approach that extends the focus on the content of interviews to include its dynamics.

  8. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.

  9. Measuring HIV-related Stigma Among Chinese Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Judith A.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    An HIV-related stigma scale for health care workers needs to be multidimensional in that it should encompass attitudes that might be experienced by the general public about people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (e.g., fear, shame, blame) and, further, specifically capture perceptions of appropriate professional care and medical responsibilities regarding PLWHA. A 17-item, 5-factor multidimensional HIV-related stigma scale was developed and validated using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis among 1,101 service providers in China. The sample was divided into a development sample (N = 551) and a validation sample (N = 550). The fit of the final confirmatory factor model with five hypothesized subscales was excellent in both samples. The final stigma subscales included: Discrimination Intent at Work, Opinion about Health Care for HIV/AIDS Patients, Prejudiced Attitudes, Internalized Shame, and Fear of PLWHA. PMID:18064554

  10. Too similar, too different: the paradoxical dualism of psychiatric stigma.

    PubMed

    Gergel, Tania Louise

    2014-08-01

    Challenges to psychiatric stigma fall between a rock and a hard place. Decreasing one prejudice may inadvertently increase another. Emphasising similarities between mental illness and 'ordinary' experience to escape the fear-related prejudices associated with the imagined 'otherness' of persons with mental illness risks conclusions that mental illness indicates moral weakness and the loss of any benefits of a medical model. An emphasis on illness and difference from normal experience risks a response of fear of the alien. Thus, a 'likeness-based' and 'unlikeness-based' conception of psychiatric stigma can lead to prejudices stemming from paradoxically opposing assumptions about mental illness. This may create a troubling impasse for anti-stigma campaigns.

  11. Image recognition of clipped stigma traces in rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Ying, YB

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop algorithm to recognize clipped stigma traces in rice seeds using image processing. At first, the micro-configuration of clipped stigma traces was observed with electronic scanning microscope. Then images of rice seeds were acquired with a color machine vision system. A digital image-processing algorithm based on morphological operations and Hough transform was developed to inspect the occurrence of clipped stigma traces. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and you3207 were evaluated. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96%. The algorithm was proved to be insensitive to the different rice seed varieties.

  12. Influenza Stigma during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Quinn, Diane M

    2013-06-01

    The current study examines the extent to which H1N1 was stigmatized at the height of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the U.S. and explores the role that H1N1 stigma played in people's desire for physical distance from others with H1N1. H1N1 was the most stigmatized disease, with participants endorsing greater prejudice towards people with H1N1 than people with cancer or HIV/AIDS. Further, H1N1 stigma partially mediated the relationship between participants' perceptions that H1N1 was threatening and their desire for physical distance from people with H1N1. Therefore, H1N1 stigma played a role in, but was not entirely responsible for, the relationship between perceptions that H1N1 was threatening and desire for distance from others with H1N1.

  13. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Counties

    PubMed Central

    Chirwa, Maureen L.; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P.; Uys, Leana R.; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The subscale, Personal Satisfaction, was the highest in this sample as in the other 2. Job Satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression demonstrated that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influences on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These findings provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries. PMID:19118767

  14. "Co-constructing" stigma and the therapist-parent alliance.

    PubMed

    Fox, Judith E

    2012-03-01

    Just as many relationships are susceptible to the distorting and distancing effects of stigmatization, so are therapist-parent relationships, particularly in instances where children/youth present with significant mental illness. Therapist awareness and attunement to the dynamics of stigma are critical to the development of engaged therapist-parent alliances, and therapist-parent alliances are key to successful child/youth psychotherapy. Intersubjectivity theory offers a useful lens by which to understand stigma dynamics as mutually reinforced, "co-constructed" experiences between therapists and parents. Applying this perspective provides direction for therapists to work in ways that recognize and reduce the negative impact of stigma dynamics on this important alliance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  15. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  16. BDSM Disclosure and Stigma Management: Identifying Opportunities for Sex Education.

    PubMed

    Bezreh, Tanya; Weinberg, Thomas S; Edgar, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    While participation in the activities like bondage, domination, submission/sadism, masochism that fall under the umbrella term BDSM is widespread, stigma surrounding BDSM poses risks to practitioners who wish to disclose their interest. We examined risk factors involved with disclosure to posit how sex education might diffuse stigma and warn of risks. Semi-structured interviews asked 20 adults reporting an interest in BDSM about their disclosure experiences. Most respondents reported their BDSM interests starting before age 15, sometimes creating a phase of anxiety and shame in the absence of reassuring information. As adults, respondents often considered BDSM central to their sexuality, thus disclosure was integral to dating. Disclosure decisions in nondating situations were often complex considerations balancing desire for appropriateness with a desire for connection and honesty. Some respondents wondered whether their interests being found out would jeopardize their jobs. Experiences with stigma varied widely.

  17. How are perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance related to treatment-seeking? A three-path model.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Kristen S; Cheung, Janelle H; Britt, Thomas W; Goguen, Kandice N; Jeffirs, Stephanie M; Peasley, Allison L; Lee, Abigail C

    2015-06-01

    Many college students may experience mental health problems but do not seek treatment from mental health professionals. The present study examined how perceived stigma and self-stigma toward seeking mental health treatment, as well as perceptions of self-reliance for coping with mental health problems, relate to college student treatment-seeking. In total, 246 students completed a self-report survey that included measures of perceived stigma and self-stigma for treatment-seeking, self-reliance for addressing mental health concerns, self-reported mental health problems, symptoms of depression and alcohol-related problems, attitudes toward treatment-seeking, and treatment-seeking behavior. Regression analyses revealed that higher perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance were all related to a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking. In a 3-path mediation model, bootstrapping results indicated an indirect effect where perceived stigma was related to attitude toward treatment-seeking and treatment-seeking behaviors through self-stigma and self-reliance. Specifically, higher perceived stigma was related to higher self-stigma, higher self-stigma was related to higher self-reliance, and higher self-reliance was associated with a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking in the overall sample, and a decreased probability of having sought treatment among those who screened positive for a mental health problem. Perceived stigma may influence whether or not college students seek treatment for mental health problems by potentially increasing stigmatizing attitudes toward themselves and increasing preferences for handling problems on their own. Researchers and practitioners are recommended to seek a better understanding of the complex treatment barriers to reduce stigma and facilitate treatment-seeking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Initial Evaluation of Active Minds: A Student Organization Dedicated to Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kathleen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…

  19. Advancing Research on Structural Stigma and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Mental Health Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Psychological research on stigma has focused largely on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and their interpersonal interactions with the nonstigmatized. This work has been critical in documenting many of the ways in which stigma operates to harm those who are targeted. However, this research has also tended to overlook broader structural forms of stigma, which refer to societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies and practices that constrain the lives of the stigmatized. In this article I describe the emerging field of research on structural stigma and review evidence documenting the harmful consequences of structural stigma for the mental/behavioral health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. This research demonstrates that structural stigma represents an important, but thus far largely underrecognized, mechanism underlying mental health disparities related to sexual orientation among youth. I offer several suggestions to advance research in this area, including (a) adopting a life-course approach to the study of structural stigma; (b) developing novel measures of structural stigma; (c) expanding both the range of methods used for studying structural stigma and the sequelae of structural stigma that are evaluated; (d) identifying potential mediators and moderators of the structural stigma-health relationship; (e) examining intersectionalities; and (f) testing generalizability of structural stigma across other groups, with a particular focus on transgender youth. The implications of this research for preventive interventions and for public policy are also discussed.

  20. Stigma and Intellectual Disability: A Review of Related Measures and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Shirli; Corrigan, Patrick; Ditchman, Nicole; Sokol, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical construct of stigma has received much attention in psychiatric disability research, leading to the development of widely used measures. Such measures have had real world impact in that they allow for the assessment of stigma change efforts. The study of stigma has not received the same level of attention for persons with…

  1. Internalized stigma and intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenic patients: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ömer Faruk; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Korkmaz, Işıl Zabun; Öztürk, Arif; Akkaya, Derya; Yılmaz, Sercan; Böke, Ömer; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of internalized stigma and intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenia patients and to compare characteristics of intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenia patients with or without internalized stigma. A total of 228 volunteers were included, 119 patients with bipolar disorder and 109 with schizophrenia. Schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patients were compared in terms of internalized stigma and intimate relations characteristics. Bipolar and schizophrenia patients with and without internalized stigma were compared in terms of characteristics of intimate relations. Internalized stigma was determined in one in three schizophrenia and one in five bipolar patients. Stigma resistance and relational esteem in intimate relations scores were higher in bipolar patients. Relational anxiety/fear of relationship, relational monitoring and external relational control scores were higher in schizophrenia patients with internalized stigma compared to those without, while their relational satisfaction, relational esteem and relational assertiveness scores were lower. Relational anxiety/fear of relationship and relational monitoring scores were higher in bipolar patients with internalized stigma compared to those without, while their relational satisfaction scores were lower. Internalized stigma in schizophrenia patients is a well-known subject that has been investigated previously. The results of our study are significant in terms of showing that internalized stigma is also frequent in bipolar disorder patients, and not solely in schizophrenia patients. Stigma resistance is higher in bipolar disorder patients. Internalized stigma is correlated with intimate relations in both bipolar and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in a "Blameless" Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Xiaobin; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zunyou

    2006-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination are major barriers to the successful control of HIV. Stigma is associated with the disease as well as the behaviors that lead to infection. A qualitative study was conducted to identify the reasons, sources, and types of HIV-related stigma prevalent in rural China. Eighty in-depth interviews were conducted…

  3. Initial Evaluation of Active Minds: A Student Organization Dedicated to Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kathleen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…

  4. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  5. Stigma: "What Is It and Why Does the Operational Commander Need To Be Concerned?"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    An Achievable Vision, 5. 5 Stuart, Stigma and Work. 6 Goffman , Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. 7 Dovidio, Major, & Crocker...York: Guilford Press, 2000. Goffman , E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963

  6. Stigma and Intellectual Disability: A Review of Related Measures and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Shirli; Corrigan, Patrick; Ditchman, Nicole; Sokol, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical construct of stigma has received much attention in psychiatric disability research, leading to the development of widely used measures. Such measures have had real world impact in that they allow for the assessment of stigma change efforts. The study of stigma has not received the same level of attention for persons with…

  7. Affiliate Stigma among Caregivers of People with Intellectual Disability or Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Affiliate stigma refers to the extent of self-stigmatization among associates of the targeted minorities. Given previous studies on caregiver stigma were mostly qualitative in nature, a conceptually based, unified, quantitative instrument to measure affiliate stigma is still lacking. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ten…

  8. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in a "Blameless" Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Xiaobin; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zunyou

    2006-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination are major barriers to the successful control of HIV. Stigma is associated with the disease as well as the behaviors that lead to infection. A qualitative study was conducted to identify the reasons, sources, and types of HIV-related stigma prevalent in rural China. Eighty in-depth interviews were conducted…

  9. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  10. Affiliate Stigma among Caregivers of People with Intellectual Disability or Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Affiliate stigma refers to the extent of self-stigmatization among associates of the targeted minorities. Given previous studies on caregiver stigma were mostly qualitative in nature, a conceptually based, unified, quantitative instrument to measure affiliate stigma is still lacking. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ten…

  11. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures.

    PubMed

    Brohan, Elaine; Slade, Mike; Clement, Sarah; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-03-25

    There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose.

  12. Self-clarity and different clusters of insight and self-stigma in mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2016-06-30

    The current study explored the self-experience of persons with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) by investigating the associations between different insight and self-stigma clusters, self-clarity, hope, recovery, and functioning. One hundred seven persons diagnosed with a SMI were administered six scales: self-concept clarity, self-stigma, insight into the illness, hope, recovery, and functioning. Correlations and cluster analyses were performed. Insight, as measured by a self-report scale was not related to any other variable. Self-stigma was negatively associated with self-clarity, hope, recovery and functioning. Three clusters emerged: moderate stigma/high insight (n=31), high stigma/moderate insight (n=28), and low stigma/low insight (n=42). The group with low stigma and low insight had higher mean levels of self-clarity and hope than the other two groups. There were no significant differences between cluster 1 (moderate stigma/high insight) and cluster 2 (high stigma/moderate insight) in all the variables beside self-clarity. The group with moderate stigma and high insight had significantly higher mean levels of self-clarity than the group with high stigma and moderate insight. Results reveal that when people diagnosed with SMI do not have high levels of self-stigma they often report a positive and clear sense of self accompanied with hope, regardless of having low insight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose. PMID:20338040

  14. Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer

  15. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. HIV Stigma and Specified Correlates in North India

    PubMed Central

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Wanchu, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the stigma and discrimination impede HIV-AIDS programs across the continuum of prevention to care. We studied stigma and related issues in HIV-positive subjects. Materials and Methods: At a tertiary care hospital in North India, we studied 100 HIV-positive outpatients not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The subjects self-administered ‘Tanzania Stigma Indicator and Community Endline-Individual Questionnaire’. Psychiatric morbidity was screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-I2 Hindi) and diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results: A typical subject was middle aged (25-44 years, 77%), school non-completer (63%), village dweller (61%), and male (59%). Only 35 subjects could differentiate between HIV and AIDS, and only 24 were aware of antiretroviral therapy. Unprotected sex, sharing injections, and blood transfusions were reported spontaneously as possible sources of transmission by 56-79% subjects each. About 80% of subjects reported no fear in touching HIV-positive subjects or their objects. Avoiding injections, being faithful to uninfected partner, avoiding blood transfusions, using condoms, and avoiding sharing razors/blades were reported spontaneously as HIV preventive measures by 40 to 26 subjects each. Half of the subjects blamed self for contracting HIV. Only 38 subjects reported others behaving differently with HIV-positive subjects. HIV status disclosure was reported by 98 subjects (73 to family or relatives). Urban subjects reported higher primary stigma and shame or blame. Psychiatric disorders, present in 45 subjects, showed no association with stigma items. Conclusions: The subjects had a limited knowledge, especially of treatment aspects. Stigma showed no association with psychiatric disorders. The study reflects a strong need for public health measures to enhance awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. PMID:23723539

  17. Mental illness--stigma and discrimination in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kapungwe, A; Cooper, S; Mwanza, J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Kakuma, R; Lund, C; Flisher, A J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe). Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mental illness stigma and discrimination is pervasive across Zambian society, prevailing within the general community, amongst family members, amid general and mental health care providers, and at the level of government. Such stigma appears to be fuelled by misunderstandings of mental illness aetiology; fears of contagion and the perceived dangerousness of people with mental illness; and associations between HIV/AIDS and mental illness. Strategies suggested for reducing stigma and discrimination in Zambia included education campaigns, the transformation of mental health policy and legislation and expanding the social and economic opportunities of the mentally ill. In Zambia, as in many other low-income African countries, very little attention is devoted to addressing the negative beliefs and behaviours surrounding mental illness, despite the devastating costs that ensue. The results from this study underscore the need for greater commitment from governments and policy-makers in African countries to start prioritizing mental illness stigma as a major public health and development issue.

