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Sample records for stimulated human neutrophils

  1. ICAM-1-independent adhesion of neutrophils to phorbol ester-stimulated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Celi, A; Cianchetti, S; Petruzzelli, S; Carnevali, S; Baliva, F; Giuntini, C

    1999-09-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is the only inducible adhesion receptor for neutrophils identified in bronchial epithelial cells. We stimulated human airway epithelial cells with various agonists to evaluate whether ICAM-1-independent adhesion mechanisms could be elicited. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation of cells of the alveolar cell line A549 caused a rapid, significant increase in neutrophil adhesion from 11 +/- 3 to 49 +/- 7% (SE). A significant increase from 17 +/- 4 to 39 +/- 6% was also observed for neutrophil adhesion to PMA-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells in primary culture. Although ICAM-1 expression was upregulated by PMA at late time points, it was not affected at 10 min when neutrophil adhesion was already clearly enhanced. Antibodies to ICAM-1 had no effect on neutrophil adhesion. In contrast, antibodies to the leukocyte integrin beta-chain CD18 totally inhibited the adhesion of neutrophils to PMA-stimulated epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that PMA stimulation of human airway epithelial cells causes an increase in neutrophil adhesion that is not dependent on ICAM-1 upregulation.

  2. Extracellular superoxide dismutase is present in secretory vesicles of human neutrophils and released upon stimulation.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marie B; Gottfredsen, Randi H; Larsen, Ulrike G; Enghild, Jan J; Praetorius, Jeppe; Borregaard, Niels; Petersen, Steen V

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme present in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it provides protection against oxidative degradation of matrix constituents including type I collagen and hyaluronan. The enzyme is known to associate with macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and increasing evidence supports a role for EC-SOD in the development of an inflammatory response. Here we show that human EC-SOD is present at the cell surface of isolated neutrophils as well as stored within secretory vesicles. Interestingly, we find that EC-SOD mRNA is absent throughout neutrophil maturation indicating that the protein is synthesized by other cells and subsequently endocytosed by the neutrophil. When secretory vesicles were mobilized by neutrophil stimulation using formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the protein was released into the extracellular space and found to associate with DNA released from stimulated cells. The functional consequences were evaluated by the use of neutrophils isolated from wild-type and EC-SOD KO mice, and showed that EC-SOD release significantly reduce the level of superoxide in the extracellular space, but does not affect the capacity to generate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consequently, our data signifies that EC-SOD released from activated neutrophils affects the redox conditions of the extracellular space and may offer protection against highly reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals otherwise generated as a result of respiratory burst activity of activated neutrophils.

  3. Stimulation of human neutrophil leukocyte aerobic glucose metabolism by purified chemotactic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E J; Austen, K F

    1974-01-01

    The interaction of human neutrophils adherent to plastic petri dishes with the purified chemotactic factors C5a and kallikrein increased their rate of aerobic glycolysis 25-120% and the activity of their hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) 100-600%, reaching a plateau after 2 hr at 37 degrees C. The stimulation of either pathway required a chemotactically active stimulus since neither C5 nor prekallikrein or inactivated kallikrein could enhance metabolic activity. Marked suppression of the neutrophil chemotactic response by preincubation with a chemotactic factor to achieve deactivation, 5 x 10(-7) M diisopropyl fluorophosphate, or the neutrophil immobilizing factor (NIF) did not prevent the stimulation of HMPS activity or glycolysis by chemotactic factors. The metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate and 6-aminonicotinamide at concentrations which blocked enhancement of glycolysis or HMPS activity, respectively, partially suppressed the chemotactic response of neutrophils to the chemotactic factors. The capacity of a chemotactic factor to stimulate glucose metabolism of human neutrophils is associated with a maximal chemotactic response, but this stimulation is not alone sufficient for chemotaxis. Images PMID:11344574

  4. Human milk effects on neutrophil calcium metabolism: blockade of calcium influx after agonist stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cruz, E; Oelberg, D G; Buescher, E S

    1999-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant cellular mediators of acute inflammation, and human milk suppresses multiple neutrophil functions. We sought to determine whether these effects were mediated through disruption of normal intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Exposure of human neutrophils to human milk, followed by washing, resulted in altered Ca2+ transient responses to formyl-peptide stimulation in which the peak cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([free Ca]) was the same as in unexposed cells, but the postpeak decline in [free Ca] was more rapid. This effect was observed after human milk exposures as brief as 10 s, persisted for up to 4 h after human milk removal, and was concentration dependent. On the basis of experiments examining Ca2+-free conditions followed by Ca2+ supplementation, and experiments examining spontaneous and stimulated manganese and barium influx into neutrophils, the human milk effect was due to blockade of Ca2+ influx. Decreased Ca2+ transient responses to other physiologic stimuli (IL-8, opsonized Staphylococcus aureus, and immune complexes) were observed after human milk exposures. Rat intestinal epithelial cells and HL-60 cells failed to show these effects, suggesting a selective effect on mature inflammatory cells. Characterization of the Ca2+-blocking activity showed it was heat and acid stable in human milk with a molecular mass between 30-100 kD. Commercial human milk lactoferrin exhibited Ca2+ influx blockade activity, but recombinant human lactoferrin showed none. Separation of the activity by heparin affinity chromatography showed that it was distinct from lactoferrin. Human milk-induced blockade of Ca2+ influx provides a potential mechanism for broad suppression of neutrophil functions that may contribute to the antiinflammatory properties of human milk.

  5. Regulation of VASP serine 157 phosphorylation in human neutrophils after stimulation by a chemoattractant.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Rachael E; Jones, Samuel L

    2007-11-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) substrate, which links cellular signaling to cytoskeletal organization and cellular movement. VASP is phosphorylated by PKA on serine 157 (Ser 157), which is required for VASP function in platelet adhesion and fibroblast motility. Our hypothesis is that PKA regulates neutrophil migration through VASP Ser 157 phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to characterize VASP Ser 157 phosphorylation in chemoattractant-stimulated neutrophils. fMLF, IL-8, leukotriene B(4), or platelet-activating factor stimulation resulted in an initial increase in VASP Ser 157 phosphorylation, which was maximal by 30 s and was followed by a return to baseline Ser 157 phosphorylation by 10 min. In contrast, stimulation with the nonchemoattractant, proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha did not affect Ser 157 phosphorylation. The kinetics of fMLF-induced VASP Ser 157 phosphorylation levels closely matched the kinetics of the fold-change in F-actin levels in fMLF-stimulated neutrophils. fMLF-induced Ser 157 phosphorylation was abolished by pretreatment with the PKA inhibitor H89 and the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536. In contrast, fMLF-induced Ser 157 phosphorylation was unaffected by the PKC inhibitors calphostin and staurosporine, the PKG inhibitors Rp-8-pCPT-cGMP and KT5823, and the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN-62. Inhibition of adhesion with EDTA or the anti-beta2-integrin antibody IB4 did not alter fMLF-induced VASP phosphorylation or dephosphorylation. These data show that chemoattractant stimulation of human neutrophils induces a rapid and transient PKA-dependent VASP Ser 157 phosphorylation. Adhesion does not appear to be an important regulator of the state of VASP Ser 157 phosphorylation in chemoattractant-stimulated neutrophils.

  6. Controlled pseudopod extension of human neutrophils stimulated with different chemoattractants.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Doncho V; Alteraifi, Abdullatif M; Chodniewicz, David

    2004-07-01

    The formation of pseudopods and lamellae after ligation of chemoattractant sensitive G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential for chemotaxis. Here, pseudopod extension was stimulated with chemoattractant delivered from a micropipet. The chemoattractant diffusion and convection mass transport were considered, and it is shown that when the delivery of chemoattractant was limited by diffusion there was a strong chemoattractant gradient along the cell surface. The diffusion-limited delivery of chemoattractant from a micropipet allowed for maintaining an almost constant chemoattractant concentration at the leading edge of single pseudopods during their growth. In these conditions, the rate of pseudopod extension was dependent on the concentration of chemoattractant in the pipet delivering chemoattractant. The pseudopod extension induced using micropipets was oscillatory even in the presence of a constant delivery of chemoattractant. This oscillatory pseudopod extension was controlled by activated RhoA and its downstream effector kinase ROCK and was abolished after the inhibition of RhoA activation with Clostridium botulinium C3 exoenzyme (C3) or the blocking of ROCK activation with Y-27632. The ability of the micropipet assay to establish a well-defined chemoattractant distribution around the activated cell over a wide range of molecular weights of the used chemoattractants allowed for comparison of the effect of chemoattractant stimulation on the dynamics of pseudopod growth. Pseudopod growth was stimulated using N-formylated peptide (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4 (LTB(4)), C5a anaphylotoxin (C5a), and interleukin-8 (IL-8), which represent the typical ligands for G-protein coupled chemotactic receptors. The dependence of the rate of pseudopod extension on the concentration of these chemoattractants and their equimolar mixture was measured and shown to be similar for all chemoattractants. The

  7. Controlled Pseudopod Extension of Human Neutrophils Stimulated with Different Chemoattractants

    PubMed Central

    Zhelev, Doncho V.; Alteraifi, Abdullatif M.; Chodniewicz, David

    2004-01-01

    The formation of pseudopods and lamellae after ligation of chemoattractant sensitive G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential for chemotaxis. Here, pseudopod extension was stimulated with chemoattractant delivered from a micropipet. The chemoattractant diffusion and convection mass transport were considered, and it is shown that when the delivery of chemoattractant was limited by diffusion there was a strong chemoattractant gradient along the cell surface. The diffusion-limited delivery of chemoattractant from a micropipet allowed for maintaining an almost constant chemoattractant concentration at the leading edge of single pseudopods during their growth. In these conditions, the rate of pseudopod extension was dependent on the concentration of chemoattractant in the pipet delivering chemoattractant. The pseudopod extension induced using micropipets was oscillatory even in the presence of a constant delivery of chemoattractant. This oscillatory pseudopod extension was controlled by activated RhoA and its downstream effector kinase ROCK and was abolished after the inhibition of RhoA activation with Clostridium botulinium C3 exoenzyme (C3) or the blocking of ROCK activation with Y-27632. The ability of the micropipet assay to establish a well-defined chemoattractant distribution around the activated cell over a wide range of molecular weights of the used chemoattractants allowed for comparison of the effect of chemoattractant stimulation on the dynamics of pseudopod growth. Pseudopod growth was stimulated using N-formylated peptide (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), C5a anaphylotoxin (C5a), and interleukin-8 (IL-8), which represent the typical ligands for G-protein coupled chemotactic receptors. The dependence of the rate of pseudopod extension on the concentration of these chemoattractants and their equimolar mixture was measured and shown to be similar for all chemoattractants. The

  8. Tumor-associated neutrophils stimulate T cell responses in early-stage human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy B.; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik S.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Stephen, Tom Li; Ranganathan, Anjana; Deshpande, Charuhas; Akimova, Tatiana; Vachani, Anil; Litzky, Leslie; Hancock, Wayne W.; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Feldman, Michael; Albelda, Steven M.; Singhal, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Infiltrating inflammatory cells are highly prevalent within the tumor microenvironment and mediate many processes associated with tumor progression; however, the contribution of specific populations remains unclear. For example, the nature and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in the cancer microenvironment is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to provide a phenotypic and functional characterization of TANs in surgically resected lung cancer patients. We found that TANs constituted 5%–25% of cells isolated from the digested human lung tumors. Compared with blood neutrophils, TANs displayed an activated phenotype (CD62LloCD54hi) with a distinct repertoire of chemokine receptors that included CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, and CXCR4. TANs produced substantial quantities of the proinflammatory factors MCP-1, IL-8, MIP-1α, and IL-6, as well as the antiinflammatory IL-1R antagonist. Functionally, both TANs and neutrophils isolated from distant nonmalignant lung tissue were able to stimulate T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release. Cross-talk between TANs and activated T cells led to substantial upregulation of CD54, CD86, OX40L, and 4-1BBL costimulatory molecules on the neutrophil surface, which bolstered T cell proliferation in a positive-feedback loop. Together our results demonstrate that in the earliest stages of lung cancer, TANs are not immunosuppressive, but rather stimulate T cell responses. PMID:25384214

  9. Aluminum salts stimulate luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence production by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, A; Mitrovic, D R

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum intoxication is currently thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations seen during long-term hemodialysis and aging. The hypothesis that aluminum toxicity is mediated via an increased free radical production was tested by studying the effects of two aluminum and five other metallic compounds on the production of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL) by human neutrophils. AlCl3, Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3 were found to stimulate LECL production by human neutrophils whereas FeCl2, CuCl, CuCl2, AuCl3 were inactive. Metal chelators such as Desferal, EDTA and DETAPA suppressed aluminum-induced stimulation and depressed cell-dependent LECL below basal levels. Sodium azide and Cytochalasin B greatly depressed both basal and aluminum-induced stimulation of LECL production, suggesting that, in this system, most of this stimulation was due to myeloperoxidase. These results suggest that high tissue aluminum concentrations may induce cell-tissue lesions by stimulating local production or release of mediators of tissue damage.

  10. Mechanism of arachidonic acid liberation in platelet-activating factor-stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, S.; Suganuma, A.; Sato, M.; Tohmatsu, T.; Nozawa, Y. )

    1989-08-15

    Upon stimulation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids. The mechanism for AA liberation, a key step in the synthesis of biologically active eicosanoids, was investigated. PAF was found to elicit an increase in the cytoplasmic level of free Ca2+ as monitored by fluorescent indicator fura 2. When (3H) AA-labeled neutrophils were exposed to PAF, the enhanced release of AA was observed with a concomitant decrease of radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine fractions. The inhibitors of phospholipase A2, mepacrine and 2-(p-amylcinnamoyl)-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, effectively suppressed the liberation of (3H)AA from phospholipids, indicating that liberation of AA is mainly catalyzed by the action of phospholipase A2. The extracellular Ca2+ is not required for AA release. However, intracellular Ca2+ antagonists, TMB-8 and high dose of quin 2/AM drastically reduced the liberation of AA induced by PAF, indicating that Ca2+ is an essential factor for phospholipase A2 activation. PAF raised the fluorescence of fura 2 at concentrations as low as 8 pM which reached a maximal level about 8 nM, whereas more than nM order concentrations of PAF was required for the detectable release of (3H)AA. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin resulted in complete abolition of AA liberation in response to PAF. However, the fura 2 response to PAF was not effectively inhibited by toxin treatment. In human neutrophil homogenate and membrane preparations, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) stimulated AA release and potentiated the action of PAF. Guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) inhibited the effects of guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate).

  11. Enterococcus faecium stimulates human neutrophils via the formyl-peptide receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Bloes, Dominik Alexander; Otto, Michael; Peschel, Andreas; Kretschmer, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    The human formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) senses phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide toxins produced by pathogenic staphylococcal species and plays a crucial role in directing neutrophil influx during staphylococcal infection. However, it has remained unclear if FPR2 responds also to molecules from other bacterial pathogens. Here we analyzed a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens and found that apart from staphylococci only certain enterococcal strains have the capacity to stimulate FPR2/ALX. Most of the analyzed Enterococcus faecium but only sporadic Enterococcus faecalis strains released FPR2/ALX-stimulating molecules leading to neutrophil calcium ion fluxes, chemotaxis, and complement receptor upregulation. Among ten test strains vancomycin-resistant E. faecium had a significantly higher capacity to stimulate FPR2/ALX than vancomycin-susceptible strains, suggesting an association of strong FPR2/ALX activation with health-care associated strains. The enterococcal FPR2/ALX agonists were found to be peptides or proteins, which appear, however, to be unrelated to staphylococcal PSMs in sequence and physicochemical properties. Enterococci are among the most frequent invasive bacterial pathogens but the basis of enterococcal virulence and immune activation has remained incompletely understood. Our study indicates that previously unrecognized proteinaceous agonists contribute to Enterococcus-host interaction and underscores the importance of FPR2/ALX in host defense against major endogenous bacterial pathogens.

  12. Iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine stimulates formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in human blood-derived neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Völlger, Lena; Akong-Moore, Kathryn; Cox, Linda; Goldmann, Oliver; Wang, Yanming; Schäfer, Simon T.; Naim, Hassan Y.; Nizet, Victor; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a significant innate immune defense mechanism against microbial infection that complements other neutrophil functions including phagocytosis and degranulation of antimicrobial peptides. NETs are decondensed chromatin structures in which antimicrobial components (histones, antimicrobial peptides and proteases) are deployed and mediate immobilization of microbes. Here we describe an effect of iron chelation on the phenotype of NET formation. Iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine (DFO) showed a modest but significant induction of NETs by freshly isolated human neutrophils as visualized and quantified by immunocytochemistry against histone–DNA complexes. Further analyses revealed that NET induction by iron chelation required NADPH-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as protease and peptidyl-arginine-deiminase 4 (PAD4) activities, three key mechanistic pathways previously linked to NET formation. Our results demonstrate that iron chelation by DFO contributes to the formation of NETs and suggest a target for pharmacological manipulation of NET activity. PMID:27129288

  13. Endotoxin down-modulates granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (CD114) on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, U; Homoncik, M; Stohlawetz, P J; Marsik, C; Sieder, A; Eichler, H G; Jilma, B

    2000-07-01

    During infection, the development of nonresponsiveness to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be influenced by the down-modulation of G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) by cytokines. This down-modulation was studied during experimental human endotoxemia. Healthy volunteers received either 2 ng/kg endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], n=20) or placebo (n=10) in a randomized, controlled trial. Endotoxin infusion increased the mean fluorescence intensity of the neutrophil activation marker CD11b >300% after 1 h (P<.001 vs. placebo). LPS infusion down-modulated G-CSFR expression in as early as 60 min (-17%; P=.001 vs. placebo). Down-modulation was almost maximal at 90 min and persisted for 6 h (-50% from baseline; P<.0001 vs. placebo). Plasma levels of G-CSF started to increase only after G-CSFR down-modulation had occurred and peaked 37-fold above baseline at 4 h (P<.0001 vs. placebo). In conclusion, LPS down-modulates G-CSFR expression in humans, which may render neutrophils less responsive to the effects of G-CSF and, thereby, compromise host defense mechanisms.

  14. The flavonols quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and galangin inhibit the net oxygen consumption by immune complex-stimulated human and rabbit neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Rinhel, Andréa S G; Santos, Everton O L; Kabeya, Luciana M; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Simões-Ambrosio, Livia M C; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated human neutrophils exhibit increased net oxygen consumption (NOC) due to the conversion of O2 into the superoxide anion by the NADPH oxidase enzymatic complex during the respiratory burst. In several inflammatory diseases, overproduction of these oxidants causes tissue damage. The present study aims to: (a) optimize the experimental conditions used to measure the NOC in serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ)- and insoluble immune complex (i-IC)-stimulated human and rabbit neutrophils; and (b) compare the effect of four flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and galangin) on this activity. We used a Clark-type oxygen electrode to measure the NOC of stimulated neutrophils. Eliciting the neutrophil respiratory burst with OZ and i-IC yielded similar maximum O2 uptake levels within the same species, but the human neutrophil NOC was almost four times higher than the rabbit neutrophil NOC. The optimal experimental conditions established for both cell types were 4 x 10(6) neutrophils mL(-1), 2 mg mL(-1) OZ, and 240 microg mL(-1) i-IC. Upon stimulation with OZ or i-IC, the tested flavonols reduced the human and rabbit neutrophil NOC in the same order of potency--quercetin and galangin were the most and the least potent, respectively. These compounds were around four times more effective in inhibiting the rabbit as compared to the human neutrophil NOC, respectively. The four flavonols were not toxic to human or rabbit neutrophils. The experimental conditions used are suitable for both the determination of human and rabbit neutrophil NOC and for the assessment of the modulatory effects of natural compounds on these activities. The relationship between the level of NOC and the inhibitory potency of the flavonols suggests that rabbit neutrophils can be useful experimental models to predict the effect of drugs on immune complex-stimulated human neutrophils.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii Induces Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Secretion by Human Fibroblasts: Implications for Neutrophil Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Jacqueline Y.; Miselis, Kristin A.; Minns, Laurie A.; Dutta, Chaitali; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2002-01-01

    Human neutrophils are rescued from apoptosis following incubation with once-washed, fibroblast-derived Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. Both infected and uninfected neutrophils are rescued, implicating a soluble mediator. In this study we investigated the origin and identity of this soluble mediator. Neutrophils were incubated either with purified tachyzoites or with conditioned medium derived from T. gondii-infected human fibroblasts. Conditioned medium was found to be a potent stimulus that delayed neutrophil apoptosis up to 72 h, whereas purified and extensively washed tachyzoites had no effect. Delayed apoptosis correlated with up-regulation of the neutrophil antiapoptotic protein, Mcl-1, and the neutrophil interleukin 3 receptor α subunit (IL-3Rα), suggesting a role for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were measurable in conditioned medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutralizing antibodies to GM-CSF and G-CSF were additive in abrogating delayed neutrophil apoptosis induced by conditioned medium. Inhibitors of Src family tyrosine kinases, Gi proteins, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p44erk1 and p42erk2 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Jak2 kinases partially attenuated the effect of conditioned medium, consistent with a role for G-CSF and/or GM-CSF. Hence, delayed neutrophil apoptosis is mediated by GM-CSF and G-CSF secreted by T. gondii-infected human fibroblasts. This enhanced neutrophil survival may contribute to the robust proinflammatory response elicited in the T. gondii-infected host. PMID:12379681

  16. Pharmacological analysis for mechanisms of GPI-80 release from tumour necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nitto, Takeaki; Araki, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Yuji; Sendo, Fujiro

    2002-10-01

    1 GPI-80, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein initially identified on human neutrophils, plays a role(s) in the regulation of beta2 integrin function. Previous studies have shown that GPI-80 is sublocated in secretory vesicles. It is also found in soluble form in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients, and in the culture supernatant of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated neutrophils. To understand the behaviour of GPI-80 under conditions of stimulation, we investigated the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on its expression and release. We also probed the mechanism of its release with various pharmacologic tools. 2 TNF-alpha induced the release of GPI-80 from human neutrophils in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (in the range of 1-100 u ml(-1) and 30-120 min, respectively), but did not affect surface GPI-80 levels. 3 Cytochalasin B, genistein, and SB203580 but not PD98059 inhibited TNF-alpha-stimulated GPI-80 release and neutrophil adherence at the same concentration. In addition, TNF-alpha-induced GPI-80 release was inhibited by blocking monoclonal antibodies specific to components of Mac-1 (CD11b and CD18). 4 Antioxidants (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and N-acetyl-L-cysteine) inhibited GPI-80 release by TNF-alpha stimulation, but superoxide dismutase did not. Antioxidants but not superoxide dismutase reduced an intracellular oxidation state. 5 These findings indicate that TNF-alpha-stimulated GPI-80 release from human neutrophils depends upon adherence via beta2 integrins. They also suggest that cytochalasin B, genistein, and SB203580 inhibit GPI-80 release by suppressing signals for cell adherence, rather than by a direct effect on its secretion. Finally, we suggest that GPI-80 release involves an intracellular change in a redox state.

  17. SC-41930: An inhibitor of leukotriene B4-stimulated human neutrophil functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, B.S.; Villani-Price, D.; Keith, R.H.; Zemaitis, J.M.; Bauer, R.F.; Leonard, R.; Djuric, S.W.; Shone, R.L. )

    1989-12-01

    SC-41930 was evaluated for effects on human neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation. At concentrations up to 100 microM, SC-41930 alone exhibited no effect on neutrophil migration, but dose-dependently inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in a modified Boyden chamber. Concentrations of SC-41930 from 0.3 microM to 3 microM competitively inhibited LTB4-induced chemotaxis with a pA2 value of 6.35. While inactive at 10 microM against C5a-induced chemotaxis, SC-41930 inhibited N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced chemotaxis, with 10 times less potency than against LTB4-induced chemotaxis. SC-41930 inhibited (3H)LTB4 and (3H)fMLP binding to their receptor sites on human neutrophils with KD values of 0.2 microM and 2 microM, respectively. SC-41930 also inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by 20-OH LTB or 12(R)-HETE. At concentrations up to 10 microM, SC-41930 alone did not cause neutrophil degranulation, but inhibited LTB4-induced degranulation in a noncompetitive manner. SC-41930 also inhibited fMLP- or C5a-induced degranulation, but was about 8 and 10 times less effective for fMLP and C5a, respectively. The results indicate that SC-41930 is a human neutrophil LTB4 receptor antagonist with greater specificity for LTB4 than for fMLP or C5a receptors.

  18. Analysis of the bimodal chemiluminescence pattern stimulated in human neutrophils by chemotactic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, J G; Van Epps, D E

    1983-01-01

    Chemotactic factors, which are important in attracting neutrophils to inflammatory sites, have also been shown to stimulate oxidative metabolism, resulting in increased chemiluminescence and release of superoxide anion (O2-). We observed a unique bimodal chemiluminescence pattern upon stimulation with either the complement-derived factor C5a or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. A sharp peak of activity occurred within 1 to 2 min, and a second more extended peak was seen between 3 and 6 min. Enhancement of both peaks occurred when the cells were pretreated with cytochalasin B. Expression of both peaks was found to be related to cell density, and expression of the second peak was not dependent upon extracellular metabolites released during the first peak. Cells preincubated in luminol and then thoroughly washed responded with only a single peak coincident with the second peak. Together these findings indicate that the first peak is extracellular in origin, whereas the second peak is cell associated. Studies with scavengers of oxygen intermediates and inhibitors of myeloperoxidase for the oxidation of luminol, which may occur in part through the formation of HOCl as well as through a non-HOCl-mediated mechanism. Evidence for a non-HOCl-mediated mechanism comes from experiments in which luminol, myeloperoxidase, and O2- generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase produce luminescence in the absence of chloride ion. These studies provide further insight into the sequence of events which occur during the stimulation of neutrophils with chemotactic factors and the nature of neutrophil chemiluminescence. PMID:6309658

  19. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  20. Trans-basement membrane migration of eosinophils induced by LPS-stimulated neutrophils from human peripheral blood in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Noguchi, Toru; Araki, Ryuichiro; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Soma, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the airways of severe asthmatics, an increase of neutrophils and eosinophils is often observed despite high-dose corticosteroid therapy. We previously reported that interleukin-8-stimulated neutrophils induced trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils, suggesting the link between neutrophils and eosinophils. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airway increase in severe asthma. As neutrophils express Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and can release chemoattractants for eosinophils, we investigated whether LPS-stimulated neutrophils modify eosinophil TBM. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and severe asthmatics. Eosinophil TBM was examined using a modified Boyden's chamber technique. Eosinophils were added to the upper compartment, and neutrophils and LPS were added to the lower compartment. Migrated eosinophils were measured by eosinophil peroxidase assays. LPS-stimulated neutrophils induced eosinophil TBM (about 10-fold increase), although LPS or neutrophils alone did not. A leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist or an anti-TLR4 antibody decreased eosinophil TBM enhanced by LPS-stimulated neutrophils by almost half. Neutrophils from severe asthmatics induced eosinophil TBM and lower concentrations of LPS augmented neutrophil-induced eosinophil TBM. These results suggest that the combination of neutrophils and LPS leads eosinophils to accumulate in the airways, possibly involved the pathogenesis of severe asthma. PMID:27730145

  1. Extracellular proton release by stimulated neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    van Zwieten, R.; Wever, R.; Hamers, M.N.; Weening, R.S.; Roos, D.

    1981-07-01

    We have tried to elucidate the mechanism of phagosome acidification in human neutrophils. Assuming that phenomena occurring at the plasma membrane reflect reactions in the phagocytic vacuoles, we have stimulated human neutrophils with agents that induce a ''respiratory burst,'' and we have measured the release of protons into the extracellular medium. Phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and serum-opsonized zymosan particles each caused a rapid release of protons, concomitant with the increase in oxygen consumption. The stimulated release of protons was strictly coupled to the increase respiration of the cells, because inhibition of the respiration of either anaerobiosis, chlorpromazine, or glycolytic inhibitors also inhibited the release of protons. Also, in the presence of the above-mentioned stimulating agents, neutrophils from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease enhanced neither respiration not proton release. In normal cells, the ratio of deltaH+/-deltaO2 was 1.04 +/- 0.19 (mean +/ SD, n . 13). The mechanism of this proton release is not clear. The amount of lactic and carbonic acid produced by stimulated neutrophils was inadequate to explain the amount of protons released. Perhydroxyl radicals were also ruled out as the source of the protons. Because the cells did not release measurable amounts of phosphate ions, a phosphate-hydroxyl-ion antiport was also excluded. Finally, the lack of any effect of uncouplers renders it unlikely that a respiration-driven proton gradient is built up across the plasma membrane.

  2. Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils is Stimulated by a Unique Fungal Cell Wall Component

    PubMed Central

    Rubin-Bejerano, Ifat; Abeijon, Claudia; Magnelli, Paula; Grisafi, Paula; Fink, Gerald R.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Innate immunity depends upon recognition of surface features common to a broad group of pathogens. In gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide recognition by immune cells leads to inflammation. In fungi, the glucose polymer β-glucan has been implicated in fungal recognition. Fungal walls have two kinds of β-glucan: β-1,3-glucan and β-1,6-glucan. The predominance of β-1,3-glucan in the wall and its recognition by macrophages has led to the presumption that β-1,3-glucan is the key immunological determinant for both macrophages and neutrophils. Here we show that in human neutrophils, β-1,6-glucan mediates engulfment, production of reactive oxygen species, and expression of HSPs more efficiently than β-1,3-glucan. Neutrophils rapidly ingest beads coated with β-1,6-glucan, while ignoring those coated with β-1,3-glucan. Complement factors C3b/C3d are deposited on β-1,6-glucan more readily than on β-1,3-glucan, recognized by CR3. β-1,6-glucan is also important for efficient engulfment of Candida albicans. These unique stimulatory effects could have useful medical applications. PMID:18005717

  3. Involvement of a Botulinum Toxin-Sensitive 22-kDa G Protein in Stimulated Exocytosis of Human Neutrophils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    FUNDING NUMBERS ]involvement -of -a Botulinun toxin -sesftUv&2_2At6-d -- Protein in stinulated exocytosis of humnan neutrophi1s. WICD I. AUTHOR(S) Nath...Botulinum Toxin -Sensitive 22-kDa G Protein in Stimulated Exocytosis of Human Neutrophils jaymaree Nath,’ Annette Powledge, and Daniel G. Wright2...observed. Although both peslussis toxin and ST-O Inhibited excocytosis In FlMvLP-stimvulated PMNs, the inhibitory effects o( the two toxins were found to be

  4. Levels of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in serum are inversely correlated with circulating neutrophil counts.

    PubMed Central

    Takatani, H; Soda, H; Fukuda, M; Watanabe, M; Kinoshita, A; Nakamura, T; Oka, M

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is effective in countering chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, serum rhG-CSF levels cannot be maintained throughout the course of rhG-CSF therapy. The drop in serum rhG-CSF levels may vary with the duration of rhG-CSF administration or with the circulating neutrophil counts. We investigated the relationship between serum G-CSF levels and circulating neutrophil counts and the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF for patients with lung cancer who had been treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy and then with subcutaneous rhG-CSF (lenograstim, 2 micrograms per kg of body weight per day). Twelve patients were randomly assigned to four groups with different rhG-CSF therapy schedules. Serum G-CSF levels were measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. Serum G-CSF levels during the rhG-CSF therapy greatly exceeded endogenous G-CSF levels and were mainly due to the presence of exogenous rhG-CSF rather than increased levels of endogenous G-CSF. Despite the duration of rhG-CSF administration, serum G-CSF levels during rhG-CSF therapy were inversely correlated with circulating neutrophil counts (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001). The value for the area under the concentration-time curve of rhG-CSF on the day of neutrophilia was lower than that on the day of neutropenia (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the fall in serum G-CSF levels during rhG-CSF therapy may result from increased clearance and/or decreased absorption of rhG-CSF, two processes related to circulating neutrophil counts. PMID:8849265

  5. Mobilization of sialidase from intracellular stores to the surface of human neutrophils and its role in stimulated adhesion responses of these cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, A S; Wright, D G

    1991-01-01

    Desialation of cell surfaces has been associated with the initiation or modification of diverse cellular functions. In these studies we have examined the subcellular distribution of sialidase (SE) in human neutrophils as well as the mobilization of this enzyme following neutrophil activation. Separation of subcellular fractions by density gradient centrifugation showed that SE is present not only in neutrophil primary and secondary granule populations, like lysozyme, but also in plasma membrane fractions. Neutrophil activation was associated with a redistribution of SE from secondary granule-enriched fractions to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, SE activity detected on the surface of intact neutrophils with a fluorescent SE substrate increased rapidly after activation with kinetics that matched both the loss of total cell-associated sialic acid and release of free sialic acid from the cells. These activation-dependent events were in each case blocked by incubation of neutrophils with the SE inhibitor, 2-deoxy-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. Aggregation responses of neutrophils as well as adhesion responses to nylon and plastic surfaces were also inhibited by 2-deoxyNANA. Our findings indicate that the activation-dependent desialation of the neutrophil surface is associated with mobilization of an endogenous SE to the plasma membrane and has a role in stimulated adhesion responses of these cells. Images PMID:1721626

  6. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Hwa-Yong; Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Si-Nae; Kwon, Min-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ja; Song, Dong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  7. MLK3 regulates fMLP-stimulated neutrophil motility

    PubMed Central

    Polesskaya, Oksana; Wong, Christopher; Chamberlain, Jeffrey M.; Gelbard, Harris A.; Goodfellow, Val; Kim, Minsoo; Daiss, John L.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3) is part of the intracellular regulatory system that connects extracellular cytokine or mitogen signals received through G-protein coupled receptors to changes in gene expression. MLK3 activation stimulates motility of epithelial cells and epithelial-derived tumor cells, but its role in mediating the migration of other cell types remains unknown. Since neutrophils play a crucial role in innate immunity and contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases, we therefore examined whether MLK3 might regulate the motility of mouse neutrophils responding to a chemotactic stimulus, the model bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Methods The expression of Mlk3 in mouse neutrophils was determined by immunocytochemistry and by RT-PCR. In vitro chemotaxis in a gradient of fMLP, fMLP-stimulated random motility, fMLP-stimulated F-actin formation were measured by direct microscopic observation using neutrophils pre-treated with a novel small molecule inhibitor of MLK3 (URMC099) or neutrophils obtained from Mlk3−/− mice. In vivo effects of MLK3 inhibition were measured by counting the fMLP-induced accumulation of neutrophils in the peritoneum following pre-treatment with URMC099 in wild-type C57Bl/6 or mutant Mlk3−/−mice. Results The expression of Mlk3 mRNA and protein was observed in neutrophils purified from wild-type C57Bl/6 mice but not in neutrophils from mutant Mlk3−/− mice. Chemotaxis by wild-type neutrophils induced by a gradient of fMLP was reduced by pre-treatment with URMC099. Neutrophils from C57Bl/6 mice pretreated with URMC099 and neutrophils from Mlk3−/− mice moved far less upon fMLP-stimulation and did not form F-actin as readily as untreated neutrophils from C57Bl/6 controls. In vivo recruitment of neutrophils into the peritoneum by fMLP was significantly reduced in wild-type mice treated with URMC099, as well as in untreated Mlk3−/− mice – thereby confirming the role of MLK3 in neutrophil migration

  8. MLK3 regulates fMLP-stimulated neutrophil motility.

    PubMed

    Polesskaya, Oksana; Wong, Christopher; Lebron, Luis; Chamberlain, Jeffrey M; Gelbard, Harris A; Goodfellow, Val; Kim, Minsoo; Daiss, John L; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is part of the intracellular regulatory system that connects extracellular cytokine or mitogen signals received through G-protein coupled receptors to changes in gene expression. MLK3 activation stimulates motility of epithelial cells and epithelial-derived tumor cells, but its role in mediating the migration of other cell types remains unknown. Since neutrophils play a crucial role in innate immunity and contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases, we therefore examined whether MLK3 might regulate the motility of mouse neutrophils responding to a chemotactic stimulus, the model bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. The expression of Mlk3 in mouse neutrophils was determined by immunocytochemistry and by RT-PCR. In vitro chemotaxis in a gradient of fMLP, fMLP-stimulated random motility, fMLP-stimulated F-actin formation were measured by direct microscopic observation using neutrophils pre-treated with a novel small molecule inhibitor of MLK3 (URMC099) or neutrophils obtained from Mlk3-/- mice. In vivo effects of MLK3 inhibition were measured by counting the fMLP-induced accumulation of neutrophils in the peritoneum following pre-treatment with URMC099 in wild-type C57Bl/6 or mutant Mlk3-/- mice. The expression of Mlk3 mRNA and protein was observed in neutrophils purified from wild-type C57Bl/6 mice but not in neutrophils from mutant Mlk3-/- mice. Chemotaxis by wild-type neutrophils induced by a gradient of fMLP was reduced by pre-treatment with URMC099. Neutrophils from C57Bl/6 mice pretreated with URMC099 and neutrophils from Mlk3-/- mice moved far less upon fMLP-stimulation and did not form F-actin as readily as untreated neutrophils from C57Bl/6 controls. In vivo recruitment of neutrophils into the peritoneum by fMLP was significantly reduced in wild-type mice treated with URMC099, as well as in untreated Mlk3-/- mice-thereby confirming the role of MLK3 in neutrophil migration. Mlk3 mRNA is expressed in murine neutrophils. Genetic

  9. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  10. CFTR targeting during activation of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hang Pong; Valentine, Vincent G; Wang, Guoshun

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, plays critical roles in phagocytic host defense. However, how activated neutrophils regulate CFTR channel distribution subcellularly is not well defined. To investigate, we tested multiple Abs against different CFTR domains, to examine CFTR expression in human peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. The data confirmed that resting neutrophils had pronounced CFTR expression. Activation of neutrophils with soluble or particulate agonists did not significantly increase CFTR expression level, but induced CFTR redistribution to cell surface. Such CFTR mobilization correlated with cell-surface recruitment of formyl-peptide receptor during secretory vesicle exocytosis. Intriguingly, neutrophils from patients with ΔF508-CF, despite expression of the mutant CFTR, showed little cell-surface mobilization upon stimulation. Although normal neutrophils effectively targeted CFTR to their phagosomes, ΔF508-CF neutrophils had impairment in that process, resulting in deficient hypochlorous acid production. Taken together, activated neutrophils regulate CFTR distribution by targeting this chloride channel to the subcellular sites of activation, and ΔF508-CF neutrophils fail to achieve such targeting, thus undermining their host defense function.

  11. Adherence of neutrophils to cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation by chemotactic peptides and lipid mediators and dependence upon the Mac-1, LFA-1, p150,95 glycoprotein family.

    PubMed Central

    Tonnesen, M G; Anderson, D C; Springer, T A; Knedler, A; Avdi, N; Henson, P M

    1989-01-01

    The process of neutrophil adhesion to and migration through the microvascular endothelium, an early event in the induction of the acute inflammatory response, has been attributed to the generation of extravascular chemoattractants. Although both chemotactic peptides and lipid mediators enhance neutrophil adherence in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism(s) involved in the interaction between circulating neutrophils and microvascular endothelial cells is still not completely understood. In a microtiter well adherence assay, the chemotactic peptides, FMLP and C5a, and the lipid mediators, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet activating factor (PAF), enhanced human neutrophil adherence to cultured human microvascular endothelial cells as well as to human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner with a rapid time course. This stimulated adhesive interaction between neutrophils and cultured human endothelial cells was dependent on the expression of the Mac-1, LFA-1, p150,95 glycoprotein family on the neutrophil surface since neutrophils from patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency, lacking surface expression of the adhesive glycoproteins, exhibited markedly diminished adherence to human endothelial cells in response to stimulation with chemotactic factors compared to normal control neutrophils. All four mediators enhanced expression of the glycoprotein family on the surface of normal neutrophils as determined by flow cytofluorimetry using a monoclonal antibody (TS1/18) to the glycoprotein common beta subunit. In addition, TS1/18 inhibited up to 100% the adherence of normal neutrophils to endothelial cells stimulated by maximal concentrations of FMLP, C5a, LTB4, or PAF. Moreover, HL-60 cells, human promyelocytic leukemia cells, neither increased glycoprotein surface expression nor adherence in response to stimulation. Thus, peptide and lipid mediators of the acute inflammatory response appear to enhance adherence of circulating neutrophils to the

  12. Close Association between Clearance of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and G-CSF Receptor on Neutrophils in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Terashi, Kenji; Oka, Mikio; Ohdo, Shigehiro; Furukubo, Taku; Ikeda, Chizuko; Fukuda, Minoru; Soda, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Shun; Kohno, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is used to counter chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Our previous study showed an inverse correlation between serum rhG-CSF levels and the number of circulating neutrophils in cancer patients (H. Takatani, H. Soda, M. Fukuda, M. Watanabe, A. Kinoshita, T. Nakamura, and M. Oka, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:988–991, 1996). The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between rhG-CSF clearance and G-CSF receptors on circulating neutrophils. In five cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, a bolus dose of rhG-CSF (5 μg/kg) was injected intravenously during defined phases of posttreatment neutropenia and neutrophilia. Serum rhG-CSF levels were measured by a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay and analyzed by moment analysis. G-CSF receptors on neutrophils were detected by flow cytometry with biotinylated rhG-CSF. rhG-CSF clearance was significantly higher at neutrophilia than at neutropenia (1,497 ± 132 versus 995 ± 266 ml/h; P < 0.01). The percentage of G-CSF receptor-positive neutrophils, reflecting the number of G-CSF receptors per cell, was low at neutropenia without rhG-CSF therapy (44.5% ± 22.1%) and high at neutrophilia with rhG-CSF therapy (73.0% ± 11.4%; P < 0.01). rhG-CSF clearance closely correlated with the percentage of G-CSF receptor-positive neutrophils (r2 = 0.91; P < 0.0001) and neutrophil count (r2 = 0.72; P < 0.005). Our results indicate that, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, rhG-CSF increases the number of G-CSF receptors per cell as well as circulating neutrophil counts, resulting in modulation of its own clearance. PMID:9869559

  13. β-Glucan-Activated Human B Lymphocytes Participate in Innate Immune Responses by Releasing Proinflammatory Cytokines and Stimulating Neutrophil Chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed F; Driscoll, Christopher B; Walters, Paula R; Limper, Andrew H; Carmona, Eva M

    2015-12-01

    B lymphocytes play an essential regulatory role in the adaptive immune response through Ab production during infection. A less known function of B lymphocytes is their ability to respond directly to infectious Ags through stimulation of pattern recognition receptors expressed on their surfaces. β-Glucans are carbohydrates present in the cell wall of many pathogenic fungi that can be detected in the peripheral blood of patients during infection. They have been shown to participate in the innate inflammatory response, as they can directly activate peripheral macrophages and dendritic cells. However, their effect as direct stimulators of B lymphocytes has not been yet fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanisms and cytokine profiles generated following β-glucan stimulation of B lymphocytes, compared with the well-established TLR-9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG), and study the participation of β-glucan-stimulated B cells in the innate immune response. In this article, we demonstrate that β-glucan-activated B lymphocytes upregulate proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8). Of interest, β-glucan, unlike CpG, had no effect on B lymphocyte proliferation or IgM production. When compared with CpG (TLR9 agonist), β-glucan-activated cells secreted significantly higher levels of IL-8. Furthermore, IL-8 secretion was partially mediated by Dectin-1 and required SYK, MAPKs, and the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Moreover, we observed that conditioned media from β-glucan-stimulated B lymphocytes elicited neutrophil chemotaxis. These studies suggest that β-glucan-activated B lymphocytes have an important and novel role in fungal innate immune responses. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharide Binds to CD14 and Stimulates Release of Interleukin-8, Epithelial Neutrophil-Activating Peptide 78, and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 by Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Charles M.; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Keates, Sarah; Linevsky, Joanne K.; Kelly, Ciarán P.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis is characterized by leukocyte infiltration of the gastric mucosa. The aims of this study were to determine whether H. pylori-derived factors stimulate chemokine release from human monocytes and to ascertain whether H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may be responsible for this effect. Human peripheral blood monocytes were exposed to an H. pylori water extract (HPE) or to purified H. pylori LPS. Levels of the chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The contribution of H. pylori LPS to monocyte activation was determined by using the LPS antagonist Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) and a blocking monoclonal antibody to CD14 (60bca). HPE increased monocyte secretion of IL-8, ENA-78, and MCP-1. Heat treatment of HPE did not reduce its ability to activate monocytes. Purified H. pylori LPS also stimulated monocyte chemokine production but was 1,000-fold less potent than Salmonella minnesota lipid A. RSLA blocked H. pylori LPS-induced monocyte IL-8 release in a dose-dependent fashion (maximal inhibition 82%, P < 0.001). RSLA also inhibited HPE-induced IL-8 release (by 93%, P < 0.001). The anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody 60bca substantially inhibited IL-8 release from HPE-stimulated monocytes (by 88%, P < 0.01), whereas the nonblocking anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody did not. These experiments with potent and specific LPS inhibitors indicate that the main monocyte-stimulating factor in HPE is LPS. H. pylori LPS, acting through CD14, stimulates human monocytes to release the neutrophil-activating chemokines IL-8 and ENA-78 and the monocyte-activating chemokine MCP-1. Despite its low relative potency, H. pylori LPS may play an important role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori gastritis. PMID:9784544

  15. Interferon-alpha enhances neutrophil respiratory burst responses to stimulation with influenza A virus and FMLP.

    PubMed

    Little, R; White, M R; Hartshorn, K L

    1994-10-01

    Despite increasing therapeutic use of interferon (IFN)-alpha, its effects on human neutrophil function are not well characterized. In vitro preincubation of neutrophils with recombinant IFN-alpha and -gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst responses to stimulation with influenza A virus (IAV) and FMLP. The enhancing effects of IFNs were more subtle and required more prolonged incubation than those of TNF and GM-CSF. TNF and GM-CSF enhanced neutrophil binding of IAV and neutrophil intracellular calcium and membrane depolarization responses to IAV or FMLP stimulation, while IFNs did not. Inhibitors of neutrophil tyrosine kinase activation and protein synthesis blocked IFN-alpha-induced enhancement of respiratory burst responses. In addition to its other well-characterized effects, IFN-alpha may protect against viral infection indirectly by promoting neutrophil respiratory burst responses.

  16. Lipoxin A4 and lipoxin B4 stimulate the release but not the oxygenation of arachidonic acid in human neutrophils: Dissociation between lipid remodeling and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.; Fiore, S.; Luscinskas, F.W.; Serhan, C.N. )

    1990-06-01

    The profiles of actions of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and lipoxin B4 (LXB4), two lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids, were examined with human neutrophils. At nanomolar concentrations, LXA4 and LXB4 each stimulated the release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid from esterified sources in neutrophils. Lipoxin-induced release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid was both dose- and time-dependent and was comparable to that induced by the chemotactic peptide f-met-leu-phe. Time-course studies revealed that lipoxin A4 and lipoxin B4 each induced a biphasic release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid, which was evident within seconds (5-15 sec) in its initial phase and minutes (greater than 30 sec) in the second phase. In contrast, the all-trans isomers of LXA4 and LXB4 did not provoke (1-14C)AA release. Lipoxin-induced release of arachidonic acid was inhibited by prior treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin but not by its beta-oligomers, suggesting the involvement of guaninine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in this event. Dual radiolabeling of neutrophil phospholipid classes with (1-14C)arachidonic acid and (3H)palmitic acid showed that phosphatidylcholine was a major source of lipoxin-induced release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid. They also demonstrated that lipoxins rapidly stimulate both formation of phosphatidic acid as well as phospholipid remodeling. Although both LXA4 and LXB4 (10(-8)-10(-6) M) stimulated the release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid, neither compound evoked its oxygenation by either the 5- or 15-lipoxygenase pathways (including the formation of LTB4, 20-COOH-LTB4, 5-HETE, or 15-HETE). LXA4 and LXB4 (10(-7) M) each stimulated the elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ as monitored with Fura 2-loaded cells, albeit to a lesser extent than equimolar concentrations of FMLP. Neither lipoxin altered the binding of (3H)LTB4 to its receptor on neutrophils.

  17. Constitutively Opa-Expressing and Opa-Deficient Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains Differentially Stimulate and Survive Exposure to Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Louise M.

    2013-01-01

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus [Gc]) opacity-associated (Opa) proteins mediate bacterial binding and internalization by human epithelial cells and neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]). Investigating the contribution of Opa proteins to gonococcal pathogenesis is complicated by high-frequency phase variation of the opa genes. We therefore engineered a derivative of Gc strain FA1090 in which all opa genes were deleted in frame, termed Opaless. Opaless Gc remained uniformly Opa negative (Opa−), whereas cultures of predominantly Opa− parental Gc and an intermediate lacking the “translucent” subset of opa genes (ΔopaBEGK) stochastically gave rise to Opa-positive (Opa+) bacterial colonies. Loss of Opa expression did not affect Gc growth. Opaless Gc survived exposure to primary human PMNs and suppressed the PMN oxidative burst akin to parental, Opa− bacteria. Notably, unopsonized Opaless Gc was internalized by adherent, chemokine-primed, primary human PMNs, by an actin-dependent process. When a non-phase-variable, in-frame allele of FA1090 opaD was reintroduced into Opaless Gc, the bacteria induced the PMN oxidative burst, and OpaD+ Gc survived less well after exposure to PMNs compared to Opa− bacteria. These derivatives provide a robust system for assessing the role of Opa proteins in Gc biology. PMID:23625842

  18. beta-Adrenoceptor stimulation up-regulates phosphodiesterase 4 activity and reduces prostaglandin E2-inhibitory effects in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J L; Dasí, F J; Cortijo, J; Morcillo, E J

    2000-04-01

    Human neutrophils were treated for 4 h with a combination of salbutamol (1 microM), a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, and rolipram (30 microM), a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, to investigate whether this treatment produces up-regulation of phosphodiesterase activity with functional consequences. Anion-exchange chromatography coupled with the use of selective activators and inhibitors demonstrated that a phosphodiesterase activity with characteristics of the isoenzyme type 4 was increased in drug-treated cells. Kinetic analysis showed a approximately 1.5-fold increase in Vmax without alteration of Km values. The augmented phosphodiesterase activity in drug-treated cells was abolished by actinomycin D. Cyclic AMP content in drug-treated cells was higher than resting values (27.28+/-2.79 pmol/10(6) cells vs. 0.34+/-0.03 pmol/10(6) cells). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed increased expression of mRNA transcripts for PDE4B and PDE4A in drug-treated cells. Functionally, up-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4 reduced the inhibition by prostaglandin E2 of zymosan-induced superoxide generation.

  19. IL-4 induces neutrophilic maturation of HL-60 cells and activation of human peripheral blood neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Bober, L A; Waters, T A; Pugliese-Sivo, C C; Sullivan, L M; Narula, S K; Grace, M J

    1995-01-01

    IL-4 is a T-helper cell derived cytokine that has effects on myelomonocytic cell maturation and activation. We have studied the effect of IL-4 on neutrophilic maturation using the cell line HL-60 and found that it has a profound effect on the maturation and activation of the cell line. The treatment of HL-60 cells with recombinant hu IL-4 (0.15 to 15.0 ng/ml) induced a shift in the percentage of HL-60 cells staining positive for chloroacetate esterase enzyme activity (indicating commitment to the neutrophilic lineage). IL-4 increased surface expression of the neutrophil-lineage antigen WEM G11, the complement receptors CR3 (CD11b) and CR1 (CD35), but not for the monocyte differentiation antigen CD14. IL-4 treated HL-60 cells demonstrated enhanced Fc- and complement-mediated phagocytic capacity and increased hexose-monophosphate shunt activity. In addition, IL-4 was capable of sustaining the neutrophil maturation of HL-60 cells that had been pre-treated for 24 h with DMSO. To investigate the effect of IL-4 on the mature neutrophil, we studied freshly isolated and rested human peripheral blood neutrophils. In the absence of other stimuli, neutrophils were induced by IL-4 to have significantly elevated phagocytic responses. The response was specific since treatment with anti-human IL-4 abolished phagocytic stimulation. Finally, IL-4 treatment also stimulated resting neutrophils to migrate toward zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) and human IL-5. The results demonstrate that IL-4 is a potent maturation factor for myelocytes to become neutrophils and that IL-4 can stimulate resting mature neutrophils. PMID:7529148

  20. Isolation and Functional Analysis of Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Douglas B.; Long Priel, Debra A.; Chu, Jessica; Zarember, Kol A.

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the isolation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from blood using dextran sedimentation and Percoll or Ficoll-Paque density gradients. Assays of neutrophil functions including respiratory burst activation, phagocytosis, and microbial killing are also described. PMID:26528633

  1. Rapid and Reversible Tubulin Tyrosination in Human Neutrophils Stimulated by the Chemotacted Peptide, fMet Leu-Phe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    microtubule polymer i~eltramo et aL.. followed by protein A-gold incubation and then stained with uranvyl 1987: Beltramo et al.. 1989 I. Tyrosine canl...bulin subunits ( Barra et aL., 1987: Beltramo et al.. noblots of neutrophil extracts and this difference likely 1.987. 1989: Raybin and Flavin, 1977a

  2. Granulophysin is located in the membrane of azurophilic granules in human neutrophils and mobilizes to the plasma membrane following cell stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cham, B. P.; Gerrard, J. M.; Bainton, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    Granulophysin, a protein described in platelet dense granule membranes, has been shown to be similar or identical to CD63, a lysosomal membrane protein. We have previously shown granulophysin to be present in neutrophils using immunofluorescence. We now localize granulophysin to the neutrophil azurophilic granules by fine structural immunocytochemistry. Granulophysin expression on the surface membrane of the neutrophil is increased following stimulation of the cells, demonstrated by flow cytometry and fine structural immunocytochemistry. A similar pattern is shown for an anti-CD63 antibody. Incubation of activated neutrophils with D545, a monoclonal antibody to granulophysin, blocks subsequent binding of anti-CD63 antibodies to the cell surface, and anti-CD63 antibodies prevent subsequent binding of D545 as assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Our results support the homology of CD63 and granulophysin previously demonstrated in platelets and confirm CD63 as an activation marker in neutrophils and the first azurophilic granule membrane marker of neutrophils. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8203473

  3. Surfactant modulates calcium response of neutrophils to physiologic stimulation via cell membrane depolarization.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cruz, E; Buescher, E S; Oelberg, D G

    2000-03-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) reduces inflammation in the lung by poorly understood mechanisms. We have observed that surfactant-associated proteins (SAP) insert monovalent cation channels in artificial membranes. Neutrophils are primary mediators of acute pulmonary inflammation, and their functions are activated by increases in cytosolic ionized calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) and by changes in membrane potential. We hypothesize that PS inserts SAP-dependent cation channels in neutrophils, causing membrane depolarization, altered [Ca2+] response, and depressed activation. Human neutrophils were isolated, exposed to PS+SAP (1% Survanta), PS-SAP (1% Exosurf), or buffer, and washed before activating with selected stimulants. PS+SAP reduced phorbol ester- and formyl peptide-stimulated adherence and aggregation by 38% (p < 0.05) and 54% (p < 0.02), respectively. PS+SAP also inhibited the formyl peptide-induced [Ca2+] response of neutrophils (p < 0.01), but only in the presence of external Ca2+. Further characterization of this inhibition demonstrated that PS+SAP blocked formyl peptide-induced influx of both Ca2+ and Mn2+, and that this inhibition was present during activation by other neutrophil stimulants (IL-8, immune complexes). Prior depolarization of neutrophils with gramicidin-D similarly inhibited the [Ca2+] response of neutrophils to formyl peptide, and analysis of neutrophil membrane potential by 3,3'-dipentyloxaearbocyanine iodide (diOC5(3)) fluorescence revealed that PS+SAP induced rapid neutrophil depolarization. In contrast, PS-SAP exhibited little effect on neutrophil function, [Ca2+], or membrane potential. We conclude that PS+SAP decreases neutrophil adherence and aggregation responses, blocks Ca2+ influx after physiologic stimulation, and decreases membrane potential. We speculate that these effects are caused by membrane depolarization via SAP-dependent cation channel insertion, and that all of these effects contribute to the antiinflammatory properties of

  4. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound.

  5. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T.; Lin, Ann E.; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C.; Kumar, Geetha B.; Nair, Bipin G.; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Nizet, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound. PMID:27226531

  6. Dissociation between the translocation and the activation of Akt in fMLP-stimulated human neutrophils--effect of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Burelout, Chantal; Naccache, Paul H; Bourgoin, Sylvain G

    2007-06-01

    PGE(2) and other cAMP-elevating agents are known to down-regulate most functions stimulated by fMLP in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. We reported previously that the inhibitory potential of PGE(2) resides in its capacity to suppress fMLP-stimulated PI-3Kgamma activation via the PGE(2) receptor EP(2) and hence, to decrease phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] formation. Akt activity is stimulated by fMLP through phosphorylation on threonine 308 (Thr308) and serine 473 (Ser473) by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and MAPK-AP kinase (APK)-APK-2 (MAPKAPK-2), respectively, in a PI-3K-dependent manner. Despite the suppression of fMLP-induced PI-3Kgamma activation observed in the presence of PGE(2), we show that Akt is fully phosphorylated on Thr308 and Ser473. However, fMLP-induced Akt translocation is decreased markedly in this context. PGE(2) does not affect the phosphorylation of MAPKAPK-2 but decreases the translocation of PDK1 induced by fMLP. Other cAMP-elevating agents such as adenosine (Ado) similarly block the fMLP-induced PI-3Kgamma activation process but do not inhibit Akt phosphorylation. However, Akt activity stimulated by fMLP is down-regulated slightly by agonists that elevate cAMP levels. Whereas protein kinase A is not involved in the maintenance of Akt phosphorylation, it is required for the inhibition of Akt translocation by PGE(2). Moreover, inhibition of fMLP-stimulated PI-3Kdelta activity by the selective inhibitor IC87114 only partially affects the late phase of Akt phosphorylation in the presence of PGE(2). Taken together, these results suggest that cAMP-elevating agents, such as PGE(2) or Ado, are able to induce an alternative mechanism of Akt activation by fMLP in which the translocation of Akt to PI(3,4,5)P(3)-enriched membranes is not required prior to its phosphorylation.

  7. Olfactomedin 4 defines a subset of human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, Stine N.; Bohr, Christina T.; Rørvig, Sara; Glenthøj, Andreas; Mora-Jensen, Helena; Cramer, Elisabeth P.; Jacobsen, Lars C.; Larsen, Maria T.; Cowland, Jack B.; Tanassi, Julia T.; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Silahtaroglu, Asli N.; Borregaard, Niels

    2012-01-01

    OLFM4 was identified initially as a gene highly induced in myeloid stem cells by G-CSF treatment. A bioinformatics method using a global meta-analysis of microarray data predicted that OLFM4 would be associated with specific granules in human neutrophils. Subcellular fractionation of peripheral blood neutrophils demonstrated complete colocalization of OLFM4 with the specific granule protein NGAL, and stimulation of neutrophils with PMA resulted in corelease of NGAL and OLFM4, proving that OLFM4 is a genuine constituent of neutrophil-specific granules. In accordance with this, OLFM4 mRNA peaked at the MY/MM stage of maturation. OLFM4 was, however, present in only 20–25% of peripheral blood neutrophils, as determined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, whereas mRNA for OLFM4 was present in all MY/MM, indicating post-transcriptional regulation as a basis for the heterogeneous expression of OLFM4 protein. PMID:22187488

  8. Structural divergence of GPI-80 in activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nitto, Takeaki; Takeda, Yuji; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2007-07-27

    GPI-80 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that is mainly expressed in human neutrophils. Previous studies using 3H9, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against GPI-80, suggested that GPI-80 regulates leukocyte adherence and migration through Mac-1. GPI-80, which is anchored at the plasma membrane in resting neutrophils, moves into the pseudopodia and is released from activated human neutrophils. Here, we demonstrate that neutrophil activation affects GPI-80 dynamics using a new anti-GPI-80 mAb, designated 4D4, which is directed against the form of GPI-80 found on resting human neutrophils. Similar to 3H9, 4D4 influences Mac-1-dependent neutrophil adhesion. Treatment of purified GPI-80 with periodic acid and trypsin indicated that 3H9 and 4D4 recognize peptide and carbohydrate moieties, respectively. Stimulation with fMLP decreased the binding of 4D4 to GPI-80 on the neutrophil surface but increased the overall expression of GPI-80, as visualized by the 3H9 signal. Confocal laser microscopy revealed the 4D4 signal mainly on cell bodies and at a low level on pseudopodia during migration toward increasing concentrations of fMLP, whereas the 3H9 signal was observed in both areas. In addition, soluble GPI-80 released from activated neutrophils did not bind 4D4. These results suggest that there are two populations of GPI-80 that differ in the ability to bind 4D4. The 4D4-recognized form may regulate Mac-1-dependent neutrophil adhesion, and may subsequently be converted to a 4D4-unrecognized form during neutrophil activation.

  9. P-SELECTIN MEDIATED PLATELET-NEUTROPHIL AGGREGATE FORMATION ACTIVATES NEUTROPHILS IN MOUSE AND HUMAN SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Polanowska-Grabowska, Renata; Wallace, Kori; Field, Joshua J.; Chen, Lanlin; Marshall, Melissa A.; Figler, Robert; Gear, Adrian R. L.; Linden, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective Both platelet and neutrophil activation occur in sickle cell disease (SCD) but the interdependence of these events is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the role of platelets in stimulating mouse and human neutrophil activation and pulmonary injury in SCD. Methods and Results Platelet activation and binding to leukocytes was measured in control and SCD mice and patients. Relative to controls, blood obtained from SCD mice or patients contained significantly elevated platelet-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs). Both platelets and neutrophils found in sickle PNAs were activated. Multi-spectral imaging (ImageStream) and conventional flow cytometry revealed a subpopulation of activated neutrophils with multiple adhered platelets that expressed significantly more CD11b and exhibited greater oxidative activity than single neutrophils. On average, wild type and sickle PNAs contained 1.1 and 2.6 platelets per neutrophil, respectively. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced a further increase in platelet-neutrophil aggregates in SCD mice and additional activation of both platelets and neutrophils. Pretreatment of SCD mice with clopidogrel or P-selectin antibody reduced the formation of PNAs and neutrophil activation and decreased lung vascular permeability. Conclusions In sum, our findings suggest that platelet binding activates neutrophils and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state and pulmonary dysfunction in SCD. Inhibition of platelet activation may be useful to decrease tissue injury in SCD, particularly during the early stages of vaso-occlusive crises. PMID:21071696

  10. Isolation and Functional Analysis of Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Douglas B; Long Priel, Debra A; Chu, Jessica; Zarember, Kol A

    2015-11-02

    This unit describes the isolation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from blood using dextran sedimentation and Percoll or Ficoll-Paque density gradients. Assays of neutrophil functions including respiratory burst activation, phagocytosis, and microbial killing are also described. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Potentiation and inhibition of migration of human neutrophils by auranofin.

