Science.gov

Sample records for stingray urotrygon chilensis

  1. Escherbothrium molinae n. gen. et n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Triloculariidae) in Urotrygon chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Berman, R; Brooks, D R

    1994-10-01

    Cestodes collected in spiral valves of the stingray Urotrygon chilensis from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica represent an undescribed species of Tetraphyllidea. By possessing more than 2 loculi as well as an apical sucker on each bothridium, the new species is diagnosably distinct from all other tetraphyllidean genera; therefore, a new genus is proposed for it. The new species also possesses globular structures irregularly arranged on the surface of the bothridia. We found similar structures on the bothridial faces of Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris, possibly indicating phylogenetic relationships with the new species. This possibility is enhanced by the observation that the bothridia of T. acanthiaevulgaris comprise 2 loculi and an apical sucker, rather than 3 loculi.

  2. Age and Growth of the Round Stingray Urotrygon rogersi, a Particularly Fast-Growing and Short-Lived Elasmobranch

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Falla, Paola A.; Cortés, Enric; Navia, Andrés F.; Zapata, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the age and growth of Urotrygon rogersi on the Colombian coast of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean by directly estimating age using vertebral centra. We verified annual deposition of growth increments with marginal increment analysis. Eight growth curves were fitted to four data sets defined on the basis of the reproductive cycle (unadjusted or adjusted for age at first band) and size variables (disc width or total length). Model performance was evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), AIC weights and multi-model inference criteria. A two-phase growth function with adjusted age provided the best description of growth for females (based on five parameters, DW∞  =  20.1 cm, k  =  0.22 yr–1) and males (based on four and five parameters, DW∞  =  15.5 cm, k  =  0.65 yr–1). Median maturity of female and male U. rogersi is reached very fast (mean ± SE  =  1.0 ± 0.1 year). This is the first age and growth study for a species of the genus Urotrygon and results indicate that U. rogersi attains a smaller maximum size and has a shorter lifespan and lower median age at maturity than species of closely related genera. These life history traits are in contrast with those typically reported for other elasmobranchs. PMID:24776963

  3. Age and growth of the round stingray Urotrygon rogersi, a particularly fast-growing and short-lived elasmobranch.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Cortés, Enric; Navia, Andrés F; Zapata, Fernando A

    2014-01-01

    We examined the age and growth of Urotrygon rogersi on the Colombian coast of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean by directly estimating age using vertebral centra. We verified annual deposition of growth increments with marginal increment analysis. Eight growth curves were fitted to four data sets defined on the basis of the reproductive cycle (unadjusted or adjusted for age at first band) and size variables (disc width or total length). Model performance was evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), AIC weights and multi-model inference criteria. A two-phase growth function with adjusted age provided the best description of growth for females (based on five parameters, DW∞  =  20.1 cm, k  =  0.22 yr⁻¹) and males (based on four and five parameters, DW(∞)  =  15.5 cm, k  =  0.65 yr⁻¹). Median maturity of female and male U. rogersi is reached very fast (mean ± SE  =  1.0 ± 0.1 year). This is the first age and growth study for a species of the genus Urotrygon and results indicate that U. rogersi attains a smaller maximum size and has a shorter lifespan and lower median age at maturity than species of closely related genera. These life history traits are in contrast with those typically reported for other elasmobranchs.

  4. Six species of Acanthobothrium (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) in stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Rajiformes: Myliobatoidei) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Marguee, F; Brooks, D R; Barriga, R

    1997-06-01

    Six species of Acanthobothrium, 4 described as new, are reported in stingrays from southern Ecuador. Acanthobothrium atahualpai n. sp. in Gymnura afuerae most closely resembles Acanthobothrium fogeli and Acanthobothrium parviuncinatum by having bothridial hooks with recurved prongs and short handles. It differs from A. fogeli by having bothridial hooks 163-195 microns vs. 78-114 microns long and averaging 25 vs. 32 testes per pruglottis: it differs from A. parviuncinatum by having bothridial hooks 163-195 microns vs. 87 microns long and averaging 25 vs. 13 testes per proglottis. Acanthobothrium minusculus n. sp. in Urolophus tumbesensis most resembles Acanthobothrium campbelli and Acanthobothrium vargasi by being no more than 3 mm long and having 6-30 testes per proglottis. It can be distinguished from them by having bothridial hooks averaging 86 microns vs. 108-111 microns and 130-133 microns long, and 6-10 vs. 15-23 and 22-29 testes per proglottis, respectively. Acanthobothrium monksi n. sp. in Aetobatus narinari resembles Acanthobothrium tasajerasi from Himantura schmardae by having a prominent genital atrium and a large globose cirrus sac; it differs by averaging 21 vs. 35 testes per proglottis and having bothridial hooks averaging 150 microns vs. 165 microns long. Acanthobothrium obuncus n. sp. in Dasyatis longus resembles a group of species characterized by wider than long to square immature and mature proglottides, bothridia at least partially fused to the scolex at their posterior ends, and asymmetrical ovarian arms with aporal arms extending anteriorly to the vaginal level. It resembles Acanthobothrium americanum by averaging 73 vs. 72 testes per proglottis, but differs by having bothridial hooks averaging 120-131 microns vs. 151 microns long; it resembles Acanthobothrium chilensis by having bothridial hooks averaging 120-131 microns vs. 130 microns long, but differs by averaging 73 vs. 90 testes per proglottis. Acanthobothrium campbelli in Urotrygon

  5. Stingray Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image captures the infancy of the Stingray nebula (Hen-1357), the youngest known planetary nebula. In this image, the bright central star is in the middle of the green ring of gas. Its companion star is diagonally above it at 10 o'clock. A spur of gas (green) is forming a faint bridge to the companion star due to gravitational attraction. The image also shows a ring of gas (green) surrounding the central star, with bubbles of gas to the lower left and upper right of the ring. The wind of material propelled by radiation from the hot central star has created enough pressure to blow open holes in the ends of the bubbles, allowing gas to escape. The red curved lines represent bright gas that is heated by a 'shock' caused when the central star's wind hits the walls of the bubbles. The nebula is as large as 130 solar systems, but, at its distance of 18,000 light-years, it appears only as big as a dime viewed a mile away. The Stingray is located in the direction of the southern constellation Ara (the Altar). The colors shown are actual colors emitted by nitrogen (red), oxygen (green), and hydrogen (blue).

  6. Five new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1849 (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) in stingrays from 1he Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Marques, F; Brooks, D R; Monks, S

    1995-12-01

    aporal lobes reaching the middle of the cirrus sac. Acanthobothrium campbelli n. sp. in Urotrygon chilensis, most similar to a A. brevissime, A. Vargasi, A. lineatum, A. himanturi, and A. urotrygoni, has bothridial hooks averaging 108 microns (lateral) and 111 microns (medial) long, an average of 19 tester per proglottis arranged in 2 nearly linear rows, cirrus sacs averaging 74 microns long, and asymmetrical ovarian lobes with the poral lobe reaching the posterior margin of the cirrus sac, and the aporal lobes reaching the middle of the cirrus sac.

  7. Locomotion in the decerebrate stingray.

    PubMed

    Leonard, R B; Rudomín, P; Droge, M H; Grossman, A E; Willis, W D

    1979-10-01

    Stingrays swim with an active elevation-depression sequence of the pectoral fin resembling an extension-flexion sequence. During forward locomotion this sequence passes caudally along the pectoral fin. Immediately following high decerebration, stingrays are capable of locomotion, and the pattern of muscle activity closely resembles that of intact animals. Spontaneous and midbrain evoked rhythmic motoneuron discharges can be recorded in paralyzed decerebrated animals. In contrast to dogfish sharks, stringrays with high spinal transections do not locomote.

  8. Stingray: Spectral-timing software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Bachetti, Matteo; Stevens, Abigail L.; Migliari, Simone; Balm, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Stingray is a spectral-timing software package for astrophysical X-ray (and more) data. The package merges existing efforts for a (spectral-)timing package in Python and is composed of a library of time series methods (including power spectra, cross spectra, covariance spectra, and lags); scripts to load FITS data files from different missions; a simulator of light curves and event lists that includes different kinds of variability and more complicated phenomena based on the impulse response of given physical events (e.g. reverberation); and a GUI to ease the learning curve for new users.

  9. Electroreception in the euryhaline stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    McGowan, D W; Kajiura, S M

    2009-05-01

    This study quantified the electrosensitivity of a euryhaline elasmobranch, the Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) across a range of salinities. Specimens from a permanent freshwater (FW) population in the St Johns River system, FL, USA, were compared with stingrays from the tidally dynamic Indian River Lagoon in east Florida, USA. Behavioral responses of stingrays to prey-simulating electric stimuli were quantified in FW (0 p.p.t., rho=2026 Omega cm), brackish (15 p.p.t., rho=41 Omega cm) and full strength seawater (35 p.p.t., rho=19 Omega cm). This study demonstrated that the electrosensitivity of D. sabina is significantly reduced in FW. In order to elicit a feeding response, stingrays tested in FW required an electric field 200-300x greater than stingrays tested in brackish and saltwater (median FW treatments=1.4 microV cm(-1), median brackish-saltwater treatments=6 nV cm(-1)), and the maximum orientation distance was reduced by 35.2%, from 44.0 cm in the brackish and saltwater treatments to 28.5 cm in FW. The St Johns River stingrays did not demonstrate an enhanced electrosensitivity in FW, nor did they exhibit reduced sensitivity when introduced to higher salinities. Stingrays from both populations responded similarly to the prey-simulating stimulus when tested at similar salinities, regardless of their native environment. The reduction in electrosensitivity and detection range in FW is attributed to both an environmental factor (electrical resistivity of the water) and the physiological function of the ampullary canals. The plasticity of this sensory system to function across such a wide environmental range demonstrates its adaptive significance.

  10. Threatened limb from stingray injury.

    PubMed

    Shiraev, Timothy P; Marucci, Damian; McMullin, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old female who suffered a stingray injury to her left ankle. The sting caused occlusion of the dorsalis pedis artery, causing dry gangrene of the medial forefoot. A below knee amputation was recommended but she was transferred for a second opinion. A Prostaglandin E1 infusion was commenced, resulting in alleviation of pain and improvement in perfusion. Amputation of great and second toes was performed, with the head of the first metatarsal preserved and covered via a cross-over skin flap raised from the contralateral leg. Achilles tendon lengthening was then performed to return the foot to a functional position. This case serves to highlight the utility of prostaglandin infusion, and the requirement for a multidisciplinary approach to critical limb ischemia in order to avoid major amputation.

  11. Stingray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are with is stung, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  12. Retained Stingray Barb and the Importance of Imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F; O'Malley, Rika N; Pham, Oahn; Randolph, Frederick

    2015-09-01

    Stingray envenomation is a common occurrence. X-ray evaluation of stingray wounds is an unnecessarily misunderstood diagnostic concept. We present the case of a patient stung by a stingray with a prolonged and complicated course and permanent disability due to a retained barb. The patient had undergone multiple medical evaluations before an X-ray was obtained. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The epidemiology, evaluation, and management of stingray injuries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis and review of the world's salient scientific literature on stingray injuries was conducted in light of recent high-profile cases of fatal and near-fatal thoracic stingray injuries to guide clinicians in evaluating and managing stingray injuries. Data was extracted from observational and longitudinal studies over the period, 1950-2006, to permit (1) a stratification of stingray injuries as bites, penetrating lacerations with and without envenoming, and combinations of deeply penetrating and envenoming wounds; and (2) an assessment of new management strategies for thoracoabdominal penetrating trauma and non-healing, necrotic stingray wounds. Unlike their Chondrichthyes classmates, the sharks, stingrays are docile and non-aggressive; and will not attack with their spined tails, unless provoked. Although some occupations are predisposed to stingray injuries, most stingray injuries can be avoided by observing seafloors and adopting simple practices when wading, swimming, diving, or fishing in temperate oceans and some tropical freshwater river systems. All stingray injuries should be managed initially with wound irrigation to dislodge retained spine fragments and envenoming tissues and warm water immersion to inactivate heat-labile toxins.

  14. 76 FR 12949 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application On February 22, 2011, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... directed to Cynthia Hornstein Roney, Manager--Regulatory Affairs, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.,...

  15. 78 FR 44558 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 3, 2013, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 1100 Louisiana... directed to Cynthia Hornstein Roney, Manager, Regulatory Compliance, Stingray Pipeline Company,...

  16. Transient ischaemic attack caused by an ingested stingray barb.

    PubMed

    Gan, Desmond C C; Huilgol, Ravi L; Westcott, Mark J

    A 76-year-old woman reported a fishbone stuck in her throat, but no foreign body was identified. Eight weeks later, she experienced a transient ischaemic attack, and a stingray barb was subsequently removed from the right common carotid artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the migration of an ingested stingray barb.

  17. Stingray injury to the webspace of the foot.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Hannah C; Matheny, Lauren M; Clanton, Thomas O

    2012-05-01

    Stingrays are cartilaginous fish that are related to sharks. They are one of the largest groups of venomous marine animals. Stingrays account for 750 to 2000 injuries annually. They are generally passive, reclusive creatures that only sting in self-defense. Most injuries caused by these animals are nonfatal. A stingray possesses between 1 and 4 venomous stings, which are located along the caudal spine. If a stingray injury is sustained, parts of the spine may be left in the lacerations, which prolongs exposure to venom and increases the risk of subsequent wound infection. Stingray venom is unique in its enzymatic composition and results in distinct soft tissue injury patterns. Typically, a pattern of acute inflammation occurs, with a predominantly lymphoid cellular infiltrate followed by necrosis. The environment in which stingray injuries occur presents unique bacterial flora, and subsequent wound infections require careful antibiotic selection.This article describes a case of a healthy 31-year-old woman who sustained a stingray injury to the webspace of the foot while in Costa Rica. Initial basic first aid measures were applied. However, the wound subsequently became infected, and formal irrigation and debridement were performed. The initial wound cultures grew Staphylococcus viridans. Two months postoperatively, the incision was well healed, and the patient was pain free and returned to work.

  18. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx.

  19. Reproductive variables of Urotrygon rogersi (Batoidea: Urotrygonidae): a species with a triannual reproductive cycle in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Falla, P A; Navia, A F; Cortés, E

    2012-04-01

    Reproductive aspects of the round ray Urotrygon rogersi were studied based on 2005 specimens obtained in the artisanal shrimp fishery operating on the Colombian Pacific coast. Females reached greater maximum total length (L(T) ), disc width (W(D) ) and mass (M) (38·0 cm, 19·9 cm and 348 g) than males (32·5 cm, 17·0 cm and 165 g). Sex ratio of juveniles and adults was 1:1. Clasper length increased rapidly between 10·0 and 12·5 cm W(D) . The smallest mature male measured 10·5 cm W(D) and the largest immature individual 13·7 cm W(D) . Male first maturity was reached at 61·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·5 and 11·8 cm. The smallest mature female measured 10·5 cm W(D) ; the size at first maturity was 52·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·8 and 12·3 cm. Embryos were found in females ≥ 10·5 cm W(D) and maximum fecundity was three embryos per female (mode = 1) and varied with maternal size. Embryos were found in all months, but three birthing peaks per year were identified and a gestation period of 4-5 months estimated. Based on ovulation time, embryonic growth and parturition dates, a triannual reproductive cycle was inferred for this species, with overlapping ovarian and uterine cycles. These results suggest that U. rogersi has a reproductive strategy based on low fecundity, a rapid reproductive cycle (short ovulation and gestation time), three birth peaks per year and large embryos. This strategy probably allows U. rogersi to withstand the fishing pressure they are subject to on the Colombian Pacific coast. The results also suggest that the study area is an important nursery and reproductive area for this species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. A second-generation high speed civil transport: Stingray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engdahl, Sean; Lopes, Kevin; Ngan, Angelen; Perrin, Joseph; Phipps, Marcus; Westman, Blake; Yeo, Urn

    1992-01-01

    The Stingray is the second-generation High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) designed for the 21st Century. This aircraft is designed to be economically viable and environmentally sound transportation competitive in markets currently dominated by subsonic aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and upcoming McDonnell Douglas MD-12. With the Stringray coming into service in 2005, a ticket price of 21 percent over current subsonic airlines will cover operational costs with a 10 percent return on investment. The cost per aircraft will be $202 million with the Direct Operating Cost equal to $0.072 per mile per seat. This aircraft has been designed to be a realistic aircraft that can be built within the next ten to fifteen years. There was only one main technological improvement factor used in the design, that being for the engine specific fuel consumption. The Stingray, therefore, does not rely on technology that does not exist. The Stingray will be powered by four mixed flow turbofans that meet both nitrous oxide emissions and FAR 36 Stage 3 noise regulations. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nautical miles at a speed of Mach 2.4. The shape of the Stingray, while optimized for supersonic flight, is compatible with all current airline facilities in airports around the world. As the demand for economical, high-speed flight increases, the Stingray will be ready and able to meet those demands.

  1. Anatomical, phytochemical and histochemical study of Solidago chilensis Meyen.

    PubMed

    Souza, Douglas M F DE; Sá, Rafaela D; Araújo, Evani L; Randau, Karina P

    2017-06-29

    Solidago chilensis Meyen, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is a plant native to South America and the only representative of the genus in Brazil. This species is popularly known as "arnica" and is used to treat bruises, muscle pain and inflammation. The objective of this work was to contribute to the pharmacognostic standardization of S. chilensis. Cross-sections were obtained, by freehand, for microscopic analysis of root, stem and leaf; for these parts of the plant maceration was also performed according to the method of Jeffrey. For the leaf were still made paradermal sections, scanning electron microscopy analysis, phytochemical and histochemical tests. Thus, it was determined anatomical features useful for diagnosis of the species which, together with identification of the chemical compounds and its histolocalization, provides support to their quality control.

  2. Maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and stingrays.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas H; Lepoint, Gilles; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-03-15

    Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study provides preliminary data on the POP transfer from pregnant females to offspring of three species (Atlantic stingrays, bonnethead, blacktip sharks) with different reproduction modes (aplacental, placental viviparity). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were generally higher than any other POPs. Stingrays and blacktip shark embryos contained the lowest POP concentrations while bonnetheads and the blacktip adult female had the highest concentrations. Results suggest that POPs are more readily transferred from the mother to the embryo compared to what is transferred to ova in stingrays. Statistically significant differences in levels of selected POPs were found between embryos from the left and right uterus within the same litter as well as between female and male embryos within the same litter for bonnetheads, but not for the blacktip sharks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) related to research published in "Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish" (Takahashi et al., 2016) [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  4. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    PubMed

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention.

  5. Ultrastructure Organization of Collagen Fibrils and Proteoglycans of Stingray and Shark Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Saud A.; Almubrad, Turki; AlIbrahim, Ahmad I. A.; Khan, Adnan A.; Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We report here the ultrastructural organization of collagen fibrils (CF) and proteoglycans (PGs) of the corneal stroma of both the stingray and the shark. Three corneas from three stingrays and three corneas from three sharks were processed for electron microscopy. Tissues were embedded in TAAB 031 resin. The corneal stroma of both the stingray and shark consisted of parallel running lamellae of CFs which were decorated with PGs. In the stingray, the mean area of PGs in the posterior stroma was significantly larger than the PGs of the anterior and middle stroma, whereas, in the shark, the mean area of PGs was similar throughout the stroma. The mean area of PGs of the stingray was significantly larger compared to the PGs, mean area of the shark corneal stroma. The CF diameter of the stingray was significantly smaller compared to the CF diameter in the shark. The ultrastructural features of the corneal stroma of both the stingray and the shark were similar to each other except for the CFs and PGs. The PGs in the stingray and shark might be composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) PGs and these PGs with sutures might contribute to the nonswelling properties of the cornea of the stingray and shark. PMID:26167294

  6. Ultrastructure Organization of Collagen Fibrils and Proteoglycans of Stingray and Shark Corneal Stroma.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Saud A; Almubrad, Turki; AlIbrahim, Ahmad I A; Khan, Adnan A; Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We report here the ultrastructural organization of collagen fibrils (CF) and proteoglycans (PGs) of the corneal stroma of both the stingray and the shark. Three corneas from three stingrays and three corneas from three sharks were processed for electron microscopy. Tissues were embedded in TAAB 031 resin. The corneal stroma of both the stingray and shark consisted of parallel running lamellae of CFs which were decorated with PGs. In the stingray, the mean area of PGs in the posterior stroma was significantly larger than the PGs of the anterior and middle stroma, whereas, in the shark, the mean area of PGs was similar throughout the stroma. The mean area of PGs of the stingray was significantly larger compared to the PGs, mean area of the shark corneal stroma. The CF diameter of the stingray was significantly smaller compared to the CF diameter in the shark. The ultrastructural features of the corneal stroma of both the stingray and the shark were similar to each other except for the CFs and PGs. The PGs in the stingray and shark might be composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) PGs and these PGs with sutures might contribute to the nonswelling properties of the cornea of the stingray and shark.

  7. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Clementino Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo; Leite Pinto, Raimundo Nonato; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria. PMID:26094699

  8. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo Clementino; Pinto, Raimundo Nonato Leite; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-06-18

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria.

  9. Novel Compounds from Shark and Stingray Epidermal Mucus With Antimicrobial Activity Against Wound Infection Pathogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    which demonstrate antibiotic activity. 135 bacterial isolates cultured from cownose ray and 11 from Atlantic stingray epidermal mucus demonstrated...stingray isolates, 6 demonstrated antibiotic activity against pathogenic bacterial tester strains screened at University of South Florida Center for...infection pathogens, bacterial symbionts, culturable bacterial isolates 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER

  10. Stingray barb injury: a cause of late coronary occlusion and stent failure.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Craig R; Saro, Enrique; Patel, Parag; Swidryk, John; Bacani, Victor O; Russo, Mark J; Stone, Jay H

    2013-11-01

    Stingray injuries to the heart are rare, and survivors of this injury are even rarer. To date, there are only three reported survivors of this mode of penetrating cardiac injury, all inflicted by the living animal itself. The following is a report of a stingray injury, inflicted by a human, causing coronary complications 17 years after the injury was sustained.

  11. Invasive fusariosis associated with an injury by a stingray barb.

    PubMed

    Hiemenz, J W; Kennedy, B; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1990-01-01

    A previously healthy adult male suffered a wound to the dorsal ulnar aspect of his right hand by a stingray barb while fishing off the East coast of Florida. Two weeks after the imbedded barb had been surgically removed, an erythematous lesion developed around the wound. Histopathologic and microbiological studies revealed infection caused by Fusarium solani. The patient was successfully treated with debridement and skin grafting in conjunction with ketoconazole therapy.

  12. Mycobacteriosis, Mycobacterium chelonae, in a captive yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Dorn, Brian; Boone, Allison; Risatti, Guillermo; Gilbert-Marcheterre, Kelly; Harms, Craig A

    2013-06-01

    An adult yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis) from a touch-tank exhibit developed a large abscess on the dorsal aspect of the calvarium and swollen soft tissue surrounding the left spiracle. A large amount of fluid exudate was drained from the abscess. Mycobacterium chelonae was diagnosed by cytology of the exudate and by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The animal was euthanized and disseminated mycobacteriosis was confirmed with histology.

  13. Marine stingray injuries to the extremities: Series of three cases with emphasis on imaging.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Bosco, J I E; Lohan, R

    2013-01-01

    Stingray injuries are usually reported from coastal regions. The injury is caused by the tail spine of the stingray, which can penetrate deep into the soft tissues, and the venom in the tail can cause extensive tissue damage. Imaging plays a very important role in patients with stingray injuries, especially to detect the presence of retained foreign bodies and its complications. We present three cases of stingray injuries to the extremities, with a special emphasis on radiographic findings. Embedded foreign bodies that were radiographically visualized were removed in two of the patients (one patient was discharged at request and was lost to follow-up). We also discuss the types of injuries, clinical presentation, importance of imaging and management considerations in stingray injuries.

  14. Stiffening the stingray skeleton - an investigation of durophagy in myliobatid stingrays (Chondrichthyes, batoidea, myliobatidae).

    PubMed

    Summers, A P

    2000-02-01

    The stingray family Myliobatidae contains five durophagous (hard prey specialist) genera and two planktivorous genera. A suite of morphological features makes it possible for the hard prey specialists to crush mollusks and crustaceans in their cartilaginous jaws. These include: 1) flat, pavement-like tooth plates set in an elastic dental ligament; 2) multiple layers of calcified cartilage on the surface of the jaws; 3) calcified struts running through the jaws; and 4) a lever system that amplifies the force of the jaw adductors. Examination of a range of taxa reveals that the presence of multiple layers of calcified cartilage, previously described from just a few species, is a plesiomorphy of Chondrichthyes. Calcified struts within the jaw, called "trabecular cartilage," are found only in the myliobatid genera, including the planktivorous Manta birostris. In the durophagous taxa, the struts are concentrated under the area where prey is crushed, thereby preventing local buckling of the jaws. Trabecular cartilage develops early in ontogeny, and does not appear to develop as a direct result of the stresses associated with feeding on hard prey. A "nutcracker" model of jaw function is proposed. In this model, the restricted gape, fused mandibular and palatoquadrate symphyses, and asynchronous contraction of the jaw adductors function to amplify the closing force by 2-4 times.

  15. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism.

  16. Ramophialophora humicola and Fibulochlamys chilensis, two new microfungi from soil.

    PubMed

    Madrid, H; Cano, J; Stchigel, A; Gené, J; Guarro, J

    2010-01-01

    In a study on soil microfungi from different countries two new hyphomycetes were found. The first one, Ramophialophora humicola, isolated from a soil sample collected in Ronda (Spain), is characterized by producing profusely branched conidiophores ending in sterile, sometimes swollen apices, and subhyaline, dacryoid conidia borne from both integrated and discrete phialides with conspicuous collaretes. ITS sequence data reveal its relationships with members of the Sordariales and its genetic differences with other fungi morphologically close, such as Cladorrhinum spp. The second species, Fibulochlamys chilensis, isolated from a soil sample collected in LaJunta (Chile), is characterized by micronematous, clamped, mostly branched conidiophores producing thallic, one-celled, thick-walled conidia that exhibit strongly wrinkled surfaces in age. The analysis of partial sequences of the ITS region and 28S rRNA gene reveal that this fungus is close to members of the gilled Agaricales.