  18. Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives on Cancer Stigma in North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Adyya; Dhillon, Preet K; Govil, Jyotsna; Bumb, Dipika; Dey, Subhojit; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. A large proportion of cancer deaths are preventable through early detection but there are a range of social, emotional, cultural and financial dimensions that hinder the effectiveness of cancer prevention and treatment efforts. Cancer stigma is one such barrier and is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health awareness and promotion, and hence, disease prevention and control. The impact and extent of stigma on the cancer early detection and care continuum is poorly understood in India. Objectives To evaluate cancer awareness and stigma from multiple stakeholder perspectives in North India, including men and women from the general population, health care professions and educators, and cancer survivors. Materials and Methods A qualitative study was conducted with in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) among 39 individuals over a period of 3 months in 2014. Three groups of participants were chosen purposively - 1) men and women who attended cancer-screening camps held by the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi; 2) health care providers and 3) cancer survivors. Results Most participants were unaware of what cancers are in general, their causes and ways of prevention. Attitudes of families towards cancer patients were observed to be positive and caring. Nevertheless, stigma and its impact emerged as a cross cutting theme across all groups. Cost of treatment followed by lack of awareness, beliefs in alternate medicines were identified as some of the major barriers to seeking care. Conclusions This study suggests a need for spreading awareness, knowledge about cancers and assessing associated impact among the people. Also future research is recommended to help eradicate stigma from the society and reduce cancer-related stigma in the Indian context. PMID:26320509

  19. Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives on Cancer Stigma in North India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adyya; Dhillon, Preet K; Govil, Jyotsna; Bumb, Dipika; Dey, Subhojit; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. A large proportion of cancer deaths are preventable through early detection but there are a range of social, emotional, cultural and financial dimensions that hinder the effectiveness of cancer prevention and treatment efforts. Cancer stigma is one such barrier and is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health awareness and promotion, and hence, disease prevention and control. The impact and extent of stigma on the cancer early detection and care continuum is poorly understood in India. To evaluate cancer awareness and stigma from multiple stakeholder perspectives in North India, including men and women from the general population, health care professionals and educators, and cancer survivors. A qualitative study was conducted with in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) among 39 individuals over a period of 3 months in 2014. Three groups of participants were chosen purposively - 1) men and women who attended cancer screening camps held by the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi; 2) health care providers and 3) cancer survivors. Most participants were unaware of what cancers are in general, their causes and ways of prevention. Attitudes of families towards cancer patients were observed to be positive and caring. Nevertheless, stigma and its impact emerged as a cross cutting theme across all groups. Cost of treatment, lack of awarenes and beliefs in alternate medicines were identified as some of the major barriers to seeking care. This study suggests a need for spreading awareness, knowledge about cancers and assessing associated impact among the people. Also Future research is recommended to help eradicate stigma from the society and reduce cancer-related stigma in the Indian context.

  20. The "Big C"-stigma, cancer, and workplace discrimination.

    PubMed

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Pritlove, Cheryl; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2016-12-01

    Stigma and workplace discrimination have been identified as prominent challenges to employment following cancer. However, there has been limited examination of how stigma develops in work contexts and how it influences cancer survivors' return to work process and their disclosure decisions. In the broader study from which this paper emerges, we used an exploratory qualitative design to examine the return to work process (including workplace supports and accommodations) of cancer survivors. We conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with (i) cancer survivors (n = 16), (ii) health care/vocational service providers (n = 16), and (iii) employer representatives (n = 8). We used thematic analysis methods to analyze the data. In this paper, we present data related specifically to workplace stigma, discrimination, and disclosure. Contrasting perspectives were identified among our stakeholder groups regarding the existence and impact of stigma in the workplace. While most provider and employer representatives believed survivors were not likely to be stigmatized, cancer survivors themselves perceived cancer as a highly stigmatized illness in the workplace. Two inter-related elements were implicated in the development of workplace stigma following cancer: (1) ongoing misconceptions and fears associating cancer with death and (2) misperceptions regarding impacts on the workplace, including survivors' work abilities, productivity, reliability, the costs associated with their continued employment (e.g., workplace accommodations), and future impacts on the workplace related to cancer re-occurrence. Discriminatory behaviors, such as hiring discrimination, bullying, harassment, refusal of workplace accommodations, and limited career advancement opportunities, were also discussed. A supportive workplace, a desire to be open with co-workers, and a need to request supports and manage expectations were reasons provided for disclosure. Conversely, an unsupportive workplace

  1. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Sign Language as Virus: Stigma and Relationality in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Friedner, Michele

    2017-08-31

    Drawing upon ethnographic research conducted in urban locations in India, I consider the relationship between stigma and contagion in the context of deaf peoples' desires for and practices of communication in Indian Sign Language. If sign language can be considered or represented as a virus-and if it spreads between and among deaf people upon exposure-what might cure differentially look like, in a time when cochlear implantation and oral-based early intervention is increasingly becoming normalized? Considering the impact of stigma on multiple forms of relationality, I argue that sign language's viral potentiality lies in its ability to transform and create new relationships and worlds.

  3. Stigma: a Unique Source of Distress for Family Members of Individuals with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Lucksted, Alicia; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    To distinguish the impact of mental illness stigma from that of other negative caregiving experiences, this study examined the unique relationships between stigma and caregiver/family functioning. Adult relatives (n = 437) of individuals with mental illness completed questionnaires regarding caregiving experiences, distress, empowerment, and family functioning, as part of a larger study. Regression analyses examined the relationship between stigma and caregiver/family variables, while controlling for other negative caregiving experiences. Stigma was uniquely associated with caregiver distress, empowerment, and family functioning. Mental illness stigma is a potent source of distress for families and an important target of family services.

  4. Religion and HIV/AIDS Stigma in Puerto Rico: A Cultural Challenge for Training Future Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Santos-Figueroa, Axel; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Marques, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma continues to be a challenge for HIV prevention and treatment. When health professionals manifest stigma it can limit access to quality treatment. With an ever-growing epidemic among Latinos, including Puerto Ricans living on the Caribbean Island, the social and structural factors that foster HIV/AIDS stigma need to be understood. In this study, we documented the association of religion with HIV/AIDS stigma in a sample of medical students in Puerto Rico. Findings suggest that importance placed on religion, and participation in religious activities, is associated with HIV/AIDS stigma for this population. PMID:23442492

  5. Social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kido, Yoshifumi; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuki; Chiba, Rie; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Living in a community with high social capital might lead to lower stigma towards people with mental illness. We examined the association between social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in the community of Tokyo, Japan. A random sample of 2,000 community residents was selected and surveyed. Data from 516 respondents were analyzed. In this study, two individual-based social capital variables were significantly and negatively associated with the stigma score, while area-based social capital was not significantly associated with the stigma score. Social capital, particularly reciprocity/norm of cooperation and trust in the community, may be associated with lower stigma.

  6. Religion and HIV/AIDS stigma in Puerto Rico: a cultural challenge for training future physicians.

    PubMed

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Santos-Figueroa, Axel; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Marques, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma continues to be a challenge for HIV prevention and treatment. When health professionals manifest stigma it can limit access to quality treatment. With an ever-growing epidemic among Latinos, including Puerto Ricans living on the Caribbean Island, the social and structural factors that foster HIV/AIDS stigma need to be understood. In this study, we documented the association of religion with HIV/AIDS stigma in a sample of medical students in Puerto Rico. Findings suggest that importance placed on religion, and participation in religious activities, is associated with HIV/AIDS stigma for this population.

  7. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH) Scale: Examination across Six Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Efstathiou, Georgios; Holtham, Elizabeth; Kouvaraki, Elli; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Shechtman, Zipora; Topkaya, Nursel

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that the stigma associated with seeking therapy--particularly self-stigma--can inhibit the use of psychological services. Yet, most of the research on self-stigma has been conducted in the United States. This is a considerable limitation, as the role of self-stigma in the help-seeking process may vary across cultural groups.…

  8. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH) Scale: Examination across Six Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Efstathiou, Georgios; Holtham, Elizabeth; Kouvaraki, Elli; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Shechtman, Zipora; Topkaya, Nursel

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that the stigma associated with seeking therapy--particularly self-stigma--can inhibit the use of psychological services. Yet, most of the research on self-stigma has been conducted in the United States. This is a considerable limitation, as the role of self-stigma in the help-seeking process may vary across cultural groups.…

  9. Factors Associated with Perceived Stigma among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C.; Orach, Christopher G.; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related stigma continues to persist in several African countries including Uganda. This study quantified the burden of stigma and examined factors associated with stigma among 476 people living with HIV (PLHTV) in Gulu, northern Uganda. Data were collected between February and May 2009 using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA. Females more…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Depression Stigma Scale (DSS) and Associations with Personal and Perceived Stigma in a Depressed and Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, P.; Griffiths, K. M.; Kleiboer, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on depression stigma is needed to gain more insight into the underlying construct and to reduce the level of stigma in the community. However, few validated measurements of depression stigma are available in the Netherlands. Therefore, this study first sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Second, we examined which demographic (gender, age, education, partner status) and other variables (anxiety and knowledge of depression) are associated with personal and perceived stigma within these samples. Methods The study population consisted of an adult convenience sample (n = 253) (study 1) and a community adult sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n = 264) (study 2). Factor structure, internal consistency, and validity were assessed. The associations between stigma, demographic variables and anxiety level were examined with regression analyses. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal stigma scale. Internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .70 (study 1) and .77 (study 2)). The results regarding the perceived stigma scale revealed no clear factor structure. Regression analyses showed that personal stigma was higher in younger people, those with no experience with depression, and those with lower education. Conclusions This study established the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal scale in the Netherlands, in a community sample and in people with elevated depressive symptoms. However, additional research is needed to examine the factor structure of the DSS perceived scale and its use in other samples. PMID:27500969

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Depression Stigma Scale (DSS) and Associations with Personal and Perceived Stigma in a Depressed and Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Boerema, A M; Zoonen, K van; Cuijpers, P; Holtmaat, C J M; Mokkink, L B; Griffiths, K M; Kleiboer, A M

    2016-01-01

    Research on depression stigma is needed to gain more insight into the underlying construct and to reduce the level of stigma in the community. However, few validated measurements of depression stigma are available in the Netherlands. Therefore, this study first sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Second, we examined which demographic (gender, age, education, partner status) and other variables (anxiety and knowledge of depression) are associated with personal and perceived stigma within these samples. The study population consisted of an adult convenience sample (n = 253) (study 1) and a community adult sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n = 264) (study 2). Factor structure, internal consistency, and validity were assessed. The associations between stigma, demographic variables and anxiety level were examined with regression analyses. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal stigma scale. Internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach's alpha = .70 (study 1) and .77 (study 2)). The results regarding the perceived stigma scale revealed no clear factor structure. Regression analyses showed that personal stigma was higher in younger people, those with no experience with depression, and those with lower education. This study established the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal scale in the Netherlands, in a community sample and in people with elevated depressive symptoms. However, additional research is needed to examine the factor structure of the DSS perceived scale and its use in other samples.

  12. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing self-stigma in Japanese psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi; Emura, Rina; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Nagao, Ayako; Ogata, Akiko; Hiejima, Shigeto; Hosomi, Jun

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that the stigma surrounding mental illness may be greater in Japan than elsewhere. However, few Japanese studies have focused on self-stigma (the internalization of social stigma), and few interventions to reduce self-stigma exist. To remedy this deficiency, we evaluated the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing self-stigma and examined the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. We administered a 10-session group CBT program to 46 Japanese outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms (36 men, 10 women; mean age=38.57 years, SD=8.33; 20 diagnosed with mood disorders; 24 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 2 with other disorders). A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State-Form, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. Participants exhibited significant improvements in depression, anxiety, and maladjusted cognitive bias and reductions in self-stigma. Cognitive bias was significantly correlated with self-stigma. Group CBT is effective in improving both emotional symptoms and self-stigma in outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reduction in self-stigma plays a mediating role in alleviating emotional symptoms and improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Internalized stigma among patients with substance use disorders at a tertiary care center in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Kumar, Saurabh; Saini, Vinay; Kamran, Akriti; Patil, Vaibhav; Singh, Swarndeep; Gyawali, Shreeya

    2017-09-12

    Internalized stigma among individuals with substance use disorders is a major barrier for accessing mental health services. This study aimed to assess internalized stigma among individuals with substance use disorders and to assess the relationship of internalized stigma with the quality of life. This cross-sectional study recruited 201 patients with a clinical diagnosis of at least opioid or alcohol use disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 at a public-funded tertiary care center in India. The study participants were interviewed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS), and the World Health Organization's Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire. Seven participants (3.5% of the sample) had mild stigma according to ISMI scores, 62 (30.8%) had moderate stigma, and 132 (65.7%) had severe stigma. The various quality-of-life domains generally had a negative correlation with the internalized stigma scores. Participants using opioids as the primary substance of use were more likely to have severe internalized stigma. The experience of internalized stigma and dissatisfaction with quality of life is quite high among people suffering with substance use disorders in India. These results emphasize the need for interventions to reduce internal perception of stigma and improve the quality of life of individuals with substance use disorders.

  14. A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: I. Predictors of cognitive stress appraisal.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Olschewski, Manfred; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen

    2009-05-01

    Stigma can be a major stressor for individuals with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. It is unclear, however, why some stigmatized individuals appraise stigma as more stressful, while others feel they can cope with the potential harm posed by public prejudice. We tested the hypothesis that the level of perceived public stigma and personal factors such as rejection sensitivity, perceived legitimacy of discrimination and ingroup perceptions (group value; group identification; entitativity, or the perception of the ingroup of people with mental illness as a coherent unit) predict the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor. Stigma stress appraisal refers to perceived stigma-related harm exceeding perceived coping resources. Stress appraisal, stress predictors and social cue recognition were assessed in 85 people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or affective disorders. Stress appraisal did not differ between diagnostic subgroups, but was positively correlated with rejection sensitivity. Higher levels of perceived societal stigma and holding the group of people with mental illness in low regard (low group value) independently predicted high stigma stress appraisal. These predictors remained significant after controlling for social cognitive deficits, depressive symptoms and diagnosis. Our findings support the model that public and personal factors predict stigma stress appraisal among people with mental illness, independent of diagnosis and clinical symptoms. Interventions that aim to reduce the impact of stigma on people with mental illness could focus on variables such as rejection sensitivity, a personal vulnerability factor, low group value and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor.

  15. Stigma and the acceptability of depression treatments among african americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Givens, Jane L; Katz, Ira R; Bellamy, Scarlett; Holmes, William C

    2007-09-01

    Stigma is associated with depression treatment, however, whether stigma differs between depression treatment modalities is not known, nor have racial differences in depression treatment stigma been fully explored. To measure stigma for four depression treatments and estimate its association with treatment acceptability for African Americans and whites. Cross-sectional, anonymous mailed survey. Four hundred and ninety African-American and white primary care patients. The acceptability of four depression treatments (prescription medication, mental health counseling, herbal remedy, and spiritual counseling) was assessed using a vignette. Treatment-specific stigma was evaluated by asking whether participants would: (1) feel ashamed; (2) feel comfortable telling friends and family; (3) feel okay if people in their community knew; and (4) not want people at work to know about each depression treatment. Sociodemographics, depression history, and current depressive symptoms were measured. Treatment-specific stigma was lower for herbal remedy than prescription medication or mental health counseling (p < .01). Whites had higher stigma than African Americans for all treatment modalities. In adjusted analyses, stigma relating to self [AOR 0.43 (0.20-0.95)] and friends and family [AOR 0.42 (0.21-0.88)] was associated with lower acceptability of mental health counseling. Stigma did not account for the lower acceptability of prescription medication among African Americans. Treatment associated stigma significantly affects the acceptability of mental health counseling but not prescription medication. Efforts to improve depression treatment utilization might benefit from addressing concerns about stigma of mental health counseling.