    PubMed Central

    Elferink, J G; de Koster, B M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--As auranofin resembles some neutrophil activating sulphur containing compounds, it was decided to investigate whether it had activating effects on neutrophil migration in addition to the published inhibitory effects. METHODS--The Boyden chamber assay was used to determine the migration velocity of human neutrophils. The difference between chemotaxis and chemokinesis was established with a chequerboard assay. RESULTS--Low concentrations of auranofin stimulated human neutrophil migration; concentrations of auranofin higher than 1 mumol/l were inhibitory. Inhibitors of leukotriene formation, or of protein kinase C, had the same effect on auranofin induced potentiation of migration as on fMLP activated migration. Auranofin, at a concentration of 100 nmol/l, caused a transient increase in the cGMP level of neutrophils. The auranofin induced increase in migration was strongly inhibited by methylene blue and by LY83583, two inhibitors of cGMP accumulation. CONCLUSIONS--The auranofin induced enhancement of migration is partly due to a chemokinetic effect, but mainly due to a chemotactic effect. The potentiating effect of auranofin on migration is not specifically due to the ability of the drug to inhibit protein kinase C activity or to generate leukotrienes. These results suggest that the enhancement of neutrophil migration by low levels of auranofin is related to the enhancement of cGMP levels in neutrophils. PMID:8215623

  12. Interleukin-6 stimulates neutrophil production of platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Biffl, W L; Moore, E E; Moore, F A; Barnett, C C; Silliman, C C; Peterson, V M

    1996-04-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an integral mediator of the acute phase response to injury and infection; an exaggerated IL-6 response has been associated with adverse clinical events. The precise role of IL-6 is unclear, but it appears capable of modulating the functional repertoire of mature neutrophils (PMNs). Our previous work demonstrated that IL-6 -stimulated PMNs are primed by lower concentrations of platelet-activating factor (PAF) than nonstimulated PMNs. Recently, we have found that IL-6 suppresses PMN apoptosis via a PAF-like mechanism. We hypothesized that IL-6 stimulates PMNs to produce PAF. PMNs isolated from healthy human donors were incubated with IL-6 (0.1-100 ng/ml) at 37 degrees C. Lipid production was measured by use of thin-layer chromatography, and PAF quantitated with a scintillation proximity assay. IL-6 (1 and 10 ng/ml) stimulated PMNs to produce increase quantities of PAF. PAF production was associated with an increase in PMN cytosolic calcium. These data may provide mechanistic insight into IL-6 regulation of PMN-mediated cytotoxicity and the role of PAF in mediating IL-6 effects on PMNs.

  13. Differential Use of Human Neutrophil Fcγ Receptors for Inducing Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Omar Rafael; Mora, Nancy; Cortes-Vieyra, Ricarda; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. PMN migrate from the circulation to sites of infection, where they are responsible for antimicrobial functions. PMN use phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to kill microbes. NETs are fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil-granule proteins. Several pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and also some pharmacological stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are efficient inducers of NETs. Antigen-antibody complexes are also capable of inducing NET formation. However the particular Fcγ receptor involved in triggering this function is a matter of controversy. In order to provide some insight into what Fcγ receptor is responsible for NET formation, each of the two human Fcγ receptors was stimulated individually by specific monoclonal antibodies and NET formation was evaluated. FcγRIIa cross-linking did not promote NET formation. Cross-linking other receptors such as integrins also did not promote NET formation. In contrast FcγRIIIb cross-linking induced NET formation similarly to PMA stimulation. NET formation was dependent on NADPH-oxidase, PKC, and ERK activation. These data show that cross-linking FcγRIIIb is responsible for NET formation by the human neutrophil.

  14. Differential Use of Human Neutrophil Fcγ Receptors for Inducing Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Omar Rafael; Mora, Nancy; Cortes-Vieyra, Ricarda; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. PMN migrate from the circulation to sites of infection, where they are responsible for antimicrobial functions. PMN use phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to kill microbes. NETs are fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil-granule proteins. Several pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and also some pharmacological stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are efficient inducers of NETs. Antigen-antibody complexes are also capable of inducing NET formation. However the particular Fcγ receptor involved in triggering this function is a matter of controversy. In order to provide some insight into what Fcγ receptor is responsible for NET formation, each of the two human Fcγ receptors was stimulated individually by specific monoclonal antibodies and NET formation was evaluated. FcγRIIa cross-linking did not promote NET formation. Cross-linking other receptors such as integrins also did not promote NET formation. In contrast FcγRIIIb cross-linking induced NET formation similarly to PMA stimulation. NET formation was dependent on NADPH-oxidase, PKC, and ERK activation. These data show that cross-linking FcγRIIIb is responsible for NET formation by the human neutrophil. PMID:27034964

  15. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    PubMed

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity.

  16. Photothermal image cytometry of human neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitry

    2001-07-01

    Photothermal imaging, when being applied to the study of living cells, provides morpho-functional information about the cell populations. In technical terms, the method is complementary to optical microscopy. The photothermal method was used for cell imaging and quantitative studies. Preliminary results of the studies on living human neutrophils are presented. Differences between normal and pathological neutrophil populations from blood of healthy donors and patients with saracoidosis and pleuritis are demonstrated.

  17. Beta-Glucan Activated Human B-Lymphocytes Participate in Innate Immune Responses by Releasing Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Stimulating Neutrophil Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed F.; Driscoll, Christopher B.; Walters, Paula R.; Limper, Andrew H.; Carmona, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    B-lymphocytes play an essential regulatory role in the adaptive immune response through antibody production during infection. A less known function of B-lymphocytes is their ability to respond directly to infectious antigens through stimulation of pattern recognition receptors expressed on their surfaces. β-glucans are carbohydrates present in the cell wall of many pathogenic fungi that can be detected in the peripheral blood of patients during infection. They have been shown to participate in the innate inflammatory response as they can directly activate peripheral macrophages and dendritic cells. However, their effect as direct stimulators of B-lymphocytes has not been yet fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanisms and cytokine profiles generated following β-glucan stimulation of B-lymphocytes, compared with the well-established TLR-9 agonist CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and study the participation of β-glucan stimulated B-cells in the innate immune response. Herein, we demonstrate that β-glucan activated B-lymphocytes upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8). Interestingly, β-glucan, unlike CpG, had no effect on B-lymphocyte proliferation or IgM production. When compared with CpG (TLR9 agonist), β-glucan-activated cells secreted significantly higher levels of IL-8. Furthermore, IL-8 secretion was partially mediated by Dectin-1 and required SYK, MAPKs and the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Moreover, we observed that conditioned media from β-glucan stimulated B-lymphocytes elicited neutrophil chemotaxis. These studies suggest that β-glucan activated B-lymphocytes have an important and novel role in fungal innate immune responses. PMID:26519534

  18. IL-17 stimulates differentiation of human anti-inflammatory macrophages and phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils in response to IL-10 and glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Gaetano; Cohen, Philip L

    2013-05-15

    Exposure of human monocytes/macrophages to anti-inflammatory agents, such as IL-10 or glucocorticoids, can lead to two separate fates: either Fas/CD95-mediated apoptosis or differentiation into regulatory and efferocytic M2c (CD14(bright)CD16(+)CD163(+)Mer tyrosine kinase(+)) macrophages. We found that the prevalent effect depends on the type of Th cytokine environment and on the stage of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. In particular, the presence of IFN-γ (Th1 inflammation) or the prolonged exposure to IL-4 (chronic Th2 inflammation) promotes apoptosis of monocytes/macrophages and causes resistance to M2c differentiation, thus provoking impaired clearance of apoptotic neutrophils, uncontrolled accumulation of apoptotic cells, and persistent inflammation. In contrast, the presence of IL-17 (Th17 environment) prevents monocyte/macrophage apoptosis and elicits intense M2c differentiation, thus ensuring efficient clearance of apoptotic neutrophils and restoration of anti-inflammatory conditions. Additionally, the Th environment affects the expression of two distinct Mer tyrosine kinase isoforms: IL-4 downregulates the membrane isoform but induces an intracellular and Gas6-dependent isoform, whereas IFN-γ downregulates both and IL-17 upregulates both. Our data support an unexpected role for IL-17 in orchestrating resolution of innate inflammation, whereas IFN-γ and IL-4 emerge as major determinants of IL-10 and glucocorticoid resistance.

  19. Tamoxifen does not inhibit the swell activated chloride channel in human neutrophils during the respiratory burst

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-10-31

    Effective functioning of neutrophils relies upon electron translocation through the NADPH oxidase (NOX). The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential in activated human neutrophils. Swelling activated chloride channels have been demonstrated in part to counteract the depolarisation generated by the NADPH oxidase I{sub e}. In the present study, the effects of inhibitors of swell activated chloride channels on ROS production and on the swelling activated chloride conductance was investigated in activated human neutrophils. Tamoxifen (10 {mu}M), a specific inhibitor for swell activated chloride channels in neutrophils, completely inhibited both the PMA and FMLP stimulated respiratory burst. This inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst was not due to the blocking effect of tamoxifen on the swelling activated chloride conductance in these cells. These results demonstrate that a tamoxifen insensitive swell activated chloride channel has important significance during the neutrophil respiratory burst.

  20. Human neutrophils produce extracellular traps against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Susana P; Cano, Luz E; López, Juan A; Hernandez, Orville; González, Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Neutrophils play an important role as effector cells and contribute to the resistance of the host against microbial pathogens. Neutrophils are able to produce extracellular traps (NETs) in response to medically important fungi, including Aspergillus spp., Candida albicans and Cryptococcus gattii. However, NET production in response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has yet to be studied. We have demonstrated that human neutrophils produce NETs against both conidia and yeasts of P. brasiliensis. Although the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) did not alter NET production against conidia, it partially suppressed NET formation against P. brasiliensis yeasts. Cytochalasin D or IFN-γ did not affect the production of NETs against the fungus. Additionally, a mutant strain of P. brasiliensis with reduced expression of an alternative oxidase induced significantly higher levels of NETs in comparison with the WT strain. Finally, c.f.u. quantification of P. brasiliensis showed no significant differences when neutrophils were treated with DPI, DNase I or cytochalasin D as compared with untreated cells. These data establish that NET formation by human neutrophils appears to be either dependent or independent of reactive oxygen species production, correlating with the fungal morphotype used for stimulation. However, this mechanism was ineffective in killing the fungus.

  1. Human filarial Wolbachia lipopeptide directly activates human neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tamarozzi, F; Wright, H L; Johnston, K L; Edwards, S W; Turner, J D; Taylor, M J

    2014-01-01

    The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, was functionally defined in murine models of pathology, including mediation of neutrophil recruitment to the cornea. However, the extent to which human neutrophils can be activated in response to this Wolbachia pattern recognition motif is not known. Therefore, the responses of purified peripheral blood human neutrophils to a synthetic N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide (WoLP) of filarial Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) were characterized. WoLP exposure led to a dose-dependent activation of healthy, human neutrophils that included gross morphological alterations and modulation of surface expressed integrins involved in tethering, rolling and extravasation. WoLP exposure induced chemotaxis but not chemokinesis of neutrophils, and secretion of the major neutrophil chemokine, interleukin 8. WoLP also induced and primed the respiratory burst, and enhanced neutrophil survival by delay of apoptosis. These results indicate that the major inflammatory motif of filarial Wolbachia lipoproteins directly activates human neutrophils in vitro and promotes a molecular pathway by which human neutrophils are recruited to sites of Onchocerca parasitism. PMID:24909063

  2. Human filarial Wolbachia lipopeptide directly activates human neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tamarozzi, F; Wright, H L; Johnston, K L; Edwards, S W; Turner, J D; Taylor, M J

    2014-10-01

    The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, was functionally defined in murine models of pathology, including mediation of neutrophil recruitment to the cornea. However, the extent to which human neutrophils can be activated in response to this Wolbachia pattern recognition motif is not known. Therefore, the responses of purified peripheral blood human neutrophils to a synthetic N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide (WoLP) of filarial Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) were characterized. WoLP exposure led to a dose-dependent activation of healthy, human neutrophils that included gross morphological alterations and modulation of surface expressed integrins involved in tethering, rolling and extravasation. WoLP exposure induced chemotaxis but not chemokinesis of neutrophils, and secretion of the major neutrophil chemokine, interleukin 8. WoLP also induced and primed the respiratory burst, and enhanced neutrophil survival by delay of apoptosis. These results indicate that the major inflammatory motif of filarial Wolbachia lipoproteins directly activates human neutrophils in vitro and promotes a molecular pathway by which human neutrophils are recruited to sites of Onchocerca parasitism. © 2014 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cationic liposomes evoke proinflammatory mediator release and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) toward human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-04-01

    Cationic liposomes are widely used as nanocarriers for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. The cationic components of liposomes can induce inflammatory responses. This study examined the effect of cationic liposomes on human neutrophil activation. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) was incorporated into liposomes as the cationic additive. The liposomes' cytotoxicity and their induction of proinflammatory mediators, intracellular calcium, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were investigated. The interaction of the liposomes with the plasma membrane triggered the stimulation of neutrophils. CTAB liposomes induced complete leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at all concentrations tested, whereas SME liposomes released LDH in a concentration-dependent manner. CTAB liposomes proved to more effectively activate neutrophils compared with SME liposomes, as indicated by increased superoxide anion and elastase levels. Calcium influx increased 9-fold after treatment with CTAB liposomes. This influx was not changed by SME liposomes compared with the untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence images indicated the presence of NETs after treatment with cationic liposomes. NETs could be quickly formed, within minutes, after CTAB liposomal treatment. In contrast to this result, NET formation was slowly and gradually increased by SME liposomes, within 4h. Based on the data presented here, it is important to consider the toxicity of cationic liposomes during administration in the body. This is the first report providing evidence of NET production induced by cationic liposomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TNF-α potentiates uric acid-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Yokose, Kohei; Sato, Shuzo; Asano, Tomoyuki; Yashiro, Makiko; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiji; Sato, Chikako; Kozuru, Hideko; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-14

    Monosodium urate (MSU) has been shown to promote interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in human monocytes, but the priming signals for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on MSU-mediated IL-1β induction in human neutrophils. Human neutrophils were stimulated with MSU, in the presence or absence of TNF-α priming. The cellular supernatants were analyzed for IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Pro-IL-1β mRNA expressions in human neutrophils were analyzed by real-time PCR method. TNF-α stimulation induced pro-IL-1β mRNA expression; however, MSU stimulation did not induce pro-IL-1β mRNA expression in human neutrophils. TNF-α alone or MSU stimulation did not result in efficient IL-1β secretion in human neutrophils, whereas in TNF-α-primed neutrophils, MSU stimulation resulted in a marked IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. TNF-α-primed neutrophils secreted cleaved caspase-1 (p20), in response to MSU stimulation. Our data demonstrate that priming of human neutrophils with TNF-α promotes uric acid-mediated IL-1β secretion in the absence of microbial stimulation. These findings provide insights into the neutrophils-mediated inflammatory processes in gouty arthritis.

  5. Effect of L-amino acid oxidase from Calloselasma rhodosthoma snake venom on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Adriana S; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Xavier, Caroline V; Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Kayano, Anderson M; Pires, Weverson L; Nery, Neriane Monteiro; Boeri de Castro, Onassis; da Silva, Silvana D; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2014-03-01

    The in vitro effects of LAAO, an l-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodosthoma snake venom, on isolated human neutrophil function were investigated. LAAO showed no toxicity on neutrophils. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, LAAO induced the superoxide anion production by isolated human neutrophil. This toxin, in its native form, is also able to stimulate the production of hydrogen peroxide in neutrophils, suggesting that its primary structure is essential for stimulation the cell. Moreover, the incubation of LAAO and phenol red medium did not induce the production of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, LAAO was able to stimulate neutrophils to release proinflammatory mediators such as IL-8 and TNF-α as well as NETs liberation. Together, the data showed that the LAAO triggers relevant proinflammatory events. Particular regions of the molecule distinct from the LAAO catalytic site may be involved in the onset of inflammatory events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulation of reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity in human neutrophils in vitro and after oral administration of a polyenzyme preparation.

    PubMed

    Zavadova, E; Desser, L; Mohr, T

    1995-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) can be primed for enhanced release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by exposure to cytokines and biological response modifiers. ROS are considered to possess tumoricidal activity. The polyenzyme preparation Wobenzym (WE) contains pancreatin, papain, bromelain trypsin and chymotrypsin and is used in adjuvant tumor therapy. We investigated killing of WE-exposed PMN against tumor cells and analyzed WE influence on ROS production in a chemiluminescence assay in PMN in vitro and in vivo. Depending on dose WE stimulates the cytotoxic capacity of PMN in vitro against tumor cells (50 micrograms/ml:p < 0.01). Exposure of PMN to Wobenzym caused a time-dependent significant (p < 0.02) increase in release of ROS. Similarly, oral administration of Wobenzym to healthy volunteers (n = 28) resulted in significant increases (p < 0.01) in ROS production, depending on dose (peak with 20 tablets) and time (peak 4 hours after Wobenzym administration). In contrast, ROS production was not elevated in the PMN of healthy volunteers receiving placebo (n = 8) or no treatment (n = 16). These findings point to an immunomodulatory capacity of WE in adjuvant tumor therapy.

  7. Donor dependent, interferon-γ induced HLA-DR expression on human neutrophils in vivo

    PubMed Central

    REINISCH, W; LICHTENBERGER, C; STEGER, G; TILLINGER, W; SCHEINER, O; GANGL, A; MAURER, D; WILLHEIM, M

    2003-01-01

    Neutrophils are effector cells of innate immune responses. Stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to express HLA-DR, neutrophils acquire accessory cell functions for superantigen-mediated T cell activation. In vitro HLA-DR induction on neutrophils varies in a functionally relevant way as levels of MHC class II expression and magnitude of neutrophil induced T cell responses are correlated functions. The aim of this study was to assess whether IFN-γ induces HLA-DR on human neutrophils in a donor dependent fashion in vivo and to define regulatory events operative in MHC class II expression of neutrophils. In vivo administration of rhIFN-γ in 55 patients with renal cell carcinoma resulted in a varying increase of HLA-DR on neutrophils. By setting a cut-off for response at>10% HLA-DR positive neutrophils, HLA-DR responders (51%) were as frequent as nonresponders (49%). In vivo kinetic studies revealed a peak expression of HLA-DR on neutrophils 48 h after rhIFN-γ application, while nonresponders remained HLA-DR negative over a 72-h period. In vitro IFN-γ stimulated neutrophils recapitulated the response profiles observed in vivo. No differences in IFN-γ dependent CD64 and invariant chain expression, and IFN-γ serum levels were observed among the response subgroups. HLA-DR mRNA was detected in neutrophils from rhIFN-γ treated responders and nonresponders, HLA-DR protein solely in lysates of responder neutrophils. IFN-γ stimulated HLA-DR expression on neutrophils is subject to donor dependent variations in vivo, which result from rather post-transcriptional than transcriptional regulation. Due to their abundance in inflammatory reactions heterogeneous HLA-DR expression by neutrophils could determine the outcome of superantigen-driven diseases. PMID:12930377

  8. Hypochlorous acid regulates neutrophil extracellular trap release in humans.

    PubMed

    Palmer, L J; Cooper, P R; Ling, M R; Wright, H J; Huissoon, A; Chapple, I L C

    2012-02-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) comprise extracellular chromatin and granule protein complexes that immobilize and kill bacteria. NET release represents a recently discovered, novel anti-microbial strategy regulated non-exclusively by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), particularly hydrogen peroxide. This study aimed to characterize the role of ROIs in the process of NET release and to identify the dominant ROI trigger. We employed various enzymes, inhibitors and ROIs to record their effect fluorometrically on in vitro NET release by human peripheral blood neutrophils. Treatment with exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) supported the established link between hydrogen peroxide and NET production. However, treatment with myeloperoxidase inhibitors and direct addition of hypochlorous acid (HOCl; generated in situ from sodium hypochlorite) established that HOCl was a necessary and sufficient ROI for NET release. This was confirmed by the ability of HOCl to stimulate NET release in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patient neutrophils which, due to the lack of a functional NADPH oxidase, also lack the capacity for NET release in response to classical stimuli. Moreover, the exogenous addition of taurine, abundantly present within the neutrophil cytosol, abrogated NET production stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and HOCl, providing a novel mode of cytoprotection by taurine against oxidative stress by taurine.

  9. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  10. Testosterone suppresses oxidative stress in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; dos Santos, Rita de Cassia Macedo; Curi, Rui; Otton, Rosemari

    2010-07-01

    The in vitro effect of testosterone on human neutrophil function was investigated. Blood neutrophils from healthy male subjects were isolated and treated with 10 nM, 0.1 and 10 microM testosterone for 24 h. As compared with untreated cells, the testosterone treatment produced a significant decrease of superoxide production as indicated by the measurement of extra- and intracellular superoxide content. An increment in the production of nitric oxide was observed at 0.1 and 10 microM testosterone concentrations, whereas no effect was found for 10 nM. Intracellular calcium mobilization was significantly increased at 10 nM, whereas it was reduced at 10 microM testosterone. There was an increase in phagocytic capacity at 10 nM and a decrease of microbicidal activity in neutrophils treated with testosterone at 10 microM. Glutathione reductase activity was increased by testosterone treatment, whereas no effect was observed in other antioxidant enzyme activities. An increase in the content of thiol groups was observed at all testosterone concentrations. Lipid peroxidation in neutrophils evaluated by levels of TBARS was decreased at 10 nM and 0.1 microM testosterone. These results indicate the antioxidant properties of testosterone in neutrophils as suggested by reduction of superoxide anion production, and lipid peroxidation, and by the increase in nitric oxide production, glutathione reductase activity and the content of thiol groups. Therefore, the plasma levels of testosterone are important regulators of neutrophil function and so of the inflammatory response.

  11. Synergy between RU 28965 (roxithromycin) and human neutrophils for bactericidal activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Labro, M T; Amit, N; Babin-Chevaye, C; Hakim, J

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro effects of RU 28965 (roxithromycin), a new semisynthetic macrolide, on human neutrophil activity were compared with those of erythromycin. RU 28965, at a concentration as low as 0.1 microgram/ml, significantly enhanced the phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by neutrophils. Erythromycin displayed a less stimulating effect in a dose-dependent manner. Phagocytosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae was also increased after incubation of neutrophils with RU 28965, but killing was not altered. Neutrophil chemotaxis, myeloperoxidase activity, and O2 consumption were unchanged in the presence of RU 28965. PMID:3019233

  12. Motility and Adhesiveness in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. Wayne; Hollers, James C.; Patrick, Richard A.; Hassett, Clare

    1979-01-01

    Human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN) obtained from healthy adults were examined in vitro with techniques adapted to assess the effects of chemotactic factors (CF) on cellular configuration and adhesiveness. The results were compared with those that use certain conventional techniques for assessing chemotaxis and chemokinesis. Exposure of PMN to N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-phenylalanine (f-Met-Phe), zymosan-activated serum, bacterial chemotactic factor, or a low molecular weight chemotactic factor from activated serum (C5a) in the absence of a gradient resulted in a change in cellular shape from a spherical to a polarized configuration in a high percentage of cells. This occurred rapidly in suspension, under conditions designed to exclude a role for cell adhesiveness, and was reversible upon removal of the CF. Restimulation of cells with the CF resulted in reappearance of the polarized configuration to the same extent as on initial stimulation with one exception: f-Met-Phe pretreated cells failed to respond to f-Met-Phe, though they responded fully to the other CF. Each CF caused a significant increase in PMN attachment to protein-coated glass. This enhanced adhesiveness was not reversible upon removal of the CF when the cells were treated under conditions shown to produce chemotactic deactivation. Cells treated under these conditions also exhibited significantly reduced motility on glass and in micropore filters in the absence of a gradient of CF. Bacterial chemotactic factor, even at high concentrations, failed to produce deactivation and did not cause a sustained enhancement of adhesiveness. Images PMID:372238

  13. Leukotriene B4 binding to human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, A.H.; Ruppel, P.L.; Gorman, R.R.

    1984-12-01

    (/sup 3/H) Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) binds concentration dependently to intact human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's). The binding is saturable, reaches equilibrium in 10 min at 4 degrees C, and is readily reversible. Mathematical modeling analysis reveals biphasic binding of (/sup 3/H) LTB4 indicating two discrete populations of binding sites. The high affinity binding sites have a dissociation constant of 0.46 X 10(-9)M and Bmax of 1.96 X 10(4) sites per neutrophil; the low affinity binding sites have a dissociation constant of 541 X 10(-9)M and a Bmax of 45.16 X 10(4) sites per neutrophil. Competitive binding experiments with structural analogues of LTB4 demonstrate that the interaction between LTB4 and the binding site is stereospecific, and correlates with the relative biological activity of the analogs. At 25 degrees C (/sup 3/H) LTB4 is rapidly dissociated from the binding site and metabolized to 20-OH and 20-COOH-LTB4. Purification of neutrophils in the presence of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors significantly increases specific (/sup 3/H) LTB4 binding, suggesting that LTB4 is biosynthesized during the purification procedure. These data suggest that stereospecific binding and metabolism of LTB4 in neutrophils are tightly coupled processes.

  14. The beetroot component betanin modulates ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Kostrzewa, Artur; Łuczak, Michał; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betanin, one of the beetroot major components, on ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human resting and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate polymorphonuclear neutrophils, one of the key elements of the inflammatory response. Incubation of neutrophils with betanin in the concentration range 2-500 µM resulted in significant inhibition of ROS production (by 15-46%, depending on the ROS detection assay). The antioxidant capacity of betanin was most prominently expressed in the chemiluminescence measurements. This compound decreased also the percentage of DNA in comet tails in stimulated neutrophils, but only at the 24 h time point. In resting neutrophils an increased level of DNA in comet tails was observed. Betanin did not affect the activity of caspase-3, in resting neutrophils, but significantly enhanced the enzyme activity in stimulated neutrophils. The western blot analysis showed, however, an increased level of caspase-3 cleavage products as a result of betanin treatment both in resting and stimulated neutrophils. The results indicate that betanin may be responsible for the effect of beetroot products on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and its consequences, DNA damage and apoptosis. The dose and time dependent effects on these processes require further studies.

  15. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations degranulate human neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Teeling, J L; de Groot, E R; Eerenberg, A J M; Bleeker, W K; Van Mierlo, G; Aarden, L A; Hack, C E

    1998-01-01

    IVIG preparations have biological effects in vivo that are not fully understood. Possible effects include the property to stimulate Fc receptors on various cell types. To study whether IVIG may interact with neutrophils we developed an in vitro system, in which neutrophils, in whole blood or purified, were incubated with IVIG and assessed for degranulation by measuring the release of elastase and lactoferrin in culture medium. All commercially available IVIG preparations tested induced degranulation of neutrophils when incubated for 2 h at therapeutically relevant concentrations. In studies with blocking antibodies against Fc receptors (FcR), this degranulation was shown to be dependent on FcγRII, whereas FcγRIII had no effect. Experiments with purified neutrophils as well as binding experiments with labelled IVIG preparations indicated that neutrophil degranulation resulted from a direct interaction of IVIG with neutrophils. Using gel filtration fractions, it was found that polymeric and dimeric IgG present in IVIG was mainly responsible for the degranulation. We suggest that degranulation of neutrophils may contribute to the (side)effects of IVIG treatment in vivo. PMID:9822286

  16. Adenosine reduces reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8 production by Trichomonas vaginalis-stimulated neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Menezes, Camila Braz; Goelzer, Gustavo Krumel; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-09-06

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects the human urogenital tract causing 276.4 million new infections a year. The parasite elicits a vaginal mucosal infiltration of immune cells, especially neutrophils which are considered to be primarily responsible for cytological change observed at the infection site as well as the major contributor in the inflammatory response against the parasite. Extracellular nucleotides and their nucleosides are signaling compounds involved in several biological processes, including inflammation and immune responses. Once in the extracellular space, the nucleotides and nucleosides can directly activate the purinergic receptors. Herein, we investigated the involvement of purinergic signaling on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines by T. vaginalis-stimulated neutrophils. Parasites were able to induce an increase in ROS and IL-8 levels while they did not promote IL-6 secretion or neutrophil elastase activity. Adenine and guanine nucleotides or nucleosides were not able to modulate ROS and cytokine production; however, when T. vaginalis-stimulated neutrophils were incubated with adenosine and adenosine deaminase inhibitor, the levels of ROS and IL-8 were significantly reduced. These immunosuppressive effects were probably a response to the higher bioavailability of adenosine found in the supernatant as result of inhibition of enzyme activity. The involvement of P1 receptors was investigated by immunofluorescence and A1 receptor was the most abundant. Our data show that the influence of purinergic signaling, specifically those effects associated with adenosine accumulation, on the modulation of production of proinflammatory mediators by T. vaginalis-stimulated neutrophils contribute to the understanding of immunological aspects of trichomoniasis.

  17. In vitro activation of coagulation by human neutrophil DNA and histone proteins but not neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Noubouossie, Denis F; Whelihan, Matthew F; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal; Monroe, Dougald M; Key, Nigel S

    2017-02-23

    NETosis is a physiologic process in which neutrophils release their nuclear material in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been reported to directly promote thrombosis in animal models. Although the effects of purified NET components including DNA, histone proteins, and neutrophil enzymes on coagulation have been characterized, the mechanism by which intact NETs promote thrombosis is largely unknown. In this study, human neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) or in buffer using phorbol myristate actetate or calcium ionophore. DNA and histone proteins were also separately purified from normal human neutrophils and used to reconstitute chromatin using a salt-gradient dialysis method. Neutrophil stimulation resulted in robust NET release. In recalcified PFP, purified DNA triggered contact-dependent thrombin generation (TG) and amplified TG initiated by low concentrations of tissue factor. Similarly, in a buffer milieu, DNA initiated the contact pathway and amplified thrombin-dependent factor XI activation. Recombinant human histones H3 and H4 triggered TG in recalcified human plasma in a platelet-dependent manner. In contrast, neither intact NETs, reconstituted chromatin, individual nucleosome particles, nor octameric core histones reproduced any of these procoagulant effects. We conclude that unlike DNA or individual histone proteins, human intact NETs do not directly initiate or amplify coagulation in vitro. This difference is likely explained by the complex histone-histone and histone-DNA interactions within the nucleosome unit and higher-order supercoiled chromatin leading to neutralization of the negative charges on polyanionic DNA and modification of the binding properties of individual histone proteins. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Human resistin promotes neutrophil pro-inflammatory activation, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, and increases severity of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaoning; Park, Dae Won; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Gregoire, Murielle; Deshane, Jessy; Pittet, Jean Francois; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.

    2014-01-01

    Although resistin was recently found to modulate insulin resistance in preclinical models of type II diabetes and obesity, recent studies have also suggested that resistin has proinflammatory properties. In these studies, we examined if the human specific variant of resistin affects neutrophil activation as well as the severity of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Because human and mouse resistin have distinct patterns of tissue distribution, experiments were performed using resistin humanized mice that exclusively express human resistin (hRTN+/−/−), but are deficient in mouse resistin. Enhanced production of TNF-α or MIP-2 was found in LPS-treated hRtn+/−/−, compared to control Rtn−/−/− neutrophils. Expression of human resistin inhibited the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major sensor and regulator of cellular bioenergetics that is also implicated in inhibiting inflammatory activity of neutrophils and macrophages. In addition to the ability of resistin to sensitize neutrophils to LPS stimulation, human resistin also enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In LPS-induced ALI, humanized resistin mice demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, more severe pulmonary edema, increased NET formation, and elevated concentration of the alarmins HMGB1 and histone 3 in the lungs. Our results suggest that human resistin may play an important contributory role in enhancing TLR4 induced inflammatory responses, and may be a target for future therapies aimed at diminishing the severity of acute lung injury and other inflammatory situations where neutrophils play a major role. PMID:24719460

  19. The interactions of human neutrophils with the constituents of an experimental dental biofilm.

    PubMed

    Shapira, L; Tepper, P; Steinberg, D

    2000-10-01

    Despite the antibacterial properties of neutrophils, their ability to prevent colonization of the dental biofilm by pathogenic bacteria is limited. The present study examined the ability of human neutrophils to attach to an experimental dental biofilm and tested their antibacterial functions following adhesion. Neutrophil adhesion was greatest to hydroxyapatite (HA) in the absence of biofilm. Among the biofilms, glucosyltransferase or fructosyltransferase adsorbed onto saliva-coated HA showed the highest adhesion of cells. The adhesion of neutrophils was directly related to their initial concentration in the solution and to the duration of incubation. Plasma was found to reduce neutrophil attachment significantly, while stimulation of the cells had no effect. Stimulation of attached neutrophils induced superoxide secretion with levels significantly lower than that secreted by suspended cells. The presence of neutrophils on the biofilm reduced the number and the viability of Streptococcus mutans attached to the beads. The present findings suggest that neutrophils are able to attach to dental biofilms and that the attached neutrophils retained their antibacterial activity.

  20. Analysis of Human and Mouse Neutrophil Phagocytosis by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fine, Noah; Barzilay, Oriyah; Glogauer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are primary phagocytes that recognize their targets through surface chemistry, either through Pattern Recognition Receptor (PPR) interaction with Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) or through immunoglobulin (Ig) or complement mediated recognition. Opsonization can be important for target recognition, and phagocytosis by neutrophils in whole blood can be greatly enhanced due to the presence of blood serum components and platelets. Powerful and sensitive flow cytometry based methods are presented to measure phagocytosis by human blood neutrophils and mouse peritoneal neutrophils.

  1. Basal neutrophil function in human aging: Implications in endothelial cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Neto, Joes; Cardoso, André S C; Monteiro, Hugo P; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Junqueira, Virginia B C; Simon, Karin A

    2016-07-01

    Much attention has been drawn to the pro-inflammatory condition that accompanies aging. This study compared parameters from non-stimulated neutrophils, obtained from young (18-30 years old [y.o.]) and elderly (65-80 y.o.) human volunteers. Measured as an inflammatory marker, plasmatic concentration of hs-CRP was found higher in elderly individuals. Non-stimulated neutrophil production of ROS and NO was, respectively, 38 and 29% higher for the aged group. From the adhesion molecules evaluated, only CD11b expression was elevated in neutrophils from the aged group, whereas no differences were found for CD11a, CD18, or CD62. A 69% higher non-stimulated in vitro neutrophil/endothelial cell adhesion was observed for neutrophils isolated from elderly donors. Our results suggest that with aging, neutrophils may be constitutively producing more reactive species in closer proximity to endothelial cells of vessel walls, which may both contribute to vascular damage and reflect a neutrophil intracellular disrupted redox balance, altering neutrophil function in aging.

  2. Receptors for human γG Globulin on human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Messner, R. P.; Jelinek, J.

    1970-01-01

    Cell surface receptors for human γG antibodies directed against bacterial antigens were demonstrated on human neutrophils using an in vitro bacteriocidal-phagocytic assay. These results were confirmed by adherence of sensitized erythrocytes to monolayers of neutrophils or monocytes. Erythrocytes sensitized indirectly with antibacterial γG antibodies after passive sensitization with bacterial antigens adhered to both neutrophils and monocytes. Erythrocytes sensitized directly with conventional anti-D γG antibodies adhered only to monocytes, while those sensitized with the hyperimmune anti-CD γG antibody Ripley adhered to both monocytes and neutrophils. Adherence of anti-Rh or antibacterial γG antibodies to monocytes and neutrophils could be inhibited by whole γG, myeloma globulins of the γ1 or γ3 subclasses, or Fc fragments, but not by Fab fragment. These results indicate that receptors for the Fc portion of human γG antibodies exist on both neutrophils and monocytes, and that γG antibodies differ in their ability to attach to these two cell types. Differences in the behavior of the γG antibodies studied may be related to differences in the density of antibodies on the erythrocyte surface and receptors on the phagocytic cells. Images PMID:4991439

  3. Priming of Human Neutrophils Is Necessary for Their Activation by Extracellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Prikhodko, A S; Vitushkina, M V; Zinovkina, L A; Popova, E N; Zinovkin, R A

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular plasma DNA is thought to act as a damage-associated molecular pattern causing activation of immune cells. However, purified preparations of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA were unable to induce neutrophil activation in vitro. Thus, we examined whether granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) acting as a neutrophil priming agent can promote the activation of neutrophils by different types of extracellular DNA. GM-CSF pretreatment greatly increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and promoted CD11b/CD66b expression in human neutrophils treated with mitochondrial and, to a lesser extent, with nuclear DNA. Our experiments clearly indicate that GM-CSF-induced priming of human neutrophils is necessary for their subsequent activation by extracellular DNA.

  4. Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected neutrophils and dendritic cells cooperate to induce specific T cell responses in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Morel, Céline; Badell, Edgar; Abadie, Valérie; Robledo, Macarena; Setterblad, Niclas; Gluckman, Jean Claude; Gicquel, Brigitte; Boudaly, Sarah; Winter, Nathalie

    2008-02-01

    Neutrophils are increasingly thought to modulate dendritic cell (DC) functions. We investigated the role of the neutrophil-DC partnership in the response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG-the vaccine used against tuberculosis. We compared neutrophil-DC crosstalk in humans and mice, searching for functional differences. In both species, neutrophils captured fluorescent BCG-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and were more phagocytic than DC. Non-apoptotic BCG-infected neutrophils clustered with immature DC, establishing intimate contacts with dendrites, at which fluorescent intact bacilli were observed. Physical interactions between neutrophils and DC were required for DC activation. Human BCG-infected DC produced interleukin (IL)-10, an inhibitory cytokine, whereas DC exposed to BCG-infected neutrophils produced low to undetectable amounts of the cytokine. Mouse BCG-infected neutrophils induced sustained IL-2 production by DC. Human DC exposed to BCG-infected neutrophils stimulated recall T cell reactivity from vaccinated donors. Mouse DC infected with recombinant ovalbumin (OVA)-producing BCG (rBCG(ova)) elicited proliferation of TCR-OVA-transgenic CD4 and CD8 T cells. Moreover, exposing DC to rBCG(ova)-infected neutrophils enhanced OVA presentation. Thus, in mice and humans, neutrophils help DC to cross-present BCG antigens to T cells. Our results suggest that this "ménage à trois" involving neutrophils, DC and T cells plays a major role in the immune response to BCG.

  5. Energy metabolism of human neutrophils during phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Borregaard, N; Herlin, T

    1982-09-01

    Detailed quantitative studies were performed on the generation and utilization of energy by resting and phagocytosing human neutrophils. The ATP content was 1.9 fmol/cell, was constant during rest, and was not influenced by the presence or absence of glucose in the medium. The intracellular content of phosphocreatine was less than 0.2 fmol/cell. In the presence of glucose, ATP was generated almost exclusively from lactate produced from glucose taken up from the surrounding medium. The amount of lactate produced could account for 85% of the glucose taken up by the cells, and the intracellular glycosyl store, glycogen, was not drawn upon. The rate of ATP generation as calculated from the rate of lactate production was 1.3 fmol/cell/min. During phagocytosis, there was no measurable increase in glucose consumption or lactate production, and the ATP content fell rapidly to 0.8 fmol/cell. This disappearance of ATP was apparently irreversible since no corresponding increase in ADP or AMP was observed. It therefore appears that this phagocytosis-induced fall in ATP concentration represents all the extra energy utilized in human neutrophils in the presence of glucose. In the absence of glucose, the rate of ATP generation in the resting cell was considerably smaller, 0.75 fmol/cell per min, as calculated from the rate of glycolysis, which is sustained exclusively by glycogenolysis. Under this condition, however, phagocytosis induces significant enhancement of glycogenolysis and the rate of lactate production is increased by 60%, raising the rate of ATP generation to 1.2 fmol/cell per min. Nonetheless, the ATP content drops significantly from 1.9 to 1.0 fmol/cell. Neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease have the same rate of glycolysis and the same ATP content as normal cells, thus confirming that the defective respiration of these cells does not affect their energy metabolism.

  6. Energy Metabolism of Human Neutrophils during Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Borregaard, Niels; Herlin, Troels

    1982-01-01

    Detailed quantitative studies were performed on the generation and utilization of energy by resting and phagocytosing human neutrophils. The ATP content was 1.9 fmol/cell, was constant during rest, and was not influenced by the presence or absence of glucose in the medium. The intracellular content of phosphocreatine was less than 0.2 fmol/cell. In the presence of glucose, ATP was generated almost exclusively from lactate produced from glucose taken up from the surrounding medium. The amount of lactate produced could account for 85% of the glucose taken up by the cells, and the intracellular glycosyl store, glycogen, was not drawn upon. The rate of ATP generation as calculated from the rate of lactate production was 1.3 fmol/cell/min. During phagocytosis, there was no measurable increase in glucose consumption or lactate production, and the ATP content fell rapidly to 0.8 fmol/cell. This disappearance of ATP was apparently irreversible since no corresponding increase in ADP or AMP was observed. It therefore appears that this phagocytosis-induced fall in ATP concentration represents all the extra energy utilized in human neutrophils in the presence of glucose. In the absence of glucose, the rate of ATP generation in the resting cell was considerably smaller, 0.75 fmol/cell per min, as calculated from the rate of glycolysis, which is sustained exclusively by glycogenolysis. Under this condition, however, phagocytosis induces significant enhancement of glycogenolysis and the rate of lactate production is increased by 60%, raising the rate of ATP generation to 1.2 fmol/cell per min. Nonetheless, the ATP content drops significantly from 1.9 to 1.0 fmol/cell. Neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease have the same rate of glycolysis and the same ATP content as normal cells, thus confirming that the defective respiration of these cells does not affect their energy metabolism. PMID:7107894

  7. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals activate MAP kinase in human neutrophils: inhibition of MAP kinase, oxidase activation and degranulation responses of neutrophils by taxol.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J K; Tudan, C; Sahl, B; Pelech, S L; Burt, H M

    1997-01-01

    The activation of MAP kinase in human neutrophils stimulated by both uncoated and plasma-opsonized crystals of triclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) was investigated. The effect of taxol on MAP kinase activation and on the responses of neutrophils stimulated by plasma-opsonized crystals was determined. MAP kinase activation was identified and quantified in Mono Q chromatography separated fractions of neutrophils that had been incubated with CPPD crystals by measuring [gamma-32P]adenosine triphosphate (ATP) phosphorylation of myelin basic protein and using immunoblotting techniques. Human neutrophils were incubated with taxol (0-50 microM), added to plasma-opsonized CPPD (50 mg/ml) and MAP kinase activation, chemiluminescence, superoxide anion generation, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase release were monitored. Both uncoated and plasma coated CPPD crystals induced a large increase in MAP kinase activity in neutrophils over control levels within 1 min of incubation. Pretreatment of neutrophils with taxol was able to suppress this activation of MAP kinase. Taxol produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of opsonized CPPD-induced neutrophil chemiluminescence, superoxide anion production and myeloperoxide release. Taxol at 28 microM also significantly inhibited chemiluminescence, superoxide anion production and myeloperoxidase release from neutrophils stimulated by opsonized zymosan. This is the first report of crystal-induced activation of MAP kinase in neutrophils. Microtubule-associated processes, such as signal transduction, secretion and phagocytosis are involved in particulate-induced neutrophil responses. We have suggested that the inhibitory effect of taxol observed in this work is due to its stabilizing effect on microtubules and disruption of MAP kinase activation associated with microtubules. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9176102

  8. Commensal microbiota stimulate systemic neutrophil migration through induction of Serum amyloid A

    PubMed Central

    Kanther, Michelle; Tomkovich, Sarah; Sun, Xiaolun; Grosser, Melinda R.; Koo, Jaseol; Flynn, Edward J.; Jobin, Christian; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neutrophils serve critical roles in inflammatory responses to infection and injury, and mechanisms governing their activity represent attractive targets for controlling inflammation. The commensal microbiota is known to regulate the activity of neutrophils and other leucocytes in the intestine, but the systemic impact of the microbiota on neutrophils remains unknown. Here we utilized in vivo imaging in gnotobiotic zebrafish to reveal diverse effects of microbiota colonization on systemic neutrophil development and function. The presence of a microbiota resulted in increased neutrophil number and myeloperoxidase expression, and altered neutrophil localization and migratory behaviours. These effects of the microbiota on neutrophil homeostasis were accompanied by an increased recruitment of neutrophils to injury. Genetic analysis identified the microbiota-induced acute phase protein serum amyloid A (Saa) as a host factor mediating microbial stimulation of tissue-specific neutrophil migratory behaviours. In vitro studies revealed that zebrafish cells respond to Saa exposure by activating NF-κB, and that Saa-dependent neutrophil migration requires NF-κB-dependent gene expression. These results implicate the commensal microbiota as an important environmental factor regulating diverse aspects of systemic neutrophil development and function, and reveal a critical role for a Saa-NF-κB signalling axis in mediating neutrophil migratory responses. PMID:24373309

  9. Neutrophil Interactions Stimulate Evasive Hyphal Branching by Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Julianne; Frydman, Galit H.; Jones, Caroline N.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA), primarily caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, is an opportunistic fungal infection predominantly affecting immunocompromised and neutropenic patients that is difficult to treat and results in high mortality. Investigations of neutrophil-hypha interaction in vitro and in animal models of IA are limited by lack of temporal and spatial control over interactions. This study presents a new approach for studying neutrophil-hypha interaction at single cell resolution over time, which revealed an evasive fungal behavior triggered by interaction with neutrophils: Interacting hyphae performed de novo tip formation to generate new hyphal branches, allowing the fungi to avoid the interaction point and continue invasive growth. Induction of this mechanism was independent of neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, but could be phenocopied by iron chelation and mechanical or physiological stalling of hyphal tip extension. The consequence of branch induction upon interaction outcome depends on the number and activity of neutrophils available: In the presence of sufficient neutrophils branching makes hyphae more vulnerable to destruction, while in the presence of limited neutrophils the interaction increases the number of hyphal tips, potentially making the infection more aggressive. This has direct implications for infections in neutrophil-deficient patients and opens new avenues for treatments targeting fungal branching. PMID:28076396

  10. [Human serum albumin modified under oxidative/halogenative stress enhances luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of human neutrophils].

    PubMed

    Mikhal'chik, E V; Smolina, N V; Astamirova, T C; Gorudko, I V; Grigor'eva, D V; Ivanov, V A; Sokolov, A V; Kostevich, V A; Cherenkevich, S N; Panasenko, O M

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that human serum albumin, previously treated with HOCl (HSA-Cl), enhances luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of neutrophils activated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that addition of HSA-Cl to neutrophils promotes exocytosis of myeloperoxidase. Inhibitor of myeloperoxidase--4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, without any effect on lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of neutrophils stimulated with PMA, effectively suppressed luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (IC50 = 20 microM) under the same conditions. The transfer of the cells from medium with HSA-Cl and myeloperoxidase to fresh medium abolished an increase in PMA-induced luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, but not the ability of neutrophils to respond to re-addition of HSA-Cl. A direct and significant (r = 0.75, p) correlation was observed between the intensity of PMA stimulated neutrophil chemiluminescence response and myeloperoxidase activity in the cell-free media after chemiluminescence measurements. These results suggest the involvement of myeloperoxidase in the increase of neutrophil PMA-stimulated chemiluminescence response in the presence of HSA-Cl. A significant positive correlation was found between myeloperoxidase activity in blood plasma of children with severe burns and the enhancing effects of albumin fraction of the same plasma on luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of PMA-stimulated donor neutrophils. These results support a hypothesis that proteins modified in reactions involving myeloperoxidase under oxidative/halogenative stress, stimulate neutrophils, leading to exocytosis of myeloperoxidase, a key element of halogenative stress, and to closing a "vicious circle" of neutrophil activation at the inflammatory site.

  11. Exercise-induced extracellular 72 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp72) stimulates neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities via TLR-2.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Esther; Martin-Cordero, Leticia; Garcia, Juan Jose; Gehrmann, Mathias; Gerhmann, Mathias; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ortega, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) in the interaction of 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp72, a stress-inducible protein) with neutrophils and the participation on TLR-2 in the stimulation of neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities by post-exercise physiological concentrations of Hsp72. Human peripheral blood neutrophils were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Hsp72, and were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Both methods revealed an interaction of Hsp72 with neutrophils. In addition, when neutrophils were pre-incubated with an anti-TLR-2 antibody this interaction was clearly decreased. Post-exercise circulating concentration of Hsp72 (8.6 ng/ml) stimulated the phagocytic and fungicidal capacities of neutrophils and this effect could be also blocked using an antibody against TLR-2. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the nuclear transcription factor kappa beta (NF-kappabeta) were found to be involved in the signaling process, confirming the participation of TLR-2 in the stimulation of neutrophil function by Hsp72. In conclusion, TLR-2 is involved at least in part, in the stimulation of neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities induced by post-exercise physiological concentrations of Hsp72.

  12. A Simple and Efficient Method to Detect Nuclear Factor Activation in Human Neutrophils by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Erick; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in peripheral blood. These cells are the first to appear at sites of inflammation and infection, thus becoming the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophils possess important antimicrobial functions such as phagocytosis, release of lytic enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species. In addition to these important defense functions, neutrophils perform other tasks in response to infection such as production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibition of apoptosis. Cytokines recruit other leukocytes that help clear the infection, and inhibition of apoptosis allows the neutrophil to live longer at the site of infection. These functions are regulated at the level of transcription. However, because neutrophils are short-lived cells, the study of transcriptionally regulated responses in these cells cannot be performed with conventional reporter gene methods since there are no efficient techniques for neutrophil transfection. Here, we present a simple and efficient method that allows detection and quantification of nuclear factors in isolated and immunolabeled nuclei by flow cytometry. We describe techniques to isolate pure neutrophils from human peripheral blood, stimulate these cells with anti-receptor antibodies, isolate and immunolabel nuclei, and analyze nuclei by flow cytometry. The method has been successfully used to detect NF-κB and Elk-1 nuclear factors in nuclei from neutrophils and other cell types. Thus, this method represents an option for analyzing activation of transcription factors in isolated nuclei from a variety of cell types. PMID:23603868

  13. Functional relationship of the cytochrome b to the superoxide-generating oxidase of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Schervish, E W; Santinga, J T

    1982-04-25

    A subcellular particulate fraction containing the NADPH-dependent O2.--generating oxidase from stimulated human neutrophils was prepared. This fraction was depleted of certain enzyme markers of primary and secondary granules and was devoid of measurable myeloperoxidase, both enzymatically and spectrally. When prepared from neutrophils which had been previously stimulated with phorbal myristate acetate, this fraction contained cyanide-insensitive, pyridine nucleotide-dependent O2.--generating activity with a specific activity of 260 nmol min-1 mg-1. O2.--generating activity is completely ablated by p-chloromercuribenzoate exposure. Preparations from normal unstimulated neutrophils or stimulated neutrophils from a male patient with chronic granulomatous disease had negligible amounts of this O2.--generating enzymatic activity. The dominant chromophore in this preparation was a b-type cytochrome, the spectral and functional characteristics of which are further described herein. Pyridine nucleotide-dependent reduction of the intrinsic cytochrome b closely parallels O2.- generation in this preparation. Specifically, reduction occurs in preparations from phorbal myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils and is absent in unstimulated or stimulated p-chloromercuribenzoate-inactivated preparations.

  14. Effect of tannic acid, resveratrol and its derivatives, on oxidative damage and apoptosis in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2015-10-01

    In this study we compared the antioxidant and DNA protective activity of tannic acid and stilbene derivatives, resveratrol, 3,5,4(')-trimethoxystilbene (TMS) and pterostilbene in human neutrophils stimulated to oxidative burst by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in relation to apoptosis induction. All polyphenols within the concentration range 1-100 μM reduced the intracellular ROS and H2O2 production in the TPA-stimulated cells. Tannic acid was the most effective polyphenol in protection against DNA damage induced by TPA. In the resting neutrophils resveratrol and to lesser extent other polyphenols increased DNA damage and increased the level of p53. Pretreatment of the TPA-stimulated cells with tannic acid or stilbenes led to the induction of apoptosis. The most significant effect was observed as a result of treatment with TMS and resveratrol. These compounds appeared the most effective inducers of p53 in the TPA-challenged neutrophils, what may suggest that pro-apoptotic activity of these stilbenes might be related to p53 activation. Overall, the results of our present study demonstrate that tannic acid and stilbenes modulate the ROS production, ultimately leading to cell apoptosis in human neutrophils stimulated to oxidative burst. In resting neutrophils they exhibit pro-oxidant activity, which is accompanied by p53 induction.

  15. Human neutrophils phagocytose and kill Acinetobacter baumannii and A. pittii.

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Díez, María; Chapartegui-González, Itziar; Redondo-Salvo, Santiago; Leigh, Chike; Merino, David; Segundo, David San; Navas, Jesús; Icardo, José Manuel; Acosta, Félix; Ocampo-Sosa, Alain; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Ramos-Vivas, José

    2017-07-04

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a common cause of health care associated infections worldwide. A. pittii is an opportunistic pathogen also frequently isolated from Acinetobacter infections other than those from A. baumannii. Knowledge of Acinetobacter virulence factors and their role in pathogenesis is scarce. Also, there are no detailed published reports on the interactions between A. pittii and human phagocytic cells. Using confocal laser and scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and live-cell imaging, our study shows that immediately after bacteria-cell contact, neutrophils rapidly and continuously engulf and kill bacteria during at least 4 hours of infection in vitro. After 3 h of infection, neutrophils start to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) against Acinetobacter. DNA in NETs colocalizes well with human histone H3 and with the specific neutrophil elastase. We have observed that human neutrophils use large filopodia as cellular tentacles to sense local environment but also to detect and retain bacteria during phagocytosis. Furthermore, co-cultivation of neutrophils with human differentiated macrophages before infections shows that human neutrophils, but not macrophages, are key immune cells to control Acinetobacter. Although macrophages were largely activated by both bacterial species, they lack the phagocytic activity demonstrated by neutrophils.

  16. Physiological concentrations of leptin do not affect human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Vera M; Langereis, Jeroen D; van Aalst, Corneli W; van der Linden, Jan A; Ulfman, Laurien H; Koenderman, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that is thought to be important in many inflammatory diseases, and is known to influence the function of several leukocyte types. However, no clear consensus is present regarding the responsiveness of neutrophils for this adipokine. In this study a 2D DIGE proteomics approach was used as an unbiased approach to identify leptin-induced effects on neutrophils. Additionally chemotaxis and survival experiments were performed to reproduce results from literature showing putative effects of leptin on these neutrophil responses. Leptin did not induce any significant changes in the proteome provided leptin was added at physiologically relevant concentrations (250 ng). Our leptin batches were biologically active as they induced proliferation in LeptinR expressing Ba/F3 cells. At high concentrations (25000 ng) leptin induced a change in neutrophil proteome. Seventeen differently regulated spots were identified of which twelve could be characterized by mass spectrometry. Two of these identified proteins, SerpinB1 and p40 phox, were chosen for further analysis but leptin-induced expression analyzed by western blot were highly variable. Additionally leptin also induced neutrophil survival at these high concentrations. No leptin-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils was detected at any concentration. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of leptin do not affect neutrophils. High leptin concentrations induced survival and changes in the neutrophils proteome, but this was most likely mediated by an indirect effect. However, it cannot be ruled out that the effects were mediated by a yet not-identified leptin receptor on human neutrophils.

  17. Extracellular Ca2+ regulates the respiratory burst of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Bei, L; Hu, T; Qian, Z M; Shen, X

    1998-09-16

    The role of extracellular calcium in the activation of respiratory burst in human neutrophils was studied by using the receptor agonist, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and the activator of protein kinase C phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The level of intracellular free calcium was measured by using both cell suspensions and single cells in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium. The Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, was used to activate higher Ca2+ influx, while a novel calcium channel blocker, panax notoginseng saponins (PNGS) was used to block the Ca2+ entry from extracellular space during the responding period of cells. It was found that about two-thirds of the activation of respiratory burst initiated by the receptor agonist were attributed to the Ca2+ influx under normal physiological conditions. The higher Ca2+ influx resulted in tremendous enhancement of the intensity of respiratory burst initiated by fMLP and marked acceleration of the onset of the respiratory burst stimulated by PMA. It is evident that both intra- and extracellular Ca2+ are required for full activation of the respiratory burst of human neutrophils, and the Ca2+ influx from extracellular space plays an important role either in generation of reactive oxygen metabolites or in activation of protein kinase C.

  18. Mediators of neutrophil recruitment in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Houard, Xavier; Touat, Ziad; Ollivier, Véronique; Louedec, Liliane; Philippe, Monique; Sebbag, Uriel; Meilhac, Olivier; Rossignol, Patrick; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2009-01-01

    Aims Neutrophils/platelet interactions are involved in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is a human model of platelet/neutrophil interactions. The present study focused on mediators involved in neutrophil recruitment in AAA. Methods and results Conditioned media from luminal, intermediate, and abluminal layers of 29 human ILTs were analysed for neutrophil markers [elastase/α1-antitrypsin and MMP9/NGAL complexes, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and α-defensin peptides], RANTES, platelet factor 4 (PF4), and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Their time-dependent release into serum from clots generated in vitro and their plasma concentrations in AAA patients and controls were determined. Immunohistochemistry for neutrophils, platelets, IL-8, PF4, and RANTES on AAA sections was performed; and molecules involved in ILT neutrophil chemotactic function were analysed in vitro. Neutrophils and platelets colocalized in the luminal layer of the thrombus. Consistently, neutrophil markers and platelet-derived RANTES and PF4 were released predominantly by the luminal thrombus pole, where their concentrations were significantly correlated. The luminal ILT layer was also the main source of IL-8, whose immunostaining colocalized with neutrophils. All were also released time dependently from clots and were increased in plasma of AAA patients. Luminal ILT layers displayed potent neutrophil chemotactic activity in vitro, which was inhibited by RANTES- and IL-8-blocking antibodies as well as by reparixin, an antagonist of the IL-8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that platelet-derived RANTES and neutrophil-derived IL-8 are involved in attracting neutrophils to the luminal layer of AAA ILT. PMID:19201759

  19. p38 MAPK is involved in human neutrophil chemotaxis induced by L-amino acid oxidase from Calloselasma rhodosthoma.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Adriana S; Setúbal, Sulamita da S; Nery, Neriane Monteiro; da Silva, Francisquinha Souza; da Silva, Silvana D; Fernandes, Carla F C; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2016-09-01

    The action of LAAO, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodosthoma snake venom, on isolated human neutrophil function was investigated. Cr-LAAO showed no toxicity on neutrophils. Cr-LAAO in its native form induced the neutrophil chemotaxis, suggesting that its primary structure is essential for stimulation the cell. p38 MAPK and PI3K have a role as signaling pathways of CR-LAAO induced chemotaxis. This toxin also induced the production of hydrogen peroxide and stimulated phagocytosis in neutrophils. Furthermore, Cr-LAAO was able to stimulate neutrophils to release IL-6, IL-8, MPO, LTB4 and PGE2. Together, the data showed that the Cr-LAAO triggers relevant proinflammatory events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subcellular localization of H/sup 2/O/sup 2/ production in human neutrophils stimulated with particles and an effect of cytochalasin-B on the cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Y.; Hirai, K.; Kanoh, T.; Uchino, H.; Ogawa, K.

    1982-07-01

    The ultrastructural localization of H/sup 2/O/sup 2/ production in suspended polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) stimulated with particles was studied using CeCl/sup 3/ technique. PMN stimulated with opsonized zymosan or polystylene latex with or without IgG were incubated in 0.1 M Tris-maleate buffer with 1 mM CeCl/sup 3/ and 10 mM aminotriazole. Cells were then fixed and embedded in a resin for electron microscopy. The reaction product of cerium perhydroxide was observed on the phagosomal membranes and on the areas of the plasma membrane engulfing the particles. Catalase or ferricytochrome-c decreased the deposits. p-Benzoquinone (O/sup 2/- scavenger) inhibited the formation of the deposits, but KCN or NaN/sup 3/ enhanced it. Pretreatment with p-diazobenzenesulfonic acid inhibited the reaction. In some PMN pretreated with cytochalasin-B, cellular aggregation was observed. The H/sup 2/O/sup 2/ production in these cells were observed on the membrane adherent to the particles and on the contact surface of the membrane of adjoining PMN. The plasma membrane was damaged and the electron-dense product was diffused into the cytoplasm. These results clearly show that H/sup 2/O/sup 2/ production is initiated at the area of the plasma membrane adherent to the particles and that H/sup 2/O/sup 2/ is released before the completion of phagocytosis.

