Science.gov

Sample records for stimulate continued interest

  1. Stimulate Students' Interest by Genetics Exordium Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Genetics is the important specialized course of bioscience and whether exordium is taught wonderfully or not plays the important and pivotal role. Well teaching exordium class may stimulate students, deep interest and intense desire for knowledge in this class. This text, according to teaching experience and taste, puts forward several teaching…

  2. Marketing Environment Group Project Stimulates Student Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastas, George, III

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Marketing Environment Group Project to be used by a marketing instructor. Indicates that through this teaching method, students have an increased interest in marketing and a greater understanding of how an organization's marketing strategy must adapt to its changing environment. (JOW)

  3. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    2008-04-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore striatal dopamine signaling by increasing the supply of dopamine with oral levodopa (L-dopa), stimulating dopamine receptors directly using dopamine agonists, or inhibiting the reuptake of endogenous dopamine. L-dopa is standard therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, with continued treatment and disease progression, the response to oral dopaminergic drugs becomes unstable and motor fluctuations emerge, including off periods and dyskinesia. Direct duodenal-administered infusible L-dopa/carbidopa is effective for the management of refractory motor fluctuations in some patient populations. However, enteral infusions cannot mimic the function of the normal dopaminergic brain, and around-the-clock constant-rate administration carries the risk of causing refractory off periods associated with severe immobility and hyperpyrexia. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is also a promising treatment. DBS passes a high-frequency electrical current into the target area, mimicking the effect of lesioning the stimulated area. However, this treatment requires invasive surgery and is appropriate for a limited segment of the patient population. This supplement provides a rationale for the use of continuous dopaminergic receptor stimulation and offers guidelines on the individualization of treatment decisions, with special focus on continuous L-dopa infusion and STN DBS. Erik Wolters, MD, PhD, offers an introduction to the impact of continuous L-dopa infusion. Andrew J. Lees, MD, FRCP, provides an overview of the physiologic response to L-dopa and reviews clinical pharmacologic studies of intravenous and intraduodenal L-dopa. Jens Volkmann, MD, discusses

  4. CONTINUING EDUCATION INTERESTS OF MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS IN EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, HUEY B.

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED CONTINUING EDUCATION ACTIVITIES AND ATTITUDES OF 71 CITY OFFICIALS (MOSTLY MALE AND MIDDLE-AGED) IN SEVEN COUNTIES OF EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA. A QUESTIONNAIRE OBTAINED DATA ON REGULARITY OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, PREFERRED METHODS, INTEREST IN EDUCATION RELATED TO THE OFFICIAL'S DUTIES, DESIRED SUBJECT AREAS, ORGANIZATIONS…

  5. Older Employee Behaviour and Interest in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The increasing older population actually sets the conditions for adult education and its potential for innovation in reception and support for older employees. Therefore it is important to keep in mind the needs older learners have, along with their educational interests and behaviour. This article presents the results of a national representative…

  6. Continuous-waveform constant-current isolated physiological stimulator

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Mark R.; Devine, Jack M.; Harder, Rene; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an isolated continuous-waveform constant-current physiological stimulator that is powered and controlled by universal serial bus (USB) interface. The stimulator is composed of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), 16-MHz MSP430F2618 microcontroller with two integrated 12-bit digital to analog converters (DAC0, DAC1), high-speed H-Bridge, voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), isolated USB communication and power circuitry, two isolated transistor-transistor logic (TTL) inputs, and a serial 16 × 2 character liquid crystal display. The stimulators are designed to produce current stimuli in the range of ±15 mA indefinitely using a 20V source and to be used in ex vivo cardiac experiments, but they are suitable for use in a wide variety of research or student experiments that require precision control of continuous waveforms or synchronization with external events. The device was designed with customization in mind and has features that allow it to be integrated into current and future experimental setups. Dual TTL inputs allow replacement by two or more traditional stimulators in common experimental configurations. The MSP430 software is written in C++ and compiled with IAR Embedded Workbench 5.20.2. A control program written in C++ runs on a Windows personal computer and has a graphical user interface that allows the user to control all aspects of the device. PMID:22559554

  7. Continuous-waveform constant-current isolated physiological stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Mark R.; Devine, Jack M.; Harder, Rene; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed an isolated continuous-waveform constant-current physiological stimulator that is powered and controlled by universal serial bus (USB) interface. The stimulator is composed of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), 16-MHz MSP430F2618 microcontroller with two integrated 12-bit digital to analog converters (DAC0, DAC1), high-speed H-Bridge, voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), isolated USB communication and power circuitry, two isolated transistor-transistor logic (TTL) inputs, and a serial 16 × 2 character liquid crystal display. The stimulators are designed to produce current stimuli in the range of ±15 mA indefinitely using a 20V source and to be used in ex vivo cardiac experiments, but they are suitable for use in a wide variety of research or student experiments that require precision control of continuous waveforms or synchronization with external events. The device was designed with customization in mind and has features that allow it to be integrated into current and future experimental setups. Dual TTL inputs allow replacement by two or more traditional stimulators in common experimental configurations. The MSP430 software is written in C++ and compiled with IAR Embedded Workbench 5.20.2. A control program written in C++ runs on a Windows personal computer and has a graphical user interface that allows the user to control all aspects of the device.

  8. Pharmacists' Interest in and Commitment to Obtaining an Advanced Pharmacy Degree through Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of all West Virginia pharmacists concerning their views on continuing education and advanced pharmacy degrees. Conclusions indicate a small percentage of pharmacists are interested in a higher degree via continuing education. (Author/CT)

  9. Continuous-wave stimulated Raman scattering (cwSRS) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2013-08-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is a powerful tool for chemically sensitive non-invasive optical imaging. However, ultrafast laser sources, which are currently employed, are still expensive and require substantial maintenance to provide temporal overlap and spectral tuning. SRS imaging, which utilizes continuous-wave laser sources, has a major advantage, as it eliminates the cell damage due to exposure to the high-intensity light radiation, while substantially reducing the cost and complexity of the setup. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate microscopic imaging of dimethyl sulfoxide using two independent, commonly used lasers, a diode-pumped, intracavity doubled 532-nm laser and a He-Ne laser operating at 632.8-nm.

  10. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation affects brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dan Cao; Yingjie Li; Ling Wei; Yingying Tang

    2016-08-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the emotional processing as well as in the functional brain network. Hyperactivity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would be found in anxious participants. However, it is still unclear what the role of PFC played in a resting functional network. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) is an effective tool to create virtual lesions on brain regions. In this paper, we applied cTBS over right prefrontal area, and investigated the effects of cTBS on the brain activity for functional connectivity by the method of graph theory. We recorded 64-channels EEG on thirteen healthy participants in the resting condition and emotional tasks before and after 40 s of cTBS. This work focused on the effect of cTBS on cortical activities in the resting condition by calculating the coherence between EEG channels and building functional networks before and after cTBS in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Results revealed that 1) The functional connectivity after cTBS was significantly increased compared with that before cTBS in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the resting condition; 2) The efficiency-cost reached the maximum before and after cTBS both with the cost about 0.3 in the bands above, which meant that the information transmission of functional brain network with this cost was highly efficient; 3) the clustering coefficient and path length after cTBS was significantly increased in delta, theta and beta bands. In conclusion, cTBS over PFC indeed enhanced the functional connectivity in the resting condition. In addition, the information transmission in the resting brain network was highly efficient with the cost about 0.3.

  11. A CONTINUED INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes three experiments performed by Southern Research Institute under a cooperative agreement with EPA. First was a demonstration of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) used to collect particulate matter (PM) from fossil fuel electrical power pl...

  12. Concordance of Interests in Dynamic Models of Social Partnership in the System of Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarasenko, Larissa V.; Ougolnitsky, Guennady A.; Usov, Anatoly B.; Vaskov, Maksim A.; Kirik, Vladimir A.; Astoyanz, Margarita S.; Angel, Olga Y.

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic game theoretic model of concordance of interests in the process of social partnership in the system of continuing professional education is proposed. Non-cooperative, cooperative, and hierarchical setups are examined. Analytical solution for a linear state version of the model is provided. Nash equilibrium algorithms (for non-cooperative…

  13. Muscle plasticity: comparison of a 30-Hz burst with 10-Hz continuous stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A S; Stone, H E; Roessmann, U; Burke, M; Tisdale, E; Mortimer, J T

    1989-03-01

    The changes in the contractile properties induced by a 30-Hz phasic stimulation paradigm were measured and compared with the changes induced by a 10-Hz continuous stimulation paradigm. The study was performed on the tibialis anterior muscles of cats with one paradigm applied to one hindlimb muscle and the other to the contralateral limb. Both hindlimb muscles received the same number of stimuli in a day, making the average stimulation frequency 10 Hz. Two periods of daily stimulation were studied, 8 and 24 h/day. Muscles stimulated at 30 Hz produced greater overall tetanic tension and, during a prolonged stimulation test, exerted a greater mean tension than muscles stimulated at 10 Hz (50 and 32% increase for animals stimulated for 8 and 24 h/day, respectively). Muscle mass was least reduced and fewer pathological abnormalities were observed in the muscles stimulated at 30 Hz. There were no apparent differences in the histochemistry or biochemistry between muscles stimulated at 10 and 30 Hz, which could account for these differences in muscle properties. These results indicate the 30-Hz paradigm may be better suited than 10 Hz continuous stimulation for applications requiring sustained muscle tension such as correction of scoliosis or muscle conditioning for motor prostheses.

  14. Modulation of Visual Cortex Excitability by Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation Depends on Coil Type

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Sabrina; Kammer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Subthreshold continuous theta burst stimulation of the visual cortex has been reported to cause inhibitory effects on phosphene threshold. In contrast, we observed no inhibition in a former study applying higher stimulation intensities. The main discrepancies between our experiments and the former studies were stimulation intensity and coil type. We aimed at investigating the role of these factors on the modulatory effects of continuous theta burst stimulation applied to the visual cortex. In a between-group-design, we used either a figure-of-eight-coil or a round coil, respectively. We measured phosphene thresholds prior and after continuous theta burst stimulation applied at 80% of individual phosphene threshold. With the figure-of-eight-coil, phosphene thresholds significantly decreased following stimulation. This is in line with the results of our former study but contrary to the increase observed in the other two studies. Using a round coil, no significant effect was observed. A correlation analysis revealed an inhibitory effect in subjects with higher phosphene thresholds only. Furthermore, the slope of the baseline phosphene threshold seems to predict the direction of modulation, independent from coil type. Thus, modulatory effects of continuous theta burst stimulation seem to depend on coil type and psychophysics parameters, probably due to different cortex volumes stimulated. Stochastic resonance phenomena might account for the differences observed. PMID:27459108

  15. Effectiveness of Three Case Studies and Associated Teamwork in Stimulating Freshman Interest in an Introduction to Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of three case studies and associated teamwork to stimulate interest of college freshman in engineering was investigated by observing students. Case studies were assigned as laboratory team exercises in an introduction to engineering course at Auburn University. Student interest in the case studies was evaluated qualitatively…

  16. Continuous-wave infrared optical nerve stimulation for potential diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Cilip, Christopher M.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-09-01

    Optical nerve stimulation using infrared laser radiation has recently been developed as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation. However, recent studies have focused primarily on pulsed delivery of the laser radiation and at relatively low pulse rates. The objective of this study is to demonstrate faster optical stimulation of the prostate cavernous nerves using continuous-wave (cw) infrared laser radiation for potential diagnostic applications. A thulium fiber laser (λ=1870 nm) is used for noncontact optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves in vivo. Optical nerve stimulation, as measured by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the penis, is achieved with the laser operating in either cw mode, or with a 5-ms pulse duration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 Hz. Successful optical stimulation is observed to be primarily dependent on a threshold nerve temperature (42 to 45 °C), rather than an incident fluence, as previously reported. cw optical nerve stimulation provides a significantly faster ICP response time using a lower power (and also less expensive) laser than pulsed stimulation. cw optical nerve stimulation may therefore represent an alternative mode of stimulation for intraoperative diagnostic applications where a rapid response is critical, such as identification of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery.

  17. Stimulating Interest in Natural Sciences and Training Observation Skills: The UAP Observations Reporting Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailleris, P.

    2012-04-01

    For a number of reasons the general public and many young people are fascinated by the ideas of UFOs and extra-terrestrial life. As mysteries motivate to gain interest and knowledge, an opportunity exists, throughout these topics, to stimulate the people's interests to natural sciences and technology. A major problem however exists, concerning the fact that the general public generally associates any strange aerial sighting to something exotic, unknown, and to the possibility of extraterrestrial visitations. Rumours, irrational thinking and conspiracy theories prevail around these topics. Launched under the framework of the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, the Unidentified Aerospace Phenomena (UAP) Observations Reporting Scheme seeks to tackle this situation through approaching the topic from a professional and rational perspective, providing an opportunity to teach the public how to think more critically, demystifying UFO events, and ultimately attempting to stimulate the interest in natural sciences and technological disciplines. This is tentatively attempted through the following resources: Firstly, the project's website (1) provides an extensive resource for inquiry-based learning regarding the various natural or man-made phenomena that often give rise to false UAP sightings. It serves as a general forum for educating the public about human, atmospheric and astrophysical phenomena that could be observed in the sky. Secondly, the basic educational information provided on the web site allows potential UAP witnesses to critically evaluate the potential cause of their sightings. Visual descriptions, photos, video clips, tools, and links to relevant websites are provided for each category of phenomena, in order to assist the observer in his self-analysis. Amateur astronomers and societies who receive questions about UFOs can redirect queries to the website. Thirdly, the website provides novice observers viewing tips (e.g. elevation, azimuth, angular size) about

  18. [Interest of EEG recording during direct electrical stimulation for brain mapping function in surgery].

    PubMed

    Trebuchon, A; Guye, M; Tcherniack, V; Tramoni, E; Bruder, N; Metellus, P

    2012-06-01

    Brain tumor surgery is at risk when lesions are located in eloquent areas. The interindividual anatomo-functional variability of the central nervous system implies that brain surgery within eloquent regions may induce neurological sequelae. Brain mapping using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation in awake patients has been for long validated as the standard for functional brain mapping. Direct electrical stimulation inducing a local transient electrical and functional disorganization is considered positive if the task performed by the patient is disturbed. The brain area stimulated is then considered as essential for the function tested. However, the exactitude of the information provided by this technique is cautious because the actual impact of cortical direct electrical stimulation is not known. Indeed, the possibility of false negative (insufficient intensity of the stimulation due to the heterogeneity of excitability threshold of different cortical areas) or false positive (current spread, interregional signal propagation responsible for remote effects, which make difficult the interpretation of positive or negative behavioural effects) constitute a limitation of this technique. To improve the sensitivity and specificity of this technique, we used an electrocorticographic recording system allowing a real time visualization of the local. We provide here evidence that direct cortical stimulation combined with electrocorticographic recording could be useful to detect remote after discharge and to adjust stimulation parameters. In addition this technique offers new perspective to better assess connectivity of cerebral networks.

  19. Pathways from parental stimulation of children's curiosity to high school science course accomplishments and science career interest and skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskeles Gottfried, Adele; Johnson Preston, Kathleen Suzanne; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Delany, Danielle E.; Ibrahim, Sirena M.

    2016-08-01

    Curiosity is fundamental to scientific inquiry and pursuance. Parents are important in encouraging children's involvement in science. This longitudinal study examined pathways from parental stimulation of children's curiosity per se to their science acquisition (SA). A latent variable of SA was indicated by the inter-related variables of high school science course accomplishments, career interest, and skill. A conceptual model investigated parental stimulation of children's curiosity as related to SA via science intrinsic motivation and science achievement. The Fullerton Longitudinal Study provided data spanning school entry through high school (N = 118). Parental stimulation of curiosity at age 8 years comprised exposing children to new experiences, promoting curiosity, encouraging asking questions, and taking children to a museum. Intrinsic motivation was measured at ages 9, 10, and 13 years, and achievement at ages 9, 10, and 11 years. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses. Controlling for socio-economic status, parental stimulation of curiosity bore positive and significant relations to science intrinsic motivation and achievement, which in turn related to SA. Gender neither related to stimulation of curiosity nor contributed to the model. Findings highlight the importance of parental stimulation of children's curiosity in facilitating trajectories into science, and relevance to science education is discussed.

  20. VOCATIONAL PROBLEM-SOLVING EXPERIENCES FOR STIMULATING CAREER EXPLORATION AND INTEREST. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D.; AND OTHERS

    TO MOTIVATE INTEREST IN CAREER EXPLORATION, FIVE SETS OF JOB SIMULATION MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED AND TESTED FOR ACCOUNTING, X-RAY TECHNOLOGY, MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY, SALES, AND BANKING. EACH "CAREER KIT" PRESENTED PROBLEMS REPRESENTATIVE OF EACH OCCUPATION AND THE BACKGROUND INFORMATION NEEDED TO GUARANTEE THAT MOST SUBJECTS COULD SOLVE…

  1. 76 FR 28802 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Continuation of Interest Reduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... low-income housing resources. DATES: Comments Due Date: June 17, 2011. ADDRESSES: Interested persons... information to ensure that projects are maintained as low-income housing resources. Frequency of...

  2. 37 CFR 10.66 - Refusing to accept or continue employment if the interests of another client may impair the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusing to accept or continue employment if the interests of another client may impair the independent professional judgment of the practitioner. 10.66 Section 10.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Needs and Interests of Iowa State University Alumni in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Gerald Edward

    A study was made of a random sample of 934 Iowa State University alumni, who graduated between 1926 and 1965 and lived in Iowa, the purpose being to determine: their feelings of need and commitment to continuing education; their present participation; the content, type, and locations of programs they prefer; and where they think responsibility for…

  4. Electrical stimulation vs. pulsed and continuous-wave optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves, in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, William C.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Identification and preservation of the cavernous nerves (CNs) during prostate cancer surgery is critical for post-operative sexual function. Electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) mapping has previously been tested as an intraoperative tool for CN identification, but was found to be unreliable. ENS is limited by the need for electrode-tissue contact, poor spatial precision from electrical current spreading, and stimulation artifacts interfering with detection. Alternatively, optical nerve stimulation (ONS) provides noncontact stimulation, improved spatial selectivity, and elimination of stimulation artifacts. This study compares ENS to pulsed/CW ONS to explore the ONS mechanism. A total of eighty stimulations were performed in 5 rats, in vivo. ENS (4 V, 5 ms, 10 Hz) was compared to ONS using a pulsed diode laser nerve stimulator (1873 nm, 5 ms, 10 Hz) or CW diode laser nerve stimulator (1455 nm). Intracavernous pressure (ICP) response and nerve compound action potentials (nCAPs) were measured. All three stimulation modes (ENS, ONS-CW, ONS-P) produced comparable ICP magnitudes. However, ENS demonstrated more rapid ICP response times and well defined nCAPs compared to unmeasurable nCAPs for ONS. Further experiments measuring single action potentials during ENS and ONS are warranted to further understand differences in the ENS and ONS mechanisms.

  5. Managing perceived conflicts of interest while ensuring the continued innovation of medical technology.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    If it were not for the ongoing collaboration between vascular surgeons and the medical technology industry, many of these advanced treatments used every day in vascular interventional surgery would not exist. The flip side of this coin is that these vital relationships create multiple roles for surgeons and must be appropriately managed. The dynamic process of innovation, along with factors such as product delivery technique refinement, education, testing and clinical trials, and product support, all make it necessary for ongoing and close collaboration between surgeons and the device industry. This unique relationship sometimes leads to the perception of conflicts of interest for physicians, in part because the competing pressures from the multiple, overlapping roles as clinician/caregiver/investigator/innovator/customer are significant. To address this issue, the Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed), the nation's largest medical technology association representing medical device and diagnostics companies, developed a Code of Ethics to guide medical technology companies in their interactions with health care professionals. First introduced in 1993, the AdvaMed Code strongly encourages both industry and physicians to commit to openness and high ethical standards in the conduct of their business interactions. The AdvaMed Code addresses many of the types of interactions that can occur between companies and health care professionals, including training, consulting agreements, the provision of demonstration and evaluation units, and charitable donations. By following the Code, companies send a strong message that treatment decisions must always be based on the best interest of the patient.

  6. Using clinical cases to stimulate active learning in a short periodontal continuing professional development course.

    PubMed

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Thevissen, Eric; Lindén, Ulf; Klinge, Björn; de Bruyn, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    A case-based approach was used in a two-day periodontal continuing professional development course as a strategy to stimulate active learning. The present study investigates the outcome of this course format in terms of feasibility, perceived efficiency as a learning approach and reported individual learning goals. The study was performed in five identical courses entitled'risk analysis and treatment in periodontal patients'at Malmö University between 2011-2014. Before the course, clinical cases were used to activate participants' prior knowledge and to attune their focus on the course content. During the course, cases were discussed to synchronise theory with practical application. A pre- and end-course questionnaire were developed to evaluate participants' characteristics (age, clinical expertise, experience and expectations), perceptions on feasibility and instructiveness and emerged individual learning goals. The participants (39 dentists and 78 dental hygienists) reported an average preparation time of 62 minutes (range 2-190) and had positive perceptions on the accessibility, instructiveness and difficulty of cases. Expectations ranged between refreshing, acquiring new knowledge and mastering the course subject. Most reported learning goals were related to daily clinical practice including the development of a treatment plan, when to continue non-surgical treatment or to extract teeth/perform surgery, the approach to periodontitis, how to motivate non-compliant patients and when to refer. Conclusion: The use of clinical cases to stimulate active learning in a short-term continuing professional development periodontal course was positively perceived by the dentists and dental hygienists in terms of feasibility and learning potential.

  7. Speed of processing in the primary motor cortex: a continuous theta burst stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Bimal; Bolton, David A E; Miyasike-Dasilva, Veronica; Vette, Albert H; McIlroy, William E

    2014-03-15

    'Temporally urgent' reactions are extremely rapid, spatially precise movements that are evoked following discrete stimuli. The involvement of primary motor cortex (M1) and its relationship to stimulus intensity in such reactions is not well understood. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) suppresses focal regions of the cortex and can assess the involvement of motor cortex in speed of processing. The primary objective of this study was to explore the involvement of M1 in speed of processing with respect to stimulus intensity. Thirteen healthy young adults participated in this experiment. Behavioral testing consisted of a simple button press using the index finger following median nerve stimulation of the opposite limb, at either high or low stimulus intensity. Reaction time was measured by the onset of electromyographic activity from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of each limb. Participants completed a 30 min bout of behavioral testing prior to, and 15 min following, the delivery of cTBS to the motor cortical representation of the right FDI. The effect of cTBS on motor cortex was measured by recording the average of 30 motor evoked potentials (MEPs) just prior to, and 5 min following, cTBS. Paired t-tests revealed that, of thirteen participants, five demonstrated a significant attenuation, three demonstrated a significant facilitation and five demonstrated no significant change in MEP amplitude following cTBS. Of the group that demonstrated attenuated MEPs, there was a biologically significant interaction between stimulus intensity and effect of cTBS on reaction time and amplitude of muscle activation. This study demonstrates the variability of potential outcomes associated with the use of cTBS and further study on the mechanisms that underscore the methodology is required. Importantly, changes in motor cortical excitability may be an important determinant of speed of processing following high intensity stimulation.