  16. Stigma and psychiatric morbidity among mothers of children with epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Elafros, Melissa A.; Sakubita-Simasiku, Claire; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy-associated stigma contributes substantially to the social, medical, and economic burden of disease for people with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about its impact on caregivers of PWE. Methods To better understand stigma experienced by caregivers of PWE, factors that influence caregiver stigma, and the effect of stigma on a caregiver's psychologic well being, we interviewed 100 caregivers of children with epilepsy in Zambia. Questions assessed maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to epilepsy, maternal stigma, mother's proxy report of child stigma, and maternal psychiatric morbidity. Results Of 100 mothers, 39 (39%) indicated that their child was stigmatized because of his or her epilepsy. Maternal proxy report of child stigma was highly correlated with maternal stigma (OR: 5.4, p=0.04), seizure frequency (p=0.03) and seizure severity (p=0.01). One in five of 100 mothers (20%) reported feeling stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. Higher maternal stigma was associated with lower familial and community support (ORs: 65.2 and 34.7, respectively; both p<0.0001) as well as higher psychiatric morbidity (OR: 1.2; p=0.002). Formal education and epilepsy knowledge were associated with decreased maternal stigma (ORs: 0.8 and 0.7, respectively; both p<0.001). Conclusions One in five mothers of PWE feel stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. As maternal stigma is associated with psychiatric morbidity, educating caregivers about epilepsy and screening for anxiety and depression are warranted. PMID:24214528

  17. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child's Disorder of Sex Development

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, Aimee M.; Vilain, Eric; Sandberg, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn–17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child's age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling. PMID:25918529

  18. A theoretical and empirical framework for constructing culture-specific stigma instruments for Chile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Valencia, Elie; Alvarado, Ruben; Link, Bruce; Huynh, Nina; Nguyen, Kristy; Morita, Kara; Saavedra, Mariella; Wong, Chak; Galea, Sandro; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Different cultural contexts contribute to substantial variation in the stigma faced by people with psychosis globally. We propose a new formulation of how culture affects stigma to create psychometrically-validated tools to assess stigma’s culture-specific effects. We propose to construct culture-specific stigma measures for the Chilean context via: 1) open-ended administration of ‘universal’ stigma scales to a sample of individuals with psychosis, relatives, and community respondents; 2) qualitative analyses to identify how culture shapes stigma and to derive initial ‘culture-specific’ stigma items; 3) construction and pilot-testing of final ‘culture-specific’ stigma measures; 4) initial psychometric validation among a sample of individuals with psychosis. We identify initial hypotheses for how stigma might threaten the capacities to participate in fundamental activities that ‘matter most’ in the Chilean context. These include mental illness stigma threatening the man’s ability to protect the honor of the family, and the woman’s ability to be a ‘holy and pure’ mother. Mental illness stigma may further endanger the ability of the family to uphold reciprocal obligations within their social network. Developing such measures promises to aid efforts to address culture-specific forms of stigma, and to facilitate implementation of community mental health services, in Chile and other Latin American contexts. PMID:23990755

  19. Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…

  20. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley

    2014-01-01

    The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. © 2014.

  1. Identifying molecular markers associated with stigma characteristics in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stigma characteristics play essential roles in hybrid seed production of rice and marker-assisted breeding plays essential role because they are quantitatively inherited with single-flowered perfect spikelet. Ninety four accessions originated from 47 countries were selected from the USDA rice core c...

  2. Shame in Sexual Minorities: Stigma, Internal Cognitions, and Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame among…

  3. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  4. Mental Health: Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Mental illness False beliefs about mental illness can cause significant problems. Learn what you can do about stigma. By Mayo Clinic ... as someone making a negative remark about your mental illness or your treatment. Or it may be unintentional ...

  5. Stigma and Student Mental Health in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Marie

    2010-01-01

    Stigma is a powerful force in preventing university students with mental health difficulties from gaining access to appropriate support. This paper reports on an exploratory study of university students with mental health difficulties that found most students did not disclose their mental health problems to staff at university. This was primarily…

  6. Stigma and Student Mental Health in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Marie

    2010-01-01

    Stigma is a powerful force in preventing university students with mental health difficulties from gaining access to appropriate support. This paper reports on an exploratory study of university students with mental health difficulties that found most students did not disclose their mental health problems to staff at university. This was primarily…

  7. The role of social media in reducing stigma and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Betton, Victoria; Borschmann, Rohan; Docherty, Mary; Coleman, Stephen; Brown, Mark; Henderson, Claire

    2015-06-01

    This editorial explores the implications of social media practices whereby people with mental health problems share their experiences in online public spaces and challenge mental health stigma. Social media enable individuals to bring personal experience into the public domain with the potential to affect public attitudes and mainstream media. We draw tentative conclusions regarding the use of social media by campaigning organisations.

  8. Shame in Sexual Minorities: Stigma, Internal Cognitions, and Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame among…

  9. Stigma, Obesity, and the Health of the Nation's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Latner, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Preventing childhood obesity has become a top priority in efforts to improve our nation's public health. Although much research is needed to address this health crisis, it is important to approach childhood obesity with an understanding of the social stigma that obese youths face, which is pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional…

  10. Active ingredients in anti-stigma programmes in mental health.

    PubMed

    Pinfold, Vanessa; Thornicroft, Graham; Huxley, Peter; Farmer, Paul

    2005-04-01

    This paper draws upon a review of the relevant literature and the results of the recent Mental Health Awareness in Action (MHAA) programme in England to discuss the current evidence base on the active ingredients in effective anti-stigma interventions in mental health. The MHAA Programme delivered educational interventions to 109 police officers, 78 adults from different community groups whose working lives involved supporting people with mental health problems but who had received no mental health training and 472 schools students aged 14-15. Each adult target group received two intervention sessions lasting two hours. The two school lessons were 50 minutes each. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intent were assessed at baseline and follow-up. In addition focus groups were held with mental health service users to explore the impact of stigma on their lives and facilitators of educational workshops were interviewed to provide expert opinion on 'what works' to reduce psychiatric stigma. Personal contact was predictive of positive changes in knowledge and attitudes for the school students but not the police officers or community adult group. The key active ingredient identified by all intervention groups and workshop facilitators were the testimonies of service users. The statements of service users (consumers) about their experience of mental health problems and of their contact with a range of services had the greatest and most lasting impact on the target audiences in terms of reducing mental health stigma.

  11. Seeing you seeing me: Stereotypes and the stigma magnification effect.

    PubMed

    Mikolon, Sven; Kreiner, Glen E; Wieseke, Jan

    2016-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2016-21000-001). In the article, Table 2 contained a production-related formatting error. Values from column 11 onward were shifted upwards in the table. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Despite an increased interest in the phenomenon of stigma in organizations, we know very little about the interactions between those who are stigmatized and those who stigmatize them. Integrating both the perceptions of the stigmatized worker and the stigmatizing customer into one model, the present study addresses this gap. It examines the role of stereotypes held by customers of stigmatized organizations and metastereotypes held by the stigmatized workers themselves (i.e., their shared beliefs of the stereotypes customers associate with them) in frontline exchanges. To do so, data regarding frontline workers (vendors) of homeless-advocate newspapers from 3 different sources (vendors, customers, trained observers) were gathered. Multilevel path-analytic hypotheses tests reveal (a) how frontline workers' prototypicality for a stigmatized organization renders salient a stigma within frontline interactions and (b) how stereotypes by customers and metastereotypes by frontline workers interact with each other in such contacts. The results support a hypothesized interaction between frontline workers' metastereotypes and customers' stereotypes-what we call the "stigma magnification effect". The study also derives important practical implications by linking stigma to frontline workers' discretionary financial gains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. [Stigma: Barrier to Access to Mental Health Services].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The perceived stigma represents a sociocultural barrier to access mental health services and prevents individuals who meet criteria for a mental disorder the possibility of receiving comprehensive and integred care. To update institutional mechanisms by which stigma related to mental disorders, perceived and perpetrated, acts as a barrier to mental health access. Stigma as a barrier to access to mental health services is due to a reduction in service requests, the allocation of limited resources to mental health, the systematic process of impoverishment of the people who suffer a mental disorder, increased risk of crime, and implications in contact with the legal system, and the invisibility of the vulnerability of these people. Structured awareness and education programs are needed to promote awareness about mental disorders, promote community-based psychosocial rehabilitation, and reintegration into productive life process. In Colombia, the frequency and variables associated with the stigma of mental disorders needs to be studied. This knowledge will enable the implementation of measures to promote the social and labor inclusion of people who meet the criteria for mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. All rights reserved.

  13. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered.

  14. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  15. Stigma and Other Determinants of Participation in TANF and Medicaid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuber, Jennifer; Kronebusch, Karl

    2004-01-01

    We developed a conceptual framework to examine the association between stigma, enrollment barriers (e.g., difficult application), knowledge, state policy, and participation in the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and adult Medicaid programs. Survey data from 901 community health center patients, who were potential and actual…

  16. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  17. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  18. Using Attribution Theory to Examine Community Rehabilitation Provider Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Ciftci, Ayse; O'Sullivan, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study builds on existing research investigating the stigma-reducing strategies specific to rehabilitation service providers by comparing differences in education levels and degree of contact among rehabilitation service providers. Rehabilitation service providers with master's level and bachelor level education showed significant differences…

  19. Stigma, Obesity, and the Health of the Nation's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Latner, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Preventing childhood obesity has become a top priority in efforts to improve our nation's public health. Although much research is needed to address this health crisis, it is important to approach childhood obesity with an understanding of the social stigma that obese youths face, which is pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional…

  20. Using Attribution Theory to Examine Community Rehabilitation Provider Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Ciftci, Ayse; O'Sullivan, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study builds on existing research investigating the stigma-reducing strategies specific to rehabilitation service providers by comparing differences in education levels and degree of contact among rehabilitation service providers. Rehabilitation service providers with master's level and bachelor level education showed significant differences…

  1. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  2. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  3. Health discourse and within-group stigma in professional BDSM.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Danielle J

    2013-12-01

    This article directly deals with health and stigma within practices of erotic labor. Scant previous literature has focused on erotic laborers' perceptions of stigma and the ways in which regimes of stigmatization operate within their particular social worlds. I use the commercial BDSM (Bondage, Discipline, Sadism, Masochism) "dungeon" as a strategic research site to investigate these workers' conceptions and management of their own stigma, and I find that discourses about stigma are inextricably entwined with concerns about health and wellbeing. Data are derived from ethnographic fieldwork with professional dominatrices ("pro-dommes") who work in New York City and San Francisco as well as in-depth interviews conducted between September 2007 and April 2008. Counter to stereotypes of erotic laborers as violent or as vectors of disease, BDSM workers are in fact not only concerned about safety but professionally invested in it, reinforcing it through an identity politics of hierarchies of erotic labor. There are multiple implications of this work for public perception and policy-implications that could only be brought to light through the ethnographic method.

  4. Media saturation, communication exposure and HIV stigma in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Stella; Fatusi, Adesegun; Anyanti, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    HIV-related stigma constitutes an impediment to public health as it hampers HIV/AIDS control efforts in many ways. To address the complex problems of increasing HIV infection rate, widespread misinformation about the infection and the rising level of HIV-related stigma, the various tiers of government in Nigeria are working with local and international non-governmental organizations to develop and implement strategic communication programs. This paper assesses the link between these communication efforts and HIV-related stigma using data from a nationally representative household survey. The results show that accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV are more prevalent among men than among women. Exposure to HIV-related communication on the media is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, which is in turn a strong predictor of accepting attitudes. Communication exposure also has a significant and positive association with accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV. In contrast, community media saturation is not strongly linked with accepting attitudes for either sex. The findings strongly suggest that media-based HIV programs constitute an effective strategy to combat HIV/AIDS-related stigma and should therefore be intensified in Nigeria.

  5. Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…

  6. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  7. A measure of perceived stigma in people with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Ali, Afia; Strydom, Andre; Hassiotis, Angela; Williams, Rachael; King, Michael

    2008-11-01

    There is a lack of validated instruments measuring perceived stigma in people with intellectual disability. To develop a valid and reliable self-rated instrument to measure perceived stigma that can be completed by people with mild to moderate intellectual disability. A literature search was used to generate a list of statements. Professionals, individuals with intellectual disability and carers were consulted about the suitability of statements. An instrument was developed containing statements about stigma with accompanying photographs. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency and the factor structure of the instrument were evaluated. The instrument was completed by 109 people once and 88 people twice. Items with limited variability in responses and kappa coefficients lower than 0.4 were dropped. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors: ;perceived discrimination' (seven items) and ;reaction to discrimination' (four items). One item loaded onto both factors. Cronbach's alpha for the ten-item instrument was 0.84. This instrument will further our understanding of the impact of stigma in people with intellectual disability in clinical and research settings.

  8. Stigma Predicts Treatment Preferences and Care Engagement among Veterans Affairs Primary Care Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Duncan G.; Bonner, Laura M.; Bolkan, Cory R.; Lanto, Andrew B.; Zivin, Kara; Waltz, Thomas J.; Klap, Ruth; Rubenstein, Lisa V.; Chaney, Edmund F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whereas stigma regarding mental health concerns exists, the evidence for stigma as a depression treatment barrier among patients in Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care (PC) is mixed. Purpose To test whether stigma, defined as depression label avoidance, predicted patients' preferences for depression treatment providers, patients' prospective engagement in depression care, and care quality. Methods We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of existing data from 761 VA PC patients with probable major depression. Results Relative to low stigma patients, those with high stigma were less likely to prefer treatment from mental health specialists. In prospective controlled analyses, high stigma predicted lower likelihood of the following: taking medications for mood, treatment by mental health specialists, treatment for emotional concerns in PC, and appropriate depression care. Conclusions High stigma is associated with lower preferences for care from mental health specialists and confers risk for minimal depression treatment engagement. PMID:26935310

  9. HIV Stigma in Prisons and Jails: Results from a Staff Survey.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dembo, Richard; Copenhaver, Michael; Hiller, Matthew; Swan, Holly; Albizu Garcia, Carmen; O'Connell, Daniel; Oser, Carrie; Pearson, Frank; Pankow, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    With numerous HIV service gaps in prisons and jails, there has been little research on HIV stigma attitudes among correctional staff. Such attitudes may undermine HIV services for inmates at risk of or infected with HIV. This HIV stigma attitudes survey among 218 correctional staff in 32 US facilities (1) provides an overview of staff's stigma attitudes, (2) reports psychometric analyses of domains in Earnshaw and Chaudoir's HIV Stigma Framework (HSF), and (3) explores differences in stigma attitudes among different staff types. Overall, correctional and medical staff expressed non stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS, but perceived that stigma and discrimination exist in others. Factor analyses revealed a three factor structure capturing two mechanisms of the HSF (prejudice, discrimination). Few factor score differences were found by staff type or setting. Implications for correctional HIV services and future research on HIV stigma attitudes are discussed.