  1. β2-Adrenergic receptor regulation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic

    PubMed Central

    de Coupade, Catherine; Gear, Robert W; Dazin, Paul F; Sroussi, Herve Y; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2004-01-01

    While the mechanisms underlying the marked sexual dimorphism in inflammatory diseases are not well understood, the sexually dimorphic sympathoadrenal axis profoundly affects the inflammatory response. We tested whether adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic, since neutrophils provide the first line of defense in the inflammatory response. There was a marked sexual dimorphism in β2-adrenergic receptor binding, using the specific β2-adrenergic receptor ligand, [3H]-dihydroalprenolol, with almost three times more binding sites on neutrophils from females (20,878±2470) compared to males (7331±3179). There was also a marked sexual dimorphism in the effects of isoprenaline, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, which increased nondirected locomotion (chemokinesis) in neutrophils obtained from females, while having no effect on neutrophils from males. Isoprenaline stimulated the release of a chemotactic factor from neutrophils obtained from females, but not from males. This chemotactic factor acts on the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) chemokine receptor, since an anti-CXCR2 antibody and the selective nonpeptide CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, inhibited chemotaxis produced by this factor. While interleukin- (IL-) 8 is a principal CXCR2 ligand, isoprenaline did not produce an increase in IL-8 release from neutrophils. IL-8-induced chemotaxis was inhibited in a sexually dimorphic manner by isoprenaline, which also stimulated release of a mediator from neutrophils that induced chemotaxis, that was inhibited by anti-CXCR2 antibodies. These findings indicate an important role for adrenergic receptors in the modulation of neutrophil trafficking, which could contribute to sex-differences in the inflammatory response. PMID:15477226

  2. Various Molecular Species of Diacylglycerol Hydroperoxide Activate Human Neutrophils via PKC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Takekoshi, Susumu; Tanino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Keiichi; Nakano, Minoru; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed that diacylglycerol hydroperoxide-induced unregulated signal transduction causes oxidative stress-related diseases. In this study, we investigated which molecular species of diacylglycerol hydroperoxide activated human peripheral neutrophils. All diacylglycerol hydroperoxides, diacylglycerol hydroxides, and diacyglycerols tested in the present study induced superoxide production by neutrophils. The ability to activate neutrophils among molecular species containing the same fatty acid composition was as follows; diacylglycerol hydroperoxide>diacylglycerol hydroxide≥diacylglycerol. The diacylglycerol hydroperoxide composed of linoleate was a stronger activator for neutrophils than that composed of arachidonate. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylglycerol hydroperoxide (PLG-OOH) was the strongest stimulator for neutrophils. We reconfirmed that PLG-OOH activated protein kinase C (PKC) in neutrophils. PLG-OOH induced the phosphorylation of p47phox, a substrate of PKC and a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase, in neutrophils, as did N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-13α-acetate. Moreover, the time course of p47phox phosphorylation was comparable to that of superoxide production. These results suggest that PLG-OOH activated intracellular protein kinase C. PLG-OOH, produced via an uncontrolled process, can act as a biological second messenger to cause inflammatory disease from oxidative stress. PMID:18392102

  3. Activation of the human neutrophil respiratory burst with zymosan-activated serum.

    PubMed

    Smith, R J; Iden, S S; Bowman, B J

    1984-06-15

    Zymosan-activated serum ( ZAS ) stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent generation of superoxide anion (O-2) by human neutrophils. O-2 production was rapid with maximum generation occurring 2 minutes after cell exposure to ZAS . O-2 generation is markedly reduced if cells are not preincubated with cytochalasin B prior to contact with ZAS . The amount of O-2 produced by ZAS stimulated neutrophils was enhanced in the presence of extra-cellular calcium. However, the intracellular calcium antagonist, 8-(N,N-diethylamino)-octyl-(3,4,5-trimethoxy) benzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8), caused a dose-related inhibition of ZAS -elicited O-2 production. Neutrophils pretreated with ZAS were desensitized to the subsequent exposure to this stimulus. The fact that pretreatment of neutrophils with ZAS did not diminish the capacity of these cells to generate O-2 in response to 1-O-hexadecyl/octadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AGEPC),N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or 5(5),12(R)-dihydroxy-6,14-cis-8,10-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid (LTB4), demonstrates the stimulus specific nature of ZAS -induced desensitization. Thus, ZAS , which contains the complement-derived neutrophil activator, C5a, a naturally occurring phlogistic mediator, represents a relevant probe for investigating neutrophil function.

  4. Priming by grepafloxacin on respiratory burst of human neutrophils: its possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Masayuki; Kanamori, Yutaka; Hotta, Koichi; Matsuno, Hiroyuki; Kozawa, Osamu; Fujimoto, Sadaki; Uematsu, Toshihiko

    2002-10-01

    Grepafloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone derivative that has good tissue penetration. We demonstrated that grepafloxacin showed a priming effect on neutrophil respiratory burst, triggered by either a chemotactic factor N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or leukotriene B4 (LTB4), but not by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The priming effect of grepafloxacin on fMLP-stimulated superoxide generation by human neutrophils correlated with the penetration of grepafloxacin into cells. Removal of extracellular grepafloxacin did not inhibit the priming effect on fMLP-stimulated superoxide generation. Furthermore, grepafloxacin induced the translocation of p47-phox and p67-phox to the membrane fraction of neutrophils, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation was hardly observed in neutrophils exposed to grepafloxacin. The priming effect of grepafloxacin on superoxide generation from neutrophils was not inhibited by treatment with pertussis toxin, a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ST-638) or a protein kinase C inhibitor (calphostin C), or chelation of extracellular calcium. Grepafloxacin did not change the fMLP receptor-binding properties. Taken together, these findings suggest that grepafloxacin evokes a priming effect on neutrophil superoxide generation intracellularly through the translocation of p47-phox and even p67-phox protein to the membrane fractions. GTP binding protein, protein-tyrosine phosphorylation and protein kinase C activation are not involved in the priming effect.

  5. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Michael D.; Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  6. Inhibitory effects of zafirlukast on respiratory bursts of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Braga, P C; Dal Sasso, M; Dal Negro, R

    2002-01-01

    The effects of zafirlukast, a cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist, on the generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) released during respiratory bursts of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of zafirlukast to interfere with the respiratory burst of PMNs. Respiratory burst responses of PMNs were investigated by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (LACL) using particulate (Candida albicans and zymosan) and soluble stimulants [N-formyl-methionylleucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate (PMA)]. When incubated with PMNs for 10 min at concentrations ranging from 5 x 10(-9) M to 5 x 10(-6) M, zafirlukast did not significantly affect the respiratory bursts of PMNs induced by either the particulate or soluble stimuli. However, after incubation for 60 min, it did reduce the respiratory bursts of PMNs in a concentration-related fashion when the PMNs were stimulated with fMLP, and at a concentration of 5 x 10(-6) M when the stimulus was PMA. No significant effects were seen when the PMNs were challenged with particulate stimuli. Zafirlukast is able to interfere with the activation of the PMNs respiratory burst induced by soluble stimulants. The different behavior determined by different times of contact and different stimuli opens the way to interpretations concerning the antioxidant effect of zafirlukast.

  7. Generation of chemiluminescence by a particulate fraction isolated from human neutrophils. Analysis of molecular events.

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, L C; DeChatelet, L R; Johnston, R B

    1979-01-01

    A particulate fraction isolated from human neutrophils by homogenization, then centrifugation at 27,000 g, was demonstrated to generate chemiluminescence. This luminescence required the addition of reduced pyridine nucleotide and was very low in fractions from resting normal cells. Stimulation of neutrophils with opsonized zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate, or ionophore A23187 resulted in marked enhancement of the chemiluminescence measured in subsequently isolated particulate fractions. Stimulation did not boost the luminescence produced by fractions from cells of patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The chemiluminescence of particulate fractions from stimulated neutrophils was linear with increasing protein concentration, had a pH optimum of 7.0, and was higher with NADPH as substrate than with NADH. These results confirm previous studies suggesting that the enzyme system responsible for the respiratory burst in neutrophils is present in this fraction. The particulate fraction was used to examine the nature and origin of neutrophil luminescence by investigating the effect on this phenomenon of certain chemical and enzymatic scavengers of oxygen metabolites. Results suggest that the energy responsible for the luminescence of particulate fractions and, presumably, the intact cell, is derived from more than one oxygen species and that luminescence is a product of the interaction of these species and excitable substrates within the cell. PMID:35551

  8. The subcellular particulate NADPH-dependent O2.(-)-generating oxidase from human blood monocytes: comparison to the neutrophil system.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, A N; Santinga, J T; Gabig, T G

    1982-10-01

    Highly purified preparations of normal human monocytes obtained from peripheral blood were shown to contain a subcellular particulate O2.(-)-generating oxidase system. This O2.(-)-generating activity was present in particulate preparations from monocytes that had been previously stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate but was low or absent in control preparations from unstimulated monocytes or stimulated monocytes from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. In the stimulated preparations from normal monocytes, O2.(-)-generation was linearly proportional to cell protein concentration, insensitive to inhibition by azide, and dependent on NADPH as substrate. These characteristics are similar to the O2.(-)-generating oxidase system from human neutrophils. A significant difference in the apparent Km for NADPH was shown between preparations from stimulated monocytes and neutrophils (monocyte 83 +/- 16 microM, neutrophil 31 +/- 5 microM, mean +/- SE). Additionally, affinity of the stimulated monocyte particulate preparation for NADH was unmeasurably low.

  9. Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on neutrophil function in idiopathic bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hélène; Gertig, Helen; Hester, Katy L M; Macfarlane, James G; Corris, Paul A; Simpson, A John; De Soyza, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Neutrophils are consistently found in inflamed and infected airways in idiopathic bronchiectasis, but relatively little is known about the function of blood neutrophils in this condition. We hypothesized that peripheral blood neutrophil (PBN) phagocytosis and superoxide generation are impaired in bronchiectasis, and that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is capable of improving neutrophil function. Neutrophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with idiopathic bronchiectasis who were free of exacerbation, and from healthy controls of similar age (n = 21 in both groups). Ingestion of serum-opsonized zymosan by neutrophils was used to quantify phagocytic capacity. Superoxide generation in neutrophils was measured in response to addition of platelet activating factor and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Experiments were performed in the presence or absence of GM-CSF. No differences were observed in either phagocytic capacity (P = 0.99) or superoxide generation (P = 0.81) when comparing patients and controls. However, a significant increase in phagocytic capacity above baseline levels in both patients (P < 0.005) and controls (P < 0.005) was induced by GM-CSF. Similarly, the superoxide generation in patients (P < 0.005) and controls (P = 0.001) was significantly increased by GM-CSF. PBN function was preserved in idiopathic bronchiectasis. Enhancement of neutrophil phagocytosis and superoxide generation by GM-CSF requires further study. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Cutting Edge: Helicobacter pylori Induces Nuclear Hypersegmentation and Subtype Differentiation of Human Neutrophils In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Laura C; Weems, Megan N; Allen, Lee-Ann H

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and causes a spectrum of disease that includes gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma. A chronic, neutrophil-rich inflammatory response characterizes this infection. It is established that H. pylori stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis and a robust respiratory burst, but other aspects of this interaction are incompletely defined. We demonstrate here that H. pylori induces N1-like subtype differentiation of human neutrophils as indicated by profound nuclear hypersegmentation, a CD62L(dim), CD16(bright), CD11b(bright), CD66b(bright), CD63(bright) surface phenotype, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity. Hypersegmentation requires direct neutrophil-H. pylori contact as well as transcription and both host and bacterial protein synthesis, but not urease, NapA, VacA, CagA, or CagT. The concept of neutrophil plasticity is new and, to our knowledge, these data are the first evidence that neutrophils can undergo subtype differentiation in vitro in response to bacterial pathogen infection. We hypothesize that these changes favor H. pylori persistence and disease.

  11. Wolbachia endosymbionts induce neutrophil extracellular trap formation in human onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Tamarozzi, Francesca; Turner, Joseph D.; Pionnier, Nicolas; Midgley, Angela; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Johnston, Kelly L.; Edwards, Steven W.; Taylor, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, induce neutrophilic responses to the human helminth pathogen Onchocerca volvulus. The formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs), has been implicated in anti-microbial defence, but has not been identified in human helminth infection. Here, we demonstrate NETs formation in human onchocerciasis. Extracellular NETs and neutrophils were visualised around O. volvulus in nodules excised from untreated patients but not in nodules from patients treated with the anti-Wolbachia drug, doxycycline. Whole Wolbachia or microspheres coated with a synthetic Wolbachia lipopeptide (WoLP) of the major nematode Wolbachia TLR2/6 ligand, peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein, induced NETosis in human neutrophils in vitro. TLR6 dependency of Wolbachia and WoLP NETosis was demonstrated using purified neutrophils from TLR6 deficient mice. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that NETosis occurs during natural human helminth infection and demonstrate a mechanism of NETosis induction via Wolbachia endobacteria and direct ligation of Wolbachia lipoprotein by neutrophil TLR2/6. PMID:27752109

  12. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing. Images PMID:3771800

  13. Expression and bioregulation of the kallikrein-related peptidases family in the human neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Alejandro J; Andrade, Yessica; Colivoro, Patricio; Sarmiento, Jose; Matus, Carola E; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2015-08-01

    The family of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) has been identified in a variety of immunolabeled human tissue sections, but no previous study has experimentally confirmed their presence in the human neutrophil. We have investigated the expression and bioregulation of particular KLKs in the human neutrophil and, in addition, examined whether stimulation by a kinin B(1) receptor (B1R) agonist or fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) induces their secretion. Western blot analysis of neutrophil homogenates indicated that the MM of the KLKs ranged from 27 to 50 kDa. RT-PCR showed that blood neutrophils expressed only KLK1, KLK4, KLK10, KLK13, KLK14 and KLK15 mRNAs, whereas the non-differentiated HL-60 cells expressed most of them, with exception of KLK3 and KLK7. Nevertheless, mRNAs for KLK2, KLK5, KLK6 and KLK9 that were previously undetectable appeared after challenging with a mixture of cytokines. Both kinin B(1)R agonist and fMLP induced secretion of KLK1, KLK6, KLK10, KLK13 and KLK14 into the culture medium in similar amounts, whereas the B(1)R agonist caused the release of lower amounts of KLK2, KLK4 and KLK5. When secreted, the differing proteolytic activity of KLKs provides the human neutrophil with a multifunctional enzymatic capacity supporting a new dimension for its role in human disorders of diverse etiology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  15. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  16. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface. Images PMID:46842

  17. Granulopoiesis and granules of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Cowland, Jack B; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Granules are essential for the ability of neutrophils to fulfill their role in innate immunity. Granule membranes contain proteins that react to environmental cues directing neutrophils to sites of infection and initiate generation of bactericidal oxygen species. Granules are densely packed with proteins that contribute to microbial killing when liberated to the phagosome or extracellularly. Granules are, however, highly heterogeneous and are traditionally subdivided into azurophil granules, specific granules, and gelatinase granules in addition to secretory vesicles. This review will address issues pertinent to formation of granules, which is a process intimately connected to maturation of neutrophils from their precursors in the bone marrow. We further discuss possible mechanisms by which decisions are made regarding sorting of proteins to constitutive secretion or storage in granules and how degranulation of granule subsets is regulated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. AKT-mediated regulation of polarization in differentiated human neutrophil-like HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenying; Chu, Xinwei; Cai, Chunqing; Zou, Mengchen; Meng, Xiaojing; Chen, Haiyang; Zou, Fei

    2012-08-01

    Neutrophil polarization is critical for the inflammatory response. AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase and has been implicated in cell migration. However, it is not completely clear whether AKT affects neutrophil polarization. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AKT regulates the polarization of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells (dHL-60) in response to fMLP. HL-60 cells were differentiated into dHL-60 by incubation in medium containing 1.3 % DMSO for up to 6 days. Polarization of dHL-60 cells and primary human neutrophils were measured by Zigmond chamber. Phospho-Akt was analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. F-actin polymerization was detected by Rhodamine-Phalloidine staining. Rac2 activation was evaluated using GST Pull-down assay. We found that changes in the rate of cell polarization were consistent with the changes in AKT phosphorylation levels during HL-60 cell differentiation in response to fMLP. Moreover, cell polarization and AKT phosphorylation were reduced in fMLP-stimulated dHL-60 cells pretreated with the PI3 kinase inhibitors or the AKT inhibitors, which was confirmed in the primary human neutrophils. The AKT inhibitors altered fMLP-induced F-actin polymerization. Rac2 GTPases was also decreased by the AKT inhibitors in fMLP-stimulated dHL-60 cells. This study demonstrates that AKT activation plays a crucial role in dHL-60 cell polarization.

  19. Physiological Concentrations of Leptin Do Not Affect Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Vera M.; Langereis, Jeroen D.; van Aalst, Corneli W.; van der Linden, Jan A.; Ulfman, Laurien H.; Koenderman, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that is thought to be important in many inflammatory diseases, and is known to influence the function of several leukocyte types. However, no clear consensus is present regarding the responsiveness of neutrophils for this adipokine. In this study a 2D DIGE proteomics approach was used as an unbiased approach to identify leptin-induced effects on neutrophils. Additionally chemotaxis and survival experiments were performed to reproduce results from literature showing putative effects of leptin on these neutrophil responses. Leptin did not induce any significant changes in the proteome provided leptin was added at physiologically relevant concentrations (250 ng). Our leptin batches were biologically active as they induced proliferation in LeptinR expressing Ba/F3 cells. At high concentrations (25000 ng) leptin induced a change in neutrophil proteome. Seventeen differently regulated spots were identified of which twelve could be characterized by mass spectrometry. Two of these identified proteins, SerpinB1 and p40 phox, were chosen for further analysis but leptin-induced expression analyzed by western blot were highly variable. Additionally leptin also induced neutrophil survival at these high concentrations. No leptin-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils was detected at any concentration. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of leptin do not affect neutrophils. High leptin concentrations induced survival and changes in the neutrophils proteome, but this was most likely mediated by an indirect effect. However, it cannot be ruled out that the effects were mediated by a yet not-identified leptin receptor on human neutrophils. PMID:24066032

  20. Characterization of the inhibitory prostanoid receptors on human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeldon, A.; Vardey, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have evaluated the effects of various prostanoid agonists on the release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and superoxide anions (O2-) from human neutrophils stimulated with opsonized zymosan (OZ) and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), respectively. 2. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGD2 inhibited both OZ-induced LTB4 release (EC50 0.72 microM and 0.91 microM respectively), and FMLP-induced O2- release (EC50 0.42 microM and 0.50 microM respectively). PGF2 alpha, the TP-receptor agonist, U46619, and the IP-receptor agonist, iloprost, were also active, but were all at least an order of magnitude less potent than PGE2 and PGD2. 3. The EP2/EP3-receptor agonist, misoprostol, and the selective EP2-agonist, AH13205, were both effective inhibitors of LTB4 release, being approximately equipotent with and 16-times less potent than PGE2, respectively. In contrast, the EP1/EP3-receptor agonist, sulprostone, had no inhibitory activity at concentrations of up to 10 microM. 4. The selective DP-receptor agonist, BW245C, inhibited LTB4 release, (EC50 0.006 microM) being approximately 50 times more potent than PGD2. BW245C also inhibited O2- release, and this inhibition was antagonized competitively by the DP-receptor blocking drug, AH6809 (pA2 6.6). 5. These data indicate the presence of both inhibitory EP- and DP-receptors on the human neutrophil. The rank order of potency of EP-receptor agonists suggest that the EP-receptors are of the EP2-subtype. PMID:8387383

  1. Human neutrophil kinetics: modeling of stable isotope labeling data supports short blood neutrophil half-lives.

    PubMed

    Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Elemans, Marjet; Zhang, Yan; Ahmed, Raya; Salam, Arafa; Block, Michael; Niederalt, Christoph; Asquith, Becca; Macallan, Derek

    2016-06-30

    Human neutrophils have traditionally been thought to have a short half-life in blood; estimates vary from 4 to 18 hours. This dogma was recently challenged by stable isotope labeling studies with heavy water, which yielded estimates in excess of 3 days. To investigate this disparity, we generated new stable isotope labeling data in healthy adult subjects using both heavy water (n = 4) and deuterium-labeled glucose (n = 9), a compound with more rapid labeling kinetics. To interpret results, we developed a novel mechanistic model and applied it to previously published (n = 5) and newly generated data. We initially constrained the ratio of the blood neutrophil pool to the marrow precursor pool (ratio = 0.26; from published values). Analysis of heavy water data sets yielded turnover rates consistent with a short blood half-life, but parameters, particularly marrow transit time, were poorly defined. Analysis of glucose-labeling data yielded more precise estimates of half-life (0.79 ± 0.25 days; 19 hours) and marrow transit time (5.80 ± 0.42 days). Substitution of this marrow transit time in the heavy water analysis gave a better-defined blood half-life of 0.77 ± 0.14 days (18.5 hours), close to glucose-derived values. Allowing the ratio of blood neutrophils to mitotic neutrophil precursors (R) to vary yielded a best-fit value of 0.19. Reanalysis of the previously published model and data also revealed the origin of their long estimates for neutrophil half-life: an implicit assumption that R is very large, which is physiologically untenable. We conclude that stable isotope labeling in healthy humans is consistent with a blood neutrophil half-life of less than 1 day. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Human neutrophil kinetics: modeling of stable isotope labeling data supports short blood neutrophil half-lives

    PubMed Central

    Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Elemans, Marjet; Zhang, Yan; Ahmed, Raya; Salam, Arafa; Block, Michael; Niederalt, Christoph; Macallan, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Human neutrophils have traditionally been thought to have a short half-life in blood; estimates vary from 4 to 18 hours. This dogma was recently challenged by stable isotope labeling studies with heavy water, which yielded estimates in excess of 3 days. To investigate this disparity, we generated new stable isotope labeling data in healthy adult subjects using both heavy water (n = 4) and deuterium-labeled glucose (n = 9), a compound with more rapid labeling kinetics. To interpret results, we developed a novel mechanistic model and applied it to previously published (n = 5) and newly generated data. We initially constrained the ratio of the blood neutrophil pool to the marrow precursor pool (ratio = 0.26; from published values). Analysis of heavy water data sets yielded turnover rates consistent with a short blood half-life, but parameters, particularly marrow transit time, were poorly defined. Analysis of glucose-labeling data yielded more precise estimates of half-life (0.79 ± 0.25 days; 19 hours) and marrow transit time (5.80 ± 0.42 days). Substitution of this marrow transit time in the heavy water analysis gave a better-defined blood half-life of 0.77 ± 0.14 days (18.5 hours), close to glucose-derived values. Allowing the ratio of blood neutrophils to mitotic neutrophil precursors (R) to vary yielded a best-fit value of 0.19. Reanalysis of the previously published model and data also revealed the origin of their long estimates for neutrophil half-life: an implicit assumption that R is very large, which is physiologically untenable. We conclude that stable isotope labeling in healthy humans is consistent with a blood neutrophil half-life of less than 1 day. PMID:27136946

  3. 7-Keto-cholesterol and 25-hydroxy-1 cholesterol rapidly enhance ROS production in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Alba, Gonzalo; Reyes-Quiróz, María Edith; Sáenz, Javier; Geniz, Isabel; Jiménez, Juan; Martín-Nieto, José; Pintado, Elizabeth; Sobrino, Francisco; Santa-María, Consuelo

    2016-12-01

    Oxysterols are cholesterol-oxygenated derivatives generated in the organism and also present in foods because of cholesterol oxidation during processing and storage. They are the natural ligands of liver X receptors (LXRs) and are generally recognized as hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory molecules although this latter property is still controversial. Most oxysterol studies have been performed in macrophages, whereas the effects of oxysterols in neutrophils are poorly known. In this study, human neutrophils were exposed to two different oxysterols, 7-keto-cholesterol (7-k-chol) and 25-hydroxy-cholesterol (25-OH-chol), and their possible participation in inflammatory process was evaluated. Human neutrophils were incubated with 7-k-chol and 25-OH-chol, and ROS production, translocation of the NADPH oxidase cytosolic components, hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and lysozyme secretion were analyzed. An increase in ROS production was observed within a short period of time (minutes) with both molecules. These oxysterols also stimulated the cellular membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase cytosolic components, p47phox and p67phox. On the other hand, HO-1 expression, a cytoprotector enzyme, is inhibited in human neutrophils upon oxysterols treatment. Moreover, both oxysterols were associated with high lysozyme enzyme secretion at 5 and 18 h of incubation. The present paper describes for the first time that two oxysterols (7-k-chol and 25-OH-chol) enhance the ROS production within a short period of time in human neutrophils, stimulate the translocation of the cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase to the cellular membrane and increase lysozyme secretion. These data suggest that both oxysterols are able to activate pro-inflammatory effects in human neutrophils which contrasts with the role assigned to the oxysterols when they act through LXR at long time of incubation.

  4. Selective inhibition of leukotriene C/sub 4/ synthesis in human neutrophils by ethacrynic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.H.

    1986-05-29

    Addition of glutathione S-transferase inhibitors, ethyacrynic acid (ET), caffeic acid (CA), and ferulic acid (FA) to human neutrophils led to inhibition of leukotriene C/sub 4/ (LTC/sub 4/) synthesis induced by calcium ionophore A23187. ET is the most specific of these inhibitors for it had little effect on LTB/sub 4/, PGE/sub 2/, and 5-HETE synthesis. The inhibition of LTC/sub 4/ was irreversible and time dependent. ET also had little effect on /sup 3/H-AA release from A23187-stimulated neutrophils.

  5. The interactions of human neutrophils with shiga toxins and related plant toxins: danger or safety?

    PubMed

    Brigotti, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  6. The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety?

    PubMed Central

    Brigotti, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:22741061

  7. Luminol-amplified chemiluminescence detects mainly superoxide anion produced by human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Bedouhène, Samia; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Dang, Pham My-Chan; El-Benna, Jamel

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by numerous biological systems and by several phagocytes such as neutrophils and macrophages. ROS include mostly superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical, which are involved in a variety of biological processes such as immunity, inflammation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Thus, there is a need for a sensitive and reliable method to measure ROS. The luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique is widely used to measure ROS production by neutrophils; however, it is unclear which ROS species are detected by this technique. In this study, we show that Xanthine/Xanthine oxidase (XXO), a known superoxide-producing system, stimulated a luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in the absence of horseradish peroxidase (HRPO), while the presence of HRPO enhanced the response. Both reactions were inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), but not by catalase, confirming that superoxide anion, and not hydrogen peroxide, is the species oxidizing luminol to produce chemiluminescence. Glucose/Glucose oxidase (GGO), a known hydrogen peroxide-producing system, did not induce luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in the absence of HRPO; however, addition of HRPO resulted in a chemiluminescence response, which was inhibited by catalase, but not by SOD. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), isolated from human neutrophils, was also able to enhance the superoxide- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The production of ROS by stimulated human neutrophils was detected by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, which was only partially inhibited by SOD and catalase. Interestingly, adding HRPO to stimulated neutrophils increased the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, which was strongly inhibited by SOD, but not by catalase. These results show that (a) luminol-amplified chemiluminescence is able to detect superoxide anion in the absence of peroxidases, but not hydrogen peroxide; (b) in the presence of

  8. ADAM17 cleaves CD16b (FcγRIIIb) in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Jianming; Newton, Robert; Bahaie, Nooshin S.; Long, Chunmei; Walcheck, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    CD16b (FcγRIIIb) is exclusively expressed by human neutrophils and binds IgG in immune complexes. Cell surface CD16b undergoes efficient ectodomain shedding upon neutrophil activation and apoptosis. Indeed, soluble CD16b is present at high levels in the plasma of healthy individuals, which appears to be maintained by the daily turnover of apoptotic neutrophils. At this time, the principal protease responsible for CD16b shedding is not known. We show that CD16b plasma levels were significantly decreased in patients administered a selective inhibitor targeting the metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17. Additional analysis with inhibitors selective for ADAM10 or ADAM17 revealed that only inhibition of ADAM17 significantly blocked the cleavage of CD16b following neutrophil activation and apoptosis. CD16b shedding by ADAM17 was further demonstrated using a unique ADAM17 function-blocking mAb and a cell-based ADAM17 reconstitution assay. Unlike human CD16, however, mouse CD16 did not undergo efficient ectodomain shedding upon neutrophil stimulation or apoptosis, indicating that this mechanism cannot be modeled in normal mice. Taken together, our findings are the first to directly demonstrate that ADAM17 cleaves CD16 in human leukocytes. PMID:23228566

  9. The role of plasma adenosine deaminase in chemoattractant-stimulated oxygen radical production in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kälvegren, Hanna; Fridfeldt, Jonna; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2010-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) has a role in many immunity mediated disorders, such as asthma, tuberculosis and coronary artery disease. This study aims to investigate the ability of plasma ADA to modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neutrophils, and examine the involvement of adenosine and the cyclic AMP signaling pathway in this process. Neutrophils were stimulated, in the absence or presence of plasma, with the chemotactic peptide fMLP (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine), and the ROS production was determined with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Activity of ADA was measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma dose-dependently amplified the ROS generation in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. In parallel, incubation of neutrophils in plasma elevated the total ADA-activity approximately 10 times from 1.3 U/ml to 12 U/ml. Inhibition of ADA, or type IV phosphodiesterases, significantly lowered the plasma-mediated ROS production. Furthermore, the high-affinity adenosine A(1) receptor antagonists DPCPX and 8-phenyltheophylline markedly inhibited the plasma-induced respiratory burst in neutrophils, suggesting an A(1) receptor-mediated mechanism. This study suggests that plasma ADA amplifies the release of toxic oxygen radicals from neutrophils through a downregulation of the inhibitory adenosine/cAMP-system and an enhanced activation of the stimulatory adenosine A(1)-receptor. This mechanism has probably a crucial role in regulating neutrophil function and in the defence against microbial infections. However, a sustained neutrophil activation could also contribute to inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired surface expression of PAF receptors on human neutrophils is dependent upon cell activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W; Javors, M A; Olson, M S

    1994-02-01

    The capacity of human neutrophils to bind PAF was rapidly diminished upon cell stimulation with both physiological agonists (N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), leukotriene B4 (LTB4)) and pharmacologic agonists (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), A23187). As a consequence, PAF responses in neutrophils were blunted, as monitored by an inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Downregulation of the PAF receptor in neutrophils by diverse agonists was temperature-sensitive and required intact cells. Scatchard analysis of binding data revealed that PAF binding sites were lost without an appreciable change in the affinity of the ligand for the receptor. The binding of the PAF receptor antagonist WEB2086 to neutrophils decreased in parallel with PAF binding. PMA-induced PAF receptor downregulation was staurosporine-sensitive while PAF receptor downregulation by A23187, FMLP, or LTB4 was staurosporine-resistant. Both neutrophil aggregation (a form of intercellular adhesion) and PAF receptor downregulation occurred only at high concentrations of agonists while other signaling processes such as the increase in [Ca2+]i, PKC activation, and PAF synthesis were stimulated at low concentrations of agonists. Furthermore, agonist-induced PAF receptor downregulation was observed only under conditions in which the activated neutrophils were stirred (or shaken) and were allowed to aggregate. Additionally, chelation of extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA minimized cell aggregation and also inhibited PAF receptor downregulation. While the nature of the biochemical signal or the physical changes in the plasma membrane associated with aggregation or that follow aggregation remain to be elucidated it is clear that full expression of cell activation (i.e., neutrophil aggregation) is required for PAF receptor downregulation.

  11. Differentiation of cellular processes involved in the induction and maintenance of stimulated neutrophil adherence.

    PubMed

    English, D; Gabig, T G

    1986-05-01

    Neutrophil adherence stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was investigated by quantitating the attachment of 51Cr-labeled neutrophils to plastic surfaces and to the endothelium of umbilical veins mounted in compartmentalized Lucite chambers. PMA-induced adherence could be functionally separated into an induction phase requiring cellular metabolism and a Mg++ dependent maintenance phase that was independent of cellular metabolism. Thus, metabolic inhibitors (N-ethylmaleimide, 2-deoxyglucose) blocked adherence when added to neutrophils prior to PMA, but did not cause detachment of cells adhering as a consequence of prior exposure to PMA. PMA failed to induce adherence of neutrophils incubated at low (0.4 degree C) temperature, but temperature reduction, even for prolonged periods, did not cause detachment of adherent cells. Thus, the attractive forces that mediate stimulated adherence persist independently of any sustained metabolic response to the inducing stimulus. However, removal of Mg++ from the media above adherent cells resulted in immediate detachment, indicating that the cation was required for the persistent expression or maintenance of the attractive forces involved. The extent of stimulated adherence correlated well with the extent of degranulation when rates were varied by limiting the incubation time or stimulus concentration. This correlation was not absolute; in the absence of Mg++, PMA induced degranulation normally but failed to enhance adherence. To explain these findings, we investigated the possibility that PMA-stimulated adherence was maintained by Mg++-dependent cellular adherence molecules released during exocytosis. Supernatants of stimulated neutrophils were devoid of adherence-promoting activity, and only weak activity was recovered in supernatants of mechanically disrupted neutrophils. PMA effectively stimulated the tight adherence of degranulated neutrophil cytoplasts to plastic surfaces and did so in the absence of stimulated

  12. Galectin-1 promotes human neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Auvynet, Constance; Moreno, Samadhi; Melchy, Erika; Coronado-Martínez, Iris; Montiel, Jose Luis; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    An important step of innate immune response is the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to injured tissues through chemotactic molecules. Galectins, a family of endogenous lectins, participate in numerous functions such as lymphoid cell migration, homing, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Particularly, galectin-3 (Gal-3) and -9 have been implicated in the modulation of acute and chronic inflammation by inducing the directional migration of monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils, whereas Gal-1 is considered to function as an anti-inflammatory molecule, capable of inhibiting the influx of PMN to the site of injury. In this study, we assessed the effect of Gal-1 on neutrophil recruitment, in the absence of additional inflammatory insults. Contrasting with its capacity to inhibit cell trafficking and modulate the release of mediators described in models of acute inflammation and autoimmunity, we evidenced that Gal-1 has the capacity to induce neutrophil migration both in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not mediated through a G-protein-coupled receptor but potentially through the sialoglycoprotein CD43, via carbohydrate binding and through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These results suggest a novel biological function for CD43 on neutrophils and highlight that depending on the environment, Gal-1 can act either as chemoattractant or, as a molecule that negatively regulates migration under acute inflammatory conditions, underscoring the potential of Gal-1 as a target for innovative drug development.

  13. Inactivation of enzymes and oxidative modification of proteins by stimulated neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C N

    1987-02-15

    Differentiated, stimulated HL-60 cells and freshly isolated, stimulated neutrophils inactivate glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.1.2) either inside or outside of Escherichia coli. Stimulated neutrophils also inactivate at least four endogenous enzymes which are inactivated by mixed-function oxidation (MFO) systems in vitro (L. Fucci, C.N. Oliver, M.J. Coon, and E.R. Stadtman (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 1521-1525). The inactivation of glutamine synthetase by stimulated neutrophils exhibits characteristics similar to those previously described using both enzymic and nonenzymic MFO systems (R.L. Levine, C.N. Oliver, R.M. Fulks, and E.R. Stadtman (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 2120-2124). Although the reaction occurs in the absence of Fe(III), it is stimulated by added Fe (III). Inactivation required molecular oxygen and is partially inhibited by Mn(II), catalase, superoxide dismutase, and metal chelators, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and o-phenanthroline. Both the kinetics and the extent of glutamine synthetase inactivation differ when neutrophils are stimulated with phorbol esters compared with formylated peptides. Glutamine synthetase inactivation catalyzed by MFO systems is accompanied by the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives which form stable hydrazones when treated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Multiple carbonyl derivatives are formed in the soluble protein fraction of stimulated neutrophils and these derivatives collectively exhibit an absorbance spectrum similar to that of glutamine synthetase inactivated by liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 MFO system (K. Nakamura, C.N. Oliver, and E.R. Stadtman (1985) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 240, 319-329).

  14. Naloxone inhibits superoxide but not enzyme release by human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, C.; Alailima, S.; Tate, E.

    1986-03-01

    The release of toxic oxygen metabolites and enzymes by phagocytic cells is thought to play a role in the multisystemic tissue injury of sepsis. Naloxone protects septic animals. We have found that at concentrations administered to animals (10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -4/M), naloxone inhibited (p < .001) the release of superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -/) by human neutrophils (HN), stimulated with N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (FMLP). Naloxone had no effect on cell viability. Maximum inhibition was 65% of the total O/sub 2//sup -/ released (13.1 nMoles/8 min/320,000 cells). FMLP-stimulated release of beta-glucoronidase or lysozyme was not altered by naloxone. Naloxone had no effect on the binding of /sup 3/H FMLP to HN. Using /sup 3/H naloxone and various concentrations of unlabeled naloxone higher affinity (K/sub D/ = 12nM) and lower affinity (K/sub D/ = 4.7 x 10/sup -5/) binding sites were detected. The K/sub D/ of the low affinity site corresponded to the ED/sub 50/ for naloxone inhibition of O/sub 2//sup -/ (1 x 10/sup -5/M). Binding to this low affinity site was decreased by (+) naloxone, beta-endorphin and N acetyl beta-endorphin, but not by leu-enkephalin, thyrotropin releasing factor, prostaglandin D/sub 2/ or E/sub 2/. Conclusions: (1) naloxone inhibits FMLP-stimulated O/sub 2/ but not enzyme release, (2) this inhibition is not due to alteration of FMLP receptor binding, (3) naloxone may act via a low affinity binding site which is ligand specific, and (4) a higher affinity receptor is present on HN.

  15. Passive mechanical behavior of human neutrophils: power-law fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, M A; Frank, R S; Waugh, R E

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of the neutrophil plays an important role in both the microcirculation and the immune system. Several laboratories in the past have developed mechanical models to describe different aspects of neutrophil deformability. In this study, the passive mechanical properties of normal human neutrophils have been further characterized. The cellular mechanical properties were assessed by single cell micropipette aspiration at fixed aspiration pressures. A numerical simulation was developed to interpret the experiments in terms of cell mechanical properties based on the Newtonian liquid drop model (Yeung and Evans, Biophys. J., 56: 139-149, 1989). The cytoplasmic viscosity was determined as a function of the ratio of the initial cell size to the pipette radius, the cortical tension, aspiration pressure, and the whole cell aspiration time. The cortical tension of passive neutrophils was measured to be about 2.7 x 10(-5) N/m. The apparent viscosity of neutrophil cytoplasm was found to depend on aspiration pressure, and ranged from approximately 500 Pa.s at an aspiration pressure of 98 Pa (1.0 cm H2O) to approximately 50 Pa.s at 882 Pa (9.0 cm H2O) when tested with a 4.0-micron pipette. These data provide the first documentation that the neutrophil cytoplasm exhibits non-Newtonian behavior. To further characterize the non-Newtonian behavior of human neutrophils, a mean shear rate gamma m was estimated based on the numerical simulation. The apparent cytoplasmic viscosity appears to decrease as the mean shear rate increases. The dependence of cytoplasmic viscosity on the mean shear rate can be approximated as a power-law relationship described by mu = mu c(gamma m/gamma c)-b, where mu is the cytoplasmic viscosity, gamma m is the mean shear rate, mu c is the characteristic viscosity at characteristic shear rate gamma c, and b is a material coefficient. When gamma c was set to 1 s-1, the material coefficients for passive neutrophils were determined to be mu c

  16. Endocytosis is required for exocytosis and priming of respiratory burst activity in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Creed, T Michael; Tandon, Shweta; Ward, Richard A; McLeish, Kenneth R

    2017-06-21

    Neutrophil generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is enhanced by exposure to pro-inflammatory agents in a process termed priming. Priming is depending on exocytosis of neutrophil granules and p47(phox) phosphorylation-dependent translocation of cytosolic NADPH oxidase components. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was recently reported to be necessary for priming, but the mechanism linking endocytosis to priming was not identified. The present study examined the hypothesis that endocytosis regulates neutrophil priming by controlling granule exocytosis. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis by isolated human neutrophils was inhibited by chlorpromazine, monodansylcadaverine, and sucrose. Exocytosis of granule subsets was measured as release of granule components by ELISA or chemiluminescence. ROS generation was measured as extracellular release of superoxide as reduction of ferrocytochrome c. p38 MAPK activation and p47(phox) phosphorylation were measured by immunoblot analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA with the Tukey-Kramer multiple-comparison test. Inhibition of endocytosis prevented priming of superoxide release by TNFα and inhibited TNFα stimulation and priming of exocytosis of all four granule subsets. Inhibition of endocytosis did not reduce TNFα-stimulated p38 MAPK activation or p47(phox) phosphorylation. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity blocked TNFα stimulation of secretory vesicle and gelatinase granule exocytosis. Endocytosis is linked to priming of respiratory burst activity through ROS-mediated control of granule exocytosis.

  17. Subcellular localization and translocation of the receptor for N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Sengeløv, H; Boulay, F; Kjeldsen, L; Borregaard, N

    1994-01-01

    The subcellular localization of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) receptors in human neutrophils was investigated. The fMLP receptor was detected with a high-affinity, photoactivatable, radioiodinated derivative of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanyl-lysine (fMLFK). Neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and fractionated on Percoll density gradients. fMLP receptors were located in the beta-band containing gelatinase and specific granules, and in the gamma-band containing plasma membrane and secretory vesicles. Plasma membranes and secretory vesicles were separated by high-voltage free-flow electrophoresis, and secretory vesicles were demonstrated to be highly enriched in fMLP receptors. The receptors found in secretory vesicles translocated fully to the plasma membrane upon stimulation with inflammatory mediators. The receptor translocation from the beta-band indicated that the receptor present there was mainly located in gelatinase granules. A 25 kDa fMLP-binding protein was found in the beta-band. Immunoprecipitation revealed that this protein was identical with NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), a novel protein found in specific granules. In summary, we demonstrate that the compartment in human neutrophils that is mobilized most easily and fastest, the secretory vesicle, is a major reservoir of fMLP receptors. This explains the prompt and extensive upregulation of fMLP receptors on the neutrophil surface in response to inflammatory stimuli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8172608

  18. Cutting Edge: Helicobacter pylori Induces Nuclear Hypersegmentation and Subtype Differentiation of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Laura C.; Weems, Megan N.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and causes a spectrum of disease that includes gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma. A chronic, neutrophil-rich inflammatory response characterizes this infection. It is established that H. pylori stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis and a robust respiratory burst, but other aspects of this interaction are incompletely defined. We demonstrate here that H. pylori induces N1-like subtype differentiation of human neutrophils as indicated by profound nuclear hypersegmentation, a CD62Ldim, CD16bright, CD11bbright, CD66bbright, CD63bright surface phenotype, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity. Hypersegmentation requires direct neutrophil–H. pylori contact as well as transcription and both host and bacterial protein synthesis, but not urease, NapA, VacA, CagA, or CagT. The concept of neutrophil plasticity is new and, to our knowledge, these data are the first evidence that neutrophils can undergo subtype differentiation in vitro in response to bacterial pathogen infection. We hypothesize that these changes favor H. pylori persistence and disease. PMID:28148734

  19. Do native and polymeric alpha1-antitrypsin activate human neutrophils in vitro?

    PubMed

    Persson, Caroline; Subramaniyam, Devipriya; Stevens, Tim; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2006-06-01

    alpha(1)-Antitrypsin (AAT)-Z deficiency is a risk factor for the development of COPD. Compared to wild-type M, AAT-Z has an increased tendency to polymerize, rendering it inactive as a serine proteinase inhibitor. It has been demonstrated that wild-type M- and Z-deficiency AAT polymers are chemotactic for human neutrophils. However, our own studies dispute a proinflammatory role for polymerized AAT-M and AAT-Z, suggesting rather that they are predominantly antiinflammatory, exhibiting inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocyte activation. The discrepancies between these observations prompted us to re-examine the effects of AAT. The effects of native and polymerized AAT-M and AAT-Z with varying levels of endotoxin contamination (0.08 to 2.55 endotoxin units [EU]/mg protein) on human neutrophil chemotaxis and interleukin (IL)-8 release, in vitro, were evaluated. Neither native nor polymerized (M- or Z-deficient) AAT contaminated with low levels of endotoxin (stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis, whereas N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), a positive control, increased chemotaxis fourfold. A small but nonsignificant increase in neutrophil chemotaxis, however, was observed with AAT preparations containing higher levels of endotoxin (>/= 0.88 EU/mg protein), and significant chemotaxis occurred when AAT was spiked with either endotoxin or zymosan. In support, native and polymeric AAT-M with low endotoxin contamination completely inhibited neutrophil IL-8 release triggered by the zymosan, while AATs with high endotoxin contamination strongly induced IL-8 release and did not inhibit zymosan-stimulated IL-8 release. The proinflammatory effects of native and polymeric AAT may be critically dependent on the presence of other cell activators, bacterial or otherwise, while pure preparations of AAT appear to exert predominantly antiinflammatory activity.

  20. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-..gamma.., tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin l..cap alpha.. or 1..beta... The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes.

  1. Bioactivation of myelotoxic xenobiotics by human neutrophil myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Many environmental pollutants and drugs are toxic to the bone marrow. Some of these xenobiotics may initiate toxicity after undergoing bioactivation to free radicals and/or other reactive electrophiles. Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the one-electron oxidative bioactivation of a variety of xenobiotics in vitro. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidative enzyme found in very high concentration in the neutrophils of human bone marrow. In this study, human MPO was evaluated to determine its ability to catalyze the in vitro bioactivation of known bone marrow toxicants that contain the aromatic hydroxyl (Ar-OH), aromatic amine (Ar-N-R{sub 2}), or heterocyclic tertiary amine ({double bond}N-R) moieties. The formation of free radical metabolites during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of hydroquinone and catechol (benzene metabolites), mitoxantrone and ametantrone (antitumor drugs), and chlorpromazine and promazine (antipsychotic drugs) was demonstrated by EPR spectroscopy. The reactivity of the products formed during the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of ({sup 14}C)hydroquinone and ({sup 14}C)catechol was shown by their covalent binding to protein and DNA in vitro. The covalently binding metabolite in each case is postulated to be the quinone form of the xenobiotic. In addition, both GSH and NADH were oxidized by the reactive intermediate(s) formed during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of many of the bone marrow toxicants tested. It was also shown that p,p-biphenol stimulated the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of both hydroquinone and catechol, while p-cresol stimulated the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of catechol.

  2. Effect of stilbene derivative on superoxide generation and enzyme release from human neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pečivová, Jana; Harmatha, Juraj; Sviteková, Klára; Nosáľ, Radomír

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the body′s primary line of defense against invading pathogens. They most rapidly reach the site of injury or infection, liberate antimicrobial proteins, proteases and produce reactive oxygen species. Prolonged or excessive liberation of these very effective and toxic substances could intensify the inflammatory process and enhance tissue damage in many diseases, such as allergies, infections and rheumatoid arthritis. Pterostilbene belongs to stilbenoids, structural analogues of resveratrol, which act as natural protective agents in defending the plant against viral and microbial attack. It possesses anticancerous, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The study provides new information on the effect of pterostilbene [0.01–100 µmol/l] on superoxide generation in and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release from azurophil granules of isolated human neutrophils. PMA [1µmol/l], which activates NADPH-oxidase via protein kinase C, was used for stimulation of neutrophils Unstimulated cells showed neither superoxide generation nor myelopereoxidase release after preincubation with the drug studied. Pterostilbene dose dependently decreased superoxide generation in and MPO release from stimulated human neutrophils, however a significant decrease was recorded only in the concentration 100 µmol/l. The effect of pterostilbene was more pronounced on superoxide generation in comparison to MPO release. Our results suggest that the effect of pterostilbene may prove beneficial in controlling inflammation. PMID:23118590

  3. Shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptors by activated human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The capacity of human neutrophils (PMN) to bind tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was rapidly lost when the cells were incubated in suspension with agents that can stimulate their migratory and secretory responses. Both physiological (poly)peptides (FMLP, C5a, CSF-GM) and pharmacologic agonists (PMN, calcium ionophore A23187) induced the loss of TNF receptors (TNF-R) from the cell surface. Half-maximal loss in TNF-R ensued after only approximately 2 min with 10(-7) M FMLP at 37 degrees C, and required only 10(-9) M FMLP during a 30-min exposure. However, there were no such changes even with prolonged exposure of PMN to FMLP at 4 degrees or 16 degrees C. Scatchard analysis revealed loss of TNF- binding sites without change in their affinity (Kd approximately 0.4 nM) as measured at incompletely modulating concentrations of FMLP, C5a, PMA, or A23187. The binding of anti-TNF-R mAbs to PMN decreased in parallel, providing independent evidence for the loss of TNF-R from the cell surface. At the same time, soluble TNF-R appeared in the medium of stimulated PMN. This inference was based on the PMN- and FMLP-dependent generation of a nonsedimentable activity that could inhibit the binding of TNF to fresh human PMN or to mouse macrophages, and the ability of mAbs specific for human TNF-R to abolish inhibition by PMN-conditioned medium of binding of TNF to mouse macrophages. Soluble TNF-R activity was associated with a protein of Mr approximately 28,000 by ligand blot analysis of cell-free supernatants of FMLP-treated PMN. Thus, some portion of the FMLP-induced loss of TNF-R from human PMN is due to shedding of TNF-R. Shedding was unaffected by inhibitors of serine and thiol proteases and could not be induced with phosphatidylinositol- specific phospholipase C. Loss of TNF-R from PMN first stimulated by other agents may decrease their responsiveness to TNF. TNF-R shed by PMN may be one source of the TNF-binding proteins found in body fluids, and may blunt the actions of the

  4. Isolation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and their use in the study of neutrophil transmigration under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Anutosh; Zhang, Hong; Sharma, Ritu; Parsons, Sean; Patel, Kamala D

    2012-08-08

    each have advantages and disadvantages. If fluorescent imaging is needed, glass or an optically similar polymer needs to be used. Endothelial cells do not grow well on glass. Here we present an easy and rapid method for phase-contrast, DIC and fluorescent imaging of neutrophil transmigration using a low volume ibidi channel slide made of a polymer that supports the rapid adhesion and growth of human endothelial cells and has optical qualities that are comparable to glass. In this method, endothelial cells were grown and stimulated in an ibidi μslide. Neutrophils were introduced under flow conditions and transmigration was assessed. Fluorescent imaging of the junctions enabled real-time determination of the extent of paracellular versus transcellular transmigration.

  5. Isolation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Their Use in the Study of Neutrophil Transmigration Under Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Anutosh; Zhang, Hong; Sharma, Ritu; Parsons, Sean; Patel, Kamala D.

    2012-01-01

    chambers and each have advantages and disadvantages. If fluorescent imaging is needed, glass or an optically similar polymer needs to be used. Endothelial cells do not grow well on glass. Here we present an easy and rapid method for phase-contrast, DIC and fluorescent imaging of neutrophil transmigration using a low volume ibidi channel slide made of a polymer that supports the rapid adhesion and growth of human endothelial cells and has optical qualities that are comparable to glass. In this method, endothelial cells were grown and stimulated in an ibidi μslide. Neutrophils were introduced under flow conditions and transmigration was assessed. Fluorescent imaging of the junctions enabled real-time determination of the extent of paracellular versus transcellular transmigration. PMID:22895248

  6. A Comparison of Human Neutrophils Acquired from Four Experimental Models of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Madhur P.; Day, Richard M.; Gilroy, Derek W.; O’Brien, Alastair J.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in neutrophil function have been implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. Several models are employed to study activated human neutrophils akin to those found at a site of inflammation. These include whole blood (WB) ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in vivo techniques: cantharidin blister, skin windows and intra-dermal injection of UV-killed E.coli (UVKEc). Neutrophils obtained from these have never been compared. We compared the activation status of neutrophils from each technique in order to inform the optimal model for use in human studies. Healthy male volunteers were randomised to undergo one of the four techniques (n = 5/group). LPS: WB stimulated with 1ng/ml of LPS for 4 hours. Cantharidin: 12.5μl of 0.1% cantharidin elicited a single blister, aspirated at 24 hours. Skin windows: four 6mm mechanical-suction blisters created, de-roofed and an exudate-collection chamber placed over the windows for 4 hours before aspiration. UVKEc: 1.5 x 107 UVKEc injected intra-dermally. A single 10mm mechanical-suction blister formed and aspirated at 4 hours. Unstimulated WB used as the control. Flow cytometry was used to determine activation status using CD16, CD11b, CD54, CD62L and CD88. Functional status was assessed with a phagocytosis assay. The pattern of neutrophil activation was similar in all models. Neutrophil CD11b was elevated in all models, most markedly in UVKEc (p<0.0001), and CD54 was also elevated but only significant in the LPS model (p = 0.001). CD62L was significantly reduced in all 4 models (p<0.0001) and CD88 was also suppressed in all. There were no changes in CD16 in any model, neither was there any significant difference in the phagocytic capacity of the neutrophils. In summary, there are no significant differences in activation marker expression or phagocytic capacity in the neutrophils obtained from each technique. Therefore we believe whole blood stimulation is the best model in experimentally challenging

  7. The impact of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles on human neutrophil activation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Chun-Han; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-06-25

    Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLNs) are extensively employed as the nanocarriers for drug/gene targeting to tumors and the brain. Investigation into the possible immune response of cSLNs is still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cSLNs upon the activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells (PMNs). The cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory mediators, Ca(2+) mobilization, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as the indicators of PMN stimulation were examined in this work. The cSLNs presented a diameter of 195 nm with a zeta potential of 44 mV. The cSLNs could interact with the cell membrane to produce a direct membrane lysis and the subsequent cytotoxicity according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) elevation. The interaction of cSLNs with the membrane also triggered a Ca(2+) influx, followed by the induction of oxidative stress and degranulation. The cationic nanoparticles elevated the levels of superoxide anion and elastase by 24- and 9-fold, respectively. The PMN activation by cSLNs promoted the phosphorylation of p38 and Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The imaging of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence demonstrated the production of NETs by cSLNs. This phenomenon was not significant for the neutral SLNs (nSLNs), although histones in NETs also increased after treatment of nSLNs. Our results suggest an important role of cSLNs in governing the activation of human neutrophils.

  8. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake: Effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human neutrophils cells.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Caroline V; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Pontes, Adriana S; Nery, Neriane M; de Castro, Onassis Boeri; Fernandes, Carla F C; Soares, Andreimar M; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2017-07-23

    Crotalus Neutralizing Factor (CNF) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), present in the blood plasma of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake. This inhibitor neutralizes the lethal and enzymatic activity of crotoxin, the main neurotoxin from this venom. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNF on the functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human neutrophils. The following parameters were evaluated: viability and proliferation, chemotaxis, cytokines and LTB4 production, cytosolic PLA2s activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide anion (O2(-)) production. CNF showed no toxicity on PBMCs or neutrophils, and acts by stimulating the release of TNF-α and LTB4, but neither stimulates IL-10 and IL-2 nor affects PBMCs proliferation and O2(-) release. In neutrophils, CNF induces chemotaxis but does not induce the release of both MPO and O2(-). However, it induces LTB4 and IL-8 production. These data show the influence of CNF on PBMCs' function by inducing TNF-α and LTB4 production, and on neutrophils, by stimulating chemotaxis and LTB4 production, via cytosolic PLA2 activity, and IL-8 release. The inflammatory profile produced by CNF is shown for the first time. Our present results suggest that CNF has a role in activation of leukocytes and exert proinflammatory effects on these cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Metronidazole effect on active oxygen production by human blood neutrophils].

    PubMed

    Shchepetkin, I A

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro effect of metronidazole on production of active oxygen by neutrophila and in the enzymatic system of glucose-glucose oxidase-peroxidase was studied by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. An increase in the spontaneous and zymozan-stimulated chemiluminescence and a decrease in the phorbolmyristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated chemiluminescence after 2-hour preincubation of the neutrophils with 8.5 mM of metronidazole were observed. In concentrations of 0.9 to 8.7 mM metronidazole (without washing) dose-dependently lowered the neutrophil chemiluminescence in response to the effect of PMA and ionophore A23187 and to a lesser degree to that of zymozan. In doses of 20 to 100 mM the drug had an insignificant effect on production of active oxygen by the neutrophils in response to the cell stimulation by PMA, ionophore A23187 and zymozan. The data are in conformity with the scavenger effect of metronidazole on active oxygen radicals generating in the cell-free enzymatic system both in the presence and in the absence of superoxide dismutase.

  10. In vitro inhibition of human neutrophil histotoxicity by ambroxol: evidence for a multistep mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ottonello, Luciano; Arduino, Nicoletta; Bertolotto, Maria; Dapino, Patrizia; Mancini, Marina; Dallegri, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Neutrophils are major culprits for the protease/antiprotease imbalance during various lung diseases, that is, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Thus, these cells are presently considered an ideal target for the pharmacologic control of tissue injury during these diseases. This study was planned in order to investigate if ambroxol and its precursor bromhexine are actually capable of preventing alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) inactivation by stimulated neutrophils and possibly to look into the mechanisms underlying this event. Ambroxol inhibited the production of superoxide anion by activated neutrophils, whereas bromhexine had no inhibitory effect. Ambroxol decreased the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from activated neutrophils with high efficiency, whereas bromhexine had a modest activity. Ambroxol and bromhexine were capable of limiting the chlorination of monochlorodimedon by HOCl, displaying the capacity of directly scavenging the oxidant. Ambroxol decreased the release of elastase and myeloperoxidase from activated neutrophils, whereas bromhexine was ineffective. Ambroxol prevented the A1AT inactivation by neutrophils, whereas bromhexine was completely ineffective. Among drugs currently available for in vivo use in humans, ambroxol is unique by virtue of its ability to prevent neutrophil-mediated A1AT inactivation via inhibition of HOCl production as well as HOCl scavenging. Also taking into account its capacity for curbing elastase release, the drug displays the potential to lessen the burden of oxidants/proteases and to increase the antiprotease shield at the site of inflammation. Thus, ambroxol appears to be a good candidate for raising attempts to develop new therapeutic histoprotective approaches to inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases. PMID:14534155

  11. Soluble CD40 ligand stimulates CD40-dependent activation of the β2 integrin Mac-1 and protein kinase C zeda (PKCζ) in neutrophils: implications for neutrophil-platelet interactions and neutrophil oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Yu, Shiyong; Song, Zifang; Zhu, Xiaolei; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Jinchuan; Wu, Fusheng; Nanda, Anil; Granger, D Neil; Li, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has revealed an essential involvement of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) in inflammation and vascular disease. Activated platelets are the major source of sCD40L, which has been implicated in platelet and leukocyte activation, although its exact functional impact on leukocyte-platelet interactions and the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We aimed to determine the impact and the mechanisms of sCD40L on neutrophils. We studied neutrophil interactions with activated, surface-adherent platelets as a model for leukocyte recruitment to the sites of injury. Our data show that CD40L contributes to neutrophil firm adhesion to and transmigration across activated surface-adherent platelets, possibly through two potential mechanisms. One involves the direct interaction of ligand-receptor (CD40L-CD40), i.e., platelet surface CD40L interaction with neutrophil CD40; another involves an indirect mechanism, i.e. soluble CD40L stimulates activation of the leukocyte-specific β2 integrin Mac-1 in neutrophils and thereby further promotes neutrophil adhesion and migration. Activation of the integrin Mac-1 is known to be critical for mediating neutrophil adhesion and migration. sCD40L activated Mac-1 in neutrophils and enhanced neutrophil-platelet interactions in wild-type neutrophils, but failed to elicit such responses in CD40-deficient neutrophils. Furthermore, our data show that the protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) is critically required for sCD40L-induced Mac-1 activation and neutrophil adhesive function. sCD40L strongly stimulated the focal clustering of Mac-1 (CD11b) and the colocalization of Mac-1 with PKCζ in wild-type neutrophils, but had minimal effect in CD40-deficient neutrophils. Blocking PKCζ completely inhibited sCD40L-induced neutrophil firm adhesion. Moreover, sCD40L strongly stimulates neutrophil oxidative burst via CD40-dependent activation of PI3K/NF-KB, but independent of Mac-1 and PKCζ. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the

  12. Lectinlike interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum with human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, D F; Novak, M J; Vora, S A; Mourad, J; Kriger, P S

    1989-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum expresses lectinlike adherence factors which mediate binding to a variety of human tissue cells. Adherence is selectively inhibited by galactose, lactose, and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. In this study, adherence of F. nucleatum to human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was investigated. The results indicated that the fusobacteria adhered to live and metabolically inactivated or fixed PMNs. Adherence of F. nucleatum resulted in activation of PMNs as determined by PMN aggregation, membrane depolarization, increased intracellular free Ca2+, superoxide anion production, and lysozyme release. Transmission electron micrographs showed that F. nucleatum was phagocytized by the PMNs. Microbicidal assays indicated that greater than 98% of F. nucleatum organisms were killed by PMNs within 60 min. Adherence to and activation of PMNs by F. nucleatum were inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or lactose greater than galactose, whereas equal concentrations of glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, mannose, and fucose had little or no effect on F. nucleatum-PMN interactions. Pretreatment of the fusobacteria with heat (80 degrees C, 20 min) or proteases inhibited adherence to and activation of PMNs, but superoxide production was also stimulated by heated bacteria. The results indicate that interaction of F. nucleatum with PMNs is lectinlike and is probably mediated by fusobacterial proteins which bind to other human tissue cells. Adherence of F. nucleatum to PMNs in the absence of serum opsonins, such as antibodies and complement, may play an important role in PMN recognition and killing of F. nucleatum in the gingival sulcus and in the subsequent release of PMN factors associated with tissue destruction. Images PMID:2553609

  13. Entamoeba histolytica induces human neutrophils to form NETs.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juarez, J; Campos-Esparza, Mr; Pacheco-Yepez, J; López-Blanco, J A; Adabache-Ortíz, A; Silva-Briano, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica invades the intestine and other organs during the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. In the early stages, the host organism responds with an inflammatory infiltrate composed mostly of neutrophils. It has been reported that these immune cells, activated by E. histolytica, exert a protective role by releasing proteolytic enzymes and generating reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and antimicrobial peptides. It is now known that neutrophils also produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are able to damage and kill pathogens. Studies have shown that intracellular protozoan pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondi, Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania spp, induce neutrophils to release NETs and are damaged by them. However, the action of this mechanism has not been explored in relation to E. histolytica trophozoites. Through scanning electron, epifluorescence microscopy and viability assays, we show for first time that during in vitro interaction with E. histolytica trophozoites, human neutrophils released NETs that covered amoebas and reduced amoebic viability. These NETs presented histones, myeloperoxidase and decondensed chromatin. The results suggest that NETs participate in the elimination of the parasite. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of exhaustive exercise on human neutrophils in athletes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Suzuki, K; Kudo, S; Totsuka, M; Simoyama, T; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of exercise on the capacity of neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), eight male cross-country skiers underwent maximal exercise. Peripheral blood samples were taken pre-exercise, 0 h, 1 h, and 2 h after finishing maximal exercise. Leukocyte counts significantly increased (p < 0. 05), particularly lymphocytes (p < 0.05), just after the exercise period (0 h) and significantly increased again (p < 0.05), particularly neutrophils (p < 0.05), 2 h after the exercise compared with pre-exercise values. The capacity of isolated neutrophils to produce ROS was assessed by lucigenin (Lg)-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) and luminol (Lm)-dependent CL on stimulation with opsonized zymosan (OZ) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Just after exercise, the LgCL response was not affected, while the response of LmCL mixed with sodium azide, which inhibits catalase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, was significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). In addition, just after exercise, the level of serum growth hormone increased significantly (p < 0.05). The serum cortisol level also increased significantly just after and 1 h after exercise (p < 0.05). These data indicated that maximal exercise not only mobilized neutrophils from marginated pools into the circulation, but also caused increased ROS generation.