  8. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H

    2008-07-21

    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  9. Continuous-Wave Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscope for Imaging Actin Cytoskeleton in Fixed and Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Bhanu; Jin, Tao; Mellor, Liliana F.; Loboa, Elizabeth G.; Ligler, Frances S.; Wang, Gufeng

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy provides a new opportunity to study fine sub-cellular structures and highly dynamic cellular processes, which are challenging to observe using conventional optical microscopy. Using actin as an example, we explored the feasibility of using a continuous wave (CW)-STED microscope to study the fine structure and dynamics in fixed and live cells. Actin plays an important role in cellular processes, whose functioning involves dynamic formation and reorganization of fine structures of actin filaments. Frequently used confocal fluorescence and STED microscopy dyes were employed to image fixed PC-12 cells (dyed with phalloidin- fluorescein isothiocyante) and live rat chondrosarcoma cells (RCS) transfected with actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP). Compared to conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, CW-STED microscopy shows improved spatial resolution in both fixed and live cells. We were able to monitor cell morphology changes continuously; however, the number of repetitive analyses were limited primarily by the dyes used in these experiments and could be improved with the use of dyes less susceptible to photobleaching. In conclusion, CW-STED may disclose new information for biological systems with a proper characteristic length scale. The challenges of using CW-STED microscopy to study cell structures are discussed. PMID:26393614

  10. Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation Demonstrates a Causal Role of Premotor Homunculus in Action Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Kristian; Skewes, Joshua; Wolf, Thomas; Blicher, Jakob; Overgaard, Morten; Frith, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions of premotor cortex (PMC) are active during action observation, it remains controversial whether they play a causal role in action understanding. In the experiment reported here, we used off-line continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to investigate this question. Participants received cTBS over the hand and lip areas of left PMC, in separate sessions, before completing a pantomime-recognition task in which half of the trials contained pantomimed hand actions, and half contained pantomimed mouth actions. The results reveal a double dissociation: Participants were less accurate in recognizing pantomimed hand actions after receiving cTBS over the hand area than over the lip area and less accurate in recognizing pantomimed mouth actions after receiving cTBS over the lip area than over the hand area. This finding constrains theories of action understanding by showing that somatotopically organized regions of PMC contribute causally to action understanding and, thus, that the mechanisms underpinning action understanding and action performance overlap. PMID:24549297

  11. Continuous-wave stimulated Brillouin spectroscopy in scattering media at 780 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, Itay; Billenca, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative probing of the mechanical properties of scattering media by Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging field of research. At present, Brillouin spectrometers typically detect spontaneous Brillouin backscattered signals from the sample using setups that comprise virtually imaged phased arrays (VIPAs) cascaded in cross-axis configuration or heated molecular absorption cells prior to the VIPA. These experimental arrangements are necessary in order to significantly suppress the strong elastic scattering background from the medium. In this talk, we present a different approach for Brillouin spectroscopy of scattering matter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplification. Unlike spontaneous Brillouin scattering, SBS amplification does not show elastic scattering background due to the resonant nature of the amplification process, thereby providing excellent spectral contrast. We demonstrate that the use of two continuous-wave distributed feedback lasers at 780 nm in a counter-propagating SBS amplifier geometry is useful for acquiring high signal-to-noise ratio SBS spectra of Intralipid solutions at concentrations that yield up to ~3 scattering events for photons propagating through the sample. Potential applications of SBS spectroscopy in mechanical characterization of thin tissue sections and biopolymers will be discussed.

  12. Continuous-wave vs. pulsed infrared laser stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Cilip, Christopher M.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    Optical nerve stimulation has recently been developed as an alternative to electrical nerve stimulation. However, recent studies have focused primarily on pulsed delivery of the laser radiation and at relatively low pulse rates. The objective of this study is to demonstrate faster optical stimulation of the prostate cavernous nerves using continuouswave (CW) infrared laser radiation, for potential diagnostic applications. A Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1870 nm) was used for non-contact optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves, in vivo. Optical nerve stimulation, as measured by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the penis, was achieved with the laser operating in either CW mode, or with a 5-ms pulse duration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 Hz. Successful optical stimulation was observed to be primarily dependent on a threshold nerve temperature (42-45 °C), not an incident fluence, as previously reported. CW optical nerve stimulation provides a significantly faster ICP response time using a laser with lower power output than pulsed stimulation. CW optical nerve stimulation may therefore represent an alternative mode of stimulation for intra-operative diagnostic applications where a rapid response is critical, such as identification of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery.

  13. Continuous theta burst stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex decreases medium load working memory performance in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Schicktanz, Nathalie; Fastenrath, Matthias; Milnik, Annette; Spalek, Klara; Auschra, Bianca; Nyffeler, Thomas; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Schwegler, Kyrill

    2015-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a key role in working memory. Evidence indicates that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the DLPFC can interfere with working memory performance. Here we investigated for how long continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the DLPFC decreases working memory performance and whether the effect of cTBS on performance depends on working memory load. Forty healthy young subjects received either cTBS over the left DLPFC or sham stimulation before performing a 2-, and 3-back working memory letter task. An additional 0-back condition served as a non-memory-related control, measuring general attention. cTBS over the left DLPFC significantly impaired 2-back working memory performance for about 15 min, whereas 3-back and 0-back performances were not significantly affected. Our results indicate that the effect of left DLPFC cTBS on working memory performance lasts for roughly 15 min and depends on working memory load.

  14. Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the lateral prefrontal cortex alters reinforcement learning bias.

    PubMed

    Ott, Derek V M; Ullsperger, Markus; Jocham, Gerhard; Neumann, Jane; Klein, Tilmann A

    2011-07-15

    The prefrontal cortex is known to play a key role in higher-order cognitive functions. Recently, we showed that this brain region is active in reinforcement learning, during which subjects constantly have to integrate trial outcomes in order to optimize performance. To further elucidate the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in reinforcement learning, we applied continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) either to the left or right DLPFC, or to the vertex as a control region, respectively, prior to the performance of a probabilistic learning task in an fMRI environment. While there was no influence of cTBS on learning performance per se, we observed a stimulation-dependent modulation of reward vs. punishment sensitivity: Left-hemispherical DLPFC stimulation led to a more reward-guided performance, while right-hemispherical cTBS induced a more avoidance-guided behavior. FMRI results showed enhanced prediction error coding in the ventral striatum in subjects stimulated over the left as compared to the right DLPFC. Both behavioral and imaging results are in line with recent findings that left, but not right-hemispherical stimulation can trigger a release of dopamine in the ventral striatum, which has been suggested to increase the relative impact of rewards rather than punishment on behavior.

  15. Pathways from Parental Stimulation of Children's Curiosity to High School Science Course Accomplishments and Science Career Interest and Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Delany, Danielle E.; Ibrahim, Sirena M.

    2016-01-01

    Curiosity is fundamental to scientific inquiry and pursuance. Parents are important in encouraging children's involvement in science. This longitudinal study examined pathways from parental stimulation of children's curiosity per se to their science acquisition (SA). A latent variable of SA was indicated by the inter-related variables of high…

  16. Camptocormia and deep brain stimulation: The interesting overlapping etiologies and the therapeutic role of subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease with camptocormia

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekci, Hakan; Kaptan, Hulagu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Camptocormia is known as “bent spine syndrome” and defined as a forward hyperflexion. The most common etiologic factor is related with the movement disorders, mainly in Parkinson's disease (PD). Case Description: We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who has been followed with PD for the last 10 years, and also under the therapy for PD. An unappreciated correlation low back pain with camptocormia developed. She underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus bilaterally and improved her bending posture. Conclusion: The relationship between the DBS and camptocormia is discussed in this unique condition. PMID:26958425

  17. Inhibition of antibody formation during continual stimulation with a strong immunogen

    PubMed Central

    Gras, J.; Roca, Mercedes; Ayats, Rosa; Castro, Rosa; Duran, F.

    1974-01-01

    Long persisting antigenic stimulation at immunogenic levels leads to a profound inhibition of antibody formation. With Brucellus abortus, there is first a brief and high IgM response. IgG antibody titres remain at a low level for some days, and then begin a slow and progressive increase, leading to a rather persistent maximum, and finally after about 300 days, to the state of inhibition. When the same total dose is given with monthly intervals, the effect is quite different, with similar IgM and IgG peaks being observed after each dose. The inhibited animals respond moderately to a ten-fold higher antigen dose, and only with IgG. Six months after interruption of the persistent antigenic stimulus, a strong response can be obtained after a new antigenic stimulation, with a substantial proportion of IgM. It is concluded that persistent antigenic stimulation plays a major role in the change from IgM to IgG synthesis. PMID:4212089

  18. Structural Organization of the Corpus Callosum Predicts Attentional Shifts after Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.; Kennard, Christopher; Cazzoli, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in healthy participants has been shown to trigger a significant rightward shift in the spatial allocation of visual attention, temporarily mimicking spatial deficits observed in neglect. In contrast, rTMS applied over the left PPC triggers a weaker or null attentional shift. However, large interindividual differences in responses to rTMS have been reported. Studies measuring changes in brain activation suggest that the effects of rTMS may depend on both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric interactions between cortical loci controlling visual attention. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structural organization of human white matter pathways subserving visual attention, as assessed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography, could explain interindividual differences in the effects of rTMS. Most participants showed a rightward shift in the allocation of spatial attention after rTMS over the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but the size of this effect varied largely across participants. Conversely, rTMS over the left IPS resulted in strikingly opposed individual responses, with some participants responding with rightward and some with leftward attentional shifts. We demonstrate that microstructural and macrostructural variability within the corpus callosum, consistent with differential effects on cross-hemispheric interactions, predicts both the extent and the direction of the response to rTMS. Together, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may have a dual inhibitory and excitatory function in maintaining the interhemispheric dynamics that underlie the allocation of spatial attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) controls allocation of attention across left versus right visual fields. Damage to this area results in neglect, characterized by a lack of spatial awareness of the side of space

  19. Continuous Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (C-IONM) Technique with the Automatic Periodic Stimulating (APS) Accessory for Conventional and Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hui, Sun; Wu, Chei-Wei; Xiaoli, Liu; Ferrari, Cesare Carlo; Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Frattini, Francesco; Annoni, Matteo; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important trends in intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery is currently the real-time monitoring of the vagus nerve (VN) in order to prevent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) iatrogenic damages. Notably, continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (C-IONM) seems to be superior to intermitted intraoperative neural monitoring (I-IONM) because it enhances standardization by permanent vagus nerve (VN) stimulation, and it provides entire and constant RLN function monitoring as the surgeon dissects and removes the thyroid gland. It also has to be highlighted that the surgical maneuvers for the automatic periodic stimulating (APS) placement must be accurate and standardized in order to avoid a potential iatrogenic morbidity on the VN function. We recommend the experienced surgeon be very careful in each step, with cautious dissection. With this review article we provide a comprehensive analyses of C-IONM technique with the APS accessory for conventional and endoscopic thyroid surgery.

  20. Dopamine Dynamics during Continuous Intracranial Self-Stimulation: Effect of Waveform on Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Data.

    PubMed

    Rodeberg, Nathan T; Johnson, Justin A; Bucher, Elizabeth S; Wightman, R Mark

    2016-11-16

    The neurotransmitter dopamine is heavily implicated in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Many drugs of abuse that affect ICSS behavior target the dopaminergic system, and optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons is sufficient to support self-stimulation. However, the patterns of phasic dopamine release during ICSS remain unclear. Early ICSS studies using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) rarely observed phasic dopamine release, which led to the surprising conclusion that it is dissociated from ICSS. However, several advances in the sensitivity (i.e., the use of waveforms with extended anodic limits) and analysis (i.e., principal component regression) of FSCV measurements have made it possible to detect smaller, yet physiologically relevant, dopamine release events. Therefore, this study revisits phasic dopamine release during ICSS using these tools. It was found that the anodic limit of the voltammetric waveform has a substantial effect on the patterns of dopamine release observed during continuous ICSS. While data collected with low anodic limits (i.e., +1.0 V) support the disappearance of phasic dopamine release observed in previous investigation, the use of high anodic limits (+1.3 V, +1.4 V) allows for continual detection of dopamine release throughout ICSS. However, the +1.4 V waveform lacks the ability to resolve narrowly spaced events, with the best balance of temporal resolution and sensitivity provided by the +1.3 V waveform. Ultimately, it is revealed that the amplitude of phasic dopamine release decays but does not fully disappear during continuous ICSS.

  1. Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation over the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Decreases Medium Load Working Memory Performance in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Schicktanz, Nathalie; Fastenrath, Matthias; Milnik, Annette; Spalek, Klara; Auschra, Bianca; Nyffeler, Thomas; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Schwegler, Kyrill

    2015-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a key role in working memory. Evidence indicates that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the DLPFC can interfere with working memory performance. Here we investigated for how long continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the DLPFC decreases working memory performance and whether the effect of cTBS on performance depends on working memory load. Forty healthy young subjects received either cTBS over the left DLPFC or sham stimulation before performing a 2-, and 3-back working memory letter task. An additional 0-back condition served as a non-memory-related control, measuring general attention. cTBS over the left DLPFC significantly impaired 2-back working memory performance for about 15 min, whereas 3-back and 0-back performances were not significantly affected. Our results indicate that the effect of left DLPFC cTBS on working memory performance lasts for roughly 15 min and depends on working memory load. PMID:25781012

  2. Fluid flow stimulates rapid and continuous release of nitric oxide in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; McAllister, T. N.; Frangos, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow may mediate skeletal remodeling in response to mechanical loading. Because nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be an osteoblast mitogen and inhibitor of osteoclastic resorption, we investigated and characterized the role of fluid shear on the release of NO in osteoblasts. Rat calvarial cells in a stationary culture produced undetectable levels of NO. Fluid shear stress (6 dyn/cm2) rapidly increased NO release rate to 9.8 nmol.h-1.mg protein-1 and sustained this production for 12 h of exposure to flow. Cytokine treatment also induced NO synthesis after a 12-h lag phase of zero production, followed by a production rate of 0.6 nmol.h-1.mg protein-1. Flow-induced NO production was blocked by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-amino-L-arginine, but not by dexamethasone, which suggests that the flow stimulated a constitutive NOS isoform. This is the first time that a functional constitutively present NOS isoform has been identified in osteoblasts. Moreover, fluid flow represents the most potent stimulus of NO release in osteoblasts reported to date. Fluid flow-induced NO production may therefore play a primary role in bone maintenance and remodeling.

  3. Ethical guidance for the management of conflicts of interest for researchers, engineers and clinicians engaged in the development of therapeutic deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fins, Joseph J.; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Nuttin, Bart; Kubu, Cynthia S.; Galert, Thorsten; Sturm, Volker; Merkel, Reinhard; Mayberg, Helen S.

    2011-06-01

    The clinical promise of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for neuropsychiatric conditions is coupled with the potential for ethical conflicts of interest because the work is so heavily reliant upon collaborations between academia, industry and the clinic. To foster transparency and public trust, we offer ethical guidance for the management of conflicts of interest in the conduct of DBS research and practice so that this nascent field can better balance competing goods and engineer new and better strategies for the amelioration of human suffering. We also hope that our ethical analysis will be of relevance to those working with other related neuroprosthetic devices, such brain-computer interfaces and neural arrays, which naturally share many of the same concerns.

  4. Sparsely corrupted stimulated scattering signals recovery by iterative reweighted continuous basis pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Chai, Yi; Su, Chunxiao

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of extracting the desired signals from noisy measurements. This is a classical problem of signal recovery which is of paramount importance in inertial confinement fusion. To accomplish this task, we develop a tractable algorithm based on continuous basis pursuit and reweighted ℓ1-minimization. By modeling the observed signals as superposition of scale time-shifted copies of theoretical waveform, structured noise, and unstructured noise on a finite time interval, a sparse optimization problem is obtained. We propose to solve this problem through an iterative procedure that alternates between convex optimization to estimate the amplitude, and local optimization to estimate the dictionary. The performance of the method was evaluated both numerically and experimentally. Numerically, we recovered theoretical signals embedded in increasing amounts of unstructured noise and compared the results with those obtained through popular denoising methods. We also applied the proposed method to a set of actual experimental data acquired from the Shenguang-II laser whose energy was below the detector noise-equivalent energy. Both simulation and experiments show that the proposed method improves the signal recovery performance and extends the dynamic detection range of detectors.

  5. Two weeks of moderate intensity continuous training, but not high intensity interval training increases insulin-stimulated intestinal glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Motiani, Kumail Kumar; Savolainen, Anna M; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Toivanen, Jussi; Ishizu, Tamiko; Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Parkkola, Riitta; Kapanen, Jukka; Gronroos, Tove J; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof; Savisto, Nina; Ahotupa, Markku; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-02-09

    Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy middle-aged sedentary men were randomized for two weeks of HIIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting free fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography and [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FTHA. In addition, effects of HIIT and MICT on intestinal Glut2 and CD36 protein expression were studied in rats. Training improved aerobic capacity (p=0.001) and whole-body insulin sensitivity (p=0.04), but not differently between HIIT and MICT. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased only after the MICT in the colon [HIIT=0%; MICT=37%] (p=0.02 for time*training) and tended to increase in the jejunum [HIIT=-4%; MICT=13%] (p=0.08 for time*training). Fasting free fatty acid uptake decreased in the duodenum in both groups [HIIT=-6%; MICT=-48%] (p=0.001 time) and tended to decrease in the colon in the MICT group [HIIT=0%; MICT=-38%] (p=0.08 for time*training). In rats, both training groups had higher Glut2 and CD36 expression compared to control animals. This study shows that already two weeks of MICT enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake while both training modes reduce fasting free fatty acid uptake in the intestine in healthy middle-aged men, providing an additional mechanism by which exercise training can improve whole body metabolism.

  6. Current direction specificity of continuous θ-burst stimulation in modulating human motor cortex excitability when applied to somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Mark F; Zapallow, Christopher M; Tsang, Philemon; Lee, Kevin G H; Asmussen, Michael J; Nelson, Aimee J

    2012-11-14

    The present study examines the influence of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) on corticospinal excitability within primary motor cortex (M1) using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Two groups of subjects participated and both received continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over SI. One group received cTBS oriented to induce anterior-to-posterior (AP) followed by posterior-to-anterior (PA) current flow in the cortex and the other group received cTBS in the opposite direction (PA-AP). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the left and right hand before and at three time points (5, 25, 45 min) following cTBS over left-hemisphere SI. CTBS over SI in the AP-PA direction increased contralateral MEPs at 5 and 45 min with a near significant increase at 25 min. In contrast, PA-AP cTBS decreased contralateral MEPs at 25 min. We conclude that cTBS over SI modulates neural output directed to the hand with effects that depend on the direction of induced current.

  7. Continuing the Original Stanford Sleep Surgery Protocol From Upper Airway Reconstruction to Upper Airway Stimulation: Our First Successful Case.

    PubMed

    Liu, Stanley Yung; Riley, Robert Wayne

    2017-02-20

    In 1993, a surgical protocol for dynamic upper airway reconstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was published, and it became commonly known as the Stanford phase 1 and 2 sleep surgery protocol. It served as a platform on which research and clinical studies have continued to perfect the surgical care of patients with OSA. However, relapse is inevitable in a chronic condition such as OSA, and a subset of previously cured surgical patients return with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness. This report describes a patient who was successfully treated with phase 1 and 2 operations more than a decade previously. He returned at 65 years of age with relapse of moderate OSA, and after workup with polysomnography and drug-induced sleep endoscopy, he underwent upper airway stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve that resulted in a cure of OSA. This case shows why upper airway stimulation is an appropriate option for patients with OSA relapse, after previously successful maxillomandibular advancement.

  8. THE PRODUCTION OF VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS BY ANTIGEN- OR MITOGEN-STIMULATED LYMPHOCYTES AND CONTINUOUS LYMPHOBLASTOID LINES

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Maja; Feldman, Joseph D.; Kano, Shogo; Bloom, Barry R.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of lymphoid cell populations were examined in terms of their ability to replicate vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a lytic, RNA-containing virus maturing at the cell surface. The number of cells capable of producing VSV was estimated in terms of infectious centers by the virus plaque assay (VPA), and morphologically by electron microscopy (EM). The lymphoid cells examined in this study included: (a) lymph node cells from delayed hypersensitive guinea pigs stimulated by specific antigen, (b) mouse spleen cells activated by selective bone marrow-derived (B) cell and thymus derived (T) cell mitogens, and (c) cells of human and murine continuous lymphoblastoid or lymphoma lines. In unstimulated cultures of guinea pig lymph node cells there is a background of approximately 1 in 1,000 cells which produces VSV; in purified protein derivative (PPD)-stimulated cultures the number of cells producing virus was 1.6% in the VPA and 1.9% by EM. These cells were large lymphocytes with some morphological features of transformed lymphocytes but were not typical blast cells. A few macrophages were associated with virus in both stimulated and control cultures. These observations indicate that (a) cells responsive to antigens, as detected by a marker virus, were lymphocytes; (b) cells other than lymphocytes (macrophages) were capable of replicating VSV even without antigenic stimulation; and (c) the correlation of results obtained by VPA and morphologic examination was usually quite good. Of the total number of mouse spleen cells stimulated with concanavalin (Con A), a T cell mitogen, 4.5 (EM)–5.7% (VPA) were associated with VSV. These were characteristic transformed lymphocytes, similar to phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocytes. In contrast Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse spleen cultures contained lower numbers of virus plaque-forming cells. The majority of such cells associated with virus displayed extensive rough endoplasmic

  9. NATOs Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    governments, serves as the main policy mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. The United... mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. Additionally, the United States must continue...interest was to “Prevent the collapse of the global systems for trade, financial markets, energy supplies, and the environment.”8 NATO fills the role of

  10. NATO’s Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    governments, serves as the main policy mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. The United... mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. Additionally, the United States must continue...interest was to “Prevent the collapse of the global systems for trade, financial markets, energy supplies, and the environment.”8 NATO fills the role of

  11. Feasibility and Safety of Continuous and Chronic Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Medial Forebrain Bundle in the Naïve Sprague-Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetti, Luciano L.; Döbrössy, Máté D.; Aranda, Iñigo A.; Coenen, Volker A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) has provided rapid and dramatic reduction of depressive symptoms in a clinical trial. Early intracranial self-stimulation experiments of the MFB suggested detrimental side effects on the animals' health; therefore, the current study looked at the viability of chronic and continuous MFB-DBS in rodents, with particular attention given to welfare issues and identification of stimulated pathways. Methods. Sprague-Dawley female rats were submitted to stereotactic microelectrode implantation into the MFB. Chronic continuous DBS was applied for 3–6 weeks. Welfare monitoring and behavior changes were assessed. Postmortem histological analysis of c-fos protein expression was carried out. Results. MFB-DBS resulted in mild and temporary weight loss in the animals, which was regained even with continuing stimulation. MFB-DBS led to increased and long-lasting c-fos expression in target regions of the mesolimbic/mesocortical system. Conclusions. Bilateral continuous chronic MFB-DBS is feasible, safe, and without impact on the rodent's health. MFB-DBS results in temporary increase in exploration, which could explain the initial weight loss, and does not produce any apparent behavioral abnormalities. This platform represents a powerful tool for further preclinical investigation of the MFB stimulation in the treatment of depression. PMID:25960609

  12. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) on left cerebellar hemisphere affects mental rotation tasks during music listening.