  17. [Management of bluespotted stingray injuries in Djibouti from July 2008 to July 2009].

    PubMed

    Aigle, L; Lions, C; Mottier, F; Ollivier, L

    2010-06-01

    Although stingray injuries have always been frequent in the Republic of Djibouti, it was not until July 2008 that the Bouffard Hospital developed a standardised management protocol. The purpose of this report is to describe that protocol and evaluate its impact on the outcome of stingray injuries based on a prospective study for the period between July 2008 and July 2009. During the study period, 12 stingray stings were treated. The treatment protocol that is based on a multidisciplinary approach involving the intensivist, anaesthesiologist, and surgeon achieved wound healing within one month. This outcome contrasts with previous publications that have generally described longer healing times with frequent infectious complications.

  18. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.

    2016-04-01

    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory (<1/2 wavelength) and undulatory (> wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  19. Comparative morphology of stingray lateral line canal and electrosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura K

    2008-11-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess a variety of sensory systems including the mechanosensory lateral line and electrosensory systems, which are particularly complex with high levels of interspecific variation in batoids (skates and rays). Rays have dorsoventrally compressed, laterally expanded bodies that prevent them from seeing their mouths and more often than not, their prey. This study uses quantitative image analysis techniques to identify, quantify, and compare structural differences that may have functional consequences in the detection capabilities of three Eastern Pacific stingray species. The benthic round stingray, Urobatis halleri, pelagic stingray, Pteroplatytrygon (Dasyatis) violacea, and benthopelagic bat ray, Myliobatis californica, show significant differences in sensory morphology. Ventral lateral line canals correlate with feeding ecology and differ primarily in the proportion of pored and nonpored canals and the degree of branching complexity. Urobatis halleri shows a high proportion of nonpored canals, while P. violacea has an intermediate proportion of pored and nonpored canals with almost no secondary branching of pored canals. In contrast, M. californica has extensive and highly branched pored ventral lateral line canals that extended laterally toward the wing tips on the anterior edge of the pectoral fins. Electrosensory morphology correlates with feeding habitat and prey mobility; benthic feeders U. halleri and M. californica, have greater electrosensory pore numbers and densities than P. violacea. The percentage of the wing surface covered by these sensory systems appears to be inversely related to swimming style. These methods can be applied to a broader range of species to enable further discussion of the relationship of phylogeny, ecology, and morphology, while the results provide testable predictions of detection capabilities.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the ocellate river stingray (Potamotrygon motoro).

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Mei; Mu, Xi-Dong; Wei, Min-Xia; Wang, Xue-Jie; Luo, Jian-Ren; Hu, Yin-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We determined the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Potamotrygon motoro from South American freshwater stingrays. The total length of P. motoro mitogenome is 17,448 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region, with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrate. The overall nucleotide composition is 32.3% A, 24.4% T, 30.5% C and 12.8% G. These data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic relationships within the family Potamotrygonidae species.

  1. Effects of sewage discharges on lipid and fatty acid composition of the Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rocchetta, Iara; Pasquevich, María Y; Heras, Horacio; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-02-15

    Lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition and selected oxidative stress parameters of freshwater clams (Dipolodon chilensis), from a sewage-polluted (SMA) and a clean site, were compared. Trophic markers FA were analyzed in clams and sediment. Saturated FA (SAFA), and bacteria and sewage markers were abundant in SMA sediments, while diatom markers were 50% lower. Proportions of SAFA, branched FA, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were higher in SMA clams. Chronic exposure of D. chilensis to increasing eutrophication affected its lipid and FA composition. The increase in EPA and DHA proportions could be an adaptive response, which increases stress resistance but could also lead to higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation TBARS, lipofuscins (20-fold) and GSH concentrations were higher in SMA clams. FA markers indicated terrestrial plant detritus and bacteria are important items in D. chilensis diet. Anthropogenic input in their food could be traced using specific FA as trophic markers.

  2. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Bessega, Cecilia F.; Pometti, Carolina L.; Miller, Joe T.; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25202541

  3. Stingray: High-Speed Teleoperation of UGVs in Urban Terrain Using Driver-Assist Behaviors and Immersive Telepresence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    STINGRAY : HIGH-SPEED TELEOPERATION OF UGVS IN URBAN TERRAIN USING DRIVER-ASSIST BEHAVIORS AND IMMERSIVE TELEPRESENCE Brian Yamauchi* iRobot...into the air. Figure 1: iRobot Warrior UGV with Chatten Head-Aimed Remote Viewer (HARV) For the Stingray Project, funded by the US Army Tank...through software that interprets the pilot’s control inputs. In Phase I of the Stingray Project, we mounted a Chatten Head-Aimed Remote Viewer

  4. Two new stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae) from the eastern Indonesian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Last, Peter R; White, William T

    2013-01-01

    Two new stingrays, Dasyatis longicauda sp. nov. and Himanturajavaensis sp. nov., are described from material collected in the eastern Indonesian Archipelago. These species, which are both relatively small stingrays (both probably smaller than 40 cm DW), have been confused with closest relatives in the region. Dasyatis longicauda sp. nov., known from West Papua, differs from its congener, the Australian endemic D. fluviorum, in having a slightly lower vertebral count, lower pectoral-radial count, a longer tail, larger and less numerous thorns along the mid-disc and tail, as well as a different CO1 Barcode. Himantura javaensis sp. nov., known only from southern Java (near Cilacap), belongs to a complex of small whiprays which also includes another Indonesian species, H. walga. Apart from major differences in squamation and a different CO1 Barcode, Himantura javaensis is more brownish in coloration, has more vertebrae, a longer tail, smaller eye and orbit, more posteriorly positioned sting, shorter adult claspers, shorter pelvic fin, and differs in various measurements around the head.

  5. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  6. Pattern of stingray injuries reported to Texas poison centers from 1998 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between selected factors and all human exposures involving stingray injuries reported to Texas poison centers. Cases were obtained retrospectively from calls to poison centers in Texas and included all reported human exposures involving stingray injuries from 1998 to 2004. The distribution of cases was determined for a variety of demographic and clinical parameters. A total of 153 cases were identified. The reported stingray injury penetrance increased during the 7-year period. Of the cases with a known patient age, 2% were <6 years, 25% were 6-19 years and 73% were >19 years. The stingray injuries occurred in public areas in 54% of the cases. In 61% of cases, the management site was reported not to be a health care facility. Of the cases with a known clinical outcome, none involved no effects and 53% involved minor effects. The highest proportion of stingray injuries occurred during the summer months, particularly August. In 60% of the cases, the calls originated from counties along the coast. This information can be used to identify those portions of the population most in need of education regarding the prevention and treatment of stingray injuries.

  7. Supplemental Feeding for Ecotourism Reverses Diel Activity and Alters Movement Patterns and Spatial Distribution of the Southern Stingray, Dasyatis americana

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Mark J.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.; Potenski, Matthew D.; Chapman, Demian D.; Harvey, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world’s most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  8. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  9. Evaluation of gastroprotective activity and acute toxicity of Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Alejandro; Minetti, Alejandra; Milczakowskyg, Cristina; Skliar, Mario

    2010-09-01

    Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) is widely used in South America in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and diuretic, and to treat gastrointestinal disorders. However, no scientific evidence exists in literature to corroborate the therapeutic use of the plant. Despite its traditional uses, no reports are available on the safety of this utilization or on the relationship between the pharmacological activities and its phytochemical compounds. This study investigates for the first time the acute toxicity and the gastroprotective effect of the aqueous extract from inflorescences of S. chilensis. The gastroprotective activity was evaluated in mice subjected to ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model at 125, 250, 400, 800, 1200, and 2000 mg/kg doses. Acute toxicity study was performed at one dose of 2000 mg/kg. At the end of the exposure behavioral and functional parameters and motor activity were assessed in all animals. Results demonstrated that the extract exhibited a significant antiulcer activity when given at 125-2000 mg/kg (P <0.05), but did not show acute toxicity in mice treated with 2000 mg/kg p.o. This study demonstrated that the oral administration of S. chilensis aqueous extract prevents the formation of gastric lesions caused by an aggressive factor as ethanol but does not produce toxicity by acute exposure in mice. These promising results support a better pharmacological study of S. chilensis as a potential antiulcerogenic species for studies targeted towards the development of antiulcerogenic agents.

  10. Infection with Borrelia chilensis in Ixodes stilesi ticks collected from Pudu puda deer.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Claudio; Jiménez, Omar; Hernández, Carlos; Álvarez, Pedro; Espinoza, Angelo; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex spirochetes, which are maintained in transmission cycles among vertebrates and Ixodes ticks. Recently, a new genospecies within this complex, Borrelia chilensis, was described in Ixodes stilesi collected from the environment and from rodents in Chile. This tick also infests the native Southern pudu deer (Pudu puda). The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence, intensity of infestation, and aggregation of hard ticks on this deer species, and to determine the presence of borrelial pathogens in the ticks. Sixty-six deer were examined over a two-year period. A total of 179 ticks of two species, I. stilesi and Ixodes taglei, were collected. Of those, 100 were adults, 78 were nymphs, and one was a larva. Ixodes stilesi was the most prevalent tick (47%) and was highly aggregated (D=0.77) on the deer. Deer body weight was positively associated with tick burden. Borrelia spirochetes were detected in two (6.45%) of the examined I. stilesi ticks. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S and flaB gene sequences positioned these samples in the same clade with Borrelia chilensis VA1 previously described from Chile. These findings suggest that I. stilesi may play a role in the local persistence of B. chilensis. Further studies are required to fully understand the mechanisms of natural transmission of B. chilensis and the risk of infection in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome Sequence of Borrelia chilensis VA1, a South American Member of the Lyme Borreliosis Group.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihua; Ojaimi, Caroline; Fallon, John T; Travisany, Dante; Maass, Alejandro; Ivanova, Larisa; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-02-12

    Borrelia chilensis strain VA1 is a recently described South American member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex from Chile. Whole-genome sequencing analysis determined its linear chromosome and plasmids lp54 and cp26, confirmed its membership in the Lyme borreliosis group, and will open new research avenues regarding its pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2015 Huang et al.

  12. Morphologic features of the cerebellum of the Atlantic stingray, and their possible evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Puzdrowski, Richard L; Gruber, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    The morphology of the cerebellar corpus in cartilaginous fishes varies from a smooth, relatively simple structure to a complex, multilobed structure. Atlantic stingrays possess a trilobed corpus that includes an anterior lobe, divided into rostral and caudal lobules, and a posterior lobe. The corpus in this stingray is assymetrical. This asymmetry was examined in the stingray population of Galveston Bay. In 49% of the animals the axis of the caudal lobule was right of the midline, in 27% it was across the midline, and in 24% it was to the left. This variation is not related to size, sex, or an asymmetry in the cranial volume, but might reflect a variation in the cerebellar developmental program. To gain insight into the factors that have driven cerebellar hypertrophy in cartilaginous fishes, the neural connections of the lobules of the cerebellum of the Atlantic stingray were examined using biotinylated dextrans. It was found that, for the most part, the stingray cerebellum receives inputs from the same diencephalic and brainstem nuclei as in cartilaginous fishes with a bilobed cerebellum. However, in stingrays there is greater segregation of inputs. The anterior lobe rostral lobule receives inputs from the accessory optic nuclei, the caudal lobule receives inputs from trigeminal and octavolateral nuclei, and the posterior lobe receives inputs from the spinal cord. The rostral lobule and posterior lobe also receive input from midbrain nuclei that do not appear to be present in cartilaginous fishes with a morphologically simple corpus. Therefore, it is proposed that the complex hypertrophy of the corpus in stingrays might result from a combination of functional specialization of the lobes, and the acquisition of new inputs.

  13. 78 FR 77444 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... requesting: (1) Approval for Natural to abandon by sale to Stingray the offshore, West Cameron 148 Lateral, the West Cameron 148 Platform, related appurtenances, and the onshore Compressor Station 701 land; (2) approval for Natural to abandon by sale to Stingray the offshore, West Cameron 144 Lateral, the West...

  14. Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in the Amazonian freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (cururu stingray) in different hydrological phases of the Rio Negro.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A T; Araújo, M L G; Pantoja-Lima, J; Aride, P H R; Tavares-Dias, M; Brinn, R P; Marcon, J L

    2016-08-15

    Intraerythrocytic parasites are frequently found in fish, including elasmobranchs. The Amazonian rivers present well defined annual hydrological cycles that results in drastic modifications of the environmental conditions with deep implications in the life cycle of the whole associated biota in those fluvial systems. The freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (stingray cururu) is a new species restricted to the Middle Rio Negro basin and it is subject to strong alterations in their natural habitats (igapós) a result of the constant variations in the water level of Rio Negro. This work demonstrates the occurrence of intraerythrocytic parasite Cyrilia sp. in this stingray species. Additionally, the prevalence and quantification of hemoparasites in different phases of Rio Negro were also established. Field sampling was carried in the Archipelago of Mariuá, Middle Rio Negro, involving different stages of the water cycle. The intraerythrocytic parasites were quantified by direct counting in blood smears using a total counting of 2000 erythrocytes in each blood smear. The presence of parasites intraerythrocytic generates changes in the morphology of blood cell. The largest amount of the hemoparasites was recorded in the drought period. We observed a decreasing tendency in the number of parasites in the blood between the drought periods and inundation. We concluded that the level of Negro River influences the incidence of intraerythrocytic parasites in the cururu stingray and the drought represents the period of larger susceptibility to the infestation.

  15. Functional consequences of structural differences in stingray sensory systems. Part I: mechanosensory lateral line canals.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura K; Kajiura, Stephen M; Gordon, Malcolm S

    2009-10-01

    Short range hydrodynamic and electrosensory signals are important during final stages of prey capture in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), and may be particularly useful for dorso-ventrally flattened batoids with mouths hidden from their eyes. In stingrays, both the lateral line canal and electrosensory systems are highly modified and complex with significant differences on ventral surfaces that relate to feeding ecology. This study tests functional hypotheses based on quantified differences in sensory system morphology of three stingray species, Urobatis halleri, Myliobatis californica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea. Part I investigates the mechanosensory lateral line canal system whereas part II focuses on the electrosensory system. Stingray lateral line canals include both pored and non-pored sections and differ in branching complexity and distribution. A greater proportion of pored canals and high pore numbers were predicted to correspond to increased response to water flow. Behavioral experiments were performed to compare responses of stingrays to weak water jets mimicking signals produced by potential prey at velocities of 10-20 cm s(-1). Bat rays, M. californica, have the most complex and broadly distributed pored canal network and demonstrated both the highest response rate and greater response intensity to water jet signals. Results suggest that U. halleri and P. violacea may rely on additional sensory input, including tactile and visual cues, respectively, to initiate stronger feeding responses. These results suggest that stingray lateral line canal morphology can indicate detection capabilities through responsiveness to weak water jets.

  16. Are you positive? Electric dipole polarity discrimination in the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Avery M; Kajiura, Stephen M; Long, John H; Porter, Marianne E

    2013-10-01

    It is well established that elasmobranchs can detect dipole electric fields. However, it is unclear whether they can discriminate between the anode and cathode. To investigate this subject, we employed a behavioral assay to determine the discriminatory ability of the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicensis. We conditioned stingrays with food rewards to bite either the anode (n=5) or the cathode (n=6) of a direct-current dipole located on the floor of an experimental tank. All individuals successfully performed the task after 18 to 22 days. Stingrays were then tested in experimental sessions when they were rewarded only after they identified the correct pole. Stingrays successfully discriminated between the poles at a rate greater than chance, ranging among individuals from a mean of 66% to 93% correct. During experimental sessions, stingrays conditioned to distinguish the anode performed similarly to those conditioned to distinguish the cathode. We hypothesize that the ability to discriminate anode from cathode is physiologically encoded, but its utility in providing spatial information under natural conditions remains to be demonstrated. The ability to discriminate polarity may eliminate ambiguity in induction-based magnetoreception and facilitate navigation with respect to the geomagnetic field.

  17. Maturity-related changes in venom toxicity of the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon leopoldi.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Kim N; Klingelhöfer, Ines; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Morlock, Gertrud; Wilke, Thomas

    2014-12-15

    Aquatic venomous animals such as stingrays represent a largely untapped source for venom-based drug development. However, the major challenge for a potential drug development pipeline is the high inter- and intraspecific variability in toxicity and venom composition. As of today, little is known about maturity-driven changes in these traits in stingrays. The present study investigates the differences in toxicity and venom composition in different maturity stages of the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon leopoldi. This species can be found in the Xingú River basin (Brazil), where it mainly feeds on invertebrates, while being predated by other stingrays or large catfishes. P. leopoldi, as commonly known for stingrays, can cause severe injuries with the venomous dentine spine located at its tails. The toxicity of tissue extracts of juvenile and mature specimens was recorded on a myoblast cell culture bioassay. Venom composition and bioactivity of compounds were analyzed with planar chromatography linked to an Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay. Results revealed a decrease in venom toxicity during maturation, but no changes in venom composition. These findings may indicate that toxicity in mature specimens becomes evolutionary less important, probably due to a decrease in predation pressure.

  18. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  19. Isolation with differentiation followed by expansion with admixture in the tunicate Pyura chilensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyura chilensis, a tunicate commercially exploited as food resource in Chile, is subject to management strategies, including restocking. The goal of this study was to examine the genetic structure of P. chilensis using information from a mitochondrial gene (Cytochrome Oxidase I, COI) and a nuclear gene (Elongation 1 alpha, EF1a), to characterize the geographic distribution of genetic diversity and differentiation, and to identify the main processes that have shaped it. We analyzed 268 and 208 sequences of COI and EF1a, respectively, from samples of eight local populations covering ca. 1800 km. Results For Pyura chilensis, partial sequences of the gene COI revealed three highly supported haplogroups that diverged 260000 to 470000 years ago. Two haplogroups currently are widely distributed and sympatric, while one is dominant only in Los Molinos (LM, 39°50′S). The two widespread COI haplogroups underwent a geographic expansion during an interglacial period of the Late Pleistocene ca. 100000 years ago. The nuclear gene was less divergent and did not resolve the COI haplogroups. Bayesian clustering of the nuclear gene’s SNPs revealed that individuals from the two widespread COI haplogroups were mostly assigned to two of the three detected clusters and had a marked degree of admixture. The third cluster predominated in LM and showed low admixture. Haplotypic diversity of both genes was very high, there was no isolation by distance, and most localities were genetically undifferentiated; only LM was consistently differentiated with both genes analyzed. Conclusions Pyura chilensis has less genetic structure than expected given its life history, which could be a consequence of dispersal on ship hulls. The only differentiated local population analyzed was LM. Coincidentally, it is the one furthest away from main maritime routes along the coast of Chile. The use of mitochondrial and nuclear markers allowed detection of divergent mitochondrial haplogroups in

  20. Complete mitogenome of the pale-edged stingray Dasyatis zugei (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Ai, Weiming; Xiang, Dan; Chen, Yunyun; Chen, Shaobo

    2013-06-01

    The complete mitogenome of the pale-edged stingray (Dasyatis zugei) was first confirmed in this study. The mitogenome is 18,264 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 1 control region, with the typical gene order in vertebrates. Similar to nucleotide composition of most vertebrate mitogenomes, the nucleotide composition of the pale-edged stingray demonstrates low G and high A+T components. The control region of the pale-edged stingray is 2523 bp in length, the longest known in Chondrichthyes. The termination-associated sequence and two short conserved blocks (CSB II and CSB III) are found in the control region.

  1. Antibacterial properties of intestinal phospholipase A2 from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem; Horchani, Habib

    2012-11-01

    Stingray phospholipase A(2) group IIA (SPLA(2)-IIA) was recently isolated and purified to homogeneity from the intestine of the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca, suggesting that this enzyme plays an important role in systemic bactericidal defense. The present study showed that SPLA(2)-IIA was highly bactericidal against Gram-positive bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 13-25 mm and 2-8 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram-negative bacteria exhibited a much higher resistance. The bactericidal efficiency of SPLA(2)-IIA was shown to be unaffected by high protein and salt concentrations, but dependent upon the presence of calcium ions, and then correlated to the hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Importantly, we showed that stingray phospholipase A(2) group IIA presents no cytotoxicity after its incubation with MDA-MB-231 cells. SPLA(2)-IIA may be considered as a future therapeutic agent against bacterial infections.

  2. Clinical Examination and Treatment of a Leg Ulcer Caused by a Stingray Puncture.

    PubMed

    Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Felli, Antonina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2015-06-01

    The most frequent causes of leg ulcers include venous incompetency (superficial and deep), arterial insufficiency, trauma, vasculitis, and neoplasm. Leg ulcers from injury by stingrays are quite rare. In this case report, we describe a leg ulcer caused by a stingray sting complicated by infection, which healed completely without surgery. In addition, since there few cases in the literature describing such traumas, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature. Important is the fact that the wound healing was complete without resorting to surgery, but only with a correct targeted antibiotic therapy and the use of a collagenase, which has the particularity of having hyaluronic acid as a component.

  3. Reproduction of the cold-water coral Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossin, Ashley M.; Waller, Rhian G.; Försterra, Gunter

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the reproduction of a cold-water coral, Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894) from the Comau and Reñihué fjords in Chilean Patagonia. Samples were collected in September and November of 2012 and April, June, and September of 2013 from three sites within the two fjords. The sexuality, reproductive mode, spermatocyst stage, oocyte size, and fecundity were determined using histological techniques. This species is gonochoristic with one aberrant hermaphrodite identified in this study. Reproduction was found to be seasonal, with the initiation of oogenesis in September and suggested a broadcast spawning event between June and September. The maximum oocyte size was 752.96 μm, suggesting a lecithotrophic larvae. The maximum fecundity was 36 oocytes per polyp. Male individuals were only found in April and June. In June, all four spermatocyst stages were present. This suggests that spermatogenesis requires less time than oogenesis in P. chilensis.

  4. Evaluation of an extract of Brazilian arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae) in treating lumbago.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ary G; de Sousa, Carlos P G; Koehler, Jaeder; Fontana, Joelder; Christo, Alexandre G; Guedes-Bruni, Rejan R

    2010-02-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the family Asteraceae. This plant is known by this common name because it shares very similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae, that comprises approximately 30 European species of perennial, herbaceous plants. The effectiveness of a fluid extract of S. chilensis used externally for treating lumbago was examined in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. Two daily skin applications of a gel containing a 5% extract in glycol were administered for 15 days to ten volunteers in a placebo group and to an equal number in a test group. Statistical analyses of the results demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain and a significant increase in the flexibility of patients in the test group as compared with those receiving only the placebo. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Trypanosoma humboldti n. sp. from the Chilean catshark, Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot, 1848).

    PubMed

    Morillas, J; George-Nascimento, M; Valeria, H; Khan, R A

    1987-08-01

    The morphology of Trypanosoma humboldti n. sp. is described from living and stained specimens obtained from the blood of a catshark, Schroederichthys chilensis. This represents the first report of a trypanosome in fish from the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is distinguished by its size and apparent lack of pleomorphism. The presence of a leech, Branchellion ravenellii, attached to the catshark, raises the possibility that it can act as a vector. Additionally, this leech is recorded for the first time from the Pacific Ocean.

  6. Reproductive biology of Zearaja chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Vargas-Caro, C; Oddone, M C; Concha, F; Flores, H; Lamilla, J; Bennett, M B

    2012-04-01

    Between 2000 and 2002, three artisanal landing sites were sampled in southern Chile, with data on population structure and reproductive development collected from 5477 yellownose skates Zearaja chilensis. Total length (L(T) ) ranged from 33 to 158 cm for females and 34 to 155 cm for males. No sexual dimorphism was evident in disc size (length or width) or in L(T)-mass relationships. The smallest mature female was 95 cm L(T) and the size at which 50% were mature (L(T50) ) was 109 cm. Males matured between 80 and 90 cm L(T) with a L(T50) of 88 cm. Although the largest Z. chilensis captured by the artisanal fishery was 155 cm L(T) , 89% of landings comprised relatively small, immature fish. This situation may compromise the stock integrity if intrinsic vulnerability and probable long-life span of Z. chilensis are considered. Consequences for the survival of the species and possible signs of a fishery collapse must be reviewed by management authorities by consideration of both artisanal and industrial landings in Chile. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Aedo, J E; Maldonado, J; Estrada, J M; Fuentes, E N; Silva, H; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Molina, A; Valdés, J A

    2014-12-01

    The red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) is an endemic fish species distributed along the coasts of the Eastern South Pacific. Biological studies on this fish are scarce, and genomic information for G. chilensis is practically non-existent. Thus, transcriptome information for this species is an essential resource that will greatly enrich molecular information and benefit future studies of red cusk-eel biology. In this work, we obtained transcriptome information of G. chilensis using the Illumina platform. The RNA sequencing generated 66,307,362 and 59,925,554 paired-end reads from skeletal muscle and liver tissues, respectively. De novo assembly using the CLC Genomic Workbench version 7.0.3 produced 48,480 contigs and created a reference transcriptome with a N50 of 846bp and average read coverage of 28.3×. By sequence similarity search for known proteins, a total of 21,272 (43.9%) contigs were annotated for their function. Out of these annotated contigs, 33.5% GO annotation results for biological processes, 32.6% GO annotation results for cellular components and 34.5% GO annotation results for molecular functions. This dataset represents the first transcriptomic resource for the red cusk-eel and for a member of the Ophidiimorpharia taxon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Social learning in Cartilaginous fish (stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri).