  15. Mitraphylline inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated activation of primary human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Fernandez-Arche, Angeles; de la Puerta, Rocío; Quilez, Ana M; Muriana, Francisco J G; Garcia-Gimenez, Maria Dolores; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2016-02-15

    Mitraphylline (MTP) is the major pentacyclic oxindolic alkaloid presented in Uncaria tomentosa. It has traditionally been used to treat disorders including arthritis, heart disease, cancer, and other inflammatory diseases. However, the specific role of MTP is still not clear, with more comprehensivestudies, our understanding of this ancient herbal medicine will continue growing. Some studies provided its ability to inhibit proinflamatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, through NF-κB-dependent mechanism. TNF-α primes neutrophils and modulates phagocytic and oxidative burst activities in inflammatory processes. Since, neutrophils represent the most abundant pool of leukocytes in human blood and play a crucial role in inflammation, we aimed to determine the ability of MTP to modulate neutrophil activation and differentially regulate inflammatory-related cytokines. To determine the mechanism of action of MTP, we investigated the effects on LPS-activated human primary neutrophils responses including activation surface markers by FACS and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, measured by real time PCR and ELISA. Treatment with MTP reduced the LPS-dependent activation effects. Activated neutrophils (CD16(+)CD62L(-)) diminished after MTP administration. Moreover, proinflamatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 or IL-8) expression and secretion were concomitantly reduced, similar to basal control conditions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MTP is able to elicit an anti-inflammatory response that modulates neutrophil activation contributing to the attenuation of inflammatory episodes. Further studies are need to characterize the mechanism by which MTP can affect this pathway that could provide a means to develop MTP as new candidate for inflammatory disease therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. CFTR-mediated halide transport in phagosomes of human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Richard G.; Marrero, Luis; Lombard, Gisele A.; Valentine, Vincent G.; Nauseef, William M.; Wang, Guoshun

    2010-01-01

    Chloride serves as a critical component of innate host defense against infection, providing the substrate for MPO-catalyzed production of HOCl in the phagosome of human neutrophils. Here, we used halide-specific fluorescent sensors covalently coupled to zymosan particles to investigate the kinetics of chloride and iodide transport in phagosomes of human neutrophils. Using the self-ratioable fluorescent probe specific for chloride anion, we measured chloride dynamics within phagosomes in response to extracellular chloride changes by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Under the experimental conditions used, normal neutrophils showed rapid phagosomal chloride uptake with an initial influx rate of 0.31 ± 0.04 mM/s (n=5). GlyH-101, a CFTRinh, decreased the rate of uptake in a dose-dependent manner. Neutrophils isolated from CF patients showed a significantly slower rate of chloride uptake by phagosomes, having an initial influx rate of 0.043 ± 0.012 mM/s (n=5). Interestingly, the steady-state level of chloride in CF phagosomes was ∼26 mM, significantly lower than that of the control (∼68 mM). As CFTR transports chloride as well as other halides, we conjugated an iodide-sensitive probe as an independent approach to confirm the results. The dynamics of iodide uptake by neutrophil phagosomes were monitored by flow cytometry. CFTRinh172 blocked 40–50% of the overall iodide uptake by phagosomes in normal neutrophils. In a parallel manner, the level of iodide uptake by CF phagosomes was only 20–30% of that of the control. Taken together, these results implicate CFTR in transporting halides into the phagosomal lumen. PMID:20089668

  17. In Vitro Oxidation of Collagen Promotes the Formation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products and the Activation of Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; de Campos, Luízi Prestes; Sangoi, Manuela Borges; Fernandes, Natieli Flores; Gomes, Patrícia; Moretto, Maria Beatriz; Barbisan, Fernanda; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) has been linked to several pathological conditions. Here, we investigated collagen as a potential source for AOPP formation and determined the effects of hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-treated collagen (collagen-AOPPs) on human neutrophil activity. We also assessed whether alpha-tocopherol could counteract these effects. Exposure to HOCl increased the levels of collagen-AOPPs. Collagen-AOPPs also stimulated the production of AOPPs, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide radicals (O2(-)), and HOCl by neutrophils. Collagen-AOPPs induced apoptosis and decreased the number of viable cells. Alpha-tocopherol prevented the formation of collagen-AOPPs, strongly inhibited the collagen-AOPP-induced production of O2(-) and HOCl, and increased the viability of neutrophils. Our results suggest that collagen is an important protein that interacts with HOCl to form AOPPs, and consequently, collagen-AOPP formation is related to human neutrophil activation and cell death.

  18. Regulation of the autophagic machinery in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Kambas, Konstantinos; Rafail, Stavros; Chrysanthopoulou, Akrivi; Speletas, Matthaios; Ritis, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The induction of the autophagy machinery, a process for the catabolism of cytosolic proteins and organelles, constitutes a crucial mechanism in innate immunity. However, the involvement of autophagy in human neutrophils and the possible inducers of this process have not been completely elucidated. In this study, the induction of autophagy was examined in human neutrophils treated with various activators and detected by the formation of acidified autophagosomes through monodansylcadaverine staining and via LC-3B conversion screened by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In addition, the expression of the ATG genes was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. We provide evidence that autophagy is implicated in human neutrophils in both a phagocytosis-independent (rapamycin, TLR agonists, PMA) and phagocytosis (Escherichia coli)-dependent initiation manner. ROS activation is a positive mechanism for autophagy induction in the case of PMA, TLR activation and phagocytosis. Furthermore, LC3B gene expression was uniformly upregulated, indicating a transcriptional level of regulation for the autophagic machinery. This study provides a stepping stone toward further investigation of autophagy in neutrophil-driven inflammatory disorders.

  19. [Lymphocyte transformation test following stimulation with a protein factor from neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNL) in psoriasis patients].

    PubMed

    Ruszczak, Z; Ciborska, L; Kaszuba, A

    1988-12-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was given to 20 healthy subjects and 43 patients with generalized psoriasis vulgaris: it was given right after stimulation with PHA (spontaneous) and after stimulation with allogenic and autogenic protein factor (NPF). NPF was isolated from secondary lysosome granules of peripheral blood neutrophils. The results were analyzed using computer statistic tests. No distinct differences were noticed between the spontaneous transformation test in psoriatic patients compared to the controls. After stimulation with PHA, the percentage of blast cells was significantly lower in patients with psoriasis. When allogenic and autogenic NPF was used for stimulation, the LTT values were significantly higher in the psoriasis group than in the control subjects. This fact points out the increase in sensitivity of lymphocytes to NPF in active psoriasis and the possibility of abnormal neutrophil-lymphocyte interactions in vivo. This phenomenon may be intensified when under the influence of bacterial or viral agents, or medicaments; the degranulation of secondary lysosome granules of neutrophils occurs, causing the release of NPF. These investigations support our opinion that psoriasis is a systemic disease and that NPF plays a considerable role in the psoriatic reaction.

  20. Modulatory activities of Agelanthus dodoneifolius (Loranthaceae) extracts on stimulated equine neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Boly, Raïnatou; Dessy, Stéphanie; Kohnen, Stephan; Kini, Félix; Lompo, Marius; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Agelanthus dodoneifolius DC Danser (Loranthaceae) is used for the treatment of various diseases including asthma. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic and bronchorelaxant activities. The present study investigates the effects of the aqueous decoction and the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and butanolic fractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius DC Danser (Loranthaceae) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated equine neutrophils and on purified equine MPO activity. ROS production and MPO release by the PMA-stimulated neutrophils were measured by the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and ELISA assays, respectively. Specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection (SIEFED) was used to specifically measure the equine MPO activity. Identification and quantification of the individual and total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were performed using UPLC-MS/MS equipment and colorimetric methods involving Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl₃, respectively. All the tested extracts displayed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the oxidant activities of neutrophils; a stronger effect was observed with the organic fractions than the aqueous decoction. These findings could be correlated with a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The results confirm the previously shown anti-inflammatory effect of Agelanthus dodoneifolius and its potential use for the treatment of neutrophil-dependent inflammatory diseases.

  1. Vanadium promotes hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fickl, Heidi; Theron, Annette J; Grimmer, Heidi; Oommen, Joyce; Ramafi, Grace J; Steel, Helen C; Visser, Susanna S; Anderson, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of vanadium in the +2, +3, +4, and +5 valence states on superoxide generation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils in vitro, using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL), autoiodination, and electron spin resonance with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide as the spin trap, respectively. At concentrations of up to 25 microM, vanadium, in the four different valence states used, did not affect the LECL responses of neutrophils activated with either the chemoattractant, N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (1 microM), or the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 12-acetate (25 ng/ml). However, exposure to vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4, but not the +5, valence states was accompanied by significant augmentation of hydroxyl radical formation by activated neutrophils and attenuation of MPO-mediated iodination. With respect to hydroxyl radical formation, similar effects were observed using cell-free systems containing either hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) or xanthine/xanthine oxidase together with vanadium (+2, +3, +4), while the activity of purified MPO was inhibited by the metal in these valence states. These results demonstrate that vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4 valence states interacts prooxidatively with human neutrophils, competing effectively with MPO for hydrogen peroxide to promote formation of the highly toxic hydroxyl radical.

  2. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Iannotta, Valeria; Cattabriga, Elena; Spisani, Susanna; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of low frequency, low energy, pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils.Saturation experiments performed using a high affinity adenosine antagonist [3H]-ZM 241385 revealed a single class of binding sites in control and in PEMF-treated human neutrophils with similar affinity (KD=1.05±0.10 and 1.08±0.12 nM, respectively). Furthermore, after 1 h of exposure to PEMFs the receptor density was statistically increased (P<0.01) (Bmax =126±10 and 215±15 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively).The effect of PEMFs was specific to the A2A adenosine receptors. This effect was also intensity, time and temperature dependent.In the adenylyl cyclase assays the A2A receptor agonists, HE-NECA and NECA, increased cyclic AMP accumulation in untreated human neutrophils with an EC50 value of 43 (40 – 47) and 255 (228 – 284) nM, respectively. The capability of HE-NECA and NECA to stimulate cyclic AMP levels in human neutrophils was increased (P<0.01) after exposure to PEMFs with an EC50 value of 10(8 – 13) and 61(52 – 71) nM, respectively.In the superoxide anion (O2−) production assays HE-NECA and NECA inhibited the generation of O2− in untreated human neutrophils, with an EC50 value of 3.6(3.1 – 4.2) and of 23(20 – 27) nM, respectively. Moreover, in PEMF-treated human neutrophils, the same compounds show an EC50 value of 1.6(1.2 – 2.1) and of 6.0(4.7 – 7.5) nM respectively.These results indicate the presence of significant alterations in the expression and in the functionality of adenosine A2A receptors in human neutrophils treated with PEMFs. PMID:11976268

  3. JAK/STAT regulation of Aspergillus fumigatus corneal infections and IL-6/23-stimulated neutrophil, IL-17, elastase, and MMP9 activity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Patricia R; Roy, Sanhita; Meszaros, Evan C; Sun, Yan; Howell, Scott J; Malemud, Charles J; Pearlman, Eric

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 and IL-23 (IL-6/23) induce IL-17A (IL-17) production by a subpopulation of murine and human neutrophils, resulting in autocrine IL-17 activation, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, and increased fungal killing. As IL-6 and IL-23 receptors trigger JAK1, -3/STAT3 and JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation, respectively, we examined the role of this pathway in a murine model of fungal keratitis and also examined neutrophil elastase and gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity by IL-6/23-stimulated human neutrophils in vitro. We found that STAT3 phosphorylation of neutrophils in Aspergillus fumigatus-infected corne as was inhibited by the JAK/STAT inhibitor Ruxolitinib, resulting in impaired fungal killing and decreased matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity. In vitro, we showed that fungal killing by IL-6/23-stimulated human peripheral blood neutrophils was impaired by JAK/STAT inhibitors Ruxolitinib and Stattic, and by the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt inhibitor SR1001. This was also associated with decreased reactive oxygen species, IL-17A production, and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt translocation to the nucleus. We also demonstrate that IL-6/23-activated neutrophils exhibit increased elastase and gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity, which is inhibited by Ruxolitinib and Stattic but not by SR1001. Taken together, these observations indicate that the regulation of activity of IL-17-producing neutrophils by JAK/STAT inhibitors impairs reactive oxygen species production and fungal killing activity but also blocks elastase and gelatinase activity that can cause tissue damage.

  4. Isolation of two polypeptides comprising the neutrophil-immobilizing factor of human leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, K W; Brightman, I L; Goetzl, E J

    1983-01-01

    Human leucocyte lysosomal polypeptides of mol. wt 4000-5000, which constitute the neutrophil-immobolizing factor (NIF), were isolated from the 22,000 g supernate of sonicates of human neutrophils by filtration on Sephadex G-75. The larger (NIF-1) and smaller (NIF-2) of the polypeptides were resolved by filtration on Bio-Gel P6 and purified to homogeneity by sequential reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and paper electrophoresis. The results of analyses of amino acid composition indicated that NIF-1 and NIF-2 are distinct polypeptides composed of an apparent total of 41 and 38 amino acids, respectively. Both NIF polypeptides contain one cysteine and one methionine, lack isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, and are rich in histidine and proline. The sequence of 20 of the amino-terminal amino acids of both NIF polypeptides is identical, but NIF-2 possesses an additional alanine at the amino-terminus. Highly purified NIF-1 and NIF-2 inhibited human neutrophil random migration and chemotaxis to diverse stimuli in a concentration-dependent manner, with 50% inhibition of chemotaxis by 0.31-1 x 10(-8) M NIF-1 and 1-3 x 10(-7) M NIF-2. Neither NIF polypeptide was cytotoxic for neutrophils, altered neutrophil phagocytosis or release of lysosomal enzymes, or inhibited mononuclear leucocyte chemotaxis. The leucocyte and functional specificity of the NIF polypeptides and the quantitites released upon stimulation of the human leucocytes suggest that the transition to a mononuclear leucocyte population in chronic inflammation may be attributable in part to the NIF derived from the leucocyte infiltrates of acute responses. PMID:6848456

  5. Cytokine-treated human neutrophils contain inducible nitric oxide synthase that produces nitration of ingested bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T J; Buttery, L D; Carpenter, A; Springall, D R; Polak, J M; Cohen, J

    1996-01-01

    Although the production of NO within rodent phagocytes is well-characterized, its production and function within human phagocytes are less clear. We show here that neutrophils within human buffy coat preparations stimulated with a mixture of interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma contain inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein, one of the enzymes responsible for NO production. The protein colocalizes with myeloperoxidase within neutrophil primary granules. Using an inhibitor of NO synthase, L-N-monomethyl arginine, we show that activity of this enzyme is required for the formation of nitrotyrosine around phagocytosed bacteria, most likely through the intermediate production of peroxynitrite, a reaction product of NO and superoxide anions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8790368

  6. Granule Exocytosis Contributes to Priming and Activation of the Human Neutrophil Respiratory Burst

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Silvia M.; Rane, Madhavi J.; Luerman, Gregory C.; Barati, Michelle T.; Ward, Richard A.; Nauseef, William M.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The role of exocytosis in the human neutrophil respiratory burst was determined using a fusion protein (TAT–SNAP-23) containing the HIV transactivator of transcription (TAT) cell-penetrating sequence and the N-terminal SNARE domain of synaptosome-associated protein-23 (SNAP-23). This agent inhibited stimulated exocytosis of secretory vesicles and gelatinase and specific granules but not azurophil granules. GST pulldown showed that TAT–SNAP-23 bound to the combination of vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 and syntaxin-4 but not to either individually. TAT–SNAP-23 reduced phagocytosis-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production by 60% without affecting phagocytosis or generation of HOCl within phagosomes. TAT–SNAP-23 had no effect on fMLF-stimulated superoxide release but significantly inhibited priming of this response by TNF-α and platelet-activating factor. Pretreatment with TAT–SNAP-23 inhibited the increase in plasma membrane expression of gp91phox in TNF-α–primed neutrophils, whereas TNF-α activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK was not affected. The data demonstrate that neutrophil granule exocytosis contributes to phagocytosis-induced respiratory burst activity and plays a critical role in priming of the respiratory burst by increasing expression of membrane components of the NADPH oxidase. PMID:21642540

  7. Is there a relationship between phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate and F-actin polymerization in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, M.; Traynor-Kaplan, A.E.; Sklar, L.A.; Norgauer, J. )

    1990-10-05

    Stimulation of human neutrophils with the chemoattractant N-formyl peptide caused rapid polymerization of F-actin as detected by right angle light scatter and 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol (NBD)-phallacidin staining of F-actin. After labeling neutrophils with 32P, exposure to N-formyl peptide induced a fast decrease of phosphatidylinositol 4-bisphosphate (PIP)2, a slow increase of phosphatidic acid, and a rapid rise of phosphatidylinositol 4-trisphosphate (PIP3). Formation of PIP3 as well as actin polymerization was near maximal at 10 s after stimulation. Half-maximal response and PIP3 formation at early time points resulted from stimulation of neutrophils with 0.01 nM N-formyl peptide or occupation of about 200 receptors. Sustained elevation of PIP3, prolonged right angle light scatter response, and F-actin formation required higher concentrations of N-formyl peptide, occupation of thousands of receptors, and high binding rates. When ligand binding was interrupted with an antagonist, F-actin rapidly depolymerized, transient light scatter response recovered immediately, and elevated (32P)PIP3 levels decayed toward initial values. However, recovery of (32P)PIP2 was not influenced by the antagonist. Based on the parallel time courses and dose response of (32P) PIP3, the right angle light scatter response, and F-actin polymerization, PIP3 is more likely than PIP2 to be involved in modulation of actin polymerization and depolymerization in vivo.

  8. Human Tissue Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  9. Interaction between arsenic trioxide (ATO) and human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known to be mediated by its ability to induce cell apoptosis in a variety of cells, including neutrophils. More recently, we demonstrated that ATO induced several parameters involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neutrophil apoptosis but that caspase-4 was not involved. The aim of this study was to better understand how neutrophils are activated by ATO and to further demonstrate that ATO is an ER stressor. Human neutrophils were isolated from healthy blood donors and incubated in vitro in the presence or absence of ATO and several parameters were investigated. We found that ATO induced the expression of the proapoptotic GADD153 protein, a key player involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis, activated nuclear nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activities, and increased prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) production. Using an antibody array approach, we found that ATO increased the production of several cytokines, with interleukin 8 (IL-8) being the predominant one. We confirmed that ATO increased the production of IL-8 by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not inhibit IL-8 production. The results of the present study further support the notion that ATO is an ER stressor and that, although its toxic effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis, this chemical also induced, in parallel, NF-κB activation, the production of PGE2 and several cytokines probably involved in other cell functions. Also, we conclude that the production of IL-8 is not induced by a caspase-4-dependent mechanism, suggesting that ATO-induced caspase-4 activation is involved in other as yet unidentified functions in human neutrophils.

  10. Influence of botulinum C2 toxin on F-actin and N-formyl peptide receptor dynamics in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Stimulation of human neutrophils with the chemotactic N-formyl peptide causes production of oxygen radicals and conversion of monomeric actin (G-actin) to polymeric actin (F-actin). The effects of the binary botulinum C2 toxin on the amount of F-actin and on neutrophil cell responses were studied. Two different methods for analyzing the actin response were used in formyl peptide-stimulated cells: staining of F- actin with rhodamine-phalloidin and a transient right angle light scatter. Preincubation of neutrophils with 400 ng/ml component I and 1,600 ng/ml component II of botulinum C2 toxin for 30 min almost completely inhibited the formyl peptide-stimulated polymerization of G- actin and at the same time decreased the amount of F-actin in unstimulated neutrophils by an average of approximately 30%. Botulinum C2 toxin preincubation for 60 min destroyed approximately 75% of the F- actin in unstimulated neutrophils. Right angle light scatter analysis showed that control neutrophils exhibited the transient response characteristic of actin polymerization; however, after botulinum C2 toxin treatment, degranulation was detected. Single components of the binary botulinum C2 toxin were without effect on the actin polymerization response. Fluorescence flow cytometry and fluorospectrometric binding studies showed little alteration in N- formyl peptide binding or dissociation dynamics in the toxin-treated cells. However, endocytosis of the fluorescent N-formyl peptide ligand- receptor complex was slower but still possible in degranulating neutrophils treated with botulinum C2 toxin for 60 min. The half-time of endocytosis, estimated from initial rates, was 4 and 8 min in control and botulinum C2 toxin-treated neutrophils, respectively. PMID:2768337

  11. Modulation of human neutrophil oxidative metabolism and degranulation by extract of Tamarindus indica L. fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Kabeya, Luciana M; Kanashiro, Alexandre; de Figueiredo, Andréa S G; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2009-01-01

    The tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is indigenous to Asian countries and widely cultivated in the American continents. The tamarind fruit pulp extract (ExT), traditionally used in spices, food components and juices, is rich in polyphenols that have demonstrated anti-atherosclerotic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. This study evaluated the modulator effect of a crude hydroalcoholic ExT on some peripheral human neutrophil functions. The neutrophil reactive oxygen species generation, triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ), n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and assessed by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL and LucCL, respectively), was inhibited by ExT in a concentration-dependent manner. ExT was a more effective inhibitor of the PMA-stimulated neutrophil function [IC50 (in microg/10(6)cells)=115.7+/-9.7 (LumCL) and 174.5+/-25.9 (LucCL)], than the OZ- [IC50=248.5+/-23.1 (LumCL) and 324.1+/-34.6 (LucCL)] or fMLP-stimulated cells [IC50=178.5+/-12.2 (LumCL)]. The ExT also inhibited neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity (evaluated by O2 consumption), degranulation and elastase activity (evaluated by spectrophotometric methods) at concentrations higher than 200 microg/10(6)cells, without being toxic to the cells, under the conditions assessed. Together, these results indicate the potential of ExT as a source of compounds that can modulate the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  12. Opa+ Neisseria gonorrhoeae Exhibits Reduced Survival in Human Neutrophils Via Src Family Kinase-Mediated Bacterial Trafficking Into Mature Phagolysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. Brittany; Ball, Louise M.; Daily, Kylene P.; Martin, Jennifer N.; Columbus, Linda; Criss, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary During gonorrheal infection, there is a heterogeneous population of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) varied in their expression of opacity-associated (Opa) proteins. While Opa proteins are important for bacterial attachment and invasion of epithelial cells, Opa+ Gc has a survival defect after exposure to neutrophils. Here, we use constitutively Opa- and OpaD+ Gc in strain background FA1090 to show that Opa+ Gc is more sensitive to killing inside adherent, chemokine-treated primary human neutrophils due to increased bacterial residence in mature, degradative phagolysosomes that contain primary and secondary granule antimicrobial content. Although Opa+ Gc stimulates a potent oxidative burst, neutrophil killing of Opa+ Gc was instead attributable to non-oxidative components, particularly neutrophil proteases and the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Blocking interaction of Opa+ Gc with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) or inhibiting Src family kinase signaling, which is downstream of CEACAM activation, enhanced the survival of Opa+ Gc in neutrophils. Src family kinase signaling was required for fusion of Gc phagosomes with primary granules to generate mature phagolysosomes. Conversely, ectopic activation of Src family kinases or coinfection with Opa+ Gc resulted in decreased survival of Opa- Gc in neutrophils. From these results, we conclude that Opa protein expression is an important modulator of Gc survival characteristics in neutrophils by influencing phagosome dynamics and thus bacterial exposure to neutrophils’ full antimicrobial arsenal. PMID:25346239

  13. NADPH oxidase derived reactive oxygen species are involved in human neutrophil IL-1β secretion but not in inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Gabelloni, María Laura; Sabbione, Florencia; Jancic, Carolina; Fuxman Bass, Juan; Keitelman, Irene; Iula, Leonardo; Oleastro, Matías; Geffner, Jorge R; Trevani, Analía S

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophils are essential players in acute inflammatory responses. Upon stimulation, neutrophils activate NADPH oxidase, generating an array of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a major proinflammatory cytokine synthesized as a precursor that has to be proteolytically processed to become biologically active. The role of ROS in IL-1β processing is still controversial and has not been previously studied in neutrophils. We report here that IL-1β processing in human neutrophils is dependent on caspase-1 and on the serine proteases elastase and/or proteinase 3. NADPH oxidase deficient neutrophils activated caspase-1 and did not exhibit differences in NALP3 expression, indicating that ROS are neither required for inflammasome activation nor for its priming, as has been reported for macrophages. Strikingly, ROS exerted opposite effects on the processing and secretion of IL-1β; whereas ROS negatively controlled caspase-1 activity, as reported in mononuclear phagocytes, ROS were found to be necessary for the exportation of mature IL-1β out of the cell, a role never previously described. The complex ROS-mediated regulation of neutrophil IL-1β secretion might constitute a physiological mechanism to control IL-1β-dependent inflammatory processes where neutrophils play a crucial role.

  14. Luminol-dependent photoemission from single neutrophil stimulated by phorbol ester and calcium ionophore--role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Suematsu, M.; Oshio, C.; Miura, S.; Suzuki, M.; Houzawa, S.; Tsuchiya, M.

    1988-08-30

    Luminol-dependent photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated single neutrophil was visually investigated by using an ultrasensitive photonic image intensifier microscope. Neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (0.1 microgram/ml) alone produced a negligible level of photonic activities in the presence of luminol (10 micrograms/ml). The additional application of 0.1 microM Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced explosive changes of photonic burst corresponding to the distribution of neutrophils, and these photonic activities were gradually spread to extracellular space. Sodium azide, which prevents myeloperoxidase activity, inhibited Ca2+ ionophore-induced photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated neutrophil. These findings suggest a prerequisite role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase release in luminol-dependent photoemission from stimulated neutrophils.

  15. NKT cells mediate the recruitment of neutrophils by stimulating epithelial chemokine secretion during colitis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Enyu; Liu, Ronghua; Lu, Zhou; Liu, Jiajing; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-05-27

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a kind of inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and ulcer in colon, and UC patients have increased risk of getting colorectal cancer. NKT cells are cells that express both NK cell markers and semi-invariant CD1d-restricted TCRs, can regulate immune responses via secreting a variety of cytokines upon activation. In our research, we found that the NKT cell-deficient CD1d(-/-) mice had relieved colitis in the DSS-induced colitis model. Further investigations revealed that the colon of CD1d(-/-) mice expressed less neutrophil-attracting chemokine CXCL 1, 2 and 3, and had decreased neutrophil infiltration. Infiltrated neutrophils also produced less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-α, indicating they may cause less epithelial damage. In addition, colitis-associated colorectal cancer was also relieved in CD1d(-/-) mice. During colitis, NKT cells strongly expressed TNF-α, which could stimulate CXCL 1, 2, 3 expressions by the epithelium. In conclusion, NKT cells can regulate colitis via the NKT cell-epithelium-neutrophil axis. Targeting this mechanism may help to improve the therapy of UC and prevent colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IFNα enhances the production of IL-6 by human neutrophils activated via TLR8

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Maili; Arruda-Silva, Fabio; Bianchetto-Aguilera, Francisco; Finotti, Giulia; Calzetti, Federica; Scapini, Patrizia; Lunardi, Claudio; Cassatella, Marco A.; Tamassia, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported that human neutrophils produce biologically active amounts of IL-6 when incubated with agonists activating TLR8, a receptor recognizing viral single strand RNA. In this study, we demonstrate that IFNα, a cytokine that modulates the early innate immune responses toward viral and bacterial infections, potently enhances the production of IL-6 in neutrophils stimulated with R848, a TLR8 agonist. We also show that such an effect is not caused by an IFNα-dependent induction of TLR7 and its consequent co-activation with TLR8 in response to R848, but, rather, it is substantially mediated by an increased production and release of endogenous TNFα. The latter cytokine, in an autocrine manner, leads to an augmented synthesis of the IkBζ co-activator and an enhanced recruitment of the C/EBPβ transcription factor to the IL-6 promoter. Moreover, we show that neutrophils from SLE patients with active disease state, hence displaying an IFN-induced gene expression signature, produce increased amounts of both IL-6 and TNFα in response to R848 as compared to healthy donors. Altogether, data uncover novel effects that type I IFN exerts in TLR8-activated neutrophils, which therefore enlarge our knowledge on the various biological actions which type I IFN orchestrates during infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26790609

  17. Transendothelial migration enhances integrin-dependent human neutrophil chemokinesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transendothelial migration of neutrophils induces phenotypic changes that influence the interactions of neutrophils with extravascular tissue components. To assess the influence of transmigration on neutrophil chemokinetic motility, we used polyethylene glycol hydrogels covalently modified with spec...

  18. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M. )

    1989-11-15

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake.

  19. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by the Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kotukhov, Yuriy A; Danilova, Alevtina N; Özek, Temel; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-05-27

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEO(f+l) and AKEO(stm), respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyleugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy-four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEO(stm), but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEO(stm) composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). One component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca(2+) flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production.

  20. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V.; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A.; Kotukhov, Yuriy A.; Danilova, Alevtina N.; Özek, Temel; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEOf+l and AKEOstm, respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyl eugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEOstm, but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEOstm composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). We found that one component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca2+ flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca2+ flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by an inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production. PMID:25959257

  1. Human Platelets Utilize Cycloxygenase-1 to Generate Dioxolane A3, a Neutrophil-activating Eicosanoid*

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Uhlson, Charis; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Longhurst, Hilary J.; Warner, Timothy D.; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David A.; Lauder, Sarah N.; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter W.; Murphy, Robert C.; Thomas, Christopher P.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lipid is generated in nanogram amounts by platelets from endogenous arachidonate during physiological activation, with inhibition by aspirin in vitro or in vivo, implicating cyclooxygenase-1 (COX). Pharmacological and genetic studies on human/murine platelets revealed that DXA3 formation requires protease-activated receptors 1 and 4, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), Src tyrosine kinases, p38 MAPK, phospholipase C, and intracellular calcium. From data generated by purified COX isoforms and chemical oxidation, we propose that DXA3 is generated by release of an intermediate from the active site followed by oxygenation at C8. In summary, a new neutrophil-activating platelet-derived lipid generated by COX-1 is presented that can activate or prime human neutrophils, suggesting a role in innate immunity and acute inflammation. PMID:27129261

  2. The effect of stress-inducible extracellular Hsp72 on human neutrophil chemotaxis: a role during acute intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Eduardo; Hinchado, M D; Martín-Cordero, L; Asea, A

    2009-05-01

    We studied the physiological role of the 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp72, a stress-inducible protein) in modulating neutrophil chemotaxis during a single bout of intense exercise performed by sedentary women, together with various cell mechanisms potentially involved in the modulation. For each volunteer, we evaluated neutrophil chemotaxis and serum Hsp72 concentration before and immediately after a single bout of exercise (1 h on a cycle ergometer at 70% VO(2) max), and 24 h later. Both parameters were found to be stimulated by the exercise, and had returned to basal values 24 h later. In vitro, there was a dose-dependent increase in chemotaxis when neutrophils were incubated both with physiological Hsp72 concentrations and with a 100 x greater concentration. The chemotaxis was greater when the neutrophils were incubated with the post-exercise Hsp72 concentration than with the basal concentration, suggesting a physiological role for this protein in the context of the stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis by intense exercise. The 100 x Hsp72 concentration stimulated chemotaxis even more strongly. In addition, Hsp72 was found to have chemoattractant and chemokinetic effects on the neutrophils at physiological concentrations, with these effects being significantly greater with the post-exercise than with the basal Hsp72 concentration. The Hsp72-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis disappeared when the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) was blocked, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) were also found to be involved in the signaling process. No changes were observed, however, in neutrophil intracellular calcium levels in response to Hsp72. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of the stress protein Hsp72 stimulate human neutrophil chemotaxis through TLR-2 with its cofactor CD14, involving ERK, NF-kappaB, and PI3K, but not iCa(2 + ), as

  3. Effects of a novel perfluorocarbon emulsion on neutrophil chemiluminescence in human whole blood in vitro.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C M; Lowe, K C; Röhlke, W; Geister, U; Reuter, P; Meinert, H

    1997-05-01

    The effects have been studied of a novel perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsion (18.5% perfluorodecalin, 1.5% perfluorodimorpholine propane, 2.5% lecithin) on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 micrograms ml-1)-induced neutrophil chemiluminescence in citrated human whole blood in vitro. A transient, dose-dependent, decrease in chemiluminescence, to a maximum of 54% after 12 min (P < 0.05), occurred when blood was pre-incubated with 10-40 microliters of the PFC emulsion, compared to saline controls. The mean (+/- s.e.m., n = 6) chemiluminescence of neutrophils incubated with 30 microliters emulsion at 12 min following PMA stimulation (9.5 +/- 1.3 mV) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than control (24.2 +/- 2.2 mV). Incubation of blood with lecithin up to 16 mg ml-1 and Pluronic F-68 or Pluronic PE 6800 up to 65 mg ml-1 did not affect chemiluminescence.

  4. Expression and regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Giambelluca, Miriam S; Cloutier, Nathalie; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Boilard, Eric; Pouliot, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase involved in the regulation of cellular processes ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell cycle regulation. Its two known isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues throughout the body and exert distinct but often overlapping functions. GSK-3 is typically active in resting cells, inhibition by phosphorylation of Ser21 (GSK-3α) or Ser9 (GSK-3β) being the most common regulatory mechanism. GSK-3 activity has been linked recently with immune system function, yet little is known about the role of this enzyme in neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte type. In the present study, we examined GSK-3 expression and regulation in human neutrophils. GSK-3α was found to be the predominant isoform, it was constitutively expressed and cell stimulation with different agonists did not alter its expression. Stimulation by fMLP, LPS, GM-CSF, Fcγ receptor engagement, or adenosine A2A receptor engagement all resulted in phosphorylation of Ser21. The use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that combinations of Src kinase, PKC, PI3K/AKT, ERK/RSK and PKA signaling pathways could mediate phosphorylation, depending on the agonist. Neither PLC nor p38 were involved. We conclude that GSK-3α is the main isoform expressed in neutrophils and that many different pathways can converge to inhibit GSK-3α activity via Ser21-phosphorylation. GSK-3α thus might be a hub of cellular regulation.

  5. Effect of magnetic resonance imaging on human respiratory burst of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Heine, J; Scheinichen, D; Jaeger, K; Herzog, T; Sümpelmann, R; Leuwer, M

    1999-03-05

    It is known that low intensity magnetic fields increase superoxide anion production during the respiratory burst of rat peritoneal neutrophils in vitro. We investigated whether the high intensity magnetic fields (1.5 T) during magnetic resonance imaging can influence the human neutrophil function under in vivo conditions. Blood samples were obtained from 12 patients immediately before and after magnetic resonance imaging (mean time 27.6(+/-11.4 min)). The induced respiratory burst was investigated by the intracellular oxidative transformation of dihydrorhodamine 123 to the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 via flow cytometry. The respiratory burst was induced either with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, Escherichia coli, N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine or priming with tumor necrosis factor followed by FMLP stimulation. There was no significant difference between the respiratory burst before and after magnetic resonance imaging, irrespective of the stimulating agent. Short time exposure to a high intensity magnetic field during magnetic resonance imaging seems not to influence the production of radical species in living neutrophils.

  6. Human Neutrophils Convert the Sebum-derived Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Sebaleic Acid to a Potent Granulocyte Chemoattractant*

    PubMed Central

    Cossette, Chantal; Patel, Pranav; Anumolu, Jaganmohan R.; Sivendran, Sashikala; Lee, Gue Jae; Gravel, Sylvie; Graham, François D.; Lesimple, Alain; Mamer, Orval A.; Rokach, Joshua; Powell, William S.

    2008-01-01

    Sebaleic acid (5,8-octadecadienoic acid) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in human sebum and skin surface lipids. The objective of the present study was to investigate the metabolism of this fatty acid by human neutrophils and to determine whether its metabolites are biologically active. Neutrophils converted sebaleic acid to four major products, which were identified by their chromatographic properties, UV absorbance, and mass spectra as 5-hydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid (5-HODE), 5-oxo-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid (5-oxo-ODE), 5S,18-dihydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid, and 5-oxo-18-hydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid. The identities of these metabolites were confirmed by comparison of their properties with those of authentic chemically synthesized standards. Both neutrophils and human keratinocytes converted 5-HODE to 5-oxo-ODE. This reaction was stimulated in neutrophils by phorbol myristate acetate and in keratinocytes by oxidative stress (t-butyl-hydroperoxide). Both treatments dramatically elevated intracellular levels of NADP+, the cofactor required by 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase. In keratinocytes, this was accompanied by a rapid increase in intracellular GSSG levels, consistent with the involvement of glutathione peroxidase. 5-Oxo-ODE stimulated calcium mobilization in human neutrophils and induced desensitization to 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid but not leukotriene B4, indicating that this effect was mediated by the OXE receptor. 5-Oxo-ODE and its 8-trans isomer were equipotent with 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid in stimulating actin polymerization and chemotaxis in human neutrophils, whereas 5-HODE, 5-oxo-18-hydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid, and 5S,18-dihydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid were much less active. We conclude that neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase converts sebaleic acid to 5-HODE, which can be further metabolized to 5-oxo-ODE by 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase in neutrophils and keratinocytes. Because of

  7. Human neutrophils convert the sebum-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid Sebaleic acid to a potent granulocyte chemoattractant.

    PubMed

    Cossette, Chantal; Patel, Pranav; Anumolu, Jaganmohan R; Sivendran, Sashikala; Lee, Gue Jae; Gravel, Sylvie; Graham, François D; Lesimple, Alain; Mamer, Orval A; Rokach, Joshua; Powell, William S

    2008-04-25

    Sebaleic acid (5,8-octadecadienoic acid) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in human sebum and skin surface lipids. The objective of the present study was to investigate the metabolism of this fatty acid by human neutrophils and to determine whether its metabolites are biologically active. Neutrophils converted sebaleic acid to four major products, which were identified by their chromatographic properties, UV absorbance, and mass spectra as 5-hydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid (5-HODE), 5-oxo-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid (5-oxo-ODE), 5S,18-dihydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid, and 5-oxo-18-hydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid. The identities of these metabolites were confirmed by comparison of their properties with those of authentic chemically synthesized standards. Both neutrophils and human keratinocytes converted 5-HODE to 5-oxo-ODE. This reaction was stimulated in neutrophils by phorbol myristate acetate and in keratinocytes by oxidative stress (t-butyl-hydroperoxide). Both treatments dramatically elevated intracellular levels of NADP(+), the cofactor required by 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase. In keratinocytes, this was accompanied by a rapid increase in intracellular GSSG levels, consistent with the involvement of glutathione peroxidase. 5-Oxo-ODE stimulated calcium mobilization in human neutrophils and induced desensitization to 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid but not leukotriene B(4), indicating that this effect was mediated by the OXE receptor. 5-Oxo-ODE and its 8-trans isomer were equipotent with 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid in stimulating actin polymerization and chemotaxis in human neutrophils, whereas 5-HODE, 5-oxo-18-hydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid, and 5S,18-dihydroxy-(6E,8Z)-octadecadienoic acid were much less active. We conclude that neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase converts sebaleic acid to 5-HODE, which can be further metabolized to 5-oxo-ODE by 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase in neutrophils and keratinocytes. Because

  8. Effect of cellulose acetate materials on the oxidative burst of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Kaplan, D S; Picciolo, G L; Wallis, R R; Kowolik, M J

    2001-06-05

    Following adverse clinical events involving seven patients undergoing renal dialysis using 12-year-old cellulose acetate hemodialyzers, this in vitro study was proposed in an effort to characterize the inflammatory response to the constituent cellulose acetate (CA) fiber materials. Chemiluminescence (CL) and apoptosis assays were used to determine whether human neutrophils were activated by CA fiber materials and/or are sensitive to degradation/alteration of these fibers over time. Furthermore, the study examined in vitro assays with human neutrophils using a CA film, the solvents used in the film preparation and CA resin. The film could be cut to identical sized pieces in an effort to compare hemodialysis material effects in standardized amounts. For the CL assays, 60-min exposure was followed by secondary stimulation with n-formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP) or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Short-term exposure (60-min postintroduction to CA materials) increased the inflammatory response as measured by the respiratory burst of neutrophils (p < or =.05), with CA fiber exposure significantly compared with cells alone. There was a trend toward an increased response with exposure to older fibers with secondary PMA stimulation. Apoptosis was increased 12% with exposure to the more aged fibers versus 2% with the new fibers. The fiber storage component, glycerol, significantly inhibited the oxidative response (p < or =.001; > or =80% suppression with concentrations of 5-20%). The solvents used in film preparation, N,N-dimethylacetamide and tetrahydrofuran, produced greater than a 70% and 60% suppression, respectively, of CL activity for all concentrations > or =1%. More work is needed to determine the specific nature of the interaction of inflammatory cells with CA materials, but early evidence suggests that neutrophils are activated by CA and display an altered response to more aged fibers.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens in activated human neutrophils through two independent pathways: Src family kinases and Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Leu, Yann-Lii; Fang, Yu; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Sung, Wei-Che; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chung, Pei-Jen; Lee, Ming-Chung; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-01-01

    The leaves of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. have been traditionally used as an herbal medicine in East Asian countries to treat a variety diseases. In this present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of P. frutescens extract (PFE) on N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils and the underlying mechanisms. PFE (1, 3, and 10 μg/ml) inhibited superoxide anion production, elastase release, reactive oxygen species formation, CD11b expression, and cell migration in fMLF-activated human neutrophils in dose-dependent manners. PFE inhibited fMLF-induced phosphorylation of the Src family kinases (SFKs), Src (Tyr416) and Lyn (Tyr396), and reduced their enzymatic activities. Both PFE and PP2 (a selective inhibitor of SFKs) reduced the phosphorylation of Burton’s tyrosine kinases (Tyr223) and Vav (Tyr174) in fMLF-activated human neutrophils. Additionally, PFE decreased intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i), whereas PP2 prolonged the time required for [Ca2+]i to return to its basal level. Our findings indicated that PFE effectively regulated the inflammatory activities of fMLF-activated human neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effects of PFE on activated human neutrophils were mediated through two independent signaling pathways involving SFKs (Src and Lyn) and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. PMID:26659126

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens in activated human neutrophils through two independent pathways: Src family kinases and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Leu, Yann-Lii; Fang, Yu; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Sung, Wei-Che; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chung, Pei-Jen; Lee, Ming-Chung; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-12-14

    The leaves of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. have been traditionally used as an herbal medicine in East Asian countries to treat a variety diseases. In this present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of P. frutescens extract (PFE) on N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils and the underlying mechanisms. PFE (1, 3, and 10 μg/ml) inhibited superoxide anion production, elastase release, reactive oxygen species formation, CD11b expression, and cell migration in fMLF-activated human neutrophils in dose-dependent manners. PFE inhibited fMLF-induced phosphorylation of the Src family kinases (SFKs), Src (Tyr416) and Lyn (Tyr396), and reduced their enzymatic activities. Both PFE and PP2 (a selective inhibitor of SFKs) reduced the phosphorylation of Burton's tyrosine kinases (Tyr223) and Vav (Tyr174) in fMLF-activated human neutrophils. Additionally, PFE decreased intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i), whereas PP2 prolonged the time required for [Ca(2+)]i to return to its basal level. Our findings indicated that PFE effectively regulated the inflammatory activities of fMLF-activated human neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effects of PFE on activated human neutrophils were mediated through two independent signaling pathways involving SFKs (Src and Lyn) and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+).

  11. Intracellular pH regulation during spreading of human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of the intracelluar pH (pHi) during spreading of human neutrophils was studied by a combination of fluorescence imaging and video microscopy. Spreading on adhesive substrates caused a rapid and sustained cytosolic alkalinization. This pHi increase was prevented by the omission of external Na+, suggesting that it results from the activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Spreading-induced alkalinization was also precluded by the compound HOE 694 at concentrations that selectively block the NHE-1 isoform of the Na+H+ antiporter. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange by either procedure unmasked a sizable cytosolic acidification upon spreading, indicative of intracellular acid production. The excess acid generation was caused, at least in part, by the activation of the respiratory burst, since the acidification closely correlated with superoxide production, measured in single spreading neutrophils with dihydrorhodamine-123, and little acid production was observed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium, a blocker of the NADPH oxidase. Moreover, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients, which do not produce superoxide, failed to acidify. Comparable pHi changes were observed when beta 2 integrins were selectively activated during spreading on surfaces coated with anti-CD18 antibodies. When integrin engagement was precluded by pretreatment with soluble anti-CD18 antibody, the pHi changes associated with spreading on fibrinogen were markedly reduced. Inhibition of microfilament assembly with cytochalasin D precluded spreading and concomitantly abolished superoxide production and the associated pHi changes, indicating that cytoskeletal reorganization and/or an increase in the number of adherence receptors engaged are required for the responses. Neutrophils spread normally when the oxidase was blocked or when pHi was clamped near physiological values with nigericin. Spreading, however, was strongly inhibited when pHi was clamped at acidic values. Our results

  12. TARM1 is a novel LRC-encoded ITAM receptor that co-stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages and neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Radjabova, Valeria; Mastroeni, Piero; Skjødt, Karsten; Zaccone, Paola; de Bono, Bernard; Goodall, Jane C; Chilvers, Edwin R; Juss, Jatinder K; Jones, Des C; Trowsdale, John; Barrow, Alexander David

    2015-01-01

    We identified a novel, evolutionarily conserved receptor encoded within the human Leukocyte Receptor Complex (LRC) and syntenic region of mouse chromosome 7, named T cell-interacting, activating receptor on myeloid cells-1 (TARM1). The transmembrane region of TARM1 contained a conserved arginine residue, consistent with association with a signaling adaptor. TARM1 associated with the ITAM adaptor Fc receptor common γ chain but not with DAP10 or DAP12. In healthy mice, TARM1 is constitutively expressed on the cell-surface of mature and immature CD11b+ Gr-1+ neutrophils within the bone marrow. Following intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment or systemic bacterial challenge TARM1 expression was upregulated by neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes and TARM1+ cells were rapidly recruited to sites of inflammation. TARM1 expression was also upregulated by bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells following stimulation with TLR agonists in vitro. Ligation of TARM1 receptor in the presence of TLR ligands, such as LPS, enhanced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages and primary mouse neutrophils, whereas TARM1 stimulation alone had no effect. Finally, an immobilized TARM1-Fc fusion protein suppressed CD4+ T cell activation and proliferation in vitro. These results suggest that a putative T cell ligand can interact with TARM1 receptor resulting in bi-directional signaling, raising the T cell activation threshold whilst co-stimulating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages and neutrophils. PMID:26311901

  13. Oxidative and nonoxidative killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaki, K T; Wilson, M E; Brunetti, A J; Genco, R J

    1986-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative microorganism which has been implicated as an etiologic agent in localized juvenile periodontitis and in subacute bacterial endocarditis and abscesses. Although resistant to serum bactericidal action and to oxidant injury mediated by superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), this organism is sensitive to killing by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system (K.T. Miyasaki, M.E. Wilson, and R.J. Genco, Infect. Immun. 53:161-165, 1986). In this study, we examined the sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans to killing by intact neutrophils under aerobic conditions, under anaerobic conditions, and under aerobic conditions in the presence of the heme-protein inhibitor sodium cyanide. Intact neutrophils killed opsonized A. actinomycetemcomitans under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the kinetics of these reactions indicated that both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms were operative. Oxidative mechanisms contributed significantly, and most of the killing attributable to oxidative mechanisms was inhibited by sodium cyanide, which suggested that the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system participated in the oxidative process. We conclude that human neutrophils are capable of killing A. actinomycetemcomitans by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent pathways, and that most oxygen-dependent killing requires myeloperoxidase activity. PMID:3013778

  14. Oxidatively fragmented phosphatidylcholines activate human neutrophils through the receptor for platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Smiley, P L; Stremler, K E; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) activates neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN) through a receptor that specifically recognizes short sn-2 residues. We oxidized synthetic [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine to fragment and shorten the sn-2 residue, and then examined the phospholipid products for the ability to stimulate PMN. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was fragmented by ozonolysis to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. This phospholipid activated human neutrophils at submicromolar concentrations, and is effects were inhibited by specific PAF receptor antagonists WEB2086, L659,989, and CV3988. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine next was fragmented by an uncontrolled free radical-catalyzed reaction: it was treated with soybean lipoxygenase to form its sn-2 15-hydroperoxy derivative (which did not activate neutrophils) and then allowed to oxidize under air. The secondary oxidation resulted in the formation of numerous fragmented phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103), some of which activated PMN. Hydrolysis of sn-2 residues with phospholipase A2 destroyed biologic activity, as did hydrolysis with PAF acetylhydrolase. PAF acetylhydrolase is specific for short or intermediate length sn-2 residues and does not hydrolyze the starting material (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103). Neutrophil activation was completely blocked by L659,989, a specific PAF receptor antagonist. We conclude that diacylphosphatidylcholines containing an sn-2 polyunsaturated fatty acyl residue can be oxidatively fragmented to species with sn-2 residues short enough to activate the PAF receptor of neutrophils. This suggests a new mechanism for the appearance of biologically active phospholipids, and shows

  15. Biological effects of asbestos fibers on human cells in vitro--especially on lymphocytes and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ueki, A

    2001-04-01

    Biological effects of asbestos fibers were reviewed in relation to the polyclonal activation of human lymphocytes and to the release of free radicals from human neutrophils in vitro. Chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite asbestos activate CD4+ T lymphocytes polyclonally, followed by activation-induced cell death (a type of apoptosis). The activation is HLA class II dependent, and certain Vbeta repertoire, e.g. Vbeta 5.3, are detected among the fractionated T cells with a high Ca++ level that had been stimulated by asbestos fibers. These observations support the possibility that asbestos acts as a superantigen, and that asbestos stimulate lymphocytes repeatedly in vivo. It has been reported that asbestos-induced cytotoxicity can be suppressed by the scavengers of superoxide or hydroxyl radical. Some of these scavengers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or retinoic acid are known as inducers of cell differentiation. The biological functions of DMSO for cell differentiation of HL-60 cells to neutrophils are suppressed by co-culturing of crocidolite asbestos, because DMSO reacts with the hydroxyl radical released after the stimulation with crocidolite and spent itself. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited the effects of crocidolite, reacting rapidly with *O2- before the secondary release of *OH. It seems to be probable that asbestos fibers, especially crocidolite, suppress the tissue cell differentiation by releasing free radicals and by wasting inducers of cell differentiation as radical scavengers.

  16. Identification of a novel splice variant isoform of TREM-1 in human neutrophil granules1

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Sankar; Keck, Kathy; Vrenios, Michelle; Pope, Marshall; Pearl, Merideth; Doerschug, Kevin; Klesney-Tait, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is critical for inflammatory signal amplification. Humans have two forms of TREM-1: a membrane receptor (mbTREM-1), associated with the adaptor DAP12, and a soluble receptor detected at times of infection. The membrane receptor isoform acts synergistically with the TLR pathway to promote cytokine secretion and neutrophil migration while the soluble receptor functions as a counter regulatory molecule. In multiple models of sepsis, exogenous administration of soluble forms of TREM-1 attenuates inflammation and markedly improves survival. Despite intense interest in soluble TREM-1 both as a clinical predictor of survival and as a therapeutic tool, the origin of native soluble TREM-1 remains controversial. Utilizing human neutrophils, we identified a 15 kDa TREM-1 isoform in primary (azurophilic) and secondary (specific) granules. Mass spectrometric analysis, ELISA, and immunoblot confirm that the 15 kD protein is a novel splice variant of TREM-1 (TREM-1sv). Neutrophil stimulation with P. aeruginosa, LPS, or PAM(3)Cys4 resulted in degranulation and release of TREM-1sv. The addition of exogenous TREM-1sv inhibited TREM-1 receptor mediated proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus these data reveal that TREM-1 isoforms simultaneously activate and inhibit inflammation via the canonical membrane TREM-1 molecule and this newly discovered granular isoform, TREM-1sv. PMID:26561551

  17. Proton stoichiometry associated with human neutrophil respiratory-burst reactions.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Lefker, B A; Ossanna, P J; Weiss, S J

    1984-11-10

    Control of the intraphagosomal pH in neutrophils may be of importance in creating a microbicidal environment by regulating the activity of the O2-.-generating NADPH oxidase and the lysosomal enzymes discharged into this compartment. In this study, we examined the proton stoichiometry associated with the primary enzymatic reaction underlying the respiratory burst. A preparation of the neutrophil-derived, membrane oxidase consumed NADPH and generated O2-. with a stoichiometry of 1 NADPH:2 O2-. When the enzymatically produced O2-. was prevented from undergoing dismutation, net protons were released in an approximate 1:2 stoichiometry with O2-. generated. In contrast, when O2-. was allowed to dismutate to H2O2, net protons were consumed in a 1:1 stoichiometry with the accumulated H2O2. Thus, the delta pH associated with the NADPH oxidase-dependent production of O2-. was dictated by the fate of the generated radical. The consumption of the oxidase-generated H2O2 by the lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase resulted in the formation of HOCl which was trapped in the presence of taurine as the N-chloro derivative. The ratio of chlorinated product formed to H+ consumed was 1:1. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the known intraphagosomal pH changes that occur following neutrophil stimulation. We conclude that the O2-.-generating oxidase plays a dual role in the phagosome by simultaneously creating an oxidizing environment that optimizes pH-dependent microbicidal processes.

  18. Redox-active biflavonoids from Garcinia brasiliensis as inhibitors of neutrophil oxidative burst and human erythrocyte membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Saroni Arwa, Phanuel; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Siqueira Silva, Dulce Helena

    2015-11-04

    Garcinia brasiliensis, a plant native to the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation of the urinary tract, peptic ulcers, arthritis and other conditions. The purposes of this study were to analyze the chemical constituents of G. brasiliensis branches and leaves and to evaluate the potential of isolated compounds to act as inhibitors of both the oxidative burst of stimulated neutrophils and oxidative damage in human erythrocyte membranes to verify the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of healthy donors by Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation. Superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by stimulated neutrophils were measured by WST-1 reduction and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, respectively. Radical-induced lipoperoxidation and hemolysis were performed using erythrocytes from the blood of healthy donors. Compounds were isolated from G. brasiliensis branches and leaves by HPLC microfractionation, and structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed based on NMR and HR-MS analyses. The biflavonoids procyanidin, fukugetin, amentoflavone and podocarpusflavone isolated from G. brasiliensis showed potent inhibitory effects on the oxidative burst of human neutrophils, inhibiting ROS production by 50% at 1 μmol L(-1). These biflavonoids also proved to be potent inhibitors of hemolysis (with 88 ± 7% inhibition at 50 µmol L(-1) for procyanidin) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes, with a malondialdehyde level (a biomarker of oxidative stress) of 8.5 ± 0.3 nmol/mg Hb at 50 µmol L(-1) for procyanidin. These findings indicate that the biflavonoids extracted from G. brasiliensis branches and leaves modulate oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase and ROS production by stimulated human neutrophils. Furthermore, the biflavonoids exhibited potent inhibition of oxidant hemolysis and lipid peroxidation

  19. Influence of FcγRIIIb polymorphism on its ability to cooperate with FcγRIIa and CR3 in mediating the oxidative burst of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Toller-Kawahisa, Juliana Escher; Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Costa, Paulo Inácio; Faria, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes; Azzolini, Ana Elisa Caleiro Seixas; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni Mara

    2014-08-01

    Considering that human neutrophil FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIb receptors interact synergistically with CR3 in triggering neutrophil functional responses, allelic polymorphisms in these receptors might influence such interactions. We assessed whether FcγRIIIb polymorphisms affect FcγR/CR cooperation in mediating the neutrophil oxidative burst (OB), in particular the FcγRIIIb/CR3 cooperation that occurs via lectin-saccharide-like interactions. The OB of human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-1a-, HNA-1b-, and HNA-1a/-1b-neutrophils stimulated with immune complexes, opsonized or not with serum complement, was measured by the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Compared with HNA-1a-neutrophils, HNA-1b-neutrophils exhibited reduced FcγR-stimulated OB, but increased FcγR/CR-stimulated OB. It suggests that (i) FcγR and CR cooperate more effectively in HNA-1b-neutrophils, and (ii) the HNA-1b allotype influences the FcγRIIIb cooperation with FcγRIIa, but not with CR3. HNA-1a- and HNA-1b-neutrophils exhibited similar OB responses elicited via CR3 alone or via FcγR/CR-independent pathways. In addition, the level of FcγRIIIb, FcγRIIa, and CR3 expression did not differ significantly among the neutrophil groups studied. Together, these results demonstrate that the HNA-1b allotype influences the functional cooperation between FcγRIIIb and FcγRIIa, and suggest that the difference in the glycosylation pattern between HNA-1a and HNA-1b does not affect the FcγRIIIb cooperation with CR3.

  20. Roles of superoxide and myeloperoxidase in ascorbate oxidation in stimulated neutrophils and H2O2-treated HL60 cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, Amber; Cuddihy, Sarah L; Son, Tae G; Vissers, Margreet C M; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2011-10-01

    Ascorbate is present at high concentrations in neutrophils and becomes oxidized when the cells are stimulated. We have investigated the mechanism of oxidation by studying cultured HL60 cells and isolated neutrophils. Addition of H(2)O(2) to ascorbate-loaded HL60 cells resulted in substantial oxidation of intracellular ascorbate. Oxidation was myeloperoxidase-dependent, but not attributable to hypochlorous acid, and can be explained by myeloperoxidase (MPO) exhibiting direct ascorbate peroxidase activity. When neutrophils were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, about 40% of their intracellular ascorbate was oxidized over 20 min. Ascorbate loss required NADPH oxidase activity but in contrast to the HL60 cells did not involve myeloperoxidase. It did not occur when exogenous H(2)O(2) was added, was not inhibited by myeloperoxidase inhibitors, and was the same for normal and myeloperoxidase-deficient cells. Neutrophil ascorbate loss was enhanced when endogenous superoxide dismutase was inhibited by cyanide or diethyldithiocarbamate and appears to be due to oxidation by superoxide. We propose that in HL60 cells, MPO-dependent ascorbate oxidation occurs because cellular ascorbate can access newly synthesized MPO before it becomes packaged in granules: a mechanism not possible in neutrophils. In neutrophils, we estimate that ascorbate is capable of competing with superoxide dismutase for a small fraction of the superoxide they generate and propose that the superoxide responsible is likely to come from previously identified sites of intracellular NADPH oxidase activity. We speculate that ascorbate might protect the neutrophil against intracellular effects of superoxide generated at these sites.

  1. Temporal adaptation of neutrophil oxidative responsiveness to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Acceleration by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    English, D; Broxmeyer, H E; Gabig, T G; Akard, L P; Williams, D E; Hoffman, R

    1988-10-01

    This investigation was undertaken to clarify the mechanism by which purified recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates neutrophil oxidative responses triggered by the chemotactic peptide, FMLP. Previous studies have shown that GM-CSF priming of neutrophil responses to FMLP is induced relatively slowly, requiring 90 to 120 min of incubation in vitro, is not associated with increased levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+, but is associated with up-regulation of cell-surface FMLP receptors. We have confirmed these findings and further characterized the process of GM-CSF priming. We found that the effect of GM-CSF on neutrophil oxidative responsiveness was induced in a temperature-dependent manner and was not reversed when the cells were washed extensively to remove the growth factor before stimulation with FMLP. Extracellular Ca2+ was not required for functional enhancement by GM-CSF and GM-CSF alone effected no detectable alteration in the 32P-labeled phospholipid content of neutrophils during incubation in vitro. Our data indicate that GM-CSF exerts its influence on neutrophils by accelerating a process that occurs spontaneously and results in up-regulation of both cell-surface FMLP receptors and oxidative responsiveness to FMLP. Thus, the results demonstrate that, with respect to oxidative activation, circulating endstage polymorphonuclear leukocytes are nonresponsive or hyporesponsive to FMLP; functional responsiveness increases dramatically as surface FMLP receptors are gradually deployed after the cells leave the circulation. Thus, as neutrophils mature, their responsiveness to FMLP changes in a manner which may be crucial for efficient host defense. At 37 degrees C, this process is markedly potentiated by GM-CSF. We conclude that endogenous GM-CSF, released systemically or at sites of infection and inflammation, potentially plays an important role in host defense by accelerating functional maturation of responding

  2. Differential stimulation of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Cullinan, C.A.; Berkenkopf, J.W.; Weichman, B.M.

    1986-03-05

    Phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) induced the production of radical oxygen species (ROS) from rat peritoneal neutrophils as assessed by CL. ROS generation occurred in a time- (maximum at 13.5 min) and dose- (concentration range of 1.7-498 nM) related fashion. However, 166 nM PMA did not induce either cyclooxygenase (CO) or lipoxygenase (LPO) product formation by 20 min post-stimulation. Conversely, A23187, at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 ..mu..M, stimulated both pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, but had little or no effect upon ROS production. When suboptimal concentrations of PMA (5.5 nM) and A23187 (0.1-1 ..mu..M) were coincubated with the neutrophils, a synergistic ROS response was elicited. However, arachidonic acid metabolism in the presence of PMA was unchanged relative to A12187 alone. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited both PMA-induced CL (IC/sub 50/ = 0.9 ..mu..M) and A23187-induced arachidonic acid metabolism (IC/sub 50/ = 1.7 ..mu..M and 6.0 ..mu..M for LPO and CO, respectively). The mixed LPO-CO inhibitor, BW755C, behaved in a qualitatively similar manner to NDGA, whereas the CO inhibitors, indomethacin, piroxicam and naproxen had no inhibitory effect on ROS generation at concentrations as high as 100 ..mu..M. These results suggest that NDGA and BW755C may inhibit CL and arachidonic acid metabolism by distinct mechanisms in rat neutrophils.

  3. Stimulus-specific induction of phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, R.W.; Manzi, R.M.; Clark, M.A.; Hoffstein, S.T.

    1987-04-01

    Phospholipid remodeling resulting in arachidonic acid (AA) release and metabolism in human neutrophils stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187 has been extensively studied, while data obtained using physiologically relevant stimuli is limited. Opsonized zymosan and immune complexes induced stimulus-specific alterations in lipid metabolism that were different from those induced by A23187. (/sup 3/H)AA release correlated with activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) but not with cellular activation as indicated by superoxide generation. The latter correlated more with calcium-dependent phospholipase C (PLC) activation and elevation of cellular diacylglycerol (DAG) levels. When cells that had been allowed to incorporate (/sup 3/H)AA were stimulated with A23187, large amounts of labeled AA was released, most of which was metabolized to 5-HETE and leukotriene B4. Stimulation with immune complexes also resulted in the release of (/sup 3/H)AA but this released radiolabeled AA was not metabolized. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan induced no detectable release of (/sup 3/H)AA. Analysis of (/sup 3/H)AA-labeled lipids in resting cells indicated that the greatest amount of label was incorporated into the phosphatidylinositol (PI) pool, followed closely by phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine, while little (/sup 3/H)AA was detected in the phosphatidylethanolamine pool. During stimulation with A23187, a significant decrease in labeled PI occurred and labeled free fatty acid in the pellet increased. With immune complexes, only a small decrease was seen in labeled PI while the free fatty acid in the pellets was unchanged. In contrast, opsonized zymosan decreased labeled PI, and increased labeled DAG. Phospholipase activity in homogenates from human neutrophils was also assayed. A23187 and immune complexes, but not zymosan, significantly enhanced PLA2 activity in the cell homogenates. On the other hand, PLC activity was enhanced by zymosan and immune complexes

  4. Chemiluminescence of neutrophiles stimulated by opsonized Zymosan in children with bronchial asthma and pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowicz-Uszynska, A.; Jankowski, A.