    PubMed

    Picazio, Silvia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests an association between spatial and music domains. A cerebellar role in music-related information processing as well as in spatial-temporal tasks has been documented. Here, we investigated the cerebellar role in the association between spatial and musical domains, by testing performances in embodied (EMR) or abstract (AMR) mental rotation tasks of subjects listening Mozart Sonata K.448, which is reported to improve spatial-temporal reasoning, in the presence or in the absence of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the left cerebellar hemisphere. In the absence of cerebellar cTBS, music listening did not influence either MR task, thus not revealing a "Mozart Effect". Cerebellar cTBS applied before musical listening made subjects faster (P = 0.005) and less accurate (P = 0.005) in performing the EMR but not the AMR task. Thus, cerebellar inhibition by TBS unmasked the effect of musical listening on motor imagery. These data support a coupling between music listening and sensory-motor integration in cerebellar networks for embodied representations.

  13. Continuous theta burst stimulation over the left pre-motor cortex affects sensorimotor timing accuracy and supraliminal error correction.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, Janine D; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Dyson-Sutton, William; Barker, Anthony T; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2011-09-02

    Adjustments to movement in response to changes in our surroundings are common in everyday behavior. Previous research has suggested that the left pre-motor cortex (PMC) is specialized for the temporal control of movement and may play a role in temporal error correction. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the left PMC in sensorimotor timing and error correction using theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS). In Experiment 1, subjects performed a sensorimotor synchronization task (SMS) with the left and the right hand before and after either continuous or intermittent TBS (cTBS or iTBS). Timing accuracy was assessed during synchronized finger tapping with a regular auditory pacing stimulus. Responses following perceivable local timing shifts in the pacing stimulus (phase shifts) were used to measure error correction. Suppression of the left PMC using cTBS decreased timing accuracy because subjects tapped further away from the pacing tones and tapping variability increased. In addition, error correction responses returned to baseline tap-tone asynchrony levels faster following negative shifts and no overcorrection occurred following positive shifts after cTBS. However, facilitation of the left PMC using iTBS did not affect timing accuracy or error correction performance. Experiment 2 revealed that error correction performance may change with practice, independent of TBS. These findings provide evidence for a role of the left PMC in both sensorimotor timing and error correction in both hands. We propose that the left PMC may be involved in voluntarily controlled phase correction responses to perceivable timing shifts.

  14. Variation in left posterior parietal-motor cortex interhemispheric facilitation following right parietal continuous theta-burst stimulation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Killington, Christopher; Barr, Christopher; Loetscher, Tobias; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-25

    Spatial neglect is modeled on an imbalance of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI); however evidence is emerging that it may not explain neglect in all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the IHI imbalance model of visual neglect in healthy adults, using paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe excitability of projections from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) bilaterally. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interossei and facilitation was determined as ratio of conditioned to non-conditioned MEP amplitude. A laterality index reflecting the balance of excitability between the two hemispheres was calculated. A temporal order judgment task (TOJ) assessed visual attention. Continuous theta-burst stimulation was used to transiently suppress right parietal cortex activity and the effect on laterality and judgment task measured, along with associations between baseline and post stimulation measures. Stimulation had conflicting results on laterality, with most participants demonstrating an effect in the negative direction with no decrement in the TOJ task. Correlation analysis suggests a strong association between laterality direction and degree of facilitation of left PPC-to right M1 following stimulation (r=.902), with larger MEP facilitation at baseline demonstrating greater reduction (r=-.908). Findings indicate there was relative balance between the cortices at baseline but right PPC suppression did not evoke left PPC facilitation in most participants, contrary to the IHI imbalance model. Left M1 facilitation prior to stimulation may predict an individual's response to continuous theta-burst stimulation of right PPC.

  15. Effect of a combined continuous and intermittent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception of burn patients evaluated by visual analog scale: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruvalcaba, Irma; Sánchez-Hernández, Viridiana; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types. Materials and methods A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.5 years) with second- and third-degree burns of different types. The burn types included electrical, fire/flame, and chemical. All patients received continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation sessions three times per week for 4 weeks. Each session had a duration of 30 minutes. A pair of electrodes were placed around the burn. The primary efficacy endpoint was the perception of pain assessed by a visual analog scale at baseline and at the 30th day. Results A significant reduction of pain perception was reported (8.0±1.7 vs 1.0±0.5; P=0.027) by all patients after electrical stimulation therapy. There were no reports of adverse events during the intervention period. Conclusion Electrical stimulation could be a potential nonpharmacological therapeutic option for pain management in burn patients. PMID:26719723

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or continuous unilateral distal experimental pain stimulation in healthy subjects does not bias visual attention towards one hemifield.

    PubMed

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Grafenstein, Jessica; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In natural life pain automatically draws attention towards the painful body part suggesting that it interacts with different attentional mechanisms such as visual attention. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients who typically report on chronic distally located pain of one extremity may suffer from so-called neglect-like symptoms, which have also been linked to attentional mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to further evaluate how continuous pain conditions influence visual attention. Saccade latencies were recorded in two experiments using a common visual attention paradigm whereby orientating saccades to cued or uncued lateral visual targets had to be performed. In the first experiment saccade latencies of healthy subjects were measured under two conditions: one in which continuous experimental pain stimulation was applied to the index finger to imitate a continuous pain situation, and one without pain stimulation. In the second experiment saccade latencies of patients suffering from CRPS were compared to controls. The results showed that neither the continuous experimental pain stimulation during the experiment nor the chronic pain in CRPS led to an unilateral increase of saccade latencies or to a unilateral increase of the cue effect on latency. The results show that unilateral, continuously applied pain stimuli or chronic pain have no or only very limited influence on visual attention. Differently from patients with visual neglect, patients with CRPS did not show strong side asymmetries of saccade latencies or of cue effects on saccade latencies. Thus, neglect-like clinical symptoms of CRPS patients do not involve the allocation of visual attention.

  17. Subsurface optical stimulation of the rat prostate nerves using continuous-wave near-infrared laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Successful identification and preservation of the cavernous nerves (CN), which are responsible for sexual function, during prostate cancer surgery, will require subsurface detection of the CN beneath a thin fascia layer. This study explores optical nerve stimulation (ONS) in the rat with a fascia layer placed over the CN. Two near-IR diode lasers (1455 nm and 1550 nm lasers) were used to stimulate the CN in CW mode with a 1-mm-diameter spot in 8 rats. The 1455 nm wavelength provides an optical penetration depth (OPD) of ~350 μm, while 1550 nm provides an OPD of ~1000 μm (~3 times deeper than 1455 nm and 1870 nm wavelengths previously tested). Fascia layers with thicknesses of 85 - 600 μm were placed over the CN. Successful ONS was confirmed by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the rat penis at 1455 nm through fascia 110 μm thick and at 1550 nm through fascia 450 μm thick. Higher incident laser power was necessary and weaker and slower ICP responses were observed as fascia thickness was increased. Subsurface ONS of the rat CN at a depth of 450 μm using a 1550 nm laser is feasible.

  18. Stimulation of tentoxin synthesis by aged-culture filtrates and continued synthesis in the presence of protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sheu, J T; Talburt, D E

    1986-02-01

    Tentoxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide produced by Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, induces chlorosis in certain seedling plants. It can be extracted from culture filtrates of the fungus. Tentoxin production is stimulated and increased by using a mixture of aged culture filtrates and modified Richards solution. Aged culture filtrates can be obtained from 3-week-old or older cultures of A. alternata in modified Richards solution or Pratts solution. A mixture of aged culture filtrate and fresh medium in the ratio 2:3 gives the maximal enhancement of tentoxin production. This growth system provided us with a model for studying the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on tentoxin production. Two antibiotics which inhibit protein synthesis at the ribosomal level were tested on growth, protein synthesis, and tentoxin production in A. alternata cultures. Cycloheximide at concentrations of 500 mug/ml or emetine at concentrations of 250 mug/ml did not inhibit tentoxin synthesis, although they stopped mycelial growth and protein synthesis of the fungus at the logarithmic growth stage in the enhancement medium. These results led us to conclude that tentoxin, like certain other bioactive cyclic peptides, is synthesized by a nonribosomal peptide synthesis mechanism.

  19. Task-relevancy effects on movement-related gating are modulated by continuous theta-burst stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katlyn E; Ferris, Jennifer K; Amanian, Mohammad A; Staines, W Richard; Boyd, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    Movement-related gating ensures that decreased somatosensory information from external stimulation reaches the cortex during movement when compared to resting levels; however, gating may be influenced by task-relevant manipulations, such that increased sensory information ascends to the cortex when information is relevant to goal-based actions. These task-relevancy effects are hypothesized to be controlled by a network involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on this region's known role in selective attention, modulating the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). The purpose of the current study was first to verify task-relevancy influences on movement-related gating in the upper limb, and second to test the contribution of the DLPFC and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to these relevancy effects. Ten healthy participants received median nerve stimulation at the left wrist during three conditions: rest, task-irrelevant movement, and task-relevant movement. Cortical responses to median nerve stimulations were measured in the form of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The three conditions were collected on a baseline day and on two separate days following continuous theta-burst (cTBS), which transiently reduces cortical excitability, over either the contralateral S1 or DLPFC. Results demonstrated a significant interaction between stimulation and condition, with a priori contrasts revealing that cTBS over either S1 or DLPFC diminished the relevancy-based modulation of SEP amplitudes; however, the degree of this effect was different. These results indicate that DLPFC influences over S1 are involved in the facilitation of relevant sensory information during movement.

  20. A Window of Opportunity for Aceh, Indonesia Post-Tsunami: Historic Continuity, Current Points of Interest, and a Pattern. Output of the Cultural Simulation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 1 A Window of Opportunity for Aceh, Indonesia Post-Tsunami: Historic Continuity...00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Window of Opportunity for Aceh, Indonesia Post-Tsunami: Historic Continuity, Current Points of...for Indonesia is an example to demonstrate the prototype operation of the CSM and is not intended to be a comprehensive analysis of the Situation in

  1. Offline continuous theta burst stimulation over right inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area impairs inhibition during a go/no-go task.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Neil M; Cressman, Erin K; Carlsen, Anthony N

    2017-04-06

    In a typical go/no-go task a single imperative stimulus is presented each trial, either a go or no-go stimulus. Participants are instructed to initiate a known response upon appearance of the go-signal and withhold the response if the no-go signal is presented. It is unclear whether the go-response is prepared in advance of the imperative stimulus in a go/no-go task. Moreover, it is unclear if inhibitory control processes suppress preparatory go-activation. The purpose of the present experiment was 1) to determine whether the go-response is prepared in advance of stimulus identification with the use of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), and 2) investigate the inhibitory role of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) during the performance of a go/no-go task with the use of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). The experiment consisted of three phases; a pre-cTBS phase in which participants completed a go/no-go and simple-RT task, followed by offline cTBS to temporarily deactivate either rIFG or preSMA (with a sham control), then a post-cTBS phase which was identical to the pre-cTBS phase. Results revealed that stimulation to both cortical sites impaired participants' ability to withhold movements during no-go trials. Notably, rIFG or preSMA stimulation did not affect the latency of voluntary go-responses and did not enable the SAS to involuntarily trigger responses. These findings suggest that preparation and initiation of the go-response occurs after the imperative stimulus, with the rIFG and preSMA involved in inhibiting the go-response once the stimulus is identified as a no-go signal.

  2. Requirement for continuous antigenic stimulation in the development and differentiation of antibody-forming cells. The effect of passive antibody on the primary and secondary response.

    PubMed

    Hanna, M G; Nettesheim, P; Francis, M W

    1969-05-01

    The essential role of continuous antigenic stimulation in the development and differentiation of antibody-forming cells as defined in the X-Y-Z immune cell maturation scheme was examined in these studies. Mice were primed with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) in an attempt to induce maximum immune progenitor cell conversion (X --> Y). Subsequently antigen was depleted at 1 or 4 days after priming with isologous specific antibody in order to interrupt further immune cell differentiation (Y --> Z). It was reasoned that this condition would result in depression of the functional antibody-producing cell compartment as measured in the intact mice and subsequently in enhancement of the sensitized (Y cell) compartment as measured in the spleen cell transfer system. These data were also correlated with systematic studies of the hyperplasia of the spleen germinal centers. The effect of passive antibody on the primary response to SRBC was a marked decrease indirect and indirect hemolysin-producing cells (DPFC and IPFC). However, there was a lack of correlation in the degree of antibody-mediated 19S and 7S immune cell suppression during the primary response, the DPFC being much less depressed than the IPFC. As measured in the transfer system there was an enhanced 19S sensitized cell compartment and a depressed 7S sensitized cell compartment in 1 day passively immunized mice. This was true whether or not transfers were performed 1, 2, or 4 wk after priming. Similarly, there was an enhanced 19S-sensitized cell compartment with little or no effect on the 7S-sensitized. cell compartment in 4 day passively immunized mice. These data suggest that progeny of the antigen-stimulated progenitor cells (X cell), as a consequence of lack of further antigenic stimulation, were forced into maturation arrest. These studies further demonstrate that isologous passive antibody suppresses germinal center growth regardless of whether the antibody is infused 1, 2, or 4 days after priming. In terms of

  3. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models

  4. Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) trafficking in microglial cells: continuous shuttling to and from the plasma membrane regulated by cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Prada, I; Ongania, G Naum; Buonsanti, C; Panina-Bordignon, P; Meldolesi, J

    2006-07-21

    Cell biology of triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2, a receptor expressed in brain cells (microglia and possibly neurons and oligodendrocytes) which is responsible for a neurological and psychiatric genetic disease, polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy otherwise called the Nasu-Hakola disease, is still largely unknown. Using immortalized mouse N9 microglial cells we demonstrate that triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 is mostly distributed intracellularly in two pools: a deposit in the Golgi complex and a population of exocytic vesicles, distinct from endosomes and lysosomes, which is continuously translocated to, and recycled from the cell surface. Results with ionomycin and gamma-interferon, showing rapid and slow increases, respectively, of triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 surface density, documented that the exocytosis of the receptor-rich vesicles is regulated. Pulse labeling in the cold of surface triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 with its antibody (or Fab fragment) followed by chase at 37 degrees C showed internalization, with recovery of the antibody in endosomes and lysosomes. However, part of the receptor/antibody complex, internalized for up to 30 min chase, was recycled to the cell surface within 2 min of ionomycin stimulation, together with a fraction of the total biotinylated surface protein chased in parallel. The internalized receptor appears therefore to get access to exocytic organelles distinct from lysosomes which may resemble the exocytic vesicles of resting cells. These results document that, in microglial cells, the surface density of the triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 and thus, presumably, the response to its activation, is continuously adapted and can be greatly increased, even at rapid rate, as a function of cell activation.

  5. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS)-based treatment in Parkinson's disease patients with motor complications: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Cheng-long; Wang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Su-fang; Gan, Jing; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify randomized trials involving continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) in PD patients with motor complications. Difference between n groups was assessed by partitioning heterogeneity and using the χ2 distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom, where n equals the number of groups. We looked for publication bias using funnel plotting, Egger's test and Begg's test. Twenty Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were included. The results showed that CDS could evidently improve the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part II (p < 0.0001), part III (P < 0.00001) and UPDRS total score (p < 0.00001). There was also a statistical discrepancy in off time reduction (p < 0.00001) and prolongation of on time (p < 0.00001) by the CDS therapy compared with control groups. Meanwhile, the results of this study showed obvious side effects in the CDS therapy compared with the placebo, especially at the expense of increased dyskinesia (23.4% vs 11.7%). The present study showed that CDS was beneficial in the treatment of PD patients with motor complications. But the incidence of the side events is more common than placebo. PMID:25113733

  6. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS)-based treatment in Parkinson's disease patients with motor complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cheng-long; Wang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Su-Fang; Gan, Jing; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2014-08-12

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify randomized trials involving continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) in PD patients with motor complications. Difference between n groups was assessed by partitioning heterogeneity and using the χ2 distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom, where n equals the number of groups. We looked for publication bias using funnel plotting, Egger's test and Begg's test. Twenty Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were included. The results showed that CDS could evidently improve the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part II (p < 0.0001), part III (P < 0.00001) and UPDRS total score (p < 0.00001). There was also a statistical discrepancy in off time reduction (p < 0.00001) and prolongation of on time (p < 0.00001) by the CDS therapy compared with control groups. Meanwhile, the results of this study showed obvious side effects in the CDS therapy compared with the placebo, especially at the expense of increased dyskinesia (23.4% vs 11.7%). The present study showed that CDS was beneficial in the treatment of PD patients with motor complications. But the incidence of the side events is more common than placebo.

  7. The effects of electrical stimulation combined with continuous passive motion versus isometric exercise on symptoms, functional capacity, quality of life and balance in knee osteoarthritis: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tok, Fatih; Aydemir, Koray; Peker, Fatma; Safaz, Ismail; Taşkaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Ozgül, Ahmet

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of electrical stimulation combined with continuous passive motion (CPM-ES) versus isometric exercise on symptoms, functional capacity, quality of life, muscle strength, knee and thigh circle measurements, and balance in knee osteoarthritis (OA). This is a randomized clinical trial. The study was done in Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA) Rehabilitation Center. Forty patients with knee OA were included in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: 20 patients placed in Group 1 were treated with conventional physical therapy and CPM-ES combination; 20 patients in Group 2 were treated with conventional physical therapy and isometric exercise. Therapies were applied 3 weeks, 5 days per week. The following main outcome measures were done: values of pain (VAS was used), WOMAC, SF-36, knee and thigh circle measurements, isokinetic tests, dynamic and static balance tests were determined at baseline and after the treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in the tested variables between the groups for post-treatment values. Dynamic and static balance test improved statistically strongly significantly in both groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that knee OA patients could improve their balance function in both static and dynamic conditions after CPM-ES combination or isometric exercise therapy. The improvement might prevent knee OA patients from falling down and increase their sense of security during physical activities.

  8. Differential effects of continuous theta burst stimulation over left premotor cortex and right prefrontal cortex on modulating upper limb somatosensory input.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matt J N; Staines, W Richard

    2016-02-15

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) represent somatosensory processing in non-primary motor areas (i.e. frontal N30 and N60) and somatosensory cortices (i.e. parietal P50). It is well-known that the premotor cortex (PMC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are involved in the preparation and planning of upper limb movements but it is currently unclear how they modulate somatosensory processing for upper limb motor control. In the current study, two experiments examined SEP modulations after continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was used to transiently disrupt the left PMC (Experiment 1) and right PFC (Experiment 2). Both Experiment 1 (n=15) and Experiment 2 (n=16) used pre-post experimental designs. In both experiments participants performed a task requiring detection of varying amplitudes of attended vibrotactile (VibT) stimuli to the left index finger (D2) and execution of a pre-matched finger sequence with the right (contralateral) hand to specific VibT targets. During the task, SEPs were measured to median nerve (MN) stimulations time-locked during pre-stimulus (250 ms before VibT), early response selection (250 ms after VibT), late preparatory (750 ms after VibT) and execution (1250 ms VibT) phases. The key findings of Experiment 1 revealed significant decreases in N30 and N60 peak amplitudes after cTBS to PMC. In contrast, the results of Experiment 2, also found significant decreased N60 peak amplitudes as well as trends for increased N30 and P50 peak amplitudes. A direct comparison of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 confirmed differential modulation of N30 peak amplitudes after PMC (gated) compared to PFC (enhanced) cTBS. Collectively, these results support that both the left PMC and right PFC have modulatory roles on early somatosensory input into non-primary motor areas, such as PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA), represented by frontal N30 and N60 SEPs. These results confirm that PMC and PFC are both part of a network that regulates somatosensory input

  9. Antitumor protection from the murine T-cell leukemia/lymphoma EL4 by the continuous subcutaneous coadministration of recombinant macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Vallera, D A; Taylor, P A; Aukerman, S L; Blazar, B R

    1993-09-15

    Combined continuous s.c. coadministration of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) plus interleukin-2 (IL-2) by osmotic pump protected mice given i.v. injections of a lethal dose of EL4 T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Antitumor protection was significantly greater than that afforded by treatment with either cytokine alone. Since neither IL-2 receptors nor M-CSF receptors were expressed on EL4, the antitumor effect was likely attributed to murine effector cells. To determine how M-CSF+IL-2 provided this effect, we performed immunophenotypic and functional analyses as well as in vivo depletion studies of putative antitumor effector cells. Splenic phenotyping experiments revealed that the highest levels of macrophages and natural killer cells were observed in mice given the cytokine combination rather than either M-CSF or IL-2 alone. In vivo depletion of natural killer cells ablated the antitumor protective effect of M-CSF and IL-2. T-cells were also important for M-CSF+IL-2 efficacy, since adult thymectomy/T-cell depletion significantly inhibited the ability of cytokine coadministration to protect against EL4. Coadministration of the 2 cytokines significantly elevated in vivo levels of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3+NK1.1+ T-cells, and CD3+CD25+ (activated) T-cells, and elevated anti-EL4 cytotoxic T-cell activity measured in vitro. Although WBC counts and fluorescence-activated cell sorter studies showed that M-CSF+IL-2 treatment significantly elevated neutrophils, s.c. delivery of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor at doses sufficient to induce neutrophilia was unable to confer anti-EL4 protection. These studies indicate that macrophages, T-cells, and natural killer cells are all important in the M-CSF+IL-2 anti-EL4 response. The superior antitumor effect of this cytokine combination along with the ability of M-CSF to diminish the toxicity of IL-2 in this model suggests that further investigations into the clinical potential of this combination treatment are warranted.