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Gutnick, Tamar; Byrne, Ruth A; Kral, Karl; Burghardt, Gordon M; Kuba, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Social learning is considered one of the hallmarks of cognition. Observers learn from demonstrators that a particular behavior pattern leads to a specific consequence or outcome, which may be either positive or negative. In the last few years, social learning has been studied in a variety of taxa including birds and bony fish. To date, there are few studies demonstrating learning processes in cartilaginous fish. Our study shows that the cartilaginous fish freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon falkneri) are capable of social learning and isolates the processes involved. Using a task that required animals to learn to remove a food reward from a tube, we found that observers needed significantly (P < 0.01) fewer trials to learn to extract the reward than demonstrators. Furthermore, observers immediately showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher frequency of the most efficient "suck and undulation" strategy exhibited by the experienced demonstrators, suggesting imitation. Shedding light on social learning processes in cartilaginous fish advances the systematic comparison of cognition between aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates and helps unravel the evolutionary origins of social cognition.

  9. Morphology does not predict performance: jaw curvature and prey crushing in durophagous stingrays.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Crofts, Stephanie B; Dean, Mason N; Summers, Adam P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2015-12-01

    All stingrays in the family Myliobatidae are durophagous, consuming bivalves and gastropods, as well as decapod crustaceans. Durophagous rays have rigid jaws, flat teeth that interlock to form pavement-like tooth plates, and large muscles that generate bite forces capable of fracturing stiff biological composites (e.g. mollusk shell). The relative proportion of different prey types in the diet of durophagous rays varies between genera, with some stingray species specializing on particular mollusk taxa, while others are generalists. The tooth plate module provides a curved occlusal surface on which prey is crushed, and this curvature differs significantly among myliobatids. We measured the effect of jaw curvature on prey-crushing success in durophagous stingrays. We milled aluminum replica jaws rendered from computed tomography scans, and crushed live mollusks, three-dimensionally printed gastropod shells, and ceramic tubes with these fabricated jaws. Our analysis of prey items indicate that gastropods were consistently more difficult to crush than bivalves (i.e. were stiffer), but that mussels require the greatest work-to-fracture. We found that replica shells can provide an important proxy for investigations of failure mechanics. We also found little difference in crushing performance between jaw shapes, suggesting that disparate jaws are equally suited for processing different types of shelled prey. Thus, durophagous stingrays exhibit a many-to-one mapping of jaw morphology to mollusk crushing performance. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Characterization of inflammatory response induced by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Louise F; Prezotto-Neto, José P; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Simone Gs; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2014-05-01

    Freshwater stingray accidents cause intense pain followed by edema, erythema, and necrosis formation. Treatment for stingray envenomation is based on administration of analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. This report evaluated the local inflammatory reaction-including edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, release of inflammatory mediators, and histopathological changes-after the intraplantar injection of Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice. Edema was observed as soon as 15 min after venom injection, peaking at 30 min, and lasted up to 48 h. In addition, P. motoro venom increased neutrophil counts in the site of injection, at all time periods and venom doses analyzed. Increased eosinophil and lymphocyte counts were detected mainly at 24 h. Moreover, monocytes/macrophages were observed in large amounts at 24 and 48 h. Microscopically, the venom induced leukocyte migration to the injured tissue, edema, mast cell degranulation, angiogenesis, and epidermal damage. Inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, MCP-1 and KC) was detected as soon as 1 h after venom injection, and it increased significantly at 4 h. At 24 h, the venom induced only the production of MCP-1. These results show that this stingray venom evokes a complex inflammatory reaction, with rapid and persistent edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, and release of cytokines and chemokines.

  11. Potamotrygon cf. henlei stingray mucus: biochemical features of a novel antimicrobial protein.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Katia; Monteiro-dos-Santos, Juliane; Seibert, Carla Simone; Silva, Pedro Ismael; Marques, Elineide Eugênio; Richardson, Michael; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2012-10-01

    Antimicrobial molecules are important components of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They have been studied widely in several fishes, but little is known about these defence factors in stingrays, which are thought to have less sophisticated adaptive immune systems when compared to other teleosts. Stingrays from the specie Potamotrygon cf. henlei are distributed throughout the rivers of central-west Brazil, being the cause of numerous envenomations occurring in the dry seasons. In a previous study, we reported that the mucus of the stingray P. cf. henlei shows antimicrobial effects. Here, to analyze the antimicrobial compounds from the mucus of P. cf. henlei, we employed solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation followed by ESI-MS, and Edman degradation. A protein similar to the β-chain of hemoglobin was identified, isolated and partially sequenced by Edman degradation. This protein has a molecular weight of 16072.8 Da, and was shown to be active against bacteria (Micrococcus luteus and Escherichiacoli) and yeast (Candida tropicalis) without hemolytic activity. Effects of this new protein in the microcirculation environment were also evaluated. The results obtained provide fundamental information for future basic research, clinical diagnosis and development of new therapies to accident treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a bioactive polypeptide from the mucus of a stingray.

  12. The Stingray nebula: watching the rapid evolution of a newly born planetary nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Sahu, K. C.; Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, Pedro

    The formation and early evolution of planetary nebulae represent one of the most poorly understood phases of stellar evolution ( Kwok, 1987; Maddox, 1995). One of the youngest, the Stingray Nebula (He3-1357) ( Henize, 1967; Henize, 1976), shows all the tell-tale signs of a newly born planetary nebula: it has become ionized only within the past few decades ( Parthasarathy et al., 1993); the mass-loss from the central star has ceased within the past few years; and the central star is becoming hotter and fainter as expected from a star on its way to becoming a DA white dwarf ( Parthasarathy et al., 1995). The Stingray Nebula thus provides the ideal laboratory for examining the early structure and evolution of this class of objects. Images of the Stingray Nebula, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, show for the first time that its multiple expulsions of matter are focused by an equatorial ring and bubbles of gas located on opposite sides of the ring ( Bobrowsky et al., 1995). The position angle of the outflows has changed, possibly as a result of precessional motion induced by the presence of a companion star. This is consistent with the precessing jet model by Livio & Pringle (1996). Indeed, we have reported the discovery of a companion star in the Stingray Nebula ( Bobrowsky et al., 1998). Finally, we present evidence of the companion star dynamically distorting the gas in this newly-born planetary nebula.

  13. MEMS sensors for assessing flow-related control of an underwater biomimetic robotic stingray.

    PubMed

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Haghighi, Reza; Cloitre, Audren; Alvarado, Pablo Valdivia Y; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-05-18

    A major difference between manmade underwater robotic vehicles (URVs) and undersea animals is the dense arrays of sensors on the body of the latter which enable them to execute extreme control of their limbs and demonstrate super-maneuverability. There is a high demand for miniaturized, low-powered, lightweight and robust sensors that can perform sensing on URVs to improve their control and maneuverability. In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and experimental testing of two types of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors that benefit the situational awareness and control of a robotic stingray. The first one is a piezoresistive liquid crystal polymer haircell flow sensor which is employed to determine the velocity of propagation of the stingray. The second one is Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 piezoelectric micro-diaphragm pressure sensor which measures various flapping parameters of the stingray's fins that are key parameters to control the robot locomotion. The polymer flow sensors determine that by increasing the flapping frequency of the fins from 0.5 to 3 Hz the average velocity of the stingray increases from 0.05 to 0.4 BL s(-1), respectively. The role of these sensors in detecting errors in control and functioning of the actuators in performing tasks like flapping at a desired amplitude and frequency, swimming at a desired velocity and direction are quantified. The proposed sensors are also used to provide inputs for a model predictive control which allows the robot to track a desired trajectory. Although a robotic stingray is used as a platform to emphasize the role of the MEMS sensors, the applications can be extended to most URVs.

  14. Evolutionary bottlenecks in brackish water habitats drive the colonization of fresh water by stingrays.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, K N; Hauffe, T; Stelbrink, B; Albrecht, C; Wilke, T

    2017-08-01

    Species richness in freshwater bony fishes depends on two main processes: the transition into and the diversification within freshwater habitats. In contrast to bony fishes, only few cartilaginous fishes, mostly stingrays (Myliobatoidei), were able to colonize fresh water. Respective transition processes have been mainly assessed from a physiological and morphological perspective, indicating that the freshwater lifestyle is strongly limited by the ability to perform osmoregulatory adaptations. However, the transition history and the effect of physiological constraints on the diversification in stingrays remain poorly understood. Herein, we estimated the geographic pathways of freshwater colonization and inferred the mode of habitat transitions. Further, we assessed habitat-related speciation rates in a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework to understand factors driving the transition of stingrays into and the diversification within fresh water. Using South American and Southeast Asian freshwater taxa as model organisms, we found one independent freshwater colonization event by stingrays in South America and at least three in Southeast Asia. We revealed that vicariant processes most likely caused freshwater transition during the time of major marine incursions. The habitat transition rates indicate that brackish water species switch preferably back into marine than forth into freshwater habitats. Moreover, our results showed significantly lower diversification rates in brackish water lineages, whereas freshwater and marine lineages exhibit similar rates. Thus, brackish water habitats may have functioned as evolutionary bottlenecks for the colonization of fresh water by stingrays, probably because of the higher variability of environmental conditions in brackish water. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Melanocortin (MC) systems are composed of MC peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), several molecular forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) and MC receptors (MCRs). Here we demonstrated that the cartilaginous fish, Dasyatis akajei (stingray) expresses five subtypes of MCR genes-mc1r to mc5r-as in the case of teleost and tetrapod species. This is the first evidence showing the presence of the full repertoire of melanocortin receptors in a single of cartilaginous fish. Expression of respective stingray mcr cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed that Des-acetyl-α-MSH exhibited cAMP-producing activity indistinguishable to ACTH(1-24) on MC1R and MC2R, while the activity of Des-acetyl-α-MSH on MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were similar to or slightly greater than that of ACTH(1-24). Notably, in contrast to the other vertebrates, MC2R did not require coexpression with a melanocortin receptor-2 accessory protein 1 (mrap1) cDNA for functional expression. One of the roles of MC system resides in regulation of the pituitary-interrenal (PI) axis-a homologue of tetrapod pituitary-adrenal axis. In stingray, interrenal tissues were shown to express mc2r and mc5r as major MCR genes. These results established the presence of functional PI axis in stingray at the level of receptor molecule. While MC2R participates in adrenal functions together with MRAP1 in tetrapod species, the fact that sensitivity of MC5R to Des-acetyl-α-MSH and ACTH(1-24) were two order of magnitude higher than MC2R without coexpression with MRAP1 suggested that MC5R could play a more important role than MC2R to transmit signals conveyed by ACTH and MSHs if MRAP1 is really absent in the stingray.

  16. Collimated Outflows in the Stingray Nebula (He 3-1357)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Sahu, K. C.; Parthasarathy, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.

    1997-12-01

    Observations over the past four decades have revealed significant changes in the spectrum of the Stingray Nebula (He 3-1357). Here we present HST images and spectra showing the most recent developments. In 1950, Henize saw only Hα in emission; but more recent observations by Parthasarathy et al. in 1992 showed strong forbidden lines consistent with a young planetary nebula. The spherically aberrated 1992 HST images, in which Bobrowsky first optically resolved the nebula, showed a compact nebula surrounding the central star. Nebular gas appeared most strongly concentrated in an ellipse with its major axis subtending 1.('') 6 from NE to SW. If this ellipse is actually a circular ring viewed obliquely, then our line of sight is inclined from the symmetry axis by 56deg . Above and below the ring of gas are two bubbles containing lower-density gas. At the tip of each bubble, there is a hole where the gas inside the bubbles has broken through and is now escaping. While images of focused jets have been obtained previously (Borkowski et al.), this is the first case where the nebular structure responsible for the focusing of an outflow can be clearly seen. The windblown appearance of the nebula is consistent with the blueshifted Si IV (1394-1403 Angstroms) and Al III (1855-1863 Angstroms) doublets observed by Parthasarathy et al. that indicated the presence of a strong stellar wind. The N V (1239-1243 Angstroms) to C IV (1548-1551 Angstroms) ratio has increased in recent years, consistent with a young nebula becoming increasingly ionized. Our new spectra reveal additional developments that show the real-time development of this young nebula. Finally, the new HST Planetary Camera images of the nebula show detailed structure indicating a much more complex object than previously known, including the presence of a companion star 0.('') from the central star.

  17. Hypoxia effects on gill surface area and blood oxygen-carrying capacity of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Dabruzzi, Theresa F; Bennett, Wayne A

    2014-08-01

    Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina, are common residents of shallow-water seagrass habitats that experience natural cycles of severe hypoxia during summer months. We hypothesized that stingrays exposed to hypoxic episodes would improve their hypoxia tolerance by increasing branchial surface area and altering blood oxygen-carrying capacity. To this end, we compared critical oxygen minimum, gill morphology, and hemoglobin/hematocrit levels in a control group of Atlantic stingrays held at continuous oxygen saturations of 80-90% (≥5.5 mg/l), to treatment groups exposed to a 7-h hypoxic interval at 55% (~4.0 mg/l), or 30% oxygen saturation (~2.0 mg/l). Stingrays in hypoxic treatment groups significantly improved their hypoxia tolerance. Critical oxygen minimum values fell from 0.7 ± 0.11 mg/l in control fish to 0.4 ± 0.05 and 0.4 ± 0.06 mg/l in the 55 and 30% saturation treatment groups, respectively. Mass-specific gill surface area between control fish and the 30% saturation treatment group increased by 1.7-fold, from 85 to 142 mm(2)/g. Although stingrays did not show an increase in hematocrit or hemoglobin levels, production of more efficient hemoglobin isoforms could not be ruled out. An increase in hypoxia tolerance allows Atlantic stingrays to forage for longer times and across a wide range of hypoxic habitats that are less accessible to predators and competitors.

  18. InGaP 670-nm laser therapy combined with a hydroalcoholic extract of Solidago chilensis Meyen in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Helen Reinhart Camargo; de Godoy, Natália Pereira; Scharlack, Nayara Kastem; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; de Gaspi, Fernanda Oliveira de Gaspari; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; do Amaral, Maria Esméria Corezola; Mendonça, Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio; dos Santos, Gláucia Maria Tech

    2015-04-01

    Therapies that accelerate the healing of burn injuries, improving the quality of life of the patient and reducing the cost of treatment are important. This study evaluated the effects of InGaP 670-nm laser therapy combined with a hydroalcoholic extract of Solidago chilensis leaves on burn wound healing in rats. Seventy-two rats were divided randomly into four groups: control untreated (C), treated with InGaP 670-nm laser with power density of 0.41 W/cm(2) and energy density of 4.93 J/cm(2) (L), treated with S. chilensis extract (S) and treated with S. chilensis extract and laser (LS). Second-degree burns were produced on the back of the animals with metal plate. Wound samples were collected on days 7, 14 and 21 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry and Western blotting to quantify the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The results showed that InGaP laser irradiation at 670 nm alone and combined with extract of S. chilensis promoted significant tissue repair responses in this experimental model, increasing the number of fibroblasts, collagen fibres and newly formed blood vessels throughout the experimental period and decreasing the number of granulocytes in burn wounds of second degree in all treated groups. Exclusive treatment of burn wounds with the hydroalcoholic extract of S. chilensis provided similar quantitative results to those seen in the untreated group throughout the experimental period. Therefore, it was observed in the L and LS groups different responses in the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. The application of 670-nm laser alone or combined with the extract of S. chilensis promoted favourable responses in tissue repair of second-degree burns in this experimental model.

  19. Inhibition on cholinesterase and tyrosinase by alkaloids and phenolics from Aristotelia chilensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Balbontin, Cristian; Avila, Jose G; Dominguez, Mariana; Alarcon, Julio; Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Ortiz, Leandro; Peñaloza-Castro, Ignacio; Seigler, David S; Kubo, Isao

    2017-05-10

    It is reported in this study the effect of isolates from leaves of Aristotelia chilensis as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase enzymes. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the activity of A. chilensis towards different enzymes. In addition to pure compounds, extracts rich in alkaloids and phenolics were tested. The most active F5 inhibited AChE (79.5% and 89.8% at 10.0 and 20.0 μg/mL) and against BChE (89.5% and 97.8% at 10.0 and 20.0 μg/mL), showing a strong mixed-type inhibition against AChE and BChE. F3 (a mixture of flavonoids and phenolics acids), showed IC50 of 90.7 and 59.6 μg/mL of inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase competitively. Additionally, F3 showed and high potency as tyrosinase inhibitor with IC50 at 8.4 μg/mL. Sample F4 (anthocyanidins and phenolic composition) presented a complex, mixed-type inhibition of tyrosinase with a IC50 of 39.8 μg/mL. The findings in this investigation show that this natural resource has a strong potential for future research in the search of new phytotherapeutic treatments for cholinergic deterioration ailments avoiding the side effects of synthetic drugs. This is the first report as cholinesterases and tyrosinase inhibitors of alkaloids and phenolics from A. chilensis leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard F; Girard, Robyn Heister; Rao, Daniel; Ly, Binh T; Davis, Daniel P

    2007-07-01

    Stingray stings are common along coastal regions of this country and the world. The tail of the stingray contains a barbed stinger attached to a venom gland and contained within an integumentary sheath. During a sting, the stinger and sheath can become embedded in the soft tissue of the victim, and venom is injected into the wound. Stingray venom most often causes severe pain on contact, although the exact mechanism of toxicity is not certain. Hot water immersion of the stung extremity has been reported to be effective in relieving pain associated with the envenomation, but large studies of this therapy have not been performed. We retrospectively reviewed stingray stings presenting to our Emergency Department (ED) over an 8-year period. Cases were divided into acute (group 1, within 24 h of the sting) and subacute (group 2, 24 h or more after the sting) presentations. Charts were abstracted for information concerning the victim's history, physical examination, treatment, diagnostic imaging, and outcome, including the effectiveness of hot water immersion as analgesia, and use of antimicrobials. A total of 119 cases were identified and abstracted, 100 in group 1 and 19 in group 2. Of the group 1 patients initially treated with hot water immersion alone, 88% had complete relief of pain within 30 min without administration of any other analgesic. In the patients who initially received a dose of analgesic along with hot water immersion, none required a second dose of analgesics and all had complete pain relief before discharge. There were no adverse effects (such as thermal burns) with this therapy. Analysis of infectious complications in group 1 patients demonstrated a significant number of patients returning to the ED with wound infections when prophylactic antibiotics were not administered at initial presentation. Our findings suggest that hot water immersion was effective in decreasing or eliminating the pain associated with stingray envenomation in our series. Due

  1. The anti-inflammatory modulatory role of Solidago chilensis Meyen in the murine model of the air pouch.

    PubMed

    Liz, Rafael; Vigil, Silvana Virginia Gagliotti; Goulart, Stella; Moritz, Maria Izabel Goularte; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of an aqueous extract (AE), and its butanolic (BuOH) and aqueous residual (AR) fractions, derived from the rhizome of Solidago chilensis in inflammation caused by carrageenan in mice. Solidago chilensis Meyen rhizome was extracted using hot water at 90 degrees C under infusion. The extract was filtered and lyophilized. Part of the aqueous extract was fractionated with n-BuOH, resulting in butanolic (BuOH) and aqueous residual (AR) fractions. Adult Swiss mice were used in the in-vivo experiments. We evaluated the effect of rhizome aqueous extract of Solidago chilensis and these two derived fractions on the inflammation induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of the air pouch. The aqueous extract and its derived fractions significantly inhibited leucocytes, neutrophils, exudation, myeloperoxidase and adenosine deaminase activity, as well as nitric oxide, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), neutrophil chemokine (KC) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels (P < 0.05). Indometacin and dexamethasone inhibited all the studied inflammatory parameters (P < 0.01) with the exceptions that indometacin did not inhibit TNF-alpha levels and dexamethasone did not inhibit KC levels (P > 0.05). These results indicate that Solidago chilensis has a significant anti-inflammatory action on acute inflammatory responses and that its inhibitory activity may be due not only to the inhibition of proinflammatory mediators, but also to the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration.

  2. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae on Austrocedrus chilensis and its relation with mal del ciprés in Patagonia

    Treesearch

    A. G. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Field observations, isolations and pathogenicity tests were performed on Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees to determine the pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae and its role in the aetiology of the cypress disease mal del ciprés (MDC) in Argentina. It was found that P. austrocedrae...

  3. Characterization of a new bioactive peptide from Potamotrygon gr. orbignyi freshwater stingray venom.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Katia; Santos, Juliane M; Bruni, Fernanda M; Klitzke, Clécio F; Marques, Elineide E; Borges, Márcia H; Melo, Robson L; Fernandez, Jorge H; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2009-12-01

    Brazilian freshwater stingrays, Potamotrygon gr. orbigyni, are relatively common in the middle-western regions of Brazil, where they are considered an important public health threat. In order to identify some of their naturally occurring toxin peptides available in very low amounts, we combine analytical protocols such as reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), followed by a biological microcirculatory screening and mass spectrometry analysis. Using this approach, one bioactive peptide was identified and characterized, and two analogues were synthesized. The natural peptide named Porflan has the primary structure ESIVRPPPVEAKVEETPE (MW 2006.09 Da) and has no similarity with any bioactive peptide or protein found in public data banks. Bioassay protocols characterized peptides as presenting potent activity in a microcirculatory environment. The primary sequences and bioassay results, including interactions with the membrane phospholipids, suggest that these toxins are a new class of fish toxins, directly involved in the inflammatory processes of a stingray sting.

  4. Stingray balloon used in slender percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Eugene B; Ikari, Yuji

    2013-07-01

    Slender chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using 5 Fr radial Ikari catheter is possible in simple CTO cases. We report a case where we initially thought the LAD CTO was short and easy, but we found that the CTO had a considerable amount of calcium and also some tortuosity, making simple wire crossing impossible. We used a Stingray balloon to perform re-entry by tracking the balloon over an Ultimate Bros 3 gram wire using an extension wire. We successfully punctured into true lumen and completed stenting through a slender 5 Fr system. This case demonstrates the beauty of combining the advances in CTO PCI from the East and the West together and also demonstrates the possibility of using the Stingray system in a 5 Fr guiding catheter.

  5. Evaluating the role of temperature in the reproduction of the yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Tess C; Schirmer, Aaron E; Knapp, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a temperature-dependent reproductive study on Yellow Stingrays (Urobatis jamaicensis) at the John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois. A group of eight and six female rays were mated in 22°C ("cold") and 27°C ("warm") water, respectively, over a two-year period. Mating behavior, gestation length, pup yields, body condition indices, and activity levels were compared throughout both temperature trials. Mating behavior (e.g., pre-copulatory pursuits and behavior) did not differ between temperature trials. Cold trial gestation was incomplete and yielded no pups, while the warm trial resulted in three successful births and one stillborn birth. Body condition indices and overall activity were significantly decreased in the cold trials. These data suggest consequences for rearing Yellow Stingrays in cooler water and should aid in successful reproduction of U. jamaicensis at zoos and aquariums.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the blue-spotted stingray Neotrygon kuhlii (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Xiang, Dan; Yu, Junqi; Ding, Wenyong; Zhang, Saile

    2014-12-01

    The blue-spotted stingray Neotrygon kuhlii is a small stingray distributed in the Indian and West Pacific Ocean. It was considered a species complex by morphological and molecular evidences. In this study, we firstly presented the complete mitochondrial genome of N. kuhlii. It is 18,039 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with the typical gene order in the mitogenomes of vertebrates. The total base composition is 31.9% A, 26.4% C, 13.1% G and 28.6% T, with an A + T bias of 60.5%. Alignment results demonstrated that the mitochondrial sequences of N. kuhlii in this study were highly similar to the 12S, 16S, COI and Cyt b sequences of the specimens collected from the Chinese seas in other studies.

  7. PRESUMPTIVE DYSGERMINOMA IN AN ORANGE-SPOT FRESHWATER STINGRAY (POTAMOTRYGON MOTORO).

    PubMed

    Jafarey, Yousuf S; Berlinski, Ric A; Hanley, Christopher S; Garner, Michael M; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-06-01

    A captive-born, 13-yr-old female orange-spot freshwater stingray, (Potamotrygon motoro), presented with an acute caudodorsal swelling. Ultrasonography revealed an intracoelomic mass of mixed echogenicity containing fluid pockets. The ray was euthanatized and gross postmortem examination confirmed the presence of a fluid-filled coelomic mass in the region of the reproductive tract. The mass was identified histologically as a malignant round cell tumor of the ovary. Although immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), octamer-3/4 (OCT-3/4), and inhibin was attempted, antibodies that had been validated in mammalian species did not cross-react with stingray control tissues and did not label neoplastic cells. The final diagnosis was a presumptive dysgerminoma.

  8. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of Solidago chilensis Meyen in a murine model of pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Stella; Moritz, Maria Izabel Goularte; Lang, Karen Luise; Liz, Rafael; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2007-09-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the mechanism of action of the aqueous extracts obtained from rhizomes, leaves and inflorescences of Solidago chilensis in the mouse model of pleurisy. The extracts were prepared by infusion and were lyophilized. The aqueous extracts of rhizomes, leaves or inflorescences inhibited leukocytes, neutrophils and exudation (P<0.05) in the inflammation induced by carrageenan. The rhizomes aqueous extract, butanolic and aqueous residual fractions inhibited leukocytes, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in the inflammation induced by carrageenan (P<0.05). The rhizome aqueous extract and butanolic fraction also inhibited exudation, nitric oxide, and interleukin-1 beta levels (P<0.05). The rhizomes aqueous extract and its two derived fractions reduced leukocytes and mononuclears in the pleurisy induced by bradykinin, histamine, or substance P (P<0.05) and neutrophils in the pleurisy induced by histamine or substance P (P<0.05). Only aqueous residual fraction inhibited neutrophils induced by bradykinin (P<0.05). Solidago chilensis aqueous extracts from leaves, inflorescences and rhizomes demonstrated an important anti-inflammatory effect, inhibiting cells in the inflammation caused by carrageenan. In addition, the rhizomes aqueous extract and its derived fractions also decreased pro-inflammatory mediators release into the site of the inflammatory process. The rhizomes aqueous extract and the butanolic fraction showed more evident anti-inflammatory actions.