    2004-08-01

    Oxygen metabolism of neutrophils after stimulation with opsonized zymosan was examined using chemiluminescence test (in the presence of the patient serum or pooled serum). Into the study 37 children aged from 2 to 12 years were enrolled (20 girls and 17 boys). 10 healthy volunteers comprised the control group (group III). Two groups of patients were established: group I -- children with bronchial asthma (without infection), group II -- children with pneumonia. The examination in both groups was performed twice -- in acute phase and in remission period. The group I in acute phase comprised 16 children and in remission phase 9 children, group II - 21 children in acute phase and 9 children in remission phase, respectively. The following parameters of CL were estimated average value of so called spontaneous CL, maximal excitation of neutrophils after stimulation by zymogen (CLmax), time of zymosan opsonization. The following results were obtained: increased spontaneous CL and CLmax (at the presence of both sera) in acute phase of bronchial asthma and pneumonia in comparison to the control group. In the period of remission both these parameters were insignificantly decreased. The longest time of zymosan opsonization in acute period of disease was observed in children with pneumonia (18 min.). This time did not change during remission phase. Only slightly longer time of opsonization was observed in the patients from group I (in exacerbation) (15 min) than in the control group (13,1 min). This time was prolonged in the clinical remission (20 min).

  5. Volume-dependent regulation of the respiratory burst of activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kuchkina, N V; Orlov, S N; Pokudin, N I; Chuchalin, A G

    1993-11-15

    The effect of incubation medium osmolality on the respiratory burst of human neutrophils was studied using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) as an indicator of burst activity. Neutrophils were stimulated with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), the calcium ionophore A23187, thermoaggregated IgG (IgGn), and opsonized zymosan (OZ). It was shown that increasing the osmolality of the incubation medium from 320 up to 420 mosM decreased the A23187- and OZ-induced CL responses by 90%. Under the same conditions PMA-, FMLP- and IgGn-induced CL responses were decreased by 40-60%. A decrease of osmolality to 200 mosM resulted in a 2-3 fold decrease of the A23187-, PMA- and FMLP-induced CL and in a 60-80% increase of OZ- and IgGn-induced CL. It is suggested that osmolality-mediated alteration of cell volume is an important mechanism for regulating neutrophil activity.

  6. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase by recombinant human proteinase inhibitor 9.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, J R; Foster, D C; Kisiel, W

    1999-09-21

    Proteinase inhibitor PI9 (PI9) is an intracellular 42-kDa member of the ovalbumin family of serpins that is found primarily in placenta, lung and lymphocytes. PI9 has been shown to be a fast-acting inhibitor of granzyme B in vitro, presumably through the utilization of Glu(340) as the P(1) inhibitory residue in its reactive site loop. In this report, we describe the inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by recombinant human PI9. Inhibition occurred with an overall K(i)' of 221 pM and a second-order association rate constant of 1.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), indicating that PI9 is a potent inhibitor of this serine proteinase in vitro. In addition, incubation of recombinant PI9 with native neutrophil elastase resulted in the formation of an SDS-resistant 62-kDa complex. Amino-terminal sequence analyses provided evidence that inhibition of elastase occurred through the use of Cys(342) as the reactive P(1) amino acid residue in the PI9 reactive site loop. Thus, PI9 joins its close relatives PI6 and PI8 as having the ability to utilize multiple reactive site loop residues as the inhibitory P(1) residue to expand its inhibitory spectrum.

  7. Chloride transport in functionally active phagosomes isolated from Human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Martha L.; Painter, Richard G.; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-01-01

    Chloride anion is critical for hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and microbial killing in neutrophil phagosomes. However, the molecular mechanism by which this anion is transported to the organelle is poorly understood. In this report, membrane-enclosed and functionally active phagosomes were isolated from human neutrophils by using opsonized paramagnetic latex microspheres and a rapid magnetic separation method. The phagosomes recovered were highly enriched for specific protein markers associated with this organelle such as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and NADPH oxidase. When FITC–dextran was included in the phagocytosis medium, the majority of the isolated phagosomes retained the fluorescent label after isolation, indicative of intact membrane structure. Flow cytometric measurement of acridine orange, a fluorescent pH indicator, in the purified phagosomes demonstrated that the organelle in its isolated state was capable of transporting protons to the phagosomal lumen via the vacuolar-type ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase). When NADPH was supplied, the isolated phagosomes constitutively oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123, indicating their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The preparations also showed a robust production of HOCl within the phagosomal lumen when assayed with the HOCl-specific fluorescent probe R19-S by flow cytometry. MPO-mediated iodination of the proteins covalently conjugated to the phagocytosed beads was quantitatively measured. Phagosomal uptake of iodide and protein iodination were significantly blocked by chloride channel inhibitors, including CFTRinh-172 and NPPB. Further experiments determined that the V-ATPase-driving proton flux into the isolated phagosomes required chloride cotransport, and the cAMP-activated CFTR chloride channel was a major contributor to the chloride transport. Taken together, the data suggest that the phagosomal preparation described herein retains ion transport

  8. Differential uptake of grepafloxacin by human circulating blood neutrophils and those exudated into tissues.

    PubMed

    Niwa, M; Hotta, K; Kanamori, Y; Matsuno, H; Kozawa, O; Hirota, M; Uematsu, T

    2001-09-28

    The uptake of the antimicrobial quinolone agent, grepafloxacin, both by human circulating blood neutrophils and by those exudated into tissues, was evaluated in vitro by comparing the intracellular drug concentrations. In circulating blood neutrophils, the uptake of grepafloxacin was rapid and saturable at 37 degrees C. The uptake of grepafloxacin into circulating blood neutrophils was reduced by lowering the environmental temperature or by the presence of metabolic inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of an active transport mechanism. Furthermore, the uptake of grepafloxacin by tissue (salivary) neutrophils was also partially temperature-dependent and was significantly greater than that by circulating blood neutrophils, i.e. exudation of neutrophils into tissue results in a markedly enhanced transport mechanism for grepafloxacin. This phenomenon may be related to the higher defense activity against infection seen in exudated tissue neutrophils.

  9. A Lipid Mediator Hepoxilin A3 Is a Natural Inducer of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Douda, David N.; Grasemann, Hartmut; Pace-Asciak, Cecil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis airways are accompanied by inflammation, neutrophilia, and mucous thickening. Cystic fibrosis sputum contains a large amount of uncleared DNA contributed by neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation from neutrophils. The exact mechanisms of the induction of NETosis in cystic fibrosis airways remain unclear, especially in uninfected lungs of patients with early cystic fibrosis lung disease. Here we show that Hepoxilin A3, a proinflammatory eicosanoid, and the synthetic analog of Hepoxilin B3, PBT-3, directly induce NETosis in human neutrophils. Furthermore, we show that Hepoxilin A3-mediated NETosis is NADPH-oxidase-dependent at lower doses of Hepoxilin A3, while it is NADPH-oxidase-independent at higher doses. Together, these results demonstrate that Hepoxilin A3 is a previously unrecognized inducer of NETosis in cystic fibrosis lungs and may represent a new therapeutic target for treating cystic fibrosis and other inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:25784781

  10. Kinetics of Neutrophils in Mice Exposed to Radiation and/or Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, A. L.; Wan, X. S.; Diffenderfer, E. S.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts have the potential to develop the hematopoietic syndrome as a result of exposure to radiation from a solar particle event (SPE) during exploration class missions. This syndrome is characterized by a reduction in the number of circulating blood cells (cytopenias). In the present study the effects of SPE-like proton and γ radiation on the kinetics of circulating neutrophils were evaluated during a one-month time period using mice as a model system. The results revealed that exposure to a 2 Gy dose of either SPE-like proton or γ radiation significantly decreased the number of circulating neutrophils, with two nadirs observed on day 4 and day 16 postirradiation. Low circulating neutrophil count (neutropenia) is particularly important because it can increase the risk of astronauts developing infections, which can compromise the success of the mission. Thus, two granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs), filgrastim and pegfilgrastim were evaluated as countermeasures for this endpoint. Both forms of G-CSF significantly increased neutrophil counts in irradiated mice, however, the effect of pegfilgrastim was more potent and lasted longer than filgrastim. Using the expression of CD11b, CD18 and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as markers of neutrophil activation, it was determined that the neutrophils in the irradiated mice treated with pegfilgrastim were physiologically active. Thus, these results suggest that pegfilgrastim could be a potential countermeasure for the reduced number of circulating neutrophils in irradiated animals. PMID:23829559

  11. Flavonols modulate the effector functions of healthy individuals' immune complex-stimulated neutrophils: a therapeutic perspective for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Everton O L; Kabeya, Luciana M; Figueiredo-Rinhel, Andréa S G; Marchi, Larissa F; Andrade, Micássio F; Piatesi, Fabiana; Paoliello-Paschoalato, Adriana B; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

    2014-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients usually exhibit immune complex (IC) deposition and increased neutrophil activation in the joint. In this study, we assessed how four flavonols (galangin, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin) modulate the effector functions of healthy individuals' and active RA patients' IC-stimulated neutrophils. We measured superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species production using lucigenin (CL-luc)- and luminol (CL-lum)-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, respectively. Galangin, kaempferol, and quercetin inhibited CL-lum to the same degree (mean IC50=2.5 μM). At 2.5 μM, quercetin and galangin suppressed nearly 65% CL-lum of active RA patients' neutrophils. Quercetin inhibited CL-luc the most effectively (IC50=1.71±0.36 μM). The four flavonols diminished myeloperoxidase activity, but they did not decrease NADPH oxidase activity, phagocytosis, microbial killing, or cell viability of neutrophils. The ability of the flavonols to scavenge hypochlorous acid and chloramines, but not H2O2, depended on the hydroxylation degree of the flavonol B-ring. Therefore, at physiologically relevant concentrations, the flavonols partially inhibited the oxidative metabolism of IC-stimulated neutrophils without affecting the other investigated effector functions. Using these compounds to modulate IC-mediated neutrophil activation is a promising safe therapeutic strategy to control inflammation in active RA patients.

  12. Calcium signalling in human neutrophil cell lines is not affected by low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Golbach, Lieke A; Philippi, John G M; Cuppen, Jan J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2015-09-01

    We are increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) by electrical devices and power lines, but if and how these fields interact with living cells remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of LF EMF exposure on calcium signalling in neutrophils. In neutrophilic granulocytes, activation of G-protein coupled receptors leads to efflux of calcium from calcium stores and influx of extracellular calcium via specialised calcium channels. The cytoplasmic rise of calcium induces cytoskeleton rearrangements, modified gene expression patterns, and cell migration. If LF EMF modulates intracellular calcium signalling, this will influence cellular behaviour and may eventually lead to health problems. We found that calcium mobilisation upon chemotactic stimulation was not altered after a short 30 min or long-term LF EMF exposure in human neutrophil-like cell lines HL-60 or PLB-985. Neither of the two investigated wave forms (Immunent and 50 Hz sine wave) at three magnetic flux densities (5 μT, 300 μT, and 500 μT) altered calcium signalling in vitro. Gene-expression patterns of calcium-signalling related genes also did not show any significant changes after exposure. Furthermore, analysis of the phenotypical appearance of microvilli by scanning electron microscopy revealed no alterations induced by LF EMF exposure. The findings above indicate that exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal or Immunent LF EMF will not affect calcium signalling in neutrophils in vitro. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cigarette smoke induces β2-integrin-dependent neutrophil migration across human endothelium.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Saskia A; Braber, Saskia; Henricks, Paul A J; Kleinjan, Marije; Kamp, Vera M; Georgiou, Niki A; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-06-08

    Cigarette smoking induces peripheral inflammatory responses in all smokers and is the major risk factor for neutrophilic lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on neutrophil migration and on β2-integrin activation and function in neutrophilic transmigration through endothelium. Utilizing freshly isolated human PMNs, the effect of cigarette smoke on migration and β2-integrin activation and function in neutrophilic transmigration was studied. In this report, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) dose dependently induced migration of neutrophils in vitro. Moreover, CSE promoted neutrophil adherence to fibrinogen. Using functional blocking antibodies against CD11b and CD18, it was demonstrated that Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is responsible for the cigarette smoke-induced firm adhesion of neutrophils to fibrinogen. Furthermore, neutrophils transmigrated through endothelium by cigarette smoke due to the activation of β2-integrins, since pre-incubation of neutrophils with functional blocking antibodies against CD11b and CD18 attenuated this transmigration. This is the first study to describe that cigarette smoke extract induces a direct migratory effect on neutrophils and that CSE is an activator of β2-integrins on the cell surface. Blocking this activation of β2-integrins might be an important target in cigarette smoke induced neutrophilic diseases.

  14. Effects of budlein A on human neutrophils and lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    KNOB, Carollinie Dias; SILVA, Milena; GASPAROTO, Thaís Helena; OLIVEIRA, Carine Ervolino; AMÔR, Nádia Ghinelli; ARAKAWA, Nilton Syogo; COSTA, Fernando Batista; CAMPANELLI, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active constituents of a variety of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and other ailments. Objective In this study, we evaluated whether budlein A modulates the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells such as neutrophils and lymphocytes. Material and Methods Our research group has investigated several plant species and several compounds have been isolated, identified, and their medical potential evaluated. Budlein A is a SL isolated from the species Aldama buddlejiformis and A. robusta (Asteraceae) and shows anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. Advances in understanding how plant-derived substances modulate the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells have led to the development of new therapies for human diseases. Results Budlein A inhibited MPO activity, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, and IL-12 production and induces neutrophil apoptosis. In contrast, budlein A inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2, IL-10, TGF-β, and IFN-γ production, but it did not lead to cell death. Conclusions Collectively, our results indicate that budlein A shows distinct immunomodulatory effects on immune cells. PMID:27383709

  15. Processing and targeting of granule proteins in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, U; Bengtsson, N; Bülow, E; Garwicz, D; Lindmark, A; Olsson, I

    1999-12-17

    Neutrophils contain an assembly of granules destined for regulated secretion, each granule type with distinct constituents formed before terminal differentiation. The earliest granules are designated azurophil (primary), followed in time by specific (secondary), and gelatinase granules as well as secretory vesicles. Transcription factors regulate the genes for the granule proteins to ensure that expression of the gene products to be stored in different organelles is separated in time. Similar to lysosomal enzymes, many granule proteins, in particular those of the heterogeneous azurophil granules, are trimmed by proteolytic processing into mature proteins. Rodent myeloid cell lines have been utilized for research on the processing and targeting of human granule proteins after transfection of cDNA. Results from extensive work on the hematopoietic serine proteases of azurophil granules, employing in vitro mutagenesis, indicate that both an immature and a mature conformation are compatible with targeting for storage in granules. On the other hand, the amino-terminal propeptide of myeloperoxidase facilitates both the export from the endoplasmic reticulum and targeting for storage in granules. Similarly, targeting of defensins rely on an intact propeptide. The proteolytic processing into mature granule protein is most commonly a post-sorting event. Mis-sorting of specific granule proteins into azurophil or lysosome-like granules can result in premature activation and degradation, but represents a potential for manipulating the composition and function of neutrophil granules.

  16. High Throughput Measurement of Extracellular DNA Release and Quantitative NET Formation in Human Neutrophils In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Sil, Payel; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Floyd, Madison; Gingerich, Aaron; Rada, Balazs

    2016-06-18

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in the human blood. Neutrophils are the first to arrive at the site of infection. Neutrophils developed several antimicrobial mechanisms including phagocytosis, degranulation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs consist of a DNA scaffold decorated with histones and several granule markers including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). NET release is an active process involving characteristic morphological changes of neutrophils leading to expulsion of their DNA into the extracellular space. NETs are essential to fight microbes, but uncontrolled release of NETs has been associated with several disorders. To learn more about the clinical relevance and the mechanism of NET formation, there is a need to have reliable tools capable of NET quantitation. Here three methods are presented that can assess NET release from human neutrophils in vitro. The first one is a high throughput assay to measure extracellular DNA release from human neutrophils using a membrane impermeable DNA-binding dye. In addition, two other methods are described capable of quantitating NET formation by measuring levels of NET-specific MPO-DNA and HNE-DNA complexes. These microplate-based methods in combination provide great tools to efficiently study the mechanism and regulation of NET formation of human neutrophils.

  17. Neutrophil recruitment to the brain in mouse and human ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Perez-de-Puig, Isabel; Miró-Mur, Francesc; Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Gelpi, Ellen; Pedragosa, Jordi; Justicia, Carles; Urra, Xabier; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophils are rapidly recruited in response to local tissue infection or inflammation. Stroke triggers a strong inflammatory reaction but the relevance of neutrophils in the ischemic brain is not fully understood, particularly in the absence of reperfusion. We investigated brain neutrophil recruitment in two murine models of permanent ischemia induced by either cauterization of the distal portion of the middle cerebral artery (c-MCAo) or intraluminal MCA occlusion (il-MCAo), and three fatal cases of human ischemic stroke. Flow cytometry analyses revealed progressive neutrophil recruitment after c-MCAo, lesser neutrophil recruitment following il-MCAo, and absence of neutrophils after sham operation. Confocal microscopy identified neutrophils in the leptomeninges from 6 h after the occlusion, in the cortical basal lamina and cortical Virchow-Robin spaces from 15 h, and also in the cortical brain parenchyma at 24 h. Neutrophils showed signs of activation including histone-3 citrullination, chromatin decondensation, and extracellular projection of DNA and histones suggestive of extracellular trap formation. Perivascular neutrophils were identified within the entire cortical infarction following c-MCAo. After il-MCAo, neutrophils prevailed in the margins but not the center of the cortical infarct, and were intraluminal and less abundant in the striatum. The lack of collaterals to the striatum and a collapsed pial anastomotic network due to brain edema in large hemispheric infarctions could impair neutrophil trafficking in this model. Neutrophil extravasation at the leptomeninges was also detected in the human tissue. We concluded that neutrophils extravasate from the leptomeningeal vessels and can eventually reach the brain in experimental animal models and humans with prolonged arterial occlusion.

  18. Arbutin and decrease of potentially toxic substances generated in human blood neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Pečivová, Jana; Nosál', Radomír; Sviteková, Klára

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils, highly motile phagocytic cells, constitute the first line of host defense and simultaneously they are considered to be central cells of chronic inflammation. In combination with standard therapeutic procedures, natural substances are gaining interest as an option for enhancing the effectiveness of treatment of inflammatory diseases. We investigated the effect of arbutin and carvedilol and of their combination on 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-13α-acetate- stimulated functions of human isolated neutrophils. Cells were preincubated with the drugs tested and subsequently stimulated. Superoxide (with or without blood platelets, in the rate close to physiological conditions [1:50]) and HOCl generation, elastase and myeloperoxidase release were determined spectrophotometrically and phospholipase D activation spectrofluorometrically. The combined effect of arbutin and carvedilol was found to be more effective than the effect of each compound alone. Our study provided evidence supporting the potential beneficial effect of arbutin alone or in combination with carvedilol in diminishing tissue damage by decreasing phospholipase D, myeloperoxidase and elastase activity and by attenuating the generation of superoxide and the subsequently derived reactive oxygen species. The presented data indicate the ability of arbutin to suppress the onset and progression of inflammation. PMID:26109900

  19. Human Amniotic Membrane Mesenchymal Stem Cells inhibit Neutrophil Extracellular Traps through TSG-6.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Guerrero, Fátima Sofía; Domínguez-López, Alfredo; Martínez-Aboytes, Pamela; Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Garfias, Yonathan

    2017-09-29

    The mesenchymal stem cells obtained from human amniotic membrane (hAMSC) possess immunosuppressive functions through soluble factors such as prostanoids and proteins; thus, they have been proposed to ameliorate inflammatory processes. On the other hand, activated neutrophils are cells of the first line of immune defense that are able to release extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are formed of DNA and granular components; however, the excessive release of NETs is associated with the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified that conditioned medium (CM) from hAMSC was able to diminish NETs release, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial membrane potential from LPS-stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMN). Interestingly, NETs inhibition, ROS levels decrease and mitochondrial membrane potential loss were reverted when LPS-stimulated murine derived BMN were exposed to the CM from hAMSC transfected with TSG-6-siRNA. Finally, rhTSG6 was able to significantly diminish NETs release in BMN. These data suggest an inhibition mechanism of NETs ROS-dependent in which TSG-6 participates. Consequently, we propose the hAMSC use as a therapeutic candidate in the treatment of inflammatory diseases in which NETs are involved.

  20. Lectin-induced activation of plasma membrane NADPH oxidase in cholesterol-depleted human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gorudko, Irina V; Mukhortava, Ann V; Caraher, Brendan; Ren, Melody; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Kelly, Gregory M; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2011-12-15

    The gp91phox subunit of flavocytochrome b(558) is the catalytic core of the phagocyte plasma membrane NADPH oxidase. Its activation occurs within lipid rafts and requires translocation of four subunits to flavocytochrome b(558). gp91phox is the only glycosylated subunit of NADPH oxidase and no data exist about the structure or function of its glycans. Glycans, however, bind to lectins and this can stimulate NADPH oxidase activity. Given this information, we hypothesized that lectin-gp91phox interactions would facilitate the assembly of a functionally active NADPH oxidase in the absence of lipid rafts. To test this, we used lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificity to examine the effects on H(2)O(2) generation by human neutrophils treated with the lipid raft disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). MβCD treatment removed membrane cholesterol, caused changes in cell morphology, inhibited lectin-induced cell aggregation, and delayed lectin-induced assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex. More importantly, MβCD treatment either stimulated or inhibited H(2)O(2) production in a lectin-dependent manner. Together, these results show selectivity in lectin binding to gp91phox, and provide evidence for the biochemical structures of the gp91phox glycans. Furthermore, the data also indicate that in the absence of lipid rafts, neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity can be altered by these select lectins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GMP-140 binds to a glycoprotein receptor on human neutrophils: Evidence for a lectin-like interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.L.; Varki, A.; McEver, R.P. )

    1991-02-01

    GMP-140 is a rapidly inducible receptor for neutrophils and monocytes expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells. It is a member of the selectin family of lectin-like cell surface molecules that mediate leukocyte adhesion. We used a radioligand binding assay to characterize the interaction of purified GMP-140 with human neutrophils. Unstimulated neutrophils rapidly bound (125I)GMP-140 at 4 degrees C, reaching equilibrium in 10-15 min. Binding was Ca2+ dependent, reversible, and saturable at 3-6 nM free GMP-140 with half-maximal binding at approximately 1.5 nM. Receptor density and apparent affinity were not altered when neutrophils were stimulated with 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Treatment of neutrophils with proteases abolished specific binding of (125I)GMP-140. Binding was also diminished when neutrophils were treated with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae, which cleaves alpha 2-3-, alpha 2-6-, and alpha 2-8-linked sialic acids, or from Newcastle disease virus, which cleaves only alpha 2-3- and alpha 2-8-linked sialic acids. Binding was not inhibited by an mAb to the abundant myeloid oligosaccharide, Lex (CD15), or by the neoglycoproteins Lex-BSA and sialyl-Lex-BSA. We conclude that neutrophils constitutively express a glycoprotein receptor for GMP-140, which contains sialic acid residues that are essential for function. These findings support the concept that GMP-140 interacts with leukocytes by a lectin-like mechanism.

  2. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-09-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca(2+) signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca(2+)-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca(2+) influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na(+)-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na(+)-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca(2+)]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca(2+)]i increase through Ca(2+) influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way.

  3. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca2+ signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca2+-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca2+ influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na+-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na+-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca2+]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca2+]i increase through Ca2+ influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way. PMID:27610031

  4. Honokiol suppresses formyl peptide-induced human neutrophil activation by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping; Syu, Yu-Ting; Fang, Jia-You; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Tung; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2017-07-27

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) mediates bacterial and mitochondrial N-formyl peptides-induced neutrophil activation. Therefore, FPR1 is an important therapeutic target for drugs to treat septic or sterile inflammatory diseases. Honokiol, a major bioactive compound of Magnoliaceae plants, possesses several anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we show that honokiol exhibits an inhibitory effect on FPR1 binding in human neutrophils. Honokiol inhibited superoxide anion generation, reactive oxygen species formation, and elastase release in bacterial or mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (FPR1 agonists)-activated human neutrophils. Adhesion of FPR1-induced human neutrophils to cerebral endothelial cells was also reduced by honokiol. The receptor-binding results revealed that honokiol repressed FPR1-specific ligand N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein binding to FPR1 in human neutrophils, neutrophil-like THP-1 cells, and hFPR1-transfected HEK293 cells. However, honokiol did not inhibit FPR2-specific ligand binding to FPR2 in human neutrophils. Furthermore, honokiol inhibited FPR1 agonist-induced calcium mobilization as well as phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK in human neutrophils. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that honokiol may have therapeutic potential for treating FPR1-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  5. New insights into the mechanisms of nuclear segmentation in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J A; Wangh, L J

    1999-04-01

    During human neutrophil differentiation, large portions of the genome condense and associate with the nuclear envelope to form filament-like structures. As a result, the nucleus of the mature neutrophil typically consists of a linear array of three or four lobes joined by thin, DNA-containing filaments. Despite the medical significance of neutrophil nuclear morphology, little is known about the events regulating neutrophil nuclear differentiation and its pathological states. This work presents a new model of the mechanisms governing nuclear filament formation in human neutrophils. This model is based on recent chromosome mapping studies in human neutrophils and on studies of genetic and pathological conditions affecting neutrophil nuclear shape. According to this model, filament assembly is initiated by factors that interact with specific regions of the genome in a hierarchical and dose-dependent manner. In this regard, the strategies governing the molecular interactions responsible for filament formation appear to resemble those involved in transcriptional silencing, a phenomenon that also affects the properties of extended chromosomal regions. According to the silencing paradigm, bound filament control Factors must recruit additional Filament Foehn factors which spread along adjacent DNA to mediate filament formation. A better understanding of the factors that shape the neutrophil nucleus may lead to new clinical tools for the diagnosis and manipulation of abnormal neutrophil differentiation.

  6. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  7. Lung Mucosa Lining Fluid Modification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Reprogram Human Neutrophil Killing Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Arcos, Jesús; Diangelo, Lauren E.; Scordo, Julia M.; Sasindran, Smitha J.; Moliva, Juan I.; Turner, Joanne; Torrelles, Jordi B.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that human alveolar lining fluid (ALF) contains homeostatic hydrolases capable of altering the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall and subsequently its interaction with human macrophages. Neutrophils are also an integral part of the host immune response to M. tuberculosis infection. Here we show that the human lung mucosa influences M. tuberculosis interaction with neutrophils, enhancing the intracellular killing of ALF-exposed M. tuberculosis and up-regulating the expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 8. In contrast, ALF-exposed M. tuberculosis does not induce neutrophil apoptosis or necrosis, degranulation, or release of extracellular traps, and it decreases the oxidative response. These results suggest an important role for the human alveolar mucosa: increasing the innate capacity of the neutrophil to recognize and kill M. tuberculosis by favoring the use of intracellular mechanisms, while at the same time limiting neutrophil extracellular inflammatory responses to minimize their associated tissue damage. PMID:25748325

  8. Lung Mucosa Lining Fluid Modification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Reprogram Human Neutrophil Killing Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arcos, Jesús; Diangelo, Lauren E; Scordo, Julia M; Sasindran, Smitha J; Moliva, Juan I; Turner, Joanne; Torrelles, Jordi B

    2015-09-15

    We have shown that human alveolar lining fluid (ALF) contains homeostatic hydrolases capable of altering the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall and subsequently its interaction with human macrophages. Neutrophils are also an integral part of the host immune response to M. tuberculosis infection. Here we show that the human lung mucosa influences M. tuberculosis interaction with neutrophils, enhancing the intracellular killing of ALF-exposed M. tuberculosis and up-regulating the expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 8. In contrast, ALF-exposed M. tuberculosis does not induce neutrophil apoptosis or necrosis, degranulation, or release of extracellular traps, and it decreases the oxidative response. These results suggest an important role for the human alveolar mucosa: increasing the innate capacity of the neutrophil to recognize and kill M. tuberculosis by favoring the use of intracellular mechanisms, while at the same time limiting neutrophil extracellular inflammatory responses to minimize their associated tissue damage.

  9. Formation of Reactive Sulfite-Derived Free Radicals by the Activation of Human Neutrophils: An ESR Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Rice, Annette B.; Khajo, Abdelahad; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Garantziotis, Stavros; Magliozzo, Richard S.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of (bi)sulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide) on human neutrophils and the ability of these immune cells to produce reactive free radicals due to (bi)sulfite oxidation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an abundant heme protein in neutrophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma and inflammatory disorders. In the present study sulfite (•SO3−) and sulfate (SO4•−) anion radicals are characterized with the ESR spin-trapping technique using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) in the reaction of (bi)sulfite oxidation by human MPO and human neutrophils via sulfite radical chain reaction chemistry. After treatment with (bi)sulfite, PMA-stimulated neutrophils produced DMPO-sulfite anion radical, -superoxide, and -hydroxyl radical adducts. The latter adduct probably resulted, in part, from the conversion of DMPO-sulfate to DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct via a nucleophilic substitution reaction of the radical adduct. This anion radical (SO4•−) is highly reactive and, presumably, can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. Therefore, we propose that the potential toxicity of (bi)sulfite during pulmonary inflammation or lung-associated diseases such as asthma may be related to free radical formation. PMID:22326772

  10. Granule swelling and cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human neutrophils undergoing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takayuki; Ikemoto, Masaru; Hato, Fumihiko; Kitagawa, Seiichi

    2009-04-10

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 have been shown to be cleaved in human neutrophils undergoing apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and cycloheximide. However, the cleavage products of these molecules were undetected when apoptotic neutrophils were pretreated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride or disrupted by nitrogen cavitation before preparation of cell lysates. The electron microscopy revealed that granules in apoptotic neutrophils were significantly swollen than those in control cells. These findings suggest that granule membrane may become destabilized during neutrophil apoptosis, leading to rapid proteolysis of these molecules by granule-derived serine proteases during preparation of cell lysates with the conventional lysis buffer.

  11. Characterization of Neutrophil Function in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Jacilara; Davis, Richard; Carneiro, Pedro Paulo; Giudice, Angela; Muniz, Aline C.; Wilson, Mary E.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Bacellar, Olívia

    2016-01-01

    Infection with different Leishmania spp. protozoa can lead to a variety of clinical syndromes associated in many cases with inflammatory responses in the skin. Although macrophages harbor the majority of parasites throughout chronic infection, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of infection. Whether neutrophils promote parasite clearance or exacerbate disease in murine models varies depending on the susceptible or resistant status of the host. Based on the hypothesis that neutrophils contribute to a systemic inflammatory state in humans with symptomatic L. braziliensis infection, we evaluated the phenotype of neutrophils from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during the course of L. braziliensis infection. After in vitro infection with L. braziliensis, CL patient neutrophils produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCL9, chemokines associated with recruitment of neutrophils and Th1-type cells, than neutrophils from control healthy subjects (HS). Despite this, CL patient and HS neutrophils were equally capable of phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. There was no difference between the degree of activation of neutrophils from CL versus healthy subjects, assessed by CD66b and CD62L expression using flow cytometry. Of interest, these studies revealed that both parasite-infected and bystander neutrophils became activated during incubation with L. braziliensis. The enhanced ROS and chemokine production in neutrophils from CL patients reverted to baseline after treatment of disease. These data suggest that the circulating neutrophils during CL are not necessarily more microbicidal, but they have a more pro-inflammatory profile after parasite restimulation than neutrophils from healthy subjects. PMID:27167379

  12. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II) is constitutive in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, Jan; Follin, Per; Forslund, Tony; Lindmark, Maria; Sundqvist, Tommy; Skogh, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    The objective was to study the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II) in and NO production by human blood neutrophils and in in vivo exudated neutrophils. Cellular expression of NOS II was evaluated by flow cytometry in whole blood, in isolated blood neutrophils, and in neutrophils obtained by exudation in vivo into skin chambers. Neutrophil NOS II was also demonstrated by Western blotting. Uptake of 3H-labelled L-arginine was studied in vitro and NOS activity measured in a whole cell assay by the conversion of 3H-arginine to 3H-citrulline. In contrast to unseparated blood cells, NOS II was demonstrable both in isolated blood neutrophils and exudated cells. The failure to detect NOS II by flow cytometry in whole blood cells thus proved to be due to the quenching effect of hemoglobin. Western blotting revealed a 130 kD band corresponding to NOS II in isolated blood neutrophils, but detection was dependent on diisopropylfluorophosphate for proteinase inhibition. L-arginine was taken up by neutrophils, but enzymatic activity could not be demonstrated. We conclude that human neutrophils constitutively express NOS II, but that its demonstration by FITC-labelling is inhibited by hemoglobin-mediated quenching in whole blood samples.

  13. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Catherine W. M.; Elkington, Paul T.; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T.; Tezera, Liku B.; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J.; Moores, Rachel C.; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H.; Porter, Joanna C.; Friedland, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease. PMID:25996154

  14. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Catherine W M; Elkington, Paul T; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T; Tezera, Liku B; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J; Moores, Rachel C; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H; Porter, Joanna C; Friedland, Jon S

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease.

  15. Hevein, an allergenic lectin from rubber latex, activates human neutrophils' oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Rojas, E; Llinas, P; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Hernández, C; Linares, M; Zenteno, E; Lascurain, R

    2001-04-01

    Hevein is an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) specific lectin that has been hypothesized to participate in the IgE-mediated allergic reactions in patients with latex allergy. In this work we assessed the specificity and biological effect of hevein purified from rubber latex on human leukocytes, using epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Purified human granulocytes were stimulated in vitro with hevein, and production of oxidative radicals was measured by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium formazan. Histochemical staining and flow cytometry showed that hevein recognizes specifically monocytes (CD14+) and neutrophils (CD16+), but not lymphoid cells. Hevein induced oxidative response in purified granulocytes; this effect was 1.3-1.5-fold higher than the effect observed with the lectin WGA (wheat germ agglutinin), or other lectins with different sugar specificity. The induced reactions and cellular recognition by hevein were inhibited with GlcNAc and its oligomers; as well as by glycoproteins containing tri-and tetra-antennary N-glycosydically linked glycans. Our findings suggest that neutrophils are the main target for latex hevein; this lectin induces production of oxidative radicals, which seem to play an important role in tissue damage during latex allergy.

  16. Grey anti-inflammation analysis of phenolic acid phenethyl esters in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Chiu, Chian-Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents grey structure activity relationship analysis for anti-inflammation of phenolic acid phenethyl esters in human neutrophils. To study the anti-inflammation effect, 14 compounds of phenolic acid phenethyl esters are synthesised, while the inhibition on superoxide anion generation (which is linked to an inflammation effect) induced by PMA and fMLP stimulants is detected. Next, the relationship weighting of each functional group of phenolic acid phenethyl esters is found by applying the grey system theory on the measured data. Moreover, evident structure activity relationships are established to regulate the anti-inflammation effect of such compounds, e.g. the most important functional group affecting the anti-inflammation in human neutrophils is revealed. In addition, some extending results are obtained based on the grey analysis. It is interesting that the analysed result is consistent with the actual circumstance. In comparison with traditional methods, this paper applying the grey theory indicates more characteristic information about the structure activity relationships of phenolic acid phenethyl esters while fewer data samples are required.

  17. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Mediates FcγRIIa/Toll-Like Receptor–4 Receptor Crosstalk in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, Agnieszka; Fudala, Rafal; Florence, Jon M.; Tucker, Torry; Allen, Timothy C.; Standiford, Theodore J.; Luchowski, Rafal; Fol, Marek; Rahman, Moshiur; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2013-01-01

    Previous observations by our laboratory indicate that the presence of anti–IL-8 autoantibody:IL-8 immune complexes in lung fluids from patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) comprises an important prognostic indicator in the development and ultimate outcome of ALI/ARDS. We also showed that these complexes display proinflammatory activity toward neutrophils through the engagement of FcγRIIa receptors. Because sepsis is one of the most common risk factors for ALI/ARDS, the initial goal of our present study involved investigating the effects of LPS on the expression of FcγRIIa receptors in neutrophils. Our results indicate that LPS triggers an increase in the expression of FcγRIIa on the neutrophil surface, which leads to shortening of the molecular distance between FcγRIIa and Toll-like receptor–4 (TLR4). When such neutrophils are stimulated with anti–IL-8:IL-8 complexes, the TLR4 cascade becomes activated via the engagement of FcγRIIa. The underlying molecular mechanism has been subsequently examined and involves Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk). In conclusion, our study reveals the existence of Btk-dependent molecular cooperation between FcγRIIa and TLR4 signaling cascades in LPS-“primed” human neutrophils. Furthermore, we used fluorescence lifetime imaging to study the interactions between TLR4 and FcγRIIa in human alveolar neutrophils from patients with ALI/ARDS. The results from these experiments confirm the existence of the molecular cooperation between TLR4 and FcγRIIa. PMID:23239500

  18. Combined activity of post-exercise concentrations of NA and eHsp72 on human neutrophil function: role of cAMP.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Esther; Hinchado, María D; Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Extracellular heat shock proteins of 72 kDa (eHsp72) and noradrenaline (NA) can act as "danger signals" during exercise-induced stress by activating neutrophil function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and fungicidal capacity). In addition, post-exercise concentrations of NA increase the expression and release of Hsp72 by human neutrophils, and adrenoreceptors and cAMP are involved in the stimulation of neutrophils by eHsp72. This suggests an interaction between the two molecules in the modulation of neutrophils during exercise-induced stress. Given this context, the aim of the present investigation was to study the combined activity of post-exercise circulating concentrations of NA and eHsp72 on the neutrophil phagocytic process, and to evaluate the role of cAMP as intracellular signal in these effects. Results showed an accumulative stimulation of chemotaxis induced by NA and eHsp72. However, while NA and eHsp72, separately, stimulate the phagocytosis and fungicidal activity of neutrophils, when they act together they do not modify these capacities of neutrophils. Similarly, post-exercise concentrations of NA and eHsp72 separately increased the intracellular level of cAMP, but NA and eHsp72 acting together did not modify the intracellular concentration of cAMP. These results confirm that cAMP can be involved in the autocrine/paracrine physiological regulation of phagocytosis and fungicidal capacity of human neutrophils mediated by NA and eHsp72 in the context of exercise-induced stress. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Downregulation of human platelet reactivity by neutrophils. Participation of lipoxygenase derivatives and adhesive proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Valles, J; Santos, M T; Marcus, A J; Safier, L B; Broekman, M J; Islam, N; Ullman, H L; Aznar, J

    1993-01-01

    Unstimulated neutrophils inhibited activation and recruitment of thrombin- or collagen-stimulated platelets in an agonist-specific manner. This occurred under conditions of close physical cell-cell contact, although biochemical adhesion between the cells as mediated by P-selectin was not required. Moreover, in the presence of monoclonal P-selectin antibodies that blocked biochemical platelet-neutrophil adhesion, thrombin-stimulated platelets were more efficiently downregulated by neutrophils. This suggested a prothrombotic role for P-selectin under these circumstances. The neutrophil downregulatory effect on thrombin-stimulated platelets was amplified by lipoxygenase inhibition with 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid. In contrast, the neutrophil inhibitory effect on platelets was markedly reduced by platelet-derived 12S-hydroxy-5,8-cis, 10-trans, 14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE), as well as by the platelet-neutrophil transcellular product, 12S,20-dihydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12S,20-DiHETE), but not by another comparable metabolite, 5S,12S-dihydroxy-6-trans, 8-cis, 10-trans, 14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (5S,12S-DiHETE), or the neutrophil-derived hydroxy acid leukotriene B4. The neutrophil downregulatory effect on thrombin-induced platelet reactivity was enhanced by aspirin treatment. This may represent a novel action of aspirin as an inhibitor of platelet function. These results provide in vitro biochemical and functional evidence for the thromboregulatory role of neutrophils and emphasize the multicellular aspect of hemostasis and thrombosis. Images PMID:7690778

  20. Effect of some xenobiotics on oxidative metabolism of human blood neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Mushtakova, V M; Fomina, V A; Rogovin, V V

    2007-03-01

    The effect of SO3(2-), S(2-), NOs(-), and NH4(+) on activity of the peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide system in human peripheral blood neutrophils was studied by the cytochemical method. We showed that the effect of these xenobiotics on neutrophils is similar to that on plants.

  1. Human neutrophil leukocyte elastase activity is inhibited by Phenol Red

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity in urine, sputum and nasal mucous is used as an indicator of inflammation due to viral or bacterial infection. However, bovine nasal mucous neutrophils collected, lysed and stored in Dulbecco's minimal medium containing Phenol Red, showed no NE activity with methox...

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein Promotes TLR-4–Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation by Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Funchal, Giselle A.; Jaeger, Natália; Czepielewski, Rafael S.; Machado, Mileni S.; Muraro, Stéfanie P.; Stein, Renato T.; Bonorino, Cristina B. C.; Porto, Bárbara N.

    2015-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory illness in children in the first year of life. RSV bronchiolitis generates large numbers of hospitalizations and an important burden to health systems. Neutrophils and their products are present in the airways of RSV-infected patients who developed increased lung disease. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are formed by the release of granular and nuclear contents of neutrophils in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli and recent studies have proposed a role for NETs in viral infections. In this study, we show that RSV particles and RSV Fusion protein were both capable of inducing NET formation by human neutrophils. Moreover, we analyzed the mechanisms involved in RSV Fusion protein-induced NET formation. RSV F protein was able to induce NET release in a concentration-dependent fashion with both neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase expressed on DNA fibers and F protein-induced NETs was dismantled by DNase treatment, confirming that their backbone is chromatin. This viral protein caused the release of extracellular DNA dependent on TLR-4 activation, NADPH Oxidase-derived ROS production and ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Together, these results demonstrate a coordinated signaling pathway activated by F protein that led to NET production. The massive production of NETs in RSV infection could aggravate the inflammatory symptoms of the infection in young children and babies. We propose that targeting the binding of TLR-4 by F protein could potentially lead to novel therapeutic approaches to help control RSV-induced inflammatory consequences and pathology of viral bronchiolitis. PMID:25856628

  3. Modulation of human neutrophil responses to CD32 cross-linking by serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors: cross-talk between serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rollet-Labelle, E; Gilbert, C; Naccache, P H

    2000-01-15

    The interplay between serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation was studied in human neutrophils. The direct effects of calyculin and okadaic acid, potent inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A serine/threonine phosphatases, on the patterns of neutrophil phosphorylation, and their effects on the responses of neutrophils to CD32 cross-linking were monitored. After a 2-min incubation with 10-6 M calyculin, a transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a subset of proteins, among which Cbl and Syk, was observed. After a longer incubation (>5 min) with calyculin, concomitant with an accumulation of serine and threonine phosphorylation, neutrophil responses to CD32 cross-linking were selectively altered. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl in response to CD32 cross-linking was inhibited by calyculin, and this inhibition was linked with a slower electrophoretic mobility of Cbl as a consequence of its phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and of the receptor itself were not affected. Furthermore, the mobilization of intracellular calcium stimulated by CD32 cross-linking was totally abrogated by calyculin. Finally, the stimulation of superoxide production observed in response to CD32 cross-linking was enhanced in calyculin-treated cells. These results suggest that serine/threonine phosphorylation events regulate the signaling pathways activated by CD32 cross-linking in neutrophils and identify a novel mechanism of modulation of the functional responsiveness of human neutrophils to CD32 cross-linking.

  4. Exogenous leukotriene B4 (LTB4) inhibits human neutrophil generation of LTB4 from endogenous arachidonic acid during opsonized zymosan phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J; Wheelan, P; Henson, P M; Murphy, R C

    1998-10-01

    The effect of exogenous leukotriene B4 (LTB4) on opsonized zymosan-stimulated human neutrophil formation of 5-lipoxygenase products and arachidonic acid release was directly assessed using reverse-phase HPLC/tandem mass spectrometric methods for quantitation. Stable isotopically labeled LTB4, [1,2-13C2]LTB4, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of LTB4 production in isolated human neutrophils with significant inhibition (60 +/- 7% of control levels) when 0.12 nM [13C2]LTB4 was present. Production of 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid and release of free arachidonic acid were also dose-dependently inhibited by exogenous LTB4. Metabolites of LTB4, 20-hydroxy-LTB4 and 3(S)-hydroxy-LTB4, also significantly reduced LTB4 production to levels as low as 10 +/- 6% and 10 +/- 7% of control levels, respectively, when present exogenously at 10 nM. Exogenous 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid at concentrations as high as 10 nM produced no significant reduction in LTB4 biosynthesis during zymosan-stimulated human neutrophil production of LTB4. The inhibitory effect of LTB4 could be partially reversed by the LTB4 receptor antagonist U 75302. Furthermore, an alternative stimulus, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (100 nM), did not inhibit the production of LTB4 in opsonized zymosan-stimulated human neutrophils. These results suggest that activation of the LTB4 receptor on the human neutrophil during phagocytosis limits the ultimate biosynthesis of LTB4. This autocrine effect is opposite to that observed when neutrophils have much of the signal transduction pathways bypassed when stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187 or treated with exogenous free arachidonic acid.

  5. Tyrosine phosphorylation is involved in receptor coupling to phospholipase D but not phospholipase C in the human neutrophil.

    PubMed Central

    Uings, I J; Thompson, N T; Randall, R W; Spacey, G D; Bonser, R W; Hudson, A T; Garland, L G

    1992-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors ST271, ST638 and erbstatin inhibited phospholipase D (PLD) activity in human neutrophils stimulated by fMet-Leu-Phe, platelet-activating factor and leukotriene B4. These compounds did not inhibit phorbol ester-stimulated PLD, indicating that they do not inhibit PLD per se, but probably act at a site between the receptor and the phospholipase. In contrast, the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro-31-8220 inhibited phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate- but not fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated PLD activity, arguing against the involvement of protein kinase C in the receptor-mediated activation of PLD. ST271 did not inhibit Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation, but did inhibit protein tyrosine phosphorylation stimulated by fMet-Leu-Phe. The phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate increased tyrosine phosphorylation and stimulated PLD. These results suggest that tyrosine kinase activity is involved in receptor coupling to PLD but not to PtdIns(4,5)P2-specific phospholipase C in the human neutrophil. Images Fig. 3. PMID:1371383

  6. Fucoidan delays apoptosis and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Although some immune modulatory effects of fucoidan have been elucidated, the effects of fucoidan on the apoptosis and activation of human neutrophils have not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan purified from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifilda delays spontaneous apoptosis of human neutrophils and induces their activation. Fucoidan treatment inhibited apoptotic nuclei changes and phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure on neutrophils cultured in vitro for 24h. The delay in neutrophil apoptosis mediated by fucoidan was associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and decreased levels of activated caspase-3. Screening of the signaling pathways by specific inhibitors indicated that fucoidan-induced delay in neutrophil apoptosis was dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, whereas MAPK signaling pathway was not critical. In addition, fucoidan enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α from neutrophils in an AKT-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan delays human neutrophil apoptosis and induces their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases and neutropenia by controlling neutrophil homeostasis and function with fucoidan.

  7. Delay in Human Neutrophil Constitutive Apoptosis after Infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae Serotype K1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Fang-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 is a major cause of invasive syndrome defined by liver abscess with metastatic infections at other body sites. This culprit is known to be resistant to neutrophil phagocytosis and bactericidal activity. We hypothesized that K. pneumoniae serotype K1 might regulate neutrophil apoptosis and enhance the survival of the infected neutrophils that might serve as a vector for dissemination of the bacteria. Two serotypes of K. pneumoniae, KP-M1 isolated from a patient with liver abscess and DT-X (an acapsular mutant strain of KP-M1), were used to infect human neutrophils. The infected neutrophils were examined for their cytotoxicity, annexin V staining, proteins, DNA fragmentation, cytokine production, and viability that are involved in apoptosis. We found that KP-M1 was not destroyed and the ingested bacteria survived within neutrophils. While the uninfected neutrophils became apoptotic within 10 h, the neutrophils infected with KP-M1 could survive up to 24 h post infection. Constitutive apoptosis of KP-M1-infected neutrophils was significantly delayed compared to that of DT-X-infected or uninfected neutrophils (p < 0.01). KP-M1 modulated the anti-apoptotic effects by down-regulating the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, and then delayed caspase-3 activation in the neutrophils, which was accompanied by inducing the anti-apoptotic cytokine, IL-8. These data suggest that K. pneumoniae serotype K1 can prolong the lifespan of infected neutrophils by delaying constitutive apoptosis within the first several hours of infection. PMID:28396849

  8. The in vitro effects of Newcastle disease virus on the metabolic and antibacterial functions of human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Faden, H.; Humbert, J.; Lee, J.; Sutyla, P.; Ogra, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    Live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was used to investigate the in vitro effects of a viral infection on phagocytosis, chemiluminescence generation, superoxide production, oxygen consumption, NADPH-oxidase activity, and intracellular killing of bacteria by Ficoll-Hypaque separated human neutrophils. Phagocytosis of oil red O particles by NDV-treated PMN was inhibited by 50%. Chemiluminescence by PMN was inhibited 79% after zymosan stimulation and 86% after tetradeconyl phorbol acetate stimulation. Superoxide generation was inhibited by 68%. Oxygen consumption was inhibited in the presence of NDV by 37% after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate, while membrane-associated NADPH-enzyme activity was decreased by 19%. The percent of surviving intracellular S. aureus was significantly elevated in NDV-treated PMN after 60 and 120 min of incubation. Purified bacterial neuraminidase markedly suppressed chemiluminescence, while neuraminic acid blocked the effects of the virus. These observations suggest that infections with myxoviruses may suppress a number of vital neutrophil functions. It appears that the effects may be partly mediated by the interaction of viral neuraminidase with the external neutrophil membrane.

  9. Phagocytosis and Killing of Carbapenem-Resistant ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae by Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Scott D; Porter, Adeline R; Dorward, David W; Brinkworth, Amanda J; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-05-15

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains classified as multilocus sequence type 258 (ST258) are among the most widespread multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired pathogens. Treatment of infections caused by these organisms is difficult, and mortality is high. The basis for the success of ST258, outside of antibiotic resistance, remains incompletely determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that ST258K. pneumoniae has enhanced capacity to circumvent killing by human neutrophils, the primary cellular defense against bacterial infections. There was limited binding and uptake of ST258 by human neutrophils, and correspondingly, there was limited killing of bacteria. On the other hand, transmission electron microscopy revealed that any ingested organisms were degraded readily within neutrophil phagosomes, thus indicating that survival in the neutrophil assays is due to limited phagocytosis, rather than to microbicide resistance after uptake. Our findings suggest that enhancing neutrophil phagocytosis is a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of infection caused by carbapenem-resistant ST258K. pneumoniae.

  10. Proteomic analysis of secretagogue-stimulated neutrophils implicates a role for actin and actin-interacting proteins in Rac2-mediated granule exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are abundant leukocytes that play a primary role in defence against pathogens. Neutrophils enter sites of infection where they eliminate pathogens via phagocytosis and the release of antimicrobial mediators via degranulation. Rho GTPases, particularly Rac2, play a key role in neutrophil degranulation. The purpose of this study was to identify Rac2-dependent changes in protein abundance in stimulated neutrophils. Methods We performed a proteomic analysis on secretagogue-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils that were isolated from wild-type and Rac2-/- mice. Protein abundance was analyzed by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE of fluorescently labelled samples which allowed the detection ~3500 proteins. Results We identified 22 proteins that showed significant changes in abundance after secretagogue-stimulation of wild-type neutrophils, which did not occur in neutrophils isolated from Rac2-/- mice. As expected, the abundance of several granule proteins was reduced in wild-type cells; this did not occur in Rac2-/- neutrophils which confirms the requirement for Rac2 in degranulation. We also found changes in abundance of many actin remodelling proteins including coronin-1A, β-actin and the F-actin capping protein, (CapZ-β). Coronin-1A showed elevated levels of several isoforms after stimulation of neutrophils from wild-type, but not from Rac2-/- mice. These isoforms were immunoreactive with anti-phospho-threonine antibodies, suggesting that neutrophil stimulation triggers a Rac2-dependent kinase cascade that results in the phosphorylation of coronin-1A. Conclusion The control of Rac2-mediated degranulation in neutrophils likely functions through actin remodelling via activation of several actin-binding proteins. We found coronin-1A to be a novel downstream effector protein of this pathway that is threonine phosphorylated in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:22081935

  11. Image-based analysis of primary human neutrophil chemotaxis in an automated direct-viewing assay

    PubMed Central

    Meyvantsson, Ivar; Vu, Elizabeth; Lamers, Casey; Echeverria, Daniella; Worzella, Tracy; Echeverria, Victoria; Skoien, Allyson; Hayes, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Multi-well assays based on the Boyden chamber have enabled highly parallel studies of chemotaxis – the directional migration of cells in response to molecular gradients – while direct-viewing approaches have allowed more detailed questions to be asked at low throughput. Boyden-based plates provide a count of cells that pass through a membrane, but no information about cell appearance. In contrast, direct viewing devices enable the observation of cells during chemotaxis, which allows measurement of many parameters including area, shape, and location. Here we show automated chemotaxis and cell morphology assays in a 96-unit direct-viewing plate. Using only 12,000 primary human neutrophils per datum, we measured dose-dependent stimulation and inhibition of chemotaxis and quantified the effects of inhibitors on cell area and elongation. With 60 parallel conditions we demonstrated 5-fold increase in throughput compared to previously reported direct viewing approaches. PMID:21215269

  12. Regulation of isocyanate-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in cultured human neutrophils: isocyanate-induced neutrophils apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, P K; Khan, S; Bhargava, A; Panwar, H; Banerjee, S; Jain, S K; Maudar, K K

    2010-06-01

    Implications of environmental toxins on the regulation of neutrophil function are being significantly appraised. Such effects can be varied and markedly different depending on the type and extent of chemical exposure, which results in direct damage to the immune system. Isocyanates with functional group (-NCO), are considered as highly reactive molecules with diverse industrial applications. However, patho-physiological implications resulting from their occupational and accidental exposures have not been well delineated. The present study was carried out to assess the immunotoxic response of isocyanates and their mode of action at a molecular level on cultured human neutrophils isolated from healthy human volunteers. Studies were conducted to evaluate both dose- and time-dependent (n = 3) response using N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate, a chemical entity that mimics the effects of methyl isocyanate in vitro. Measure of apoptosis through annexin-V-FITC/PI assay, active caspase-3, apoptotic DNA ladder assay and mitochondrial depolarization; induction of oxidative stress by CM-H(2)DCFDA and formation of 8'-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; and levels of antioxidant defense system enzyme glutathione reductase, multiplex cytometric bead array analysis to quantify the secreted cytokine levels (interleukin-8, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-12p70) parameters were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that isocyanates induce neutrophil apoptosis via activation of mitochondrial-mediated pathway along with reactive oxygen species production; depletion in antioxidant defense states; and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response.

  13. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human neutrophils assessed by multiple analytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Soares, Tânia; Ribeiro, Daniela; Proença, Carina; Chisté, Renan Campos; Fernandes, Eduarda; Freitas, Marisa

    2016-01-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as an important class of nanomaterials with a wide range of industrial and medical applications. The assessment of AgNPs' biological effects in the human organism is therefore essential to evaluate the impact of these nanomaterials in public health and reassure the ratio benefit/risk. In the present study, the effect of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNPs with distinct sizes (10 and 50nm) on neutrophils' oxidative burst and toxicity were tested. The effect of AgNPs on human neutrophils viability was evaluated by trypan blue, neutral red and propidium iodide methods. The measurement of neutrophils' oxidative burst was performed using the probe dihydrorhodamine 123. The cytomorphological alterations of human neutrophils exposed to AgNPs were evaluated by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that PVP-coated AgNPs are toxic to human neutrophils being the 10nm AgNPs more toxic than the 50nm AgNPs. The smallest AgNPs lead to membrane damage, impaired lysosomal activity and induce neutrophils' oxidative burst. Despite the production of reactive species, the toxicity of AgNPs is not NADPH oxidase-dependent. These data indicate that AgNPs are toxic to human neutrophils in concentration-, time- and size-dependent manner, but independent of NADPH oxidase activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Halogenation and proteolysis of complement component C3 on Salmonella typhimurium during phagocytosis by human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, K.A.; Schweinle, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    We examined the fate of C component C3 on the surface of Salmonella typhimurium during ingestion by human neutrophils. Initial experiments showed that C3 fragments and C3-acceptor complexes were the major serum ligands which were surface iodinated by canine myeloperoxidase on serum-incubated rough and smooth isolates of S. typhimurium. In contrast, labeled C3 was not identified when the same organisms were ingested by neutrophils in the presence of 125I-Na, a situation previously shown to iodinate particulate targets via the neutrophil myeloperoxidase-halide-H2O2 system. Pretreatment of neutrophils before phagocytosis with the lipid-soluble protease inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), but not with other protease inhibitors (p-nitrophenylguanidinobenzoate, leupeptin, pepstatin), substantially blocked proteolysis of 125I-C3 on S. typhimurium strain RG108 during ingestion by neutrophils. Purification of neutrophil phagosomes containing S. typhimurium-bearing 125I-C3 showed that DFP but no other protease inhibitors blocked proteolysis of 125I-C3 within phagosomes. Iodinated C3-acceptor complexes were identified by immunoprecipitation from the detergent-insoluble fraction of phagosomes prepared from DFP-treated cells ingesting S. typhimurium in the presence of 125I-Na. These results show that C3 fragments on the surface of S. typhimurium are the major serum ligands which are halogenated and degraded by proteolysis during phagocytosis by human neutrophils, and suggest that the majority of proteolysis on the ingested target occurs within the neutrophil phagosome.

  15. Involvement of neutrophil hyporesponse and the role of Toll-like receptors in human immunodeficiency virus 1 protection.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Juan C; Giraldo, Diana M; Paul, Stephane; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activation. However, the role of PRRs in neutrophils in both HIV-1-infected [HIV-1(+)] and HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) is unknown. Here, a study was carried out to evaluate the level of PRR mRNAs and cytokines produced after activation of neutrophils from HIV-1(+), HESN and healthy donors. The neutrophils were stimulated with specific agonists for TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the presence of HIV-1 particles. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production, expression of neutrophil activation markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were analyzed in neutrophils from HESN, HIV-1(+) and healthy donors (controls). We found that neutrophils from HESN presented reduced expression of PRR mRNAs (TLR4, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, NLRC4 and RIG-I) and reduced expression of cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α and TGF-β). Moreover, neutrophils from HESN were less sensitive to stimulation through TLR4. Furthermore, neutrophils from HESN challenged with HIV-1 and stimulated with TLR2 and TLR4 agonists, produced significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species, versus HIV-1(+). A differential pattern of PRR expression and release of innate immune factors in neutrophils from HESN is evident. Our results suggest that lower neutrophil activation can be involved in protection against HIV-1 infection.

  16. Human Neutrophil-Mediated Nonoxidative Antifungal Activity against Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Mambula, Salamatu S.; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Hastey, Ryan; Selsted, Michael E.; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) kill Cryptococcus neoformans, at least in part via generation of fungicidal oxidants. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of nonoxidative mechanisms to the inhibition and killing of C. neoformans. Treatment of human PMN with inhibitors and scavengers of respiratory burst oxidants only partially reversed anticryptococcal activity, suggesting that both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms were operative. To define the mediators of nonoxidative anticryptococcal activity, PMN were fractionated into cytoplasmic, primary (azurophil) granule, and secondary (specific) granule fractions. Incubation of C. neoformans with these fractions for 18 h resulted in percents inhibition of growth of 67.4 ± 3.4, 84.6 ± 4.4, and 29.2 ± 10.5 (mean ± standard error, n = 3), respectively. Anticryptococcal activity of the cytoplasmic fraction was abrogated by zinc and depletion of calprotectin. Antifungal activity of the primary granules was significantly reduced by pronase treatment, boiling, high ionic strength, and magnesium but not calcium. Fractionation of the primary granules by reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography on a C4 column over an acetonitrile gradient revealed multiple peaks with anticryptococcal activity. Of these, peaks 1 and 6 had substantial fungistatic and fungicidal activity. Peak 1 was identified by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and mass spectroscopy as human neutrophil proteins (defensins) 1 to 3. Analysis of peak 6 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE revealed multiple bands. Thus, human PMN have nonoxidative anticryptococcal activity residing principally in their cytoplasmic and primary granule fractions. Calprotectin mediates the cytoplasmic activity, whereas multiple proteins, including defensins, are responsible for activity of the primary granules. PMID:11035733

  17. Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites and Lipopeptidophosphoglycan Trigger Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Eva E; Salaiza, Norma; Pulido, Julieta; Rodríguez, Mayra C; Díaz-Godínez, César; Laclette, Juan P; Becker, Ingeborg; Carrero, Julio C

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil defense mechanisms include phagocytosis, degranulation and the formation of extracellular traps (NET). These networks of DNA are triggered by several immune and microbial factors, representing a defense strategy to prevent microbial spread by trapping/killing pathogens. This may be important against Entamoeba histolytica, since its large size hinders its phagocytosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether E. histolytica and their lipopeptidophosphoglycan (EhLPPG) induce the formation of NETs and the outcome of their interaction with the parasite. Our data show that live amoebae and EhLPPG, but not fixed trophozoites, induced NET formation in a time and dose dependent manner, starting at 5 min of co-incubation. Although immunofluorescence studies showed that the NETs contain cathelicidin LL-37 in close proximity to amoebae, the trophozoite growth was only affected when ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) was present during contact with NETs, suggesting that the activity of enzymes requiring calcium, such as DNases, may be important for amoeba survival. In conclusion, E. histolytica trophozoites and EhLPPG induce in vitro formation of human NETs, which did not affect the parasite growth unless a chelating agent was present. These results suggest that NETs may be an important factor of the innate immune response during infection with E. histolytica.