  10. EDITORIAL: Interesting times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-01-01

    `May you live in interesting times' - old Chinese curse. First, many thanks to John Avison, the retiring Honorary Editor, for his hard work over the last five years, and the steady development in style and content under his stewardship. I can only hope to live up to the standards that he set. The next five years will take us into a new millenium, an event preceded - in England and Wales at least - by a period of stability, reflection and consolidation in education. Or so we are told - but whether such a self-denying ordinance will actually be maintained by the Government both before and after an election in 1997 remains to be seen. Nevertheless, we shall be thankful for any mercies, however small, that permit forward thinking rather than instant response. One of the things that readers of a journal called Physics Education should be thinking about is the continued decline in the numbers of students studying physics post-16. This is not a purely local phenomenon; most European countries are finding a similar decline. There are exceptions, of course: in Scotland numbers studying physics for Highers are increasing. Is such a decline a good thing or a bad thing? Only a minority of post-16 physics students go on to use the bulk of what they have learned in further studies or vocations. Does a knowledge and understanding of physics contribute to the mental well-being and cultural level - let alone material comfort - of any except those who use physics professionally? Is physics defensible as a contribution to the mental armoury of the educated citizen - compared with chemistry, biology - or Latin, say? Or should one rephrase that last question as `Is physics as we teach it today defensible...?' Such questions, and many others no doubt, may well be in the mind of the new Curriculum Officer appointed by the Institute of Physics `to engage in a wide-ranging consultation throughout the entire physics community on the nature and style of post-16 physics programmes, with a

  11. Effects of Cool-Water Immersion and High-Voltage Electric Stimulation for 3 Continuous Hours on Acute Edema in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mychaskiw, Anna M.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Mendel, Frank C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Cool-water immersion (CWI) at 12.8°C (55°F), cathodal high-voltage pulsed current (CHVPC) at 120 pulses per second and 90% of visible motor threshold, or the combination of CWI and CHVPC, applied 30 minutes on, 30 minutes off for 4 hours, are known to curb edema formation after blunt trauma to the hind limbs of rats. Our purpose was to examine the effects of extending treatment times to 3 continuous hours after blunt trauma to the hind limbs of rats. Design and Setting: A randomized, parallel-groups design of 22 subjects was used. Volumes of traumatized limbs, randomly assigned to CWI (n = 7), CHVPC (n = 8), or CWI followed by CHVPC (n = 7) were compared with those of injured but untreated limbs with analysis of variance. Subjects: Twenty-two anesthetized Zucker lean rats (mass = 293 ± 27 g). Measurements: We measured limb volumes immediately before and after trauma and every 30 minutes over the 4-hour experiment. Results: Volumes of treated limbs of all 3 experimental groups were smaller than those of untreated limbs (P < .05). No treatment was more effective than another. Conclusions: Exposure to either 3 hours of CWI or CHVPC or to 1 hour of CWI followed by 2 hours of CHVPC effectively curbed edema after blunt injury. These results suggest that these common treatments are effective only during application and hint that application should be maintained throughout the period during which edema is forming. PMID:14737215

  12. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response is stimulated through the continuous activation of transcription factors ATF6 and XBP1 in Ins2+/Akita pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Jun ichi; Kubota, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hiderou; Naitoh, Motoko; Goji, Junko; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Mori, Kazutoshi; Koizumi, Akio; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2004-03-01

    The dominant C96Y mutation of one of the two murine insulin genes, Ins2, causes diabetes mellitus in 'Akita' mice. Here we established pancreatic islet beta cell lines from heterozygous mice (Ins2+/Akita). Western blot analysis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones indicated that Grp78, Grp94 and Orp150 are significantly increased in Ins2+/Akita cells compared with wild-type (Ins2+/+) cells. Reporter gene assays using the human GRP78 promoter with or without the ER stress response element (ERSE) showed that Ins2+/Akita cells exhibit significantly stronger ERSE-dependent transcriptional activity than Ins2+/+ cells. Transient over-expression of the Ins2 C96Y mutant in wild-type beta cells induces a stronger ERSE-dependent stress response than does wild-type Ins2 over-expression. The ERSE-binding transcription factor ATF6 is strongly activated in Ins2+/Akita cells. The activity of a reporter containing the specific binding sequence of another ERSE-binding transcription factor, XBP1, is also enhanced in Ins2+/Akita cells. Levels of active forms of XBP1 mRNA and protein are both markedly elevated in Ins2+/Akita cells. These results indicate that this cell line is subject to continuous ER stress and that the Ins2 C96Y mutation induces the expression of ER chaperones through the activation of ATF6 and XBP1.

  13. A Matter of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In these days of financial turmoil, there is greater interest in depositing one's money in the bank--at least one might hope for greater interest. Banks and various trusts pay compound interest at regular intervals: this means that interest is paid not only on the original sum deposited, but also on previous interest payments. This article…

  14. Continuous-time photon-stimulated desorption spectroscopy studies on soft x-ray-induced reactions of CF{sub 3}Br adsorbed on Si(111)-7x7

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, W.-C.; Wang, S.-K.; He, T.-M.; Chou, L.-C.; Hsieh, Y.-C.; Liao, K.-Y.; Chen, H.-C.; Wen, C.-R.

    2011-10-28

    Continuous-time core-level photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) spectroscopy was used to study the soft x-ray-induced reactions of CF{sub 3}Br molecules adsorbed on Si(111)-7x7 near the Si(2p) edge (98-110 eV). The monochromatic synchrotron radiation was employed as a soft x-ray light source in the photon-induced reactions and also as a probe for investigating the produced fluorination states of the bonding surface Si atom in the positive-ion PSD spectroscopy. Several different surface coverages were investigated. The PSD spectra from the low-CF{sub 3}Br-covered surfaces show the production of surface SiF species, while those from the high-CF{sub 3}Br-covered surfaces depict the formation of surface SiF, SiF{sub 2}, and SiF{sub 3} species. The photolysis cross section of the submonolayer CF{sub 3}Br-covered surface is determined as {approx}4.3x10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. A comparison with the results on CF{sub 3}Cl/Si(111)-7x7 surface is discussed.

  15. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Eric S; Zhang, Michael; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Azagury, Dan E; Bohon, Cara; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is now the third leading cause of preventable death in the US, accounting for 216,000 deaths annually and nearly 100 billion dollars in health care costs. Despite advancements in bariatric surgery, substantial weight regain and recurrence of the associated metabolic syndrome still occurs in almost 20-35% of patients over the long-term, necessitating the development of novel therapies. Our continually expanding knowledge of the neuroanatomic and neuropsychiatric underpinnings of obesity has led to increased interest in neuromodulation as a new treatment for obesity refractory to current medical, behavioral, and surgical therapies. Recent clinical trials of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in chronic cluster headache, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of targeting the hypothalamus and reward circuitry of the brain with electrical stimulation, and thus provide the basis for a neuromodulatory approach to treatment-refractory obesity. In this study, we review the literature implicating these targets for DBS in the neural circuitry of obesity. We will also briefly review ethical considerations for such an intervention, and discuss genetic secondary-obesity syndromes that may also benefit from DBS. In short, we hope to provide the scientific foundation to justify trials of DBS for the treatment of obesity targeting these specific regions of the brain. PMID:26180683

  16. Interest Assessment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    The assessment of interests through the use of interest inventories is big business in the field of testing today. The assessment of interests originally developed as an outgrowth of efforts in education and in industry to supplement special and general abilities information about individuals. Interest inventories used today differ from early…

  17. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  18. Dopamine stimulation via infusion in the lateral ventricle.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Molinaro, Gemma; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Giorgi, Filippo S; Ruggieri, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2006-08-01

    Continuous dopamine (DA) stimulation is a therapeutic approach that applies to the treatment of motor fluctuations due to pulsatile DA stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD), to cure the abuse of drugs, such as cocaine or amphetamine (which produce short-lasting peaks of extracellular DA), and as a safe therapeutic approach to avoid hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation (which sometime develops as an abuse pattern in PD patients receiving a pulsatile DA replacement therapy). However, systemic continuous delivery of DA agonists leads to a variety of side effects. In search for an alterative approach, in the present study we evaluated the possibility of delivering intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), a DA agonist: lisuride that was already shown to be effective when administered continuously subcutaneously (s.c.). In particular, we were interested in examining whether lisuride infused within the lateral ventricle was still able to stimulate DA receptor by inducing contralateral turning behavior in hemiparkinsonian rats. We found that lisuride, when infused in the lateral ventricle was effective in reducing the threshold for stimulating DA receptors. These results offer a more reliable and safe therapeutic approach to deliver continuous DA selectively in the brain.

  19. Multi-Electrode Array for Transcutaneous Lumbar Posterior Root Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Matthias; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Danner, Simon M; Minassian, Karen; Mayr, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    Interest in transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord is increasing in human electrophysiological and clinical studies. The stimulation effects on lower limb muscles depend on the depolarization of segmentally organized posterior root afferents and, thus, the rostro-caudal stimulation site. In previous studies, selective stimulation was achieved by varying the positions of single self-adhesive electrodes over the thoracolumbar spine. Here, we developed a multi-electrode surface array consisting of 3 × 8 electrode pads and tested its stimulation-site specificity. The array was placed longitudinally over the spine covering the T10-L2 vertebrae. Two different hydrogel layer configurations were utilized: a single layer adhered to all electrode pads of the array and a configuration comprised of eight separate strips attached to the three transverse electrode pads of each level. Voltage measurements demonstrated that an effectively focused field distribution along the longitudinal extent of the array was not accomplished when using the single continuous hydrogel layer, and segmental selective stimulation of the posterior root afferents was not possible. The separate strips produced a focused electric field distribution at the rostro-caudal level of the electrode pads selected for stimulation. This configuration allowed for the preferential elicitation of posterior root-muscle reflexes in either the L2-L4 innervated quadriceps or the L5-S2 innervated triceps surae muscle groups. Such multi-electrode array for transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation shall allow for improved control of stimulation conditions in electrophysiological studies and time-dependent and site-specific stimulation patterns for neuromodulation applications.

  20. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  1. Educational Interests and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lucinda E.; and others

    1970-01-01

    Findings partially support assumption that educational interests are factors related to academic success. Seven areas of the Educational Interest Inventory used were: Business Administration, Botany, Chemistry, History and Political Science, Sociology, Economics, and Mathematics. (Author/CJ)

  2. Stimulating parameters and de-synchronization in vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-L.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Ma, J.; Feng, W.-J.

    2008-02-01

    The influence of the stimulation parameters on the de-synchronization of small world Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural network is numerically investigated in the vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy. The simulation shows that synchronization evolves into de-synchronization when a part of neurons (about 10 percent) is stimulated with a pulse current signal. The network de-synchronization appears to be sensitive to the stimulation parameters. For the case of the same stimulation intensity, those weakly coupled networks reach de-synchronization more easily than strongly coupled networks. There exist an optimal stimulation interval and period of continuous stimulation time when other stimulation parameters remain invariable.

  3. Interest and Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund

    This paper selectively reviews research on the relationship between topic interest and prior knowledge, and discusses the optimal association between these variables. The paper points out that interest has a facilitating impact on learning, and at least part of this effect must be ascribed to prior knowledge. While the interest-knowledge…

  4. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  5. How to Stimulate Students' Interest in Nuclear Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbanowska-Ciemuchowska, Stefania; Giembicka, Magdalena Anna

    2011-01-01

    Teaching nuclear physics in secondary schools offers us a unique possibility to increase our students' awareness of the influence that modern science and its achievements have on the everyday life of contemporary people. Students gain an opportunity to learn in what ways the outcome of laboratory research is put to use in such fields as medicine,…

  6. Long-acting stimulants for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a focus on extended-release formulations and the prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate to address continuing clinical challenges.

    PubMed

    López, Frank A; Leroux, Jacques R

    2013-09-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show pervasive impairments across family, peer, and school or work functioning that may extend throughout the day. Psychostimulants are highly effective medications for the treatment of ADHD, and the development of long-acting stimulant formulations has greatly expanded the treatment options for individuals with ADHD. Strategies for the formulation of long-acting stimulants include the combination of immediate-release and delayed-release beads, and an osmotic-release oral system. A recent development is the availability of the first prodrug stimulant, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). LDX itself is inactive but is cleaved enzymatically, primarily in the bloodstream, to release d-amphetamine (d-AMP). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that long-acting stimulants are effective in reducing ADHD symptoms compared with placebo. Analog classroom and simulated adult workplace environment studies have shown that long-acting stimulants produce symptom reduction for at least 12 h. Long-acting stimulants exhibit similar tolerability and safety profiles to short-acting equivalents. While variations in gastric pH and motility can alter the availability and absorption of stimulants released from long-acting formulations, the systemic exposure to d-AMP following LDX administration is unlikely to be affected by gastrointestinal conditions. Long-acting formulations may also improve adherence and lower abuse potential compared with their short-acting counterparts. The development of long-acting stimulants provides physicians with an increased range of medication options to help tailor treatment for individuals with ADHD.

  7. ICPD: in whose interest?

    PubMed

    Shiva, M

    1994-06-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.L.; Xiong, Y.Y.; Xu, G.L.; Liu, X.F.

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has provided remarkable therapeutic benefits for people with a variety of neurological disorders. Despite the uncertainty of the precise mechanisms underlying its efficacy, DBS is clinically effective in improving motor function of essential tremor, Parkinson's disease and primary dystonia and in relieving obsessive-compulsive disorder. Recently, this surgical technique has continued to expand to other numerous neurological diseases with encouraging results. This review highlighted the current and potential future clinical applications of DBS. PMID:25187779

  9. Genetic interest assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughney, Erin

    Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.

  10. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  11. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  12. The Preschool Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugg, Mary E.; Wood, Sue Sims

    The Preschool Interest Inventory (PSII) has been developed to meet the need for an informal measure of the interests, play behaviors, and communication skills of young children between the ages of 2 and 6 years, particularly those exhibiting delays in language development. The first step in the Inventory process is the Caregiver Interview. In the…

  13. Interests and Stimulus Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.

    1969-01-01

    Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)

  14. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate plan adopted shall be reviewed on a continuing basis by the board, as well as in conjunction with its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan. ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan...

  15. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rate plan adopted shall be reviewed on a continuing basis by the board, as well as in conjunction with its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan. ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interests are not adversely affected. Factors which will be considered in making such determination will... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interests are not adversely affected. Factors which will be considered in making such determination will... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interests are not adversely affected. Factors which will be considered in making such determination will... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interests are not adversely affected. Factors which will be considered in making such determination will... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interests are not adversely affected. Factors which will be considered in making such determination will... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  1. Working on interesting problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arfon M.

    2015-01-01

    BSc Chemistry, The University of Sheffield 2001... PhD Astrochemistry, The University of Nottingham 2006... Scientist at GitHub Inc. 2013.From the outside, the path an individual has taken from academia to industry is not an obvious one. In this session I'll (try and) explain how an interest in software, engineering and chasing interesting problems makes internet startup in San Francisco a great home.

  2. Stimulating Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaian, King

    2009-01-01

    With the current economic slump possibly the deepest since the Great Depression, interest in the subject of macroeconomics has reignited, and the number of students majoring in economics has increased during the last two years. While this would appear to be good news for educators in the economics field, the profession is nervous about more than…

  3. 5 CFR 841.603 - Rate of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Computation of Interest § 841.603 Rate of interest. For... to notify the public of the interest rate that will be in effect during that calendar year....

  4. 26 CFR 1.273-1 - Life or terminable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Life or terminable interests. 1.273-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.273-1 Life or terminable interests. Amounts paid as income to the holder of a life or a terminable interest acquired by gift, bequest,...

  5. 26 CFR 1.273-1 - Life or terminable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Life or terminable interests. 1.273-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.273-1 Life or terminable interests. Amounts paid as income to the holder of a life or a terminable interest acquired by gift, bequest,...

  6. 26 CFR 1.273-1 - Life or terminable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Life or terminable interests. 1.273-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.273-1 Life or terminable interests. Amounts paid as income to the holder of a life or a terminable interest acquired by gift, bequest,...

  7. 26 CFR 1.273-1 - Life or terminable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Life or terminable interests. 1.273-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.273-1 Life or terminable interests. Amounts paid as income to the holder of a life or a terminable interest acquired by gift, bequest,...

  8. 32 CFR 643.56 - Taxation of lessee's interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Taxation of lessee's interest. 643.56 Section 643.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.56 Taxation of lessee's interest. The lessee's interest in...

  9. 12 CFR 269a.2 - Party in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Party in interest. 269a.2 Section 269a.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEFINITIONS § 269a.2 Party in interest. The term party in interest means any person,...

  10. 12 CFR 269a.2 - Party in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Party in interest. 269a.2 Section 269a.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEFINITIONS § 269a.2 Party in interest. The term party in interest means any person,...

  11. 12 CFR 269a.2 - Party in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Party in interest. 269a.2 Section 269a.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEFINITIONS § 269a.2 Party in interest. The term party in interest means any person,...

  12. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  13. Frank Parsons on Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briddick, William C.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to Frank Parsons' posthumous publications a third manuscript remained unpublished. The manuscript can be classified as part of the success literature so prominent in Parsons' era. Within the manuscript is a chapter dealing with interests. Progress in recent years has further defined and provided a comprehensive theoretical overview of…

  14. An Interesting Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Jose M.; Fernandez, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this note is to give some insight into the formal unity of a very applicable area of mathematics by showing an interesting analogy between the weak part of the Rouche-Frobenius theorem and the existence result for the initial value problem for the general first-order linear two-dimensional PDE.

  15. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  16. Career Interest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Guidance Services Section.

    The career interest survey consists of an expanded list of occupations and was developed to provide information to assist secondary school counselors and the exploring division of the Boy Scouts of America in developing career awareness and exploration programs and activities in the Polk County schools. The United States Office of Education's 15…

  17. Motivating Interest in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association. Utah Council.

    This yearbook is a collection of articles on the topic of motivating interest in reading. The articles are: "An Introduction to Recreational Reading in the Classroom" by Floyd Sucher, which discusses objectives, materials, setting, scheduling, and sharing activities; "New Words and New Meaning for Old Words" by Vermont Harward, Dan Bird, and Edith…

  18. Interest Check List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  19. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  20. Continuation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont Unified School District, CA.

    The Fremont, California Unified School District organized a continuing education program through a workshop held in the summer of 1968. This paper presents the results of that workshop. Following a statement of philosophy, an outline of the characteristics of the continuation student, and an outline of the functions of the program, an overview of…

  1. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  2. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  3. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  4. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  5. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  6. An Evaluation of Neuroplasticity and Behavior After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Accumbens in an Animal Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Falowski, Steven M.; Sharan, Ashwini; Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Sikkema, Carl; Szot, Patricia; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent interest has demonstrated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) as a potential target for the treatment of depression with deep brain stimulation (DBS). OBJECTIVE To demonstrate that DBS of the NAcc is an effective treatment modality for depression and that chemical and structural changes associated with these behavioral changes are markers of neuroplasticity. METHODS A deep brain stimulator was placed in the NAcc of male Wistar-Kyoto rats. Groups were divided into sham (no stimulation), intermittent (3 h/d for 2 weeks), or continuous (constant stimulation for 2 weeks). Exploratory and anxietylike behaviors were evaluated with the open-field test before and after stimulation. Tissue samples of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were processed with Western blot analysis of markers of noradrenergic activity that included the noradrenergic synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Analysis of tissue levels for catecholamines was achieved with high-performance liquid chromatography. Morphological properties of cortical pyramidal neurons were assessed with Golgi-Cox staining. RESULTS Subjects undergoing intermittent and continuous stimulation of the NAcc exhibited an increase in exploratory behavior and reduced anxietylike behaviors. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression levels were decreased in the PFC after intermittent and continuous DBS, and dopamine and norepinephrine levels were decreased after continuous stimulation. Golgi-Cox staining indicated that DBS increased the length of apical and basilar dendrites in pyramidal neurons of the PFC. CONCLUSION Deep brain stimulation induces behavioral improvement in and neurochemical and morphological alterations of the PFC that demonstrate changes within the circuitry of the brain different from the target area of stimulation. This observed dendritic plasticity may underlie the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment. PMID:21566538

  7. Using Situational Interest to Enhance Individual Interest and Science-Related Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Situational interest is a relatively transient reaction to highly stimulating factors in the immediate environment, whereas individual interest is a relatively long-term preference for a particular subject or activity. It has been proposed that regular experiences of situational interest in a subject may eventually lead to the development of individual interest in that subject. Importantly, this should also result in an increase in behaviours related to that domain. For example, a student who develops an individual interest in science would be expected to spend more time on science-related activities such as reading about science, talking with other people about science, or watching science shows on TV. However, the extent to which this does happen has not yet been established. The purposes of this study were to find out whether regular experiences of situational interest in science classes can enhance individual interest in science and whether there is an associated increase in science-related activities. The participants were primary teacher education students who were enrolled in a semester-length science course. Data were collected using a survey, an interest inventory, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. It was found that regular experiences of situational interest during the course were associated with positive changes in individual interest in science and increased participation in science-related activities. These changes remained relatively stable over a delay period of 10 months after the end of the course.

  8. 21 CFR 874.1820 - Surgical nerve stimulator/locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1820 Surgical nerve stimulator/locator. (a) Identification. A surgical nerve stimulator/locator is a device that is intended...

  9. 21 CFR 874.1820 - Surgical nerve stimulator/locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1820 Surgical nerve stimulator/locator. (a) Identification. A surgical nerve stimulator/locator is a device that is intended...