  9. Inhibitory effects of Solidago chilensis Meyen hydroalcoholic extract on acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Jimenez, Renata Spada; Waismam, Kaline; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Malpezzi-Marinho, Elena A L; Marinho, Eduardo A V; Farsky, Sandra H P

    2009-04-21

    Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic preparations of the plant Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) are employed in popular medicines to treat inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plant (93% ethanol) were investigated and the main components of the extract were identified. Ear oedema was induced in male Wistar rats by topical application of the chloroform fraction of latex-extract from Euphorbia milii. Leukocyte mobilisation was quantified after air-pouch inflammation evoked by oyster glycogen. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions and mast cell degranulation were quantified by intravital microscopy. The extract itself was characterised via HPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-MS/MS. Topical (12.5-50mg/kg) or intraperitoneal (25 or 50mg/kg) administrations of the extract reduced ear oedema formation (>25% reduction). Intraperitoneal applications of 25mg/kg of extract inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed cavity (about 50%). In addition, the rolling behaviour and adherence of circulating leukocytes to postcapillary venules of the mesentery network was diminished (50%), but the mast cell degranulation in the perivascular area was not affected. The major components of the extract were identified as caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and the flavonoid rutin. The data presented herein show local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Solidago chilensis, and implicate the inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions as an important mechanism of the extract's action.

  10. Secondary metabolite content in rhizomes, callus cultures and in vitro regenerated plantlets of Solidago chilensis.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Jordan, Miguel; Gerth, André; Wilken, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    An in vitro culture system leading to the formation of callus and plant regeneration, starting from nodal sections and shoot tips, was developed for Solidago chilensis (Asteraceae). The content of the gastroprotective diterpene solidagenone as well as the phenolics chlorogenic acid (CA) and rutin was determined either in rhizomes from wild growing plants and in callus and in in vitro regenerated plantlets by analytical HPLC. Additionally, total phenolic and flavonoid content was assessed in plant samples, callus and cell suspensions. In terms of dry starting material, the percentual solidagenone content in nine S. chilensis samples ranged from 0.5-3.5% for rhizomes from wild growing plants, 0.1-0.3% for callus and 0.3% for an in vitro regenerated plantlet, respectively. The highest solidagenone contents were found in the wild plant during the late summer in the months of March and April (3.5-2.2%) while highest values for chlorogenic acid (0.5%) and rutin (0.4%) were detected in May, before senescence. The callus tissue and cell suspensions contained some 1.8-2.0 and 1.2% of total phenolics, respectively. CA was the main phenolic in the cell suspension while only traces were found in the callus. Rutin was not detected in the callus nor cell culture.

  11. Latitudinal variation in the degree of crassulacean acid metabolism in Puya chilensis.

    PubMed

    Quezada, I M; Zotz, G; Gianoli, E

    2014-07-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a photosynthetic pathway found in many plant species from arid and semiarid environments. Few studies aiming to characterise plant species as CAM or C3 account for inter-population differences in photosynthetic pathway, often relying on samples taken from herbarium material and/or a single plant or population. This may be especially problematic for species growing under contrasting climate conditions, as is the case for species with a wide geographic range. We used Puya chilensis, a species previously reported as CAM and C3, to study among-population variation in expression of the CAM pathway within its distribution range, which spans a significant climate gradient. We carried out a wide sampling scheme, including five populations and a combination of analytical methods (quantification of nocturnal acidification and stable isotope measurements). The study populations of P. chilensis encompass the entire latitudinal distribution range, from semi-arid to temperate oceanic climates. Our results indicate that CAM decreased with latitude. However, even in the southern (wetter) populations, where δ13C values were indicative of C3 metabolism, we found some nocturnal acidification. We stress the value of using two methods along with the use of samples from different populations, as this allows more reliable conclusions on the photosynthetic pathway for 'probable' CAM species that face varying climate conditions within their distribution ranges.

  12. Heavy metal and other trace elements in native mussel Diplodon chilensis from Northern Patagonia Lakes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guevara, S Ribeiro; Bubach, D; Vigliano, P; Lippolt, G; Arribére, M

    2004-01-01

    Native mussels, Diplodon chilensis, were sampled from four lakes in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Northern Patagonia, Argentina in order to evaluate heavy-metal distribution in the region and to assess the contribution of this compartment of the trophic web to their circulation in the food chain. The concentration of potential pollutants Ag, As, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se, and other nine elements of interest (Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Sr, and Zn) were determined in Diplodon chilensis pooled samples. Digestive glands were analyzed separately from soft tissues. Geological tracers Sc, Ta, Th, and rare earth elements were also determined in order to discriminate lithophile contributions. Elemental concentrations of Ba, Br, Fe, Sr, Se, and Zn in total soft tissues samples do not show significant differences among sampling sites. Arsenic and Cr contents in total soft tissues and digestive gland pooled samples are higher in sampling points close to zones with human settlements. Silver contents in samples collected in Lake Nahuel Huapi were higher than in the other lakes studied, and up to 50-fold higher than the sample collected in Lake Traful, considered as the reference. Mercury highest concentration values measured in total soft tissues pooled samples from lakes Nahuel Huapi and Moreno were found to be similar to those observed in other reported Hg contamination situations, and they are three to five times higher than those of the reference samples collected in Lake Traful.

  13. Fresh water acclimation elicits a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in the euryhaline Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Nunez, B Scott

    2015-10-01

    It is thought that the elasmobranch corticosteroid hormone 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-B) functions as both a glucocorticoid (GC) and mineralocorticoid (MC). Classical antinatriuretic MC activities would run counter to the osmoregulatory strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs acclimating to fresh water (FW). Therefore we hypothesize that FW acclimation will be accompanied by a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in these animals. However, events that activate the "fight-or-flight" response could mask changes associated with acclimation to lower salinities. To better define the MC role of corticosteroids in elasmobranchs, we designed a transfer system that allows the acclimation of Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) from seawater (SW) to FW over 12h while minimizing other extraneous stressors. Blood and interrenal glands were sampled from one group of stingrays 24h after FW transfer, while another group was sampled two weeks after FW transfer. Two other groups served as mock-transfer controls in that they were treated and sampled in the same way, but remained in SW for the entire period. Plasma corticosteroids, osmolality, chloride, and urea were significantly lower in FW-acclimated stingrays (compared to mock-transfer stingrays) 24h after FW transfer. This pattern remained after two weeks in FW, with the exception that plasma corticosteroids returned to pre-acclimation levels. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in interrenal levels of mRNAs encoding key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). Temporally decreased corticosteroid levels during FW acclimation are consistent with the unique strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs, whereby lower plasma osmolality is maintained in FW vs. SW environments to reduce hydromineral gradients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological notes on the reef stingray, Urobatis concentricus, an endemic species of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ehemann, N R; Pérez-Palafox, X A; Pabón-Aldana, K; Mejía-Falla, P A; Navia, A F; Cruz-Escalona, V H

    2017-08-14

    This study found that the reef stingray Urobatis concentricus presents a matrotrophic aplacental viviparous reproduction with yolk sac and trophonemata formation. Growth of ovarian follicles occurs asynchronously and continuously with fecundity of three embryos per female. A maximum size of 58·4 cm total length and 37·6 cm disc width was recorded, corresponding to a mature female of 3 or 4 years of age. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Organization of peripheral nerves and spinal roots of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Coggeshall, R E; Leonard, R B; Applebaum, M L; Willis, W D

    1978-01-01

    1. The sizes and numbers of axons in peripheral nerves and spinal roots were investigated in the stingray, Dasyatis sabina. 2. The axons of the dorsal and ventral roots do not mingle in peripheral nerves of this animal as they do in higher vertebrates. Thus, it was usually possible to split the peripheral nerve into two portions, one containing only dorsal root axons, the other containing only ventral root axons. This feature was useful for the analysis of certain aspects of spinal cord organization. 3. The fact that dorsal and ventral root axons were segregated in peripheral nerves enabled us to demonstrate, without experimental surgery, that the central processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells and the proximal ventral root axons were 10-20% narrower, on the average, than the distal processes of the same dorsal root ganglion cells or the distal parts of the same ventral root axons. 4. The stingray is remarkable in having very few unmyelinated axons in the dorsal roots, ventral roots, or peripheral nerves. This paucity of unmyelinated axons distinguishes the Atlantic stingrays from all other vertebrates whose roots and nerves have been examined for unmyelinated fibers. 5. Similar findings were obtained for one spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) and two cow-nose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus).

  16. Three-dimensional mapping of red stingray ( Dasyatis akajei) movement with reference to bottom topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otaki, Takayoshi; Hamana, Masahiro; Tanoe, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Shibuno, Takuro; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    Most demersal fishes maintain strong relations with bottom substrates and bottom depths and/or topography during their lives. It is important to know these relations to for understand their lives. In Tokyo Bay, red stingray, Dasyatis akajei, classified as near-threatened species by IUCN, has increased since the 1980s. It is a top predator and engages in ecosystem engineer by mixing the sand bed surface through burring behavior, and greatly influences a coastal ecosystem. It is reported that this species invades in plage and tidal flats and has sometimes injured beachgoers and people gathering clams in Tokyo bay. Thus, it is necessary to know its behavior and habitat use to avoid accidents and to better conserve the biodiversity of ecosystems. However, previous studies have not examined its relationship with the bottom environment. This study aims to describe its behavior in relation to the bottom environment. We sounded three dimensional bottom topography of their habitat off Kaneda Cove in Tokyo Bay with interferometric sidescan sonar system and traced the movement of red stingrays by attaching a data logger system to survey their migration. The results revealed that red stingray repeated vertical movement between the surface and bottom, and used not only sand beds but also rocky beds.

  17. Verification of Band Pair Counts on Vertebral Centra of Atlantic Stingrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumminelli, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Life history information of a fish species is important to determine for fisheries management and for keeping the species at a healthy, stable number. Determining the age of these fish, and how long they typically live is an important aspect of life history. One-way to age a fish species is to use vertebrae and in order to do that different factors need to be determined. Two of these factors are that the larger specimen has larger vertebrae and that all the vertebrae along a column show the same band counts within one specimen. Therefore, these two aspects of the vertebrae for the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina, were the looked at in this project. Finding out if the band pair counts were the same along the whole column of this species was the focus of this study. This species has only been aged once previously in another study and the band pair counts were not verified clearly making this factor of aging an important one to determine. By taking total length and disc width of the stingray along with the length, height, and width of each vertebra it was determined that the larger specimens had the larger vertebrae. Preliminary data shows that before one year, juvenile Atlantic stingrays show no band pairs and it is the same along the whole common, however after a year different band pair counts were seen within the same specimen along the column.

  18. Venom gland transcriptome analyses of two freshwater stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Júnior, Nelson Gomes; Fernandes, Gabriel da Rocha; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Costa, Fabrício F; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Garrone Neto, Domingos; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Franco, Octávio Luiz; de Alencar, Sérgio Amorim

    2016-02-26

    Stingrays commonly cause human envenoming related accidents in populations of the sea, near rivers and lakes. Transcriptomic profiles have been used to elucidate components of animal venom, since they are capable of providing molecular information on the biology of the animal and could have biomedical applications. In this study, we elucidated the transcriptomic profile of the venom glands from two different freshwater stingray species that are endemic to the Paraná-Paraguay basin in Brazil, Potamotrygon amandae and Potamotrygon falkneri. Using RNA-Seq, we identified species-specific transcripts and overlapping proteins in the venom gland of both species. Among the transcripts related with envenoming, high abundance of hyaluronidases was observed in both species. In addition, we built three-dimensional homology models based on several venom transcripts identified. Our study represents a significant improvement in the information about the venoms employed by these two species and their molecular characteristics. Moreover, the information generated by our group helps in a better understanding of the biology of freshwater cartilaginous fishes and offers clues for the development of clinical treatments for stingray envenoming in Brazil and around the world. Finally, our results might have biomedical implications in developing treatments for complex diseases.

  19. Venom gland transcriptome analyses of two freshwater stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Nelson Gomes de Oliveira; Fernandes, Gabriel da Rocha; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Costa, Fabrício F.; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Neto, Domingos Garrone; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Franco, Octávio Luiz; de Alencar, Sérgio Amorim

    2016-01-01

    Stingrays commonly cause human envenoming related accidents in populations of the sea, near rivers and lakes. Transcriptomic profiles have been used to elucidate components of animal venom, since they are capable of providing molecular information on the biology of the animal and could have biomedical applications. In this study, we elucidated the transcriptomic profile of the venom glands from two different freshwater stingray species that are endemic to the Paraná-Paraguay basin in Brazil, Potamotrygon amandae and Potamotrygon falkneri. Using RNA-Seq, we identified species-specific transcripts and overlapping proteins in the venom gland of both species. Among the transcripts related with envenoming, high abundance of hyaluronidases was observed in both species. In addition, we built three-dimensional homology models based on several venom transcripts identified. Our study represents a significant improvement in the information about the venoms employed by these two species and their molecular characteristics. Moreover, the information generated by our group helps in a better understanding of the biology of freshwater cartilaginous fishes and offers clues for the development of clinical treatments for stingray envenoming in Brazil and around the world. Finally, our results might have biomedical implications in developing treatments for complex diseases. PMID:26916342

  20. Comparison of hematology, plasma biochemistry, and blood gas variables between 2 venipuncture sites in Southern Stingrays (Dasyatis americana).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brianne E; Christiansen, Emily F; Stoskopf, Michael K; Broadhurst, Heather; George, Robert; Harms, Craig A

    2016-12-01

    The Southern Stingray (Dasyatis americana) is a batoid elasmobranch frequently exhibited in zoological institutions. Blood is commonly collected from the caudal hemal arch at the tail base in stingrays for the purpose of health assessment and clinical pathology tests. An alternative site that allows a dorsal or ventral approach without necessitating puncture of a cartilaginous structure has been identified between the cartilaginous pectoral fin rays (ceratotrichia). The purpose of the study was to compare CBC, plasma biochemistry analytes, and blood gas variables between blood samples collected from the caudal and pectoral fin vasculature sites of the Southern Stingray. Fifteen captive Southern Stingrays (10 females, 5 males) from 4 zoo and aquarium facilities were sampled. Lithium heparinized blood samples were collected from the caudal and pectoral venipuncture sites of each animal. Values from estimated total and differential leukocyte counts, plasma biochemistry analytes, and blood gas variables were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between venipuncture sites for the measured analytes except for CK activity, which was statistically significantly higher in the pectoral site samples. Levels of agreement between sites were good or moderate for 22 analytes and poor for ALT, AST, CK, pO2 , lactate, monocytes, and eosinophils. The good agreement between sampling sites for the majority of the measured analytes and the lack of differences that would alter clinical interpretation support the use of the pectoral site as an alternative to the traditional caudal fin venipuncture site in Southern Stingrays. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Ghrelin-like peptide with fatty acid modification and O-glycosylation in the red stingray, Dasyatis akajei

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ghrelin (GRLN) is now known to be an appetite-stimulating and growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide that is predominantly synthesized and secreted from the stomachs of various vertebrate species from fish to mammals. Here, we report a GRLN-like peptide (GRLN-LP) in a cartilaginous fish, the red stingray, Dasyatis akajei. Results The purified peptide contains 16 amino acids (GVSFHPQPRS10TSKPSA), and the serine residue at position 3 is modified by n-octanoic acid. The modification is the characteristic of GRLN. The six N-terminal amino acid residues (GVSFHP) were identical to another elasmobranch shark GRLN-LP that was recently identified although it had low identity with other GRLN peptides. Therefore, we designated this peptide stingray GRLN-LP. Uniquely, stingray GRLN-LP was O-glycosylated with mucin-type glycan chains [N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc)3 hexose(Hex)2] at threonine at position 11 (Thr-11) or both serine at position 10 (Ser-10) and Thr-11. Removal of the glycan structure by O-glycanase made the in vitro activity of stingray GRLN-LP decreased when it was evaluated by the increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations using a rat GHS-R1a-expressing cell line, suggesting that the glycan structure plays an important role for maintaining the activity of stingray GRLN-LP. Conclusions This study reveals the structural diversity of GRLN and GRLN-LP in vertebrates. PMID:20003394

  2. Using fatty-acid profile analysis as an ecologic indicator in the management of tourist impacts on marine wildlife: a case of stingray-feeding in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Christina A D; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. "Stingray City Sandbar" in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays (Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical

  3. Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing

  4. Study of patient's injuries by stingrays, lethal activity determination and cardiac effects induced by Himantura gerrardi venom.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hadi; Sajjadi, Mir Masoud; Rajaian, Hamid; Sajedianfard, Javad; Parto, Paria

    2009-11-01

    Stingrays are common inhabitants in the northern waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. In the present study, the clinical aspects of injuries induced in three patients bitten by stingrays in Hormozgan province waters were first examined. The LD(50) of crude venom extract obtained from the most common stingray in Hormozgan province (Himantura gerrardi) was then estimated by up-and-down dosing and double dose methods in mice. Third and finally, the cardiac symptoms induced by injection of the extract from the venomous spines were evaluated in rats. Intense pain was noticed in all human cases. Redness was observed in two cases, and spasm and seizure were each recorded in only one case. LD(50) of the venom extract in mice was about 100 mg kg(-1). The observed cardiac symptoms in rats included an increase in pulse rate and various changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters such as T and Q values, and PR and RR intervals.

  5. Fatal Envenomation of a Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) From Eastern Yellow Jacket Wasps (Vespula maculifrons).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old, female Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) presented with severe facial angioedema, bilateral corneal and palpebral edema, nictitating membrane paralysis, bradycardia, bradypnea, hypothermia, and numerous stingers and remnants of eastern yellow jacket wasps (Vespula maculifrons) attached to the feathers of the head, palpebrae, and conjunctiva. Evaluation of 2 complete blood cell counts and results of plasma chemical analysis and serum protein electrophoresis revealed severe increases in creatinine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, electrolyte disturbances, and moderate increases in levels of α1, α2, β1, and γ immunoglobulins when compared with reference interval values and conspecifics. Despite intensive treatment, the bird died 19 hours after presentation. Results of histologic evaluation of tissues were compatible with envenomation. Response to envenomation in avian species is not documented but should be considered in birds presenting with angioedema.

  6. Purification and characterization of saxitoxin from Mytilus chilensis of southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Rubio, D P; Roa, L G; Soto, D A; Velasquez, F J; Gregorcic, N A; Soto, J A; Martinez, M C; Kalergis, A M; Vasquez, A E

    2015-12-15

    In the current communication we describe an innovative method to purify saxitoxin (STX), a toxin presents in contaminated muscle of Mylitus chilensis extracted in the southern part of Chile, using a liquid chromatographic methodology based on ionic pairs. The STX was extracted using HCl and treated with ammonium sulfate following a treatment with trichloroacetic acid and hexane/diethyl ether (97/3). The samples were analyzed by a semi-preparative HPLC in order to collect pure fractions of STX and these fractions were eluted in solid-phase cationic interchange SCX extraction columns. The purified STX was stable and homogeneous and its identity was confirmed by LC-MS-MS, which demonstrated a high quality purification of STX, without presence of analogs such as neosaxitoxin (Neo) and decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX). The STX biological activity was analyzed in a bioassay in mice model and compared to the standard STX produced by the FDA and no significant differences were observed.

  7. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species.

  8. Ocean acidification and pathogen exposure modulate the immune response of the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Nicole; Saavedra, Luisa M; Vargas, Cristian A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Détrée, Camille

    2017-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is one of the main consequences of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), impacting key biological processes of marine organisms such as development, growth and immune response. However, there are scarce studies on the influence of OA on marine invertebrates' ability to cope with pathogens. This study evaluated the single and combined effects of OA and bacterial infection on the transcription expression of genes related to antioxidant system, antimicrobial peptides and pattern recognition receptors in the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis. Individuals of M. chilensis were exposed during 60 days at two concentrations of pCO2 (550 and 1200 μatm) representing respectively current and future scenario of OA and were then injected with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. Results evidenced an immunomodulation following the OA exposure with an up-regulation of C-type Lectin and Mytilin B and a down-regulation of Myticin A and PGRP. This immunomodulation pattern is partially counteracted after challenge with V. anguillarum with a down-regulation of the C-type lectin and Mytilin B and the up-regulation of Myticin A. In turn, these results evidence that pCO2-driven OA scenarios might triggers specific immune-related genes at early stages of infection, promoting the transcription of antimicrobial peptides and patterns recognition receptors. This study provides new evidence of how the immune response of bivalves is modulated by higher CO2 conditions in the ocean, as well one factor for the resilience of marine population upon global change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Saxitoxin Modulates Immunological Parameters and Gene Transcription in Mytilus chilensis Hemocytes

    PubMed Central

    Astuya, Allisson; Carrera, Crisleri; Ulloa, Viviana; Aballay, Ambbar; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Hégaret, Hélène; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin produced by dinoflagellates in diverse species, such as Alexandrium spp., and it causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans after the ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Recent studies have suggested that the immune functions of bivalves could be affected by harmful algae and/or by their toxins. Herein, hemocytes are the main effector cells of the immune cellular response. In this study, we evaluated the response of hemocytes from the mussel Mytilus chilensis to STX exposure in a primary culture. Cell cultures were characterized according to size and complexity, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Finally, phagocytic activity was measured using both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Additionally, gene transcription of candidate genes was evaluated by qPCR assays. The results evidenced that exposures to different concentrations of STX (1–100 nM) for 24 h did not affect cell viability, as determined by an MTT assay. However, when hemocytes were exposed for 4 or 16 h to STX (1–100 nM), there was a modulation of phagocytic activity and ROS production. Moreover, hemocytes exposed to 100 nM of STX for 4 or 16 h showed a significant increase in transcript levels of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT), mitochondrial enzymes (COI, COIII, CYTB, ATP6, ND1) and ion channels (K+, Ca2+). Meanwhile, C-type lectin and toll-like receptor genes revealed a bi-phase transcriptional response after 16 and 24–48 h of exposure to STX. These results suggest that STX can negatively affect the immunocompetence of M. chilensis hemocytes, which were capable of responding to STX exposure in vitro by increasing the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26154765

  10. Saxitoxin Modulates Immunological Parameters and Gene Transcription in Mytilus chilensis Hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Astuya, Allisson; Carrera, Crisleri; Ulloa, Viviana; Aballay, Ambbar; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Hégaret, Hélène; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-07-06

    Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin produced by dinoflagellates in diverse species, such as Alexandrium spp., and it causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans after the ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Recent studies have suggested that the immune functions of bivalves could be affected by harmful algae and/or by their toxins. Herein, hemocytes are the main effector cells of the immune cellular response. In this study, we evaluated the response of hemocytes from the mussel Mytilus chilensis to STX exposure in a primary culture. Cell cultures were characterized according to size and complexity, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Finally, phagocytic activity was measured using both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Additionally, gene transcription of candidate genes was evaluated by qPCR assays. The results evidenced that exposures to different concentrations of STX (1-100 nM) for 24 h did not affect cell viability, as determined by an MTT assay. However, when hemocytes were exposed for 4 or 16 h to STX (1-100 nM), there was a modulation of phagocytic activity and ROS production. Moreover, hemocytes exposed to 100 nM of STX for 4 or 16 h showed a significant increase in transcript levels of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT), mitochondrial enzymes (COI, COIII, CYTB, ATP6, ND1) and ion channels (K+, Ca2+). Meanwhile, C-type lectin and toll-like receptor genes revealed a bi-phase transcriptional response after 16 and 24-48 h of exposure to STX. These results suggest that STX can negatively affect the immunocompetence of M. chilensis hemocytes, which were capable of responding to STX exposure in vitro by increasing the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Lion, Ulrich; Wiesemeier, Theresa; Weinberger, Florian; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release of free arachidonic acid and subsequent formation of 8-HETE is controlled by phospholipase A, 7,8-di-HETE production is independent of this lipase. This dihydroxylated fatty acid might be directly released from galactolipids. Physiologically relevant concentrations of oxylipins reduced spore settlement of Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta, Acrochaetiaceae) and suppressed the development of hapteria in Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) when these model epiphytes were exposed to artificial surfaces that contained 8-HETE or 7,8-di-HETE. Thus, the immediate release of oxylipins can be seen as G. chilensis defence against epiphytes.

  12. De novo transcriptome analysis of the red seaweed Gracilaria chilensis and identification of linkers associated with phycobilisomes.

    PubMed

    Vorphal, María Alejandra; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Dagnino-Leone, Jorge; Vásquez, José Aleikar; Martínez-Oyanedel, José; Bunster, Marta

    2017-02-01

    This work reports the results of the Illumina RNA-Seq of a wild population of female haploid plants of Gracilaria chilensis (Bird et al., 1986) (Rhodophyta, Gigartinalis). Most transcripts were de novo assembled in 12,331 contigs with an average length of 1756bp, showing that 96.64% of the sequences were annotated with known proteins. In particular, the identification of linker proteins of phycobilisomes (PBS) is reported. Linker proteins have primary been identified in cyanobacteria but the information available about them in eukaryotic red alga is not complete, and this is the first report in G. chilensis. This resource will also provide the basis for the study of metabolic pathways related to polysaccharide production.

  13. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  14. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  15. The Potential of Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75% germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50% germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30% germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97% at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  16. Neuronal organization of the spinal cord in the red stingray (Dasyatis akajei: chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Iwahori, N; Kawawaki, T; Baba, J

    1998-01-01

    The neuronal organization of the spinal cord in red stingray was studied using the rapid Golgi method. The gray matter of the spinal cord was divided into seven laminae: RS-I, RS-II, RS-III, RS-IV, RS-V, RS-VI and RS-VII. RS-I is cell dense lamina which occupies the major part of the dorsal horn and corresponds to laminae I and II of the spinal cord of mammals, birds and reptiles. The neurons of the lamina I are interspersed with those of lamina II, without forming a discrete lamina. RS-II is located at the base of the dorsal horn and is considered to correspond to the nucleus proprius. RS-III and IV form the intermediate zone and are highly reticulated. A few neurons of various shapes and sizes are distributed among the numerous fibers. The nuclei such as the intermediolateral, intermediomedial or Clarke's nucleus cannot be identified in the intermediate zone. RS-V and VI constitute the ventral horn. RS-V occupies the major part of the ventral horn and contains motoneurons which are distributed diffusely, without forming any distinct cell groups. RS-VI is located in the ventromedial part of the ventral horn, contains commissural neurons and correspond to lamina VIII. RS-VII is a small area surrounding the central canal and corresponds to lamina X. Thus, while the major features of the spinal cord of the red stingray can be correlated with those of the spinal cord of mammals, birds and reptiles, the neuronal organization of the spinal cord of the red stingray remains in an undifferentiated state.