  18. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Elastase by Pentacyclic Triterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Weiliang; Guo, Fujiang; YingchunWu; Wang, Rui; Chen, Kaixian; Huang, Cheng; Li, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Scope Inhibiting human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a promising strategy for treating inflammatory lung diseases, such as H1N1 and SARS virus infections. The use of sivelestat, the only clinically registered synthesized HNE inhibitor, is largely limited by its risk of organ toxicity because it irreversibly inhibits HNE. Therefore, potent reversible HNE inhibitors are promising alternatives to sivelestat. Methods and Results An in vitro HNE inhibition assay was employed to screen a series of triterpenes. Six pentacyclic triterpenes, but not tetracyclic triterpenes, significantly inhibited HNE. Of these pentacyclic triterpenes, ursolic acid exhibited the highest inhibitory potency (IC50 = 5.51 µM). The HNE inhibitory activity of ursolic acid was further verified using a mouse model of acute smoke-induced lung inflammation. The results of nuclear magnetic resonance and HNE inhibition kinetic analysis showed that the pentacyclic triterpenes competitively and reversibly inhibited HNE. Molecular docking experiments indicated that the molecular scaffold, 28-COOH, and a double bond at an appropriate location in the pentacyclic triterpenes are important for their inhibitory activity. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the effects of pentacyclic triterpenes on lung inflammatory actions through reversible inhibition of HNE activity. PMID:24376583

  19. Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites and Lipopeptidophosphoglycan Trigger Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Eva E.; Rodríguez, Mayra C.; Díaz-Godínez, César; Laclette, Juan P.; Becker, Ingeborg; Carrero, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil defense mechanisms include phagocytosis, degranulation and the formation of extracellular traps (NET). These networks of DNA are triggered by several immune and microbial factors, representing a defense strategy to prevent microbial spread by trapping/killing pathogens. This may be important against Entamoeba histolytica, since its large size hinders its phagocytosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether E. histolytica and their lipopeptidophosphoglycan (EhLPPG) induce the formation of NETs and the outcome of their interaction with the parasite. Our data show that live amoebae and EhLPPG, but not fixed trophozoites, induced NET formation in a time and dose dependent manner, starting at 5 min of co-incubation. Although immunofluorescence studies showed that the NETs contain cathelicidin LL-37 in close proximity to amoebae, the trophozoite growth was only affected when ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) was present during contact with NETs, suggesting that the activity of enzymes requiring calcium, such as DNases, may be important for amoeba survival. In conclusion, E. histolytica trophozoites and EhLPPG induce in vitro formation of human NETs, which did not affect the parasite growth unless a chelating agent was present. These results suggest that NETs may be an important factor of the innate immune response during infection with E. histolytica. PMID:27415627

  20. Inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by pentacyclic triterpenes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Weiliang; Guo, Fujiang; Wu, Yingchun; Wang, Rui; Chen, Kaixian; Huang, Cheng; Li, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Inhibiting human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a promising strategy for treating inflammatory lung diseases, such as H1N1 and SARS virus infections. The use of sivelestat, the only clinically registered synthesized HNE inhibitor, is largely limited by its risk of organ toxicity because it irreversibly inhibits HNE. Therefore, potent reversible HNE inhibitors are promising alternatives to sivelestat. An in vitro HNE inhibition assay was employed to screen a series of triterpenes. Six pentacyclic triterpenes, but not tetracyclic triterpenes, significantly inhibited HNE. Of these pentacyclic triterpenes, ursolic acid exhibited the highest inhibitory potency (IC50 = 5.51 µM). The HNE inhibitory activity of ursolic acid was further verified using a mouse model of acute smoke-induced lung inflammation. The results of nuclear magnetic resonance and HNE inhibition kinetic analysis showed that the pentacyclic triterpenes competitively and reversibly inhibited HNE. Molecular docking experiments indicated that the molecular scaffold, 28-COOH, and a double bond at an appropriate location in the pentacyclic triterpenes are important for their inhibitory activity. Our results provide insights into the effects of pentacyclic triterpenes on lung inflammatory actions through reversible inhibition of HNE activity.

  1. Genomic modulators of gene expression in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Makino, Seiko; Humburg, Peter; Wong, Daniel; Ng, Esther; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Knight, Julian C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils form the most abundant leukocyte subset and are central to many disease processes. Technical challenges in transcriptomic profiling have prohibited genomic approaches to date. Here we map expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in peripheral blood CD16+ neutrophils from 101 healthy European adults. We identify cis-eQTL for 3281 neutrophil-expressed genes including many implicated in neutrophil function, with 450 of these not previously observed in myeloid or lymphoid cells. Paired comparison with monocyte eQTL demonstrates nuanced conditioning of genetic regulation of gene expression by cellular context, which relates to cell-type-specific DNA methylation and histone modifications. Neutrophil eQTL are markedly enriched for trait-associated variants particularly autoimmune, allergy and infectious disease. We further demonstrate how eQTL in PADI4 and NOD2 delineate risk variant function in rheumatoid arthritis, leprosy and Crohn's disease. Taken together, these data help advance understanding of the genetics of gene expression, neutrophil biology and immune-related diseases. PMID:26151758

  2. Amiloride (Am) dissociates human neutrophil (N) activation events

    SciTech Connect

    Berkow, R.L.; Dodson, R.; Kraft, A.S.

    1986-03-05

    Human N can be stimulated to release granule contents and superoxide anion (O/sub 2/sup -//). These events are associated with an Am sensitive Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange and N alkalinization. Am has been reported to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in HL-60 cells. Due to the central role of PKC in N activation they assessed the effect of prolonged exposure of N to Am. When N were treated with 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -3/M Am at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min a dose dependent inhibition of O/sub 2/sup -// release was seen upon N stimulation with FMLP (10/sup -6/M), A23187 (10/sup -5/M), or serum treated Zymosan (Z) (2.5 mg/ml). Maximal inhibition depended on the time of exposure of N to Am prior to stimulation and remained after removal of Am by washing. N treated with 10/sup -3/M Am had a decreased influx of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ upon stimulation with FMLP. Phorbol myristate acetate induced release of N O/sub 2/sup -// was unaffected by pretreatment with Am. Similarly, Am did not inhibit stimulated N lysozyme release or the incorporation of /sup 32/P into proteins. Monensin (a Na/sup +//H/sup +/ ionophore) did not correct the Am induced inhibition of O/sub 2/sup -// suggesting that cell acidification alone can not explain the Am effect. In conclusion: (1) Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange modulates N O/sub 2/sup -// release upon stimulation with FMLP, A23187, and Z. PMA induced N responses are not affected by cell acidification; (2) N granule release is under separate cellular control than O/sub 2/sup -//; (3) Am does not inhibit PKC or protein phosphorylation in N; and (4) decreased /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ influx may partially explain the Am effect on FMLP induced O/sub 2/sup -// release.

  3. Suilysin Stimulates the Release of Heparin Binding Protein from Neutrophils and Increases Vascular Permeability in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaolong; Xie, Wenlong; Wu, Kai; Li, Ping; Ren, Zhiqiang; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Lv, Qingyu; Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Most of the deaths that occurred during two large outbreaks of Streptococcus suis infections in 1998 and 2005 in China were caused by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), which is characterized by increased vascular permeability. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is thought to mediate the vascular leakage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed mechanism underlying the release of HBP and the vascular leakage induced by S. suis. Significantly higher serum levels of HBP were detected in Chinese patients with STSS than in patients with meningitis or healthy controls. Suilysin (SLY) is an exotoxin secreted by the highly virulent strain 05ZYH33, and it stimulated the release of HBP from the polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mediated vascular leakage in mice. The release of HBP induced by SLY was caused by a calcium influx-dependent degranulation. Analyses using a pharmacological approach revealed that the release of HBP induced by SLY was related to Toll-like receptor 4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. It was also dependent on a G protein-coupled seven-membrane spanning receptor. The results of this study provide new insights into the vascular leakage in STSS associated with non-Group A streptococci, which could lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for STSS associated with S. suis. PMID:27617009

  4. Sodium caseinate induces secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor from neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Osorio, E; Mora, L; Bautista, M; Montesinos, J J; Martínez, I; Ramos-Mandujano, G; Zambrano, R; Monroy-García, A; Weiss-Steider, B; Ledesma-Martínez, E; Aguiñiga, I

    2010-04-01

    In this work we provide evidence that granulocytes produce macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the band cell stage and secrete it upon sodium caseinate-mediated differentiation to polymorphonuclear cells. We identified M-CSF in an enriched population of myeloid band cells from murine bone marrow using a chromophore-labeled monoclonal anti-M-CSF antibody. An ELISA assay was then used to detect secreted M-CSF in culture supernatants of enriched band cells differentiated to mature neutrophils using sodium caseinate. Colony formation in vitro by the supernatants from differentiating band cells was blocked by anti-M-CSF, thus suggesting that this factor is the only one responsible for this activity. Our data imply that casein can modulate hematopoiesis possibly via M-CSF production. Finally we discuss the possibility whether this M-CSF in concert with G-CSF could establish a cellular communication network between macrophages and granulocytes allowing them to simultaneously arrive at the inflammatory site. 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcellular location and properties of bactericidal factors from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabay, J E; Heiple, J M; Cohn, Z A; Nathan, C F

    1986-11-01

    We examined the subcellular location of bactericidal factors (BF) in human neutrophils, using an efficient fractionation scheme. Nitrogen bomb cavitates of DIFP-treated PMN were centrifuged through discontinuous Percoll gradients, each fraction extracted with 0.05 M glycine, pH 2.0, and tested for the killing of Escherichia coli. greater than 90% of BF coisolated with the azurophil granules. After lysis of azurophils, 98% of azurophil-derived BF (ADBF) sedimented with the membrane. ADBF activity was solubilized from azurophil membrane with either acid or nonionic detergent (Triton X-100, Triton X-114). Bactericidal activity was linear with respect to protein concentration over the range 0.3-30 micrograms/ml. 0.1-0.3 microgram/ml ADBF killed 10(5) E. coli within 30 min at 37 degrees C. At 1.4 micrograms/ml, 50% of 2 X 10(5) bacteria were killed within 5 min. ADBF was effective between pH 5-8, with peak activity at pH 5.5. Glucose (20 mM), EDTA (1-25 mM), and physiologic concentrations of NaCl or KCl had little or no inhibitory effect on ADBF. ADBF killed both Gram-positive and Gram-negative virulent clinical isolates, including listeria, staphylococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, under these conditions of cell disruption, fractionation, extraction, and assay, almost all BF in human PMN appeared to be localized to the membrane of azurophilic granules as a highly potent, broad-spectrum, rapidly acting protein(s) effective in physiologic medium. Some of these properties appear to distinguish ADBF from previously described PMN bactericidal proteins.

  6. Effects of areca nut extracts on the functions of human neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hung, S L; Chen, Y L; Wan, H C; Liu, T Y; Chen, Y T; Ling, L J

    2000-08-01

    Aqueous extracts of ripe areca nut without husk (ripe ANE) and fresh and tender areca nut with husk (tender ANE) were examined for their effects on the defensive functions of human neutrophils. Exposure of peripheral blood neutrophils to ripe ANE and tender ANE inhibited their bactericidal activity against oral pathogens, including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans, in a dose-dependent manner. At the concentrations tested, ripe and tender ANEs did not significantly affect the viability of neutrophils as verified by their ability to exclude trypan blue dye. However, both ANEs inhibited the production of bactericidal superoxide anion by neutrophils as measured by cytochrome c reduction. Moreover, the ripe ANE inhibited neutrophils more effectively than did tender ANE. Arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, only exhibited an inhibitory effect on the functions of neutrophils when high concentrations were used. Therefore, arecoline could not be used to explain the inhibitory effects observed for ANEs. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ripe and tender ANEs reduced the antibacterial activity and the superoxide anion production of neutrophils. This effect may contribute to a less efficient elimination of bacteria from the periodontal environment. Inhibition of the antimicrobial functions of neutrophils may alter the microbial ecology of the oral cavity, and this may be one possible mechanism by which areca nut compromises the oral health of users of areca nut products.

  7. Vitamin D Promotes Pneumococcal Killing and Modulates Inflammatory Responses in Primary Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Karthik; Bergman, Peter; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2017-02-28

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis worldwide. Despite clinical studies linking vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia, molecular mechanisms behind these observations remain unclear. In particular, the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil responses remain unknown. Using pneumococcal strains, primary neutrophils isolated from human blood, and sera from patients with frequent respiratory tract infections (RTIs), we investigated the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil bactericidal and inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokine regulation. We found that vitamin D upregulated pattern recognition receptors, TLR2, and NOD2, and induced the antimicrobial human neutrophil peptides (HNP1-3) and LL-37, resulting in increased killing of pneumococci in a vitamin D receptor-dependent manner. Antibodies targeting HNP1-3 inhibited bacterial killing. Vitamin D supplementation of serum from patients with bacterial RTIs enhanced neutrophil killing. Moreover, vitamin D lowered inflammatory cytokine production by infected neutrophils via IL-4 production and the induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins SOCS-1 and SOCS-3, leading to the suppression of NF-κB signaling. Thus, vitamin D enhances neutrophil killing of S. pneumoniae while dampening excessive inflammatory responses and apoptosis, suggesting that vitamin D could be used alongside antibiotics when treating pneumococcal infections.

  8. TLR8, but not TLR7, induces the priming of the NADPH oxidase activation in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Makni-Maalej, Karama; Marzaioli, Viviana; Boussetta, Tarek; Belambri, Sahra Amel; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Dang, Pham My-Chan; El-Benna, Jamel

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils play a key role in host defense against invading pathogens by releasing toxic agents, such as ROS and antimicrobial peptides. Human neutrophils express several TLRs that recognize a variety of microbial motifs. The interaction between TLR and their agonists is believed to help neutrophils to recognize and to kill pathogens efficiently by increasing their activation, a process called priming. However, excessive activation can induce tissue injury and thereby, contribute to inflammatory disorders. Agonists that activate TLR7 and TLR8 induce priming of neutrophil ROS production; however, which receptor is involved in this process has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that the selective TLR8 agonist, CL075 (3M002), induced a dramatic increase of fMLF-stimulated NOX2 activation, whereas the selective TLR7 agonist, loxoribine, failed to induce any priming effect. Interestingly, CL075, but not loxoribine, induced the phosphorylation of the NOX2 cytosolic component p47phox on several serines and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2. The inhibitor of p38MAPK completely blocked CL075-induced phosphorylation of p47phox Ser345. Moreover, CL075, but not loxoribine, induced the activation of the proline isomerase Pin1, and juglone, a Pin1 inhibitor, prevented CL075-mediated priming of fMLF-induced superoxide production. These results indicate that TLR8, but not TLR7, is involved in priming of human neutrophil ROS production by inducing the phosphorylation of p47phox and p38MAPK and that Pin1 is also involved in this process. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  9. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Sharpe, Matthew R.; McGill, Mitchell R.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  10. Biosynthetic profiles of neutrophil serine proteases in a human bone marrow-derived cellular myeloid differentiation model.

    PubMed

    Garwicz, Daniel; Lennartsson, Andreas; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Gullberg, Urban; Lindmark, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Human leukocyte elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G are neutrophil granule proteins belonging to the hematopoietic serine protease superfamily. In addition to their established roles in inflammation, they have recently been implicated as regulators of granulopoiesis and mediators of apoptosis. We set out to characterize the individual biosynthetic profiles of these proteins in a neutrophil differentiation model. CD34+CD38+ hematopoietic progenitor cells from 21 healthy human bone marrow donors were cultured in vitro in the presence of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Biosynthetic radiolabeling was performed in cells from 13 subjects after various periods of differentiation induction. Following protein extraction, the proteins were specifically immunoprecipitated from cell lysates and media and run in gel electrophoresis. Biosynthetic profiles of azurophil granule proteins, in particular members of the neutrophil serine protease family, were examined during myeloid differentiation. The onset of synthesis of myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, leukocyte elastase, and proteinase 3 occurred early after differentiation induction with G-CSF, while synthesis of cathepsin G, azurocidin, and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein was detected somewhat later. Cathepsin G and proteinase 3 were retained intracellularly relatively efficiently, while leukocyte elastase and lysozyme were secreted to a greater extent. Cell morphology and positive immunocytochemistry for lactoferrin as well as flow cytometric analysis of selected surface antigens confirmed neutrophil-like maturation. We demonstrate that azurophil granule proteins, including proforms of human leukocyte elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G, are constitutively secreted to various degrees during in vitro myeloid differentiation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells, in addition to being stored intracellularly in active forms. These findings suggest protein-specific sorting mechanisms

  11. In vitro evaluation of the behaviour of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils in direct contact with chitosan-based membranes.

    PubMed

    Santos, T C; Marques, A P; Silva, S S; Oliveira, J M; Mano, J F; Castro, A G; Reis, R L

    2007-10-31

    Several novel biodegradable materials have been proposed for wound healing applications in the past few years. Taking into consideration the biocompatibility of chitosan-based biomaterials, and that they promote adequate cell adhesion, this work aims at investigating the effect of chitosan-based membranes, over the activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). The recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) reflects a primary reaction to foreign bodies. Activation of neutrophils results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O(2)(-) and HO(-) and the release of hydrolytic enzymes which are determinant factors in the inflammatory process, playing an essential role in the healing mechanisms. PMNs isolated from human peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were cultured in the presence of chitosan or chitosan/soy newly developed membranes. The effect of the biomaterials on the activation of PMNs was assessed by the quantification of lysozyme and ROS. The results showed that PMNs, in the presence of the chitosan-based membranes secrete similar lysozyme amounts, as compared to controls (PMNs without materials) and also showed that the materials do not stimulate the production of either O(2)(-) or HO(-). Moreover, PMNs incubated with the biomaterials when stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) showed a chemiluminescence profile with a slightly lower intensity, to that observed for positive controls (cells without materials and stimulated with PMA), which reflects the maintenance of their stimulation capacity. Our data suggests that the new biomaterials studied herein do not elicit activation of PMNs, as assessed by the low lysozyme activity and by the minor detection of ROS by chemiluminescence. These findings reinforce previous statements supporting the suitability of chitosan-based materials for wound healing applications.

  12. Tumor-Derived Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Prolong the Survival of Neutrophils Infiltrating Bronchoalveolar Subtype Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wislez, Marie; Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne; Rabbe, Nathalie; Moreau, Joelle; Cesari, Danielle; Milleron, Bernard; Mayaud, Charles; Antoine, Martine; Soler, Paul; Cadranel, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the role of the tumor environment in the regulation of apoptosis of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils, the number of which correlates negatively with outcome, in patients with adenocarcinoma of the bronchioloalveolar (BAC) subtype. We examined three different parameters of apoptosis, namely morphological aspect, annexin-V expression, and DNA fragmentation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) supernatants from patients with BAC significantly inhibited the 24-hour spontaneous apoptosis of normal peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro compared to BALF supernatants from control patients (64 ± 4% versus 90 ± 2% measured by annexin-V flow cytometry, P = 0.04). The alveolar neutrophil count correlated positively with the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) concentrations in the patient’s BALF. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies (Abs) against GM-CSF and G-CSF significantly inhibited BALF anti-apoptotic activity (15 to 40% and 34 to 63% inhibition, respectively), whereas neutralizing Abs against interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α had no significant effect. In an attempt to identify the cell origin of anti-apoptotic cytokines, we tested in vitro the effect of BAC cells (A549 cell line and primary culture derived from a patient’s BAC tumor) on the apoptosis of peripheral blood neutrophils. Cell-free supernatants from tumor cells did not inhibit neutrophil apoptosis. In contrast, cell-free supernatants from tumor cells previously exposed to conditioned media from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages significantly inhibited spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis. This inhibition was partially lifted when conditioned media from mononuclear cells were previously treated with Abs against IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. As in vivo, neutralizing Abs against GM-CSF significantly inhibited the anti-apoptotic activity of cell culture supernatants

  13. B–helper neutrophils stimulate immunoglobulin diversification and production in the marginal zone of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Puga, Irene; Cols, Montserrat; Barra, Carolina M.; He, Bing; Cassis, Linda; Gentile, Maurizio; Comerma, Laura; Chorny, Alejo; Shan, Meimei; Xu, Weifeng; Magri, Giuliana; Knowles, Daniel M.; Tam, Wayne; Chiu, April; Bussel, James B; Serrano, Sergi; Lorente, José Antonio; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Lloreta, Josep; Juanpere, Nuria; Alameda, Francesc; Baró, Teresa; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Torán, Núria; Català, Albert; Torrebadell, Montserrat; Fortuny, Claudia; Cusi, Victoria; Carreras, Carmen; Diaz, George A.; Blander, J. Magarian; Farber, Claire-Michèle; Silvestri, Guido; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Calvillo, Michaela; Dufour, Carlo; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Lougaris, Vassilios; Plebani, Alessandro; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ganal, Stephanie C.; Diefenbach, Andreas; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Juan, Manel; Yagüe, Jordi; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Donadieu, Jean; Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophils utilize immunoglobulins (Igs) to clear antigen, but their role in Ig production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T-independent Ig responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after post-natal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B-helper function upon receiving reprogramming signals from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells, including interleukin 10 (IL-10). Splenic neutrophils induced Ig class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism involving the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and less preimmune Igs to T-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial Ig defense by interacting with MZ B cells. PMID:22197976

  14. Detection of Human Neutrophil Elastase with Fluorescent Peptide Sensors Conjugated to Nanocellulosic Solid Supports Targeting Wound Care Diagnostics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a biomarker for chronic wounds and a therapeutic target for certain diseases. An unchecked influx of neutrophils, which contain about one pictogram of elastase per neutrophil, is responsible for degrading growth factors and collagen formation, indefinitely delaying...

  15. Lipoproteins of Treponema denticola: their effect on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sela, M N; Bolotin, A; Naor, R; Weinberg, A; Rosen, G

    1997-07-01

    The presence of lipoproteins and lipooligosaccharides in Treponema denticola, an oral spirochaete associated with periodontal diseases, was investigated. T. denticola ATCC 35404 and the clinical isolate GM-1 were metabolically labeled with [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and extracted with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114. The extract was phase separated, precipitated with acetone and delipidated to remove non-covalently bound lipid (dLPP). In T. denticola ATCC 35404, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoretic separation followed by autoradiography showed [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid incorporation in bands with apparent molecular masses of 14, 20, 26, 31, 38, 72 and 85 kDa and a broad band running from 113 kDa to the top of the gel. This last band resolved into a 53 kDa [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid band upon heating for 10 min, at 100 degrees C. The structural relationship of the outer sheath major oligomeric polypeptide of strain ATCC 35404 and the 53 kDa protein was demonstrated immunologically. Antibodies against the 113 kDa component of the oligomer cross-reacted with the 53 kDa protein. Proteinase K degraded the [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid bands with the exception of the 14 kDa. The 14 kDa was also the major [3H]-fatty acid labeled compound found in the water phase following phenol-water extraction of whole T. denticola ATCC 35404 cells. This compound was purified from the water phase by gel filtration followed by hydrophobic chromatography. Chemical analysis showed that hexadecanoic acid was the predominant fatty acid bound to T. denticola lipoproteins. In the GM-1 strain [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid incorporation was observed in the 116 kDa and 14 kDa bands. dLPP from strain ATCC 35404 caused an enhanced (0.8-8 micrograms/ml) luminol dependent chemiluminiscence (LDCL) effect in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) which could be related to protein concentration. The addition of dLPP to PMN together with FMLP at submaximal concentration (1

  16. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Khalaf F.; Thomas, Mark R.; Judge, Heather M.; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R.; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C.; Storey, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7% ± 4.4 vs. control 22.6% ± 2.4; p < 0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6 ± 6.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.6; p = 0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection. PMID:25869515

  17. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Khalaf F; Thomas, Mark R; Judge, Heather M; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C; Storey, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7%±4.4 vs. control 22.6%±2.4; p<0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6±6.6 vs. 28.0±6.6; p=0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection.

  18. Apoptotic neutrophils augment the inflammatory response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Henrik; Andersson, Blanka; Eklund, Daniel; Ngoh, Eyler; Persson, Alexander; Svensson, Kristoffer; Lerm, Maria; Blomgran, Robert; Stendahl, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages in the lung are the primary cells being infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during the initial manifestation of tuberculosis. Since the adaptive immune response to Mtb is delayed, innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils mount the early immune protection against this intracellular pathogen. Neutrophils are short-lived cells and removal of apoptotic cells by resident macrophages is a key event in the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. Since anti-inflammatory activity is not compatible with effective immunity to intracellular pathogens, we therefore investigated how uptake of apoptotic neutrophils modulates the function of Mtb-activated human macrophages. We show that Mtb infection exerts a potent proinflammatory activation of human macrophages with enhanced gene activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines and that this response was augmented by apoptotic neutrophils. The enhanced macrophage response is linked to apoptotic neutrophil-driven activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent IL-1β signalling. We also demonstrate that apoptotic neutrophils not only modulate the inflammatory response, but also enhance the capacity of infected macrophages to control intracellular growth of virulent Mtb. Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for apoptotic neutrophils in the modulation of the macrophage-dependent inflammatory response contributing to the early control of Mtb infection.

  19. Intracellular accumulation of potent amiloride analogues by human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Simchowitz, L.; Woltersdorf, O.W. Jr.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.

    1987-11-25

    The mechanism of uptake of a series of amiloride derivatives by human neutrophils was investigated using (/sup 14/C)amiloride and the /sup 14/C-labeled 5-(1-hexahydroazepinyl)-6-bromo analogue (BrMM) which is approximately 500-fold more potent than the parent compound at inhibiting Na+/H+ exchange. At an external concentration of 2 microM, the influx of BrMM at 37 degrees C was rapid, reaching a steady state by approximately 20 min. The rate of BrMM uptake (approximately 25 mumol/liter.min) was approximately 90-fold faster than for the same concentration of amiloride, a finding which correlates with differences in lipid partitioning of the two compounds. Uptake was unrelated to specific binding to Na+/H+ exchange transport sites: influx of either drug was nonsaturable whereas amiloride- and BrMM-mediated inhibition of Na+/H+ countertransport obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent Ki values of approximately 75 and approximately 0.2 microM. Entry occurred exclusively via the neutral (uncharged) forms (pK'a 8.40-8.55). Influx was markedly pH-dependent: it was enhanced by extracellular alkalinization and reduced by acidification. Influx was, however, insensitive to large changes in membrane voltage, thereby implying the protonated (charged) species to be impermeant. About 75% of the total intracellular pool of amiloride, but only approximately 25% of BrMM, is contained within the lysosomes, an expected consequence of the partitioning and subsequent trapping of a weak base within this strongly acidic subcellular compartment. With BrMM, there was a relative approximately 60-fold enrichment in the internal/external water concentration ratio of the drug; the value for amiloride was much less, approximately 4. This disparity is consistent with substantial binding of BrMM to internal constituents, presumably to proteins and/or nucleic acids.

  20. Whole Blood Human Neutrophil Trafficking in a Microfluidic Model of Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Bashar; Irimia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate inflammatory responses to wounds and infections require adequate numbers of neutrophils arriving at injury sites. Both insufficient and excessive neutrophil recruitment can be detrimental, favouring systemic spread of microbes or triggering severe tissue damage. Despite its importance in health and disease, the trafficking of neutrophils through tissues remains difficult to control and the mechanisms regulating it are insufficiently understood. These mechanisms are also complex and difficult to isolate using traditional in vivo models. Here we designed a microfluidic model of tissue infection/inflammation, in which human neutrophils emerge from a droplet-size samples of whole blood and display bi-directional traffic between this and micro-chambers containing chemoattractant and microbe-like particles. Two geometrical barriers restrict the entrance of red blood cells from the blood to the micro-chambers and simulate the mechanical function of the endothelial barrier separating the cells in blood from cells in tissues. We found that in the presence of chemoattractant, the number of neutrophils departing the chambers by retrotaxis is in dynamic equilibrium with the neutrophils recruited by chemotaxis. We also found that in the presence of microbe-like particles, the number of neutrophils trapped in the chambers is proportional to the number of particles. Together, the dynamic equilibrium between migration, reversed-migration and trapping processes determine the optimal number of neutrophils at a site. These neutrophils are continuously refreshed and responsive to the number of microbes. Further studies using this infection-inflammation-on-a-chip-model could help study the processes of inflammation resolution. The new in vitro experimental tools may also eventually help testing new therapeutic strategies to limit neutrophil accumulation in tissues during chronic inflammation, without increasing the risk for infections. PMID:25987163

  1. Macrophages cultured in vitro release leukotriene B4 and neutrophil attractant/activation protein (interleukin 8) sequentially in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and zymosan.

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, J A; Sylvester, I; Smith, S; Yoshimura, T; Leonard, E J

    1990-01-01

    The capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, and calcium ionophore A23187 to induce neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and neutrophil attractant/activation protein (NAP-1) release from human alveolar macrophages (AM) retrieved from normal nonsmokers was evaluated. LPS induced a dose-dependent release of LTB4 that began by 1 h, 4.0 +/- 3.2 ng/10(6) viable AM; peaked at 3 h, 24.7 +/- 13.5 ng/10(6) viable AM; and decreased by 24 h, 1.2 +/- 1.0 ng/10(6) viable AM (n = 8). Quantities of LTB4 in cell-free supernatants of AM stimulated with LPS were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and corresponded well with results obtained by radioimmunoassay. By contrast, NAP-1 release began approximately 3-5 h after stimulation of AM with LPS, 197 +/- 192 ng/ml, and peaked at 24 h, 790 +/- 124 ng/ml. Release of NAP-1 was stimulus specific because A23187 evoked the release of LTB4 but not NAP-1, whereas LPS and zymosan induced the release of both LTB4 and NAP-1. The appearance of neutrophil chemotactic activity in supernatants of AM challenged with LPS for 3 h could be explained completely by the quantities of LTB4 present. After stimulation with LPS or zymosan for 24 h, AM had metabolized almost all generated LTB4. Preincubation of AM with nordihydroguiaretic acid (10(-4) M) completely abolished the appearance of NCA, LTB4, and NAP-1 in supernatants of AM challenged with LPS. Therefore, LPS and zymosan particles were potent stimuli of the sequential release of LTB4 and NAP-1 from AM. PMID:2173722

  2. Evidence for a role for SAM68 in the responses of human neutrophils to ligation of CD32 and to monosodium urate crystals.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C; Barabé, F; Rollet-Labelle, E; Bourgoin, S G; McColl, S R; Damaj, B B; Naccache, P H

    2001-04-01

    SAM68 (Src-associated in mitosis 68 kDa) is a member of the signal transduction of activator RNA novel gene family coding for proteins postulated to be involved in signal transduction and activation of RNA. It has been implicated through its phosphorylation status in the control of the transition from the G(1) to the S phases during mitosis. However, the implication and role of SAM68 in nonproliferative cells are unknown. The present study was initiated to examine the role of SAM68 in the phagocytic responses of the terminally differentiated human neutrophils. The results obtained show that SAM68 is present in human neutrophils and that it is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to stimulation by monosodium urate crystals or by ligation of CD32. Stimulation of neutrophils by these agonists decreases the association of SAM68 with Sepharose-conjugated poly-U beads. Additionally, the amount of immunoprecipitable SAM68 was modulated differentially after stimulation by monosodium urate crystals or by CD32 engagement indicating that the posttranslational modifications and/or protein associations of SAM68 induced by these two agonists differed. The results of this study provide evidence for an involvement of SAM68 in signal transduction by phagocytic agonists in human neutrophils and indicate that SAM68 may play a role in linking the early events of signal transduction to the posttranscriptional modulation of RNA.

  3. The Antibacterial Activity of Human Neutrophils and Eosinophils Requires Proton Channels but Not BK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Femling, Jon K.; Cherny, Vladimir V.; Morgan, Deri; Rada, Balázs; Davis, A. Paige; Czirják, Gabor; Enyedi, Peter; England, Sarah K.; Moreland, Jessica G.; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Nauseef, William M.; DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Electrophysiological events are of central importance during the phagocyte respiratory burst, because NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and voltage sensitive. We investigated the recent suggestion that large-conductance, calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels, rather than proton channels, play an essential role in innate immunity (Ahluwalia, J., A. Tinker, L.H. Clapp, M.R. Duchen, A.Y. Abramov, S. Page, M. Nobles, and A.W. Segal. 2004. Nature. 427:853–858). In PMA-stimulated human neutrophils or eosinophils, we did not detect BK currents, and neither of the BK channel inhibitors iberiotoxin or paxilline nor DPI inhibited any component of outward current. BK inhibitors did not inhibit the killing of bacteria, nor did they affect NADPH oxidase-dependent degradation of bacterial phospholipids by extracellular gIIA-PLA2 or the production of superoxide anion (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2^{.}}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}). Moreover, an antibody against the BK channel did not detect immunoreactive protein in human neutrophils. A required role for voltage-gated proton channels is demonstrated by Zn2+ inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity assessed by H2O2 production, thus validating previous studies showing that Zn2+ inhibited \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2^{.}}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} production when assessed by cytochrome c reduction. In conclusion, BK channels were not detected in human neutrophils or eosinophils, and

  4. TRPC1 regulates fMLP-stimulated migration and chemotaxis of neutrophil granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, O; Strodthoff, C; Horstmann, M; Nielsen, N; Jung, F; Schimmelpfennig, S; Heitzmann, M; Schwab, A

    2015-09-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of defense of the innate immune system and are rapidly recruited by chemotactic signals to sites of inflammation. Understanding the mechanisms of neutrophil chemotaxis is therefore of great interest for the potential development of new immunoregulatory therapies. It has been shown that members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels are involved in both cell migration and chemotaxis. In this study, we demonstrate that TRPC1 channels play an important role in fMLP mediated chemotaxis and migration of murine neutrophils. The knock-out of TRPC1 channels leads to an impaired migration, transmigration and chemotaxis of the neutrophils. In contrast, Ca²⁺ influx but not store release after activation of the TRPC1(-/-) neutrophils with fMLP is strongly enhanced. We show that the enhanced Ca²⁺ influx in the TRPC1(-/-) neutrophils is associated with a steepened front to rear gradient of the intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration with higher levels at the cell rear. Taken together, this paper highlights a distinct role of TRPC1 in neutrophil migration and chemotaxis. We propose that TRPC1 controls the activity of further Ca²⁺ influx channels and thus regulates the maintenance of intracellular Ca²⁺ gradients which are critical for cell migration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  5. Pattern of formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, C; Aniansson, H; Magnusson, K E

    1985-01-01

    The stimulation of neutrophils by formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine results in a bimodal luminol-dependent chemiluminescence pattern. We observed, however, only a single peak chemiluminescence pattern in the response to the peptide when we used lucigenin as an amplifying substance. We suggest that lucigenin, the larger molecule, (510 daltons; luminol is 177 daltons) only exerts an extracellular effect. PMID:3965405

  6. Intracellular acidification-induced alkali metal cation/H+ exchange in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment of isolated human neutrophils (resting pHi congruent to 7.25 at pHo 7.40) with 30 mM NH4Cl for 30 min leads to an intracellular acidification (pHi congruen to 6.60) when the NH4Cl prepulse is removed. Thereafter, in 140 mM Na+ medium, pHi recovers exponentially with time (initial rate, approximately 0.12 pH/min) to reach the normal resting pHi by approximately 20 min, a process that is accomplished mainly, if not exclusively, though an exchange of internal H+ for external Na+. This Na+/H+ countertransport is stimulated by external Na+ (Km congruent to 21 mM) and by external Li+ (Km congruent to 14 mM), though the maximal transport rate for Na+ is about twice that for Li+. Both Na+ and Li+ compete as substrates for the same translocation sites on the exchange carrier. Other alkali metal cations, such as K+, Rb+, or Cs+, do not promote pHi recovery, owing to an apparent lack of affinity for the carrier. The exchange system is unaffected by ouabain or furosemide, but can be competitively inhibited by the diuretic amiloride (Ki congruent to 8 microM). The influx of Na+ or Li+ is accompanied by an equivalent counter-reflux of H+, indicating a 1:1 stoichiometry for the exchange reaction, a finding consistent with the lack of voltage sensitivity (i.e., electroneutrality) of pHi recovery. These studies indicate that the predominant mechanism in human neutrophils for pHi regulation after intracellular acidification is an amiloride-sensitive alkali metal cation/H+ exchange that shares a number of important features with similar recovery processes in a variety of other mammalian cell types. PMID:3694176

  7. Effects of human IgG on locomotion of human neutrophils related to IgG binding of a hydrophobic probe.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, P C

    1980-01-01

    Heat-denatured (63 degrees) human IgG had complex effects on locomotion of human neutrophils. At concentrations of 1 mg/ml and below, it stimulated chemotactic locomotion into filters judged by the leading front assay, however, pre-treatment of the cells or of the filters with denatured IgG caused a reduction in the number of locomoting cells, compared to cells locomoting in a medium containing albumin. These effects took place in complement-free media. Native IgG was not chemotactic. The chemotactic activity of denatured IgG correlated well with increased binding by the same IgG preparations of the hydrophobic probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate (ANS), and it is suggested that heating induces a conformational change in the IgG molecule which allows recognition of the altered molecule by neutrophils and activation of a chemotactic response. The integrity of the Fc fragment is required for this activity. As well as a direct chemoattractant activity of IgG, evidence for release of chemotactic factors by cells in contact with aggregated IgG was also obtained. It is suggested that the contrary effects of denatured IgG on neutrophil locomotion are explicable if the protein, like other denatured proteins, activates the sensory chemotactic mechanism in the neutrophil, while at the same time causing a modification of adhesion of cell to substratum which may impair the locomotor capacity of the cells. PMID:7439936

  8. Low concentrations of human neutrophil peptide ameliorate experimental murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Kanmura, Shuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ibusuki, Kazunari; Tanoue, Shiroh; Komaki, Yuga; Arima, Shiho; Nasu, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Taguchi, Hiroki; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) not only have antimicrobial properties, but also exert multiple immunomodulatory effects depending on the concentration used. We have previously demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of high-dose HNP-1 (100 µg/day) aggravates murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, suggesting a potential pro-inflammatory role for HNPs at high concentrations. However, the role of low physiological concentrations of HNPs in the intestinal tract remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low concentrations of HNPs on intestinal inflammation. We first examined the effects of the mild transgenic overexpression of HNP-1 in DSS-induced colitis. HNP-1 transgenic mice have plasma HNP-1 levels similar to the physiological concentrations in human plasma. Compared to wild-type mice treated with DSS, HNP-1 transgenic mice treated with DSS had significantly lower clinical and histological scores, and lower colonic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then injected low-dose HNP-1 (5 µg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally into C57BL/6N and BALB/c mice administered DSS. The HNP-1-treated mice exhibited significantly milder colitis with reduced expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with the PBS-treated mice. Finally, we examined the in vitro effects of HNP-1 on the expression of cytokines associated with macrophage activation. Low physiological concentrations of HNP-1 did not significantly affect the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 or IL-10 in colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells activated with heat-killed Escherichia coli, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of HNP-1 on murine colitis may not be exerted by direct action on intestinal macrophages. Collectively, our data demonstrated a biphasic dose-dependent effect of HNP-1 on DSS-induced colitis: an

  9. Low concentrations of human neutrophil peptide ameliorate experimental murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Takuro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Kanmura, Shuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ibusuki, Kazunari; Tanoue, Shiroh; Komaki, Yuga; Arima, Shiho; Nasu, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Taguchi, Hiroki; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) not only have antimicrobial properties, but also exert multiple immunomodulatory effects depending on the concentration used. We have previously demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of high-dose HNP-1 (100 µg/day) aggravates murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, suggesting a potential pro-inflammatory role for HNPs at high concentrations. However, the role of low physiological concentrations of HNPs in the intestinal tract remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low concentrations of HNPs on intestinal inflammation. We first examined the effects of the mild transgenic overexpression of HNP-1 in DSS-induced colitis. HNP-1 transgenic mice have plasma HNP-1 levels similar to the physiological concentrations in human plasma. Compared to wild-type mice treated with DSS, HNP-1 transgenic mice treated with DSS had significantly lower clinical and histological scores, and lower colonic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then injected low-dose HNP-1 (5 µg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally into C57BL/6N and BALB/c mice administered DSS. The HNP-1-treated mice exhibited significantly milder colitis with reduced expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with the PBS-treated mice. Finally, we examined the in vitro effects of HNP-1 on the expression of cytokines associated with macrophage activation. Low physiological concentrations of HNP-1 did not significantly affect the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 or IL-10 in colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells activated with heat-killed Escherichia coli, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of HNP-1 on murine colitis may not be exerted by direct action on intestinal macrophages. Collectively, our data demonstrated a biphasic dose-dependent effect of HNP-1 on DSS-induced colitis: an amelioration at

  10. Identification of C-terminal Phosphorylation Sites of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor-1 (FPR1) in Human Blood Neutrophils*

    PubMed Central

    Maaty, Walid S.; Lord, Connie I.; Gripentrog, Jeannie M.; Riesselman, Marcia; Keren-Aviram, Gal; Liu, Ting; Dratz, Edward A.; Bothner, Brian; Jesaitis, Algirdas J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation, activation, and control of neutrophils at inflammation sites is partly driven by N-formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors (FPRs). Occupancy of these G-protein-coupled receptors by formyl peptides has been shown to induce regulatory phosphorylation of cytoplasmic serine/threonine amino acid residues in heterologously expressed recombinant receptors, but the biochemistry of these modifications in primary human neutrophils remains relatively unstudied. FPR1 and FPR2 were partially immunopurified using antibodies that recognize both receptors (NFPRa) or unphosphorylated FPR1 (NFPRb) in dodecylmaltoside extracts of unstimulated and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) + cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils or their membrane fractions. After deglycosylation and separation by SDS-PAGE, excised Coomassie Blue-staining bands (∼34,000 Mr) were tryptically digested, and FPR1, phospho-FPR1, and FPR2 content was confirmed by peptide mass spectrometry. C-terminal FPR1 peptides (Leu312–Arg322 and Arg323–Lys350) and extracellular FPR1 peptide (Ile191–Arg201) as well as three similarly placed FPR2 peptides were identified in unstimulated and fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated samples. LC/MS/MS identified seven isoforms of Ala323–Lys350 only in the fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated sample. These were individually phosphorylated at Thr325, Ser328, Thr329, Thr331, Ser332, Thr334, and Thr339. No phospho-FPR2 peptides were detected. Cytochalasin B treatment of neutrophils decreased the sensitivity of fMLF-dependent NFPRb recognition 2-fold, from EC50 = 33 ± 8 to 74 ± 21 nm. Our results suggest that 1) partial immunopurification, deglycosylation, and SDS-PAGE separation of FPRs is sufficient to identify C-terminal FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations by LC/MS/MS; 2) kinases/phosphatases activated in fMLF/cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils produce multiple C-terminal tail FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations but have little effect on corresponding FPR2 sites; and 3) the extent of

  11. Identification of C-terminal phosphorylation sites of N-formyl peptide receptor-1 (FPR1) in human blood neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Maaty, Walid S; Lord, Connie I; Gripentrog, Jeannie M; Riesselman, Marcia; Keren-Aviram, Gal; Liu, Ting; Dratz, Edward A; Bothner, Brian; Jesaitis, Algirdas J

    2013-09-20

    Accumulation, activation, and control of neutrophils at inflammation sites is partly driven by N-formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors (FPRs). Occupancy of these G-protein-coupled receptors by formyl peptides has been shown to induce regulatory phosphorylation of cytoplasmic serine/threonine amino acid residues in heterologously expressed recombinant receptors, but the biochemistry of these modifications in primary human neutrophils remains relatively unstudied. FPR1 and FPR2 were partially immunopurified using antibodies that recognize both receptors (NFPRa) or unphosphorylated FPR1 (NFPRb) in dodecylmaltoside extracts of unstimulated and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) + cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils or their membrane fractions. After deglycosylation and separation by SDS-PAGE, excised Coomassie Blue-staining bands (∼34,000 Mr) were tryptically digested, and FPR1, phospho-FPR1, and FPR2 content was confirmed by peptide mass spectrometry. C-terminal FPR1 peptides (Leu(312)-Arg(322) and Arg(323)-Lys(350)) and extracellular FPR1 peptide (Ile(191)-Arg(201)) as well as three similarly placed FPR2 peptides were identified in unstimulated and fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated samples. LC/MS/MS identified seven isoforms of Ala(323)-Lys(350) only in the fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated sample. These were individually phosphorylated at Thr(325), Ser(328), Thr(329), Thr(331), Ser(332), Thr(334), and Thr(339). No phospho-FPR2 peptides were detected. Cytochalasin B treatment of neutrophils decreased the sensitivity of fMLF-dependent NFPRb recognition 2-fold, from EC50 = 33 ± 8 to 74 ± 21 nM. Our results suggest that 1) partial immunopurification, deglycosylation, and SDS-PAGE separation of FPRs is sufficient to identify C-terminal FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations by LC/MS/MS; 2) kinases/phosphatases activated in fMLF/cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils produce multiple C-terminal tail FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations but have little effect on corresponding FPR2 sites

  12. Investigating antibody-catalyzed ozone generation by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Babior, Bernard M; Takeuchi, Cindy; Ruedi, Julie; Gutierrez, Abel; Wentworth, Paul

    2003-03-18

    Recent studies have suggested that antibodies can catalyze the generation of previously unknown oxidants including dihydrogen trioxide (H(2)O(3)) and ozone (O(3)) from singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)(*)) and water. Given that neutrophils have the potential both to produce (1)O(2)(*) and to bind antibodies, we considered that these cells could be a biological source of O(3). We report here further analytical evidence that antibody-coated neutrophils, after activation, produce an oxidant with the chemical signature of O(3). This process is independent of surface antibody concentration down to 50% of the resting concentration, suggesting that surface IgG is highly efficient at intercepting the neutrophil-generated (1)O(2)(*). Vinylbenzoic acid, an orthogonal probe for ozone detection, is oxidized by activated neutrophils to 4-carboxybenzaldehyde in a manner analogous to that obtained for its oxidation by ozone in solution. This discovery of the production of such a powerful oxidant in a biological context raises questions about not only the capacity of O(3) to kill invading microorganisms but also its role in amplification of the inflammatory response by signaling and gene activation.

  13. ACTIVATED NEUTROPHILS INHIBIT PHAGOCYTOSIS BY HUMAN MONOCYTE CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported the correlation of decreased phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan by sputum monocytic cells with the increase in sputum neutrophils in volunteers 6h after inhalation of endotoxin (20,000 EU) (Alexis, et al. JACI, 2003;112:353). To define whether an intrin...

  14. ACTIVATED NEUTROPHILS INHIBIT PHAGOCYTOSIS BY HUMAN MONOCYTE CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported the correlation of decreased phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan by sputum monocytic cells with the increase in sputum neutrophils in volunteers 6h after inhalation of endotoxin (20,000 EU) (Alexis, et al. JACI, 2003;112:353). To define whether an intrin...

  15. Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Feiyuan; Liu, Xingmu; Zhao, Conghui; Chen, Xueling; Kelvin, David J; Gu, Jiang

    2015-12-07

    Various reports have indicated that a number of viruses could infect neutrophils, but the multiplication of viruses in neutrophils was abortive. Based on our previous finding that avian influenza viral RNA and proteins were present in the nucleus of infected human neutrophils in vivo, we investigated the possibility of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. In this study we found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. We also show that the infected neutrophils can not only synthesize 2009 A (H1N1) viral mRNA and proteins, but also produce infectious progeny. These findings suggest that infectious progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus could be replicated in and released from human neutrophils with possible clinical implications.

  16. Influence of minor thermal injury on expression of complement receptor CR3 on human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, R. D.; Hasslen, S. R.; Ahrenholz, D. H.; Haus, E.; Solem, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal injury is well known to inhibit functions of the circulating neutrophil related to its role in host defense against infection, but the mechanism(s) of this phenomenon are not fully understood. To gain further clues to these mechanisms, the authors have studied patients with thermal injury in terms of altered expression of neutrophil cell membrane receptors for the opsonic complement-derived ligand C3bi--complement receptor Type 3, or CR3. CR3 expression was selected for study because an increase in the number of receptors on the cell surface can be stimulated by products of complement activation known to accumulate after thermal injury and because of the role of CR3 in phagocytic and adherence functions of the neutrophil. Expression of CR3 was monitored semiquantitatively by flow cytometry with the use of a murine monoclonal antibody (OKM1) specific for an antigen (CD11) associated with this receptor. Patients evaluated were limited in this study to those with minor degrees of thermal injury (second-degree burn involving less than 20% of total body surface area) so that possible confounding effects of major injury and its complications could be eliminated. It was observed that patient neutrophil CR3 becomes significantly up-regulated during the first week, as early as 1 day after injury. The maximum level of expression of CR3 averaged greater than 150% (range, 70-314%) of the respective minimum level observed for each patient. The minimum levels of expression of CR3 on patient neutrophils, reached 11-37 days after injury for 7 of 8 patients, were comparable to the level of expression of CR3 on unstimulated control neutrophils. Such temporal up-regulation of patient neutrophil CR3 suggests the early generation of stimuli of CR3 mobilization in response to thermal injury. Increased numbers of CR3 on patient neutrophils may augment microbicidal function and enhance or inhibit delivery of cells to the burn site. PMID:3541642

  17. Ligation of the adhesion-GPCR EMR2 regulates human neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Yona, Simon; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Dri, Pietro; Davies, John Q; Hayhoe, Richard P G; Lewis, Sion M; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Brown, K Alun; Perretti, Mauro; Hamann, Jörg; Treacher, David F; Gordon, Siamon; Stacey, Martin

    2008-03-01

    At present, approximately 150 different members of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family have been identified in metazoans. Surprisingly, very little is known about their function, although they all possess large extracellular domains coupled to a seven-transmembrane domain, suggesting a potential role in cell adhesion and signaling. Here, we demonstrate how the human-restricted adhesion-GPCR, EMR2 (epidermal growth factor-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor), regulates neutrophil responses by potentiating the effects of a number of proinflammatory mediators and show that the transmembrane region is critical for adhesion-GPCR function. Using an anti-EMR2 antibody, ligation of EMR2 increases neutrophil adhesion and migration, and augments superoxide production and proteolytic enzyme degranulation. On neutrophil activation, EMR2 is rapidly translocated to membrane ruffles and the leading edge of the cell. Further supporting the role in neutrophil activation, EMR2 expression on circulating neutrophils is significantly increased in patients with systemic inflammation. These data illustrate a definitive function for a human adhesion-GPCR within the innate immune system and suggest an important role in potentiating the inflammatory response. Ligation of the adhesion-GPCR EMR2 regulates human neutrophil function.

  18. Human neutrophils do not express purinergic P2X7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Martel-Gallegos, Guadalupe; Rosales-Saavedra, María T.; Reyes, Juan P.; Casas-Pruneda, Griselda; Toro-Castillo, Carmen; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that in human neutrophils, external ATP activates plasma membrane purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) to elicit Ca2+ entry, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), processing and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, shedding of adhesion molecules and uptake of large molecules. However, the expression of P2X7R at the plasma membrane of neutrophils has also been questioned since these putative responses are not always reproduced. In this work, we used electrophysiological recordings to measure functional responses associated with the activation of membrane receptors, spectrofluorometric measurements of ROS production and ethidium bromide uptake to asses coupling of P2X7R activation to downstream effectors, immune-labelling of P2X7R using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody to detect the receptors at the plasma membrane, RT-PCR to determine mRNA expression of P2X7R and Western blot to determine protein expression in neutrophils and HL-60 cells. None of these assays reported the presence of P2X7R in the plasma membrane of neutrophils and non-differentiated or differentiated HL-60 cells—a model cell for human neutrophils. We concluded that P2X7R are not present at plasma membrane of human neutrophils and that the putative physiological responses triggered by external ATP should be reconsidered. PMID:21103213

  19. Natural clusterings of Fc receptors on human neutrophils--not affected by the cytoskeletal reagents.

    PubMed Central

    An, T; Hymes, A J; O'Neal, C H

    1981-01-01

    By using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and immunodiffusion, we confirmed the monovalency of the electron microscopic ligand for the receptor for the Fc portion of IgG (FcR) on human neutrophils, which was composed of one ferritin (Fer) molecule and one IgG anti-Fer molecule. Pre-treatment of neutrophils at 37 degrees for 30 min with cytochalasin B, colchicine, both of the reagents, concanavalin A, and tetracaine did not alter the clustering of FcR on the surface, which was demonstrated by the ligand at 0 degrees. The effectiveness of these employed cytoskeletal reagents was determined ultrastructurally by observing the changes of morphology and cytoskeletal structures of treated neutrophils; a novel and unique cellular change of cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils was described which we called arachnocytosis. Under our experimental conditions the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane under the receptor patches did not show any specialized density resembling coated membrane regions. These data verify our previous finding that FeR is naturally clustered on human neutrophils, and suggest strongly that the FcR natural clustering is not primarily mediated by the cytoskeletons consisting of microfilaments (actin) and microtubules, and the coated membrane region. The exact mechanism for FcR clustering on human neutrophils is not clear and remains to be elucidated. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7251061

  20. Development and Identification of a Novel Subpopulation of Human Neutrophil-derived Giant Phagocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Lena; Dyugovskaya, Larissa; Polyakov, Andrey; Rogovoy, Oksana; Leder, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are best known for their phagocytic functions against invading pathogens and microorganisms. They have the shortest half-life amongst leukocytes and in their non-activated state are constitutively committed to apoptosis. When recruited to inflammatory sites to resolve inflammation, they produce an array of cytotoxic molecules with potent antimicrobial killing. Yet, when these powerful cytotoxic molecules are released in an uncontrolled manner they can damage surrounding tissues. In recent years however, neutrophil versatility is increasingly evidenced, by demonstrating plasticity and immunoregulatory functions. We have recently identified a new neutrophil-derived subpopulation, which develops spontaneously in standard culture conditions without the addition of cytokines/growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. Their phagocytic abilities of neutrophil remnants largely contribute to increase their size immensely; therefore they were termed giant phagocytes (Gϕ). Unlike neutrophils, Gϕ are long lived in culture. They express the cluster of differentiation (CD) neutrophil markers CD66b/CD63/CD15/CD11b/myeloperoxidase (MPO)/neutrophil elastase (NE), and are devoid of the monocytic lineage markers CD14/CD16/CD163 and the dendritic CD1c/CD141 markers. They also take-up latex and zymosan, and respond by oxidative burst to stimulation with opsonized-zymosan and PMA. Gϕ also express the scavenger receptors CD68/CD36, and unlike neutrophils, internalize oxidized-low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Moreover, unlike fresh neutrophils, or cultured monocytes, they respond to oxLDL uptake by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Additionally, these phagocytes contain microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3B (LC3B) coated vacuoles, indicating the activation of autophagy. Using specific inhibitors it is evident that both phagocytosis and autophagy are prerequisites for their development and

  1. Purification and characterization of a lipid thiobis ester from human neutrophil cytosol that reversibly deactivates the O2- -generating NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Eklund, E A; Gabig, T G

    1990-05-25

    Intact neutrophils possess a cellular mechanism that efficiently deactivates the microbicidal O2-generating NADPH oxidase during the respiratory burst (Akard, L. P., English, D., and Gabig, T. G. (1988) Blood 72, 322-327). The present studies directed at identifying the molecular mechanism(s) involved in NADPH oxidase deactivation showed that a heat- and trypsin-insensitive species in the cytosolic fraction from normal unstimulated neutrophils was capable of deactivating the membrane-associated NADPH oxidase isolated from opsonized zymosan- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. This cytosolic species also deactivated the cell-free-activated oxidase. Deactivation by this cytosolic species occurred in the absence of NADPH-dependent catalytic turnover and was reversible, since NADPH oxidase activity could be subsequently reactivated in the cell-free system. The sedimentable particulate fraction from unstimulated neutrophils did not demonstrate deactivator activity. Deactivator activity was demonstrated in the neutral lipid fraction of neutrophil cytosol extracted with chloroform:methanol. Following complete purification of cytosolic deactivator activity by thin layer chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, the deactivator species was shown to be a lipid thiobis ester compound by mass spectroscopy. Cellular metabolism of this compound in human neutrophils may reveal a unique mechanism for enzymatic control of the NADPH oxidase system and thereby play an important role in regulation of the inflammatory response.

  2. Characterization of polymorphic forms of Fc receptor III on human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Ory, P A; Goldstein, I M; Kwoh, E E; Clarkson, S B

    1989-01-01

    We characterized Fc receptor III (FcR III) on human neutrophils and found it to be heavily glycosylated and polymorphic. In some individuals, FcR III that had been digested with N-glycanase appeared after SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions as two bands with apparent molecular masses of 33 and 29 kD. In other individuals, N-glycanase-treated FcR III appeared as a single band with an Mr of either 33 or 29 kD. After SDS-PAGE of N-glycanase-treated FcR III under nonreducing conditions, the apparent Mr of each structural type was decreased, suggesting the presence of intramolecular disulfide bonds. Digestion of the 33-kD band and the 29-kD band with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yielded similar, but not identical, peptide maps. Thus, at least two polymorphic forms of FcR III are expressed on human neutrophils. The structural polymorphism of neutrophil FcR III correlated with previously described antigenic polymorphisms detected by monoclonal antibody Gran 11 and by alloantisera which recognize epitopes of the biallelic, neutrophil antigen (NA) system. Individuals whose neutrophils expressed the two-band structural type of FcR III were NA1NA2 heterozygotes. Individuals whose neutrophils expressed the single 33-kD band structural type were NA2NA2 homozygotes, and individuals whose neutrophils expressed the single 29-kD band structural type were NA1NA1 homozygotes. These findings indicate that antigenic and structural polymorphisms of human neutrophil FcR III are related and can be accounted for by differences at the level of primary protein structure. Images PMID:2523415

  3. 5-lipoxygenase-dependent recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages by eotaxin-stimulated murine eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Luz, Ricardo Alves; Xavier-Elsas, Pedro; de Luca, Bianca; Masid-de-Brito, Daniela; Cauduro, Priscila Soares; Arcanjo, Luiz Carlos Gondar; dos Santos, Ana Carolina Cordeiro Faria; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Maria; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez Capella

    2014-01-01

    The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LT)B4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1) were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS) mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  4. Activation of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 on Human Neutrophils by Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-21

    vitro interaction of human neutrophils with MARV and EBOV. We report that although productive filovirus replication was not observed in human neutrophils...supernatants. Where alphaviruses such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) were used as nonfilovirus controls, the viruses to be inactivated...viral replication in human neutrophils exposed to live MARV or EBOV (MOI 1), as measured by plaque assay of supernatants 1, 6, 24, or 48 h

  5. Characterization of a receptor for human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8

    SciTech Connect

    Grob, P.M.; David, E.; Warren, T.C.; DeLeon, R.P.; Farina, P.R.; Homon, C.A. )

    1990-05-15

    Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 (MDNCF/IL-8) is an 8,000-dalton protein produced by monocytes which exhibits activity as a chemoattractant for neutrophils with maximal activity achieved at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This polypeptide has been iodinated by chloramine-T methodology (350 Ci/mM), and specific receptors for MDNCF/IL-8 have been detected on human neutrophils, U937 cells, THP-1 cells, and dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells. The binding of MDNCF/IL-8 to human neutrophils is not inhibited by interleukin-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. In addition, chemoattractants such as C5a, fMet-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor fail to inhibit binding, suggesting that MDNCF/IL-8 utilizes a unique receptor. The receptor for MDNCF/IL-8 is apparently glycosylated since ligand binding is inhibited by the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin with a binding specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid. Steady state binding experiments indicate Kd values of 4 and 0.5 nM and receptor numbers of 75,000 and 7,400 for human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells, respectively. 125I-MDNCF/IL-8 bound to human neutrophils is rapidly internalized and subsequently released from cells as trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity. Affinity labeling experiments suggest that the human neutrophil MDNCF/IL-8 receptor exhibits a mass of approximately 58,000 daltons.

  6. PAF mediates neutrophil adhesion to thrombin or TNF-stimulated endothelial cells under shear stress.

    PubMed

    Macconi, D; Foppolo, M; Paris, S; Noris, M; Aiello, S; Remuzzi, G; Remuzzi, A

    1995-07-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is known to modulate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to endothelial cells cultured under static conditions and activated by thrombin. In contrast, there are no data on the role of PAF in PMN adhesion to cells exposed to flow conditions and activated by stimuli other than thrombin. Here we used the PAF receptor antagonist L-659,989 to evaluate PMN adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in basal conditions or upon challenge with thrombin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Experiments were performed under dynamic flow using a parallel-plate flow chamber and a computer-based image analysis system. Rolling and adhesion of PMNs to endothelial cells significantly increased upon stimulation with thrombin. Thrombin-stimulated HUVEC also synthesized higher amounts of PAF than untreated cells. Pretreatment of PMNs with L-659,989 significantly reduced their rolling and adhesion to thrombin-activated HUVEC. Stimulation of HUVEC with TNF-alpha significantly increased the number of rolling and adherent PMNs as compared with untreated cells. Adhesion of PMNs to and migration across TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC were reduced by L-659,989, whereas cell rolling was unchanged. We conclude that PAF mediates leukocyte interaction under flow conditions with HUVEC activated by inflammatory stimuli.

  7. Involvement of nitric oxide donor compounds in the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Klink, Magdalena; Cedzyński, Maciej; St Swierzko, Anna; Tchórzewski, Henryk; Sulowska, Zofia

    2003-04-01

    The bactericidal activity of human neutrophils against extracellular and facultatively intracellular bacteria was studied in the presence of the nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a molsidomine metabolite. SNP and molsidomine are drugs commonly used as nitrovasodilators in coronary heart disease. It is demonstrated here that the NO donor compounds themselves did not affect the viability and survival of the bacterial strains tested. Neither SNP nor SIN-1 had any effect on the process of bacteria ingestion. In contrast, NO donors enhanced the ability of neutrophils to kill Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella Anatum. However, strains differed in their susceptibility to SNP- and SIN-1-mediated killing by neutrophils. Removal of the superoxide anion reduced the bactericidal activity of SNP- and SIN-1-treated neutrophils against E. coli and S. Anatum. This suggests that the NO derivatives formed in the reaction of NO generated from donors with the reactive oxygen species released by phagocytosed neutrophils potentiate the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils in vitro. The above original observation discussed here suggests clinical significance for the treatment of patients with nitrovasodilators in the course of coronary heart disease therapy.