  10. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  12. Vocational Interests of Dental Hygienists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishida, Helen

    1975-01-01

    Using the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, an occupational interest scale for dental hygienists was developed, and comparisons of interests were made between graduates of two- and four-year programs. (Author)

  13. 31 CFR 536.307 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 536.307 Section 536.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 536.307 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interest. 536.307 Section 536.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 536.307 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 536.307 Section 536.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 536.307 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interest. 536.307 Section 536.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 536.307 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest. 536.307 Section 536.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 800.228 - Voting interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voting interest. 800.228 Section 800.228 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS,...

  19. 31 CFR 510.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interest. 510.304 Section 510.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  20. 31 CFR 510.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 510.304 Section 510.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  1. 31 CFR 510.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest. 510.304 Section 510.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  2. 31 CFR 510.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interest. 510.304 Section 510.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  3. 31 CFR 587.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 587.305 Section 587.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND...

  4. 31 CFR 558.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 558.304 Section 558.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. 38 CFR 21.7305 - Conflicting interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflicting interests. 21.7305 Section 21.7305 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery...

  6. 38 CFR 21.7305 - Conflicting interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conflicting interests. 21.7305 Section 21.7305 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery...

  7. 31 CFR 552.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest. 552.304 Section 552.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  8. 31 CFR 552.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 552.304 Section 552.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  9. 31 CFR 543.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 543.305 Section 543.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  10. 31 CFR 542.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interest. 542.305 Section 542.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  11. 31 CFR 542.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interest. 542.305 Section 542.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  12. 31 CFR 542.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 542.305 Section 542.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  13. 31 CFR 542.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest. 542.305 Section 542.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  14. 31 CFR 542.308 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  15. 31 CFR 586.310 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 586.310 Section 586.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO)...

  16. 31 CFR 548.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interest. 548.305 Section 548.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  17. 31 CFR 548.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interest. 548.305 Section 548.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  18. 31 CFR 548.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 548.305 Section 548.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  19. 31 CFR 548.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest. 548.305 Section 548.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  20. 31 CFR 548.305 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 548.305 Section 548.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  1. 31 CFR 593.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 593.304 Section 593.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 562.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 562.304 Section 562.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 562.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest. 562.304 Section 562.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 562.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interest. 562.304 Section 562.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 562.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interest. 562.304 Section 562.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 545.306 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 545.306 Section 545.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 551.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interest. 551.304 Section 551.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  8. 31 CFR 551.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interest. 551.304 Section 551.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  9. 31 CFR 551.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 551.304 Section 551.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  10. 31 CFR 551.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interest. 551.304 Section 551.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  11. 31 CFR 551.304 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interest. 551.304 Section 551.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency... in similar circumstances in the ordinary course of business. The interest rate charged is subject...

  13. Column continuous transition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangrong

    2007-04-01

    A column continuous transition function is by definition a standard transition function P(t) whose every column is continuous for t[greater-or-equal, slanted]0 in the norm topology of bounded sequence space l[infinity]. We will prove that it has a stable q-matrix and that there exists a one-to-one relationship between column continuous transition functions and increasing integrated semigroups on l[infinity]. Using the theory of integrated semigroups, we give some necessary and sufficient conditions under which the minimal q-function is column continuous, in terms of its generator (of the Markov semigroup) as well as its q-matrix. Furthermore, we will construct all column continuous Q-functions for a conservative, single-exit and column bounded q-matrix Q. As applications, we find that many interesting continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs), say Feller-Reuter-Riley processes, monotone processes, birth-death processes and branching processes, etc., have column continuity.

  14. 29 CFR 1912.6 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 1912.6 Section 1912.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.6 Conflict of interest. No...

  15. 29 CFR 1912.6 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 1912.6 Section 1912.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.6 Conflict of interest. No...

  16. 29 CFR 1912.6 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 1912.6 Section 1912.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.6 Conflict of interest. No...

  17. 29 CFR 1912.6 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 1912.6 Section 1912.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.6 Conflict of interest. No...

  18. 29 CFR 1912.6 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 1912.6 Section 1912.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.6 Conflict of interest. No...

  19. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  20. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  1. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  2. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  3. New Type Continuities via Abel Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the concept of Abel continuity. A function f defined on a subset of ℝ, the set of real numbers, is Abel continuous if it preserves Abel convergent sequences. Some other types of continuities are also studied and interesting result is obtained. It turned out that uniform limit of a sequence of Abel continuous functions is Abel continuous and the set of Abel continuous functions is a closed subset of continuous functions. PMID:24883393

  4. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  5. Inquiring Minds: Theorizing Children's Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Children's interests are a common foundation for early childhood curricula. Yet, little research is available about the fundamental nature of children's interests and analytical ways to recognize and engage with these. Early work on children's interests adopted a psychological perspective and associated interests with activity choices. Recent work…

  6. 7 CFR 1214.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1214.4 Section 1214.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1214.4 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee...

  7. 12 CFR 263.8 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 263.8 Section 263.8... (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 263.8 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest in representation. No person shall appear as counsel for another...

  8. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents...

  9. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents...

  10. 7 CFR 1214.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1214.4 Section 1214.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1214.4 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee...

  11. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents...

  12. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents...

  13. 12 CFR 263.8 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 263.8 Section 263.8... (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 263.8 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest in representation. No person shall appear as counsel for another...

  14. 12 CFR 234.7 - Interest on balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest on balances. 234.7 Section 234.7 Banks... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATED FINANCIAL MARKET UTILITIES (REGULATION HH) § 234.7 Interest on balances. (a) A Federal Reserve Bank may pay interest on balances maintained by a designated financial market utility at...

  15. 7 CFR 1214.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1214.4 Section 1214.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1214.4 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee...

  16. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents...

  17. 26 CFR 1.273-1 - Life or terminable interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life or terminable interests. 1.273-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.273-1 Life or terminable interests. Amounts paid as income to the holder of a life or a terminable interest acquired by gift, bequest, or inheritance shall...

  18. 49 CFR 601.25 - Participation by interested persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation by interested persons. 601.25 Section 601.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT....25 Participation by interested persons. (a) Any interested person may participate in...

  19. 49 CFR 389.17 - Participation by interested persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation by interested persons. 389.17 Section 389.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... Participation by interested persons. (a) Any interested person may participate in rule making proceedings...

  20. 12 CFR 269a.2 - Party in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party in interest. 269a.2 Section 269a.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 269a.2 Party in interest. The term party in interest means any person, employee, group...

  1. 12 CFR 269a.2 - Party in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Party in interest. 269a.2 Section 269a.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 269a.2 Party in interest. The term party in interest means any person, employee, group...

  2. 5 CFR 841.606 - Interest on survivor reduction deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest on survivor reduction deposits. 841.606 Section 841.606 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL...) The total initial interest due is the sum of all of the initial interest on each monthly...

  3. 26 CFR 1.803-3 - Interest paid or accrued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... supplementary contract not involving life contingencies; for example, a contract to pay the insurance benefit in... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-3 Interest paid or accrued. Interest paid or... interest paid or accrued on deferred dividends. Life insurance reserves as defined in § 1.803-1 are...

  4. 7 CFR 4280.106 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 4280.106 Section 4280.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program § 4280.106 Conflict of interest. No conflict of interest or appearance...

  5. 31 CFR 359.19 - How is interest calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is interest calculated? 359.19 Section 359.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., SERIES I General Information § 359.19 How is interest calculated? We base all calculations of interest...

  6. 31 CFR 205.19 - How is interest calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is interest calculated? 205.19 Section 205.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... Agreement § 205.19 How is interest calculated? (a) A State must calculate Federal interest liabilities...

  7. WHAT ARE 'BEST INTERESTS'? A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF 'BEST INTERESTS' DECISION-MAKING IN CLINICAL PRACTICE.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Helen J

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining the patient's consent is usually a prerequisite of any clinical intervention. However, some cognitively impaired patients may not be able to give valid consent. Following years of consultation and legislative review, the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) provides a statutory framework of 'best interests' decision-making on behalf of incapacitated individuals. However, confusion over the meaning and application of the 'best interests' standard persists. This paper explores the variation in judicial interpretation of the standard and the complexities of best interests decision-making in clinical practice. Prevailing confusion and risk-aversive practices mean that the rights and interests of cognitively impaired individuals continue to be compromised, with evidence to suggest that 'best interests' may be conflated with the clinician's evaluation of 'best medical interests'.

  8. Detection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in human anti-doping control: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Reichel, Christian; Lasne, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Stimulation of erythropoiesis is one of the most efficient ways of doping. This type of doping is advantageous for aerobic physical exercise and of particular interest to endurance athletes. Erythropoiesis, which takes place in bone marrow, is under the control of EPO, a hormone secreted primarily by the kidneys when the arterial oxygen tension decreases. In certain pathological disorders, such as chronic renal failure, the production of EPO is insufficient and results in anemia. The pharmaceutical industry has, thus, been very interested in developing drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis. With this aim, various strategies have been, and continue to be, envisaged, giving rise to an expanding range of drugs that are good candidates for doping. Anti-doping control has had to deal with this situation by developing appropriate methods for their detection. This article presents an overview of both the drugs and the corresponding methods of detection, and thus follows a roughly chronological order.

  9. NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation, which may find potential use in TBI. We cover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) techniques. We provide a brief overview of studies to date, discuss possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations when thinking about translating these methods to clinical use. PMID:21691215

  10. Observations of Interesting Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhibin; Szkody, Paula; Garnavich, Peter M.; Kennedy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) comprise one category of active mass transfer binaries containing a white dwarf accreting from an orbiting late main-sequence companion. Undoubtedly, non-magnetic CVs, intermediate polars and polars constitute a powerful probe of the structure of accretion onto white dwarfs and the theories of angular momentum loss, which elucidate the long-term evolution leading to the formation of these short period compact binaries. Combining photometric and spectroscopic data from space and ground telescopes can lead to novel discoveries. The SDSS survey provided a large dataset of spectra of different types of CVs. Followup photometry and spectroscopy is still underway to determine the unique properties of the objects identified as CVs. The Kepler program provided the first look at the variability of CVs over a continuous timescale of months. The extension of the program to the K2 fields allows further sets of CVs to be explored. We present some interesting results for several new CVs found in the SDSS and Kepler surveys which include their behavior during quiescence and outburst. These observations further demonstrate the complexities of CVs. This research was partially funded by CAS visiting scholar grant, NSF grant AST-1008734 and NASA grant HST-GO12870.

  11. Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn was identified as one of the three science objectives for this decade in the _New Worlds, New Horizons_ Decadal report, and it will likely continue to be a research focus well into the next decade. Cosmic Dawn refers to the interval during which the Universe transitioned from a nearly completely neutral state back to a nearly fully ionized state and includes the time during which the first stars formed and the first galaxies assembled.The Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group (SIG) was formed recently under the auspices of the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG). The Cosmic Dawn SIG focusses on the science cases, observations, and technology development needed to address the "great mystery" of Cosmic Origins. The reach of this SIG is broad, involving the nature of the first stars and the detectability of gamma-ray bursts at high redshifts, the extent to which the first galaxies and first supermassive black holes grew together, and the technology required to pursue these questions.For further information, consult the Cosmic Dawn SIG Web site http://cd-sig.jpl.nasa.gov/ and join the mailing list (by contacting the author).Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Can intraurethral stimulation inhibit micturition reflex in normal female rats?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Liao, Limin; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The study was designed to determine the effect of low frequency (2.5Hz) intraurethral electrical stimulation on bladder capacity and maximum voiding pressures. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in 15 virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats (220–250g). The animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (1.5g/kg). Animal care and experimental procedures were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Antwerp University (code: 2013-50). Unipolar square pulses of 0.06mA were used to stimulate urethra at frequency of 2.5Hz (0.2ms pulse width) in order to evaluate the ability of intraurethral stimulation to inhibit bladder contractions. Continuous stimulation and intermittent stimulation with 5sec ‘‘on’’ and 5sec ‘‘off’’ duty cycle were applied during repeated saline cystometrograms (CMGs). Maximum voiding pressures (MVP) and bladder capacity were investigated to determine the inhibitory effect on bladder contraction induced by intraurethral stimulation. Results The continuous stimulation and intermittent stimulation significantly (p<0.05) decreased MVP and increased bladder capacity. There was no significant difference in MVP and bladder capacity between continuous and intermittent stimulation group. Conclusions The present results suggest that 2.5Hz continuous and intermittent intraurethral stimulation can inhibit micturition reflex, decrease MVP and increase bladder capacity. There was no significant difference in MVP and bladder capacity between continuous and intermittent stimulation group. PMID:27286128

  13. 21 CFR 882.5820 - Implanted cerebellar stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted cerebellar stimulator. 882.5820 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5820 Implanted cerebellar stimulator. (a) Identification. An implanted cerebellar stimulator is a device used to...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5860 - Implanted neuromuscular stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted neuromuscular stimulator. 882.5860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5860 Implanted neuromuscular stimulator. (a) Identification. An implanted neuromuscular stimulator is a device that...

  15. Interest and Interest-Enhancing Strategies of Adolescent EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewska, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    This paper's focus is on the little researched and sometimes vague concept of interest, discussed here in relation to EFL learning and the potential interest-enhancing strategies that learners may employ if they do not find learning English interesting enough. The study was undertaken to investigate how adolescent EFL learners evaluate the…

  16. Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation and Acid Treatment of Well Baca 20; Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1983-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program was initiated in February 1979 to pursue industry interest in geothermal well stimulation work and to develop technical expertise in areas directly related to geothermal well stimulation activities. This report provides an overview of the two experiments conducted in the high-temperature reservoir in Baca, New Mexico. The report discusses resource and reservoir properties, and provides a description of the stimulation experiment, a description of the treatment evaluation, and a summary of the experiment costs. (DJE-2005)

  17. 26 CFR 1.707-7 - Disguised sales of partnership interests. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.707-7 Disguised sales of partnership interests. ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disguised sales of partnership interests....

  18. 26 CFR 1.707-7 - Disguised sales of partnership interests. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disguised sales of partnership interests. 1.707...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.707-7 Disguised sales of partnership interests....

  19. 26 CFR 1.707-7 - Disguised sales of partnership interests. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disguised sales of partnership interests. 1.707...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.707-7 Disguised sales of partnership interests....

  20. 26 CFR 1.707-7 - Disguised sales of partnership interests. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disguised sales of partnership interests. 1.707...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.707-7 Disguised sales of partnership interests....

  1. What is interesting? Exploring the appraisal structure of interest.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J

    2005-03-01

    Relative to other emotions, interest is poorly understood. On the basis of theories of appraisal process and structure, it was predicted that interest consists of appraisals of novelty (factors related to unfamiliarity and complexity) and appraisals of coping potential (the ability to understand the new, complex thing). Four experiments, using in vivo rather than retrospective methods, supported this appraisal structure. The findings were general across measured and manipulated appraisals, interesting stimuli (random polygons, visual art, poetry), and measures of interest (self-reports, forced-choice, behavioral measures). Furthermore, the appraisal structure was specific to interest (it did not predict enjoyment, a related positive emotion), and appraisals predicted interest beyond relevant traits (curiosity, openness). The appraisal perspective offers a powerful way of construing the causes of interest.

  2. Shareholder interests and utility competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-03-15

    The process of determining how to implement utility competition is often cast as a struggle between two opposing camps: shareholders and ratepayers. There are, of course, two other major players, management and regulators. The bipolar view tacitly assumes that shareholder and management interests coincide and that regulators have customer interests at heart. Neither assumption is valid. Shareholder interests deviate from management interests in important ways, just as the interests of the entrenched regulatory bureaucracy diverge from the public interest. Therefore, shareholder and management interests must be considered separately. In the past, managements have often pursued their own interests, with devastating financial impact on shareholders. Competition offers shareholders an opportunity to increase their leverage over managements, thereby increasing their returns as well.

  3. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  4. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  5. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  6. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  7. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  8. Microscopic magnetic stimulation of neural tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Lee, Seung Woo; Freeman, Daniel K.; Polasek, Miloslav; Fried, Shelley I.; Gale, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently used to treat a wide range of cardiovascular, sensory and neurological diseases. Despite its success, there are significant limitations to its application, including incompatibility with magnetic resonance imaging, limited control of electric fields and decreased performance associated with tissue inflammation. Magnetic stimulation overcomes these limitations but existing devices (that is, transcranial magnetic stimulation) are large, reducing their translation to chronic applications. In addition, existing devices are not effective for deeper, sub-cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that sub-millimeter coils can activate neuronal tissue. Interestingly, the results of both modelling and physiological experiments suggest that different spatial orientations of the coils relative to the neuronal tissue can be used to generate specific neural responses. These results raise the possibility that micro-magnetic stimulation coils, small enough to be implanted within the brain parenchyma, may prove to be an effective alternative to existing stimulation devices. PMID:22735449

  9. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA. PMID:26380757

  10. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Daniel R; Ozpinar, Alp; Raslan, Ahmed M; Ko, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day. With the advent of psychotropic medications, interest in invasive procedures for organic brain disease waned. Diagnosis and classification of psychiatric diseases has improved, due to a better understanding of psychiatric patho-physiology and the development of disease and treatment biomarkers. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of patients remain refractory to multiple modes of treatment, and psychiatric disease remains the number one cause of disability in the world. These data, along with the safe and efficacious application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders, in principle a reversible process, is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry. This review presents a brief history of psychosurgery and summarizes the development of DBS for psychiatric disease, reviewing the available evidence for the current application of DBS for disorders of the mind.

  11. ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). ACTH is a ... produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol. How the ...

  12. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cortical spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Ay, Ilknur; de Morais, Andreia Lopes; Qin, Tao; Zheng, Yi; Sadeghian, Homa; Oka, Fumiaki; Simon, Bruce; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk

    2016-04-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation has recently been reported to improve symptoms of migraine. Cortical spreading depression is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura and is a trigger for headache. We tested whether vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cortical spreading depression to explain its antimigraine effect. Unilateral vagus nerve stimulation was delivered either noninvasively through the skin or directly by electrodes placed around the nerve. Systemic physiology was monitored throughout the study. Both noninvasive transcutaneous and invasive direct vagus nerve stimulations significantly suppressed spreading depression susceptibility in the occipital cortex in rats. The electrical stimulation threshold to evoke a spreading depression was elevated by more than 2-fold, the frequency of spreading depressions during continuous topical 1 M KCl was reduced by ∼40%, and propagation speed of spreading depression was reduced by ∼15%. This effect developed within 30 minutes after vagus nerve stimulation and persisted for more than 3 hours. Noninvasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation was as efficacious as direct invasive vagus nerve stimulation, and the efficacy did not differ between the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. Our findings provide a potential mechanism by which vagus nerve stimulation may be efficacious in migraine and suggest that susceptibility to spreading depression is a suitable platform to optimize its efficacy.

  13. Powerpoint and Pedagogy: Maintaining Student Interest in University Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This author discusses the relationship between the use of presentation software and the maintenance of student interest in university lectures. The evidence of surveyed university students suggests that PowerPoint, used as a presentation tool in university lectures, is pedagogically effective only while it provides variety and stimulates interest…

  14. Publishing Magazines: To Meet Reader Needs and Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lane M.

    A series of lectures presented by "Farm Journal's" editor-in-chief Lane Palmer to the advanced agricultural writing course of the University of Wisconsin's Department of Agricultural Journalism in the spring of 1970 formed the basis for this publication. The purpose of the lectures was to stimulate student interest in feature writing and magazine…

  15. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33 years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100 μl (p<0.001), saccharose 100 μl, citrate 50 μl & 100 μl, and quinine 100 μl (p<0.05). Capsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems.

  16. Navy Interest Inventory: Approach Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    lacking social skills” • Investigative is “analytical, intelligent , skeptical and having academic talent– lacking interpersonal skills” • Artistic is...occupational extroversion introversion scale, an educational orientation scale, and a variability of interests scale. A-25 Norms The General Themes and... introversion scale, an educational orientation scale, and a variability of interests scale. Norms The General Themes and Basic Interest Area scales were

  17. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    PubMed

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  18. 14 CFR 161.207 - Comment by interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Notice Requirements for Stage 2 Restrictions § 161.207 Comment by interested parties. Each airport operator shall establish...

  19. 14 CFR 161.207 - Comment by interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Notice Requirements for Stage 2 Restrictions § 161.207 Comment by interested parties. Each airport operator shall establish...

  20. 14 CFR 156.2 - Letters of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS STATE... Associate Administrator for Airports, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room... material to each State that submits a letter of interest to the Associate Administrator for Airports....

  1. Nd:YAP laser pulse compression by three-stage transient stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubeček, V.; Hamal, K.; Procházka, I.; Buzelis, R.; Girdauskas, V.; Dementiev, A.

    1991-08-01

    There is a continuous effort to generate stable, powerful picosecond laser pulses for application in spectroscopy, nonlinear optics and parametric light generation, as well. One of the possible methods is the compression of longer nanosecond laser pulses by stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering. The advantages of such a technique, in comparison to the used mode locked picosecond lasers, are as follows: the absence of the active and/or passive mode lockers used to generate a train of picosecond pulses, and the absence of a fast electrooptical shutter used to select a single pulse from a train of pulses. The application of stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering permits to generate picosecond pulses in the wavelength regions not covered by mode locked lasers. Of special interest is the wavelength region of 0·8 μm, which may be amplified by the attractive Titanium Sapphire lasers. In this paper we are summarizing our results in theoretical modelling and in real generation of picosecond pulses by means of cascaded stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering. The models of scattering processes have been investigated. The stable generation of 5, 7, 3 picosecond pulses have been optimized for the wavelengths of 0·8, 0·64 and 0·54 μm, respectively. In all these cases, the pulses exhibited the far field pattern close to Gaussian, with the pulse energy ranging from 0·2 to 1 mJ.

  2. The Geist Picture Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Harold

    The purposes of this inventory are to: 1) assess quantitatively eleven male and twelve female general interest areas; 2) identify motivating forces behind occupational choice; 3) provide an interest inventory for working with those having limited verbal abilities; 4) provide possible additional information through projective uses; 5) further…

  3. Program Interests of NPR Subaudiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woal, Michael

    A study was conducted to assess the dimensions of a National Public Radio (NPR) audience's interests in programing, and how these interests define subaudience groups. Telephone surveys were conducted with 276 persons who were over 18 years of age and who usually listened to the local university operated NPR station at least one day per week. The…

  4. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames

    2007-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  5. Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy.