  17. A Retrospective Review of the Presentation and Treatment of Stingray Stings Reported to a Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander T; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    We studied stingray stings reported to our poison system to identify associated complications and treatments. We undertook a 14-year retrospective observational analysis of stingray stings reported to our poison system. Extracted data included caller age and gender, outcome, management site, symptoms, treatments, and geographical location of the sting. We examined suspected infection rate, hot water treatment efficacy, and possible presence of foreign bodies in the wound. Suspected infection rate was defined as "possible infection" or "likely infection." Hot water treatment efficacy was defined as cases that encoded hot water as a treatment and noted pain relief within 1 hour of treatment in the free-text record, before documentation of other analgesic administration. A total of 576 envenomations were reported. The majority were men (76%), with an average age of 24 years (range, 6-78 years). Symptoms were reported in 485 cases. A total of 9% recorded a foreign body or debris at the wound site. Symptoms included pain (79%), puncture wound (65%), and edema (25%). Infections were reported in 9% of cases. Hot/warm water immersion appeared effective for pain relief in 69% of cases where outcome was documented. The most common geographical location of stingray envenomations was Southern California. Stingray stings are common in California. Hot/warm water seemed to be effective in pain management in our series, whereas foreign bodies or retained spines and infections were other identified complications.

  18. Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Modeling of Pancreatic Lipase from a Cartilaginous Fish, the Common Stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca).

    PubMed

    Bouchaâla, Emna; BouAli, Madiha; Ben Ali, Yassine; Miled, Nabil; Gargouri, Youssef; Fendri, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify fish enzymes displaying novel biochemical properties, we have chosen the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), one of the most primitive living jawed aquatic vertebrates as a starting biological material to purify a lipase. A stingray pancreatic lipase (SPL) was purified from delipidated pancreatic powder. The SPL molecular weight was around 55 kDa which is slightly higher than that of known classical pancreatic lipases (50 kDa). This increase in the molecular weight was due to glycosylation. Like classic pancreatic lipases, SPL was found to be much more active on short-chain triacylglycerols than on long-chain ones. Natural detergents act as inhibitors of the SPL activity. This inhibition can be reversed by the addition of stingray colipase. Starting from total pancreatic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), partial stingray pancreatic lipase complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the PGEM-T vector. Partial amino acid sequence of the SPL was homologous to that of Japanese eel, porcine, and human pancreatic lipases. A 3D structure model of the sequenced part of SPL was built using the 3D structure of porcine pancreatic lipase as template, since both lipases shared an amino acid sequence identity of 60%.

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of a second urea transporter from the kidney of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Janech, Michael G; Fitzgibbon, Wayne R; Nowak, Mark W; Miller, Donald H; Paul, Richard V; Ploth, David W

    2006-09-01

    The cloning of cDNAs encoding facilitated urea transporters (UTs) from the kidneys of the elasmobranchs indicates that in these fish renal urea reabsorption occurs, at least in part, by passive processes. The previously described elasmobranch urea transporter clones from shark (shUT) and stingray (strUT-1) differ from each other primarily because of the COOH-terminus of the predicted strUT-1 translation product being extended by 51-amino acid residues compared with shUT. Previously, we noted multiple UT transcripts were present in stingray kidney. We hypothesized that a COOH terminally abbreviated UT isoform, homologous to shUT, would also be present in stingray kidney. Therefore, we used 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify a 3'UTR-variant (strUT-1a) of the cDNA that encodes (strUT-1), as well as three, 3'UTR-variant cDNAs (strUT-2a,b,c) that encode a second phloretin-sensitive, urea transporter (strUT-2). The 5'UTR and the first 1,132 nucleotides of the predicted coding region of the strUT-2 cDNAs are identical to the strUT-1 cDNAs. The remainder of the coding region contains only five novel nucleotides. The strUT-2 cDNAs putatively encode a 379-amino acid protein, the first 377 amino acids identical to strUT-1 plus 2 additional amino acids. We conclude that 1) a second UT isoform is expressed in the Atlantic stingray and that this isoform is similar in size to the UT previously cloned from the kidney of the dogfish shark, and 2) at least five transcripts encoding the 2 stingray UTs are derived from a single gene product through alternative splicing and polyadenylation.

  20. Flow Control of the Stingray UAV at Low Angles of Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, John; Vaccaro, John; Amitay, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The effectiveness of active flow control, via synthetic jets and steady blowing jets, on the aerodynamic performance of the Stingray UAV was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. Global flow measurements were conducted using a six component sting balance, static pressure, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Using active control for trimming the Stingray UAV in pitch and roll at low angles of attack has similar effects to those with conventional control effectors. The synthetic jets were able to alter the local streamlines through the formation of a quasi-steady interaction region on the suction surface of the vehicle's wing. Phase locked data were acquired to provide insight into the growth, propagation, and decay of the synthetic jet impulse and its interaction with the cross-flow. The changes induced on the moments and forces can be proportionally controlled by either changing the momentum coefficient or by driving the synthetic jets with a pulse modulation waveform. This can lead the way for future development of closed-loop control models.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1889-2015 photometry of Stingray nebula (Schaefer+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Edwards, Z. I.

    2016-02-01

    To get broad-band magnitudes for the Stingray, we have pulled from a wide variety of sources --the Harvard photographic plate collection from 1889 to 1989, the visual magnitude estimates of Albert Jones as archived by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) from 1994 to 2007, the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) from 2001 to 2009, the AAVSO telescopes going into the AAVSO Photometric All-sky Survey (APASS) from 2011 to 2015, plus our own photometry from CCD images with DECam on the Cerro Tololo 4-m Blanco telescope from 2014. We have added 15 mag from the literature or derived by us from the literature, all on six nights from 1969 to 1996. At our request, A. Henden has put the Stingray in the queue for time series photometry on the 0.61-m Optical Craftsmen Telescope at the Mount John Observatory in New Zealand. The 1-minute CCD integrations were through a Johnson V filter on the nights of 2015 March 23, 26, and 27. (1 data file).

  2. Biochemical properties of pancreatic colipase from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreatic colipase is a required co-factor for pancreatic lipase, being necessary for its activity during hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the presence of bile salts. In the intestine, colipase is cleaved from a precursor molecule, procolipase, through the action of trypsin. This cleavage yields a peptide called enterostatin knoswn, being produced in equimolar proportions to colipase. Results In this study, colipase from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca (CoSPL) was purified to homogeneity. The purified colipase is not glycosylated and has an apparent molecular mass of around 10 kDa. The NH2-terminal sequencing of purified CoSPL exhibits more than 55% identity with those of mammalian, bird or marine colipases. CoSPL was found to be less effective activator of bird and mammal pancreatic lipases than for the lipase from the same specie. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of the colipase/lipase complex and the apparent Vmax of the colipase-activated lipase values were deduced from the linear curves of the Scatchard plots. We concluded that Stingray Pancreatic Lipase (SPL) has higher ability to interact with colipase from the same species than with the mammal or bird ones. Conclusion The fact that colipase is a universal lipase cofactor might thus be explained by a conservation of the colipase-lipase interaction site. The results obtained in the study may improve our knowledge of marine lipase/colipase. PMID:21549005

  3. Purification and characterization of a phospholipase A2-IIA from common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) intestine.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Daihan, Sooad K; Moubayed, Nadine M S; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2013-06-01

    A phospholipase A2 belonging to IIA group secretory PLA2 was isolated and purified to homogeneity from the intestine of common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) using acidic treatment (pH 1.5) and ammonium sulphate precipitation methods combined with single-column ion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to be a glycosylated monomeric protein with a molecular mass of about 14 kDa. The stingray sPLA2-IIA had optimum activity at 45 degrees C, unlike known mammalian PLA2-IIAs, which show optimum activity at 37 degrees C. The purified enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 290 U/mg at optimal conditions (pH 9.5 and 45 degrees C) in the presence of 6 mM NaDC and 8 mM CaCl2 with egg yolk as substrate. The NH2-terminal sequence of the enzyme and some protein fragments obtained from its tryptic digestion were also determined. All sequences obtained were similar to those of sPLA2-IIA. The enzyme also showed good stability in the presence of organic solvents, acidic and alkaline pH media and high temperature conditions. Thus, the purified enzyme exhibited a number of unique and promising properties, making it a potential possible candidate for future applications in the treatment of phospholipid-rich industrial effluents and synthesis of useful preparations for the food production and processing industry.

  4. Size and age-concentration relationships for perfluoroalkyl substances in stingray livers from eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Lai, Foon Yin; Townsend, Kathy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-10-15

    While the literature has reported a widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine biota, very limited studies have been dedicated to the southern hemisphere. Hepatic concentrations of nine PFAAs were analysed in 49 stranded stingrays from eastern Australia using liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and relationships with biological parameters (i.e. body size, age and sex) were investigated. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were the predominant compounds quantified, with hepatic concentrations varying from 2 to 117 and from 0.2 to 19 ng·g(-1) w.w., respectively. A negative correlation between the concentration of PFASs in the livers of 32 blue-spotted stingrays and the body size/age was found. This relationship was independent of the animal's sex. We postulate that the dependence on body size is related to differing uptake kinetics of the chemicals, after the sting rays were exposed to an increased level of the contaminants in their environment. Such a pollution event could be related to a severe flood event that occurred at this location a few months before the samples' collection. Our results indicate that the influence of the body size/age should be taken into account when estimating bioaccumulation parameters from environmental measurements or exposure levels of biota to PFASs.

  5. Sternaspis chilensis n. sp., a new species from austral Chilean channels and fjords (Annelida, Sternaspidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Díaz, Oscar; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás

    2017-04-12

    Sternaspis chilensis n. sp. is described based on specimens collected in channels and fjords of southern Chile and previously identified as Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817), originally described from the Meditarrean Sea. Sternaspis chilensis n. sp. is described based on the features of the shield with anterior margins rounded and anterior depression shallow; marginal shield chaetal fascicles arranged with an inverted C-shaped pattern; and distribution of the integument papillae. Sternaspis chilensis is widely distributed in the Magellan Province from Estero Reloncaví (41°32'54"S, 72°19'48"W) to Strait of Magellan (53°34'S, 70°04'W), between 50 and 515 m depth.

  6. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates.

  7. Seasonal variation and resin composition in the Andean tree Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Soto, Alex; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2014-05-21

    Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November). Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9) and 12-oxo-labda-8(17),13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10) for male trees and 8(17),12,14-labdatriene (7) for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6) was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8) and Z-communic acid (9) were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1) with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9),15-diene (2), sandaracopimaric acid (4), compound (7) and ferruginol (11).

  8. Oxidative stress and histological alterations produced by dietary copper in the fresh water bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Sebastián E; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Luquet, Carlos M; Eppis, Maria Rosa; Bianchi, Laura; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the oxidative stress effects and histological alterations caused by dietary copper on the filter-feeding freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Bivalves were fed during 6 weeks with the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus previously exposed to copper. Metal concentration in algae cultures and bivalve digestive gland was measured by TXRF. A maximum accumulation of 0.49 μg Cu/mg protein was detected at week 6. Also at this week, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) showed the highest decrease (50%) in response to Cu exposure. SOD and GST activities were significantly increased at weeks 4, 5 and 6, reaching an activity on average 50% higher than in controls for GST. CAT activity and GSH increased significantly at weeks 5 and 6. Despite this response, oxidative damage measured as TBARS and carbonyl groups contents increased significantly at weeks 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Digestive tubule and duct atrophy and cell-type replacement in treated mussels were observed by histological studies. The presence of intracellular rhodanine-positive granules, suggests copper accumulation in intracellular vacuoles of digestive cells.

  9. In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effects of Anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Leonel E; Ribnicky, David; Logendra, Sithes; Poulev, Alex; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Kuhn, Peter; Dorn, Ruth; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We used a murine model of type II diabetes, which reproduces the major features of the human disease, and a number of cellular models to study the antidiabetic effect of ANC, a standardised anthocyanin-rich formulation from maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis). We also isolated delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (D3S5G), a characteristic anthocyanin from maqui berry, and studied its antidiabetic properties. We observed that oral administration of ANC improved fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in hyperglycaemic obese C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. In H4IIE rat liver cells, ANC decreased glucose production and enhanced the insulin-stimulated down regulation of the gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase. In L6 myotubes ANC treatment increased both insulin and non-insulin mediated glucose uptake. As with the ACN, oral administration of pure D3S5G dose-dependently decreased fasting blood glucose levels in obese C57BL/6J mice, and decreased glucose production in rat liver cells. D3S5G also increased glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and is at least partially responsible for ANC’s anti-diabetic properties. PMID:26279603

  10. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  11. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  12. Commercially sterilized mussel meats (Mytilus chilensis): a study on process yield.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, S; Bustamante, J; Simpson, R; Urtubia, A; Pinto, M; Teixeira, A

    2012-06-01

    The processing steps most responsible for yield loss in the manufacture of canned mussel meats are the thermal treatments of precooking to remove meats from shells, and thermal processing (retorting) to render the final canned product commercially sterile for long-term shelf stability. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the impact of different combinations of process variables on the ultimate drained weight in the final mussel product (Mytilu chilensis), while verifying that any differences found were statistically and economically significant. The process variables selected for this study were precooking time, brine salt concentration, and retort temperature. Results indicated 2 combinations of process variables producing the widest difference in final drained weight, designated best combination and worst combination with 35% and 29% yield, respectively. Significance of this difference was determined by employing a Bootstrap methodology, which assumes an empirical distribution of statistical error. A difference of nearly 6 percentage points in total yield was found. This represents a 20% increase in annual sales from the same quantity of raw material, in addition to increase in yield, the conditions for the best process included a retort process time 65% shorter than that for the worst process, this difference in yield could have significant economic impact, important to the mussel canning industry.

  13. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  14. Hypolipidemic effects of Solidago chilensis hydroalcoholic extract and its major isolated constituent quercetrin in cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Roman Junior, Walter A; Piato, Angelo L; Conterato, Greicy M M; Wildner, Silvana M; Marcon, Matheus; Mocelin, Ricieri; Emanuelli, Mauren P; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson; Santos, Cid A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite several studies on the effects of Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae), the phytochemical and hypolipidemic properties remain underappreciated. This study evaluates the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and quercetrin from S. chilensis aerial parts in cholesterol-fed rats. The HE was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by quercetrin isolation. Hypercholesterolemic rats (1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 15 d) were treated with HE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6), simvastatin (4 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6), or quercetrin (10 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6) once a day for 30 d. During this period, a high-cholesterol diet was maintained until the 30th day of treatment. Rats treated with HE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) and quercetrin showed decreased serum levels of total cholesterol (-19.9, -27.5, -31.0, and -39.4%), lipoprotein-cholesterol (-36.0, -37.5, -43.3, and -59.4%), and triacylglycerides (-15.6, -23.5, -29.8, and -27.2%) when compared with the control group similar to simvastatin. Moreover, treatment with HE and quercetrin decreased hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity (35.1% on average) and increased fecal cholesterol levels (38.2% on average). Our results suggest that hypolipidemic effects of HE are associated with it modulating the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and its interference in the reabsorption and/or excretion of intestinal lipids. Solidago chilensis and its main constituent, quercetrin, may thus be effective as cholesterol-lowering agents and in preventing atherosclerosis.

  15. Antiproliferative activity of yatein isolated from Austrocedrus chilensis against murine myeloma cells: cytological studies and chemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Fierro, César; Tiezzi, Antonio; Ovidi, Elisa; Ceccarelli, Donatella; Triggiani, Doriana; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Taddei, Anna Rita; Pérez, Claudia; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Passarella, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina) I. M. Johnst. and Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic.Serm. & Bizzarri are two Chilean Cupressaceae that are naturally resistant to biodegradation. Secondary metabolites from these species display a variety of biological activities. To evaluate the antiproliferative activity of two lignans, a diterpene and a flavonol isolated from A. chilensis and F. cupressoides, to elucidate their cytological effects on P3X murine myeloma cells. The antiproliferative activity of yatein, isotaxiresinol, ferruginol, and isorhamnetin was evaluated in vitro using the MTT assay. The effect of yatein at the cellular level, due to its high antiproliferative activity was evaluated. P3X cells treated for 24 h with 12.5 and 25 µg/mL of yatein were also examined at the cytological level using immunofluorescence and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Yatein, a lignan isolated from A. chilensis, potentially inhibited P3X murine myeloma cell proliferation, resulting in approximately 75% cell death in response to a 25 µg/mL treatment with the lignan. P3X cells lost membrane integrity at the nuclear and cytoplasmic levels, including organelles, in response to yatein treatment (12.5 µg/mL), and we observed changes in the cytoplasmic organization and distribution of microtubules. The other compounds tested had low activity. Yatein is a lignan precursor of podophyllotoxin, a key agent in anticancer drugs. Due to its structural similarities to podophyllotoxin, yatein could have similar cytoplasmic target(s), such as the microtubular apparatus. These findings suggest that yatein may be of potential pharmacological interest and warrants further investigation in human cell lines.

  16. Ontogenetic Responses of Calanus chilensis to Hypoxia from Northern Chile (23ºS), Humboldt Current Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, P. M.; Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.; Franco-Cisterna, B.; Yebra, L.; Keister, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are being subjected to expansion, intensification and shoaling of Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's), as a result of ongoing climate change. To understand how dominant epipelagic copepods may respond to stressful conditions induced by low oxygen, we experimentally studied the effect of hypoxia over the stage-specific physiology of Calanus chilensis from the Mejillones Bay (23°S — 70°W), northern Chile, during the winters of 2013 and 2014. Females, eggs and nauplii (NI to NIV) of C. chilensis were incubated under hypoxia ( 0.7 mg O2 L-1) and normoxia ( 8.3 mg O2 L-1) conditions at a constant temperature of 14ºC as to estimate egg production rate (EPR), hatching success (HS) and naupliar growth and development time. Additionally, we estimated survivorship by using Neutral Red technique, and also examined female metabolism by measuring specific activity of the enzymes Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (spAARS) (growth index) and the electron transport system (spETS) (potential respiration). Survival of females and EPR were not significantly affected by dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions, coinciding with no significant changes in their metabolism. By contrast, HS was reduced from normoxia (70%) to hypoxia (30%), whereas naupliar growth (NI to NIII) was lower under hypoxia (0.155 ± 0.007 d-1) than normoxia (0.237 ± 0.006 d-1), resulting also in a longer development time, 6.490 ± 0.353 d and 4.238 ± 0.149 d, respectively. Most eggs and nauplii collected at the end of the experiments were alive, although a higher proportion of organisms were recovered in normoxia than hypoxia. Our results revealed stage-specific responses to hypoxia in C. chilensis and the importance of ontogenetic responses to variable levels of oxygenation in the upwelling zone.

  17. Uncovering the Complex Transcriptome Response of Mytilus chilensis against Saxitoxin: Implications of Harmful Algal Blooms on Mussel Populations

    PubMed Central

    Detree, Camille; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Roberts, Steven; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis. For this, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR approaches were used to evaluate the transcriptomic response of M. chilensis to a purified STX as well as in vivo Alexandrium catenella exposure. Approximately 800 million reads were assembled, generating 138,883 contigs that were blasted against the UniProt Mollusca database. Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) involved in mussel immunity, such as Toll-like receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptors, and scavenger-like receptors were found to be strongly upregulated at 8 and 16 h post-STX injection. These results suggest an involvement of PRRs in the response to STX, as well as identifying potential, novel STX-interacting receptors in this Chilean mussel. This study is the first transcriptomic overview of the STX-response in the edible species M. chilensis. However, the most significant contribution of this work is the identification of immune receptors and pathways potentially involved in the recognition and defense against STX’s toxicity and its impact of harmful algae blooms on wild and cultivated mussel populations. PMID:27764234

  18. Bonamia ostreae in the New Zealand oyster Ostrea chilensis: a new host and geographic record for this haplosporidian parasite.

    PubMed

    Lane, Henry S; Webb, Stephen Charles; Duncan, John

    2016-02-11

    Previous reports of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae have been restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, and both eastern and western North America. This species is reported for the first time in New Zealand infecting the flat oyster Ostrea chilensis. Histological examination of 149 adult oysters identified 119 (79.9%) infected with Bonamia microcells. Bonamia generic PCR of several oysters followed by DNA sequencing of a 300 bp portion of the 18S rDNA gene produced a 100% match with that of B. ostreae. All DNA-sequenced products also produced a B. ostreae PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profile. Bonamia species-specific PCRs further detected single infections of B. exitiosa (2.7%), B. ostreae (40.3%), and concurrent infections (53.7%) with these 2 Bonamia species identifying overall a Bonamia prevalence of 96.6%. Detailed histological inspection revealed 2 microcell types. An infection identified by PCR as B. ostreae histologically presented small microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 1.28 ± 0.16 µm, range = 0.9-2 µm, n = 60) commonly with eccentric nuclei. A B. exitiosa infection exhibited larger microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 2.12 ± 0.27 µm, range = 1.5-4 µm, n = 60) with more concentric nuclei. Concurrent infections of both Bonamia species, as identified by PCR, exhibited both types of microcells. DNA barcoding of the B. ostreae-infected oyster host confirmed the identification as O. chilensis. A suite of other parasites that accompany O. chilensis are reported here for the first time in mixed infection with B. ostreae including apicomplexan X (76.5%), Microsporidium rapuae (0.7%) and Bucephalus longicornutus (30.2%).

  19. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae.

  20. Taxonomic revision of Rhinebothroides (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae), parasites of neotropical freshwater stingrays (Rajiformes: Myliobatoidei: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Marques, Fernando P L; Brooks, Daniel R

    2003-10-01

    Extensive new collections of specimens of Rhinebothroides spp. from a wide range of Neotropical freshwater potamotrygonid stingrays in numerous localities permitted critical evaluation of the validity of the 7 nominal species in the genus. Some qualitative characters previously used in the taxonomy of this group are highly variable within and among populations, and most morphometric and meristic characters thought to have taxonomic value for this group overlapped among several previously defined nominal species. Characters that were consistent throughout populations and that clearly define morphotypes supported recognition of 4 species: R. freitasi (syn. R. circularisi and R. venezuelensis), R. glandularis (syn. R. mclennanae), R. moralaurai, and R. scorzai. We provide a taxonomic review of the genus, 8 additional host records, 7 new localities, and an identification key.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Sharpnose stingray Himantura gerrardi (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Cai, Jingbo; Ding, Wenyong; Xiang, Dan; Ai, Weiming

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we presented the complete mitochondrial genome of the Sharpnose stingray Himantura gerrardi for the first time, which was 17,685 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a putative control region. The overall nucleotide composition was 30.1% A, 27.5% C, 14.5% G and 28.0% T. A total of 22 bp overlaps and 83 bp short intergenic spaces were found in the mitogenome. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were used in the protein-coding genes. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) sequence formed a hairpin structure between the tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes. The termination associated sequence (TAS) formed a hairpin structure near the tRNA-Pro in the control region.

  2. Reevaluation of RAPD markers involved in a case of stingray misidentification (Dasyatidae: Dasyatis).

    PubMed

    Faria, V V; Rolim, L S; Vaz, L A L; Furtado-Neto, M A A

    2012-10-25

    We investigated a reported case of stingray Dasyatis americana misidentification not detected in a published study using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. If the referred specimen (landed by fisheries in Ceará, northeastern Brazil) was misidentified (as Dasyatis centroura) in the field, why did its RAPD data fail to clarify the mistake? Was it due to limitations of RAPD markers or perhaps to a taxonomic issue? Contrary to our initial expectations, neither of these hindered the detection of the misidentification. After reanalyzing the primary genetic data associated with the misidentified specimen (PCR gel photographs and/or matrices of presence/absence of markers for six RAPD primers), we found that the RAPD markers were sufficient to correctly assign the misidentified specimen to its proper species identity. In the original study, the specimen misidentification was neither noticed by the authors nor apparent in the published article due to how their results were interpreted and presented.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Pin; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Shuai; Yan, Shuai; Yang, Tingbao

    2016-01-01

    The pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea is the only pelagic species of the Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii), which is widely distributed in all tropical, subtropical and temperate oceans. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Pteroplatytrygon violacea was determined. It is 17,665 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with the typical gene order and direction of transcription of vertebrates. The overall nucleotide compositions of the whole mitogenome are 30.8% A, 26.9% C, 28.6% T and 13.7% G. The ND2 and CO1 sequences are highly similar to the corresponding sequences of this species available in NCBI collected from the Atlantic sea.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the red stingray Dasyatis akajei (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Ai, Weiming; Xiang, Dan; Chen, Shaobo

    2014-02-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the red stingray Dasyatis akajei. It is 17,658 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The gene arrangement and transcriptional direction were the same as those of the typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall base composition of the heavy-strand is 28.8% T, 26.8% C, 30.9% A and 13.6% G, with a slight A + T bias of 59.7%. The origin of light-strand replication (OL) was identified between tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes. The termination-associated sequences (TAS) and the conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) were identified in the control region.

  5. A multiwavelength study of the Stingray Nebula; properties of the nebula, central star, and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Tajitsu, Akito; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2016-07-01

    We performed a detail chemical abundance analysis and photo-ionization modeling of the Stingray Nebula (Hen3-1357, Parthasarathy et al. 1993[1]) to more characterize this PN. We calculated nine elemental abundances using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is supported by the detection of the broad amorphous silicate features at 9 and 18 μm By photo-ionization modeling, we investigated properties of the central star and derived the gas and dust masses. The nebular elemental abundances, the core-mass of the central star, and the gas mass are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.5 M ⊙ stars with the Z = 0.008.