  8. Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.; Jenne, Dieter E.; Gauthier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive oxygen species to help degrade engulfed microorganisms inside phagolysosomes. These proteases are also externalized in an active form during neutrophil activation at inflammatory sites, thus contributing to the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. As multifunctional proteases, they also play a regulatory role in noninfectious inflammatory diseases. Mutations in the ELA2/ELANE gene, encoding neutrophil elastase, are the cause of human congenital neutropenia. Neutrophil membrane-bound proteinase 3 serves as an autoantigen in Wegener granulomatosis, a systemic autoimmune vasculitis. All three proteases are affected by mutations of the gene (CTSC) encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, a protease required for activation of their proform before storage in cytoplasmic granules. Mutations of CTSC cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Because of their roles in host defense and disease, elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are of interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the physicochemical functions of these proteases, toward a goal of better delineating their role in human diseases and identifying new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of their bioavailability and activity. We also describe how nonhuman primate experimental models could assist with testing the efficacy of proposed therapeutic strategies. PMID:21079042

  9. Heterogeneity of Human Neutrophil CD177 Expression Results from CD177P1 Pseudogene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rong; Ohnesorg, Thomas; Cho, Vicky; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Gatenby, Paul A.; Perera, Chandima; Zhang, Yafei; Whittle, Belinda; Sinclair, Andrew; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Field, Matthew; Andrews, T. Daniel; Cook, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Most humans harbor both CD177neg and CD177pos neutrophils but 1–10% of people are CD177null, placing them at risk for formation of anti-neutrophil antibodies that can cause transfusion-related acute lung injury and neonatal alloimmune neutropenia. By deep sequencing the CD177 locus, we catalogued CD177 single nucleotide variants and identified a novel stop codon in CD177null individuals arising from a single base substitution in exon 7. This is not a mutation in CD177 itself, rather the CD177null phenotype arises when exon 7 of CD177 is supplied entirely by the CD177 pseudogene (CD177P1), which appears to have resulted from allelic gene conversion. In CD177 expressing individuals the CD177 locus contains both CD177P1 and CD177 sequences. The proportion of CD177hi neutrophils in the blood is a heritable trait. Abundance of CD177hi neutrophils correlates with homozygosity for CD177 reference allele, while heterozygosity for ectopic CD177P1 gene conversion correlates with increased CD177neg neutrophils, in which both CD177P1 partially incorporated allele and paired intact CD177 allele are transcribed. Human neutrophil heterogeneity for CD177 expression arises by ectopic allelic conversion. Resolution of the genetic basis of CD177null phenotype identifies a method for screening for individuals at risk of CD177 isoimmunisation. PMID:27227454

  10. Coccidioides Endospores and Spherules Draw Strong Chemotactic, Adhesive, and Phagocytic Responses by Individual Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Yuk; Thompson III, George R.; Hastey, Christine J.; Hodge, Gregory C.; Lunetta, Jennine M.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinrich, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic pathogenic fungi whose parasitic forms cause coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in mammalian hosts. We use an innovative interdisciplinary approach to analyze one-on-one encounters between human neutrophils and two forms of Coccidioides posadasii. To examine the mechanisms by which the innate immune system coordinates different stages of the host response to fungal pathogens, we dissect the immune-cell response into chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Our single-cell technique reveals a surprisingly strong response by initially quiescent neutrophils to close encounters with C. posadasii, both from a distance (by complement-mediated chemotaxis) as well as upon contact (by serum-dependent adhesion and phagocytosis). This response closely resembles neutrophil interactions with Candida albicans and zymosan particles, and is significantly stronger than the neutrophil responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Rhizopus oryzae under identical conditions. The vigorous in vitro neutrophil response suggests that C. posadasii evades in vivo recognition by neutrophils through suppression of long-range mobilization and recruitment of the immune cells. This observation elucidates an important paradigm of the recognition of microbes, i.e., that intact immunotaxis comprises an intricate spatiotemporal hierarchy of distinct chemotactic processes. Moreover, in contrast to earlier reports, human neutrophils exhibit vigorous chemotaxis toward, and frustrated phagocytosis of, the large spherules of C. posadasii under physiological-like conditions. Finally, neutrophils from healthy donors and patients with chronic coccidioidomycosis display subtle differences in their responses to antibody-coated beads, even though the patient cells appear to interact normally with C. posadasii endospores. PMID:26070210

  11. CD147 up-regulates calcium-induced chemotaxis, adhesion ability and invasiveness of human neutrophils via a TRPM-7-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong-Hua; Rong, Meng-Yao; Wang, Li; Ren, Zhen; Chen, Li-Na; Jia, Jun-Feng; Li, Xue-Yi; Wu, Zhen-Biao; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to investigate whether CD147 can up-regulate the chemotactic, adhesive and invasive properties of human neutrophils and to determine the mechanism underlying this process. Human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) cells and peripheral blood or synovial fluid neutrophils were isolated from RA patients. Under cyclophilin A (CypA) stimulation, chemotaxis, adhesion potential and invasion ability were assessed using chemotaxis, adhesion and invasiveness assays. Lipid raft isolation and western blot were used to determine the mechanism underlying the effects of CypA stimulation. CD147 up-regulates the calcium-induced chemotaxis, adhesion ability and invasiveness of human neutrophils in RA patients. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 may be responsible for this phenomenon. These findings suggest that in RA patients, abundant CypA up-regulates the calcium-induced chemotactic, adhesive and invasive properties of neutrophils via direct binding to CD147. Cyclophilin-CD147 interactions might contribute to the destruction of cartilage and bone in RA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Involvement of ROCK-mediated endothelial tension development in neutrophil-stimulated microvascular leakage

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Jerome W.; Sun, Hengrui; Xu, Wenjuan; Rodarte, Charles; Moy, Alan B.; Wu, Mack H.; Yuan, Sarah Y.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil-induced coronary microvascular barrier dysfunction is an important pathophysiological event in heart disease. Currently, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms of neutrophil-induced microvascular leakage are not clear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that rho kinase (ROCK) increases coronary venular permeability in association with elevated endothelial tension. We assessed permeability to albumin (Pa) in isolated porcine coronary venules and in coronary venular endothelial cell (CVEC) monolayers. Endothelial barrier function was also evaluated by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) of CVEC monolayers. In parallel, we measured isometric tension of CVECs grown on collagen gels. Transference of constitutively active (ca)-ROCK protein into isolated coronary venules or CVEC monolayers caused a significant increase in Pa and decreased TER in CVECs. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 blocked the ca-ROCK-induced changes. C5a-activated neutrophils (106/ml) also significantly elevated venular Pa, which was dose-dependently inhibited by Y-27632 and a structurally distinct ROCK inhibitor, H-1152. In CVEC monolayers, activated neutrophils increased permeability with a concomitant elevation in isometric tension, both of which were inhibited by Y-27632 or H-1152. Treatment with ca-ROCK also significantly increased CVEC monolayer permeability and isometric tension, coupled with actin polymerization and elevated phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain on Thr18/Ser19. The data suggest that during neutrophil activation, ROCK promotes microvascular leakage in association with actin-myosin-mediated tension development in endothelial cells. PMID:16172166

  13. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of /sup 51/Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of /sup 51/Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers.

  14. IL-17A potentiates TNFα-induced secretion from human endothelial cells and alters barrier functions controlling neutrophils rights of passage.

    PubMed

    Bosteen, Markus H; Tritsaris, Katerina; Hansen, Anker J; Dissing, Steen

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates leukocyte mobilization and recruitment. To better understand how IL-17A controls leukocyte trafficking across capillaries in the peripheral blood circulation, we used primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) to investigate their secretory potential and barrier function when activated with IL-17A and TNFα. Activation by TNFα and IL-17A causes phosphorylation of p38 as well as IκBα whereby NFκB subsequently becomes phosphorylated, a mechanism that initiates transcription of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin. Members of the neutrophil-specific GRO-family chemokines were significantly up-regulated upon IL-17A stimulation on the mRNA and protein level, whereas all tested non-neutrophil-specific chemokines remained unchanged in comparison. Moreover, a striking synergistic effect in the induction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) was elicited when IL-17A was used in combination with TNFα, and IL-17A was able to significantly augment the levels of TNFα-induced E-selectin and ICAM-1. In accordance with this observation, IL-17A was able to markedly increase TNFα-induced neutrophil adherence to HDMEC monolayers in an in vitro adhesion assay. Using a trans-well migration assay with an HDMEC monolayer as a barrier, we here show that pre-stimulating the endothelial cells with TNFα and IL-17A together enhances the rate of neutrophil transmigration compared to TNFα or IL-17A alone. These results show that IL-17A and TNFα act in cooperation to facilitate neutrophil migration across the endothelial cell barrier. In addition, the synergistic actions of IL-17A with TNFα to secrete G-CSF appear to be important for mobilizing neutrophils from the bone marrow to the blood stream.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-α causes release of cytosolic interleukin-18 from human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kelher, Marguerite R.; Gamboni-Robertson, Fabia; Hamiel, Christine; England, Kelly M.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Wyman, Travis H.; Khan, Samina Y.; McLaughlin, Nathan J. D.; Bercovitz, Rachel S.; Banerjee, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are a vital part of host defense and are the principal leukocyte in innate immunity. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine with roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. We hypothesize that PMNs contain preformed IL-18, which is released in response to specific inflammatory stimuli. Isolated PMNs were stimulated with a battery of chemoattractants (5 min to 24 h), and IL-18 release was measured. PMNs were also separated into subcellular fractions and immunoblotted with antibodies against IL-18 or were fixed and probed with antibodies to IL-18 as well as to the contents of granules, intracellular organelles, and filamentous actin (F-actin), incubated with fluorescent secondary antibodies, and examined by digital microscopy. Quiescent PMNs contained IL-18 in the cytoplasm, associated with F-actin, as determined by positive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET+). In turn, TNF-α stimulation disrupted the association of IL-18 with F-actin, induced a FRET+ interaction of IL-18 with lipid rafts, and elicited IL-18 release. Manipulation of F-actin status confirmed the relationship between IL-18 and F-actin in resting PMNs. Consequently, incubation with monomeric IL-18 binding protein inhibited TNF-α-mediated priming of the PMN oxidase. We conclude that human PMNs contain IL-18 associated with F-actin in the cytoplasm and TNF-α stimulation causes dissociation of IL-18 from F-actin, association with lipid rafts, and extracellular release. Extracellular IL-18 participates in TNF-α priming of the PMN oxidase as demonstrated by inhibition with the IL-18 binding protein. PMID:19907017

  16. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophil apoptosis, actin cytoskelton, and oxidative state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, L.I.; Passino-Reader, D. R.; Meier, P.G.; Omann, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been proposed as a biomarker for environmental contaminant effects. In this work, we test the hypothesis that in vitro assays of apoptosis are sensitive indicators of immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophils. Apoptosis, necrosis, and viability as well as the related indicators F-actin levels, and active thiol state were measured in purified human neutrophils after treatment with contaminants. Effective concentrations observed were 0.3 μM (60 μg/L) mercury, 750 μg/L Aroclor 1254, and 50 μM (14,500 μg/L) hexachlorocylcohexanes. Concentrations of contaminants that induced apoptosis also decreased cellular F-actin levels. Active thiols were altered by mercury, but not organochlorines. Comparison of these data with levels of contaminants reported to be threats to human health indicate neutrophil apoptosis is a sensitive indicator of mercury toxicity.

  17. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 mediates rolling of human neutrophils on P-selectin

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Neutrophils roll on P-selectin expressed by activated platelets or endothelial cells under the shear stresses in the microcirculation. P- selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is a high affinity ligand for P- selectin on myeloid cells. However, it has not been demonstrated that PSGL-1 contributes to the rolling of neutrophils on P-selectin. We developed two IgG mAbs, PL1 and PL2, that appear to recognize protein- dependent epitopes on human PSGL-1. The mAbs bound to PSGL-1 on all leukocytes as well as on heterologous cells transfected with PSGL-1 cDNA. PL1, but not PL2, blocked binding of 125-I-PSGL-1 to immobilized P-selectin, binding of fluid-phase P-selectin to myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes, adhesion of neutrophils to immobilized P-selectin under static conditions, and rolling of neutrophils on P-selectin-expressing CHO cells under a range of shear stresses. PSGL-1 was localized to microvilli on neutrophils, a topography that may facilitate its adhesive function. These data indicate that (a) PSGL-1 accounts for the high affinity binding sites for P-selectin on leukocytes, and (b) PSGL- 1 must interact with P-selectin in order for neutrophils to roll on P- selectin at physiological shear stresses. PMID:7532174

  18. Factor H and factor H-related protein 1 bind to human neutrophils via complement receptor 3, mediate attachment to Candida albicans, and enhance neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Losse, Josephine; Zipfel, Peter F; Józsi, Mihály

    2010-01-15

    The host complement system plays an important role in protection against infections. Several human-pathogenic microbes were shown to acquire host complement regulators, such as factor H (CFH), that downregulate complement activation at the microbial surface and protect the pathogens from the opsonic and lytic effects of complement. Because CFH can also bind to host cells, we addressed the role of CFH and CFH-related proteins as adhesion ligands in host-pathogen interactions. We show that the CFH family proteins CFH, CFH-like protein 1 (CFHL1), CFH-related protein (CFHR) 1, and CFHR4 long isoform bind to human neutrophil granulocytes and to the opportunistic human-pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Two major binding sites, one within the N-terminus and one in the C-terminus of CFH, were found to mediate binding to neutrophils. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18; alpha(M)beta2 integrin) was identified as the major cellular receptor on neutrophils for CFH, CFHL1, and CFHR1, but not for CFHR4 long isoform. CFH and CFHR1 supported cell migration. Furthermore, CFH, CFHL1, and CFHR1 increased attachment of neutrophils to C. albicans. Adhesion of neutrophils to plasma-opsonized yeasts was reduced when CFH binding was inhibited by specific Abs or when using CFH-depleted plasma. Yeast-bound CFH and CFHR1 enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species and the release of the antimicrobial protein lactoferrin by human neutrophils, and resulted in a more efficient killing of the pathogen. Thus, CFH and CFHR1, when bound on the surface of C. albicans, enhance antimicrobial activity of human neutrophils.

  19. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human neutrophils by Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, Erandi; Torres, Javier; Sánchez-Zauco, Norma; Contreras-Ramos, Alejandra; Alvarez-Arellano, Lourdes; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    TLRs and NLRs participate in the immune system recognition of Helicobacter pylori. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to inflammasome activation by H. pylori and if NLRs in neutrophils are involved in the process. We studied how NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components are involved in IL-1β maturation in human neutrophils in response to the infection and if they are dependent on T4SS (type IV secretion system) and TLRs. Human neutrophils were cultured and infected with the 26695 or the VirD4- H. pylori strains; the IL-1β concentration was analyzed by ELISA, and we also evaluated the activation of TLRs 2 and 4. The infection of neutrophils with both strains of H. pylori induced production of IL-1β and expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome components such as apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain and NLRP3 protein. The infection also increased the activity of caspase-1, which is required for the maturation of IL-1β. Our study shows, for the first time, that H. pylori infection induces the expression and activation of components of NLRP3 inflammasomes in human neutrophils and that the activation is independent of a functional T4SS and TLR2 and TLR4. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Oxidized mitochondrial nucleoids released by neutrophils drive type I interferon production in human lupus

    PubMed Central

    Caielli, Simone; Athale, Shruti; Domic, Bojana; Murat, Elise; Chandra, Manjari; Banchereau, Romain; Baisch, Jeanine; Phelps, Kate; Clayton, Sandra; Gong, Mei; Wright, Tracey; Punaro, Marilynn; Palucka, Karolina; Guiducci, Cristiana; Banchereau, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against nucleic acids and excessive type I interferon (IFN) are hallmarks of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that SLE neutrophils exposed to TLR7 agonist autoantibodies release interferogenic DNA, which we now demonstrate to be of mitochondrial origin. We further show that healthy human neutrophils do not complete mitophagy upon induction of mitochondrial damage. Rather, they extrude mitochondrial components, including DNA (mtDNA), devoid of oxidized (Ox) residues. When mtDNA undergoes oxidation, it is directly routed to lysosomes for degradation. This rerouting requires dissociation from the transcription factor A mitochondria (TFAM), a dual high-mobility group (HMG) protein involved in maintenance and compaction of the mitochondrial genome into nucleoids. Exposure of SLE neutrophils, or healthy IFN-primed neutrophils, to antiribonucleotide protein autoantibodies blocks TFAM phosphorylation, a necessary step for nucleoid dissociation. Consequently, Ox nucleoids accumulate within mitochondria and are eventually extruded as potent interferogenic complexes. In support of the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon, mitochondrial retention of Ox nucleoids is a feature of SLE blood neutrophils, and autoantibodies against Ox mtDNA are present in a fraction of patients. This pathway represents a novel therapeutic target in human SLE. PMID:27091841

  1. The effect of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) on Bax and Mcl-1 expression in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Jakub; Jablonska, Ewa; Leonik, Agnieszka

    2011-12-01

    In the present study we examined a role of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 proteins, participating in the regulation of intrinsic apoptosis pathway in human neutrophils (PMNs) exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the environmental xenobiotic. For the purpose comparison, the same studies were conducted in autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The production of cytochrome c by PMNs was also determined. A deficit of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and overexpression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax suggest that the apoptosis process in human neutrophils exposed to NDMA is dependent on changes in the expression of these proteins. PMNs were more sensitive to NDMA than PBMCs.

  2. Increased expression of the interleukin 1 receptor on blood neutrophils of humans with the sepsis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, M B; Cousart, S; Neal, S; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Because of the potential importance of interleukin 1 (IL-1) in modulating inflammation and the observations that human blood neutrophils (PMN) express IL-1 receptors (IL-1R) and synthesize IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, we studied the IL-1R on blood PMN from a group of patients with the sepsis syndrome. We report a marked enhancement in the sites per cell of IL-1R expressed on sepsis-PMN of 25 consecutively studied patients compared to 20 controls (patient mean = 9,329 +/- 2,212 SE; control mean = 716 +/- 42 SE, respectively). There was no demonstrable difference in the Kd of IL-1R on sepsis-PMN (approximately 1 nM) as determined by saturation curves of 125I-IL-1 alpha binding and the IL-1R on sepsis-PMN had an apparent Mr approximately 68,000, a value like that of normal PMN. Cytofluorographic analysis indicated that the sepsis-PMN phenotype is a single homogeneous population with respect to IL-1R expression. In contrast, expression of the membrane complement receptor CR3 is not increased on sepsis-PMN. Similar increases in expression of IL-1R were not observed in various other inflammatory processes, including acute disseminated inflammation and organ failure not caused by infection, acute infection without organ failure, and immunopathologies such as active systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Enhanced expression of IL-1R was not related simply to the state of myeloid stimulation. Increased expression of IL-1R on normal PMN was induced in vitro by incubating cells with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage/colony-stimulating factor for 18 h and this response was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting the possibility that de novo synthesis of IL-1R might occur in PMN during the sepsis syndrome. Images PMID:1834697

  3. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) augments acute lung injury via its neutrophil priming effects.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Chol; Jung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Hee Won; Song, Ju Han; Jeon, Eun Ju; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Jae Yeol

    2008-04-01

    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has immuno-stimulatory effects. We hypothesized that GM-CSF plays an important role both in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and hemorrhage-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We also postulated that GM-CSF augments LPS-induced inflammation by priming neutrophils. ALI was induced in GM-CSF-/- or control C57BL mice either by LPS injection or by hemorrhage. Lung inflammation (by lung expression for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), and keratinocyte-derived chemokine) and lung injury (by myeloperoxidase and Evans blue dye assay) were evaluated after ALI. Incremental doses of LPS (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) and GM-CSF (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) were added to bone marrow neutrophils. The expression of TNF-alpha, MIP-2, and IL-1beta was evaluated with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA expression of three cytokines, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa-B) were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. GM-CSF -/- mice showed decreased neutrophil infiltration, less leakage, and lower expression of cytokines in the lung after LPS or hemorrhage. GM-CSF augmented LPS-induced protein and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, MIP-2 and IL-1beta, which was mediated by increased intra-nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. GM-CSF plays an important role in high-dose LPS and hemorrhage-induced ALI, which appears to be mediated by its priming effect on neutrophils.

  4. Effect of natural porcine surfactant in Staphylococcus aureus induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species generation in monocytes and neutrophils from human blood.

    PubMed

    de Guevara, Yuliannis Lugones Ladrón; Hidalgo, Odalys Blanco; Santos, Sidnéia Sousa; Brunialti, Milena Karina Colo; Faure, Roberto; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2014-08-01

    Surfacen® is a clinical surfactant preparation of porcine origin. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of Surfacen® in the modulation of oxidative burst in monocytes and neutrophils in human blood and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured in monocytes and neutrophils by flow cytometry using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as substrate, while, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were estimated in PBMC supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results show that Staphylococcus aureus-induced ROS level was slightly affected by Surfacen® added to whole blood monocytes and neutrophils. The time course experiments of pre-incubation with Surfacen® showed no significant increase of ROS level at 2h; however, the ROS level decreased when pre incubated for 4h and 6h with Surfacen®. Pre-incubation of PBMC cells with Surfacen® at 0.125 and 0.5mg/mL showed a dose-dependent suppression of TNF-α levels measured after 4h of S. aureus stimulation, an effect less impressive when cells were stimulated for 24h. A similar behavior was observed in IL-6 release. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence supporting an anti-inflammatory role of Surfacen® in human monocytes and neutrophils in vitro.

  5. Activated Human Valvular Interstitial Cells Sustain Interleukin-17 Production To Recruit Neutrophils in Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Shun, Chia-Tung; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jung, Chiau-Jing; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Chen, Jeng-Wei; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Yang, Chia-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie valvular inflammation in streptococcus-induced infective endocarditis (IE) remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTFs) can activate human heart valvular interstitial cells (VIC) to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine involved in T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that activated VIC can enhance neutrophil infiltration through sustained IL-17 production, leading to valvular damage. To monitor cytokine and chemokine production, leukocyte recruitment, and the induction or expansion of CD4+ CD45RA− CD25− CCR6+ Th17 cells, primary human VIC were cultured in vitro and activated by GTFs. Serum cytokine levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and neutrophils and Th17 cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in infected valves from patients with IE. The expression of IL-21, IL-23, IL-17, and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (Rorc) was upregulated in GTF-activated VIC, which may enhance the proliferation of memory Th17 cells in an IL-6-dependent manner. Many chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), were upregulated in GTF-activated VIC, which might recruit neutrophils and CD4+ T cells. Moreover, CXCL1 production in VIC was induced in a dose-dependent manner by IL-17 to enhance neutrophil chemotaxis. CXCL1-expressing VIC and infiltrating neutrophils could be detected in infected valves, and serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 were increased in patients with IE compared to healthy donors. Furthermore, elevated serum IL-21 levels have been significantly associated with severe valvular damage, including rupture of chordae tendineae, in IE patients. Our findings suggest that VIC are activated by bacterial modulins to recruit neutrophils and that such activities might be further enhanced by the production of Th17-associated cytokines. Together, these factors can amplify the

  6. Neutrophil function of neonatal foals is enhanced in vitro by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular bacterium that causes pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised adult horses. Evidence exists that foals become infected with R. equi early in life, a period when innate immune responses are critically important for protection against infection. Neutrophils are i...

  7. Neutrophil chemokines in epithelial inflammatory processes of human tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, F; Ahlers, F; Stoll, W; Rudack, C

    2005-01-01

    CXC chemokines are thought to play an important role at sites of inflammation. Because ELR+ CXC chemokines are expressed in different types of tonsillitis we investigated the role of the surface/crypt epithelium of human tonsils in producing ELR+ CXC chemokines: interleukin (IL)-8 (CXCL8), ENA-78 (CXCL5), GRO-α (CXCL1) and GCP-2 (CXCL6). Tonsillar tissue was obtained from patients undergoing tonsillectomy and chemokine expression was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry. A549 cells were used as a model to study kinetics of chemokine expression in epithelial cells. Cells were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and supernatants derived from aerobic/anaerobic Staphylococcus aureus strains. Chemokine expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed epithelial expression of IL-8, GRO-α and GCP-2 in different types of tonsillitis, whereas ENA-78 was rarely expressed. In A549 cells abundant expression of ENA-78 was detected. IL-8 and GCP-2 are expressed in an acute type of tonsillitis whereas GRO-α was frequently detectable both in chronically and acutely inflamed tonsils. ENA-78 does not seem to play a pivotal role in tonsillitis in vivo. PMID:15807854

  8. Alternative spliced variants in the pantetheinase family of genes expressed in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nitto, Takeaki; Inoue, Teruo; Node, Koichi

    2008-12-15

    Pantetheinase (EC 3.5.1.92) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes pantetheine, an intermediate metabolite of coenzyme A, into pantothenic acid (vitamin B(5)) and cysteamine, a potent antioxidant. The pantetheinase gene family consists of three independent genes, pantetheinase/vanin-1/VNN1, GPI-80/VNN2 and vanin-3/VNN3 that are each composed of seven exons. We herein report that human neutrophils express transcripts encoding at least nine splice variants of VNN3 and four splice variants of GPI-80/VNN2. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the human VNN3 gene demonstrated that the VNN3 locus in the human genome as well as the sequence of cDNA clones obtained in this study does not encode the complete VNN3 protein, as previously reported due to a frame shift caused by lack of one nucleotide. Moreover, the VNN3 locus indeed encodes smaller peptides compared to the proteins encoded by the mouse orthologous gene, vanin-3. The anti-GPI-80 monoclonal antibody 3H9 recognized amino acids 120-179 of the GPI-80/VNN2 protein as shown by the results of immunoblotting with recombinant GPI-80/VNN2 variant proteins. Immunoblotting with human neutrophil lysate suggests that the GPI-80/VNN2 variants exist in human neutrophils. The existence of splice variants in the pantetheinase gene family suggests the possibility of alternative roles in addition to canonical enzymatic activity in human neutrophils.

  9. Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) selectively modulates the effector functions of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Rinhel, Andréa S G; de Melo, Lamartine L; Bortot, Leandro O; Santos, Everton O L; Andrade, Micássio F; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Kabeya, Luciana M; Caliri, Antonio; Bastos, Jairo K; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2017-10-10

    To examine whether the hydroalcoholic extract from Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves (BdE) modulates the human neutrophil oxidative metabolism, degranulation, phagocytosis and microbial killing capacity. In-vitro assays based on chemiluminescence, spectrophotometry, flow cytometry and polarimetry were used, as well as docking calculations. At concentrations that effectively suppressed the neutrophil oxidative metabolism elicited by soluble and particulate stimuli (<10 μg/ml), without clear signs of cytotoxicity, BdE (1) inhibited NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity; (2) scavenged H2 O2 and HOCl; (3) weakly inhibited phagocytosis; and (4) did not affect neutrophil degranulation and microbial killing capacity, the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIb and CR3 and the activity of elastase and lysozyme. Caffeic acid, one of the major B. dracunculifolia secondary metabolites, did not inhibit phagocytosis but interfered in the myeloperoxidase-H2 O2 -HOCl system by scavenging H2 O2 and HOCl, and interacting with the catalytic residues His-95, Arg-239 and Gln-91. BdE selectively modulates the effector functions of human neutrophils, inhibits the activity of key enzymes and scavenges physiological oxidant species. Caffeic acid contributes to lower the levels of oxidant species. Our findings help to unravel the mechanisms by which these natural products exert immunomodulatory action towards neutrophils. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Mechanism of inhibition of human neutrophil activation by the allergic mediator release inhibitor, CI-922

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.D.; Wright, C.D.

    1986-03-05

    The allergic mediator release inhibitor CI-922 (3,7-dimethoxy-4-phenyl-N-1H-tetrazol-5-yl-4H-furo(3,2-b)indole-2-carboxamide) is a potent inhibitor of human neutrophil (PMN) respiratory and secretory responses in vitro. At concentrations from 1 to 100 micromolar, CI-922 inhibits activation of PMNs by agents which stimulate phospholipase C-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis to generate the second messengers inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, including: the plasma membrane receptor-specific ligands fMet-Leu-Phe and C5a; concanavalin A; and the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein-specific stimulus GTPgammaS. In contrast, CI-922 does not inhibit PMN responses to protein kinase C-specific stimuli such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or sn-1,2-dioctanoyl-glycerol. CI-922 is also unable to inhibit the synergistic activation of PMNs by suboptimal concentrations of PMA and calcium ionophore A23187. These results suggest that CI-922 inhibits PMN activation at a site distal to signal transduction through the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein required for second messenger generation but proximal cophosphorylation reactions mediated by protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases.

  11. Dual role for RhoA in suppression and induction of cytokines in the human neutrophil

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.; Arndt, Patrick G.; Just, Ingo; Nick, Jerry A.; Malcolm, Kenneth C.; Scott Worthen, G.

    2007-01-01

    Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by the neutrophil (PMN) is a pivotal event in innate immunity, but the signals regulating TNFα induction in this primary cell are poorly understood. Herein, we use protein transduction to identify novel, opposing anti– and pro–cytokine-inducing roles for RhoA in the resting and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–stimulated human PMN, respectively. In the resting cell, RhoA suppresses Cdc42 activation, IκBα degradation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and induction of TNFα and NF-κB–dependent chemokines. Suppression of TNFα induction by RhoA is Rho kinase α (ROCKα) independent, but Cdc42 dependent, because TNFα induction by C3 transferase is attenuated by inhibition of Cdc42, and constitutively active Cdc42 suffices to activate NF-κB and induce TNFα. By contrast, we also place RhoA downstream of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Cdc42 in a novel LPS-activated pathway in which p38, Cdc42, and ROCKα all promote TNFα protein expression. The p65 subunit of NF-κB coprecipitates with RhoA in a manner sensitive to the RhoA activation state. Our findings suggest a new, 2-faced role for RhoA as a checkpoint in innate immunity. PMID:17018860

  12. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Protect against Oxidative Stress in Staphylococcus aureus Encountering Exogenous Oxidants and Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yun Yun; Schwartz, Jamie; Bloomberg, Sarah; Boyd, Jeffrey M; Horswill, Alexander R.; Nauseef, William M.

    2013-01-01

    To establish infection successfully, S. aureus must evade clearance by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We studied the expression and regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) that are involved in the repair of oxidized staphylococcal proteins and investigated their influence over the fate of S. aureus exposed to oxidants or PMN. We evaluated a mutant deficient in msrA1 and msrB for susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid and PMN. The expression of msrA1 in wild-type bacteria ingested by human PMN was assessed by real-time PCR. The regulation of msr was studied by screening a library of two-component regulatory system (TCS) mutants for altered msr responses. Relative to the wild-type, bacteria deficient in Msr were more susceptible to oxidants and to PMN. Upregulation of staphylococcal msrA1 occurred within the phagosomes of normal PMN and PMN deficient in NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, PMN granule-rich extract stimulated the upregulation of msrA1. Modulation of msrA1 within PMN was shown to be partly dependent on the VraSR TCS. Msr contributes to staphylococcal responses to oxidative attack and PMN. Our study highlights a novel interaction between the oxidative protein repair pathway and the VraSR TCS that is involved in cell wall homeostasis. PMID:24247266

  13. Effects of age and R848 stimulation on expression of Toll-like receptor 8 mRNA by foal neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Jessica R; Wilkerson, Cameron P; Brake, Courtney N; Cohen, Noah D

    2012-11-15

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in protecting neonates against infections early in life and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of innate immune recognition of pathogens. This study examined the effects of age and stimulation with a TLR 7/8 agonist (R848) on TLR8 mRNA expression by foal neutrophils during the first month of life. We also examined the effects of R848 stimulation on mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 at 1 and 14 days of life. We observed that TLR8 mRNA was constitutively expressed (P<0.05) at all ages examined, and its expression did not change upon stimulation with R848. Stimulation with R848 resulted in significantly increased (P<0.05) expression of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA at both 1 and 14 days of life. Our results demonstrate that foal neutrophils express constitutive levels of TLR8 mRNA. The increased expression of IL-6 and IL-8, both downstream products of the TLR 7/8 signaling pathway, following stimulation with R848 suggests that additional experiments to confirm the signaling pathway by which R848 stimulates foal neutrophils, and to investigate its ability to stimulate functional responses of foal neutrophils, are merited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Specificity of antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae that stimulate neutrophil chemotaxis. Role of antibodies directed against lipooligosaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Densen, P; Gulati, S; Rice, P A

    1987-01-01

    Five strains each of Neisseria gonorrhoeae sensitive or resistant to complement (C) dependent killing by normal human serum (NHS) were examined for their ability to stimulate chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) after preincubation with NHS; or IgM or IgG derived from NHS. Serum-sensitive N. gonorrhoeae stimulated C-dependent chemotaxis when opsonized with IgM, but not IgG, however, serum-resistant strains, taken as a whole, failed to promote chemotaxis when opsonized with either isotype. IgM titers in NHS against lipooligosaccharide (LOS) antigens from individual serum-sensitive, but not serum-resistant strains, correlated with the magnitude of chemotaxis generated by the corresponding opsonized strains (r = 0.99). Western blots demonstrated that IgM and IgG from NHS recognized different antigenic determinants on LOS from serum-sensitive gonococci. IgM from NHS immunopurified against serum-sensitive LOS accounted for two-thirds of the chemotaxis promoting activity present in whole serum. IgG titers in NHS against LOS antigens from individual serum-resistant strains also correlated with magnitude of chemotaxis generated by the corresponding opsonized strains (r = 0.87), although most opsonized serum-resistant strains did not generate significantly higher magnitudes of chemotaxis than controls. In contrast, a serum-resistant isolate from a patient with disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) stimulated chemotaxis when opsonized with IgG obtained from the patient's convalescent serum. By Western blot, convalescent IgG antibody recognized an additional determinant on serum-resistant LOS not seen by normal IgG. Images PMID:2439546

  15. Purification and characterization of a phagocytosis-stimulating factor from phagocytosing polymorphonuclear neutrophils: comparison with granule basic proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Y; Yamashita, T

    1985-01-01

    Phagocytosis-stimulating factor (PSF) was purified by copper chelate chromatography and characterized in comparison with basic proteins in the granule of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. By copper chelate chromatography, PSF was eluted at pH 3.7; whereas cationic protein, lysozyme, and lactoferrin were eluted at pH 5.6, 5.1, and 4.0, respectively. Purified PSF has an approximate molecular weight of 16,000 and an isoelectric point at 8.7, which differ from those of basic proteins, such as cationic protein, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. Anionic substances such as DNA and heparin did not influence the phagocytosis-stimulating activity of PSF, whereas that of the granule basic protein fraction from resting polymorphonuclear neutrophils was abolished. PSF had little bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the granule basic protein fraction from resting PMNs had strong bactericidal activity against E. coli and weak activity against S. aureus. These results indicate that PSF is a basic protein which is distinguishable from cationic protein, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. Images PMID:3997249

  16. Genes Differentially Expressed in Conidia and Hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus upon Exposure to Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Kim, H. Stanley; Zarember, Kol A.; Chang, Yun C.; Gallin, John I.; Nierman, Willian C.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Several studies have addressed the mechanism involved in host defense but only few have investigated the pathogen's response to attack by the host cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the genes differentially expressed in conidia vs hyphae of A. fumigatus in response to neutrophils from healthy donors as well as from those with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) which are defective in the production of reactive oxygen species. Methodology/Principal Findings Transcriptional profiles of conidia and hyphae exposed to neutrophils, either from normal donors or from CGD patients, were obtained by using the genome-wide microarray. Upon exposure to either normal or CGD neutrophils, 244 genes were up-regulated in conidia but not in hyphae. Several of these genes are involved in the degradation of fatty acids, peroxisome function and the glyoxylate cycle which suggests that conidia exposed to neutrophils reprogram their metabolism to adjust to the host environment. In addition, the mRNA levels of four genes encoding proteins putatively involved in iron/copper assimilation were found to be higher in conidia and hyphae exposed to normal neutrophils compared to those exposed to CGD neutrophils. Deletants in several of the differentially expressed genes showed phenotypes related to the proposed functions, i.e. deletants of genes involved in fatty acid catabolism showed defective growth on fatty acids and the deletants of iron/copper assimilation showed higher sensitivity to the oxidative agent menadione. None of these deletants, however, showed reduced resistance to neutrophil attack. Conclusion This work reveals the complex response of the fungus to leukocytes, one of the major host factors involved in antifungal defense, and identifies fungal genes that may be involved in establishing or prolonging infections in humans

  17. Store-operated Ca²⁺ entry mediated regulation of polarization in differentiated human neutrophil-like HL-60 cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang; Cai, Chunqing; Ma, Yan; Bai, Zhengzhong; Meng, Xiaojing; Yang, Xinyi; Zou, Fei; Ge, Rili

    2014-03-01

    The regulation of neutrophil polarization by calcium entry is critical for maintaining an effective host response. Hypoxia has a major effect on the apoptosis of neutrophils, however the role of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in neutrophil polarization under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the polarization of differentiated human neutrophil-like HL-60 (dHL-60) cells exposed to hypoxia (3% O2) and the results demonstrated that the percentage of polarized cells following exposure to an N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) gradient in the Zigmond chamber was increased. We examined stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and Orai1 expression in dHL-60 cells during hypoxia, and it was observed that the expression of STIM1 and Orai1 was significantly reduced at day 2. However, no apparent change was observed on the first day, indicating that this effect is dependent on stimulation time. Fluo-4/acetoxymethyl (AM) ester imaging also demonstrated that SOCE was decreased in dHL-60 cells. The plasmid overexpression assay demonstrated that the response of polarization was returned to the control level. We demonstrated the inhibitory role of SOCE on the polarization of dHL-60 cells under hypoxic conditions, which may be the mechanism for the adaptation of neutrophils to hypoxia. SOCE is also suggested to be a key modulator of immune deficiency under hypoxic conditions and is potentially a therapeutic target.

  18. Binding of human serum albumin to single-walled carbon nanotubes activated neutrophils to increase production of hypochlorous acid, the oxidant capable of degrading nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Li, Jiayu; Tian, Rong; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2014-06-16

    Previous studies have shown that carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be catalytically biodegraded by hypochlorite (OCl-) and reactive radical intermediates of the human neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). However, the importance of protein-SWCNT interactions in the biodegradation of SWCNTs was not stressed. Here, we used both experimental and theoretical approaches to investigate the interactions of SWCNTs with human serum albumin (HSA, one of the most abundant proteins in blood circulation) and found that the binding was involved in the electrostatic interactions of positively charged Arg residues of HSA with the carboxyls on the nanotubes, along with the π-π stacking interactions between SWCNTs and aromatic Tyr residues in HSA. Compared with SWCNTs, the binding of HSA could result in a reduced effect for OCl- (or the human MPO system)-induced SWCNTs degradation in vitro. However, the HSA-SWCNT interactions would enhance cellular uptake of nanotubes and stimulate MPO release and OCl- generation in neutrophils, thereby creating the conditions favorable for the degradation of the nanotubes. Upon zymosan stimulation, both SWCNTs and HSA-SWCNTs were significantly biodegraded in neutrophils, and the degree of biodegradation was more for HSA-SWCNTs under these relevant in vivo conditions. Our findings suggest that the binding of HSA may be an important determinant for MPO-mediated SWCNT biodegradation in human inflammatory cells and therefore shed light on the biomedical and biotechnological applications of safe carbon nanotubes by comprehensive preconsideration of their interactions with human serum proteins.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is a Very Potent Cytotoxic Factor for Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Bettina; Hussain, Muzaffar; Grundmeier, Matthias; Brück, Michaela; Holzinger, Dirk; Varga, Georg; Roth, Johannes; Kahl, Barbara C.; Proctor, Richard A.; Peters, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The role of the pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in severe necrotizing diseases is debated due to conflicting data from epidemiological studies of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections and various murine disease-models. In this study, we used neutrophils isolated from different species to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of PVL in comparison to other staphylococcal cytolytic components. Furthermore, to study the impact of PVL we expressed it heterologously in a non-virulent staphylococcal species and examined pvl-positive and pvl-negative clinical isolates as well as the strain USA300 and its pvl-negative mutant. We demonstrate that PVL induces rapid activation and cell death in human and rabbit neutrophils, but not in murine or simian cells. By contrast, the phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), a newly identified group of cytolytic staphylococcal components, lack species-specificity. In general, after phagocytosis of bacteria different pvl-positive and pvl-negative staphylococcal strains, expressing a variety of other virulence factors (such as surface proteins), induced cell death in neutrophils, which is most likely associated with the physiological clearing function of these cells. However, the release of PVL by staphylococcal strains caused rapid and premature cell death, which is different from the physiological (and programmed) cell death of neutrophils following phagocytosis and degradation of virulent bacteria. Taken together, our results question the value of infection-models in mice and non-human primates to elucidate the impact of PVL. Our data clearly demonstrate that PVL acts differentially on neutrophils of various species and suggests that PVL has an important cytotoxic role in human neutrophils, which has major implications for the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA infections. PMID:20072612

  20. 4-Methylcoumarin Derivatives Inhibit Human Neutrophil Oxidative Metabolism and Elastase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fuzissaki, Carolina N.; Andrade, Micássio F.; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C.S.; Taleb-Contini, Silvia H.; Vermelho, Roberta B.; Lopes, João Luis C.; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased neutrophil activation significantly contributes to the tissue damage in inflammatory illnesses; this phenomenon has motivated the search for new compounds to modulate their effector functions. Coumarins are natural products that are widely consumed in the human diet. We have evaluated the antioxidant and immunomodulator potential of five 4-methylcoumarin derivatives. We found that the 4-methylcoumarin derivatives inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species by human neutrophils triggered by serum-opsonized zymosan or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate; this inhibition occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, as revealed by lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assays. Cytotoxicity did not mediate this inhibitory effect. The 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin suppressed the neutrophil oxidative metabolism more effectively than the 6,7- and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarins, but the 5,7- and 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarins were less effective than their hydroxylated counterparts. An analysis of the biochemical pathways suggested that the 6,7- and 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarins inhibit the protein kinase C-mediated signaling pathway, but 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, as well as 5,7- and 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarins do not significantly interfere in this pathway of the activation of the human neutrophil oxidative metabolism. The 4-methylcoumarin derivatives bearing the catechol group suppressed the elastase and myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical the most strongly. Interestingly, the 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin scavenged hypochlorous acid more effectively than the o-dihydroxy-substituted 4-methylcoumarin derivatives, and the diacetoxylated 4-methylcoumarin derivatives scavenged hypochlorous acid as effectively as the 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin. The significant influence of small structural modifications in the inhibitory potential of 4-methylcoumarin derivatives on the

  1. Relationship of F-actin distribution to development of polar shape in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Polymerization of actin has been associated with development of polar shape in human neutrophils (PMN). To examine the relation of filamentous actin (F-actin) distribution to shape change in PMN, we developed a method using computerized video image analysis and fluorescence microscopy to quantify distribution of F-actin in single cells. PMN were labeled with fluorescent probe NBD-phallicidin to measure filamentous actin and Texas red to assess cell thickness. We show that Texas red fluorescence is a reasonable measure of cell thickness and that correction of the NBD-phallicidin image for cell thickness using the Texas red image permits assessment of focal F-actin content. Parameters were derived that quantify total F-actin content, movement of F-actin away from the center of the cell, asymmetry of F- actin distribution, and change from round to polar shape. The sequence of change in F-actin distribution and its relation to development of polar shape in PMN was determined using these parameters. After stimulation with chemotactic peptide at 25 degrees C, F-actin polymerized first at the rim of the PMN. This was followed by development of asymmetry of F-actin distribution and change to polar shape. The dominant pseudopod developed first in the region of lower F- actin concentration followed later by polymerization of actin in the end of the developed pseudopod. Asymmetric F-actin distribution was detected in round PMN before development of polar shape. Based upon these data, asymmetric distribution of F-actin is coincident with and probably precedes development of polar shape in PMN stimulated in suspension by chemotactic peptide. PMID:1577856

  2. Effect of Bothrops bilineata snake venom on neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Setubal, Sulamita da Silva; Pontes, Adriana Silva; Nery, Neriane Monteiro; Bastos, Jéssica Silva Félix; Castro, Onassis Boeri; Pires, Weverson Luciano; Zaqueo, Kayena Delaix; Calderon, Leonardo de Azevedo; Stábeli, Rodrigo Guerino; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Zuliani, Juliana Pavan

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of Bothrops bilineata crude venom (BbV) on isolated human neutrophil function. We proved that BbV isn't toxic towards human neutrophils. During an incubation of human neutrophils with BbV hydrogen peroxide was produced. Moreover, BbV was able to stimulate neutrophil release of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-8 and IL-6 as well as PGE2 and NETs liberation. There is no data in the literature showing the effect of BbV on the production of IL-6 and IL-8 or NETs liberation by isolated human neutrophils. Taken together our results testify that BbV triggers relevant proinflammatory events in human neutrophils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On-chip evaluation of neutrophil activation and neutrophil-endothelial cell interaction during neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyuk; Haynes, Christy L

    2013-11-19

    Neutrophils are always surrounded by/interacting with other components of the immune system; however, the current mechanistic understanding of neutrophil function is largely based on how neutrophils respond to a single chemical signal in a simplified environment. Such approaches are unable to recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment; thus, cell behavior may not fully represent the physiological behavior. Herein, we exploit a microfluidic model of the complex in vivo milieu to investigate how cell-cell interactions influence human neutrophil migration and surface marker expression. Neutrophil migration against a bacterially derived chemoattractant (formyl-met-leu-phe, fMLP), with and without preactivation by interleukins (interleukin-2 or interleukin-6), was evaluated in the presence and absence of endothelial support cells. Preactivation by interleukins or interaction with endothelial cells resulted in altered migration rates compared to naïve neutrophils, and migration trajectories deviated from the expected movement toward the fMLP signal. Interestingly, interaction with both interleukins and endothelial cells simultaneously resulted in a slight compensation in the deviation-on endothelial cells, 34.4% of untreated neutrophils moved away from the fMLP signal, while only 15.2 or 22.2% (interleukin-2-or interleukin-6-activated) of preactivated cells moved away from fMLP. Neutrophils interacting with interleukins and/or endothelial cells were still capable of prioritizing the fMLP signal over a competing chemoattractant, leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Fluorescence imaging of individual human neutrophils revealed that neutrophils treated with endothelial-cell-conditioned media showed up-regulation of the surface adhesion molecules cluster determinant 11b and 66b (CD11b and CD66b) upon stimulation. On the other hand, CD11b and CD66b down-regulation was observed in untreated neutrophils. These results leverage single cell analysis to reveal that the interaction between

  4. A Bio-Sensor for Human Neutrophil Elastase Employs Peptide-p-nitroanilide Cellulose Conjugates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High levels of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) in chronic wounds have been associated with degradation of cytokine growth factors necessary for normal wound healing. Thus, accurate clinical detection and quantification of HNE will be important to the therapeutic management of chronic wounds. Colorim...

  5. Yersinia pestis survival and replication within human neutrophil phagosomes and uptake of infected neutrophils by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Justin L; Winfree, Seth; Starr, Tregei; Shannon, Jeffrey G; Nair, Vinod; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is transmitted by fleas. The bite of an infected flea deposits Y. pestis into the dermis and triggers recruitment of innate immune cells, including phagocytic PMNs. Y. pestis can subvert this PMN response and survive at the flea-bite site, disseminate, and persist in the host. Although its genome encodes a number of antiphagocytic virulence factors, phagocytosis of Y. pestis by PMNs has been observed. This study tests the hypotheses that Y. pestis, grown at the ambient temperature of the flea vector (21°C), where the major antiphagocytic virulence factors are not produced, can survive and replicate within human PMNs and can use PMNs as a route to infect macrophages subsequently. We show that Y. pestis is localized within PMN phagosomes, predominately as individual bacteria, and that intracellular bacteria can survive and replicate. Within 12 h of infection, ~70% of infected PMNs had PS on their surface and were plausibly competent for efferocytosis. With the use of live cell confocal imaging, we show that autologous HMDMs recognize and internalize infected PMNs and that Y. pestis survives and replicates within these HMDMs following efferocytosis. Addition of HMDMs to infected PMNs resulted in decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines (compared with HMDMs incubated directly with pCD1(-) Y. pestis) and increased secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ra. Thus, Y. pestis can survive and replicate within PMNs, and infected PMNs may be a route for noninflammatory infection of macrophages.

  6. Influence of Glucose Levels on the In Vitro Phagocytosis of Bacteria by Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    van Oss, Carel J.

    1971-01-01

    A previously developed in vitro method for studying the phagocytosis of bacteria and particles by human neutrophils was used to investigate the influence of different glucose levels on phagocytosis. It was found that high glucose levels (200, 400, and 800 mg of glucose/100 ml) significantly depressed the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli. At very low glucose levels, a somewhat decreased phagocytic activity was noted. The strongest phagocytic activity occurred at glucose concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/100 ml. A second effect noted at the higher (200, 400 and 800 mg/100 ml) glucose concentrations was a decreased adhesiveness of the neutrophils to solid surfaces. The mechanism of the decrease in phagocytosis and in neutrophil adhesiveness at higher glucose levels is unknown, but it is not linked to increased osmotic pressures due to the presence of glucose, as ethanol, at the same and even higher osmolal concentrations, had no effect on the phagocytosis. These results show that not only the phagocytic activity of those neutrophils that do adhere to a solid surface is diminished at higher glucose concentrations but also that fewer neutrophils adhere to solid surfaces at higher glucose levels. These two phenomena combined may provide at least part of the explanation for the well-known decrease in resistance to bacterial infections of diabetics. PMID:4117287

  7. Characterisation of electron currents generated by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-04-11

    Electron transport by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase is an important microbicidal weapon for phagocytes. The electron current (I{sub e}) generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is poorly characterised due to the lack of appropriate electrophysiological data. In this study, I fully characterise the neutrophil generated I{sub e} when the NADPH oxidase is activated by NADPH and GTP{gamma}S. The neutrophil I{sub e} was markedly voltage-dependent in the entire voltage range in comparison to those electron currents measured after chloride was removed from the external bath solution. The difference in I{sub e} measured in chloride free conditions was not due to a change in the activation kinetics of voltage-gated proton channels. The I{sub e} depolarises the neutrophil plasma membrane at a rate of 2.3 V s{sup -1} and this depolarisation was opposed when voltage-gated proton channels are activated. 3 mM ZnCl{sub 2} depolarised the membrane potential to +97.8 {+-} 2.5 mV (n = 4), and this depolarisation was abolished after NADPH oxidase inhibition.

  8. Stimulation of canine hematopoiesis by recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Schuening, F G; Storb, R; Goehle, S; Nash, R; Graham, T C; Appelbaum, F R; Hackman, R; Sandmaier, B M; Urdal, D L

    1989-09-01

    The effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) on canine hematopoiesis was evaluated. rhGM-CSF stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony formation of canine marrow depleted of accessory cells up to tenfold. Stimulation of colony formation was abrogated by anti-rhGM-CSF antiserum or heat inactivation. rhGM-CSF also stimulated in vivo canine hematopoiesis both when given as continuous i.v. infusion and as intermittent s.c. injections. Neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts were increased three- to eightfold above controls, whereas values for eosinophils, reticulocytes, and hematocrits were not changed. Bone marrow histology after 2 weeks of treatment with rhGM-CSF showed hypercellularity with myeloid hyperplasia and left-shifted granulocytopoiesis. After discontinuation of rhGM-CSF, peripheral leukocyte counts returned to control level within 3-7 days. Platelet counts decreased rapidly after starting rhGM-CSF, to 5000-15,000 platelets/mm3, and increased within 24 h after stopping rhGM-CSF treatment, whereas marrow histology after 2 weeks of rhGM-CSF application showed the normal number and morphology of megakaryocytes.

  9. Motile Human Neutrophils Sense Ligand Density Over Their Entire Contact Area.

    PubMed

    Henry, Steven J; Crocker, John C; Hammer, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophils are key components of the immune system and motility is central their function during the inflammatory response. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils are capable of switching their motile phenotype between amoeboid-like and keratocyte-like in response to the ligand density of adhesion molecules (Henry et al. in Int Biol 6:348-356, 2014). In this study, we engineered planar micropatterned surfaces that presented adhesion molecules in local islands of high density, separated by regions largely devoid of ligands. By controlling the geometry of islands we made arrays in which the local (on island) adhesion density was high but the global (multi-island) adhesion density over the entire cell-substrate interface was low. Neutrophils in contact with these island arrays assumed a well-spread and directionally-persistent motile phenotype (keratocyte-like) in contrast to the classical amoeboid morphology they display on uniform fields of high adhesion density. By virtue of our rationally designed substrates, we were able to conclude that neutrophils were integrating the stimulation received across their entire contact interface; furthermore, they were able to mount this whole cell response on the timescale of seconds. This work demonstrates the capacity of adhesive microenvironments to direct the phenotype of cell motility, which has broader implications in physiologic processes such as inflammation and cancer metastasis.

  10. Neutrophil enhancement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development: human F-actin and DNA as targets for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Quinn M.; Young, Robert L.; Poch, Katie R.; Malcolm, Kenneth C.; Vasil, Michael L.; Nick, Jerry A.

    2009-01-01

    In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa results from biofilm formation in a neutrophil-rich environment. We tested the capacity of human neutrophils to modify early biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, and an isogenic CF strain isolated early and years later in infection. In a static reactor, P. aeruginosa biofilm density of all strains was enhanced at 24 h in the presence of neutrophils, with the greatest relative increase associated with the lowest inoculum of P. aeruginosa tested. Previously, neutrophil-induced biofilm enhancement was shown to largely result from the incorporation of F-actin and DNA polymers into the bacterial biofilm. This finding was advanced by the comparison of biofilm enhancement from intact unstimulated neutrophils and from lysed or apoptotic neutrophils. Apoptotic neutrophils, with an intact cell membrane, were unable to contribute to biofilm enhancement, while lysed neutrophils evoked a similar response to that of intact cells. Using F-actin and DNA as targets, the capacity of negatively charged poly(amino acids) to disrupt, or prevent, early biofilm formation was tested. Anionic poly(aspartic acid) effectively prevented or disrupted biofilm formation. Combination of poly(aspartic acid) with DNase resulted in a synergistic increase in biofilm disruption. These results demonstrate that the presence of dying neutrophils can facilitate the initial stages of biofilm development by low inocula of P. aeruginosa. Neutrophil F-actin represents a potential new therapeutic target for disruption of pathogenic biofilms. PMID:19273646

  11. Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2 Agonist Activates Anti-Influenza Mechanisms and Modulates IFNγ-Induced Antiviral Pathways in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Shpacovitch, Victoria; Ehrhardt, Christina; Fastrich, Michaela; Goerge, Tobias; Ludwig, Stephan; Steinhoff, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is expressed by human leukocytes and participates in the development of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies demonstrated an ability of PAR2 agonist to enhance IFNγ-induced antiviral responses of human leukocytes. However, the precise cellular antiviral defense mechanisms triggered in leukocytes after stimulation with IFNγ and/or PAR2 agonist remain elusive. Therefore, we aimed to identify neutrophil defense mechanisms involved in antiviral resistance. Here we demonstrated that PAR2 agonist enhanced IFNγ-related reduction of influenza A virus (IAV) replication in human neutrophils. PAR2-mediated decrease in IAV replication was associated with reduced NS-1 transcription. Moreover, PAR2-dependent neutrophil activation resulted in enhanced myeloperoxidase degranulation and extracellular myeloperoxidase disrupted IAV. The production of ROS was elevated in response to PAR2 activation. Interestingly, IFNγ did not influence both effects: PAR2 agonist-triggered myeloperoxidase (MPO) release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which are known to limit IAV infections. In contrast, orthomyxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) protein expression was synergistically elevated through PAR2 agonist and IFNγ in neutrophils. Altogether, these findings emphasize two PAR2-controlled antiviral mechanisms that are independent of or modulated by IFNγ. PMID:24171176

  12. Growth hormone augments superoxide anion secretion of human neutrophils by binding to the prolactin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Y K; Arkins, S; Fuh, G; Cunningham, B C; Wells, J A; Fong, S; Cronin, M J; Dantzer, R; Kelley, K W

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (HuGH) and human prolactin (HuPRL), but not GH of bovine or porcine origin, prime human neutrophils for enhanced superoxide anion (O2-) secretion. Since HuGH, but not GH of other species, effectively binds to the HuPRL receptor (HuPRL-R), we used a group of HuGH variants created by site-directed mutagenesis to identify the receptor on human neutrophils responsible for HuGH priming. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the HuPRL-R completely abrogated O2- secretion by neutrophils incubated with either HuGH or HuPRL, whereas a MAb to the HuGH-R had no effect. The HuGH variant K172A/F176A, which has reduced affinity for both the HuGH-binding protein (BP) and the HuPRL-BP, was unable to prime human neutrophils. This indicates that priming is initiated by a ligand-receptor interaction, the affinity of which is near that defined for receptors for PRL and GH. Another HuGH variant, K168A/E174A, which has relatively low affinity for the HuPRL-BP but slightly increased affinity for the HuGH-BP, had much reduced ability to prime neutrophils. In contrast, HuGH variant E56D/R64M, which has a similar affinity as wild-type HuGH for the HuPRL-BP but a lower affinity for the HuGH-BP, primed neutrophils as effectively as the wild-type HuGH. Finally, binding of HuGH to the HuPRL-BP but not to the HuGH-BP has been shown to be zinc dependent, and priming of neutrophils by HuGH was also responsive to zinc. Collectively, these data directly couple the binding of HuGH to the HuPRL-R with one aspect of functional activation of human target cells. Images PMID:1310696

  13. Neutrophils extracellular traps damage Naegleria fowleri trophozoites opsonized with human IgG.

    PubMed

    Contis-Montes de Oca, A; Carrasco-Yépez, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Pacheco-Yépez, J; Bonilla-Lemus, P; Pérez-López, J; Rojas-Hernández, S

    2016-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri infects humans through the nasal mucosa causing a disease in the central nervous system known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the early phase of N. fowleri infection. Recently, a new biological defence mechanism called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been attracting attention. NETs are composed of nuclear DNA combined with histones and antibacterial proteins, and these structures are released from the cell to direct its antimicrobial attack. In this work, we evaluate the capacity of N. fowleri to induce the liberation of NETs by human PMN cells. Neutrophils were cocultured with unopsonized or IgG-opsonized N. fowleri trophozoites. DNA, histone, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) were stained, and the formation of NETs was evaluated by confocal microscopy and by quantifying the levels of extracellular DNA. Our results showed N. fowleri induce the liberation of NETs including release of MPO and NE by human PMN cells as exposure interaction time is increased, but N. fowleri trophozoites evaded killing. However, when trophozoites were opsonized, they were susceptible to the neutrophils activity. Therefore, our study suggests that antibody-mediated PMNs activation through NET formation may be crucial for antimicrobial responses against N. fowleri. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Accelerates Human Sleep Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Reato, Davide; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Marshall, Lisa; Parra, Lucas C.

    2013-01-01

    The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO) in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG). A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep. PMID:23459152

  15. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Reato, Davide; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Marshall, Lisa; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-01-01

    The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO) in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG). A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep.

  16. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. R. V.; Azzolini, A. E. C. S.; Martinez, M. L. L.; Souza, C. R. F.; Lucisano-Valim, Y. M.; Oliveira, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  17. Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPH and chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M R V; Azzolini, A E C S; Martinez, M L L; Souza, C R F; Lucisano-Valim, Y M; Oliveira, W P

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β -cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH(•) method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells.

  18. Granulocyte and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors as therapy in human and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Varón, Emilio; Villamayor, Lucía

    2007-07-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSFs) are endogenous cytokines that regulate granulocyte colonies and play a major role in the stimulation of granulopoiesis (neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) and in the regulation of microbicidal functions. There are numerous pathological conditions in which neutrophils are decreased, the most common being neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy, which increases the risk of serious microbial infections developing with the potential for high morbidity and mortality. New methods in molecular biology have led to the identification and cloning of CSF genes and biopharmaceutical production. Since then, CSFs have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy, for mobilising haematopoietic cell precursors, and for other neutropenia-related pathologies. This review focuses on the use of CSFs within both human and veterinary medicine. Clinical applications, pharmacology, tolerability and the potential role of these factors in veterinary medicine are considered.

  19. Enterococcus faecalis Bearing Aggregation Substance Is Resistant to Killing by Human Neutrophils despite Phagocytosis and Neutrophil Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rakita, Robert M.; Vanek, Natalie N.; Jacques-Palaz, Karen; Mee, Mee; Mariscalco, M. Michele; Dunny, Gary M.; Snuggs, Mark; Van Winkle, W. Barry; Simon, Scott I.

    1999-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance (AS) mediates efficient bacterium-bacterium contact to facilitate plasmid exchange as part of a bacterial sex pheromone system. We have previously determined that AS promotes direct, opsonin-independent binding of E. faecalis to human neutrophils (PMNs) via complement receptor type 3 and other receptors on the PMN surface. We have now examined the functional consequences of this bacterium-host cell interaction. AS-bearing E. faecalis was phagocytosed and internalized by PMNs, as determined by deconvolution fluorescence microscopy. However, these bacteria were not killed by PMNs, and internalized bacteria excluded propidium iodide, indicating intact bacterial membranes. Resistance to killing occurred despite activation of PMNs, as indicated by an increase in both functional and total surface Mac-1 expression, shedding of l-selectin, and an increase in PMN extracellular superoxide and phagosomal oxidant production. Deconvolution fluorescence microscopy also revealed that phagosomes containing AS-bearing bacteria were markedly larger than phagosomes containing opsonized E. faecalis, suggesting that some modification of phagosomal maturation may be involved in AS-induced resistance to killing. PMN phagosomal pH was significantly higher after ingestion of nonopsonized AS-bearing E. faecalis than after that of opsonized bacteria. The novel ability of AS to promote intracellular survival of E. faecalis inside PMNs suggests that AS may be a virulence factor used by strains of E. faecalis. PMID:10531268

  20. Fc receptors on human neutrophils: electron microscopic study of natural surface distribution.

    PubMed Central

    An, T

    1980-01-01

    The membrane receptor for the Fc portions of IgG (FcR) was examined on the cell surface of human neutrophils using electron microscopic markers of soluble immune complexes composed of ferritin (Fer) and rabbit 7S anti-Fer prepared in forty-fold and 120-fold antigen excess than needed at equivalence. By using negative staining coupled with electron microscopy, most of the immune complexes in forty-fold antigen excess were seen to be composed of one anti-Fer antibody and one or two Fer particles, suggesting that most of the indicator molecules are 'monovalent ligands' in terms of Fc pieces available per single immune complex molecule. FcR on neutrophils labelled with both indicators at 0 degrees in the presence of sodium azide were clustered as discontinuous patches of varying length over the cell surface. The pre-incubation of neutrophils at 37 degrees for 30 min prior to labelling did not alter the grouped distribution of FcR. No diffuse Fer labelling was observed. The clustering of FcR remained the same even after cross-linking the soluble complexes with F(ab')2 anti-Fer into multivalent ligands at 0 degrees. We favour the clustering of FcR as the natural surface representation on human neutrophils rather than an initial redistribution induced by the ligands. The findings are discussed with relation to the natural distribution of other surface antigens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7419239

  1. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna C; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Borregaard, Niels; Cowland, Jack B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and myelocyte/metamyelocyte (MC/MM) stages of development. These 135 miRNAs were divided into six clusters according to the pattern of their expression. Several miRNAs demonstrate a pronounced increase or reduction at the transition between MB/PM and MC/MM, which is associated with cell cycle arrest and the initiation of terminal differentiation. Seven miRNAs are differentially up-regulated between peripheral blood PMNs and extravasated PMNs and only one of these (miR-132) is also differentially regulated during granulopoiesis. The study indicates that several different miRNAs participate in the regulation of normal granulopoiesis and that miRNAs might also regulate activities of extravasated neutrophils. The data present the miRNA profiles during the development and activation of the neutrophil granulocyte in healthy humans and thus serves as a reference for further research of normal and malignant granulocytic development.