    PubMed

    Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P; Earn, David J D

    2003-09-02

    The recent threat of bioterrorism has fueled debate on smallpox vaccination policy for the United States. Certain policy proposals call for voluntary mass vaccination; however, if individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to self-interest, the level of herd immunity achieved may differ from what is best for the population as a whole. We present a synthesis of game theory and epidemic modeling that formalizes this conflict between self-interest and group interest and shows that voluntary vaccination is unlikely to reach the group-optimal level. This shortfall results in a substantial increase in expected mortality after an attack.

  6. Findings of interest from immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Alford, Les

    2007-05-01

    The biopsychosocial paradigm is now the main model when dealing with most human health disorders. One of the strengths of this model is that it encourages broader thinking when assessing and managing patients. It also encourages broader reading into areas not traditionally associated with manual therapy. Immunology and neuroscience are amongst the fastest growing medical sciences. These fields come together in the relatively new area of psychoneuroimmunolgy. This article examines some findings from these fields that are not widely discussed in the physical therapy professions. These findings are of relevance to many of the disciplines within the physical therapies. It is the authors aim to stimulate further interest in the relevant, yet often under explored areas of immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

  7. 7 CFR 62.205 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions Service § 62.205 Conflict of interest. No USDA official shall review any program documentation or... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 62.205 Section 62.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  8. 10 CFR 609.13 - Principal and interest assistance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal and interest assistance contract. 609.13 Section 609.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.13 Principal and interest assistance contract. With...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6601-1 - Interest on underpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 6402(a) and § 301.6402-1. Under such circumstances interest on the $800 underpayment runs from April 15... continues to run, however, on $300 (the $800 underpayment for 1955 less the $500 overpayment for 1956) to... would have resulted in interest running upon such portion from April 15, 1958, to a date not more...

  10. 7 CFR 762.150 - Interest assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest assistance program. 762.150 Section 762.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.150 Interest assistance program. (a) Requests...

  11. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  12. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  13. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  14. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  15. 7 CFR 1774.20 - Conflict of Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict of Interest. 1774.20 Section 1774.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...) Grant Application Processing § 1774.20 Conflict of Interest. Any processing or servicing...

  16. 7 CFR 1217.5 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1217.5 Section 1217.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.5 Conflict of interest. Conflict of...

  17. 7 CFR 800.128 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 800.128 Section 800.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Reinspection Services and Review of Weighing Services § 800.128 Conflicts of interest. Official...

  18. 7 CFR 800.138 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 800.138 Section 800.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Inspection Services § 800.138 Conflict of interest. Official personnel cannot perform or participate...

  19. 7 CFR 62.205 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 62.205 Section 62.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Service § 62.205 Conflict of interest. No USDA official shall review any program documentation...

  20. 7 CFR 1217.5 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1217.5 Section 1217.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.5 Conflict of interest. Conflict of...

  1. 7 CFR 800.138 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 800.138 Section 800.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Inspection Services § 800.138 Conflict of interest. Official personnel cannot perform or participate...

  2. 7 CFR 3400.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3400.12 Section 3400.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups covered by this part are subject to relevant...

  3. 7 CFR 800.128 - Conflicts of interest..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflicts of interest.. 800.128 Section 800.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Reinspection Services and Review of Weighing Services § 800.128 Conflicts of interest.. Official...

  4. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a...

  5. 7 CFR 62.205 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 62.205 Section 62.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Service § 62.205 Conflict of interest. No USDA official shall review any program documentation...

  6. 7 CFR 1774.20 - Conflict of Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflict of Interest. 1774.20 Section 1774.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...) Grant Application Processing § 1774.20 Conflict of Interest. Any processing or servicing...

  7. 7 CFR 800.128 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 800.128 Section 800.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Reinspection Services and Review of Weighing Services § 800.128 Conflicts of interest. Official...

  8. 7 CFR 800.128 - Conflicts of interest..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflicts of interest.. 800.128 Section 800.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Reinspection Services and Review of Weighing Services § 800.128 Conflicts of interest.. Official...

  9. 7 CFR 1774.20 - Conflict of Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Conflict of Interest. 1774.20 Section 1774.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...) Grant Application Processing § 1774.20 Conflict of Interest. Any processing or servicing...

  10. 7 CFR 3401.14 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3401.14 Section 3401.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... § 3401.14 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups covered by this part are subject...

  11. 7 CFR 3400.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3400.12 Section 3400.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups covered by this part are subject to relevant...

  12. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a...

  13. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a...

  14. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a...

  15. 7 CFR 3401.14 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3401.14 Section 3401.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... § 3401.14 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups covered by this part are subject...

  16. 7 CFR 3400.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3400.12 Section 3400.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups covered by this part are subject to relevant...

  17. 7 CFR 800.138 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 800.138 Section 800.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Inspection Services § 800.138 Conflict of interest. Official personnel cannot perform or participate...

  18. 7 CFR 1774.20 - Conflict of Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict of Interest. 1774.20 Section 1774.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...) Grant Application Processing § 1774.20 Conflict of Interest. Any processing or servicing...

  19. 7 CFR 3400.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3400.12 Section 3400.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.12 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review...

  20. 7 CFR 800.138 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 800.138 Section 800.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Inspection Services § 800.138 Conflict of interest. Official personnel cannot perform or participate...

  1. 7 CFR 800.138 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 800.138 Section 800.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Inspection Services § 800.138 Conflict of interest. Official personnel cannot perform or participate...

  2. 7 CFR 3401.14 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3401.14 Section 3401.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... § 3401.14 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups covered by this part are subject...

  3. 7 CFR 800.128 - Conflicts of interest..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflicts of interest.. 800.128 Section 800.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Reinspection Services and Review of Weighing Services § 800.128 Conflicts of interest.. Official...

  4. 7 CFR 62.205 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 62.205 Section 62.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Service § 62.205 Conflict of interest. No USDA official shall review any program documentation...

  5. 5 CFR 950.109 - Avoidance of conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avoidance of conflict of interest. 950.109 Section 950.109 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.109 Avoidance of conflict of interest....

  6. 12 CFR 230.7 - Payment of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of interest. 230.7 Section 230.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.7 Payment of interest. (a) Permissible methods—(1) Balance on...

  7. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.12 Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. Charges may be assessed on...

  8. 7 CFR 1217.5 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1217.5 Section 1217.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.5 Conflict of interest. Conflict of...

  9. 7 CFR 3400.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3400.12 Section 3400.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups covered by this part are subject to relevant...

  10. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section 382.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services...

  11. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section 382.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services...

  12. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section 382.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services...

  13. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4 Section 3471.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application...

  14. 40 CFR 154.27 - Meetings with interested persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meetings with interested persons. 154.27 Section 154.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... unions, environmental groups and other interested persons, to obtain information, exchange views,...

  15. EDUCATION INTERESTS AND BEHAVIOR OF EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA MUNICIPAL OFFICALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, HUEY B.

    MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES GATHERED INFORMATION FROM 25 ELECTED AND 36 APPOINTED OFFICIALS IN SEVEN EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA COUNTIES ABOUT THEIR INTERESTS AND BEHAVIOR IN REGARD TO CONTINUING EDUCATION. THE FIRST PHASE OF THIS STUDY, IN 1966, DETERMINED EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS, WHILE THIS, THE SECOND PHASE, DETERMINED ACTUAL BEHAVIOR. ELECTED OFFICIALS…

  16. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT.... Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of...

  17. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT.... Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of...

  18. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT.... Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of...

  19. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT.... Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of...

  20. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT.... Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of...

  1. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a...

  2. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.12 Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. Charges may be assessed on...

  3. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.12 Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. Charges may be assessed on...

  4. 12 CFR 230.7 - Payment of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment of interest. 230.7 Section 230.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.7 Payment of interest. (a) Permissible methods—(1) Balance on...

  5. Factors stimulating bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lind, M; Bünger, C

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this review is to describe major approaches for stimulating bone healing and to review other factors affecting bone healing. Spinal bone fusion after surgery is a demanding process requiring optimal conditions for clinical success. Bone formation and healing can be enhanced through various methods. Experimental studies have revealed an array of stimulative measures. These include biochemical stimulation by use of hormones and growth factors, physical stimulation through mechanical and electromagnetic measures, and bone grafting by use of bone tissue or bone substitutes. Newer biological techniques such as stem cell transplantation and gene therapy can also be used to stimulate bone healing. Apart from bone transplantation, clinical experience with the many stimulation modalities is limited. Possible areas for clinical use of these novel methods are discussed.

  6. Cerebral glucose consumption following verbal auditory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, M J; Schwartz, R; Alavi, A; Dann, R; Rosen, M; Silver, F; Reivich, M

    1987-04-14

    We studied the effect of auditory stimulation upon cerebral glucose metabolism in young normals. The stimulus consisted of a non-English discourse which was presented monaurally to 10 normal blindfolded subjects (5 left ear, 5 right); the opposite ear was plugged. Six subjects studied blindfolded and with ears plugged served as controls. Sixteen discrete homologous cortical and subcortical regions of interest were examined. Regional glucose consumption and side-to-side differences in glucose metabolism were analyzed. Monaural stimulation produced significant increases in temporal metabolism contralateral to the side of stimulation. Significant asymmetries in metabolism were found at the temporoparietal junction, inferior parietal region, insula and corpus collosum. The left frontal speech areas remained unaffected. These findings demonstrate that in man the primary auditory pathways retain a contralateral organization. Further, cerebral activation induced by non-meaningful verbal stimulation is widespread within the left temporal and parietal regions but does not impact upon the frontal speech cortices.

  7. Validation of Wong's Career Interest Assessment Questionnaire and Holland's Revised Hexagonal Model of Occupational Interests in Four Chinese Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chi-Sum; Wong, Ping-Man

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has advanced our understanding of the modifications needed for Holland's hexagonal model of occupational interests when applied to Hong Kong Chinese. This study continues this line of research in testing the validity of Wong's Career Interest Assessment Questionnaire (WCIAQ) and the revised hexagonal model developed in Hong Kong to…

  8. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue. PMID:26691398

  9. 42 CFR 414.912 - Conflicts of interest

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conflicts of interest 414.912 Section 414.912 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment...

  10. 5 CFR 831.613 - Election of insurable interest annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 831.613 Section 831.613 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Elections at the Time of Retirement § 831.613 Election of insurable interest annuity. (a) At the time of retirement, an employee or Member...

  11. Preliminary guidelines for safe and effective use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Dylan M; McKnight, Curtis A; Patel, Riddhi N; Kalnin, Andrew J; Mysiw, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation has generated extensive interest within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation community, but little work has been done with repetitive protocols, which can produce prolonged changes in behavior. This is partly because of concerns about the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in subjects with TBI, particularly the risk of seizures. These risks can be minimized by careful selection of the rTMS protocol and exclusion criteria. In this article, we identify guidelines for safe use of rTMS in subjects with TBI based on a review of the literature and illustrate their application with a case study. Our subject is a 48-year-old man who sustained a severe TBI 5 years prior to beginning rTMS for the treatment of post-TBI depression. After a 4-week baseline period, we administered daily sessions of low-frequency stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 6 weeks. After stimulation, we performed monthly assessments for 3 months. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was our primary outcome measure. The stimulation was well tolerated and the patient reported no side effects. After 6 weeks of stimulation, the patient's depression was slightly improved, and these improvements continued through follow-up. At the end of follow-up, the patient's HAMD score was 49% of the average baseline score.

  12. Interests diffusion in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  13. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  14. Neuroethics of deep brain stimulation for mental disorders: brain stimulation reward in humans.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hideki; Katayama, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical basis of some deep brain stimulation (DBS) trials undertaken in the early years was the phenomenon of "brain stimulation reward (BSR)," which was first identified in rats. The animals appeared to be rewarded by pleasure caused by the stimulation of certain brain regions (reward system), such as the septal area. "Self-stimulation" experiments, in which rats were allowed to stimulate their own brain by pressing a freely accessible lever, they quickly learned lever pressing and sometimes continued to stimulate until they exhausted themselves. BSR was also observed with DBS of the septal area in humans. DBS trials in later years were undertaken on other theoretical bases, but unexpected BSR was sometimes induced by stimulation of some areas, such as the locus coeruleus complex. When BSR was induced, the subjects experienced feelings that were described as "cheerful," "alert," "good," "well-being," "comfort," "relaxation," "joy," or "satisfaction." Since the DBS procedure is equivalent to a "self-stimulation" experiment, they could become "addicted to the stimulation itself" or "compulsive about the stimulation," and stimulate themselves "for the entire day," "at maximum amplitude" and, in some instances, "into convulsions." DBS of the reward system has recently been applied to alleviate anhedonia in patients with refractory major depression. Although this approach appears promising, there remains a difficult problem: who can adjust their feelings and reward-oriented behavior within the normal range? With a self-stimulation procedure, the BSR may become uncontrollable. To develop DBS to the level of a standard therapy for mental disorders, we need to discuss "Who has the right to control the mental condition?" and "Who makes decisions" on "How much control is appropriate?" in daily life.

  15. United States National Security Interests and North Korea: Leveraging Common Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    and discusses its meaning to agreeable solutions. Chapter 5 provides the conclusions and recommendations based on the findings. Specifically, a...each nation. Furthermore, it is assumed that the nations will continue policymaking based on their most recent national security strategies. In... based on having a direct interest in the stability of and influence on North Korea. Background Since the end of World War II, the United States has

  16. A Vocational Interest Inventory Based on Roe's Interest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sandra K.; And Others

    The construction and early validation of an ipsative, forced-choice vocational interest inventory (VII) to measure Roe's eight foci of occupational activity is detailed. Designed for counseling the broad range of high school students, the VII produced consistently interpretable mean profiles for groups of high school juniors having only tentative…

  17. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  18. 26 CFR 1.884-4 - Branch-level interest tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Branch-level interest tax. 1.884-4 Section 1.884-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.884-4 Branch-level interest tax. (a)...

  19. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-5 - Tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax-exempt interest. 1.643(a)-5 Section 1.643(a)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(a)-5 Tax-exempt interest....

  20. 26 CFR 1.163-10T - Qualified residence interest (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified residence interest (temporary). 1.163-10T Section 1.163-10T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-10T Qualified residence interest...

  1. 26 CFR 1.163-10T - Qualified residence interest (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified residence interest (temporary). 1.163-10T Section 1.163-10T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-10T Qualified residence interest...

  2. 26 CFR 1.163-10T - Qualified residence interest (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified residence interest (temporary). 1.163-10T Section 1.163-10T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-10T Qualified residence interest...

  3. 26 CFR 1.163-10T - Qualified residence interest (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified residence interest (temporary). 1.163-10T Section 1.163-10T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-10T Qualified residence interest...

  4. 26 CFR 1.163-10T - Qualified residence interest (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified residence interest (temporary). 1.163-10T Section 1.163-10T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-10T Qualified residence interest...

  5. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    PubMed

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  6. Interest Assessment Using New Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of computer-assisted assessment via the Internet are well known in interest assessment as it relates information access. Individuals can use their assessment scores to easily access a wealth of career and major information. However, computer-assisted assessment also enables a unique assessment experience for each individual.…

  7. Emergence of scaling in human-interest dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zike; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Human behaviors are often driven by human interests. Despite intense recent efforts in exploring the dynamics of human behaviors, little is known about human-interest dynamics, partly due to the extreme difficulty in accessing the human mind from observations. However, the availability of large-scale data, such as those from e-commerce and smart-phone communications, makes it possible to probe into and quantify the dynamics of human interest. Using three prototypical “Big Data” sets, we investigate the scaling behaviors associated with human-interest dynamics. In particular, from the data sets we uncover fat-tailed (possibly power-law) distributions associated with the three basic quantities: (1) the length of continuous interest, (2) the return time of visiting certain interest, and (3) interest ranking and transition. We argue that there are three basic ingredients underlying human-interest dynamics: preferential return to previously visited interests, inertial effect, and exploration of new interests. We develop a biased random-walk model, incorporating the three ingredients, to account for the observed fat-tailed distributions. Our study represents the first attempt to understand the dynamical processes underlying human interest, which has significant applications in science and engineering, commerce, as well as defense, in terms of specific tasks such as recommendation and human-behavior prediction. PMID:24326949

  8. Emergence of scaling in human-interest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zike; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2013-12-11

    Human behaviors are often driven by human interests. Despite intense recent efforts in exploring the dynamics of human behaviors, little is known about human-interest dynamics, partly due to the extreme difficulty in accessing the human mind from observations. However, the availability of large-scale data, such as those from e-commerce and smart-phone communications, makes it possible to probe into and quantify the dynamics of human interest. Using three prototypical "Big Data" sets, we investigate the scaling behaviors associated with human-interest dynamics. In particular, from the data sets we uncover fat-tailed (possibly power-law) distributions associated with the three basic quantities: (1) the length of continuous interest, (2) the return time of visiting certain interest, and (3) interest ranking and transition. We argue that there are three basic ingredients underlying human-interest dynamics: preferential return to previously visited interests, inertial effect, and exploration of new interests. We develop a biased random-walk model, incorporating the three ingredients, to account for the observed fat-tailed distributions. Our study represents the first attempt to understand the dynamical processes underlying human interest, which has significant applications in science and engineering, commerce, as well as defense, in terms of specific tasks such as recommendation and human-behavior prediction.

  9. Emergence of scaling in human-interest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zike; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Human behaviors are often driven by human interests. Despite intense recent efforts in exploring the dynamics of human behaviors, little is known about human-interest dynamics, partly due to the extreme difficulty in accessing the human mind from observations. However, the availability of large-scale data, such as those from e-commerce and smart-phone communications, makes it possible to probe into and quantify the dynamics of human interest. Using three prototypical ``Big Data'' sets, we investigate the scaling behaviors associated with human-interest dynamics. In particular, from the data sets we uncover fat-tailed (possibly power-law) distributions associated with the three basic quantities: (1) the length of continuous interest, (2) the return time of visiting certain interest, and (3) interest ranking and transition. We argue that there are three basic ingredients underlying human-interest dynamics: preferential return to previously visited interests, inertial effect, and exploration of new interests. We develop a biased random-walk model, incorporating the three ingredients, to account for the observed fat-tailed distributions. Our study represents the first attempt to understand the dynamical processes underlying human interest, which has significant applications in science and engineering, commerce, as well as defense, in terms of specific tasks such as recommendation and human-behavior prediction.

  10. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or water caloric stimulator is a device that delivers a stream of air...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  11. Pharmacotherapy for Stimulant-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Colin N.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulant–related disorders (SRD) continue to be an important public health problem for which there are presently no approved pharmacotherapies. Although behavioral interventions provide some benefit response varies. The development of novel and effective pharmacotherapies continues to be a research priority. Understanding neural mechanisms critical to the action of stimulants has helped reveal several potential pharmacotherapies that have already shown promise in controlled clinical trials. Common to some of these medications is the ability to reverse neural deficits in individuals with SRD. Results from thoroughly conducted clinical trials continue to broaden our knowledge increasing the possibility of soon developing effective pharmacotherapies for SRD. PMID:24142188

  12. 5 CFR 841.605 - Interest included in the unexpended balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... balance. 841.605 Section 841.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Interest § 841.605 Interest included in the unexpended balance. (a) Interest on each Individual Retirement Record is computed separately. (b) For determining the amount of interest in the unexpended balance...

  13. 5 CFR 841.605 - Interest included in the unexpended balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... balance. 841.605 Section 841.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Interest § 841.605 Interest included in the unexpended balance. (a) Interest on each Individual Retirement Record is computed separately. (b) For determining the amount of interest in the unexpended balance...

  14. 5 CFR 841.605 - Interest included in the unexpended balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... balance. 841.605 Section 841.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Interest § 841.605 Interest included in the unexpended balance. (a) Interest on each Individual Retirement Record is computed separately. (b) For determining the amount of interest in the unexpended balance...

  15. 5 CFR 841.605 - Interest included in the unexpended balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... balance. 841.605 Section 841.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Interest § 841.605 Interest included in the unexpended balance. (a) Interest on each Individual Retirement Record is computed separately. (b) For determining the amount of interest in the unexpended balance...

  16. 5 CFR 841.605 - Interest included in the unexpended balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... balance. 841.605 Section 841.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Interest § 841.605 Interest included in the unexpended balance. (a) Interest on each Individual Retirement Record is computed separately. (b) For determining the amount of interest in the unexpended balance...

  17. Language Development in Children Who Are Prelingually Deaf Who Have Used the SPEAK or CIS Stimulation Strategies since Initial Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svirsky, Mario A.; Chute, Patricia M.; Green, Janet; Bollard, Priscilla; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2000-01-01

    A study examined language skills in 44 pediatric cochlear implant users. All participants received implants before age 6 and were programmed with state-of-the-art stimulation strategies (Continuous Interleaved Sampler or Spectral Peak) since the day of initial stimulation. Postimplantation language development proceeded at a pace that was not…

  18. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle Y.; Wang, Eric H.; Woodson, Wyatt J.; Wang, Stephanie; Sun, Guohua; Lee, Alex G.; Arac, Ahmet; Fenno, Lief E.; Deisseroth, Karl; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and research efforts have focused on promoting functional recovery after stroke. Brain stimulation strategies are particularly promising because they allow direct manipulation of the target area’s excitability. However, elucidating the cell type and mechanisms mediating recovery has been difficult because existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically target all cell types near the stimulated site. To circumvent these barriers, we used optogenetics to selectively activate neurons that express channelrhodopsin 2 and demonstrated that selective neuronal stimulations in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) can promote functional recovery. Stroke mice that received repeated neuronal stimulations exhibited significant improvement in cerebral blood flow and the neurovascular coupling response, as well as increased expression of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the contralesional cortex, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin 3. Western analysis also indicated that stimulated mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression of a plasticity marker growth-associated protein 43. Moreover, iM1 neuronal stimulations promoted functional recovery, as stimulated stroke mice showed faster weight gain and performed significantly better in sensory-motor behavior tests. Interestingly, stimulations in normal nonstroke mice did not alter motor behavior or neurotrophin expression, suggesting that the prorecovery effect of selective neuronal stimulations is dependent on the poststroke environment. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery. PMID:25136109

  19. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Michelle Y; Wang, Eric H; Woodson, Wyatt J; Wang, Stephanie; Sun, Guohua; Lee, Alex G; Arac, Ahmet; Fenno, Lief E; Deisseroth, Karl; Steinberg, Gary K

    2014-09-02

    Clinical and research efforts have focused on promoting functional recovery after stroke. Brain stimulation strategies are particularly promising because they allow direct manipulation of the target area's excitability. However, elucidating the cell type and mechanisms mediating recovery has been difficult because existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically target all cell types near the stimulated site. To circumvent these barriers, we used optogenetics to selectively activate neurons that express channelrhodopsin 2 and demonstrated that selective neuronal stimulations in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) can promote functional recovery. Stroke mice that received repeated neuronal stimulations exhibited significant improvement in cerebral blood flow and the neurovascular coupling response, as well as increased expression of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the contralesional cortex, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin 3. Western analysis also indicated that stimulated mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression of a plasticity marker growth-associated protein 43. Moreover, iM1 neuronal stimulations promoted functional recovery, as stimulated stroke mice showed faster weight gain and performed significantly better in sensory-motor behavior tests. Interestingly, stimulations in normal nonstroke mice did not alter motor behavior or neurotrophin expression, suggesting that the prorecovery effect of selective neuronal stimulations is dependent on the poststroke environment. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery.