  10. The correlates of stigma toward mental illness among Jordanian patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmad; Mahroum, Maryam Husnee; Khasawneh, Aws

    2017-05-23

    This study aims to assess the correlates of stigma toward mental illness among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). One hundred and sixty one Jordanian outpatients suffering from MDD completed the study. Participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies for the intensity of depression, and the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale to assess stigma. Participants reported a moderate level of perceived stigma toward mental illness. Age, perceived pain, the number of relapses, and severity of depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with stigma toward mental illness among the study sample. The severity of depressive symptoms was the strongest correlate of stigma toward mental illness. Factors associated with stigma toward mental illness should be carefully considered when implementing anti-stigma programs for patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Stigma Among Latinos Receiving Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Interian, Alejandro; Martinez, Igda E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Vega, William A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study sought to describe the role of stigma in antidepressant adherence among Latinos. Methods The study utilized data generated from six focus groups of Latino outpatients receiving antidepressants (N=30). By using a grounded theory approach, qualitative analysis focused specifically on the role of stigma in antidepressant treatment, as well as salient Latino values. Results Perceptions of stigma were related to both the diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressant medication. Qualitative analyses showed that antidepressant use was seen as implying more severe illness, weakness or failure to cope with problems, and being under the effects of a drug. Reports of stigma were also related to social consequences. Also, the perceived negative attributes of antidepressant use were at odds with self-perceived cultural values. Conclusions Stigma was a prominent concern among Latinos receiving antidepressants, and stigma often affected adherence. Furthermore, culture is likely to play an important role in the communication of stigma and its associated complications. PMID:18048562

  12. "Grow the Beard, Wear the Costume": Resisting Weight and Sexual Orientation Stigmas in the Bear Subculture.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Patrick B

    2016-12-01

    Being gay and being overweight are two stigmatized statuses in the United States. A range of work has considered the experience of being stigmatized and the consequences of stereotypes for overweight individuals and sexual minorities, but less research has examined the intersection of these two stigmas among larger gay men or collective efforts to resist such stigma. This study qualitatively examines a subculture of gay men, the bears, to test theoretical models of stigma resistance. The analysis demonstrates the transferability of stigma resistance among multiple stigmatized attributes and the use of multiple strategies to resist one stigma. At the same time, it shows how subcultural dynamics both aid and undermine the resistance toward stigma, and the risk of reinforcing stigma's effect through criticizing others who embody a stereotype. The results also demonstrate how resistance strategies are both empowering and psychologically taxing for stigmatized individuals.

  13. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help-seeking in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J

    2017-03-01

    Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. "They Treat you a Different Way:" Public Insurance, Stigma, and the Challenge to Quality Health Care.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Hume, Anna C; Baker, Allison M; Bell, Hannah S; Montemayor, Isabel; Elwell, Kristan; Hunt, Linda M

    2017-03-01

    Under the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid Expansion programs are extending Medicaid eligibility and increasing access to care. However, stigma associated with public insurance coverage may importantly affect the nature and content of the health care beneficiaries receive. In this paper, we examine the health care stigma experiences described by a group of low-income public insurance beneficiaries. They perceive stigma as manifest in poor quality care and negative interpersonal interactions in the health care setting. Using an intersectional approach, we found that the stigma of public insurance was compounded with other sources of stigma including socioeconomic status, race, gender, and illness status. Experiences of stigma had important implications for how subjects evaluated the quality of care, their decisions impacting continuity of care, and their reported ability to access health care. We argue that stigma challenges the quality of care provided under public insurance and is thus a public health issue that should be addressed in Medicaid policy.

  15. Felt and enacted stigma in elderly persons with epilepsy: A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Sleeth, Carolyn; Drake, Kendra; Labiner, David M; Chong, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Stigma is a common psychological consequence of chronic diseases, including epilepsy; however, little research has been done to determine the effect of stigma on persons with epilepsy, especially the elderly. We interviewed 57 older adults with epilepsy to discover the extent and consequences of, and reasons for, epilepsy-related stigma in their lives. Felt stigma was more frequently reported than enacted stigma, with over 70% having experienced this form of stigma. Participants described ignorance and fear of the disease as the foundation of epilepsy-related stigma. The most common response to stigmatizing events was a decrease in epilepsy disclosure to family or friends. Results from this study could inform interventions designed for elderly persons with epilepsy and their support networks, as well as educational campaigns for the general public.

  16. Jail Inmates’ Perceived and Anticipated Stigma: Implications for Post-release Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that offenders perceive stigma, but the accuracy of these perceptions has not been assessed, nor their impact on successful reintegration. In a longitudinal study, jail inmates (N = 168) reported perceptions of stigma toward criminals and anticipated stigma just prior to release. A diverse college sample completed a parallel survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes toward criminals. Inmates’ perceived stigma was significantly higher than students’ stigmatizing attitudes. Perceived stigma positively predicted post-release employment for African-American inmates, but not for Caucasians. Anticipated stigma negatively predicted arrests for Caucasian inmates, but not for African Americans. Perceived and anticipated stigma may have different implications for reintegration, and these implications may vary across race. PMID:25045324

  17. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Diane M.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Park, Crystal L.

    2015-01-01

    The Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale (CIASS) was developed to measure anticipated stigma (i.e., expectations of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination) among people living with chronic illnesses. The CIASS is a 12-item scale with three subscales differentiating among sources of anticipated stigma, including friends and family members, work colleagues, and healthcare workers. Results support the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the CIASS in two samples of people living with chronic illnesses. The CIASS was correlated with other stigma-related constructs as well as indicators of mental health, physical health, and health behaviors. The CIASS can help researchers gauge the degree to which people living with chronic illnesses anticipate stigma, better understand the processes by which anticipated stigma contributes to the health and behavior of people living with chronic illnesses, and compare the extent to which people living with different types of chronic illnesses anticipate stigma. PMID:22526525

  18. The Perceived Stigma of Mental Health Services Among Rural Parents of Children With Psychosocial Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Stacey L.; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Studts, Christina R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine parents’ perceptions of stigma regarding mental health services for their child, consider stigma in the context of novel service delivery settings (e.g., telehealth, primary care, and schools), and evaluate stigma with other factors known to influence service access. Methods 347 caregivers of children with psychosocial concerns completed surveys regarding their perceptions of stigma, service delivery settings, and barriers to care. Results Parents endorsed low levels of stigma around services. Greater perceived stigma was related to less willingness to seek services in a mental/behavioral health center or schools but not in other settings, even when other barriers were considered. Having a younger child and a history of prior services was associated with greater willingness to seek services. Conclusions Stigma does appear to present as a barrier, but only for some parents. Providing mental health services to young children and their parents in some nontraditional settings may increase access. PMID:26071754

  19. Perceived stigma, mental health and unsafe sexual behaviors of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Gong, Huanyu; Yang, Guoli; Yan, Jin

    2014-07-01

    To determine the relationship among perceived stigma, mental health and unsafe sexual behaviors of people living with HIV/AIDS. Cross-sectional research was used to interview people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from April 2012 to March 2013 in Changsha, China. The questionnaires included General Questionnaire, Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9), General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Psychometric Assessment of the HIV Stigma Scale. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS18.0. The total score of perceived stigma and its 4 dimensions were positively correlated with anxiety and depression. The total score of perceived stigma and its dimensions were associated with disclosure, but no significantly correlated with other sexual behaviors. Hierarchical regression showed perceived stigma had an effect on anxiety. The stigma perceived by PLWHA is above the average level. Perceived stigma has an effect on mental health, especially anxiety, but no effect on unsafe sexual behaviors.

  20. HIV Stigma in Prisons and Jails: Results from a Staff Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Copenhaver, Michael; Hiller, Matthew; Swan, Holly; Garcia, Carmen Albizu; O’Connell, Daniel; Oser, Carrie; Pearson, Frank; Pankow, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    With numerous HIV service gaps in prisons and jails, there has been little research on HIV stigma attitudes among correctional staff. Such attitudes may undermine HIV services for inmates at risk of or infected with HIV. This HIV stigma attitudes survey among 218 correctional staff in 32 US facilities (1) provides an overview of staff’s stigma attitudes, (2) reports psychometric analyses of domains in Earnshaw and Chaudoir’s HIV Stigma Framework (HSF), and (3) explores differences in stigma attitudes among different staff types. Overall, correctional and medical staff expressed non stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS, but perceived that stigma and discrimination exist in others. Factor analyses revealed a three factor structure capturing two mechanisms of the HSF (prejudice, discrimination). Few factor score differences were found by staff type or setting. Implications for correctional HIV services and future research on HIV stigma attitudes are discussed. PMID:26036464

  1. The role of different stigma perceptions in treatment seeking and dropout among active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Jennings, Kristen S; Cheung, Janelle H; Pury, Cynthia L S; Zinzow, Heidi M

    2015-06-01

    Many military personnel with mental health problems do not seek treatment from mental health professionals, and if they do seek treatment, they drop out of treatment before receiving the recommended number of sessions. The present study examined the role of 4 different stigma perceptions on these outcomes: perceived stigma to career, perceived stigma of differential treatment, self-stigma from seeking treatment, and stigmatizing perceptions of soldiers who seek treatment. One thousand three hundred twenty-four active duty soldiers completed a self-report survey assessment that included measures of the 4 different stigma perceptions, indices of mental health symptoms, receipt of mental health treatment, and whether they had dropped out of treatment before it was completed. Participants screening positive for a mental health problem reported higher scores on all 4 stigma perceptions. All 4 stigma perceptions were each associated with a reduced likelihood of treatment seeking when considered individually, but only stigmatizing beliefs about those who seek treatment were uniquely associated with treatment seeking. Perceived stigma for one's career and differential treatment from others, along with self-stigma from treatment seeking, were associated with an increased probability of dropping out of mental health treatment. Self-stigma from treatment seeking was the only unique predictor of dropout. Different stigma perceptions were associated with treatment seeking and dropout. Further longitudinal research is needed to examine how stigma perceptions influence these important outcomes. Practitioners need to be aware of how different stigma perceptions can influence treatment seeking and potentially target stigma perceptions during treatment to prevent dropout. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Personal and Perceived Depression Stigma among Arab Adolescents: Associations with Depression Severity and Personal Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Silva, Susan G; Smoski, Moria J; Noonan, Devon; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    In Arab communities, the selection, utilization, and attitudes towards mental health services are substantially affected by existing mental illness stigma. However, little is known about how the stigma of depression manifests among Arab adolescents, which makes it difficult to design, implement, and disseminate effective anti-stigma interventions for this vulnerable population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine levels of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. The specific aims were to (1) describe the severity of personal and perceived depression stigma among Arab adolescents and its relationship to severity of depression, and (2) determine characteristics associated with severity of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. This study was conducted in Jordan, a Middle Eastern Arab country. A nationally representative, school-based survey was utilized. A total of 2349 Jordanian adolescents aged 12-17 completed and returned the survey packets, which included measures on individual characteristics, depression severity, and depression stigma. The majority of the adolescents (88%) reported scores indicating moderate to high depression stigma. Adolescents reported higher rates of perceived stigma than personal stigma. Depression stigma was not significantly associated with severity of depression, but with adolescent's sex, age, region of residence, parents' education, and history of mental health problem. This is the first Arab study to isolate the influence of adolescent depression and personal characteristics on personal and perceived depression stigmas, and highlight the presence of these distinctions early in adolescence. Such distinction can inform the design and implementation of policies and interventions to reduce both personal and perceived stigma. The study provides important recommendations on when, how, and why to utilize school settings for anti-depression stigma interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Resisting and challenging stigma in Uganda: the role of support groups of people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Gitau; Ram, Mala; Skovdal, Morten; Bitira, David; Hodgson, Ian; Mwai, Grace W; Stegling, Christine; Seeley, Janet

    2013-11-13

    Global scale up of antiretroviral therapy is changing the context of HIV-related stigma. However, stigma remains an ongoing concern in many countries. Groups of people living with HIV can contribute to the reduction of stigma. However, the pathways through which they do so are not well understood. This paper utilizes data from a qualitative study exploring the impact of networked groups of people living with HIV in Jinja and Mbale districts of Uganda. Participants were people living with HIV (n=40), members of their households (n=10) and their health service providers (n=15). Data were collected via interviews and focus group discussions in 2010, and analyzed inductively to extract key themes related to the approaches and outcomes of the groups' anti-stigma activities. Study participants reported that HIV stigma in their communities had declined as a result of the collective activities of groups of people living with HIV. However, they believed that stigma remained an ongoing challenge. Gender, family relationships, social and economic factors emerged as important drivers of stigma. Challenging stigma collectively transcended individual experiences and united people living with HIV in a process of social renegotiation to achieve change. Groups of people living with HIV provided peer support and improved the confidence of their members, which ultimately reduced self-stigma and improved their ability to deal with external stigma when it was encountered. Antiretroviral therapy and group-based approaches in the delivery of HIV services are opening up new avenues for the collective participation of people living with HIV to challenge HIV stigma and act as agents of social change. Interventions for reducing HIV stigma should be expanded beyond those that aim to increase the resilience and coping mechanisms of individuals, to those that build the capacity of groups to collectively cope with and challenge HIV stigma. Such interventions should be gender sensitive and should

  4. The Downside of Tobacco Control? Smoking and Self-Stigma: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Polce, Rebecca J.; Castaldelli-Maia, Joao M.; Schomerus, Georg; Evans-Lacko, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the consequences of tobacco smoking stigma on smokers and how smokers may internalize smoking-related stigma. This review summarizes existing literature on tobacco smoking self-stigma, investigating to what extent smokers are aware of negative stereotypes, agree with them and apply them to themselves. Methods We carried out a systematic search of Pubmed/Web of Science/PsycInfo databases for articles related to smoking self-stigma through June 2013. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked and experts were contacted. After screening articles for inclusion/exclusion criteria we performed a quality assessment and summarized findings according to the stages of self-stigma as conceptualized in Corrigan’s progressive model of self-stigma (aware, agree, apply and harm). Initial searches yielded 570 articles. Results Thirty of these articles (18 qualitative and 12 quantitative studies) met criteria for our review. Awareness of smoking stigma was virtually universal across studies. Coping strategies for smoking stigma and the degree to which individuals who smoke internalized this stigma varied both within and across studies. There was considerable variation in positive, negative, and non-significant consequences associated with smoking self-stigma. Limited evidence was found for subgroup differences in smokingrelated stigma. Conclusion While there is some evidence that smoking self-stigma leads to reductions in smoking, this review also identified significant negative consequences of smoking self-stigma. Future research should assess the factors related to differences in how individuals respond to smoking stigma. Public health strategies which limit the stigmatization of smokers may be warranted. PMID:26439764