  6. Association between chronic organochlorine exposure and immunotoxicity in the round stingray (Urobatis halleri).

    PubMed

    Sawyna, Jillian M; Spivia, Weston R; Radecki, Kelly; Fraser, Deborah A; Lowe, Christopher G

    2017-04-01

    Chronic organochlorine (OC) exposure has been shown to cause immune impairment in numerous vertebrate species. To determine if elasmobranchs exhibited compromised immunity due to high OC contamination along the coastal mainland of southern California, innate immune function was compared in round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) collected from the mainland and Santa Catalina Island. Proliferation and phagocytosis of peripheral blood, splenic, and epigonal leukocytes were assessed. Percent phagocytosis and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) were evaluated by quantifying % leukocytes positive for, and relative amounts of ingested fluorescent E. coli BioParticles. Total cell proliferation differed between sites, with mainland rays having a higher cell concentration in whole blood. ∑PCB load explained significantly higher % phagocytosis in blood of mainland rays, while ∑PCB and ∑pesticide loads described increased splenic % phagocytosis and MFI in the mainland population. Data provides evidence of strong OC-correlated immunostimulation; however, other site-specific environmental variables may be contributing to the observed effects.

  7. Stellar evolution in real time: The exciting star of the Stingray nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Parthasarathy, M.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-04-01

    SAO 244567 (Hen 3-1357) was classified as a B-type supergiant in the 1970s. Within twenty years only, nebula emission lines became visible in the ultraviolet and optical wavelength range. Imaging in 1994 showed that SAO 244567 had become the central star of the bi-polar Stingray nebula. Prominent P-Cygni profiles that were exhibited in the first ultraviolet spectra from 1988 became weaker with time, but can still be seen in the FUSE spectrum in 2006. Recent observations show that the rapid evolution of this enigmatic star is still going on. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive spectral analysis by means of state-of-the NLTE models for static and expanding atmospheres based on all available spectra from 1988 until 2006. We determined the temporal evolution of its effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, and photospheric abundances. We discuss possible single- and binary-star evolutionary scenarios.

  8. Isolation and characterization of hyaluronic acid from the liver of marine stingray Aetobatus narinari.

    PubMed

    Sadhasivam, Giji; Muthuvel, Arumugam; Pachaiyappan, Abirami; Thangavel, Balasubramanian

    2013-03-01

    Although hyaluronic acid research pursuits ahead in exploring its biomedical perspective, very limited investigations were carried out in their isolation shape view point, furthermore, most of the investigations were targeted towards the terrestrial source. To swerve from that, the present study was projected through the marine superstore, where in high molecular weight hyaluronic acid of 13, 65,863 Da was isolated from the liver of stingray Aetobatus narinari. The purified HA was confirmed at the preliminary level by their stains all dye binding nature. Their analytical composition including carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, N-acetyl glucosamine, glucuronic acid contents was analysed. The HA was characterized by agarose-gel electrophoresis, FTIR, HPTLC, and (1)H NMR. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of HA and its reducing power was evident to all the tested concentrations, but lower than that of ascorbic acid. HA showed significant inhibition against the proliferation of cells, substantiating its influence in regulation of cell functions.

  9. Diversification and species boundaries of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda; Rhinebothriidea) in South American freshwater stingrays (Batoidea; Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Reyda, Florian B; Marques, Fernando P L

    2011-01-01

    Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae) host a diverse parasite fauna, including cestodes. Both cestodes and their stingray hosts are marine-derived, but the taxonomy of this host/parasite system is poorly understood. Morphological and molecular (Cytochrome oxidase I) data were used to investigate diversity in freshwater lineages of the cestode genus Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890. Results were based on a phylogenetic hypothesis for 74 COI sequences and morphological analysis of over 400 specimens. Cestodes studied were obtained from 888 individual potamotrygonids, representing 14 recognized and 18 potentially undescribed species from most river systems of South America. Morphological species boundaries were based mainly on microthrix characters observed with scanning electron microscopy, and were supported by COI data. Four species were recognized, including two redescribed (Rhinebothrium copianullum and R. paratrygoni), and two newly described (R. brooksi n. sp. and R. fulbrighti n. sp.). Rhinebothrium paranaensis Menoret & Ivanov, 2009 is considered a junior synonym of R. paratrygoni because the morphological features of the two species overlap substantially. The diagnosis of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 is emended to accommodate the presence of marginal longitudinal septa observed in R. copianullum and R. brooksi n. sp. Patterns of host specificity and distribution ranged from use of few host species in few river basins, to use of as many as eight host species in multiple river basins. The level of intra-specific morphological variation observed in features such as total length and number of proglottids is unparalleled among other elasmobranch cestodes. This is attributed to the large representation of host and biogeographical samples. It is unclear whether the intra-specific morphological variation observed is unique to this freshwater system. Nonetheless, caution is urged when using morphological discontinuities to delimit elasmobranch cestode

  10. A comparison of the electrosensory morphology of a euryhaline and a marine stingray.

    PubMed

    Camilieri-Asch, Victoria; Kempster, Ryan M; Collin, Shaun P; Johnstone, Ron W; Theiss, Susan M

    2013-10-01

    The electrosensory system is found in all chondrichthyan fishes and is used for several biological functions, most notably prey detection. Variation in the physical parameters of a habitat type, i.e. water conductivity, may influence the morphology of the electrosensory system. Thus, the electrosensory systems of freshwater rays are considerably different from those of fully marine species; however, little research has so far examined the morphology and distribution of these systems in euryhaline elasmobranchs. The present study investigates and compares the morphology and distribution of electrosensory organs in two sympatric stingray species: the (euryhaline) estuary stingray, Dasyatis fluviorum, and the (marine) blue-spotted maskray, Neotrygon kuhlii. Both species possess a significantly higher number of ventral electrosensory pores than previously assessed elasmobranchs. This correlates with a diet consisting of benthic infaunal and epifaunal prey, where the electrosensory pore distribution patterns are likely to be a function of both ecology and phylogeny. The gross morphology of the electrosensory system in D. fluviorum is more similar to that of other marine elasmobranch species, rather than that of freshwater species. Both D. fluviorum and N. kuhlii possess 'macro-ampullae' with branching canals leading to several alveoli. The size of the pores and the length of the canals in D. fluviorum are smaller than in N. kuhlii, which is likely to be an adaptation to habitats with lower conductivity. This study indicates that the morphology of the electrosensory system in a euryhaline elasmobranch species seems very similar to that of their fully marine counterparts. However, some morphological differences are present between these two sympatric species, which are thought to be linked to their habitat type.

  11. Purification and characterization of parvalbumins, the major allergens in red stingray (Dasyatis akajei).

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Guang-Ming; Li, Teng; Hara, Kenji; Wang, Xi-Chang; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2010-12-22

    Fish has received increasing attention because it induces IgE-mediated food allergy. Parvalbumin (PV) represents the major allergen of fish, and IgE cross-reactivity to PV in various teleost fish species has been shown, while little information is available about allergens in elasmobranch fish. In this study, two PV isoforms (named as PV-I and PV-II) from red stingray (Dasyatis akajei) were purified to homogeneity by a series of procedures including ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200. Purified PVs revealed a single band on tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular masses of PV-I and PV-II were 12.29 and 11.95 kDa, respectively, as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Western blot using antifrog PV monoclonal antibody (PARV-19) showed positive reactions to the two proteins, confirming that they were PVs, although their immunological reactivities were weaker than those of PV from silver carp. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of PV-I was determined, and comparison with PVs from other fish species showed low homology between teleost and elasmobranch fish. The isoelectric points of PV-I and PV-II were 5.4 and 5.0, respectively, as determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), suggesting that both isoforms belong to the α-group. IgE immunoblotting analysis showed that sera from fish-allergic patients reacted to both PV-I and PV-II from red stingray. Thermal stability revealed that PV-I easily formed oligomers than PV-II, which might contribute to the maintenance of its allerginicity during heat processing.

  12. Diversification and Species Boundaries of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda; Rhinebothriidea) in South American Freshwater Stingrays (Batoidea; Potamotrygonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reyda, Florian B.; Marques, Fernando P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae) host a diverse parasite fauna, including cestodes. Both cestodes and their stingray hosts are marine-derived, but the taxonomy of this host/parasite system is poorly understood. Methodology Morphological and molecular (Cytochrome oxidase I) data were used to investigate diversity in freshwater lineages of the cestode genus Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890. Results were based on a phylogenetic hypothesis for 74 COI sequences and morphological analysis of over 400 specimens. Cestodes studied were obtained from 888 individual potamotrygonids, representing 14 recognized and 18 potentially undescribed species from most river systems of South America. Results Morphological species boundaries were based mainly on microthrix characters observed with scanning electron microscopy, and were supported by COI data. Four species were recognized, including two redescribed (Rhinebothrium copianullum and R. paratrygoni), and two newly described (R. brooksi n. sp. and R. fulbrighti n. sp.). Rhinebothrium paranaensis Menoret & Ivanov, 2009 is considered a junior synonym of R. paratrygoni because the morphological features of the two species overlap substantially. The diagnosis of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 is emended to accommodate the presence of marginal longitudinal septa observed in R. copianullum and R. brooksi n. sp. Patterns of host specificity and distribution ranged from use of few host species in few river basins, to use of as many as eight host species in multiple river basins. Significance The level of intra-specific morphological variation observed in features such as total length and number of proglottids is unparalleled among other elasmobranch cestodes. This is attributed to the large representation of host and biogeographical samples. It is unclear whether the intra-specific morphological variation observed is unique to this freshwater system. Nonetheless, caution is urged when using morphological

  13. Biomarker responses to sewage pollution in freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) transplanted to a Patagonian river.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Rocchetta, Iara; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-09-19

    Field and laboratory experiments were combined to evaluate biomarker responses of Diplodon chilensis to sewage pollution. Mussels from an unpolluted area in Lacar lake (S0) were caged at a reference site (S1) and at two sites with increasing sewage pollution (S2, S3) in Pocahullo river (all in Argentina). After 1 month, gill (g) glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated in S3, gGST being positively correlated with fecal bacteria (FC) concentration. Digestive gland (dg) enzyme activities were depressed and dgTBARS were increased in all transplanted mussels. After 3 mo, most variables returned to control levels in S1 mussels except for dgCAT and dgTBARS. After seven months, GST and CAT activities of S0 and S3 mussels were evaluated in the laboratory, before and after acute exposure (8 h) to high fecal bacteria concentration ([FC] in S3x 2). gGST increased in both groups, while dgGST responded only in S3 mussels. gCAT and dgCAT activities were similarly increased by acute exposure in both groups. Our results suggest that gGST and gCAT are suitable biomarkers for high FC pollution regardless of previous exposure history. In addition, we show that dgCAT is sensitive to the acute increase in FC load, both in naive and long-term exposed individuals, while dgGST becomes responsive after long-term acclimatization.

  14. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Anti-bactericidal properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca groups V, IIA, and IB phospholipases A2: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Abir Ben

    2014-10-01

    Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (group IIA sPLA2) is known to display potent Gram-positive bactericidal activity in vitro and in vivo. We have analyzed the bactericidal activity of the full set of native stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s on several Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. The rank order potency among both marine and mammal sPLA2s against Gram-positive bacteria is group IIA > V > IB, whereas Gram-negative bacteria exhibited a much higher resistance. There is a synergic action of the sPLA2 with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to sPLA2.The bactericidal efficiency of groups V and IIA sPLA2s was shown to be dependent upon the presence of calcium ions and to a less extent Mg(2+) ions and then a correlation could be made to its hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Importantly, we showed that stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s present no cytotoxicity after their incubation with MDA-MB-231cells. stingray groups V and IIA sPLA2s, like mammal ones, may be considered as future therapeutic agents against bacterial infections.

  16. Local-regional anesthesia in the management of stingray stings: Experience of the Bouffard medical-surgical hospital in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Vanoye, C; Lacroix, G; Le Gonidec, E; Couret, A; Benois, A; Peigne, V

    2017-01-27

    Stingray injuries are very painful. Systemic analgesics are ineffective, and the use of local-regional anesthesia has been reported. This retrospective descriptive study reviewed all cases of stingray injuries seen at the emergency department of the Bouffard Hospital (Djbouti, Africa) between 2011 and 2014. The study included 35 patients. Most of the injuries (n= 31, 89%) concerned the lower limbs. Median pain intensity was 6 [5-8] on a visual analog scale of 0 (no pain) to 10. The following systemic medications were administered: acetaminophen to 13 (27%) patients, morphine to 8 (23%), and tramadol to 6 (17%). In all, 25 (71%) patients received local-regional anesthesia, 15 (60%) by injections at the ankle. All procedures were successful, and no adverse event was reported. This study reports clinical data about stingray injuries in the Red Sea area and highlights the interest of local-regional anesthesia in their management. Most of the procedures were distal and could be performed by trained emergency physicians.

  17. Quantification of maternal offloading of organic contaminants in elasmobranchs using the histotrophic round stingray (Urobatis halleri) as a model.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Lowe, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Maternal offloading is one route by which young animals may accumulate persistent organic pollutants, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but has not been well documented in elasmobranchs despite their propensity to accumulate high concentrations of contaminants. Using the round stingray (Urobatis halleri) as a coastal elasmobranch model, we examined maternal offloading processes at two stages in the stingray's entire reproductive cycle. Post-ovulated and near-term pregnant female stingrays were sampled from southern California, and organic contaminants were measured in the ova and embryonic tissues and compared to concentrations measured in corresponding female livers to determine route and extent of transfer. Total organic contaminant loads measured in ovulated eggs were about two times lower than loads measured in embryos (p < 0.001) indicating mothers have the ability to transfer contaminants throughout pregnancy. Contaminant loads measured in pups showed a positive relationship with mother's contaminant concentrations (p < 0.001); however, mothers offloaded relatively low percentages (1.5 ± 1.7%) of their total contaminant load using contaminants measured in the liver as a proxy. However, histotrophy is only one form of supplemental provisioning utilized by elasmobranchs and variation in reproductive modes likely influences the extent to which female elasmobranchs may maternally offload contaminants.

  18. Population density, sex ratio, body size and fluctuating asymmetry of Ceroglossus chilensis (Carabidae) in the fragmented Maulino forest and surrounding pine plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henríquez, Paula; Donoso, Denise S.; Grez, Audrey A.

    2009-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation results in new environmental conditions that may stress resident populations. Such stress may be reflected in demographical or morphological changes in the individuals inhabiting those landscapes. This study evaluates the effects of fragmentation of the Maulino forest on population density, sex ratio, body size, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the endemic carabid Ceroglossus chilensis. Individuals of C. chilensis were collected during 2006 in five locations at Los Queules National Reserve (continuous forest), in five forest fragments and in five areas of surrounding pine plantations (matrix). In each location, once a season, 40 pitfall traps (20 in the centre, 20 in the edge), were opened for 72 h. Population density of C. chilensis was higher in the small fragments than in the pine matrix, with intermediate densities in the continuous forest; sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1 in the three habitats. Individuals from the centre of fragments were smaller than those from the centre of continuous forest, and FA did not vary significantly among habitats. These results suggest that small forest fragments maintain dense populations of C. chilensis and therefore they must be considered in conservation strategies. Although the decrease of the body size suggests that small remnants should be connected by managing the structure of the surrounding matrix, facilitating the dispersion of this carabid across the landscape and avoiding possible antagonistic interactions inside small fragments.

  19. High resolution vertical distribution of the copepod Calanus chilensis in relation to the shallow oxygen minimum zone off northern Peru using LOKI, a new plankton imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirche, H. J.; Barz, K.; Ayon, P.; Schulz, J.

    2014-06-01

    The vertical distribution of copepodite stage V and adult Calanus chilensis was studied on two transects across the Humboldt Current System off northern Peru using the LOKI system. LOKI is an optical plankton recorder, which simultaneously collects images of zooplankton and environmental data such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence. Image quality allowed determination of CV, females and males and identification of C. chilensis from 3 co-occurring Calanid copepods. C. chilensis was inhabiting the upper 250 m. Highest abundances with a maximum of ca. 44.000 Ind. m-2 were observed in a narrow band within Cold Coastal Water at stations closest to the coast, coinciding with the Poleward Undercurrent. This raises questions for the life cycle closure within the Humboldt Current system. In contrast to observations in the southern part of the Humboldt Current System, the three stages studied were most abundant in hypoxic waters at oxygen concentrations between 5 and 50 μM. Thus C. chilensis seems to be the only species of the family Calanidae where not only a resting stage can tolerate hypoxia, but also both adult stages. This impacts availability to predators, as despite a locally high biomass only part of the population is available to anchovy and other important fish species which are restricted to waters with higher oxygen concentrations.

  20. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  1. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  2. Injuries by marine and freshwater stingrays: history, clinical aspects of the envenomations and current status of a neglected problem in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stingrays are a group of rays – cartilaginous fish related to sharks – that have whiplike tails with barbed, usually venomous spines and are found around the world, especially the marine species. Despite recent reports of accidents involving these fish, they are not aggressive, reacting only when stepped on or improperly handled. Injuries by stingrays are seldom mentioned by historians, although they have always been present in riverine communities of inland waters and in South American coasts. Indeed, envenomations by stingrays are quite common in freshwater and marine fishing communities. Although having high morbidity, such injuries are neglected because they have low lethality and usually occur in remote areas, which favor the use of folk remedies. In the present review article, historical aspects of injuries caused by stingrays in Brazil and their distribution on the coast of São Paulo state and riverine communities of the North, Midwest and Southeast regions were studied. In addition, other aspects were analyzed such as clinical features, therapeutic methods, preventive measures and trends in occurrence of these accidents in the country, particularly in areas in which freshwater stingrays had not been previously registered, being introduced after breaching of natural barriers. PMID:23895313

  3. Pharmacological reports about gastroprotective effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica) and its components quercitrin and afzelin in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Mariel; Mota da Silva, Luisa; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; de Moura Burci, Ligia; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2016-04-01

    Solidago chilensis Meyenmost (Asteraceae), popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" or "arnica-do-campo," is widely used in the folk medicine to treat gastric disorders. Based on this, the gastroprotective activity of S. chilensis methanolic extract was investigated. Besides, a phytochemical study allowed isolation of two flavonoids (quercitrin and afzelin). The gastroprotective effects were investigated in acute gastric ulcer models, and the antisecretory activity was assessed in vivo and in vitro. The adhered mucus levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified in ulcerated tissues. The contribution of isolated compounds in extract effects was evaluated, and its doses were calculated according to its yield. To evaluate the in vivo healing properties of S. chilensis methanolic extract, a chronic gastric ulcer was induced in mice by 10 % acetic acid. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels was also performed at the site of the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. In parallel, effects on cell viability and cell proliferation of fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. Firstly, the S. chilensis methanolic extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcer area induced by ethanol/HCl in mice when compared to the vehicle group. Moreover, the S. chilensis extract (300 mg/kg) prevented the mucus depletion, the increase in MPO activity and the decrease in the GSH levels in the ulcerated gastric tissue. The S. chilensis extract also was able to decrease the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antisecretory effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, intraduodenal (i.d.)) was confirmed by the reduction in the volume and acidity in parallel to an increase in the pH of gastric content. In addition, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg, but not 0.46 mg/kg) and afzelin (0.026 and 0.078 mg/kg) decreased the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcer. In this model, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg) prevented the depletion

  4. Ontogenetic Shifts in Brain Organization in the Bluespotted Stingray Neotrygon kuhlii (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Yopak, Kara E; Camilieri-Asch, Victoria; Collin, Shaun P

    2017-02-28

    Fishes exhibit lifelong neurogenesis and continual brain growth. One consequence of this continual growth is that the nervous system has the potential to respond with enhanced plasticity to changes in ecological conditions that occur during ontogeny. The life histories of many teleost fishes are composed of a series of distinct stages that are characterized by shifts in diet, habitat, and behavior. In many cases, these shifts correlate with changes in overall brain growth and brain organization, possibly reflecting the relative importance of different senses and locomotor performance imposed by the new ecological niches they encounter throughout life. Chondrichthyan (cartilaginous) fishes also undergo ontogenetic shifts in habitat, movement patterns, diet, and behavior, but very little is known about any corresponding shifts in the size and organization of their brains. Here, we investigated postparturition ontogenetic changes in brain-body size scaling, the allometric scaling of seven major brain areas (olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, tegmentum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata) relative to the rest of the brain, and cerebellar foliation in a chondrichthyan, i.e., the bluespotted stingray Neotrygon kuhlii. We also investigated the unusual morphological asymmetry of the cerebellum in this and other batoids. As in teleosts, the brain continues to grow throughout life, with a period of rapid initial growth relative to body size, before slowing considerably at the onset of sexual maturity. The olfactory bulbs and the cerebellum scale with positive allometry relative to the rest of the brain, whereas the other five brain areas scale with varying degrees of negative allometry. None of the major brain areas showed the stage-specific differences in rates of growth often found in teleosts. Cerebellar foliation also increases at a faster rate than overall brain growth. We speculate that changes in the olfactory bulbs and cerebellum could reflect

  5. Stable oxygen isotopes ( δ 18O) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F. A.; Siegwolf, R.; Boninsegna, J. A.

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ( δ 18O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved δ 18O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual δ 18O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  6. Stable oxygen isotopes (delta18(O)) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Roig, F A; Siegwolf, R; Boninsegna, J A

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope (delta (18)O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved delta (18)O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual delta (18)O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  7. Tracing the trans-pacific evolutionary history of a domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with archaeological and genetic data.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile.

  8. Tracing the Trans-Pacific Evolutionary History of a Domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with Archaeological and Genetic Data

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile. PMID:25501717

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC MARKERS LINKED TO SEX DETERMINATION IN THE HAPLOID-DIPLOID RED ALGA GRACILARIA CHILENSIS(1).

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Huanel, Oscar R; Martínez, Enrique A

    2012-04-01

    Bulk segregant analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) methods were used to identify sex-linked molecular markers in the haploid-diploid rhodophyte Gracilaria chilensis C. J. Bird, McLachlan et E. C. Oliveira. One hundred and eighty 10 bp primers were tested on three bulks of DNA: haploid males, haploid females, and diploid tetrasporophytes. Three RAPD primers (OPD15, OPG16, and OPN20) produced male-specific bands; and one RAPD primer (OPD12), a female-specific band. The sequences of the cloned putative sex-specific PCR fragments were used to design specific primers for the female marker SCAR-D12-386 and the male marker SCAR-G16-486. Both SCAR markers gave unequivocal band patterns that allowed sex and phase to be determined in G. chilensis. Thus, all the females presented only the female band, and all the males only the male band, while all the tetrasporophytes amplified both male and female bands. Despite this sex-specific association, we were able to amplify SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 in both sexes at low melting temperature. The differences between male and female sequences were of 8%-9% nucleotide divergence for SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486, respectively. SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 could represent degenerated or diverged sequences located in the nonrecombining region of incipient sex chromosomes or heteromorphic sex chromosomes with sequence differences at the DNA level such that PCR primers amplify only one allele and not the other in highly specific PCR conditions. Seven gametic progenies composed of 19 males, 19 females, and the seven parental tetrasporophytes were analyzed. In all of them, the two SCAR markers segregated perfectly with sexual phenotypes.

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  11. Modulation of immune and antioxidant responses by azinphos-methyl in the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Castro, Juan Manuel; Bianchi, Virginia Angélica; Pascual, Mariano; Venturino, Andrés; Luquet, Carlos Marcelo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune response-total hemocyte number, cell type proportion, hemocyte viability, lysosomal membrane stability, phagocytic activity, cellular acid and alkaline phosphatase activity, and humoral bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activity--in Diplodon chilensis exposed to 0.2 mg/L of azinphos-methyl (AZM), using Escherichia coli as immunological and pro-oxidant challenges. In addition, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were analyzed in gill tissue. Mussels from an unpolluted site were treated for 3 d as follows: 1) experimental control; 2) solvent effects control (acetone 0.01%); 3) bacterial challenge effects control (E. coli, 5 cells/mL × 10(4) cells/mL); 4) pesticide effects control (AZM in acetone); 5) control for combined effects of solvent and bacterial challenge; and 6) exposed to AZM, then challenged with E. coli. The results showed increased granulocyte proportion and phagocytic activity. Partial reversion of deleterious effects of E. coli on lysosomal membranes was observed in mussels exposed to AZM and then challenged with E. coli. Total hemocyte number and humoral bacteriolytic activity were increased only by E. coli challenge. Acid phosphatase activity was increased by both E. coli and AZM, whereas the stimulating effect of E. coli on alkaline phosphatase activity was negatively modulated by AZM. Azinphos-methyl inhibited phenoloxidase activity regardless of the E. coli challenge. Gill glutathione-S-transferase activity was increased by E. coli treatment either alone or pretreated with acetone or AZM and by AZM alone. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were reduced by AZM alone or combined with the E. coli challenge and by acetone followed by the E. coli challenge. Both acetone and AZM seem to be important modulators of immune and antioxidant responses in D. chilensis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1785-1794. © 2016 SETAC. © 2017

  12. The osmotic response of the Asian freshwater stingray (Himantura signifer) to increased salinity: a comparison with marine (Taeniura lymma) and Amazonian freshwater (Potamotrygon motoro) stingrays.