  20. Heterosexual Interests of Suburban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Carlfred B.

    1971-01-01

    Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)

  1. Indian Ocean Region - Superpower Interests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-21

    Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet troops, lead- ing to regional conflicts...with its policy of apartheid the Palestinian problem leading to Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of...interested in the Malay archipelago--the Spice Islands. The Dutch also established themselves firmly at the Cape of Good Hope, in Mauritius, on the coast

  2. Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang

    2013-02-11

    Recently, mode instability was observed in optical fiber lasers at high powers, severely limiting power scaling for single-mode outputs. Some progress has been made towards understanding the underlying physics. A thorough understanding of the effect is critical for continued progress of this very important technology area. Mode instability in optical fibers is, in fact, a manifestation of stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. In this work, a quasi-closed-form solution for the nonlinear coupling coefficient is found for stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers. The results help to significantly improve understanding of mode instability.

  3. Tinnitus treatment with sound stimulation during sleep.

    PubMed

    M, Pedemonte; D, Drexler; S, Rodio; D, Geisinger; A, Bianco; D, Pol-Fernandes; V, Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for idiopathic subjective tinnitus treatment - sound stimulation during sleep - has been applied. It was based on the acknowledgement that the auditory system also works during sleep, processing the incoming information. Eleven patients were stimulated every night during 6 months. The stimulus was a sound that mimetized the tinnitus and was fixed at the same tinnitus intensity, applied through an iPod. All patients decreased their tinnitus intensity in the first month of treatment (statistically significant), most of them in the first week. Tinnitus intensity continued decreasing in the following weeks; three patients presented periods of total silence.

  4. Spatially distributed sequential stimulation reduces muscle fatigue during neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2013-01-01

    A critical limitation with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) approach is the rapid onset of muscle fatigue during repeated contractions, which results in the muscle force decay and slowing of muscle contractile properties. In our previous study, we demonstrated that spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) show a drastically greater fatigue-reducing ability compared to a conventional, single active electrode stimulation (SES) with an individual with spinal cord injury when applied for plantar flexors. The purpose of the present study is to explore the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS for major lower limb muscle groups in the able-bodied population as well as individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SDSS was delivered through four active electrodes applied to the muscle of interest, sending a stimulation pulse to each electrode one after another with 90° phase shift between successive electrodes. For comparison, SES was delivered through one active electrode. For both modes of stimulation, the resultant frequency to the muscle as a whole was 40 Hz. Using corresponding protocols for the fatiguing stimulation, we demonstrated the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS by higher fatigue indices as compared with single active electrode setup for major leg muscles in both subject groups. The present work verifies and extends reported findings on the effectiveness of using spatially distributed sequential stimulation in the leg muscles to reduce muscle fatigue. Application of this technique can improve the usefulness of NMES during functional movements in the clinical setup.

  5. The Development of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to…

  6. Applied Use of a Health Communications Model to Generate Interest in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, Jennifer Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Educators are regularly challenged to design instruction that motivates learners. If interest is lacking, the challenge can be even greater. Tailoring is a message design technique that could help to stimulate interest and consequently, motivation to learn. Effective tailoring requires the formal assessment of learner characteristics and the…

  7. 42 CFR 456.603 - Financial interests and employment of team members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inspections of Care in Intermediate Care Facilities and Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.603 Financial interests and...

  8. 42 CFR 456.603 - Financial interests and employment of team members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inspections of Care in Intermediate Care Facilities and Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.603 Financial interests and...

  9. Stimulation-Based Control of Dynamic Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Gu, Shi; Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T; Vettel, Jean M; Bassett, Danielle S

    2016-09-01

    The ability to modulate brain states using targeted stimulation is increasingly being employed to treat neurological disorders and to enhance human performance. Despite the growing interest in brain stimulation as a form of neuromodulation, much remains unknown about the network-level impact of these focal perturbations. To study the system wide impact of regional stimulation, we employ a data-driven computational model of nonlinear brain dynamics to systematically explore the effects of targeted stimulation. Validating predictions from network control theory, we uncover the relationship between regional controllability and the focal versus global impact of stimulation, and we relate these findings to differences in the underlying network architecture. Finally, by mapping brain regions to cognitive systems, we observe that the default mode system imparts large global change despite being highly constrained by structural connectivity. This work forms an important step towards the development of personalized stimulation protocols for medical treatment or performance enhancement.

  10. Stimulation-Based Control of Dynamic Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualetti, Fabio; Gu, Shi; Cieslak, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to modulate brain states using targeted stimulation is increasingly being employed to treat neurological disorders and to enhance human performance. Despite the growing interest in brain stimulation as a form of neuromodulation, much remains unknown about the network-level impact of these focal perturbations. To study the system wide impact of regional stimulation, we employ a data-driven computational model of nonlinear brain dynamics to systematically explore the effects of targeted stimulation. Validating predictions from network control theory, we uncover the relationship between regional controllability and the focal versus global impact of stimulation, and we relate these findings to differences in the underlying network architecture. Finally, by mapping brain regions to cognitive systems, we observe that the default mode system imparts large global change despite being highly constrained by structural connectivity. This work forms an important step towards the development of personalized stimulation protocols for medical treatment or performance enhancement. PMID:27611328

  11. Long-term motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Moore, Tom; Moir, Liz; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-04-01

    We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance.

  12. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

    2007-11-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  13. Dislocated interests and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2016-06-01

    The predicted effects of climate change on surface temperatures are now emergent and quantifiable. The recent letter by Hansen and Sato (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034009) adds to a growing number of studies showing that warming over the past four decades has shifted the distribution of temperatures higher almost everywhere, with the largest relative effects on summer temperatures in developing regions such as Africa, South America, southeast Asia, and the Middle East (e.g., Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 Clim. Change 107 615-24 Anderson 2011 Clim. Change 108 581; Mahlstein et al 2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L21711). Hansen and Sato emphasize that although these regions are warming disproportionately, their role in causing climate change—measured by cumulative historical CO2 emissions produced—is small compared to the US and Europe, where the relative change in temperatures has been less. This spatial and temporal mismatch of climate change impacts and the burning of fossil fuels is a critical dislocation of interests that, as the authors note, has ‘substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.’ Here, we place Hansen and Sato’s ‘national responsibilities’ into a broader conceptual framework of problematically dislocated interests, and briefly discuss the related challenges for global climate mitigation efforts.

  14. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality.

  15. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  16. Defining and Measuring Interpersonal Continuity of Care

    PubMed Central

    Saultz, John W.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND In an effort to learn more about the importance of continuity of care to physicians and patients, I reviewed the medical literature on continuity of care to define interpersonal continuity and describe how it has been measured and studied. METHODS A search of the MEDLINE database from 1966 through April 2002 was conducted to find articles focusing on the keyword “continuity of patient care,” including all subheadings. Titles and abstracts of the resulting articles were screened to select articles focusing on interpersonal continuity in the physician-patient relationship or on the definition of continuity of care. These articles were systematically reviewed and analyzed for study method, measurement technique, and research theme. RESULTS A total of 379 original articles were found that addressed any aspect of continuity as an attribute of general medical care. One hundred forty-two articles directly related to the definition of continuity or to the concept of interpersonal continuity in the physician-patient relationship. Although the available literature reflects little agreement on how to define continuity of care, it is best defined as a hierarchy of 3 dimensions; informational, longitudinal, and interpersonal continuity. Interpersonal continuity is of particular interest for primary care. Twenty-one measurement techniques have been defined to study continuity, many of which relate to visit patterns and concentration rather than the interpersonal nature of the continuity relationship. CONCLUSIONS Future inquiry in family medicine should focus on better understanding the interpersonal dimension of continuity of care. PMID:15043374

  17. Muscle Stimulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  18. New York Canyon Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  19. Adult and Continuing Education: Continuities and Discontinuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the five-volume set, "Adult and Continuing Education." This publication is a monumental and diverse collection of material related directly or indirectly to the broad theme of adult and continuing education. The collection captures a great deal of the thought which has informed the…

  20. Optical neural stimulation modeling on degenerative neocortical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, M.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Salas-García, I.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases usually appear at advanced age. Medical advances make people live longer and as a consequence, the number of neurodegenerative diseases continuously grows. There is still no cure for these diseases, but several brain stimulation techniques have been proposed to improve patients' condition. One of them is Optical Neural Stimulation (ONS), which is based on the application of optical radiation over specific brain regions. The outer cerebral zones can be noninvasively stimulated, without the common drawbacks associated to surgical procedures. This work focuses on the analysis of ONS effects in stimulated neurons to determine their influence in neuronal activity. For this purpose a neural network model has been employed. The results show the neural network behavior when the stimulation is provided by means of different optical radiation sources and constitute a first approach to adjust the optical light source parameters to stimulate specific neocortical areas.

  1. The situational interest of undergraduate students in zoophysiology.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Niels B; Madsen, Peter T; Malte, Hans

    2009-09-01

    Situational interest has been identified as an important motivational variable that has an impact on students' academic performances, yet little is known about how the specific variable of the learning environment might trigger students' situational interest. The purpose of this study was to investigate sources that stimulate the interest of students in an undergraduate course in zoophysiology. Observations, informal conversational interviews, and responses to a survey were used to identify sources of interest. Five situational variables and one predominantly individual variable are documented to influence the catching of interest of students. The situational variables are live animals, "Ah-ha!" experiences, meaningfulness, social involvement, and humor, whereas the predominantly individual variable is background knowledge. We conclude that the situational variables are largely under the control of the faculty and should be considered when planning instruction. By focusing on the enhancement of situational interest in physiology lessons, faculty members can find ways to foster students' involvement in specific content areas and increase levels of academic motivation.

  2. Astrophysically Interesting Resonances; Another Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Roby; Jenkins, David

    2008-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, A. Campbell, S. Colosimo, S. Reeve Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods T. Davinson University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu A. Hurst J.A. Becker Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; G.C. Ball M. Djongolov G. Hackman A.C. Morton, C. Pearson, S.J. Williams TRIUMF; A.A. Phillips, M. Schumaker, University of Guelph H.Boston, A. Grint, D. Oxley, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; We describe a prototype experiment to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with charged particles, inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics. The particles are detected with the Bambino detector modified to a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab.

  3. Situational or Personal: Interest in American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Victoria Caterina

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate how individuals with a stated interest in American history described their interest. Understanding interest and the factors influencing interest development in a particular content is important as personal interest has been described as "having a critical role in the learning and development of…

  4. Effects of chronic cochlear electrical stimulation after an extended period of profound deafness on primary auditory cortex organization in cats.

    PubMed

    Fallon, James B; Shepherd, Robert K; Irvine, Dexter R F

    2014-03-01

    Extended periods of deafness have profound effects on central auditory system function and organization. Neonatal deafening results in loss of the normal cochleotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI), but environmentally-derived intracochlear electrical stimulation, via a cochlear implant, initiated shortly after deafening, can prevent this loss. We investigated whether such stimulation initiated after an extended period of deafness can restore cochleotopy. In two groups of neonatally-deafened cats, a multi-channel intracochlear electrode array was implanted at 8 weeks of age. One group received only minimal stimulation, associated with brief recordings at 4-6-week intervals, over the following 6 months to check the efficacy of the implant. In the other group, this 6-month period was followed by 6 months of near-continuous intracochlear electrical stimulation from a modified clinical cochlear implant system. We recorded multi-unit clusters in the auditory cortex and used two different methods to define the region of interest in the putative AI. There was no evidence of cochleotopy in any of the minimally stimulated animals, confirming our earlier finding. In three of six chronically stimulated cats there was clear evidence of AI cochleotopy, and in a fourth cat in which the majority of penetrations were in the anterior auditory field there was clear evidence of cochleotopy in that field. The finding that chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation after an extended period of deafness is able to restore cochleotopy in some (but not all) cases has implications for the performance of patients implanted after an extended period of deafness.

  5. 48 CFR 1433.213 - Obligation to continue performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to continue performance. If the CO considers financing continued contractor performance to be in the best interest of the Government, the CO shall prepare and forward a determination to the HCA...

  6. 48 CFR 1433.213 - Obligation to continue performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to continue performance. If the CO considers financing continued contractor performance to be in the best interest of the Government, the CO shall prepare and forward a determination to the HCA...

  7. 48 CFR 1433.213 - Obligation to continue performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to continue performance. If the CO considers financing continued contractor performance to be in the best interest of the Government, the CO shall prepare and forward a determination to the HCA...

  8. Cortical stimulation and tooth pulp evoked potentials in rats: a model of direct anti-nociception.

    PubMed

    Rusina, Robert; Barek, Stephane; Vaculin, Simon; Azérad, Jean; Rokyta, Richard

    2010-01-01

    While the effect of cortex stimulation on pain control is widely accepted, its physiological basis remains poorly understood. We chose an animal model of pain to study the influence of sensorimotor cortex stimulation on tooth pulp stimulation evoked potentials (TPEPs). Fifteen awake rats implanted with tooth pulp, cerebral cortex, and digastric muscle electrodes were divided into three groups, receiving 60 Hz, 40 Hz and no cortical stimulation, respectively. TPEPs were recorded before, one, three and five hours after continuous stimulation. We observed an inverse relationship between TPEP amplitude and latency with increasing tooth pulp stimulation. The amplitudes of the early components of TPEPs increased and their latency decreased with increasing tooth pulp stimulation intensity. Cortical stimulation decreased the amplitude of TPEPs; however, neither the latencies of TPEPs nor the jaw-opening reflex were changed after cortical stimulation. The decrease in amplitude of TPEPs after cortical stimulation may reflect its anti-nociceptive effect.

  9. Challenging/interesting lignin times

    DOE PAGES

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-31

    Anyone who is working in the fuels industry knows that we are living in challenging times. On a personal note, I recall that ~5 years ago, some of my children's friends headed out into the petroleum industry to start their careers and several have now returned because of the retrenching work force. Despite these challenging times, the cellulosic ethanol industry continues to develop commercial operations, but with today's cost structure, biofuels production facilities have certainly slowed their pace of development and roll-out. Furthermore, the biological technology platform for biorefining plant polysaccharides to biofuels has been reported to have an intrinsicmore » advantage, if it can convert its waste lignin stream to value-added components.[1]« less

  10. Challenging/interesting lignin times

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-31

    Anyone who is working in the fuels industry knows that we are living in challenging times. On a personal note, I recall that ~5 years ago, some of my children's friends headed out into the petroleum industry to start their careers and several have now returned because of the retrenching work force. Despite these challenging times, the cellulosic ethanol industry continues to develop commercial operations, but with today's cost structure, biofuels production facilities have certainly slowed their pace of development and roll-out. Furthermore, the biological technology platform for biorefining plant polysaccharides to biofuels has been reported to have an intrinsic advantage, if it can convert its waste lignin stream to value-added components.[1

  11. Attachment Stimulates Exopolysaccharide Synthesis by a Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevivere, P.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1993-07-28

    Addition of sand to shake-flask cultures seemed to induce exopolymer synthesis by a number of subsurface bacterial isolates, as revealed by optical microscopy. Several additional lines of evidence indicate that exopolymer production by attached cells (in continuous-flow, sand-packed columns) was greater than by their free-living counterparts. The mechanism by which attachment stimulated exopolymer synthesis did not involve changes of the specific growth rate, growth stage, or limiting nutrient.

  12. Educational Interests, Needs and Learning Preferences of Immigrant Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamant, Thaddeus

    2014-01-01

    The immigrant population is growing in rural Minnesota, and those who are interested in farming will be replacing a dwindling population of traditionally white farmers. Like traditional American farmers, immigrant farmers have a need for continuing education to keep them up on best practices and new technology in agriculture. Minnesota's…

  13. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  18. 7 CFR 3415.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3415.12 Section 3415.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research...

  19. 7 CFR 3415.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3415.12 Section 3415.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS...

  20. 7 CFR 3415.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3415.12 Section 3415.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research...

  1. 7 CFR 3415.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3415.12 Section 3415.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research...

  2. 7 CFR 3415.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3415.12 Section 3415.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research...

  3. Electronic Interests and Behaviours Associated with Gambling Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James G.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple computing devices continue to develop capabilities that support online gambling, resulting in the need to evaluate the extent that this trend will contribute to gambling problems. A sample of 1,141 participants completed an online survey assessing interest in and difficulties limiting use of digital services. Questionnaire items measured…

  4. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. Topical and Applied Interests of Introductory Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalder, Daniel R.; Stec, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Using forced-choice and continuous measures, introductory psychology students reported highest interest for the topical areas of clinical and social psychology (over biological, cognitive, and developmental) and for the applied areas of education and health (over business, environment, and law) at both the beginning and end of semesters. Among…

  9. 7 CFR 981.481 - Interest and late payment charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest and late payment charges. 981.481 Section 981.481 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 7 CFR 981.481 - Interest and late payment charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest and late payment charges. 981.481 Section 981.481 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 7 CFR 981.481 - Interest and late payment charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest and late payment charges. 981.481 Section 981.481 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 7 CFR 981.481 - Interest and late payment charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest and late payment charges. 981.481 Section 981.481 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 7 CFR 981.481 - Interest and late payment charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest and late payment charges. 981.481 Section 981.481 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 31 CFR 558.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 558.308 Section 558.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 42 CFR 414.912 - Conflicts of interest

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflicts of interest 414.912 Section 414.912 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Drugs...

  16. Social Cognitive Predictors of African American Adolescents' Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…

  17. 50 CFR 18.75 - Notification by interested persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification by interested persons. 18.75 Section 18.75 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations §...

  18. 27 CFR 46.108 - Interest on unpaid tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interest on unpaid tax. 46.108 Section 46.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  19. 19 CFR 175.3 - Domestic interested party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PETITIONS BY DOMESTIC INTERESTED PARTIES Request for Classification, Appraised Value... part, means: (a) A manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler in the United States of a like product, (b) A... the manufacture, production, or wholesale in the United States of a like product, or (c) A trade...

  20. Predicting Engineering Major Status from Mathematics Achievement and Interest Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade C.; Robbins, Steven; Sawyer, Richard; Hovland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This study proposed that precollege students' standardized mathematics achievement score and the congruence between their occupational interests and engineering tasks would predict their second-year retention in college and the stability of their major. Binary response models were used to predict second-year major status (i.e., continue, transfer…

  1. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  2. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  3. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308 Section 543.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 10 CFR 609.13 - Principal and interest assistance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... balance of the guaranteed portion of the Guaranteed Obligation, if DOE finds that: (a) The Borrower: (1) Is unable to make the payments and is not in default; and (2) Will, and is financially able to, continue to make the scheduled payments on the remaining portion of the principal and interest due...

  5. 31 CFR 542.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.315 Section 542.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 49 CFR 211.3 - Participation by interested persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation by interested persons. 211.3 Section 211.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE General § 211.3 Participation by...

  11. 47 CFR 73.858 - Attribution of LPFM station interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Attribution of LPFM station interests. 73.858 Section 73.858 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.858 Attribution of LPFM...

  12. 47 CFR 73.858 - Attribution of LPFM station interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attribution of LPFM station interests. 73.858 Section 73.858 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.858 Attribution of LPFM...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-5 - Dividends and interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dividends and interest. 1.1402(a)-5 Section 1.1402(a)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... them to customers; that is, he is one who as a merchant buys stocks or securities and sells them...

  14. 12 CFR 229.14 - Payment of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of interest. 229.14 Section 229.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of...

  15. 47 CFR 76.935 - Participation of interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation of interested parties. 76.935 Section 76.935 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.935 Participation of...

  16. 27 CFR 70.147 - Priority of interest and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION... fire and casualty insurance on the property subject to the security interest and amounts paid by the... be entitled to any additional protection afforded by 26 U.S.C. 6323(i)(2) (26 U.S.C. 6323)....

  17. 27 CFR 70.147 - Priority of interest and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION... fire and casualty insurance on the property subject to the security interest and amounts paid by the... be entitled to any additional protection afforded by 26 U.S.C. 6323(i)(2) (26 U.S.C. 6323)....

  18. 27 CFR 70.147 - Priority of interest and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION... fire and casualty insurance on the property subject to the security interest and amounts paid by the... be entitled to any additional protection afforded by 26 U.S.C. 6323(i)(2) (26 U.S.C. 6323)....

  19. 14 CFR 161.411 - Comment by interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comment by interested parties. 161.411 Section 161.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Reevaluation of Stage...

  20. 14 CFR 161.307 - Comment by interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comment by interested parties. 161.307 Section 161.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Notice, Review,...

  1. 14 CFR 161.411 - Comment by interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comment by interested parties. 161.411 Section 161.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Reevaluation of Stage...

  2. 14 CFR 161.307 - Comment by interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comment by interested parties. 161.307 Section 161.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Notice, Review,...

  3. 7 CFR 932.139 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 932.139 Section 932.139 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 932.139 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 932.139 Section 932.139 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 7 CFR 932.139 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 932.139 Section 932.139 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 932.139 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 932.139 Section 932.139 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 7 CFR 932.139 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 932.139 Section 932.139 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 45 CFR 1160.7 - Certificate of national interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate of national interest. 1160.7 Section 1160.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS...

  9. 45 CFR 1160.7 - Certificate of national interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certificate of national interest. 1160.7 Section 1160.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS...

  10. 45 CFR 1160.7 - Certificate of national interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certificate of national interest. 1160.7 Section 1160.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS...

  11. 45 CFR 1160.7 - Certificate of national interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate of national interest. 1160.7 Section 1160.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS...

  12. 45 CFR 1160.7 - Certificate of national interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certificate of national interest. 1160.7 Section 1160.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS...