  5. Resisting and challenging stigma in Uganda: the role of support groups of people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, Gitau; Ram, Mala; Skovdal, Morten; Bitira, David; Hodgson, Ian; Mwai, Grace W; Stegling, Christine; Seeley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Global scale up of antiretroviral therapy is changing the context of HIV-related stigma. However, stigma remains an ongoing concern in many countries. Groups of people living with HIV can contribute to the reduction of stigma. However, the pathways through which they do so are not well understood. Methods This paper utilizes data from a qualitative study exploring the impact of networked groups of people living with HIV in Jinja and Mbale districts of Uganda. Participants were people living with HIV (n=40), members of their households (n=10) and their health service providers (n=15). Data were collected via interviews and focus group discussions in 2010, and analyzed inductively to extract key themes related to the approaches and outcomes of the groups’ anti-stigma activities. Results Study participants reported that HIV stigma in their communities had declined as a result of the collective activities of groups of people living with HIV. However, they believed that stigma remained an ongoing challenge. Gender, family relationships, social and economic factors emerged as important drivers of stigma. Challenging stigma collectively transcended individual experiences and united people living with HIV in a process of social renegotiation to achieve change. Groups of people living with HIV provided peer support and improved the confidence of their members, which ultimately reduced self-stigma and improved their ability to deal with external stigma when it was encountered. Conclusions Antiretroviral therapy and group-based approaches in the delivery of HIV services are opening up new avenues for the collective participation of people living with HIV to challenge HIV stigma and act as agents of social change. Interventions for reducing HIV stigma should be expanded beyond those that aim to increase the resilience and coping mechanisms of individuals, to those that build the capacity of groups to collectively cope with and challenge HIV stigma. Such

  6. Adapting and Validating a Scale to Measure Sexual Stigma among Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Women

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one’s group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466) in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24) and Calgary (n=20). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  7. Public Stigma Toward People With Drug Addiction: A Factorial Survey.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Escande, Alice; Racine, Eric; Göritz, Anja S

    2017-05-01

    Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with a drug addiction have detrimental effects on the lives of these people. However, the factors that influence stigma toward people with a drug addiction have not yet been thoroughly investigated, compared with the stigma of other mental illnesses. Based on attribution theory, our experiment examined to what extent individual and contextual characteristics of people with a drug addiction influence stigmatizing attitudes toward people with a drug addiction. Moreover, we explored whether respondent characteristics indicative of familiarity with addiction decrease stigma toward people with a drug addiction. We conducted a full factorial survey of 2,857 respondents from a German online access panel who were from all walks of life. We experimentally varied vignettes (2(9)-design) that featured a fictional person with an addiction. Stigmatizing beliefs, such as blame or fear, were assessed using the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-9). Different attributes of people with a drug addiction and of the characteristics of their addiction modulated stigma in ways that are mostly consistent with attribution theory and related research. For example, female gender and younger age of people with a drug addiction diminished several stigmatizing attitudes; greater duration of addiction and social influence to use drugs increased them. Furthermore, characteristics of respondents modulated stigma: women, younger respondents, and those with higher education expressed less-stigmatizing responses than others. The stigmatization of people with a drug addiction is influenced by several factors, including characteristics of the stigmatized person, the addiction, and the person holding stigmatizing attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these effects is needed to develop evidence-based antistigma measures.

  8. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  9. Stigma in Canada: results from a rapid response survey.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-10-01

    Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian's expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health-related variables. Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time.

  10. Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels.

    PubMed

    Schibalski, J V; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Vetter, S; Rodgers, S; Oexle, N; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear whether mental illness stigma affects individuals with subthreshold syndromes outside clinical settings. We therefore investigated the role of different stigma variables, including stigma-related stress and shame reactions, for avoidant stigma coping among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Based on a representative population survey, general stress resilience, stigma variables, shame about having a mental illness as well as avoidant stigma coping (secrecy and social withdrawal) were assessed by self-report among 676 participants with elevated symptom levels. Stigma variables and resilience were examined as predictors of avoidant stigma coping in a path model. Increased stigma stress was predicted by lower general stress resilience as well as by higher levels of perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination. More shame was associated with higher perceived legitimacy. Lower resilience as well as more perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy predicted avoidant coping. Stigma stress partly mediated effects of resilience, perceived stigma and group identification on avoidant coping; shame partly mediated effects of perceived legitimacy on coping. Stigma stress and shame were also directly and positively related to avoidant stigma coping. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, neuroticism and sociodemographic variables. Stigma may affect a larger proportion of the population than previously thought because stigma variables predicted secrecy and withdrawal among members of the general population with elevated, but overall mild symptom levels. Avoidant stigma coping likely has harmful effects, potentially exacerbating pre-existing psychological distress and undermining social networks. This highlights the need to reduce public stigma as well as to support individuals with subthreshold syndromes in their coping with stigma stress and shame reactions. Copyright © 2017

  11. Understanding Stigma from a Sociocultural Context: Mothers' Experience of Stigma Directed towards Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uba, Chijioke Dike; Nwoga, Kechinyerem Amaka

    2016-01-01

    Although the need for a better understanding and deconstruction of the barriers that underpin and impede the realisation of inclusive education in many developing countries is acknowledged, few studies focus specifically on exploring how stigma affects the choices that parents in developing countries make on behalf of their children. This paper…

  12. Understanding Stigma from a Sociocultural Context: Mothers' Experience of Stigma Directed towards Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uba, Chijioke Dike; Nwoga, Kechinyerem Amaka

    2016-01-01

    Although the need for a better understanding and deconstruction of the barriers that underpin and impede the realisation of inclusive education in many developing countries is acknowledged, few studies focus specifically on exploring how stigma affects the choices that parents in developing countries make on behalf of their children. This paper…

  13. Postsecondary Students and Disability Stigma: Development of the Postsecondary Student Survey of Disability-Related Stigma (PSSDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Few instruments or studies have been designed to measure the degree of stigmatization experienced by college and University students with disabilities. Yet, many researchers acknowledge through qualitative studies and other forms of experiential data that postsecondary students with disabilities do in fact encounter significant stigma effects.…

  14. The role of stigma peroxidases in flowering plants: insights from further characterization of a stigma-specific peroxidase (SSP) from Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McInnis, Stephanie M; Emery, David C; Porter, Robert; Desikan, Radhika; Hancock, John T; Hiscock, Simon J

    2006-01-01

    Angiosperm stigmas have long been known to exhibit high levels of peroxidase activity when they are mature and most receptive to pollen but the biological function of stigma peroxidases is not known. A novel stigma-specific class III peroxidase gene, SSP (stigma-specific peroxidase) expressed exclusively in the stigmas of Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) has recently been identified. Expression of SSP is confined to the specialized secretory cells (papillae) that compose the stigma epidermis. The literature on stigma peroxidases and hypotheses on their function(s) is reviewed here before further characterization of SSP and an attempt to determine its function are described. It is shown that SSP is localized to cytoplasmic regions of stigmatic papillae and also to the surface of these cells, possibly as a component of the pellicle, a thin layer of condensed protein typical of "dry" stigmas. Enzyme assays on recombinant SSP showed it to be a peroxidase with a preference for diphenolic substrates (ABTS and TMB) and a pH optimum of approximately 4.5. In such assays the peroxidase activity of SSP was low when compared with horseradish peroxidase. To explore the function of SSP and other stigmatic peroxidases, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stigmas of S. squalidus were investigated. Relatively large amounts of ROS, principally H(2)O(2), were detected in S. squalidus stigmas where most ROS/H(2)O(2) was localized to the stigmatic papillae, the location of SSP. These observations are discussed in the context of possible functions for SSP, other peroxidases, and ROS in the stigmas of angiosperms.

  15. Factors associated with perceived stigma of epilepsy in Croatia: a study using the revised Epilepsy Stigma Scale.

    PubMed

    Bielen, Ivan; Friedrich, Latica; Sruk, Ana; Prvan, Miljenka Planjar; Hajnšek, Sanja; Petelin, Zeljka; Sušak, Renata; Candrlić, Marija; Jacoby, Ann

    2014-02-01

    It is believed that a large number of factors influence feelings of stigma, but their relative contribution is not yet entirely clear. Most studies to date were conducted using the Epilepsy Stigma Scale (ESS); only one used a revised version of the ESS (rESS). The following study aims to determine factors contributing to epilepsy stigma in outpatients with chronic epilepsy in Croatia, and to analyze some psychometric properties of the Croatian translation of the rESS. Alongside standard testing for validity of the scale, a simulation model of the original ESS (smESS) was created. This model, which does not include a grading Likert 0-3 scale, was compared with the rESS. In total, 159 out of 298 subjects (53%) reported feeling stigmatised, with 136 (45%) mild to moderately and 23 (8%) highly. Internal consistency of the Croatian translation of the rESS was 0.887. Feelings of stigma were significantly associated with age ≤ 50 years, younger age of epilepsy onset, more than 50 seizures to date, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and a shorter seizure-free period. Multiple stepwise regression showed number of seizures to date as a significant variable (Beta=0.246). By adapting data into the smESS significant associations with younger age and age of epilepsy onset were lost. Internal consistency of the smESS was 0.849. The Croatian translation of the rESS has been proved to be a suitable instrument for diagnosing epilepsy stigma. The results of our model point to the possibility that the rESS might be more sensitive than the original ESS. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Birtel, Michèle D; Wood, Lisa; Kempa, Nancy J

    2017-02-20

    Individuals with substance abuse may suffer from severe public and internalized stigma. Little is known about how social support can reduce stigma and improve mental health and well-being for them. This research examined how perceived stigma influences individuals in treatment for substance abuse, and whether internalized stigma and shame are mechanisms which link social support with better mental health and well-being. Sixty-four participants in treatment for substance abuse (alcohol, drugs), aged between 18 and 64, completed an online survey measuring perceived stigma, internalized stigma, shame, perceived social support, and mental health and well-being (self-esteem, depression and anxiety, sleep). We found that perceived stigma was associated with lower self-esteem, higher depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep. Furthermore, perceived social support followed the opposite pattern, and was associated with higher self-esteem, lower depression and anxiety, and better sleep. The effects of perceived stigma and of perceived social support on our outcome measures were mediated by internalized stigma and by internalized shame. Helping individuals with substance abuse to utilize their social support may be fruitful for combatting the negative impact of internalized stigma and shame on mental health and well-being.

  17. Correlates of self-stigma among outpatients with mental illness in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adewuya, Abiodun O; Owoeye, Adekile O; Erinfolami, A O; Ola, Bolanle A

    2011-07-01

    Studies in this region have all been limited to public stigma whereas little is known about the extent of self-stigma. To assess the extent, domains and correlates of self-stigma among psychiatric outpatients in Lagos, Nigeria. Psychiatric outpatients (n = 342) from three centres completed a modified version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI) as a measure of their self-stigma. They were also evaluated for various sociodemographic and clinical related variables. A total of 74 (n = 21.6%) patients were classified as having 'high self-stigma'. The correlates of high self-stigma included unemployment (OR 3.85, 95% CI 2.55-7.00), poor social support (OR 10.82, 95% CI 4.85-24.84), longer duration of illness (OR 10.35, 95% CI 4.36-25.78) and having full insight into the illness (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.16-8.76). Self-stigma is a common phenomenon in psychiatric outpatients in this environment. The present anti-stigma programmes must extend to regions of sub-Saharan Africa and incorporate self-stigma as a matter of priority.

  18. The power to resist: the relationship between power, stigma, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Campellone, Timothy R; Caponigro, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2014-02-28

    Stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness can be a daily struggle for people with schizophrenia. While investigations into the impact of internalizing stigma on negative symptoms have yielded mixed results, resistance to stigmatizing beliefs has received little attention. In this study, we examined the linkage between internalized stigma, stigma resistance, negative symptoms, and social power, or perceived ability to influence others during social interactions among people with schizophrenia. Further, we sought to determine whether resistance to stigma would be bolstered by social power, with greater power in relationships with other possibly buffering against motivation/pleasure negative symptoms. Fifty-one people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of social power, internalized stigma, and stigma resistance. Negative symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Greater social power was associated with less internalized stigma and negative symptoms as well as more stigma resistance. Further, the relationship between social power and negative symptoms was partially mediated by stigma resistance. These findings provide evidence for the role of stigma resistance as a viable target for psychosocial interventions aimed at improving motivation and social power in people with schizophrenia. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. The power to resist: The relationship between power, stigma, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Campellone, Timothy R.; Caponigro, Janelle M.; Kring, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness can be a daily struggle for people with schizophrenia. While investigations into the impact of internalizing stigma on negative symptoms have yielded mixed results, resistance to stigmatizing beliefs has received little attention. In this study, we examined the linkage between internalized stigma, stigma resistance, negative symptoms, and social power, or perceived ability to influence others during social interactions among people with schizophrenia. Further, we sought to determine whether resistance to stigma would be bolstered by social power, with greater power in relationships with other possibly buffering against motivation/pleasure negative symptoms. Fifty-one people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of social power, internalized stigma, and stigma resistance. Negative symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Greater social power was associated with less internalized stigma and negative symptoms as well as more stigma resistance. Further, the relationship between social power and negative symptoms was partially mediated by stigma resistance. These findings provide evidence for the role of stigma resistance as a viable target for psychosocial interventions aimed at improving motivation and social power in people with schizophrenia. PMID:24326180

  20. Internalized stigma among psychiatric outpatients: Associations with quality of life, functioning, hope and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Lau, Ying Wen; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Satghare, Pratika; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lim, Susan; Poh, Chee Lien; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-12-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine the prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical correlates of internalized stigma and (ii) explore the association between internalized stigma and quality of life, general functioning, hope and self-esteem, among a multi-ethnic Asian population of patients with mental disorders. This cross-sectional, survey recruited adult patients (n=280) who were seeking treatment at outpatient and affiliated clinics of the only tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Internalized stigma was measured using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. 43.6% experienced moderate to high internalized stigma. After making adjustments in multiple logistic regression analysis, results revealed there were no significant socio-demographic or clinical correlates relating to internalized stigma. Individual logistic regression models found a negative relationship between quality of life, self-esteem, general functioning and internalized stigma whereby lower scores were associated with higher internalized stigma. In the final regression model, which included all psychosocial variables together, self-esteem was the only variable significantly and negatively associated with internalized stigma. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role internalized stigma plays in patients with mental illness, and the impact it can have on psychosocial aspects of their lives.

  1. The impact of HIV treatment-related stigma on uptake of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cama, Elena; Brener, Loren; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2015-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been linked to avoidance of health care services and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, less is known about concerns of stigma related specifically to the taking of ART in uptake of treatment. This study examines experiences of HIV treatment-related stigma and assesses if these experiences are associated with ART uptake, independent of general HIV-related stigma. People living with HIV (PLHIV; n = 697) were targeted to complete an online questionnaire measuring perceived HIV- and treatment-related stigma, social support, self-esteem, resilience, psychological distress, health satisfaction and quality of life. Findings suggest that experiences of general and treatment-related stigma were common, and that participants appear to experience greater stigma related to taking HIV treatment than general stigma associated with HIV. Neither general nor treatment-related stigma uniquely impacted HIV treatment uptake. Instead, treatment uptake was associated with being older (adjusted OR 1.05; 95% CIs: 1.03, 1.08), greater duration of HIV infection (adjusted OR 1.07; 95% CIs: 1.03-1.11) and having greater health satisfaction (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CIs: 1.03, 1.59). Findings highlight that concerns around taking HIV treatment can be an added source of stigma for PLHIV, however other factors may be greater contributors to the likelihood of taking HIV treatment.