    PubMed

    Tam, Wai L; Wong, Wai P; Loong, Ai M; Hiong, Kum C; Chew, Shit F; Ballantyne, James S; Ip, Yuen K

    2003-09-01

    The white-edge freshwater whip ray Himantura signifer can survive in freshwater (0.7 per thousand ) indefinitely or in brackish water (20 per thousand ) for at least two weeks in the laboratory. In freshwater, the blood plasma was maintained hyperosmotic to that of the external medium. There was approximately 44 mmol l(-1) of urea in the plasma, with the rest of the osmolality made up mainly by Na(+) and Cl(-). In freshwater, it was not completely ureotelic, excreting up to 45% of its nitrogenous waste as urea. Unlike the South American freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro, H. signifer has a functional ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in the liver, with hepatic carbamoylphosphate synthetase III (CPS III) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities lower than those of the marine blue-spotted fan tail ray Taeniura lymma. More importantly, the stomach of H. signifer also possesses a functional OUC, the capacity (based on CPS III activity) of which was approximately 70% that in the liver. When H. signifer was exposed to a progressive increase in salinity through an 8-day period, there was a continuous decrease in the rate of ammonia excretion. In 20 per thousand water, urea levels in the muscle, brain and plasma increased significantly. In the plasma, osmolality increased to 571 mosmol kg(-1), in which urea contributed 83 mmol l(-1). Approximately 59% of the excess urea accumulated in the tissues of the specimens exposed to 20 per thousand water was equivalent to the deficit in ammonia excretion through the 8-day period, indicating that an increase in the rate of urea synthesis de novo at higher salinities would have occurred. Indeed, there was an induction in the activity of CPS III in both the liver and stomach, and activities of GS, ornithine transcarbamoylase and arginase in the liver. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the rate of urea excretion during passage through 5 per thousand, 10 per thousand and 15 per thousand water. Although the local T. lymma in

  13. Primary afferent depolarization and inhibory interactions in spinal cord of the stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Rudomín, P; Leonard, R B; Willis, W D

    1978-01-01

    1. Excitability changes in primary afferents and inhibitory interactions in evoked spinal cord activity were investigated in unanesthetized stingrays (Dasyatis subina) with high cervical spinal transections. 2. Primary afferent excitability increases following a conditioning stimulus to an adjacent segmental nerve were demonstrated with the Wall (31) technique. 3. Stimulation of A-alpha,beta and A-delta afferent fibers produced excitability increases in both A-alpha,beta and delta-fibers of the adjacent segment. 4. The excitability increase had a latency of about 10 ms, it peaked around 25 ms, and the change lasted more than 100 ms. 5. The central afferent volley in A-alpha,beta fibers and the N1- and late negative waves due to postsynaptic activity of dorsal horn interneurons were reduced by conditioning volleys in adjacent afferent nerves. The time course of the inhibition paralleled that of the excitability increases in afferent terminal arborizations, suggesting that the depression of postsynaptic activity is, at least in part, due to presynaptic inhibition. 6. Reduction of evoked discharges and excitatory postsynaptic potentials was observed in recordings from interneurons with a time course similar to that of the primary afferent depolarization (PAD). 7. Conditioning volleys in afferents of adjacent peripheral nerves produced facilitation or inhibition of segmental reflexes.

  14. Experimental infection of yellow stingrays Urobatis jamaicensis with the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis.

    PubMed

    Marancik, David P; Dove, Alistair D; Camus, Alvin C

    2012-10-10

    Infestations of elasmobranchs by the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis can be problematic in aquaria and negatively affect host health. To better characterize the extent and pathogenesis of disease, 12 yellow stingrays Urobatis jamaicensis were infected with 1 or 3 leeches for 14 d. Leeches were associated with anorexia, extensive cutaneous ulceration, decreased host packed cell volume (PCV) and serum total solids (TS), and mortality in 3 rays. Average decrease in host PCV positively correlated with ulcer size and parasite:host ratio. Average decrease in host serum TS positively correlated with parasite:host ratio. Blood chemistry and total white blood cell counts revealed no significant trends. Additional necropsy findings included gill and splenic pallor, pericardial edema, perirenal edema, and decreased hepatocellular lipid deposits. Microscopic evaluation of leeches demonstrated host erythrocytes and proteinaceous fluid within parasite intestines, confirming active blood feeding. Results indicate B. torpedinis has the potential to cause significant disease in elasmobranchs, including death in as few as 5 d, and identifies ulcer size and parasite:host ratio as risk factors for disease. Elucidation of this host-parasite interaction helps characterize host response to parasites and facilitate care of parasitized elasmobranchs in aquarium and wild settings.

  15. Swimming near the substrate: a simple robotic model of stingray locomotion.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Erin; Lauder, George V

    2013-03-01

    Studies of aquatic locomotion typically assume that organisms move through unbounded fluid. However, benthic fishes swim close to the substrate and will experience significant ground effects, which will be greatest for fishes with wide spans such as benthic batoids and flatfishes. Ground effects on fixed-wing flight are well understood, but these models are insufficient to describe the dynamic interactions between substrates and undulating, oscillating fish. Live fish alter their swimming behavior in ground effect, complicating comparisons of near-ground and freestream swimming performance. In this study, a simple, stingray-inspired physical model offers insights into ground effects on undulatory swimmers, contrasting the self-propelled swimming speed, power requirements, and hydrodynamics of fins swimming with fixed kinematics near and far from a solid boundary. Contrary to findings for gliding birds and other fixed-wing fliers, ground effect does not necessarily enhance the performance of undulating fins. Under most kinematic conditions, fins do not swim faster in ground effect, power requirements increase, and the cost of transport can increase by up to 10%. The influence of ground effect varies with kinematics, suggesting that benthic fish might modulate their swimming behavior to minimize locomotor penalties and incur benefits from swimming near a substrate.

  16. Ecophysiological interactions and water-related physicochemical parameters among freshwater stingrays.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A T; Araújo, M L G; Lemos, J R G; Santos, M Q C; Pantoja-Lima, J; Aride, P H R; Tavares-Dias, M; Marcon, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the ecology of neonates and young individuals of Potamotrygon wallacei, Potamotrygon motoro and Paratrygon aiereba with regard to their hematological profile and the physicochemical parameters of the water that they inhabit. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the complete blood count revealed total variation of 72.92%, thus demonstrating a differentiation system for oxygen demand. On the other hand, P. motoro was considered to be an intermediate species, given that its complete blood count characteristics interacted with both P. wallacei and with P. aiereba. The interaction among the biochemical variables was shown to total 64.67% of the factors. This allowed differentiation of P. wallacei from P. aiereba, while P. motoro maintained an intermediate position. These characteristics of differentiation within the preferred environment corroborate the PCA of the present study and confirm that these species can be differentiated through considering the complete blood count and biochemical parameters. The PCA on water properties showed 68.57% differentiation, mainly comprising the x axis (49.44%). It can be affirmed that P. motoro has the capacity to inhabit the preferential areas of P. wallacei and P. aiereba, as well as occupying localities in which other stingrays are not found. In conclusion, P. wallacei presents patterns differentiating it from P. aiereba, while P. motoro is a species that presents intermediate characteristics. The latter can be considered to be a more broadly distributed species regarding its ecophysiological characteristics.

  17. Molecular and Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships of Stingrays Focusing on the Family Dasyatidae (Myliobatiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kean Chong; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chong, Ving Ching; Loh, Kar-Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes) was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene), 33 species (ND2 gene) and 34 species (RAG1 gene) of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level) were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four ‘Dasytidae’ clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species) but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species), Himanturidae (Himantura species) and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species). Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology. PMID:25867639

  18. Functional morphology of the gill in amazonian freshwater stingrays (chondrichthyes: potamotrygonidae): implications for adaptation to freshwater.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Wallice Paxiúba; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Sakuragui, Marise Margareth; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2010-01-01

    The gill morphologies of six species of potamotrygonid freshwater stingrays from the Amazon basin were investigated using light and electron microscopy. Some unique features were found in the potamotrygonid gill: (1) fingerlike protuberances on the gill filament, (2) an Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff-positive histochemical reaction for several cell layers in the gill epithelium (except the basal ones), (3) pavement cells with numerous subapical mucous vesicles, (4) very large mucous cells, and (5) follicular Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich (NKA-rich) mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in Potamotrygon sp. (known as the cururu ray). The fingerlike protuberances may constitute an additional resistance to water flow, helping to drive water through the lamellae. The secretion of a mucous substance by the pavement cells and mucous cells may help to protect the gills against mechanical injury and pathogens and aid in osmoregulation in the dilute water of the Amazon basin. All MRCs possess enfolded basolateral membranes and have poorly developed or absent tubular systems. NKA-rich MRCs are located high in the basolateral membrane. The cururu ray, which is endemic to the Rio Negro, has follicular NKA-rich MRCs (8-12 cells in cross section) that share the same apical pit in the filament; this may be considered to be an autapomorphy. The combination of these branchial characteristics may have favored tolerance to the freshwater environment during the evolution and diversification of potamotrygonids throughout the Amazon basin.

  19. Identification of gastric H,K-ATPase in an early vertebrate, the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Smolka, A J; Lacy, E R; Luciano, L; Reale, E

    1994-10-01

    Virtually all vertebrates acidify their gastric contents to a pH between 0.8 and 2.0. In mammals, acid secretion is mediated by a K-stimulated proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase), which establishes a million-fold gradient of protons across the apical membrane of the gastric parietal cell. The earliest phylogenetic appearance of gastric acid secretion is in cartilaginous fish, and we sought to verify in this class (Chondrichthyes) the presence and distribution of H,K-ATPase in gastric epithelial cells. An antibody against a synthetic peptide based on the C-terminus of pig H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit was localized in the gastric glands of the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina. The C-terminal antibody stained all cells with tubulovesicles and the apical membrane domain of mucous neck cells. In proximal stomach, gastric glands showed the strongest immunoreactivity in cells close to the isthmus; in the distal stomach, strongest immunoreactivity was found in cells at the base of the glands. Oxyntic cells were more intensely immunoreactive than oxynticopeptic cells. This antibody labeled a single band of M(r) 100,600 on immunoblots of D. sabina gastric microsomes. These results show the earliest phylogenetic occurrence of a gastric ATPase in putative acid-secreting cells and suggest that this enzyme shares structural features with mammalian H,K-ATPase.

  20. Dietary partitioning by five sympatric species of stingray (Dasyatidae) on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, O R; Thums, M; van Keulen, M; Kempster, R M; Meekan, M G

    2013-06-01

    Dietary characteristics and the degree of dietary partitioning by five species of sympatric stingray were assessed using stomach content and sediment analyses within a coral reef lagoon at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia (the cowtail Pastinachus atrus, blue-spotted fantail Taeniura lymma, blue-spotted mask Neotrygon kuhlii, porcupine Urogymnus asperrimus rays and the reticulate whipray Himantura uarnak). A total of 2804 items were recovered from the stomachs of 170 rays and 3215 individual taxa from the environment, which were used in selectivity analyses. Twenty-four prey taxa were identified from stomach contents and pooled into 10 taxonomic categories for analysis, of which annelids, prawns, brachyurans and bivalves were the most abundant, together accounting for 96% of the diet. Himantura uarnak had the greatest interspecific dissimilarity in diet, consuming a larger proportion of crustaceans, notably penaeids (41% of total diet) than the other four species of rays, all of which had diets dominated by annelids (71-82% of total diet). Crustacean specialization by H. uarnak may exist to maximize resources and reduce competition among sympatric species. The remaining species may partition resources on the basis of space, rather than diet.

  1. Following the rapid evolution of the central star of the Stingray Nebula in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Nicole

    2014-10-01

    SAO 244567 is an unusually fast evolving star. Within twenty years only, it has turned from a B-type supergiant into the central star of the Stingray nebula. Space and ground-based observations obtained over the last decades have revealed that its spectrum changes noticeably over just a few years, showing stellar evolution in real time. Previous analysis indicates it must be a low mass star and thus the observed fast evolution is in strong contradiction with canonical post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution. A late He-shell flash is able to account for the rapid evolution. This scenario would predict an evolution back to the AGB, e.g. a decrease of the effective temperature (which is already indicated by the FUSE observations in 2006) and an increase of luminosity. With COS spectroscopy we want to follow the evolution of the surface properties of SAO 244567 to verify this thesis. The very compact nebula of SAO 244567 makes it impossible to derive these parameters from optical spectra, because most of the photospheric lines are blended by nebular emission lines thus they are not suitable for a spectral analysis. The derived surface parameters will establish constraints for late thermal pulse evolutionary calculations. With these calculations we aim not only to explain the nature of SAO 244567, but they also will provide a deeper insight in the formation process of hydrogen deficient stars, which make up 25% of the post AGB-stars and white dwarfs.

  2. Reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river endemic stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae: Anatomical and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    del Mar Pedreros-Sierra, Tania; Arrieta-Prieto, Dagoberto M; Mejía-Falla, Paola A

    2016-05-01

    We studied anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae using microscopic and macroscopic analysis of each organ. Although the reproductive tract was fully functional on both side, the left organs possibly have a greater contribution to reproductive success, because left ovary and uterus were more developed and had higher number of oocytes and embryos, respectively, than the right ones. This species has histotrophic viviparity given by the presence of uterine trophonemata and by glandular character in pregnant and postpartum females. We suggest that the epigonal organ is involved in the degradation of components of atretic follicles and the embryos begin to develop surrounded by a gelatinous tertiary envelope produced by the oviducal gland. This latter organ is composed by three zones in mature females, club, papillary, and baffle zone, as described for other elasmobranchs. From the anatomical observations, a maturity scale comprising six sexual maturity stages (Immature I, Immature II, early mature, pregnant, post-partum, and regenerating) was established for female P. magdalenae, and it can be useful as basis for reproductive studies of other potamotrygonid species. Finally, we propose a continuous reproductive cycle for P. magdalenae.

  3. Stingray: high-speed control of small UGVs in urban terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Massey, Kent

    2009-05-01

    For the TARDEC-funded Stingray Project, iRobot Corporation and Chatten Associates are developing technologies that will allow small UGVs to operate at tactically useful speeds. In previous work, we integrated a Chatten Head-Aimed Remote Viewer (HARV) with an iRobot Warrior UGV, and used the HARV to drive the Warrior, as well as a small, high-speed, gas-powered UGV surrogate. In this paper, we describe our continuing work implementing semiautonomous driver-assist behaviors to help an operator control a small UGV at high speeds. We have implemented an IMU-based heading control behavior that enables tracked vehicles to maintain accurate heading control even over rough terrain. We are also developing a low-latency, low-bandwidth, high-quality digital video protocol to support immersive visual telepresence. Our experiments show that a video compression codec using the H.264 algorithm can produce several times better resolution than a Motion JPEG video stream, while utilizing the same limited bandwidth, and the same low latency. With further enhancements, our H.264 codec will provide an order of magnitude greater quality, while retaining a low latency comparable to Motion JPEG, and operating within the same bandwidth.

  4. Development and evaluation of the Stingray, an amphibious maritime interdiction operations unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Castelli, Robin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps conduct thousands of Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs) every year around the globe. Navy Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS) teams regularly board suspect ships and perform search operations, often in hostile environments. There is a need for a small tactical robot that can be deployed ahead of the team to provide enhanced situational awareness in these boarding, breaching, and clearing operations. In 2011, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific conducted user evaluations on a number of small throwable robots and sensors, verified the requirements, and developed the key performance parameters (KPPs) for an MIO robot. Macro USA Corporation was then tasked to design and develop two prototype systems, each consisting of one control/display unit and two small amphibious Stingray robots. Technical challenges included the combination paddle wheel/shock-absorbing wheel, the tradeoff between impact resistance, size, and buoyancy, and achieving adequate traction on wet surfaces. This paper describes the technical design of these robots and the results of subsequent user evaluations by VBSS teams.

  5. A new species of tetraphyllidean (Cestoda) from the Largespot River stingray, Potamotrygon falkneri (Potamotrygonidae: Chondrichthyes), from the Parana basin.

    PubMed

    Menoret, Adriana; Ivanov, Verónica A

    2009-08-01

    Rhinebothrium paranaensis n. sp. (Tetraphyllidea: Cestoda) is described from the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon falkneri collected in the Colastiné River, a tributary to the Lower Parana River in Argentina. The specimens were studied in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy and histology. Rhinebothrium paranaensis can be distinguished from all valid species in the genus using the following combination of characters: worm length, number of proglottids, diamond-shaped bothridia lacking constriction, number of loculi on the distal surface of bothridium, and the lack of vaginal sphincter and external seminal vesicle.

  6. Up-regulation of lipoxygenase, phospholipase, and oxylipin-production in the induced chemical defense of the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Florian; Lion, Ulrich; Delage, Ludovic; Kloareg, Bernard; Potin, Philippe; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-07-01

    The red alga Gracilaria chilensis is commercially farmed for the production of agar hydrocolloids, but some susceptible algae in farms suffer from intense epiphyte growth. We investigated the induced chemical defense response of G. chilensis against epiphytes and demonstrated that an extract of an epiphyte-challenged alga can trigger a defense response. The hormonally active metabolites were purified by RP-HPLC. Treatment with the extract or the purified fraction changed the chemical profile of the alga and increased resistance against epiphyte spores. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme assays demonstrated that this metabolic response occurs after an increase in lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activity. Although this suggests the involvement of regulatory oxylipins, neither jasmonic acid nor the algal metabolite prostaglandin E2 triggers comparable defense responses.

  7. Three new species of Echeneibothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the skate, Raja chilensis Guichenot, 1848, with comments on mode of attachment and host specificity.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, J; Dailey, M D

    1975-02-01

    Echeneibothrium multiloculatum sp. n., E. williamsi sp. n., and E. megalosoma sp. n. are described from the spiral valve of 90 specimens of Raja chilensis collected off central Chile. In Echeneibothrium infections, attachment sites and host infectivity are indicated as at least a partial function of hold-fast type, mucosal pattern, and first worms established. This is the first report of the genus Echeneibothrium from South American waters.

  8. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    PubMed

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  9. Identification of limiting climatic and geographical variables for the distribution of the tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae): a baseline for conservation actions

    PubMed Central

    Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Just as for most other tortoise species, the once common Chaco tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae), is under constant threat across it distribution in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Despite initial qualitative description of the species distribution and further individual reports of new locations for the species, there is no description of the species distribution in probabilistic terms. With this work we aim to produce an updated predictive distribution map for C. chilensis to serve as a baseline management tool for directed strategic conservation planning. Methods. We fitted a spatially expanded logistic regression model within the Bayesian framework that accounts for uncertainty on presence-only and generated pseudo-absence data into the parameter estimates. We contrast the results with reported data for the national networks of protected areas to assess the inclusion of the species in area-based conservation strategies. Results. We obtained maps with predictions of the occurrence of the species and reported the model’s uncertainty spatially. The model suggests that potential suitable habitats for the species are continuous across Argentina, West Paraguay and South Bolivia, considering the variables, the scale and the resolution used. The main limiting variables were temperature-related variables, and precipitation in the reproductive period. Discussion. Given the alarming low density and coverage of protected areas over the distribution area of C. chilensis, the map produced provides a baseline to identify areas where directed strategic conservation management actions would be more efficient for this and other associated species. PMID:26557430

  10. Identification of limiting climatic and geographical variables for the distribution of the tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae): a baseline for conservation actions.

    PubMed

    Ruete, Alejandro; Leynaud, Gerardo C

    2015-01-01

    Background. Just as for most other tortoise species, the once common Chaco tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae), is under constant threat across it distribution in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Despite initial qualitative description of the species distribution and further individual reports of new locations for the species, there is no description of the species distribution in probabilistic terms. With this work we aim to produce an updated predictive distribution map for C. chilensis to serve as a baseline management tool for directed strategic conservation planning. Methods. We fitted a spatially expanded logistic regression model within the Bayesian framework that accounts for uncertainty on presence-only and generated pseudo-absence data into the parameter estimates. We contrast the results with reported data for the national networks of protected areas to assess the inclusion of the species in area-based conservation strategies. Results. We obtained maps with predictions of the occurrence of the species and reported the model's uncertainty spatially. The model suggests that potential suitable habitats for the species are continuous across Argentina, West Paraguay and South Bolivia, considering the variables, the scale and the resolution used. The main limiting variables were temperature-related variables, and precipitation in the reproductive period. Discussion. Given the alarming low density and coverage of protected areas over the distribution area of C. chilensis, the map produced provides a baseline to identify areas where directed strategic conservation management actions would be more efficient for this and other associated species.

  11. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates.

  12. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E.; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic–Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  13. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in southern California round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) exposed to planar aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel; Lowe, Christopher G

    2014-06-01

    While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n = 208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n = 34). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1 µg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2 µg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51 µg/g and 0.66 µg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481 pmol/min/mg protein and 55 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297 pmol/min/mg protein and 234 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response

  14. Long-term outcomes with use of the CrossBoss and stingray coronary CTO crossing and re-entry devices.

    PubMed

    Mogabgab, Owen; Patel, Vishal G; Michael, Tesfaldet T; Fuh, Eric; Alomar, Mohammed; Rangan, Bavana V; Abdullah, Shuaib M; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2013-11-01

    The Boston Scientific CrossBoss and Stingray Coronary CTO Crossing and Re-Entry devices (formerly the BridgePoint Medical System) can improve success rates in chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but there are no published data on long-term clinical outcomes. The acute and long-term outcomes of 170 consecutive patients who underwent CTO PCI at our institution were reviewed, including 60 patients in whom the CrossBoss and Stingray devices were used and 110 patients treated with other crossing strategies. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two cohorts. Patients in whom the CrossBoss/Stingray was utilized had more prior CTO PCI attempts (13.1% vs 1.6%; P=.003), required longer fluoroscopy times (46 ± 22 minutes vs 35 ± 20 minutes; P<.001), higher contrast dose (390 ± 141 mL vs 323 ± 132 mL; P>.99), and more guidewires for lesion crossing (8.0 ± 6.5 vs 4.7 ± 2.3; P<.001), but procedural success (75.8% vs 76.2%; P>.99) and major complication rates (4.8% vs 3.2%; P=.69) were similar. During a median follow-up of 1.81 years, the CrossBoss/Stingray group had no difference in target lesion revascularization (40.9% vs 29.6%; P=.13) and major adverse clinical events (40.3% vs 35.2%; P=.42). Use of the CrossBoss/Stingray devices for CTO PCI is associated with equally high success and equally low complication rates as other techniques, both immediately post procedure and during long-term follow-up, in spite of its use in higher complexity cases.

  15. Systemic rhabdomyolysis induced by venom of freshwater stingrays Plesiotrygon iwamae and Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes-Potamotrygonidae) from the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Lameiras, Juliana Luiza Varjão; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi; Araújo, José de Ribamar; Caranhas, Sandra Maria Evangelista; Marques, Carlos Melquiades Almeida; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; Duncan, Wallice Luiz Paxiúba

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by freshwater stingrays are characterized by intense pain and pathological changes at the lesion site, including oedema, erythema and, in most cases, necrosis. In this study, the systemic myotoxic activity induced by mucus extracts from the dorsal region and stinger of the stingrays Plesiotrygon iwamae and Potamotrygon motoro was described, analysed and quantified. Twenty-four hours after injection of 400 μg of the extracts into the gastrocnemius muscle of mice, the following effects were observed: coagulative necrosis of the muscle tissue, muscle fibre regeneration and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, including neutrophils, macrophages, and a reduced number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. These changes were also observed, although to a lesser extent, in the gastrocnemius muscles of the contralateral limbs, demonstrating that the extracts from the two species could induce systemic rhabdomyolysis. Based on morphometric analysis, it was observed that the stinger extract of P. motoro was more potent in inducing local and systemic myotoxic activity, followed by the dorsal extract from P. motoro and stinger and dorsal extracts from P. iwamae, which induced similar effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dasyatispora levantinae gen. et sp. nov., a new microsporidian parasite from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca in the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Ariel; Goren, Menachem; Yokeş, M Baki; Galil, Bella S; Klopman, Yaelle; Huchon, Dorothée; Szitenberg, Amir; Karhan, S Unsal

    2010-09-02

    A new microsporidian infecting the Mediterranean common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758) is described from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. The parasite invades the disc muscles, producing slender, spindle-shaped subcutaneous swellings that develop into massive, elongated, tumor-like protuberances measuring up to 11 x 4 cm. Severity of the infection may vary from light (1 or 2 small lesions) to intense, with large parts of the dorsal surface covered with lumps and protrusions. These masses contained a yellowish-white caseous substance consisting of degraded host tissue and microsporidian sporophorous vesicles, which in turn contained developing sporonts, sporoblasts and spores. The ripe spore contained a uni-nucleate sporoplasm and large posterior vacuole, and measured 3.8-4.3 x 2.6-2.8 microm. Infection prevalence was 21% in a sample of 143 host individuals examined. All the infected stingray individuals were within the weight class of 300 to 800 g (200 to 305 mm disc width). Phylogenetic analyses of rDNA sequences indicate that this microsporidian belongs to the Pleistophoridae and clusters with species of the genera Ovipleistophora Pekkarinen, Lom & Nilsen, 2002 and Heterosporis Schubert, 1969. However, the morphology, development and host differ distinctly from all reported species, including those belonging to these 2 genera, and it is thus assigned to a newly erected genus and named Dasyatispora levantinae gen. et sp. nov. This is the first record of a microsporidian infection in a batoid. It is also the first microsporidian species to be formally described from an elasmobranch.

  17. A new species of Acanthobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the ocellate river stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Verónica A

    2005-04-01

    Examination of the spiral intestines of 44 freshwater stingrays, Potamotrygon motoro, from tributary rivers of the Parana River in Argentina, allowed for the collection of specimens of an undescribed species of Acanthobothrium. Acanthobothrium ramiroi n. sp. can be distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following characters: asymmetrical hooks (medial and lateral hooks conspicuously different in size and form, with axial prong of medial hooks stouter than abaxial prong), hook size (total length of medial hooks up to 242 microm, total length of lateral hooks up to 239 microm), bothridia not fused to the scolex proper at posterior ends, worm size (51-84 mm long), and the presence of a conspicuous vaginal sphincter. The new species is different from all other species of Acanthobothrium in freshwater potamotrygonids, except Acanthobothrium terezae, in having conspicuous asymmetrical hooks. The main differences that allow for the distinction between A. ramiroi and A. terezae include hook size, the way the bothridia are attached to the scolex proper, and the shape of the older gravid segments. The discovery of a new species of Acanthobothrium from a potamotrygonid extends our understanding of the diversity of the genus in freshwater stingrays in South America.