  13. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  17. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  18. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  19. 7 CFR 982.461 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 982.461 Section 982.461 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 7 CFR 982.461 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 982.461 Section 982.461 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 7 CFR 982.461 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 982.461 Section 982.461 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 7 CFR 982.461 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 982.461 Section 982.461 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 7 CFR 982.461 - Late payment and interest charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late payment and interest charges. 982.461 Section 982.461 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 24 CFR 572.115 - Transfer of homeownership interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of homeownership interests. 572.115 Section 572.115 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. Aptamers: Biomedical Interest and Applications.

    PubMed

    Romero-López, Cristina; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo

    2017-03-16

    Aptamers are short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides specialized in the specific and efficient binding to a target molecule. They are obtained by in vitro selection or evolution processes. It was in 1990 that two independent research groups described the bases of a new in vitro technology for the identification of RNA molecules able to specifically bind to a target [1,2]. Tuerk and Gold established the principals of the in vitro selection process that was named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), which is based on iterative cycles of binding, partitioning, and amplification of oligonucleotides from a pool of variant sequences [2]. Ellington and Szostak coined the term aptamer to define the selected molecules by the application of this method [1]. To date, numerous reports have described the isolation of aptamers directed against a great variety of targets covering a wide diversity of molecules varying in nature, size, and complexity ranging from ions to whole cells, including small molecules (e.g., aminoacids, nucleotides, antibiotics), peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses, among others (for example, see [3-6]). Modifications and optimization of the SELEX procedure aimed to get newly modified aptamers has also attracted much interest (examples can be found in [7,8]). These advances along with the parallel progresses in the nucleic acids chemistry and cellular delivery fields have allowed for the rise of a new hope in developing aptamers as efficient molecular tools for diagnostics and therapeutics (for recent comprehensive reviews, see [9-11]).

  9. Balancing commercial and public interests

    PubMed Central

    Furberg, Curt D; Hall, Mark A; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    A large number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis. A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem. PMID:15239846

  10. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. Recent findings Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to ‘standardize’ the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified rules. In contrast, adaptive closed-loop stimulation dynamically adjusts stimulation settings based on the occurrence of stimulation-induced state changes. Summary Approaches that take into account trait-related and state-related determinants of stimulation-induced plasticity bear considerable potential to establish noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation as interventional therapeutic tool. PMID:27224087

  11. 26 CFR 1.642(a)(1)-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partially tax-exempt interest. 1.642(a)(1)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(a)(1)-1 Partially tax-exempt interest. An estate or trust is allowed the credit against tax for partially...

  12. Stochastic resonance in neuron models: Endogenous stimulation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesser, Hans E.; Geisel, Theo

    2001-03-01

    The paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR)-the idea that signal detection and transmission may benefit from noise-has met with great interest in both physics and the neurosciences. We investigate here the consequences of reducing the dynamics of a periodically driven neuron to a renewal process (stimulation with reset or endogenous stimulation). This greatly simplifies the mathematical analysis, but we show that stochastic resonance as reported earlier occurs in this model only as a consequence of the reduced dynamics.

  13. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fritschi, Cynthia; Quinn, Laurie; Penckofer, Sue; Surdyk, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the experience of wearing a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The availability of CGM has provided patients and clinicians with the opportunity to describe the immediate effects of diet, exercise, and medications on blood glucose levels; however, there are few data examining patients’ experiences and acceptability of using CGM. Methods Thirty-five women with T2DM wore a CGM for 3 days. Semistructured interviews were conducted to capture the self-described experience of wearing a CGM. Three open-ended questions were used to guide the participants’ self-reflection. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Results The women verbalized both positive and negative aspects of needing to check their blood glucose more frequently and wearing the monitor. After viewing the results, most women were surprised by the magnitude and frequency of blood glucose excursions. They immediately examined their behaviors during the time they wore the CGM. Independent problem-solving skills became apparent as they attempted to identify reasons for hyperglycemia by retracing food intake, physical activity, and stress experiences during the period of CGM. Most important, the majority of women stated they were interested in changing their diabetes-related self-care behaviors, especially eating and exercise behaviors, after reviewing their CGM results. Conclusions CGM is generally acceptable to women with T2DM and offers patients and their health care practitioners a possible alternative to routine glucose monitoring for assessing the effects of real-life events on blood glucose levels. PMID:20016057

  14. Project-Based Learning in a STEM Academy: Student Engagement and Interest in STEM Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misher, Pamela Henry

    This case study explored the utilization of project-based learning (PBL) and how it affected student engagement and interest in STEM careers. Sixty-seven students and nine teachers participated in this case study. Three research questions addressed student engagement, perceptions, and challenges during PBL implementation. This study was designed to understand the experiences teachers and students had when they participated in a PBL environment. This research investigated how to develop a globally skilled workforce utilizing a PBL approach and the challenges teachers encountered during implementation. The survey data and informal focus-group sessions with staff and students were utilized, analyzed, and summarized in order to obtain insight on perceptions, challenges, and implementation of PBL. PBL is an instructional approach that was designed to encourage more engaged learning. This approach was built upon realistic learning activities that stimulated student interest and motivation. This research discovered that PBL did teach content and 21st century skills as students worked collaboratively toward a common goal while responding to a question or problem. This study revealed that rigorous projects were carefully planned to aid students in learning important academic content. This study displayed how PBL allowed students to reflect on their projects and ideas with the opportunity to voice their decisions and findings. This instructional approach provided opportunities for students to investigate and strengthen interest in future STEM careers. The driving force of America's future economy and maintaining the competitive edge will be through more innovation, mainly derived from advances in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) careers. As business and industry leaders stressed the importance of improving STEM education, there continued to be a need to better prepare students to fill STEM-related careers. This research adds to the current body of research

  15. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  16. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  17. Stimulated emission in black holes and in analogue gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.

    2016-11-01

    Stimulated emission by black holes is discussed in light of the analogue gravity program. We first consider initial quantum states containing a definite number of particles, and then we take into account the case where the initial state is a coherent state. The latter case is particularly significant in the case where Hawking radiation is studied in dielectric black holes, and the emission is stimulated by a laser probe. We are particularly interested in the case of the electromagnetic field, for which examples of stimulated radiation are considered.

  18. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  19. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  20. Mapping Career Groups on Basic Interest Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng; And Others

    A mapping procedure is presented for studying the construct validity of interest inventories that assess the six interest types defined by J. L. Holland. The 1989 revision of the American College Testing Program Interest Inventory (UNIACT) was used to assess the interests of 1,078 12th-grade students (497 males and 581 females) and 725 adults aged…

  1. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  2. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Murat

    2016-01-05

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases. PMID:28117293

  5. Stimulating student interest in optics via a versatile optics demonstration laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Stephen H.; Beyer, Louis M.; Tarvin, John T.

    1995-10-01

    Funding from a NSF-ILI grant has been used to establish an Optics and Laser Demonstration Laboratory at Murray State University. This facility is proving to be very versatile, with experiments and demonstrations supporting undergraduate courses in geometrical and physical optics, modern physics, and an advanced laboratory instrumentation course. The lab includes a CCD camera system which is used by upper level students to investigate diffraction effects, signal/noise ratios of detection systems, and efficiency of binary optical elements. Also, the lab supports two new courses which have been developed to accompany the grant. One course, Laser Physics, is for upper level physics majors, while the second course, Light and Lasers in Action, will use optical phenomena to introduce physical concepts to non-majors of various disciplines. The lab is receiving recognition as the centerpiece for departmental outreach into the public schools. Local elementary, middle, and high school classes visit the lab on field trips and are given demonstrations in optics and lasers. Faculty also transport lab equipment to area schools for demonstrations, and have loaned equipment to schools for use in the classroom and at science fairs. The content, activities, and reception of the lab are described.

  6. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  7. Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

  8. Putting Students on the Hot Seat to Stimulate Interest in Biology in Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Samantha R.

    2012-01-01

    The Hot Seat is a discussion-based activity that requires students enrolled in a biology course for non-majors to pose a question to the class that is related to the current lecture topic and facilitate a brief class discussion. This paper describes the Hot Seat, how it is assessed, and how it has influenced students' attitudes toward the course…

  9. 26 CFR 1.733-1 - Basis of distributee partner's interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.733-1 Basis of distributee partner's interest. In the case of a distribution by a partnership to a partner other than in liquidation of a partner's entire interest, the adjusted basis to such partner of his interest in the partnership shall...

  10. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  11. Human Tissue Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  12. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ludy C.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to characterize and potentially treat essential tremor (ET). Studies have used a variety of stimulation coils, paradigms, and target locations to make these observations. We reviewed the literature to compare prior studies and to evaluate the rationale and the methods used in these studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of the PubMed database using the terms “transcranial,” “noninvasive,” “brain stimulation,” “transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS),” “transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS),” “transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS),” and “essential tremor.” Results Single pulses of TMS to the primary motor cortex have long been known to reset tremor. Although there are relatively few studies showing alterations in motor cortical physiology, such as motor threshold, short and long intracortical inhibition, and cortical silent period, there may be some evidence of altered intracortical facilitation and cerebello-brain inhibition in ET. Repetitive TMS, theta burst stimulation, tDCS, and tACS have been applied to human subjects with tremor with some preliminary signs of tremor reduction, particularly in those studies that employed consecutive daily sessions. Discussion A variety of stimulation paradigms and targets have been explored, with the increasing rationale an interest in targeting the cerebellum. Rigorous assessment of coil geometry, stimulation paradigm, rationale for selection of the specific anatomic target, and careful phenotypic and physiologic characterization of the subjects with ET undergoing these interventions may be critical in extending these preliminary findings into effective stimulation therapies. PMID:28373927

  13. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  14. Extra-medical stimulant dependence among recent initiates

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Megan S.; Anthony, James C.

    2014-01-01

    New estimates for the risk of becoming stimulant dependent within 24 months after first extra-medical (EM) use of a stimulant drug compound are presented, with a focus on subgroup variations in this risk (e.g., alcohol dependence, male–female differences). The study estimates are derived from a representative sample of United States residents ages 12 and older (n = 166,737) obtained from the 2003 to 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. A total of 1700 respondents were found to have used stimulants extra-medically for the first time within 24 months prior to assessment. Approximately 5% of these recent-onset EM users had become stimulant dependent since onset of EM use. As hypothesized, alcohol dependence cases were found to have experienced an excess risk of becoming stimulant dependent soon after onset of stimulant drug use; there was no robust male–female difference in risk. Independently, initiates who had used multiple types of stimulants extra-medically, and methamphetamine users, were more likely to have become stimulant dependent soon after onset of use; by comparison, EM users of methylphenidate (Ritalin®) were less likely to have developed rapid-onset dependence. These epidemiologic findings help quantify a continuing public health burden associated with new onsets of extra-medical stimulant use in the 21st century. PMID:19515516

  15. Integrating Interprofessional Education into Continuing Education: A Planning Process for Continuing Interprofessional Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John A.; Schmitt, Madeline H.

    2013-01-01

    Informal continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) can be traced back decades in the United States; however, interest in formal CIPE is recent. Interprofessional education (IPE) now is recognized as an important component of new approaches to continuing education (CE) that are needed to increase health professionals' ability to improve…

  16. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated intestinal epithelial cell migration requires Src family kinase-dependent p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Frey, Mark R; Golovin, Anastasia; Polk, D Brent

    2004-10-22

    Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of ligands and their receptors regulate migration and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. However, our understanding of the signal transduction pathways determining these responses is incomplete. In this study we tested the hypothesis that p38 is required for EGF-stimulated intestinal epithelial monolayer restitution. EGF-stimulated migration in a wound closure model required continuous presence of ligand for several hours for maximal response, suggesting a requirement for sustained signal transduction pathway activation. In this regard, prolonged exposure of cells to EGF activated p38 for up to 5 h. Furthermore genetic or pharmacological blockade of p38 signaling inhibited the ability of EGF to accelerate wound closure. Interestingly p38 inhibition was associated with increased EGF-stimulated ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, suggesting that p38 regulates the balance of proliferation/migration signaling in response to EGF receptor activity. Activation of p38 in intestinal epithelial cells through EGF receptor was abolished by blockade of Src family tyrosine kinase signaling but not inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or protein kinase C. Taken together, these data suggest that Src family kinase-dependent p38 activation is a key component of a signaling switch routing EGF-stimulated responses to epithelial cell migration/restitution rather than proliferation during wound closure.

  17. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(2)-1 - Interest rates used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Interest rates used to determine present value. 1.430(h)(2)-1 Section 1.430(h)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.430(h)(2)-1 Interest rates used to determine present...

  18. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(2)-1 - Interest rates used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interest rates used to determine present value. 1.430(h)(2)-1 Section 1.430(h)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.430(h)(2)-1 Interest rates used to determine present...

  19. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(2)-1 - Interest rates used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interest rates used to determine present value. 1.430(h)(2)-1 Section 1.430(h)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.430(h)(2)-1 Interest rates used to determine present...

  20. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(2)-1 - Interest rates used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interest rates used to determine present value. 1.430(h)(2)-1 Section 1.430(h)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.430(h)(2)-1 Interest rates used to determine present...

  1. Toward a Deeper Understanding of Student Interest or Lack of Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Li-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature of college students' interest or lack of interest in science and the factors to which they attributed their interest or lack of interest. Twenty-four college students were interviewed to gain an understanding of their ideas and experiences of science; their overall interest in science; their interest levels in four…

  2. Deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mandat, Tomasz; Kornakiewicz, Anna; Koziara, Henryk; Nauman, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a method of treatment utilized to control medically refractory epilepsy (RE). Patients with medically refractory epilepsy who do not achieve satisfactory control of seizures with pharmacological treatment or surgical resection of the epileptic focus and those who do not qualify for surgery could benefit from DBS. The most frequently used stereotactic targets for DBS are the anterior thalamic nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, central-medial thalamic nucleus, hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum. The DBS is believed to be an effective method of treatment for various types of epilepsy among adults and adolescents. Side effects may be associated with implantation of electrodes and with the stimulation itself. An increasing number of publications and growing interest in DBS application for RE may result in standardization of the qualification and treatment protocol for RE with DBS. PMID:23185188

  3. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Gabriel; Casati, Roberta; Aparicio, Luana V M; Mantovani, Antonio; Senço, Natasha; D’Urso, Giordano; Brunelin, Jerome; Guarienti, Fabiana; Selingardi, Priscila Mara Lorencini; Muszkat, Débora; Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio Pereira; Valiengo, Leandro; Moffa, Adriano H; Simis, Marcel; Borrione, Lucas; Brunoni, André R

    2015-01-01

    The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques is increasing in recent years. Among these techniques, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been the subject of great interest among researchers because of its easiness to use, low cost, benign profile of side effects and encouraging results of research in the field. This interest has generated several studies and randomized clinical trials, particularly in psychiatry. In this review, we provide a summary of the development of the technique and its mechanism of action as well as a review of the methodological aspects of randomized clinical trials in psychiatry, including studies in affective disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, child psychiatry and substance use disorder. Finally, we provide an overview of tDCS use in cognitive enhancement as well as a discussion regarding its clinical use and regulatory and ethical issues. Although many promising results regarding tDCS efficacy were described, the total number of studies is still low, highlighting the need of further studies aiming to replicate these findings in larger samples as to provide a definite picture regarding tDCS efficacy in psychiatry. PMID:25815258

  5. Neuroprotective effects of vagus nerve stimulation on traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Lin, Jinhuang; Lin, Junming; Kui, Guoju; Zhang, Jianhua; Yu, Yigang

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that vagus nerve stimulation can improve the prognosis of traumatic brain injury. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of vagus nerve stimulation in rabbits with brain explosive injury. Rabbits with brain explosive injury received continuous stimulation (10 V, 5 Hz, 5 ms, 20 minutes) of the right cervical vagus nerve. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-10 concentrations were detected in serum and brain tissues, and water content in brain tissues was measured. Results showed that vagus nerve stimulation could reduce the degree of brain edema, decrease tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β concentrations, and increase interleukin-10 concentration after brain explosive injury in rabbits. These data suggest that vagus nerve stimulation may exert neuroprotective effects against explosive injury via regulating the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-10 in the serum and brain tissue.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of vagus nerve stimulation on traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Long; Lin, Jinhuang; Lin, Junming; Kui, Guoju; Zhang, Jianhua; Yu, Yigang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that vagus nerve stimulation can improve the prognosis of traumatic brain injury. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of vagus nerve stimulation in rabbits with brain explosive injury. Rabbits with brain explosive injury received continuous stimulation (10 V, 5 Hz, 5 ms, 20 minutes) of the right cervical vagus nerve. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-10 concentrations were detected in serum and brain tissues, and water content in brain tissues was measured. Results showed that vagus nerve stimulation could reduce the degree of brain edema, decrease tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β concentrations, and increase interleukin-10 concentration after brain explosive injury in rabbits. These data suggest that vagus nerve stimulation may exert neuroprotective effects against explosive injury via regulating the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-10 in the serum and brain tissue. PMID:25368644

  7. Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) - CTN 0037: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI) or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI). Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care). The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual) sessions, although other

  8. Leucine stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, D.K.; Grogan, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated a stimulatory effect of leucine on skeletal muscle protein synthesis measured in vitro during catabolic conditions. Studies in other laboratories have consistently found this effect in diaphragm muscle, however, studies examining effects on nitrogen balance or with in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscle are equivocal. This experiment was designed to determine the potential of leucine to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were fasted for 12 hrs, anesthetized, a jugular cannula inserted, and protein synthesis measured using a primed continuous infusion of /sup 14/C-tyrosine. A plateau in specific activity was reached after 30 to 60 min and maintained for 3 hrs. The leucine dose consisted of a 240 umole priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of 160 umoles/hr. Leucine infusion stimulated protein synthesis in the soleus muscle (28%) and in the red (28%) and white portions (12%) of the gastrocnemius muscle compared with controls infused with only tyrosine. The increased rates of protein synthesis were due to increased incorporation of tyrosine into protein and to decreased specific activity of the free tyrosine pool. These data indicate that infusion of leucine has the potential to stimulate in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscles.

  9. Infrared laser stimulation of retinal and vestibular neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardin, Fabrice; Bec, Jean-Michel; Albert, Emmanuelle S.; Hamel, Christian; Dupeyron, Gérard; Chabbert, Christian; Marc, Isabelle; Dumas, Michel

    2011-03-01

    The study of laser-neuron interaction has gained interest over the last few years not only for understanding of fundamental mechanisms but also for medical applications such as prosthesis because of the non-invasive characteristic of the laser stimulation. Several authors have shown that near infrared lasers are able to stimulate neurons. It is suggested that a thermal gradient induced by the absorption of the laser radiation on cells is the primary effect but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We show in this work that infrared laser radiations provide a possible way for stimulating retinal and vestibular ganglion cells. We describe relevant physical characteristics allowing safe and reproducible neuron stimulations by single infrared pulses. Calcium fluorescence imaging and electrophysiological recordings have been used to measure ionic exchanges at the neuron membrane. The stimulation system is based on a pulsed laser diode beam of a few mW. Effects of three different wavelengths (from 1470 to 1875 nm) and stimulation durations have been investigated. Variations of the stimulation energy thresholds suggest that the main physical parameter is the water optical absorption. Measurements of the temperature at the cell membrane show that a constant temperature rise is required to stimulate neurons, suggesting a photothermal process.

  10. Business continuity management in international organisations.

    PubMed

    Adamou, Christel

    2014-01-01

    In the area of business continuity management, a preliminary review of the literature reveals extensive knowledge, expertise and experience concerning organisations in the private and public sectors. It is interesting to note, however, that there is little literature about business continuity management in international organisations, although these entities are complex and particularly prone to threats. This apparent absence of literature suggests that business continuity management has not yet hit the agenda of international organisations. In recent years, member states have encouraged senior management to design and implement business continuity strategies to minimise the mishandling of an internal crisis and build organisational resilience, but very few of them have actually been able to design and implement comprehensive business continuity programmes. Based on actual experience working in international organisations, this paper outlines some of the challenges faced by international organisations in developing and implementing business continuity activities and attempts to make suggestions for further improvement.

  11. 26 CFR 1.642(a)(1)-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partially tax-exempt interest. 1.642(a)(1)-1 Section 1.642(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries §...

  12. 26 CFR 1.861-9T - Allocation and apportionment of interest expense (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and apportionment of interest expense (temporary). 1.861-9T Section 1.861-9T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Based on Income from Sources within Or Without the United States §...

  13. 26 CFR 1.861-9T - Allocation and apportionment of interest expense (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and apportionment of interest expense (temporary). 1.861-9T Section 1.861-9T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Based on Income from Sources within Or Without the United States §...

  14. 26 CFR 1.861-9T - Allocation and apportionment of interest expense (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and apportionment of interest expense (temporary). 1.861-9T Section 1.861-9T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Based on Income from Sources within Or Without the United States §...

  15. 26 CFR 1.163-8T - Allocation of interest expense among expenditures (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of interest expense among expenditures (temporary). 1.163-8T Section 1.163-8T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-8T Allocation...

  16. 26 CFR 1.163-8T - Allocation of interest expense among expenditures (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of interest expense among expenditures (temporary). 1.163-8T Section 1.163-8T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-8T Allocation...

  17. 76 FR 78591 - Corporate Reorganizations; Guidance on the Measurement of Continuity of Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... is a binding contract (the signing date rule). The preamble explains that the signing date rule is based on the principle that where a binding contract provides for fixed consideration, the target... if, pursuant to a binding contract, an item of consideration varies as the value of...

  18. 76 FR 78540 - Corporate Reorganizations; Guidance on the Measurement of Continuity of Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... business day before the first date such contract is a binding contract (the Pre- Signing Date), if such... that, where a binding contract provides for fixed consideration, the target corporation shareholders... which the target corporation shareholders, pursuant to a binding contract to effect a...

  19. Continuous Risk Management: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    Software risk management is important because it helps avoid disasters, rework, and overkill, but more importantly because it stimulates win-win situations. The objectives of software risk management are to identify, address, and eliminate software risk items before they become threats to success or major sources of rework. In general, good project managers are also good managers of risk. It makes good business sense for all software development projects to incorporate risk management as part of project management. The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to implement risk management. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This is an introductory tutorial to continuous risk management based on this course. The rational for continuous risk management and how it is incorporated into project management are discussed. The risk management structure of six functions is discussed in sufficient depth for managers to understand what is involved in risk management and how it is implemented. These functions include: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  20. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians. PMID:23230533