  2. Stigma and intimacy in same-sex relationships: a narrative approach.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M

    2011-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in romantic relationships experience stigma, prejudice, and discrimination stemming from widespread social devaluation of same-sex relationships. Research on same-sex couples has demonstrated a negative association between experiences of stigma and relationship quality. However, critical questions remain unanswered regarding how experiences of stigma become more or less meaningful within the context of same-sex relationships. This paper presents a study of the stories that a purposive sample of 99 individuals in same-sex relationships wrote about their relational high points, low points, decisions, and goals, as well as their experiences of stigma directly related to their relationships. Narrative analysis of these stories revealed that participants utilized several psychological strategies for making meaning of their experiences of stigma within the context of their relationships. Some participants framed stigma as having a negative impact on their relationships, while others framed stigma as relevant, but external to their lives. Some participants saw stigma as providing an opportunity to (re)define notions of commitment and relational legitimacy. Additionally, many participants framed stigma as bringing them closer to their partners and strengthening the bond within their relationships. The results of this study illuminate the psychological strategies individuals in same-sex couples use to make meaning of, cope with, and overcome societal devaluation thereby furthering understandings of the association between stigma and intimacy within marginalized relationships. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Maffoni, Marina; Giardini, Anna; Pierobon, Antonia; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient's subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination) and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver's stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients' and caregiver's point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view.

  4. Cervical Cancer Stigma in Rural Kenya: What Does HIV Have to Do with It?

    PubMed

    Rosser, Joelle I; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death amongst women in sub-Saharan Africa, largely due to the lack of early screening and treatment. In addition to poor access to screening services, inadequate uptake of available services is a barrier to early identification of precancerous lesions. Given that cervical cancer is caused by a sexually transmitted virus and is associated with HIV positivity, stigma is one of the potential barriers to the utilization of cervical cancer programs in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 419 women attending health facilities in rural western Kenya to measure levels of cervical cancer and HIV stigma and to measure the associations between cervical cancer stigma, HIV stigma, and HIV status. Women who qualified for cervical cancer screening were asked to complete an oral questionnaire using a modified 9-point HIV stigma scale. Low cervical cancer stigma was reported in this study, with only 85/419 (20.3 %) of respondents answering yes to at least one cervical cancer stigma question. However, cervical cancer stigma was highly correlated with HIV stigma (correlation coefficient 0.72) and was significantly lower in HIV-positive women (p < 0.001). Reducing cervical cancer stigma in the general population is an important part of promoting screening in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  6. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Maffoni, Marina; Pierobon, Antonia; Ferrazzoli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient's subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination) and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver's stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients' and caregiver's point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view. PMID:28243481

  7. The effectiveness of interventions for reducing stigma related to substance use disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, James D; Milne, Teresa; Fang, Mei Lan; Amari, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has empirically evaluated interventions designed to reduce stigma related to substance use disorders. Methods A comprehensive review of electronic databases was conducted to identify evaluations of substance use disorder related stigma interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed using systematic review methods. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was moderately strong. Interventions of three studies (23%) focused on people with substance use disorders (self-stigma), three studies (23%) targeted the general public (social stigma) and seven studies (54%) focused on medical students and other professional groups (structural stigma). Nine interventions (69%) used approaches that included education and/or direct contact with people who have substance use disorders. All but one study indicated their interventions produced positive effects on at least one stigma outcome measure. None of the interventions have been evaluated across different settings or populations. Conclusions A range of interventions demonstrate promise for achieving meaningful improvements in stigma related to substance use disorders. The limited evidence indicates that self-stigma can be reduced through therapeutic interventions such as group-based acceptance and commitment therapy. Effective strategies for addressing social stigma include motivational interviewing and communicating positive stories of people with substance use disorders. For changing stigma at a structural level, contact-based training and education programs targeting medical students and professionals (e.g. police, counsellors) are effective. PMID:21815959

  8. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.

  9. Stigma in patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care: a review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Mestdagh, Annelien; Hansen, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify consistent themes among the qualitative literature on stigma as experienced by patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care. With the treatment focus of schizophrenia nowadays shifting more and more towards community-based mental health care, professionals need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of their clients in their social environment as a result of stigma towards their disease. In-depth knowledge on stigma is critical in order to offer a dignifying community mental health care. A systematic search of the qualitative literature in Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO and Francis was performed to review the subjective experiences and ideas on stigma in outpatients with schizophrenia. Three major themes were identified in 18 studies and need to be taken into consideration when implementing an adequate community mental health care: (i) the continuing existence of stigma inherent in the health care setting, (ii) the importance of relational aspects of stigma encounters in daily life and (iii) the significance of the behavioural aspects related to previous stigma experiences and beliefs among patients. Despite much effort in community treatment, patients still experience stigma and discrimination. Community mental health care professionals should not only be aware of structural problems in mental health care, but should also pay considerable attention towards the relational and behavioural aspects in their clients' life concerning stigma. Furthermore, they have the crucial role in the community to raise awareness about stigma in order to increase their clients' acceptance in society.

  10. Stigma experienced by people using mental health services in San Diego County.

    PubMed

    Sarkin, Andrew; Lale, Rachel; Sklar, Marisa; Center, Kimberly C; Gilmer, Todd; Fowler, Chris; Heller, Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how individuals struggling with severe mental illness experience stigma along multiple dimensions including their experiences of discrimination by others, their unwillingness to disclose information about their mental health, and their internalization or rejection of the negative and positive aspects of having mental health problems. This cross-sectional study employs descriptive analyses and linear regression to assess the relationship between demographics, mental health diagnoses and self-reported stigma among people receiving mental health services in a large and ethnically diverse county public mental health system (n = 1,237) in 2009. We used the King Stigma Scale to measure three factors related to stigma: discrimination, disclosure, and positive aspects of mental illness. Most people (89.7 %) reported experiencing some discrimination from having mental health problems. Regression analyses revealed that younger people in treatment experienced more stigma related to mental health problems. Women reported experiencing more stigma than men, but men were less likely to endorse the potentially positive aspects of facing mental health challenges than women. Although people with mood disorders reported more discomfort with disclosing mental illness than people with schizophrenia, they did not report experiencing more discrimination than people with schizophrenia. Study findings suggest that the multidimensional experiences of stigma differ as a function of age, gender, and diagnosis. Importantly, these findings should inform anti-stigma efforts by describing different potential treatment barriers due to experiences of stigma among people using mental health services, especially among younger people and women who may be more susceptible to stigma.

  11. Gendered aspects of perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping

    2016-09-14

    Although studies have demonstrated that females experience more HIV-related stigma than males do, questions remain regarding the different dimensions of the stigma (i.e., perceived versus internalized) in China. The present study investigated gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma, taking into account the potential influence of education. The study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2013. A total of 522 people living with HIV (PLH) were recruited from Anhui Province, China. The PLH participated in a survey using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method. The gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma were calculated with and without stratifying by education level. Female participants had significantly less education than the male participants. No significant difference was observed between females and males with respect to perceived stigma. However, females reported significantly higher internalized stigma than males did (p < .001). When socio-demographic characteristics were controlled, the gender difference in internalized stigma remained significant among educated participants (p = .038). The findings suggested that gender differences in HIV-related stigma were primarily found for internalized stigma. Heightened intervention efforts are encouraged to reduce internalized HIV-related stigma, particularly among female PLH in China and other regions with similar gender dynamics.

  12. Parsing the relationship of stigma and insight to psychological well-being in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2011-12-01

    It has been postulated that the effects of the stigma of mental illness on the psychological well-being of patients is mediated through internalization of the stigma. On the other hand, there is reason to suppose that simple awareness of public stigma could also have an impact to the extent that an individual is aware of being ill. To investigate whether internalization of the stigma of having a psychotic disorder and an interaction between perceived public stigma and awareness of being ill make independent contributions to the prediction of psychological well-being in patients with psychotic disorder. 102 patients in an early intervention program for psychoses were assessed for awareness of public stigma, internalization of stigmatizing beliefs, insight and various aspects of psychological well-being including self-esteem, depression, anxiety, anger/hostility and engulfment. Internalization of stigma was associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. In addition, perception of public stigma also contributed to lower well-being for those individuals with greater awareness of being ill. While internalization of stigma is an important contribution to psychological well-being in patients with psychosis, awareness of public stigma, even if this is not internalized, also is associated with lower self-esteem, and greater anxiety, anger/hostility, and engulfment in patients with better insight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  14. Stigma among patients with lung cancer: A patient-reported measurement model

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Heidi A.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Marks, Emily G.; Gerber, David E.; Schiller, Joan H.; Craddock Lee, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although stigma may have negative psychosocial and behavioral outcomes for patients with lung cancer, its measurement has been limited. A conceptual model of lung cancer stigma and a patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure is needed to mitigate these sequelae. This study identified key stigma-related themes to provide a blueprint for item development through thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews and focus groups with lung cancer patients. Methods Participants were recruited from two outpatient oncology clinics and included: a) 42 lung cancer patients who participated in individual interviews and, b) 5 focus groups (inclusive of 23 new lung cancer patients). Never smokers, long-term quitters, recent quitters, and current smokers participated. Individual interviews facilitated theme development and a conceptual model of lung cancer stigma, whereas subsequent focus groups provided feedback on the conceptual model. Qualitative data analyses included iterative coding and validation with existing theory. Results Two main thematic elements emerged from interviews with lung cancer patients: perceived (felt) stigma and internalized (self) stigma. Discussions of perceived stigma were pervasive, while internalized stigma was more commonly endorsed among current and recently quit smokers. Participants also discussed maladaptive (e.g., decreased disclosure) and adaptive (e.g., increased advocacy) stigma-related consequences. Conclusions Results indicate widespread acknowledgment of perceived stigma among lung cancer patients, but varying degrees of internalized stigma and associated consequences. Next steps for PRO measure development are item consolidation, item development, expert input, and cognitive interviews before field testing and psychometric analysis. Future work should address stigma-related consequences and interventions for reducing lung cancer stigma. PMID:24123664

  15. Signs of stigma and poor mental health among carriers of MRSA.

    PubMed

    Rump, B; De Boer, M; Reis, R; Wassenberg, M; Van Steenbergen, J

    2017-03-01

    Many countries have implemented guidelines to prevent transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Important contextual factors of stigma can be identified in the context of MRSA. Over the past decade, concerns have been raised over a possible stigmatizing effect of these actions. To identify and quantify the occurrence of MRSA-associated stigma, and to explore its association with mental health in a country with an MRSA 'search and destroy' policy. In 2014, a questionnaire study among 57 Dutch MRSA carriers (people that carry MRSA without signs of MRSA infection) was performed. Stigma was measured with an adjusted version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Mental health was measured with the five-item RAND Mental Health Inquiry. Thirty-two (56%) MRSA carriers reported stigma; of these, eight (14%) reported 'clear stigma' (Berger score >110) and 24 (42%) reported 'suggestive for stigma' (Berger score 76-110). Educational level, female sex and intensive MRSA eradication therapy were associated with higher stigma scores. Poor mental health (RAND score <60) was reported by 33% of MRSA carriers. Stigma and mental health scores were inversely correlated. Stigma was experienced most frequently in healthcare settings, and was seldom experienced in the religious community or at sport facilities. A substantial proportion of MRSA carriers reported stigma due to MRSA, and stigma was associated with poor mental health. Anticipation of MRSA-associated stigma is warranted, both in the way that care is delivered by hospital staff and in the way that care is organized within the hospital. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stigma among patients with lung cancer: a patient-reported measurement model.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Heidi A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Marks, Emily G; Gerber, David E; Schiller, Joan H; Lee, Simon J Craddock

    2014-01-01

    Although stigma may have negative psychosocial and behavioral outcomes for patients with lung cancer, its measurement has been limited. A conceptual model of lung cancer stigma and a patient-reported outcome measure are needed to mitigate these sequelae. This study identified key stigma-related themes to provide a blueprint for item development through a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews and focus groups with lung cancer patients. Participants were recruited from two outpatient oncology clinics and included (i) 42 lung cancer patients who participated in individual interviews and (ii) 5 focus groups (inclusive of 23 new lung cancer patients). Never smokers, long-term quitters, recent quitters, and current smokers participated. Individual interviews facilitated theme development and a conceptual model of lung cancer stigma, whereas subsequent focus groups provided feedback on the conceptual model. Qualitative data analyses included iterative coding and validation with existing theory. Two main thematic elements emerged from interviews with lung cancer patients: perceived (felt) stigma and internalized (self) stigma. Discussions of perceived stigma were pervasive, whereas those of internalized stigma were more commonly endorsed among current and recently quit smokers. Participants also discussed maladaptive (e.g., decreased disclosure) and adaptive (e.g., increased advocacy) stigma-related consequences. Results indicate widespread acknowledgment of perceived stigma among lung cancer patients but varying degrees of internalized stigma and associated consequences. Next steps for patient-reported outcome measure development are item consolidation, item development, expert input, and cognitive interviews before field testing and psychometric analysis. Future work should address stigma-related consequences and interventions for reducing lung cancer stigma. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determinants of mental illness stigma for adolescents discharged from psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tally

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the factors that increase the risk for enacted mental illness stigma (i.e. rejection, devaluation and exclusion) as perceived by the stigmatized person. This is particularly true for the population of adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness. The aim of this study was to address this question and examine select social and clinical factors that predict enacted stigma (self-reported) with research that follows eighty American adolescents for 6 months following a first psychiatric hospitalization. Drawing on social identity theory, and research on stigma-threatening environments, social group identification and social support, this study tested four hypotheses: affiliation or identification with higher status and lower status peers predicts more and less stigma respectively (H1); a greater and more supportive social network, and more perceived family support predict less stigma (H2); greater severity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicts more stigma (H3); and poorer school functioning predicts more stigma (H4). Results indicated that about 70% of adolescents reported experiencing enacted stigma (at 6 months); disrespect or devaluation was more common than outright social rejection. Using OLS regression analyses, the results provided partial support for H1, H3 and H4, while H2 was not supported. The baseline factors found to be most predictive of enacted stigma ratings at 6-months were: affiliating with more friends with mental health problems, identifying with the 'populars' peer group, higher internalizing symptom ratings, and self-reported disciplinary problems at school. These four factors remained significant when controlling for initial enacted stigma ratings, pointing to their importance in determining changes in social stigma experiences in the follow-up period. They also remained significant when controlling for perceived public stigma ratings at follow-up, indicating that the findings were not due to generalized

  18. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

  19. Understanding the Experience of Stigma for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Role Stigma Plays in Families' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnear, Sydney H.; Link, Bruce G.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Ruth L.