  2. Host and Pathogen Hyaluronan Signal Through Human Siglec-9 to Suppress Neutrophil Activation

    PubMed Central

    Secundino, Ismael; Lizcano, Anel; Roupé, K. Markus; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cole, Jason N.; Olson, Joshua; Ali, S. Raza; Dahesh, Samira; Amayreh, Lenah K.; Henningham, Anna; Varki, Ajit; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory CD33-related Siglec receptors regulate immune cell activation upon engaging ubiquitous sialic acids (Sias) on host cell surface glycans. Through molecular mimicry, Sia-expressing pathogen group B Streptococcus binds inhibitory human Siglec-9 (hSiglec-9) to blunt neutrophil activation and promote bacterial survival. We unexpectedly discovered that hSiglec-9 also specifically binds high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), another ubiquitous host glycan, through a region of its terminal Ig-like V-set domain distinct from the Sia-binding site. HMW-HA recognition by hSiglec-9 limited neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, oxidative burst, and apoptosis, defining HMW-HA as a regulator of neutrophil activation. However, the pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) expresses a HMW-HA capsule that engages hSiglec-9, blocking NET formation and oxidative burst, thereby promoting bacterial survival. Thus, a single inhibitory lectin receptor detects two distinct glycan “self-associated molecular patterns” to maintain neutrophil homeostasis, and two leading human bacterial pathogens have independently evolved molecular mimicry to exploit this immunoregulatory mechanism. PMID:26411873

  3. Potent inhibition of human neutrophil activations by bractelactone, a novel chalcone from Fissistigma bracteolatum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yang-Chang; Sureshbabu, Munisamy; Fang, Yao-Ching; Wu, Yi-Hsiu; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chang, Ya-Wen; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-02-01

    Fissistigma bracteolatum is widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. However, its active components and mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, (3Z)-6,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-(phenylmethylidene)-5-(3-phenylpropanoyl) -1-benzofuran-2(3H) (bractelactone), a novel chalcone from F. bracteolatum, showed potent inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) production, elastase release, and CD11b expression in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced human neutrophils. However, bractelactone showed only weak inhibition of phorbol myristate acetate-caused O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The peak cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) was unaltered by bractelactone in FMLP-induced neutrophils, but the decay time of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was significantly shortened. In a calcium-free solution, changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} caused by the addition of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} were inhibited by bractelactone in FMLP-activated cells. In addition, bractelactone did not alter the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, or AKT or the concentration of cAMP. These results suggest that bractelactone selectively inhibits store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In agreement with this concept, bractelactone suppressed sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} changes in thapsigargin-activated neutrophils. Furthermore, bractelactone did not alter FMLP-induced formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of bractelactone, an active ingredient of F. bracteolatum, in human neutrophils are through the selective inhibition of SOCE. Highlights: ► Bractelactone isolated from Fissistigma bracteolatum. ► Bractelactone inhibited FMLP-induced human neutrophil activations. ► Bractelactone had no effect on IP3 formation. ► Bractelactone did not alter MAPKs, AKT, and cAMP pathways. ► Bractelactone inhibited store-operated calcium entry.

  4. Neutrophil-derived MRP-14 is up-regulated in infectious osteomyelitis and stimulates osteoclast generation.

    PubMed

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Giese, Thomas; Maurer, Susanne; Stegmaier, Sabine; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, G Maria; Gaida, Matthias M

    2015-10-01

    Bone infections of patients with joint replacement by endoprosthesis (so called "periprosthetic joint infection") pose a severe problem in the field of orthopedic surgery. The diagnosis is often difficult, and treatment is, in most cases, complicated and prolonged. Patients often require an implant exchange surgery, as the persistent infection and the accompanying inflammation lead to tissue damage with bone degradation and consequently, to a loosening of the implant. To gain insight into the local inflammatory process, expression of the proinflammatory cytokine MRP-14, a major content of neutrophils, and its link to subsequent bone degradation was evaluated. We found MRP-14 prominently expressed in the affected tissue of patients with implant-associated infection, in close association with the chemokine CXCL8 and a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, the number of MRP-14-positive cells correlated with the presence of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. MRP-14 plasma concentrations were significantly higher in patients with implant-associated infection compared with patients with sterile inflammation or healthy individuals, advocating MRP-14 as a novel diagnostic marker. A further biologic activity of MRP-14 was detected: rMRP-14 directly induced the differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts, thus linking the inflammatory response in implant infections with osteoclast generation, bone degradation, and implant loosening.

  5. Phenotype and function of tumor-associated neutrophils and their subsets in early-stage human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy B

    2017-03-10

    Neutrophils accumulate in many types of human and murine tumors and represent a significant portion of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells. Our current understanding of the role of neutrophils in tumor development has depended primarily on murine models of cancer. However, there are crucial species differences in the evolution of tumors, genetic diversity, immune and inflammatory responses, and intrinsic biology of neutrophils that might have a profound impact on the tumor development and function of neutrophils in mouse versus human tumors. To date, the majority of experimental approaches to study neutrophils in cancer patients have been limited to the examination of circulating blood neutrophils. The phenotype and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in humans, particularly in the early stages of tumor development, have not been extensively investigated. Thus, the long-term goal of our work has been to characterize human TANs and determine their specific role in tumor development. Here, we summarize our findings on human TANs obtained from human early stage lung cancer patients. We will describe the phenotypes of different TAN subsets identified in early stage lung tumors, as well as their functional dialog with T cells.

  6. Functional characteristics of neutrophils and mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients stimulated in vitro with heat killed M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Gladys; Farroni, Miguel A; Bogué, Cristina; Selenscig, Dante; Lamas, Diego Martinel; Dlugovitzky, Diana

    2007-07-01

    The major protective immune response against intracellular bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a cell-mediated immunity involving neutrophils (PMNs) and peripheral mononuclear cells (MCs), contributing to the clearance of this microorganism and the resolution of the infection. This study was addressed to evaluate PMNs and MCs for their bactericidal function. The sample comprised 14 tuberculosis (TB) inpatients (HIV-), and 10 healthy controls (HCo). Peripheral PMNs and MCs were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque and cultured in RPMI with or without heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HK Mtb). Respiratory burst (RB), CD11b, IL-8 and TNFalpha receptor expression were assessed by flow cytometry in cells undergoing stimulation or not. Presence of IL-8 and TNFalpha in cell culture supernatants was determined by ELISA. TB patients had a lower RB response than HCo for both cell types (MCs, p <0.05, PMNs, p <0.01) regardless of HK Mtb stimulation. Compared to HCo, PMNs and MCs from TB patients presented a reduced CD11b expression, with the two subject groups showing a decrease in this marker expression following HK. Mtb was added to both cell cultures. Whereas fewer IL-8 and TNFalpha receptors were found when studying MCs and PMNs from TB patients, antigen stimulation significantly raised the expression for both cytokine receptors. Culture supernatants from MCs and PMNs of TB patients contained increased amounts of IL-8 and TNFalpha. The present findings may provide some explanation as to the different roles played by PMNs and MCs in TB immunopathology.

  7. The hederagenin saponin SMG-1 is a natural FMLP receptor inhibitor that suppresses human neutrophil activation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wang, Chien-Chiao; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Wu, Yi-Hsiu

    2010-10-15

    The pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn is traditionally used as an expectorant in Japan, China, and Taiwan. Activated neutrophils produce high concentrations of the superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and elastase known to be involved in airway mucus hypersecretion. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory functions of hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (SMG-1), a saponin isolated from S. mukorossi, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in human neutrophils. SMG-1 potently and concentration-dependently inhibited O(2)(*-) generation and elastase release in N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils. Furthermore, SMG-1 reduced membrane-associated p47(phox) expression in FMLP-induced intact neutrophils, but did not alter subcellular NADPH oxidase activity in reconstituted systems. SMG-1 attenuated FMLP-induced increase of cytosolic calcium concentration and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, and AKT. However, SMG-1 displayed no effect on cellular cAMP levels and activity of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase. Significantly, receptor-binding analysis showed that SMG-1 inhibited FMLP binding to its receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, neither phorbol myristate acetate-induced O(2)(*-) generation and MAPKs activation nor thapsigargin-caused calcium mobilization was altered by SMG-1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SMG-1 is a natural inhibitor of the FMLP receptor, which may have the potential to be developed into a useful new therapeutic agent for treating neutrophilic inflammatory diseases.

  8. Expression and role of a2 vacuolar-ATPase (a2V) in trafficking of human neutrophil granules and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Tikoo, Anjali; Akman-Anderson, Leyla; Jaiswal, Mukesh; Ntrivalas, Evangelos; Beaman, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils kill microorganisms by inducing exocytosis of granules with antibacterial properties. Four isoforms of the "a" subunit of V-ATPase-a1V, a2V, a3V, and a4V-have been identified. a2V is expressed in white blood cells, that is, on the surface of monocytes or activated lymphocytes. Neutrophil associated-a2V was found on membranes of primary (azurophilic) granules and less often on secondary (specific) granules, tertiary (gelatinase granules), and secretory vesicles. However, it was not found on the surface of resting neutrophils. Following stimulation of neutrophils, primary granules containing a2V as well as CD63 translocated to the surface of the cell because of exocytosis. a2V was also found on the cell surface when the neutrophils were incubated in ammonium chloride buffer (pH 7.4) a weak base. The intracellular pH (cytosol) became alkaline within 5 min after stimulation, and the pH increased from 7.2 to 7.8; this pH change correlated with intragranular acidification of the neutrophil granules. Upon translocation and exocytosis, a2V on the membrane of primary granules remained on the cell surface, but myeloperoxidase was secreted. V-ATPase may have a role in the fusion of the granule membrane with the cell surface membrane before exocytosis. These findings suggest that the granule-associated a2V isoform has a role in maintaining a pH gradient within the cell between the cytosol and granules in neutrophils and also in fusion between the surface and the granules before exocytosis. Because a2V is not found on the surface of resting neutrophils, surface a2V may be useful as a biomarker for activated neutrophils. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  9. Human neutrophil alloantigen genotype frequencies among blood donors with Turkish and German descent.

    PubMed

    Hauck, B; Philipp, A; Eckstein, R; Ott, S; Zimmermann, R; Dengler, T; Zingsem, J

    2011-12-01

    Antibodies against the human neutrophil antigens (HNA) are able to stimulate transfusion reactions, autoimmune and neonatal neutropenia. The aim of this study was to determine the HNA allele frequencies in the largest ethnic minority group in Germany in comparison with the German population for predicting the risk of alloimmunization and associated transfusion reactions, as well as the risk of developing neonatal neutropenia for the newborn of racial mixed couples. However, there exists no data about HNA genotype distribution in Turkish population. DNA was isolated from blood samples of 119 German and 118 Turkish blood donors and typed them for HNA-1, -3, -4, and -5 by using a commercial polymerase chain reaction kit with sequence-specific primers (SSP-PCR) and compared the HNA genotype distribution of both groups. In German blood donors, the gene frequencies for HNA-1a and HNA-1b were 0.391 and 0.601, for HNA-3a and -3b, 0.744 and 0.256, for HNA-4a and -4b, 0.908 and 0.092, and for HNA-5a and -5bw, 0.731 and 0.269. In Turkish blood donors, we observed 0.420/0.564, 0.737/0.263, 0.881/0.119, and 0.754/0.246 for HNA-1a/1b, -3a/3b, -4a/4b, and -5a/5bw. No statistic significant difference between genotypes in these populations was observed. This study is the first to report HNA gene frequencies in a Turkish population. It showed that there is no difference of HNA genotype in blood donors with Turkish descent in comparison with German blood donors. The alternating transfusion of blood and blood components is no increased risk for developing alloantibodies against HNA antigens. In pregnancy of mixed couples no special screening programs for HNA are necessary. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-05-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN.

  11. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L.; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G.; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN. PMID:25946018

  12. Effects of oxygen tension and pH on the respiratory burst of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Bearman, S I; Babior, B M

    1979-06-01

    The respiratory burst of human neutrophils was measured under conditions of hypoxia and low pH. O2 -- production by neutrophils activated with opsonized zymosan fell slowly as the oxygen concentration declined to 1%, then dropped more sharply, reaching negligible levels at oxygen concentrations less than 0.25%. Production was half maximal at an oxygen concentration of 0.35% (equivalent to approximately 10-microM dissolved oxygen). O2- production by the cell-free O2- -forming system prepared from zymosan-activated neutrophils showed a similar dependence on oxygen concentration. A drop in pH caused decreases in both oxygen consumption and O2-- production by zymosan-treated neutrophils, values at PH 6.0 being 10%--20% of those observed at pH 7.5. Experiments with the cell-free O2-- -forming system suggested that this decline in respiratory burst activity at low pH was due to inefficient activation of the O2-- -forming enzyme under acidic conditions.

  13. Microbe-specific unconventional T-cells induce human neutrophil differentiation into antigen cross-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Anna Rita; Tyler, Christopher J.; Khan, Mohd Wajid A.; Szakmany, Tamas; Hall, Judith E.; Moser, Bernhard; Eberl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The early immune response to microbes is dominated by the recruitment of neutrophils whose primary function is to clear invading pathogens. However, there is emerging evidence that neutrophils play additional effector and regulatory roles. The present study demonstrates that human neutrophils assume antigen cross-presenting functions, and suggests a plausible scenario for the local generation of APC-like neutrophils through the mobilization of unconventional T-cells in response to microbial metabolites. Vγ9/Vδ2 T-cells and MAIT cells are abundant in blood, inflamed tissues and mucosal barriers. Here, both human cell types responded rapidly to neutrophils after phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria producing the corresponding ligands, and in turn mediated the differentiation of neutrophils into APCs for both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells through secretion of GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α. In patients with acute sepsis, circulating neutrophils displayed a similar APC-like phenotype and readily processed soluble proteins for cross-presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8+ T-cells, at a time when peripheral Vγ9/Vδ2 T-cells were highly activated. Our findings indicate that unconventional T-cells represent key controllers of neutrophil-driven innate and adaptive responses to a broad range of pathogens. PMID:25165152

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 expression is down-regulated by angiotensin II and under hypertension in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Alba, Gonzalo; El Bekay, Rajaa; Chacón, Pedro; Reyes, M Edith; Ramos, Eladio; Oliván, Josefina; Jiménez, Juan; López, José M; Martín-Nieto, José; Pintado, Elízabeth; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide hormone able to elicit a strong production of reactive oxygen species by human neutrophils. In this work, we have addressed whether expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, becomes altered in these cells upon Ang II treatment or under hypertension conditions. In neutrophils from healthy and hypertensive subjects, induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein expression with a parallel increase in enzyme activity took place upon treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2). However, Ang II prevented HO-1 synthesis by normal neutrophils in vitro, and HO-1 expression was depressed in neutrophils from hypertensive patients in comparison with cells from healthy subjects. In addition, Ang II treatment led to a reduced HO-1 enzyme activity to levels similar to those found in neutrophils from hypertensive patients. NO donors reversed the inhibition of 15dPGJ2-dependent HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive patients, and conversely, inhibition of inducible NO synthase (NOS2) activity counteracted the stimulatory effect of 15dPGJ2 on HO-1 expression in normal human neutrophils. Moreover, Ang II canceled 15dPGJ2-dependent induction of NOS2 mRNA synthesis. Present findings indicate that down-regulation of HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive subjects is likely exerted through the inhibition of NOS2 expression. Additionally, they underscore the potential usefulness of NO donors as new, therapeutic agents against hypertension.

  15. Activation of human neutrophil Mac-1 by anion substitution *

    PubMed Central

    Lomakina, Elena; Knauf, Philip A.; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; McGraw, Matthew D.; Waugh, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Substituting the medium chloride with glucuronate or glutamate causes a rapid, 10 to 30 –fold, increase in the binding of the monoclonal antibody, CBRM1/5, which recognizes the high-affinity conformation of the Mac-1 integrin. This change is reflected in functional adhesion assays that show increased adhesion to ICAM-1 coated beads. Blocking antibodies indicate that the increased adhesion is almost entirely due to Mac-1. The inhibitor NPPB (100μM) reduces Cl- efflux into low Cl- medium by 75%, and blocks increased CBRM1/5 binding after stimulation with fMLP or TNF-α, but has no effect on the anion substitution induced increase in CBRM1/5 binding or adhesion to immobilized ICAM-1. Thus, changes in external anion composition, not internal chloride or increases in Cl- efflux, are responsible for Mac-1 activation. This effect is substantial. The percentage of Mac-1 in the high affinity state approaches 100% in glutamate and 50% in glucuronate, a far greater response than what is observed after stimulation with fMLP. PMID:19246218

  16. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor-Kaplan, A.E.; Thompson, B.L.; Harris, A.L.; Taylor, P.; Omann, G.M.; Sklar, L.A. )

    1989-09-15

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation.

  17. Propofol Treatment Inhibits Constitutive Apoptosis in Human Primary Neutrophils and Granulocyte-Differentiated Human HL60 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Wei-Chieh; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis regulation is essential for neutrophil homeostasis. We previously demonstrated that a process involving glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β determines neutrophil apoptosis. As for this apoptotic process, an overdose of propofol (2,6-Diisopropylphenol; 25 μg/ml or 140 μM) also causes GSK-3β-mediated macrophage apoptosis; however, the early deactivation of GSK-3β with low-dose propofol has been shown. Therefore, we hypothesize that low-dose propofol may induce neutrophil survival via GSK-3β inactivation. Following in vitro culture, the therapeutic concentration of propofol (10 μg/ml or 56 μM) treatment decreased constitutive apoptosis in isolated human primary neutrophils and in granulocyte-differentiated HL60 cells after all-trans retinoic acid (1 μM) treatment. The inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/AKT and the activation of GSK-3β results in myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) down-regulation, the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and caspase-3 activation in these cells, which is accompanied by apoptosis. Notably, propofol treatment attenuates these effects in a PI3-kinase-regulated manner. We found that propofol initiates PI3-kinase/AKT-mediated GSK-3β inactivation and Mcl-1 stabilization, rescuing the constitutive apoptosis in primary neutrophils and granulocyte-differentiated acute promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells.

  18. Propofol Treatment Inhibits Constitutive Apoptosis in Human Primary Neutrophils and Granulocyte-Differentiated Human HL60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Wei-Chieh; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis regulation is essential for neutrophil homeostasis. We previously demonstrated that a process involving glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β determines neutrophil apoptosis. As for this apoptotic process, an overdose of propofol (2,6-Diisopropylphenol; 25 μg/ml or 140 μM) also causes GSK-3β-mediated macrophage apoptosis; however, the early deactivation of GSK-3β with low-dose propofol has been shown. Therefore, we hypothesize that low-dose propofol may induce neutrophil survival via GSK-3β inactivation. Following in vitro culture, the therapeutic concentration of propofol (10 μg/ml or 56 μM) treatment decreased constitutive apoptosis in isolated human primary neutrophils and in granulocyte-differentiated HL60 cells after all-trans retinoic acid (1 μM) treatment. The inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/AKT and the activation of GSK-3β results in myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) down-regulation, the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and caspase-3 activation in these cells, which is accompanied by apoptosis. Notably, propofol treatment attenuates these effects in a PI3-kinase-regulated manner. We found that propofol initiates PI3-kinase/AKT-mediated GSK-3β inactivation and Mcl-1 stabilization, rescuing the constitutive apoptosis in primary neutrophils and granulocyte-differentiated acute promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. PMID:26061531

  19. Purification and partial characterization of human neutrophil elastase inhibitors from the marine snail Cenchritis muricatus (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    González, Yamile; Tanaka, Aparecida S; Hirata, Izaura Y; del Rivero, Maday Alonso; Oliva, Maria L V; Araujo, Mariana S; Chávez, Maria A

    2007-04-01

    Human neutrophil elastase inhibition was detected in a crude extract of the marine snail Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda, Mollusca). This inhibitory activity remained after heating this extract at 60 degrees C for 30 min. From this extract, three human neutrophil elastase inhibitors (designated CmPI-I, CmPI-II and CmPI-III) were purified by affinity and reversed-phase chromatographies. Homogeneity of CmPI-I and CmPI-II was confirmed, while CmPI-III showed a single peak in reversed-phase chromatography, but heterogeneity in SDS-PAGE with preliminary molecular masses in the range of 18.4 to 22.0 kDa. In contrast, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of CmPI-I and CmPI-II showed that these inhibitors are molecules of low molecular mass, 5576 and 5469 Da, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequences of CmPI-I (6 amino acids) and CmPI-II (20 amino acids) were determined. Homology to Kazal-type protease inhibitors was preliminarily detected for CmPI-II. Both inhibitors, CmPI-I and CmPI-II are able to inhibit human neutrophil elastase strongly, with equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) values of 54.2 and 1.6 nM, respectively. In addition, trypsin and pancreatic elastase were also inhibited, but not plasma kallikrein or thrombin. CmPI-I and CmPI-II are the first human neutrophil elastase inhibitors described in a mollusk.

  20. Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) inhibits IL-1- and TNF-α-dependent, but not chemotactic-factor-stimulated, neutrophil transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Issekutz, Andrew C; Rowter, Derek; Macmillan, Heather F

    2011-11-01

    High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has anti-inflammatory effects via incompletely understood mechanisms. By investigating whether IVIG might modulate neutrophil (PMN) recruitment, we observed that IVIG dose-dependently inhibited (by 30-50%) PMN transendothelial migration (TEM) across human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) stimulated with IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α or IL-1β+TNF-α. Inhibition required the presence of IVIG with the responding PMNs, was attributable to the F(ab)(2) portion and was unrelated to putative contaminants in IVIG. IVIG did not inhibit IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced increase of PMN adhesion to EC, nor did it affect C5a- or IL-8-induced PMN TEM across unstimulated EC. Effects of IVIG and F(ab)(2) fragments were not associated with PMN activation, assessed by CD62L shedding, CD11b upregulation or PMN shape. Thus, IVIG selectively inhibits PMN TEM across inflammatory-cytokine-stimulated - but not unstimulated - EC, perhaps contributing to therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammation with minimal impact on chemotactic-factor-induced PMN recruitment during acute infection.

  1. Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrikossova, Natalia; Skoglund, Caroline; Ahrén, Maria; Bengtsson, Torbjörn; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2012-07-01

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd2O3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd2O3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes.

  2. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Binet, Francois; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenic trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2{alpha} are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.

  3. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenic trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2alpha are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.

  4. Human neutrophil FcγRIIA regulation by C5aR promotes inflammatory arthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Naotake; Ernandez, Thomas; Li, Xun; Nishi, Hiroshi; Cullere, Xavier; Mekala, Divya; Hazen, Melissa; Köhl, Jörg; Lee, David M.; Mayadas, Tanya N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis culminates in joint destruction that in mouse models of disease, is supported by innate immune molecules including FcγRs and complement. However, the results may not predict outcomes in humans given the structural differences between murine and human activating FcγRs on neutrophils, a prominent component of joint exudates. In this study, we examined the role of the human neutrophil FcγRIIA in the development of arthritis and probed the underlying mechanism by which FcγRIIA initiated disease. Methods K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis was examined in mice that express FcγRIIA on neutrophils but lack their own activating FcγRs (γ-chain-deficient). The role of mast cells, complement (C3 and C5a) and CD18 integrins in FcγRIIA-initiated disease was examined using cell reconstitution approaches, inhibitors, and functional blocking antibodies respectively. Cross-talk between C5aR and FcγRIIA on neutrophils was evaluated in vitro. Results Neutrophil FcγRIIA expression was sufficient to restore susceptibility to K/BxN serum induced neutrophil recruitment, synovitis and bone destruction in γ-chain-deficient mice. Joint inflammation was robust and proceeded even in the absence of mast cells and vascular permeability, shown to contribute to disease in wild-type mice. Neutrophil recruitment was dependent on CD18 integrin LFA-1 and C5aR. C5aR in addition significantly enhanced FcγRIIA mediated phagocytosis and oxidative burst in vitro. Conclusion Human and murine activating FcγRs on neutrophils are not functionally equivalent, and in humans may play a primary role in arthritis. Cross-talk between neutrophil C5aR and FcγRIIA is essential for disease thus highlighting a new aspect of complement during the effector phase of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:21280001

  5. Stimulation of proliferation, differentiation, and function of human cells by primate interleukin 3

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.F.; To, L.B.; Yang, Y.C.; Gamble, J.R.; Shannon, M.F.; Burns, G.F.; Dyson, P.G.; Juttner, C.A.; Clark, S.; Vadas, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    Cloned gibbon interleukin 3 (gIL-3) was found to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow cells to produce day-14 granulocyte, macrophage, granulocyte-macrophage, and eosinophil colonies in semisolid agar. In the presence of normal human plasma, gIL-3 stimulated megakaryocytes. In methylcellulose cultures, it stimulated erythroid colonies in the presence, but not in the absence, of erythropoietin. When mature human leukocytes were used, gIL-3 stimulated the function of purified mature eosinophils as measured by the capacity to kill /sup 51/Cr-labeled antibody-coated target cells, to produce superoxide anions, and to phagocytize opsonized yeast particles in a manner similar to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In contrast, gIL-3 did not significantly stimulate any of the neutrophil functions tested, whereas human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was active in these assay. Among cytokines that are active on human hematopoietic cells, gIL-3 thus has a distinct set of functions and may predict the range of actions of the human molecule.

  6. Quantitative comparison of C-X-C chemokines produced by endotoxin-stimulated human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R B; Strieter, R M; Frevert, C W; Cummings, C J; Tekamp-Olson, P; Kunkel, S L; Walz, A; Martin, T R

    1998-07-01

    The C-X-C chemokines are a structurally related and functionally redundant family of proteins with neutrophil chemotactic activity. Many of the C-X-C chemokines are produced by endotoxin-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs), but knowledge of their relative quantities and their relative contributions to the total chemotactic activity released from these cells is incomplete. Human AMs were stimulated with or without Escherichia coli endotoxin for 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. The mRNA sequences of interleukin (IL)-8, the 78-amino acid epithelial cell-derived neutrophil activator (ENA-78), growth-related protein (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, and GROgamma were cloned by PCR and identified by sequence analysis. The relative mRNA quantities were compared by Northern analysis, and IL-8 was found to predominate. Similarly, IL-8 protein concentrations in the cell supernatants were consistently higher than either the ENA-78 or GRO concentration, and by 24 h, IL-8 concentrations were 10-fold higher than those of the other C-X-C chemokines. Blocking polyclonal antibodies to IL-8 substantially reduced the chemotactic activity in the AM supernatants, whereas antibodies to ENA-78 and GRO had little or no effect. We conclude that IL-8 is the predominant C-X-C chemokine and the dominant neutrophil chemoattractant accumulating in 24-h supernatants of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human AMs. These studies provide insight into potentially effective strategies of interrupting AM-derived inflammatory signals in the lungs.

  7. Release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and histamine. II. The cellular origin of human PAF: monocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and basophils.

    PubMed Central

    Camussi, G; Aglietta, M; Coda, R; Bussolino, F; Piacibello, W; Tetta, C

    1981-01-01

    The origin of platelet activating factor (PAF) from human leucocytes was investigated. Purified monocytes release PAF passively at pH 10.6, when challenged with Ionophore A 23187 or under phagocytic stimuli. Pure preparations of polymorphonuclear neutrophils liberate PAF passively, when challenged with C5a, neutrophil cationic proteins (CP), their carboxypeptidase B derived products (C5a des Arg, CP des Arg) or under phagocytic stimuli. Basophil rich buffy coat cells release PAF when challenged with C5a, CP, anti-IgE (in low amount) or Synacthen concomitantly with basophil degranulation and histamine release. Electron microscopy studies, carried out on Synacthen-stimulated basophil rich buffy coat, provide morphological evidence for platelet-basophil interaction. In conclusion our data demonstrate that PAF can be released from different leucocyte populations. However, the stimuli able to trigger such release appear to have some specificity for the cell target. Images Figure 5 PMID:6161885

  8. cap alpha. -Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) stimulates the release of superoxide by rat neutrophils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.A.; Hewett, J.

    1986-03-01

    ..cap alpha..-Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is an hepatotoxicant that produces cholestasis and hyperbilirubinemia in rats. Its mechanism of action is unknown. The observation that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) accumulate in the bile ductular region of the liver following ANIT administration prompted us to examine the ability of ANIT to stimulate these cells. PMNs elicited from rat peritoneum were treated with ANIT in vitro to test for the release of superoxide anion (O/sub 2//sup -/). ANIT stimulated O/sub 2//sup -/ release from PMNs in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal O/sub 2//sup -/ release was achieved by an ANIT concentration of 110 ..mu.. M. O/sub 2//sup -/ release was rapid after the first few minutes of ANIT addition and ceased entirely between 10 and 15 minutes. An increase in the extracellular activity of lactate dehydrogenase also occurred after a 5-10 minute lag phase following ANIT addition. PMNs exposed to ANIT also failed to exclude trypan blue dye, either in the presence or in the absence of superoxide dismutase and catalase, suggesting a direct, oxygen radical-independent, cytotoxic effect of ANIT on PMNs. Release of the lysosomal enzyme, ..beta..-glucuronidase, also occurred within 5 min following exposure of PMNs to ANIT. These results indicate that ANIT stimulates the release of cytotoxic agents from rat PMNs in vitro and suggests that the direct stimulation of PMNs in vivo may contribute to ANIT-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  9. Evidence for production of oxidizing radicals by the particulate O-2-forming system from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Tauber, A I; Gabig, T G; Babior, B M

    1979-04-01

    The particulate O-2-forming system from human neutrophils was found to oxidize methional and 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) to ethylene, indicating the formation by this system of strongly oxidizing radicals. Conforming this interpretation was the observation that ethylene production was inhibited by the radical scavengers benzoate, ethanol, and mannitol. Ethylene production was also sharply reduced by superoxide dismutase, implicatin O-2 as a precursor of oxidizing radicals. In our system catalase only partially inhibited ethylene generation from either methional or KMB, suggesting that oxidizing radicals are generated at least in part by the reacton of O-2 with compounds other than H2O2. We propose that in neutrophils oxidizing radicals are formed in a reaction between O-2 and a peroxide according to the following equation: O-2 + ROOH leads to RO . + OH- + O2, in which ROOH may be hydrogen peroxide, an alkyl peroxide, or an acyl peroxide (i.e., a peroxy acid).

  10. Effect of High Doses of Radiation on Human Neutrophil Chemotaxis, Phagocytosis and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Thomas R.; Van Epps, Dennis E.; Harvey, Ronald L.; Anderson, Robert E.; Williams, Ralph C.

    1974-01-01

    Human neutrophils were exposed to varying amounts of ionizing radiation up to 1,000,000 rad and evaluated as to their ability to respond to chemotactic stimuli and phagocytize and kill bacteria. Striking morphologic and functional resistance to radiation was apparent. At doses up to 5,000 rad there was little or no impairment of chemotaxis. As the dosage increased to 50,000 rad, chemotaxis decreased to approximately 50% of nonirradiated control values. At very high doses of radiation (250,000 to 1,000,000 rad) neutrophils failed to respond significantly to chemotactic stimuli. Effects of radiation as measured by phagocytosis and the degree of ultrastructural change paralleled the chemotaxis results. ImagesFig 3Fig 4AFigs 4B-CFig 1Fig 2 PMID:4596654

  11. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin: a promising biomarker for human acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition, the diagnosis of which depends on serum creatinine measurements. Unfortunately, creatinine is a delayed and unreliable indicator of AKI. The lack of early biomarkers has crippled our ability to translate promising experimental therapies to human AKI. Fortunately, understanding the early stress response of the kidney to acute injuries has revealed a number of potential biomarkers. The discovery, translation and validation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, arguably the most promising novel AKI biomarker, are reviewed in this article. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is emerging as an excellent standalone troponin-like biomarker in the plasma and urine for the prediction of AKI, monitoring clinical trials in AKI and for the prognosis of AKI in several common clinical scenarios. PMID:20406069

  12. Capture of flowing human neutrophils by immobilised immunoglobulin: roles of Fc-receptors CD16 and CD32.

    PubMed

    Skilbeck, Christopher A; Lu, Xiaomei; Sheikh, Sajila; Savage, Caroline O S; Nash, Gerard B

    2006-05-01

    We investigated capture and activation of flowing human neutrophils through their Fc-receptors, FcRgammaIIIB (CD16) and FcRgammaIIA (CD32). Immobilised platelets bearing murine monoclonal antibody against glycoprotein IIbIIIA were able to capture and activate flowing neutrophils. The activation response was inhibited by antibody blockade of neutrophil CD32. However, capture only occurred efficiently at wall shear stress below 0.1 Pa if platelet P-selectin was blocked. If neutrophils were perfused over immobilised human IgG, many adhered at 0.025 or 0.05 Pa, but not at 0.1 Pa. Adhesion was reduced by blockade of CD16 or CD32, but blockade of CD16 had the greater effect. When neutrophils were perfused over a combination of purified P-selectin and IgG, blockade of CD16 and CD32 inhibited activation of captured cells. Immunoglobulin deposited in tissue could capture and activate slow-flowing neutrophils. It might also potentiate inflammatory responses at higher stress if presented along with selectins. The dominant FcR for capture of neutrophils was CD16, but with murine antibody, CD32 played a greater role.

  13. A selective reversible azapeptide inhibitor of human neutrophil proteinase 3 derived from a high affinity FRET substrate.

    PubMed

    Epinette, Christophe; Croix, Cécile; Jaquillard, Lucie; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Lalmanach, Gilles; Cadene, Martine; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude; Gauthier, Francis; Korkmaz, Brice

    2012-03-15

    The biological functions of human neutrophil proteinase 3 (PR3) remain unclear because of its close structural resemblance to neutrophil elastase and its apparent functional redundancy with the latter. Thus, all natural inhibitors of PR3 preferentially target neutrophil elastase. We have designed a selective PR3 inhibitor based on the sequence of one of its specific, sensitive FRET substrates. This azapeptide, azapro-3, inhibits free PR3 in solution, PR3 bound to neutrophil membranes, and the PR3 found in crude lung secretions from patients with chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases. But it does not inhibit significantly neutrophil elastase or cathepsin G. Unlike most of azapeptides, this inhibitor does not form a stable acyl-enzyme complex; it is a reversible competitive inhibitor with a K(i) comparable to the K(m) of the parent substrate. Low concentrations (60 μM) of azapro-3 totally inhibited the PR3 secreted by triggered human neutrophils (200,000 cells/100 μL) and the PR3 in neutrophil homogenates and in lung secretions of patients with lung inflammation for hours. Azapro-3 also resisted proteolysis by all proteases contained in these samples for at least 2h.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cell Wall Fragments Released upon Bacterial Contact with the Human Lung Mucosa Alter the Neutrophil Response to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scordo, Julia M.; Arcos, Jesús; Kelley, Holden V.; Diangelo, Lauren; Sasindran, Smitha J.; Youngmin, Ellie; Wewers, Mark D.; Wang, Shu-Hua; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Torrelles, Jordi B.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the World Health Organization reported that one person dies of tuberculosis (TB) every 21 s. A host environment that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) finds during its route of infection is the lung mucosa bathing the alveolar space located in the deepest regions of the lungs. We published that human lung mucosa, or alveolar lining fluid (ALF), contains an array of hydrolytic enzymes that can significantly alter the M.tb surface during infection by cleaving off parts of its cell wall. This interaction results in two different outcomes: modifications on the M.tb cell wall surface and release of M.tb cell wall fragments into the environment. Typically, one of the first host immune cells at the site of M.tb infection is the neutrophil. Neutrophils can mount an extracellular and intracellular innate immune response to M.tb during infection. We hypothesized that exposure of neutrophils to ALF-induced M.tb released cell wall fragments would prime neutrophils to control M.tb infection better. Our results show that ALF fragments activate neutrophils leading to an increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals. However, neutrophil exposure to these fragments reduces production of chemoattractants (i.e., interleukin-8), and degranulation, with the subsequent reduction of myeloperoxidase release, and does not induce cytotoxicity. Unexpectedly, these ALF fragment-derived modulations in neutrophil activity do not further, either positively or negatively, contribute to the intracellular control of M.tb growth during infection. However, secreted products from neutrophils primed with ALF fragments are capable of regulating the activity of resting macrophages. These results indicate that ALF-induced M.tb fragments could further contribute to the control of M.tb growth and local killing by resident neutrophils by switching on the total oxidative response and limiting migration of neutrophils to the infection site. PMID:28373877

  15. A role for endogenous mono-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in the regulation of human neutrophil migration.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E J

    1980-01-01

    The possibility that endogenous monohydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) derived from the lipoxygenation of arachidonic acid might serve a role in human neutrophil migration was examined by studying the effects of depletion of the intracellular HETEs on random migration and chemotaxis. The intracellular contents of approximately 2000 ng of 11-HETE and 500 ng of 5-HETE per 10(8) neutrophils are distributed preferentially in the cellular membranes and are increased by specific chemotactic factors. The depletion of intracellular HETEs that resulted from pre-incubating, washing and resuspending neutrophils in 3-20 microM 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (TYA), an inhibitor of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity, or in 5-10 microM nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a selective inhibitor of lipoxygenase activity, was associated with suppression of neutrophil random migration and chemotaxis to several stimuli without evidence of cytotoxicity. Maximal suppression of migration was achieved by a 30-60 min preincubation with the inhibitors, a time-course analogous to that required for optimal depletion of the endogenous HETEs. In contrast, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase activity enhanced random migration and, to a lesser extent, chemotaxis. The inhibition of migration achieved by pre-incubating and maintaining the neutrophils in TYA or NDGA was fully reversed either by washing and resuspending the neutrophils in buffer or by the addition of purified neutrophil 5-HETE in quantities as small as 20 ng/2 x 10(6) neutrophils for random migration and 0.8 ng/2 x 10(6) neutrophils for chemotaxis, while the addition of 11-HETE was less effective. The relationship of the intracellular concentrations of endogenous HETEs to neutrophil migration is consistent with a potential role of the HETEs as cellular mediators. PMID:6776039

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  17. Characterization of 58-kilodalton human neutrophil collagenase: Comparison with human fibroblast collagenase

    SciTech Connect

    Mallya, S.K.; Mookhtiar, K.A.; Gao, Y.; Dioszegi, M.; Wart, H.E.V. ); Brew, K. ); Birkedal-Hansen, H. )

    1990-11-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out to characterize 58-kDa human neutrophil collagenase (HNC) and compare it with human fibroblast collagenase (HFC). N-Terminal sequencing of latent and spontaneously activated HNC shows that it is a distinct collagenase that is homologous to HFC and other members of the matrix metalloproteinase gene family. Activation occurs autolytically by hydrolysis of an M-L bond at a locus homologous to the Q{sub 80}-F{sub 81}-V{sub 82}-L{sub 83} autolytic activation site of HFC. This releases a 16-residue propeptide believed to contain the cysteine switch residue required for latency. Polyclonal antibody raised against HNC cross-reacts with HFC but with none of the other major human matrix metalloproteinases examined. Treatment of HNC with endoglycosidase F or N-glycosidase F indicates that it is glycosylated at multiple sites. The deglycosylated latent and spontaneously activated enzymes have molecular weights of approximately 44K and 42K, respectively. Differences in the carbohydrate processing of HFC and HNC may determine why HFC is a secreted protein while HNC is stored in intracellular granules. The kinetic parameters K{sub cat} and K{sub M} for the hydrolysis of the interstitial collagen types I, II, and III in solution by both collagenases have been determined. The rates of hydrolysis of these peptides vary very little, indicating that it is the collagen conformation at the cleavage site and not the sequence specificity of the collagenases that determines their collagen specificities.

  18. Circadian rhythm of neutrophil counts and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) under clozapine treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ferrea, Stefano; Fehsel, Karin; Cordes, Joachim; Luckhaus, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Agranulocytosis is a severe side effect of clozapine which requires stopping this medication immediately in the case of progressive neutropenia. There are, however, cases of benign neutropenia under clozapine that do not progress. The ability to predict progression vs. non-progression in neutropenia cases under clozapine would be highly valuable for avoiding unnecessary treatment withdrawals. In this context, we closely monitored circadian neutrophil counts and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) levels in a patient who had low normal neutrophil counts at baseline and developed neutropenia under clozapine treatment. Venous blood samples were drawn in close intervals for 4 weeks. At several time points blood was sampled in the morning between 08:30 and 9:30 h and a second time in the afternoon between 14:00 and 15:00 h. The circadian rhythm of neutrophil counts and GM-CSF levels was unchanged. There was no progression to agranulocytosis, and clozapine could be continued. In view of the available literature and the presented case it is suggested that further studying of circadian profiles of neutrophil counts, neutrophil regulatory factors, such as GM-CSF, and their intercorrelation may help to find a biomarker of benign vs. malign neutropenia under clozapine.

  19. Binding of Soluble Yeast β-Glucan to Human Neutrophils and Monocytes is Complement-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Nandita; Chan, Anissa S. H.; Guerrero, Faimola; Maristany, Carolyn M.; Qiu, Xiaohong; Walsh, Richard M.; Ertelt, Kathleen E.; Jonas, Adria Bykowski; Gorden, Keith B.; Dudney, Christine M.; Wurst, Lindsay R.; Danielson, Michael E.; Elmasry, Natalie; Magee, Andrew S.; Patchen, Myra L.; Vasilakos, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucans are mediated through their ability to be recognized by human innate immune cells. While several studies have investigated binding of opsonized and unopsonized particulate β-glucans to human immune cells mainly via complement receptor 3 (CR3) or Dectin-1, few have focused on understanding the binding characteristics of soluble β-glucans. Using a well-characterized, pharmaceutical-grade, soluble yeast β-glucan, this study evaluated and characterized the binding of soluble β-glucan to human neutrophils and monocytes. The results demonstrated that soluble β-glucan bound to both human neutrophils and monocytes in a concentration-dependent and receptor-specific manner. Antibodies blocking the CD11b and CD18 chains of CR3 significantly inhibited binding to both cell types, establishing CR3 as the key receptor recognizing the soluble β-glucan in these cells. Binding of soluble β-glucan to human neutrophils and monocytes required serum and was also dependent on incubation time and temperature, strongly suggesting that binding was complement-mediated. Indeed, binding was reduced in heat-inactivated serum, or in serum treated with methylamine or in serum reacted with the C3-specific inhibitor compstatin. Opsonization of soluble β-glucan was demonstrated by detection of iC3b, the complement opsonin on β-glucan-bound cells, as well as by the direct binding of iC3b to β-glucan in the absence of cells. Binding of β-glucan to cells was partially inhibited by blockade of the alternative pathway of complement, suggesting that the C3 activation amplification step mediated by this pathway also contributed to binding. PMID:23964276

  20. Regulation of Human Neutrophil Apoptosis and Lifespan in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Jenna M; Allen, Lee-Ann H

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs) are the most abundant white blood cells in humans and play a central role in innate host defense. Another distinguishing feature of PMNs is their short lifespan. Specifically, these cells survive for less than 24 hours in the bloodstream and are inherently pre-programed to die by constitutive apoptosis. Recent data indicate that this process is regulated by intracellular signaling and changes in gene expression that define an “apoptosis differentiation program.” Infection typically accelerates neutrophil turnover, and as such, phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD) and subsequent clearance of the corpses by macrophages are essential for control of infection and resolution of the inflammatory response. Herein we reprise recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neutrophil apoptosis with a focus on regulatory factors and pathway intermediates that are specific to this cell type. In addition, we summarize mechanisms whereby perturbation of PMN death contributes directly to the pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory disease states. PMID:25278783

  1. Human Neutrophil Peptides 1-3 – Early Markers in Development of Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Mothes, Henning; Melle, Christian; Ernst, Günther; Kaufmann, Roland; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Settmacher, Utz

    2008-01-01

    Expression of Human Neutrophil Peptides (HNP) 1–3 was recently found to be associated with development of colorectal cancer. Raised defensin-expression in tumours is believed to stem from increased infiltration of neutrophils into tumour environment. To further specify the role of α-defensins in tumourigenesis and progression, HNP1–3 were analyzed in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas of 87 patients and quantified in relation to cancer stage and grading. Using the ProteinChip arrays, HNP1–3 were found upregulated in both colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. By combining the array with Laser capture microscopy we were able to confirm that HNP1–3 are expressed by tumour cells but not by neutrophils or other tumour invading cells. These findings suggest that α-defensins are more likely to contribute to tumour growth than they are to mount an effective host anti-tumour response. However, the amount of HNP-expression was not found to be related to tumour stage, grading, and serological tumour markers. PMID:18957723

  2. Guanine nucleotide-induced polymerization of actin in electropermeabilized human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The effects of exogenous guanine nucleotides on the polymerization of actin in human neutrophils were tested in an electropermeabilized cell preparation. Close to 40% permeabilization was achieved with a single electric discharge as measured by nucleic acid staining with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide with minimal (less than 2%) release of the cytoplasmic marker lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, electropermeabilized neutrophils retained their capacity to produce superoxide anions and to sustain a polymerization of actin in response to surface-receptor dependent stimuli such as chemotactic factors. Electropermeabilization produced a rapid and transient permeabilization that allowed the entry of guanine nucleotides into the cells. GTP and, to a larger extent, its nonhydrolyzable analog guanosine 5'-O-2- thiotriphosphate (GTP[S]), induced a time- and concentration-dependent polymerization of actin, as determined by increased staining with 7- nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazolylphallacidin. The effects of the aforementioned guanine nucleotides were antagonized by GDP[S], but were insensitive to pertussis toxin. Cholera toxin potentiated to a small degree the amount of actin polymerization induced by GTP[S]. These results provided direct evidence for the involvement of GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of the organization of the cytoskeleton of neutrophils, an event that is of crucial importance to the performance of the defense-oriented functions of these cells. PMID:2768336

  3. Neutrophil extracellular traps mediate a host defense response to human immunodeficiency virus-1.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tatsuya; Komano, Jun; Saitoh, Yasunori; Misawa, Takuma; Takahama, Michihiro; Kozaki, Tatsuya; Uehata, Takuya; Iwasaki, Hidenori; Omori, Hiroko; Yamaoka, Shoji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Akira, Shizuo

    2012-07-19

    Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance by producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are genomic DNA-based net-like structures that capture bacteria and fungi. Although NETs also express antiviral factors, such as myeloperoxidase and α-defensin, the involvement of NETs in antiviral responses remains unclear. We show that NETs capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and promote HIV-1 elimination through myeloperoxidase and α-defensin. Neutrophils detect HIV-1 by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR7 and TLR8, which recognize viral nucleic acids. Engagement of TLR7 and TLR8 induces the generation of reactive oxygen species that trigger NET formation, leading to NET-dependent HIV-1 elimination. However, HIV-1 counteracts this response by inducing C-type lectin CD209-dependent production of interleukin (IL)-10 by dendritic cells to inhibit NET formation. IL-10 suppresses the reactive oxygen species-dependent generation of NETs induced upon TLR7 and TLR8 engagement, resulting in disrupted NET-dependent HIV-1 elimination. Therefore, NET formation is an antiviral response that is counteracted by HIV-1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation of Lipid Rafts from Human Neutrophils by Density Gradient Centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Carl; Fülöp, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are present within minutes to the site of aggression in the body making them one of the first cells of the immune system to be in contact with incoming threats. The cell functions of neutrophils are elicited through the engagement of surface receptors, some of which are located in a specific region of the membrane called lipid rafts, a functionally segregated region of the membrane enriched with cholesterol and distinct species of sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids. Lipid rafts are relatively resistant to detergent extraction and this can be taken advantage of to isolate them from the rest of the cell membrane. This chapter will describe a reliable method to obtain lipid rafts from detergent-resistant membrane fractions of human neutrophils. Cells are lysed in an HEPES solution containing 0.5% Triton X-100, supernatants are mixed with a 42% sucrose solution, which is then overlaid with a 35% and 5% sucrose solution. The gradient is centrifuged for 16 h and the resulting fractions can be further analyzed by immunoblotting or subjected to immunoprecipitation.

  5. NETs formed by human neutrophils inhibit growth of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Allison; Heesemann, Leonie; Wagener, Johannes; Marcos, Veronica; Hartl, Dominik; Loeffler, Jürgen; Heesemann, Jürgen; Ebel, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represent a distinct mechanism to control and eliminate microbial infections. Our results show that conidia and germ tubes of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus are able to trigger the formation of NETs. Viable fungal cells are not essentially required for this host-pathogen interaction. Neutrophils engulf conidia and thereby inhibit their germination, a process that is independent of NETosis. In the experimental set-up used in this study neutrophils do not kill germ tubes, but reduce their polar growth and this inhibition depends on NETs as it can be overcome by the addition of DNase-1. The Zn(2+) chelator calprotectin is associated with the Aspergillus-induced NETs and addition of Zn(2+) abrogates the NET-mediated growth inhibition. In summary, our data provide evidence that NETs are not sufficient to kill A. fumigatus, but might be a valuable tool to confine infection. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The proteolytically stable peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 selectively inhibits human neutrophil activation via formyl peptide receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M H; Larsen, Camilla J; Franzyk, Henrik; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes

    2015-01-15

    Immunomodulatory host defense peptides (HDPs) are considered to be lead compounds for novel anti-sepsis and anti-inflammatory agents. However, development of drugs based on HDPs has been hampered by problems with toxicity and low bioavailability due to in vivo proteolysis. Here, a subclass of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogs of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines, we found that a fluorescently labeled analog of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore, the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating peptide agonist Cy5-WKYMWM, while the binding of an FPR1-selective agonist was not inhibited. To our knowledge, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 is the first HDP mimic found to inhibit activation of human neutrophils via direct interaction with FPR2. Hence, we consider Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 to be a convenient tool in the further dissection of the role of FPR2 in inflammation and homeostasis as well as for investigation of the importance of neutrophil stimulation in anti-infective therapy involving HDPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary fish oil decreases superoxide generation by human neutrophils: relation to cyclooxygenase pathway and lysosomal enzyme release.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, R; Saldeen, T

    1996-09-01

    12 volunteers with slightly elevated serum triglyceride levels were given 30 ml fish oil (5.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 3.2 g docosahexaenoic acid) daily for 4 weeks. The percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid increased (P < 0.01) and the percentage of linoleic (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (P < 0.01) decreased in neutrophil phospholipids. Superoxide generation by neutrophils initiated by phorbol myristate acetate decreased significantly from 48.6 +/- 8.8 to 34.7 +/- 11.1 nmol/10 min/400,000 cells (means +/- SD, P < 0.01, n = 11). Treatment of the cells with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin had no significant influence on the decrease in superoxide generation, indicating that cyclooxygenase products were not involved in this effect of fish oil. Neutrophil elastase release did not change significantly, suggesting that neutrophil lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide generation may be under separate control. In conclusion, dietary fish oil decreased superoxide generation by human neutrophils without involvement of the cyclooxygenase pathway and without altering neutrophil lysosomal enzyme release. Dietary fish oil could have beneficial effects in pathological conditions with activated neutrophils, such as ischaemic heart disease.

  8. Global substrate profiling of proteases in human neutrophil extracellular traps reveals consensus motif predominantly contributed by elastase.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Jin, Ye; Knudsen, Giselle M; Perera, Natascha C; Jenne, Dieter E; Murphy, John E; Craik, Charles S; Hermiston, Terry W

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consist of antimicrobial molecules embedded in a web of extracellular DNA. Formation of NETs is considered to be a defense mechanism utilized by neutrophils to ensnare and kill invading pathogens, and has been recently termed NETosis. Neutrophils can be stimulated to undergo NETosis ex vivo, and are predicted to contain high levels of serine proteases, such as neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG) and proteinase 3 (PR3). Serine proteases are important effectors of neutrophil-mediated immunity, which function directly by degrading pathogenic virulent factors and indirectly via proteolytic activation or deactivation of cytokines, chemokines and receptors. In this study, we utilized a diverse and unbiased peptide library to detect and profile protease activity associated with NETs induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We obtained a "proteolytic signature" from NETs derived from healthy donor neutrophils and used proteomics to assist in the identification of the source of this proteolytic activity. In addition, we profiled each neutrophil serine protease and included the newly identified enzyme, neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4). Each enzyme had overlapping yet distinct endopeptidase activities and often cleaved at unique sites within the same peptide substrate. The dominant proteolytic activity in NETs was attributed to NE; however, cleavage sites corresponding to CG and PR3 activity were evident. When NE was immunodepleted, the remaining activity was attributed to CG and to a lesser extent PR3 and NSP4. Our results suggest that blocking NE activity would abrogate the major protease activity associated with NETs. In addition, the newly identified substrate specificity signatures will guide the design of more specific probes and inhibitors that target NET-associated proteases.

  9. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Iridoids and Phenylpropanoids from Aerial Parts of Lamium album and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity in Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Monika E; Świerczewska, Anita; Woźniak, Marta; Kiss, Anna K

    2017-08-01

    In traditional medicine, flowers and aerial parts of Lamium album are assigned by their anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and mucolytic activities, and are used in chronic bronchitis and pharyngitis as well as skin, vaginal, and cervical inflammation.The aim of the present study was to compare effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from flowers and aerial parts of L. album on selected functions of human neutrophils, which are involved in an inflammatory response. In order to identify the compounds engaged in the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds was performed based on the inhibition of cytokine secretion by stimulated neutrophils.The extracts were phytochemically characterized with the HPLC-DAD-MS(n) method. The inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils was determined using luminol- or lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. The effect on myeloperoxidase secretion by neutrophils was established spectrophotometrically. The levels of cytokine (interleukin 8, TNF-α) production after extract treatment was measured by ELISA.The most abundant constituents of extracts were phenylpropanoids, iridoids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Both extracts at concentrations of 25 and 100 µg/mL significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species production, and myeloperoxidase and interleukin 8 secretion. The phenylethanoid glycosides, such as lamiusides A, B, and C as well as 6″-O-β-D-glucopyranosylmartynoside, were isolated and identified. The cells treated with 6″-O-β-D-glucopyranosylmartynoside and lamiuside B produced 29.47 ± 7.11 % and 64.67 ± 5.25 % of interleukin 8, respectively, compared to non-treated control cells.Our results support the traditional use of L. album and indicate it as a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory constituents, such as phenylpropanoids. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  10. Noninvasive stimulation of the human corticospinal tract.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

    2004-04-01

    Spinal tracts can be stimulated noninvasively in human subjects by passing a high-voltage stimulus between the mastoids or by magnetic stimulation over the back of the head. The stimulus probably activates the corticospinal tract at the cervicomedullary junction (pyramidal decussation) and evokes large, short-latency motor responses in the arm muscles. These responses have a large monosynaptic component. Responses in leg muscles can be elicited by cervicomedullary junction stimulation or by stimulation over the cervical or thoracic spine. Because nerve roots are more easily activated than spinal tracts, stimulus spread to motor axons can occur. Facilitation of responses by voluntary activity confirms that the responses are evoked synaptically. Stimulation of the corticospinal tract is useful in studies of central conduction and studies of the behavior of motoneurons during different tasks. It also provides an important comparison to allow interpretation of changes in responses to stimulation of the motor cortex. The major drawback to the use of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract is that each stimulus is transiently painful.

  11. Curcumin increases gelatinase activity in human neutrophils by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Francis; Girard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has been found to possess anti-inflammatory activities and neutrophils, key players in inflammation, were previously found to be important targets to curcumin in a few studies. For example, curcumin was found to induce apoptosis in neutrophils by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. However, the role of curcumin on the biology of neutrophils is still poorly defined. To study the role of curcumin on neutrophil degranulation and to determine the role of p38 MAPK, human neutrophils were freshly isolated from healthy individuals and incubated in vitro with curcumin. Degranulation was studied at three levels: surface expression of granule markers by flow cytometry; release of matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9 or gelatinase B) enzyme into supernatants by Western blot; and gelatinase B activity by zymography. Activation of p38 MAPK was studied by monitoring its tyrosine phosphorylation levels by western blot and its role by the utilization of a pharmacological inhibitor. The results indicate that curcumin increased the cell surface expression of CD35 (secretory vesicle), CD63 (azurophilic granules), and CD66b (gelatinase granules) in neutrophils. Also, curcumin increased the release and enzymatic activity of gelatinase B in the extracellular milieu and activated p38 MAP kinase in these cells. However, in contrast to fMLP, curcumin-induced enzymatic activity and secretion of gelatinase B were not reversed by use of a p38 inhibitor. Finally, it was found that curcumin was able to enhance phagocytosis. Taken together, the results here demonstrate that curcumin induced degranulation in human neutrophils and that the increased gelatinase activity is not dependent on p38 MAPK activation. Therefore, degranulation is another human neutrophil function that could be modulated by curcumin, as well as phagocytosis.

  12. Regulation of plasminogen binding to neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Herren, T; Burke, T A; Jardi, M; Felez, J; Plow, E F

    2001-02-15

    Plasminogen plays an integral role in the inflammatory response, and this participation is likely to depend on its interaction with cell surfaces. It has previously been reported that isolation of human neutrophils from blood leads to a spontaneous increase in their plasminogen-binding capacity, and the basis for this up-regulation has been explored as a model for mechanisms for modulation of plasminogen receptor expression. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood neutrophils exhibited relatively low plasminogen binding, but when cultured for 20 hours, they increased this capacity dramatically, up to 50-fold. This increase was abolished by soybean trypsin inhibitor and was susceptible to carboxypeptidase B treatment, implicating proteolysis and exposure of carboxy-terminal lysines in the enhanced interaction. In support of this hypothesis, treatment of neutrophils with elastase, cathepsin G, or plasmin increased their plasminogen binding, and specific inhibitors of elastase and cathepsin G suppressed the up-regulation that occurred during neutrophil culture. When neutrophils were stimulated with phorbol ester, their plasminogen binding increased rapidly, but this increase was insensitive to the protease inhibitors. These results indicate that plasminogen binding to neutrophils can be up-regulated by 2 distinct pathways. A major pathway with the propensity to markedly up-regulate plasminogen binding depends upon the proteolytic remodeling of the cell surface. In response to thioglycollate, neutrophils recruited into the peritoneum of mice were shown to bind more plasminogen than those in peripheral blood, suggesting that modulation of plasminogen binding by these or other pathways may also occur in vivo.

  13. A novel microfluidic assay reveals a key role for protein kinase C δ in regulating human neutrophil-endothelium interaction.

    PubMed

    Soroush, Fariborz; Zhang, Ting; King, Devon J; Tang, Yuan; Deosarkar, Sudhir; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Kilpatrick, Laurie E; Kiani, Mohammad F

    2016-11-01

    A key step in neutrophil-mediated tissue damage is the migration of activated neutrophils across the vascular endothelium. Previously, we identified protein kinase C δ as a critical regulator of neutrophil migration in sepsis but did not identify specific steps in migration. In this study, we used our novel biomimetic microfluidic assay to delineate systematically the mechanism by which protein kinase C δ regulates individual steps in human neutrophil-endothelial interaction during inflammation. The biomimetic microfluidic assay includes a network of vascular channels, produced from in vivo images connected to a tissue compartment through a porous barrier. HUVECs cultured in vascular channels formed a complete lumen under physiologic shear flow. HUVECs were pretreated with TNF-α ± a protein kinase C δ inhibitor, and the tissue compartment was filled with a chemoattractant (fMLP or IL-8). Under physiologic shear flow, the role of protein kinase C δ on spatial and temporal neutrophil adherence/migration was quantified. Protein kinase C δ inhibition significantly reduced neutrophil adhesion in response to fMLP and IL-8 only under low shear rate and near bifurcations. Protein kinase C δ inhibition also decreased adherence to nonactivated HUVECs in response to fMLP or IL-8. Protein kinase C δ inhibition reduced neutrophil migration into the tissue compartment in response to fMLP and to a lesser degree, to IL-8. Antibody-coated microparticles demonstrated that protein kinase C δ inhibition down-regulated E-selectin and ICAM-1 but not VCAM-1 expression. With the use of a physiologically relevant in vitro model system, we demonstrate that protein kinase C δ plays an important role in the regulation of neutrophil adherence/migration during inflammation and identifies key steps regulated by protein kinase C δ in neutrophil-endothelial interactions.

  14. Effect of a Korean traditional formulation, Hwaotang, on superoxide generation in human neutrophils, platelet aggregation in human blood, and nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 production and paw oedema induced by carrageenan in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Hwan; Park, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-02-01

    Hwaotang, a traditional Korean medicinal formulation, is a dried decoctum of a mixture of 7 herbal medicines, consisting of Angelica gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae radix, Paeoniae radix, Ciniamomi cortex, Cnidii rhizoma, Persicae semen and Carthami flos. We have investigated that Hwaotang water extract (HOT) has various effects on stimulus-induced superoxide generation in human neutrophils. The effects of HOT on superoxide generation in human neutrophils were investigated. HOT significantly inhibited N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced superoxide generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but not that induced by arachidonic acid (AA). On the other hand, HOT enhanced superoxide generation induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The superoxide generation induced by PMA with HOT was suppressed by staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but was not suppressed by genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of a 58 kDa protein, which was increased by fMLP, was inhibited by HOT. HOT also inhibited the generation of a 47 kDa protein and platelet aggregation in human blood. The results suggest that protein tyrosine kinase participates in fMLP-mediated superoxide generation by HOT-treated human neutrophils. HOT inhibited neutrophil functions, including degranulation, superoxide generation, and leukotriene B4 production, without any effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. HOT reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, whereas no influence on the activity of iNOS, COX-2 or COX-1 was observed. HOT significantly reduced mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan. Western blot analysis showed that HOT reduced the expression of iNOS and COX-2. The results indicate that HOT exerts anti-inflammatory effects related to the inhibition of neutrophil functions and of NO and prostaglandin E2 production, which

  15. The innate defense regulator peptides IDR-HH2, IDR-1002, and IDR-1018 modulate human neutrophil functions.

    PubMed

    Niyonsaba, François; Madera, Laurence; Afacan, Nicole; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Hancock, Robert E W

    2013-07-01

    Although HDPs were originally hypothesized to act as antimicrobial agents, they also have been shown to broadly modulate the immune response through the activation of different cell types. We recently developed a