    2016-01-01

    Stigma is widely perceived in the lives of families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet large, systematic studies have not been undertaken. Following Link and Phelan's ("Ann Rev Sociol" 27:363-385, 2001) model, this study of 502 Simons Simplex Collection families details how different factors contribute to stigma and how each appears…

  20. Sexual Behavior as a Function of Stigma and Coping with Stigma Among People with HIV/AIDS in Rural New England

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Sondra E.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between coping with HIV/AIDS stigma and engaging in risky sexual behavior (i.e., inconsistent condom use) was examined in HIV-positive adults living in rural areas. Participants answered questions about their experiences with HIV/AIDS prejudice and discrimination (enacted stigma) and their perceptions of felt HIV/AIDS stigma (disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes). They were also asked about how they coped with HIV/AIDS stigma, and about their sexual activity during the past 90 days. We hypothesized that using disengagement coping to manage the stress of HIV/AIDS stigma would be related to risky sexual behavior. Multinomial logistic regression results showed that using disengagement coping (avoidance, denial, and wishful thinking) coupled with high levels of enacted stigma was associated with less risky rather than more risky sexual behavior. That is, disengagement coping coupled with high stigma increased the odds of not having vaginal or anal sex versus inconsistently using condoms. Implications for people with HIV/AIDS who use disengagement coping to manage stress to deal with HIV/AIDS stigma are discussed. PMID:22782789

  1. Sexual behavior as a function of stigma and coping with stigma among people with HIV/AIDS in rural New England.

    PubMed

    Varni, Susan E; Miller, Carol T; Solomon, Sondra E

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between coping with HIV/AIDS stigma and engaging in risky sexual behavior (i.e., inconsistent condom use) was examined in HIV-positive adults living in rural areas. Participants answered questions about their experiences with HIV/AIDS prejudice and discrimination (enacted stigma) and their perceptions of felt HIV/AIDS stigma (disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes). They were also asked about how they coped with HIV/AIDS stigma, and about their sexual activity during the past 90 days. We hypothesized that using disengagement coping to manage the stress of HIV/AIDS stigma would be related to risky sexual behavior. Multinomial logistic regression results showed that using disengagement coping (avoidance, denial, and wishful thinking) coupled with high levels of enacted stigma was associated with less risky rather than more risky sexual behavior. That is, disengagement coping coupled with high stigma increased the odds of not having vaginal or anal sex versus inconsistently using condoms. Implications for people with HIV/AIDS who use disengagement coping to manage stress to deal with HIV/AIDS stigma are discussed.

  2. Understanding the Experience of Stigma for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Role Stigma Plays in Families' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnear, Sydney H.; Link, Bruce G.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Ruth L.

    2016-01-01

    Stigma is widely perceived in the lives of families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet large, systematic studies have not been undertaken. Following Link and Phelan's ("Ann Rev Sociol" 27:363-385, 2001) model, this study of 502 Simons Simplex Collection families details how different factors contribute to stigma and how each appears…

  3. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. The study aimed to assess current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Methods The PLHIV Stigma Index, a questionnaire that measures and detects changing trends in relation to stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV, was used as the survey tool. The study was conducted in 10 clinics in four provinces supported by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD), with an interview total of 486 PLHIV. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Results Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. Conclusion The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study. PMID:24461042

  4. Assessing the Impact of Food Assistance on Stigma Among People Living with HIV in Uganda Using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA (HASI-P).

    PubMed

    Maluccio, John A; Wu, Fan; Rokon, Redwan B; Rawat, Rahul; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2017-03-01

    HIV-related stigma among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) is prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited evidence, however, on which interventions are effective in reducing it. We used data from a prospective impact evaluation of a 12-month food assistance intervention among 904 antiretroviral therapy (ART)- naïve PLHIV in Uganda to examine the program impact on stigma. Stigma was measured using the comprehensive HASI-P scale, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87) and was correlated with several related constructs including physical and mental health-related quality of life, disclosure, and physical health symptoms in the sample. Using quasi-experimental difference-in-difference matching methods to better infer causality, we tested whether the intervention improved the overall stigma scale and its subscales. The food assistance intervention had a significant effect on reported internalized (but not external) stigma of approximately 0.2 SD (p < 0.01). The HASI-P stigma scale is a useful tool for measuring and tracking stigma. Food assistance interventions, embedded in an HIV care program, can reduce internalized stigma.

  5. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group.

  6. Reducing Self-Stigma by Coming Out Proud

    PubMed Central

    Kosyluk, Kristin A; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Self-stigma has a pernicious effect on the lives of people with mental illness. Although a medical perspective might discourage patients from identifying with their illness, public disclosure may promote empowerment and reduce self-stigma. We reviewed the extensive research that supports this assertion and assessed a program that might diminish stigma’s effect by helping some people to disclose to colleagues, neighbors, and others their experiences with mental illness, treatment, and recovery. The program encompasses weighing the costs and benefits of disclosure in deciding whether to come out, considering different strategies for coming out, and obtaining peer support through the disclosure process. This type of program may also pose challenges for public health research. PMID:23488488

  7. Machismo, public health and sexuality-related stigma in Cartagena.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina; Krumeich, Anja; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Pastrana-Salcedo, Eduardo; van den Borne, Hubertus

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study in Cartagena, Colombia. Over a seven-month fieldwork period, 35 men and 35 women between 15 and 60 years of age discussed the social context of HIV/AIDS through in-depth interviews, life histories and drawing. Participants considered the transgression of traditional gender roles as prescribed by machismo a major risk factor for HIV infection. In addition, they integrated public-health concepts of risk groups with these long-standing constructions of gender roles and sexuality-related stigma to create the notion of 'AIDS carriers'. The bricolage between machismo, public health and sexuality-related stigma that participants created and consequent preventive measures (based on an avoidance of sex with people identified as 'AIDS carriers') was a dynamic process in which participants were aware that changes in this particular interpretation of risk were necessary to confront the local epidemic.

  8. Stigma and mental health challenges in medical students.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Northall, Amy; Zaman, Rashid

    2014-09-02

    Despite the perception that medical students and doctors should be 'invincible', mental health challenges are common in this population. Medical students and doctors have low levels of help seeking for their own psychiatric problems often only presenting to mental health services once a crisis arises. Fear of exposure to stigmatisation is a crucial factor contributing to symptom concealment and is a barrier to accessing mental health services. Autobiographical narratives of the 'Wounded Healer' are gaining popularity among medical students and doctors with mental health challenges both as an effective form of adjunctive therapy and as a means to campaign against stigma. Indeed, the results of a randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of Coming Out Proud with mental illness revealed immediate positive effects on stigma stress-related variables. We provide an autobiographical narrative from a medical student who has first-hand experience with mental health challenges. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Mental illness stigma and disclosure in college students.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Markowitz, Fred; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Conlon, Bridget; Rees, Jo; Rosenberg, Jessica; Ellefson, Sarah; Al-Khouja, Maya

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental illness identity, shame, secrecy, public stigma, and disclosure amongst college students. Participants included 1393 college students from five postsecondary institutions. Structural equation modeling was used to examine two path models predicting disclosure and desire to join a program aiding with disclosure. Variables found to be significant in predicting disclosure included mental illness identity and public stigma. In turn, desire for disclosure predicted desire to join a program aiding in disclosure. Gender and race/ethnic differences were observed, with men and Whites more likely to want to disclose a mental illness or join a program aiding with disclosure compared with women and non-Whites, respectively. These findings suggest that some college students may find programs aiding in disclosure useful in assisting them to achieve their desire to be "out" with their mental illness.

  10. "Before and after" diet advertisements escalate weight stigma.

    PubMed

    Geier, A B; Schwartz, M B; Brownell, K D

    2003-12-01

    The stigma-producing effects of "before and after" diet advertisements on a healthy weight sample were examined. Subjects (n = 59) were exposed to a presentation containing either a "before and after" diet ad, or solely the "before" or "after" picture embedded in a different ad. Subjects were then given measures to assess negative attitudes and endorsement of stereotypes about overweight people. Across all subjects, strong implicit anti-fat bias was present. Subjects in the Before and After condition indicated that weight is more easily controllable than did subjects in either the Before Picture Only or the After Picture Only conditions. There were two moderating variables for this effect. Subjects who reported greater life satisfaction endorsed fewer anti-fat stereotypes, and those who enjoyed an emotionally close relationship with an overweight person were less biased. These results suggest that "before and after" diet ads enhance weight stigma and perpetuate damaging stereotypes.

  11. Stigma and mental health challenges in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Northall, Amy; Zaman, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Despite the perception that medical students and doctors should be ‘invincible’, mental health challenges are common in this population. Medical students and doctors have low levels of help seeking for their own psychiatric problems often only presenting to mental health services once a crisis arises. Fear of exposure to stigmatisation is a crucial factor contributing to symptom concealment and is a barrier to accessing mental health services. Autobiographical narratives of the ‘Wounded Healer’ are gaining popularity among medical students and doctors with mental health challenges both as an effective form of adjunctive therapy and as a means to campaign against stigma. Indeed, the results of a randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of Coming Out Proud with mental illness revealed immediate positive effects on stigma stress-related variables. We provide an autobiographical narrative from a medical student who has first-hand experience with mental health challenges. PMID:25183806

  12. Picking a frame for communicating about genetics: stigmas or challenges.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A

    2007-06-01

    Currently, one may describe awareness of genomics as limited, but growing in the US. Although awareness is limited, the US public expresses great concern that genomics could result in stigmatization and discrimination (Reproductive genetic testing: What America thinks. Washington, DC: Genetics and Public Policy Center, 2004). This situation provides a rare opportunity to think carefully about how to design communication to a general public in ways that galvanize positive sentiments around genomics instead of stimulate stigmas. This manuscript provides a synthesis of communication theories relevant to framing genomics in stigma and challenge formats, the details necessary to understand what such messages look like, and an illustration of the two frames. Many people in different roles are engaging in these conversations in many different contexts. Through the growing exposure and interest in genomics, the opportunity to proactively script messages to form beliefs and attitudes about genomics, instead of managing pre-existing ones, may disappear quickly.

  13. Weight stigma in frequent exercisers: Overt, demeaning and condescending.

    PubMed

    Flint, Stuart W; Reale, Sophie

    2016-07-04

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine weight stigma in individuals who exercise frequently. In total, six focus groups, comprising 30 participants aged 18-25 years, were conducted using convenience sampling. All participants were frequent exercisers. Five themes emerged in the data with participants discussing bullying, the consequences of obesity, causes of obesity, lack of willpower and interventions to reduce obesity. This study is the first qualitative examination of weight stigmatisation in frequent exercisers, where the beliefs reported by focus group participants suggest that frequent exercisers stigmatise, discriminate and dehumanise obese people. Future research to examine the impact of weight stigma on exercise motivation and behaviour of obese people appears warranted.

  14. Stigma and prejudice: the experience of crack users

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Nathália Duarte; Antunes, Beatriz; Roos, Cristine Moraes; Olschowsky, Agnes; de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the stigma and prejudice experienced by crack users in their social context. Method a qualitative study developed through the Fourth Generation Evaluation, conducted with four interest groups (ten users, eleven families, eight employees, and seven managers), components of the mental health care network. For data collection, we used observation and individual interview. The analysis was performed through the constant comparative method. Results crack users suffer prejudice and are stigmatized as those who do not fit in the systems established by society (without family links, formal employment and dwelling), and are thus excluded. They exhibit undisciplined behavior and, therefore, are discriminated, marginalized and considered as criminals, losing their uniqueness and living in vulnerable situations. Conclusion the evaluation process emphasized the need to demystify the social imaginary that demonizes the chemically dependent, being thus important to develop public policies with actions focused on health, prevention, information and combat to stigma. PMID:27027678

  15. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment.

  16. Interventions targeting mental health self-stigma: A review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Yanos, Philip T; Lucksted, Alicia; Drapalski, Amy L; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul

    2015-06-01

    With growing awareness of the impact of mental illness self-stigma, interest has arisen in the development of interventions to combat it. The present article briefly reviews and compares interventions targeting self-stigma to clarify the similarities and important differences between the interventions. We conducted a narrative review of published literature on interventions targeting self-stigma. Six intervention approaches (Healthy Self-Concept, Self-Stigma Reduction Program, Ending Self-Stigma, Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy, Coming Out Proud, and Anti-Stigma Photo-Voice Intervention) were identified and are discussed, and data is reviewed on format, group-leader backgrounds, languages, number of sessions, primary mechanisms of action, and the current state of data on their efficacy. We conclude with a discussion of common elements and important distinctions between the interventions and a consideration of which interventions might be best suited to particular populations or settings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Stigma and intellectual disability: a review of related measures and future directions.

    PubMed

    Werner, Shirli; Corrigan, Patrick; Ditchman, Nicole; Sokol, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical construct of stigma has received much attention in psychiatric disability research, leading to the development of widely used measures. Such measures have had real world impact in that they allow for the assessment of stigma change efforts. The study of stigma has not received the same level of attention for persons with intellectual disabilities. In this manuscript we evaluate existing measures of intellectual disability stigma through a systematic review of the literature. Twenty-four scales were reviewed and evaluated. Findings indicate a paucity of stigma measures based on theoretical conceptualizations pointing to a need for further development of measures to pursue the study of public, self, and family stigma as related to intellectual disability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AAPI college students' willingness to seek counseling: the role of culture, stigma, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na-Yeun; Miller, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    This study tested 4 theoretically and empirically derived structural equation models of Asian, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders' willingness to seek counseling with a sample of 278 college students. The models represented competing hypotheses regarding the manner in which Asian cultural values, European American cultural values, public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help related to willingness to seek counseling. We found that Asian and European American cultural values differentially related to willingness to seek counseling indirectly through specific indirect pathways (public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help). Our results also showed that the magnitude of model-implied relationships did not vary as a function of generational status. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for counseling are discussed.

  19. An examination of two brief stigma reduction strategies: filmed personal contact and hallucination simulations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Seth A; Evans, Yolanda; Espenschade, Kelly; O'Connor, Maureen

    2010-10-01

    Mental illness stigma is quite prevalent with dire consequences. A number of interventions to decrease stigma have been formulated, but have variable effectiveness and limited dissemination. This research examined the impact of two brief interventions: a film depicting individuals with schizophrenia (filmed contact) and a simulation of auditory hallucinations. Participants (N = 143) were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: (1) filmed contact, (2) simulation, or (3) no intervention, and completed two stigma measures prior to, immediately after, and 1 week after the intervention. The filmed contact intervention led to decreases in stigma which persisted across 1 week. However, the simulation led to increases in stigma. The results suggest that a filmed contact intervention may decrease two aspects of mental illness stigma (social distance and negative emotions), which has implications for wide dissemination. The efficacy of a hallucination simulations intervention remains dubious.

  20. An Intersectional Analysis of Women's Experiences of Smoking-Related Stigma.

    PubMed

    Triandafilidis, Zoi; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Huppatz, Kate

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we explore how young women encounter and counter discourses of smoking-related stigma. Twenty-seven young Australian women, smokers and ex-smokers, took part in interviews. A sub-sample of 18 participants took photographs to document their smoking experience, and took part in a second interview. Data were analyzed through Foucauldian discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified: "smoking as stigmatized," "the smoking double standard," "smoking as lower class," and "smokers as bad mothers." The women negotiated stigma in a variety of ways, shifting between agreeing, disagreeing, challenging, and displacing stigma onto "other" smokers. These experiences and negotiations of smoking-related stigma were shaped by intersecting identities, including gender, cultural background, social class, and mothering, which at times, compounded levels of stigmatization. It is concluded that tobacco control measures should consider the negative implications of smoking-related stigma, and the potential for women to experience compounding levels of stigma.

  1. HIV-related Stigma among African-American Youth in the Northeast and Southeast US

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jelani C.; Valois, Robert F.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Fletcher, Faith; Carey, Michael P.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; Farber, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigma inhibits optimal HIV prevention and treatment among African-Americans. Regional differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence may be related to stigma among young African-Americans. Baseline data (N=1,606) from an HIV prevention intervention were used to investigate regional differences in HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African-American adolescents in four midsized cities in the Northeastern and Southeastern US. Analyses indicated greater HIV-related stigma among adolescents from the southeast relative to adolescents from the northeast (F=22.23;p<0.0001). Linear regression indicated a negative relationship between HIV stigma and HIV knowledge (b=−0.65;p<0.0001). Addressing HIV/AIDS in high prevalence locales should include efforts to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:24402690

  2. Re-thinking HIV-Related Stigma in Health Care Settings: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) continue to endure stigma and discrimination in the context of health care. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study designed to (a) describe stigmatizing and discriminatory practices in health care settings, and (b) explore both symbolic and structural stigma from the perspectives of PLWH. For the purpose of this qualitative study, 21 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada. The data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. During analysis, three themes were identified, and relations between these themes were delineated to reflect the experiences of participants. The findings suggest that HIV-related stigma in health care settings is episodic in nature. The findings also suggest that HIV-related stigma is experienced through interactions with health care providers (symbolic stigma) and, finally, that it is applied systematically to manage risk in the context of health care (structural stigma).

  3. One Year After ART Initiation: Psychosocial Factors Associated with Stigma Among HIV-Positive Mozambicans

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, C. R.; Micek, M. A.; Pfeiffer, J.; Montoya, P.; Matediane, E.; Jonasse, T.; Cunguara, A.; Rao, D.; Gloyd, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    The pathways through which stigma is associated with psychological distress remains understudied in Africa. This study evaluates stigma among 277 Mozambicans who were on an antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for a full year. Using bivariate and multiple regression analyses, we examine psychosocial factors (disclosure decisions, perceived social support, and depression) associated with stigma, at ART initiation and one year later. We found one year after initiating ART, participants reported no change in stigma, a decreased in perceived social support, and an increase in depressive symptomology. Disclosing HIV status to friends (vs. family or partner) was associated with lower levels of stigma. These findings suggest that HIV care in comparable settings should include counselling, support groups, and peer support, that includes stigma and disclosure concerns prior to and during the first year following diagnosis. Most importantly, assessment and treatment of depression should be incorporated into ongoing HIV care. PMID:19639405

  4. Social stigma and disclosure about induced abortion: results from an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Shellenberg, Kristen M; Moore, Ann M; Bankole, Akinrinola; Juarez, Fatima; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kehinde; Palomino, Nancy; Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Tsui, Amy O

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognised that unsafe abortions have significant implications for women's physical health; however, women's perceptions and experiences with abortion-related stigma and disclosure about abortion are not well understood. This paper examines the presence and intensity of abortion stigma in five countries, and seeks to understand how stigma is perceived and experienced by women who terminate an unintended pregnancy and influences her subsequent disclosure behaviours. The paper is based upon focus groups and semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with women and men in Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and the United States (USA) in 2006. The stigma of abortion was perceived similarly in both legally liberal and restrictive settings although it was more evident in countries where abortion is highly restricted. Personal accounts of experienced stigma were limited, although participants cited numerous social consequences of having an abortion. Abortion-related stigma played an important role in disclosure of individual abortion behaviour.

  5. Fighting the stigma caused by mental disorders: past perspectives, present activities, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2008-10-01

    People who live with mental illnesses are among the most stigmatized groups in society. In 1996, in recognition of the particularly harsh burden caused by the stigma associated with schizophrenia, the WPA initiated a global anti-stigma program, Open-the-Doors. In 2005, a WPA Section on Stigma and Mental Health was created, with a broader mandate to reduce stigma and discrimination caused by mental disabilities in general. In light of these important developments, and the growing public health interest in stigma reduction, this paper reflects on the past perspectives that have led us to our current position, reviews present activities and accomplishments, and identifies challenges that the Section members will face in their future efforts to reduce the stigma caused by mental disorders.

  6. Self-stigma as a barrier to recovery: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Müller, Mario; Kawohl, Wolfram; Xu, Ziyan; Viering, Sandra; Wyss, Christine; Vetter, Stefan; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2017-02-10

    Stigma limits life opportunities of persons with mental illness. Self-stigma, the internalization of negative stereotypes, undermines empowerment and could hinder recovery. Here we examined self-stigma's effect on recovery among 222 disability pensioners with mental illness over 2 years, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline measured by the Recovery Assessment Scale. More self-stigma at baseline was associated with a significant decrease in recovery after 1 year (not significant after 2 years). An increase of self-stigma from baseline to follow-up predicted less recovery 1 and 2 years later. Interventions that reduce self-stigma could therefore improve recovery.

  7. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

  8. Coping with stigma and discrimination: evidence from mental health service users in England.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, A; Corker, E; Cotney, J; Hamilton, S; Pinfold, V; Rose, D; Rüsch, N; Henderson, C; Thornicroft, G; Evans-Lacko, S

    2017-05-02

    Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users. Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users' experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations. The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma. Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of Social Stigma and Concealment in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Germano, Adriana L.; Stadler, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a preliminary investigation into dimensions of stigma and their relation to disease concealment in a sample of American adults living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Fifty-three adults with MS in the United States completed an online survey assessing anticipated, internalized, and isolation stigma, as well as concealment. Results: Responses to all the scales were relatively low, on average, but above scale minimums (P < .001). Ratings of isolation stigma and concealment were highest. Anticipated stigma strongly predicted concealment. Conclusions: Many adults living with MS may be concerned that they will be the target of social stigma because of their illness. These concerns are associated with disease concealment. More research is needed to investigate how MS stigma and concealment may be independent contributors to health in patients with MS. PMID:27134581

  10. Interventions Targeting Mental Health Self-Stigma: A Review and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Lucksted, Alicia; Drapalski, Amy L.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective With growing awareness of the impact of mental illness self-stigma, interest has arisen in the development of interventions to combat it. The present article briefly reviews and compares interventions targeting self-stigma to clarify the similarities and important differences between the interventions. Methods We conducted a narrative review of published literature on interventions targeting self-stigma. Results Six intervention approaches (Healthy Self-Concept, Self-Stigma Reduction Program, Ending Self-Stigma, Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy, Coming Out Proud, and Anti-Stigma Photo-Voice Intervention) were identified and are discussed, and data is reviewed on format, group-leader backgrounds, languages, number of sessions, primary mechanisms of action, and the current state of data on their efficacy. Conclusions and Implications for Practice We conclude with a discussion of common elements and important distinctions between the interventions and a consideration of which interventions might be best suited to particular populations or settings. PMID:25313530

  11. Fighting the stigma caused by mental disorders: past perspectives, present activities, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    STUART, HEATHER

    2008-01-01

    People who live with mental illnesses are among the most stigmatized groups in society. In 1996, in recognition of the particularly harsh burden caused by the stigma associated with schizophrenia, the WPA initiated a global anti-stigma program, Open-the-Doors. In 2005, a WPA Section on Stigma and Mental Health was created, with a broader mandate to reduce stigma and discrimination caused by mental disabilities in general. In light of these impor-tant developments, and the growing public health interest in stigma reduction, this paper reflects on the past perspectives that have led us to our current position, reviews present activities and accomplishments, and identifies challenges that the Section members will face in their future efforts to reduce the stigma caused by mental disorders. PMID:18836546

  12. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.

  13. Stigma and Parenting Children Conceived From Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Shada A.; Scott, Jennifer; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R.; Kuwert, Philipp; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Since armed conflict began in 1996, widespread sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has resulted in many sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). However, there are limited data on the relationships between mothers and their children from sexual violence. This study aimed to evaluate the nature and determinants of these maternal–child relationships. METHODS Using respondent-driven sampling, 757 women raising children from SVRPs in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. A parenting index was created from questions assessing the maternal–child relationship. The influences of social stigma, family and community acceptance, and maternal mental health on the parenting index were assessed in univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS The majority of mothers reported positive attitudes toward their children from SVRPs. Prevalence of perceived family or community stigma toward the women or their children ranged from 31.8% to 42.9%, and prevalence of perceived family or community acceptance ranged from 45.2% to 73.5%. In multivariable analyses, stigma toward the child, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, were associated with lower parenting indexes, whereas acceptance of the mother or child and presence of a spouse were associated with higher parenting indexes (all P ≤ .01). CONCLUSIONS In this study with a large sample size, stigma and mental health disorders negatively influenced parenting attitudes, whereas family and community acceptance were associated with adaptive parenting attitudes. Interventions to reduce stigmatization, augment acceptance, and improve maternal mental health may improve the long-term well-being of mothers and children from SVRPs. PMID:26438704

  14. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. [Ebola in Guinea: experience of stigma among health professional survivors].

    PubMed

    Sow, S; Desclaux, A; Taverne, B

    2016-10-01

    This article aims to describe the various forms of stigma faced by Ebola health professional survivors. A study based on in-depth interviews with 20 survivors was conducted in Conakry as part of PostEboGui multidisciplinary cohort research Program (Life after Ebola) in July-August 2015. Participants were health professionals, male and female, mostly with precarious positions in the health system. The results show that stigmatization is mainly expressed through avoidance, rejection, or being refused to be reinstated in the position at work and non-acceptance of the disease by third parties. This stigmatization appears to be rooted in fear of contagion and in diverging conceptions of the disease aetiology that may engender conflict. Being health workers did not protect them against stigma and some of them faced rejection in their own health care facility. This stigmatization was not based on moral grounds, contrary to the one experienced by people living with HIV, and attitudes of solidarity were encountered in family and confessional networks. Responders found support within an association of survivors (Association des personnes guéries et affectées d'Ebola en Guinée, APEGUAEG) that was created in early 2015. Stigmatization was temporary and disappeared for most responders owing to strategies implemented by survivors and because the fear of contagion had vanished: interviews were conducted when the notion of persistence of Ebola virus in the semen was not spread in the population. This research study shows that stigma is perpetuated among health agents, towards workers who were exposed by their professional role. This observation should be considered for specific measures towards behavioural change. Finally, the very notion of "stigmatization", widely used by public health institutions, is challenged by the diversity of individual experiences that are particular to Ebola virus disease regarding their expression and evolution. Studies on stigma related to Ebola

  16. Vulnerability to fat-stigma in women's everyday relationships.

    PubMed

    Brewis, Alexandra A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Wutich, Amber

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is understood as a major medical and public health challenge, but the stigma attached to it also creates extraordinary suffering. The pervasiveness of morally negative views toward the overweight and obese, such as laziness and lack of self-control, are undeniable in mainstream U.S. society, situated both institutionally (such as health care barriers or media stereotypes) and interpersonally (such as the negative comments of others). To test basic pathways related to the etiology of women's vulnerability to feeling "fat-stigma" in interpersonal relationships, we present a study conducted between August and November 2009 that combines social network, anthropometric, body image, and interview data for 112 women aged 18-45 years, living in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S., and linked follow-up interviews with 823 of their social ties. Based on the proposition that some social network characteristics should amplify the personal experience of stigma, and others should ameliorate it, we ask: what relationship qualities make women more sensitive to the judgments of others about their weight? We find that what others say about women has only a very limited influence on how women judge others' negative views of their weight once actual body size is taken into account, but that women are more influenced by the opinions of those they are closer to and interact with more often. Ultimately, the degree to which women perceive themselves to be judged by others regarding their weight is not well explained by the actual opinions of people in their networks, either known or unknown to them. The assumption that social network norms exert considerable influence on people's stigma experiences needs to be carefully evaluated, at least in the domain of overweight and obesity.

  17. Stigma: The relevance of social contact in mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Frías, Víctor M; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Santamaría, Pilar; Martínez, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor

    2017-06-23

    The stigma associated with mental illness is a health problem, discriminating and limiting the opportunities for sufferers. Social contact with people suffering a mental disorder is a strategy used to produce changes in population stereotypes. The aim of the study was to examine differences in the level of stigma in samples with social contact and the general population. The study included two experiments. The first (n=42) included players in an open football league who played in a team with players with schizophrenia. In the second included, a sample without known contact (n=62) and a sample with contact (n=100) were compared. The evaluation tool used was AQ-27, Spanish version (AQ-27-E). The mean difference between the two samples of each of the 9 subscales was analyzed. In the first experiment, all the subscales had lower scores in post-contact than in pre-contact, except for responsibility. The two subscales that showed significant differences were duress (t=6.057, p=.000) and Pity (t=3.661, p=.001). In the second experiment, seven subscales showed a significance level (p=<.05). Segregation and responsibility and did not. It is observed that the social contact made in daily situations can have a positive impact on the reduction of stigma. This can help to promote equality of opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Explorations of lung cancer stigma for female long term survivors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Cati; Cataldo, Janine

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, accompanied by greater psychological distress than other cancers. There is minimal but increasing awareness of the impact of lung cancer stigma (LCS) on patient outcomes. LCS is associated with increased symptom burden and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of female long term lung cancer survivors in the context of LCS and examine how participants discursively adhere to or reject stigmatizing beliefs. Findings situated within Cataldo et al.’s theoretical model include: 1) addiction and tobacco marketing as possible precursors for LCS, 2) the possible role of expert providers as LCS enhancers, 3) response of overlapping complicated identity shifts, 4) simultaneous rejection and assumption of LCS, and 5) information control via advocacy activities as a LCS mitigation response. These findings expand the current understanding of LCS, and call for future conceptual exploration and theoretical revision, particularly with respect to the possibility of interaction between relevant related stigma(s) and LCS. As the number of women living with lung cancer increases, with longer survival times, the effect of LCS and other experiences of discrimination on patient outcomes could be substantial. PMID:23414179

  19. The stigma of clean dieting and orthorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Suzanne M; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2017-01-01

    Although the stigma of eating disorders such as anorexia has been well established, little is known about the social consequences of "clean dieting" and orthorexia nervosa. In two studies, we examined the social stigma of clean dieting and orthorexia. In Study 1, participants read a vignette describing a woman following a "clean" diet, a woman with anorexia, or a control target (minimal information about the individual). In Study 2, participants read a vignette describing a woman with orthorexia, a woman displaying identical orthorexic behaviors but without the orthorexia label, a woman with anorexia, or a control target. Participants then rated the target individual on a range of measures assessing stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral intentions toward the target. Study 1 found that the clean-dieting target was evaluated more negatively than the control target on some dimensions, but less negatively than the target with anorexia nervosa. Study 2 found that evaluations of the targets with orthorexia nervosa were more negative than evaluations of a control target, but did not differ from evaluations of the target with anorexia nervosa. Perceptions of the target's control over her behavior were associated with more positive evaluations (Studies 1 and 2), whereas perceptions of blame and responsibility for the condition were associated with more negative evaluations (Study 2). Overall, these findings highlight the potential negative social consequences of clean dieting and orthorexia nervosa, and point to perceptions of control and blame as potential mechanisms underlying the stigma of these conditions.

  20. Stigma and need for care in individuals who hear voices.

    PubMed

    Vilhauer, Ruvanee P

    2017-02-01

    Voice hearing experiences, or auditory verbal hallucinations, occur in healthy individuals as well as in individuals who need clinical care, but news media depict voice hearing primarily as a symptom of mental illness, particularly schizophrenia. This article explores whether, and how, public perception of an exaggerated association between voice hearing and mental illness might influence individuals' need for clinical care. A narrative literature review was conducted, using relevant peer-reviewed research published in the English language. Stigma may prevent disclosure of voice hearing experiences. Non-disclosure can prevent access to sources of normalizing information and lead to isolation, loss of social support and distress. Internalization of stigma and concomitantly decreased self-esteem could potentially affect features of voices such as perceived voice power, controllability, negativity and frequency, as well as distress. Increased distress may result in a decrease in functioning and increased need for clinical care. The literature reviewed suggests that stigma has the potential to increase need for care through many interrelated pathways. However, the ability to draw definitive conclusions was constrained by the designs of the studies reviewed. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this review.