  18. Next generation sequencing yields complete mitogenomes of Leopard whipray (Himantura leoparda) and Blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Wu, Shan-Chun; Lin, Zi-Han; Chan, Yen-Fan; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Borsa, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The Leopard whipray (Himantura leoparda) and Blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) are distributed in the Indian and West Pacific Ocean and considered as complex species based on morphological and molecular evidences. In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to decode two complete mitogenomes of H. leoparda and N. kuhlii. The assembled mitogenome, consisting lengths of 17,690 bp for H. leoparda and 17,974 bp for N. kuhlii, shows 78% identity to each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop with the lengths 1931 bp (H. leoparda) and 2243 bp (N. kuhlii) is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 40.3% for H. leoparda and 39.8% for N. kuhlii. The complete mitogenome of H. leoparda and N. kuhlii provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses for stingray species complex.

  19. Purification and primary structure of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) from the brain of an elasmobranch, stingray, Dasyatis akajei.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, K; Yoshida, T; Nagano, Y; Kashimoto, K; Yatohgo, T; Shimomura, H; Shioda, S; Arimura, A; Uchiyama, M

    1998-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was isolated from ovine hypothalami and found to exist as two amidated forms with 38 (PACAP 38) and 27 (PACAP 27) residues. The amino acid sequences of PACAPs isolated from the vertebrates, such as a bird, a frog and teleost fish, appear to be well conserved. In the present study, we attempted to isolate PACAP from the brain of an elasmobranch fish, Dasyatis akajei (stingray), which belongs to the Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish), by extraction of the acetone-dried powder with acetic acid, followed by successive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a gel-filtration, a cation-exchange and two reverse-phase columns. Purification was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and Western blotting analysis using an anti-PACAP 27 serum. The PACAP thus obtained consisted of 44 residues. The amino acid sequence of the comparable portion of its N-terminal 38 residues showed 92%, 89%, 89%, and 82% identity with those of mammalian, chicken, frog and teleost PACAPs with 38 residues, respectively. The extra six C-terminal residues of the stingray resembled those of tetrapod and teleost PACAP precursors which were deduced from the respective cDNAs. These results indicate that PACAP, which has an amino acid sequence showing high similarity with those of tetrapod and teleost PACAPs, is present in the elasmobranch brain.

  20. Population structure and phylogeography of the short-tailed stingray, Dasyatis brevicaudata (Hutton 1875), in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Le Port, Agnès; Lavery, Shane

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the degree of vagility explains little of the extent of population subdivision found within elasmobranch species. Instead, patterns of gene flow in elasmobranchs appear more closely linked to the presence of dispersal barriers, either physical or biological. Here, we investigate the potential role of some of these isolating mechanisms in shaping the population structure of a member of the stingray family Dasyatidae (Dasyatis brevicaudata) at various scales (southern hemisphere vs. coastal New Zealand). Analyses of the mitochondrial DNA control region from 176 individuals revealed significant genetic structure between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand populations (analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA], overall Ф(ST) = 0.67, P < 0.001), although New Zealand and Australia shared some haplotypes. Surprisingly, significant population differentiation was found among several coastal New Zealand locations (AMOVA, overall Ф(ST) = 0.05, P < 0.05). However, data did not support the genetic differentiation between individuals from an offshore breeding area and mainland individuals. Comparisons suggest that these stingrays exhibit similar levels of population differentiation as other coastal elasmobranchs, with high divergence across oceanic basins and lower differentiation along continuous coastal habitats. Differences in coastal population structuring in elasmobranch species studied to date may be attributed to species-specific preferences for coastal habitats, which may be linked to life history functions (e.g., feeding and pupping).

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Feeding and Trophic Level Ecology in Stingrays (Rajiformes; Myliobatoidei) and Electric Rays (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Ian P.; Bennett, Mike B.

    2013-01-01

    Standardised diets and trophic level (TL) estimates were calculated for 75 ray species from the suborders Myliobatoidei (67 spp.) and Torpedinoidei (8 spp.). Decapod crustaceans (31.71±3.92%) and teleost fishes (16.45±3.43%) made the largest contribution to the standardised diet of the Myliobatoidei. Teleost fishes (37.40±16.09%) and polychaete worms (31.96±14.22%) were the most prominent prey categories in the standardised diet of the suborder Torpedinoidei. Cluster analysis identified nine major trophic guilds the largest of which were decapod crustaceans (24 species), teleost fishes (11 species) and molluscs (11 species). Trophic level estimates for rays ranged from 3.10 for Potamotrygon falkneri to 4.24 for Gymnura australis, Torpedo marmorata and T. nobiliana. Secondary consumers with a TL <4.00 represented 84% of the species examined, with the remaining 12 species (16%) classified as tertiary consumers (TL ≥4.00). Tertiary consumers included electric rays (Torpedo, 3 spp. and Hypnos, 1 sp.), butterfly rays (Gymnura, 4 spp.), stingrays (2 spp.) and Potamotrygonid stingrays (2 spp.). Feeding strategies were identified as the primary factor of influence with respect to Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei TL estimates with inter-family comparisons providing the greatest insight into Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei relationships. PMID:23936503

  2. Three new genera of rhinebothriidean cestodes from stingrays in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Healy, Claire J; Marques, Fernando P L; Jensen, Kirsten

    2017-04-04

    Three genera of rhinebothriideans, previously referred to as New genus 1, New genus 2 and New genus 4, are erected in the the Anthocephaliidae. New genus 1 is established as Divaricobothrium gen. n., with Divaricobothrium tribelum sp. n. as its type species; Echeneibothrium trifidum Shipley et Hornell, 1906 is transferred to the genus as Divaricobothrium trifidum (Shipley et Hornell, 1906) comb. n. This genus is unique among rhinebothriidean genera in bearing bothridia that are posteriorly deeply divided into two lobes with facial loculi but no apical sucker, and a vagina that extends to near the anterior margin of the proglottid. Its species parasitise Indo-Pacific members of the genera Brevitrygon Last, Naylor et Manjaji-Matsumoto, Maculabatis Last, Naylor et Manjaji-Matsumoto and Pateobatis Last, Naylor et Manjaji-Matsumoto. New genus 2 is established as Barbeaucestus gen. n., with Barbeaucestus jockuschae sp. n. as its type species; Barbeaucestus ralickiae sp. n. is also described. Anthobothrium sexorchidum Williams, 1964 and Rhinebothrium shipleyi Southwell, 1912 are transferred to the genus as Barbeaucestus sexorchidus (Williams, 1964) comb. n. and Barbeaucestus shipleyi (Southwell, 1912) comb. n., respectively. This genus is unique among rhinebothriidean genera in that its bothridia are substantially wider than long, bear an apical sucker and at least one row of two or more facial loculi in their anterior half. Its species parasitise the genera Neotrygon Castelnau and Taeniura Müller et Henle. New genus 4 is established as Sungaicestus gen. n. with transfer of Rhinebothrium kinabatanganensis Healy, 2006, as Sungaicestus kinabatanganensis (Healy, 2006) comb. n., as its type species. Among the genera of its order, this genus most closely resembles Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890, however, despite the original description, the bothridia were found to bear, rather than lack, apical suckers. This monotypic genus is known only from the freshwater stingray Urogymnus

  3. Phylogeography and population structure of the red stingray, Dasyatis akajei inferred by mitochondrial control region.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Xiao; Sun, Dianrong; Song, Na; Lin, Qin; Gao, Tianxiang

    2015-08-01

    The red stingray Dasyatis akajei is distributed in both marine and freshwater, but little is known about its phylogeography and population structure. We sampled 107 individuals from one freshwater region and 6 coastal localities within the distribution range of D. akajei. Analyses of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA control region of 474 bp revealed only 17 polymorphism sites that defined 28 haplotypes, with no unique haplotype for the freshwater population. A high level of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity were observed in both marine (h = 0.9393 ± 0.0104, π = 0.0069 ± 0.0040) and freshwater populations (h = 0.8333 ± 0.2224, π = 0.0084 ± 0.0063). Significant level of genetic structure was detected between four marine populations (TZ, WZ, ND and ZZ) via both hierarchical molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) and pairwise FST (with two exceptions), which is unusual for elasmobranchs detected previously over such short geographical distance. However, limited sampling suggested that the freshwater population was not particularly distinct (p > 0.05), but additional samples would be needed to confirm it. Demersal and slow-moving characters likely have contributed to the genetically heterogeneous population structure. The demographic history of D. akajei examined by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline analyses suggested a sudden population expansion dating to upper Pleistocene. The information on genetic diversity and genetic structure will have implications for the management of fisheries and conservation efforts.

  4. The Megavirus Chilensis Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase: the First Viral Structure of a Typical Cellular Copper Chaperone-Independent Hyperstable Dimeric Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Burlat, Bénédicte; Coutard, Bruno; Chaspoul, Florence; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giant viruses able to replicate in Acanthamoeba castellanii penetrate their host through phagocytosis. After capsid opening, a fusion between the internal membranes of the virion and the phagocytic vacuole triggers the transfer in the cytoplasm of the viral DNA together with the DNA repair enzymes and the transcription machinery present in the particles. In addition, the proteome analysis of purified mimivirus virions revealed the presence of many enzymes meant to resist oxidative stress and conserved in the Mimiviridae. Megavirus chilensis encodes a predicted copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), an enzyme known to detoxify reactive oxygen species released in the course of host defense reactions. While it was thought that the metal ions are required for the formation of the active-site lid and dimer stabilization, megavirus chilensis SOD forms a very stable metal-free dimer. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and activity measurements to show that the supplementation of the bacterial culture with copper and zinc during the recombinant expression of Mg277 is sufficient to restore a fully active holoenzyme. These results demonstrate that the viral enzyme's activation is independent of a chaperone both for disulfide bridge formation and for copper incorporation and suggest that its assembly may not be as regulated as that of its cellular counterparts. A SOD protein is encoded by a variety of DNA viruses but is absent from mimivirus. As in poxviruses, the enzyme might be dispensable when the virus infects Acanthamoeba cells but may allow megavirus chilensis to infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. IMPORTANCE Mimiviridae are giant viruses encoding more than 1,000 proteins. The virion particles are loaded with proteins used by the virus to resist the vacuole's oxidative stress. The megavirus chilensis virion contains a predicted copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD). The corresponding gene is present in some megavirus

  5. Isolation and identification of Vibrio toranzoniae associated with diseased red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) farmed in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Aide; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Estrada, Juan M; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-09-30

    The present study deals with the first isolation of Vibrio toranzoniae from cultured red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis). During the summer season of 2011, mortalities were observed in young red conger eel at one aquaculture experimental rearing system in Quintay, Valparaiso, Chile. The microbiological analysis of the diseased fish resulted in the isolation of three dominant and representative isolates, designated as R.17, R.18 and R.19, which were obtained from gill, fin and external lesions from three different fish, respectively. All isolates were identified as V. toranzoniae by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including phenotypic characterization, sequencing of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Inoculation of a representative strain (R18) in turbot as model fish species demonstrated the pathogenic potential for fish of the Chilean isolates. Results obtained indicate that the geographical and host distribution of V. toranzoniae is wider than expected, and that this species may have negative incidence in the culture of marine organisms.

  6. Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Nicolás I.; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Poulin, Elie; Haye, Pilar A.

    2017-01-01

    Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and outlier loci, respectively) in SNPs scattered throughout the genome in six local populations of the commercially exploited ascidian Pyura chilensis along the southeast Pacific coast (24°–42°S). This species is sessile as an adult, has a short-lived larval stage, and may also be dispersed by artificial transport as biofouling. We found that the main signal in neutral loci was a highly divergent lineage present at 39°S, and a subjacent signal that indicated a separation at 30°S (north/south), widely reported in the area. North/south separation was the main signal in outlier loci, and the linage divergence at 39°S was subjacent. We conclude that the geographic structure of the genetic diversity of outlier and neutral loci was established by different strengths of environmental, historical and anthropogenic factors. PMID:28300177

  7. Determination of polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] a Chilean blackberry.

    PubMed

    Genskowsky, Estefania; Puente, Luis A; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Fernández-López, Juana; Muñoz, Loreto A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine (1) the polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins), (2) the antioxidant using four different methodologies (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC) and (3) the antibacterial properties of maqui berry [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] (MB) grown in Chile. The HPLC analysis of MB showed a total of 19 polyphenolic compounds identified as anthocyanins (eight compounds), flavonols (10 compounds) and ellagic acid. Delphinidin derivatives were the predominant anthocyanins while quercetin derivatives were the predominant flavonols. MB showed an antioxidant activity measured with DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC methods of 28.18, 18.66, 25.22 g Trolox equivalent kg(-1) and 0.12 g ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent kg(-1) , respectively. With regard to the antibacterial activity, all strains tested were affected by MB. Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria innocua showed the highest sensitivity to maqui berry extracts with MIC values of 40 and a 50 mg mL(-1) , respectively. The results suggest that maqui berry has a great potential to be employed in the food industry as potential food ingredient to functional food development or as bio-preservative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Nicolás I; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Poulin, Elie; Haye, Pilar A

    2017-03-16

    Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and outlier loci, respectively) in SNPs scattered throughout the genome in six local populations of the commercially exploited ascidian Pyura chilensis along the southeast Pacific coast (24°-42°S). This species is sessile as an adult, has a short-lived larval stage, and may also be dispersed by artificial transport as biofouling. We found that the main signal in neutral loci was a highly divergent lineage present at 39°S, and a subjacent signal that indicated a separation at 30°S (north/south), widely reported in the area. North/south separation was the main signal in outlier loci, and the linage divergence at 39°S was subjacent. We conclude that the geographic structure of the genetic diversity of outlier and neutral loci was established by different strengths of environmental, historical and anthropogenic factors.

  9. A field test of temperature effects on ecophysiological responses of copepodid Calanus chilensis during coastal upwelling in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Alan; Escribano, Ruben; Marín, Victor

    2006-08-01

    We assessed responses of late copepodid stages of Calanus chilensis, as subject to spatial heterogeneity in oceanographic conditions, during coastal upwelling off Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile. An oceanographic survey conducted during 26 h prior to zooplankton sampling mapped upwelling conditions. Over the next 2 d, four zooplankton stations, two inside and two outside the cold upwelling plume, were sampled twice in the day and twice at night. We then tested the effects of upwelling/non-upwelling habitat (i.e. inside/outside the upwelling plume) on body length, body weight, oil-sac volume (OSV) and a condition index (CI) of stages copepodid C5 and adult female. We also compared ovary development of females and stage distribution from both habitats. C5 and females from inside the upwelling plume were heavier, larger, had a greater CI, and females had more developed ovaries, than those located outside the plume, although there were no significant differences in the OSV. Differences in stage distribution suggested that individuals outside the plume had developed faster under a higher temperature ( 17C) than those inside the cold ( 14C) plume. Chlorophyll- a concentration was uniformly high ( >4mgm-3), both outside and inside the plume. We concluded that distinct temperature regimes, persisting longer than 1 week, had caused different sized copepodids. We thus suggest that temperature alone may substantially explain variances in growth and development rates of Calanus in highly productive upwelling systems, with no need to invoke food and body size effects.

  10. The Rapid Evolution of the Exciting Star of the Stingray Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Parthasarathy, M.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J.W.; Hamann, W. R.; Sander, A.; Todt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: SAO244567, the exciting star of the Stingray nebula, is rapidly evolving. Previous analyses suggested that it has heated up from an effective temperature of about 21 kK in 1971 to over 50 kK in the 1990s. Canonical post-asymptotic giant branch evolution suggests a relatively high mass while previous analyses indicate a low-mass star. Aims: A comprehensive model-atmosphere analysis of UV and optical spectra taken during 1988-2006 should reveal the detailed temporal evolution of its atmospheric parameters and provide explanations for the unusually fast evolution. Methods: Fitting line profiles from static and expanding non-LTE model atmospheres to the observed spectra allowed us to study the temporal change of effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, and terminal wind velocity. In addition, we determined the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Results: We find that the central star has steadily increased its effective temperature from 38 kK in 1988 to a peak value of 60 kK in 2002. During the same time, the star was contracting, as concluded from an increase in surface gravity from log g = 4.8 to 6.0 and a drop in luminosity. Simultaneously, the mass-loss rate declined from log(M/M (solar mass) yr (exp -1)) = -9.0 to -11.6 and the terminal wind velocity increased from v (infinity) = 1800 km s (exp -1) to 2800 km s (exp -1). Since around 2002, the star stopped heating and has cooled down again to 55 kK by 2006. It has a largely solar surface composition with the exception of slightly subsolar carbon, phosphorus, and sulfur. The results are discussed by considering different evolutionary scenarios. Conclusions: The position of SAO244567 in the log T (sub eff) -log g plane places the star in the region of sdO stars. By comparison with stellar-evolution calculations, we confirm that SAO244567 must be a low-mass star (M < 0.55 solar mass). However, the slow evolution of the respective stellar evolutionary models is in strong contrast to the

  11. Functional morphology of undulatory pectoral fin locomotion in the stingray taeniura lymma (Chondrichthyes: dasyatidae)

    PubMed

    Rosenberger; Westneat

    1999-12-01

    Rajiform locomotion is a unique swimming style found in the batoid fishes (skates and rays) in which thrust is generated by undulatory waves passing down the enlarged pectoral fins. We examined the kinematic patterns of fin motion and the motor patterns of pectoral fin muscles driving the locomotor system in the blue-spot stingray Taeniura lymma. Our goals in this study were to determine overall patterns of fin motion and motor control during undulatory locomotion, to discover how these patterns change with swimming velocity and to correlate muscle function with kinematics and pectoral morphology. Kinematic data were recorded from five individuals over a range of swimming speeds from 22 to 55 cm s(-)(1) (0.9-3.0 DL s(-)(1), where DL is body disc length). Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from three individuals over a range of velocities (1.2-3.0 DL s(-)(1)) at seven locations (four dorsal, three ventral) along the pectoral fin. As swimming velocity increases, fin-beat frequency, wavespeed and stride length increase, number of waves and reduced frequency decrease and fin amplitude remains constant. There is variability among individuals in frequency and amplitude at a given speed. An inverse relationship was found in which a high fin-beat frequency is associated with a low fin amplitude and a low fin-beat frequency is associated with a high fin amplitude. The motor pattern of undulatory locomotion is alternate firing activity in the dorsal and ventral muscles as the wave moves along the fin from anterior to posterior. Fin muscles are active along the entire length of the fin except at the lowest speeds. As swimming velocity and fin-beat frequency increase, the time of activation of posterior muscles becomes earlier relative to the onset of activity in the anterior dorsal muscles. The duration of muscle activity is longer in the ventral muscles than in the dorsal muscles, indicating that they play a central role in the power stroke of the fin-beat cycle. The

  12. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphisms as tools to detect hybridization and population structure in freshwater stingrays.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Vanessa P; Vera, Manuel; Pardo, Belén G; Taggart, John; Martinez, Paulino; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2017-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified and validated for two stingrays species, Potamotrygon motoro and Potamotrygon falkneri, using double digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) reads using 454-Roche technology. A total of 226 774 reads (65.5 Mb) were obtained (mean read length 289 ± 183 bp) detecting a total of 5399 contigs (mean contig length: 396 ± 91 bp). Mining this data set, a panel of 143 in silico SNPs was selected. Eighty-two of these SNPs were successfully validated and 61 were polymorphic: 14 in P. falkneri, 21 in P. motoro, 3 in both species and 26 fixed for alternative variants in both species, thus being useful for population analyses and hybrid detection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The rapid evolution of the central star of the Stingray Nebula — latest news from the HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Nicole; Rauch, Thomas; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Werner, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    SAO 244567 is an unusually fast evolving star. Within twenty years only, it had turned from a B-type supergiant into the central star of the Stingray Nebula. Space- and ground-based observations obtained over the last decades have revealed that its spectrum changes noticeably over just a few years, showing stellar evolution in real time. The low mass of SAO 244567 is, however, in strong contradiction with canonical post-asymptotic giant branch evolution. Thus, its fast evolution has been a mystery for decades. We present preliminary results of the non-LTE spectral analyis of the recently obtained HST/COS observations, which finally allow us to shed light on the evolutionary history of this extraordinary object.

  14. Population genetic structure of the round stingray Urobatis halleri (Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes) in southern California and the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Plank, S. M.; Lowe, C. G.; Feldheim, K. A.; Wilson, R. R.; Brusslan, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The round stingray, Urobatis halleri, is a viviparous elasmobranch that inhabits inshore, benthic habitats ranging from the western U.S.A. to Panama. The population genetic structure of this species was inferred with seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in samples collected at three sites in coastal southern California, one near Santa Catalina Island, California and one in the eastern Gulf of California. Urobatis halleri is relatively common, but little is known of its movement patterns or population structure. Small FST values (−0·0017 to 0·0005) suggested little structure among coastal populations of southern and Baja California. The population sampled at Santa Catalina Island, which is separated by a deep-water channel from the coastal sites, however, was significantly divergent (large FST, 0·0251) from the other populations, suggesting low connectivity with coastal populations. The Santa Catalina Island population also had the lowest allele richness and lowest average heterozygosity, suggesting recent population bottlenecks in size. PMID:20646159

  15. STINGRAY: Time Series Methods For Astronomical X-ray Data That Aren't Fishy At All!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Abigail; Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    In much of the small X-ray timing community, the data analysis software is old, private, poorly maintained, and poorly documented, and we believe this will hinder the further development of the sub-field. With the advent of new timing missions like ASTROSAT and NICER, we want the community to have software that has a low entrance threshold and relatively small learning curve. We are in the early stages of developing Stingray, a general-purpose python package for timing and spectral-timing analysis of astronomical X-ray data, with the intent to expand to fast timing data in other wavelengths in the future. GitHub pull requests and issues are welcome! http://stingraysoftware.github.io/

  16. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory.

  17. Towards sustainable fishery management for skates in South America: The genetic population structure of Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma (Chondrichthyes, Rajiformes) in the south-east Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Carlos; Bennett, Michael B.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    The longnose skates (Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma) are the main component of the elasmobranch fisheries in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Both species are considered to be a single stock by the fishery management in Chile however, little is known about the level of demographic connectivity within the fishery. In this study, we used a genetic variation (560 bp of the control region of the mitochondrial genome and ten microsatellite loci) to explore population connectivity at five locations along the Chilean coast. Analysis of Z. chilensis populations revealed significant genetic structure among off-shore locations (San Antonio, Valdivia), two locations in the Chiloé Interior Sea (Puerto Montt and Aysén) and Punta Arenas in southern Chile. For example, mtDNA haplotype diversity was similar across off-shore locations and Punta Arenas (h = 0.46–0.50), it was significantly different to those in the Chiloé Interior Sea (h = 0.08). These results raise concerns about the long-term survival of the species within the interior sea, as population resilience will rely almost exclusively on self-recruitment. In contrast, little evidence of genetic structure was found for D. trachyderma. Our results provide evidence for three management units for Z. chilensis, and we recommend that separate management arrangements are required for each of these units. However, there is no evidence to discriminate the extant population of Dipturus trachyderma as separate management units. The lack of genetic population subdivision for D. trachyderma appears to correspond with their higher dispersal ability and more offshore habitat preference. PMID:28207832

  18. Rajiform locomotion: three-dimensional kinematics of the pectoral fin surface during swimming in the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon orbignyi.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Erin L; Lauder, George V

    2012-09-15

    Rajiform locomotion in fishes is dominated by distinctive undulations of expanded pectoral fins. Unlike other fishes, which typically interact with the fluid environment via multiple fins, undulating rays modulate a single control surface, the pectoral disc, to perform pelagic locomotion, maneuvering and other behaviors. Complex deformations of the broad, flexible pectoral fins occur as the undulating wave varies in three dimensions; pectoral fin kinematics and changes in waveform with swimming speed cannot be fully quantified by two-dimensional analyses of the fin margin. We present the first three-dimensional analysis of undulatory rajiform locomotion in a batoid, the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon orbignyi. Using three cameras (250 frames s(-1)), we gathered three-dimensional excursion data from 31 points on the pectoral fin during swimming at 1.5 and 2.5 disc lengths s(-1), describing the propulsive wave and contrasting waveforms between swimming speeds. Only a relatively small region of the pectoral fin (~25%) undulates with significant amplitude (>0.5 cm). Stingrays can maintain extreme lateral curvature of the distal fin margin in opposition to induced hydrodynamic loads, 'cupping' the edge of the pectoral fin into the flow, with potential implications for drag reduction. Wave amplitude increases across both anteroposterior and mediolateral fin axes. Along the anteroposterior axis, amplitude increases until the wave reaches mid-disc and then remains constant, in contrast to angulliform patterns of continuous amplitude increase. Increases in swimming speed are driven by both wave frequency and wavespeed, though multivariate analyses reveal a secondary role for amplitude.

  19. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-08-15

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis. 

  20. Stress responses of the endemic freshwater cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix) during transportation in the Amazon region of the Rio Negro.

    PubMed

    Brinn, R P; Marcon, J L; McComb, D M; Gomes, L C; Abreu, J S; Baldisseroto, B

    2012-06-01

    Potamotrygon cf. histrix (cururu stingray) are endemic freshwater stingrays from the middle region of the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon basin and are exported worldwide as ornamentals caught by artisanal fishermen. The transport process from capture to final destination is long and stressful. This study quantified stress related changes in corticosterone, blood and water samples (baseline, pre-transport, 3h, 12h and 24h) analyzed during a transport experiment which tested two water additives (tetracycline and the probiotic Efinol). There was a significant stepwise increase in corticosterone levels in stingrays over transport time in combination with osmoregulatory disturbances suggesting a stress related role of this corticosteroid. There were significant increases in water conductivity, Na(+) and K(+) losses and ammonia excretion. Blood parameters such as glucose, hematocrit, red blood count and urea did not change significantly during the experiment. Glucose levels did not increase significantly during transport and this may be due to the fact that other elasmobranchs have been shown to rely more on ketone bodies for energy rather than glucose and produce ammonia as their main nitrogenous waste. The mineralocorticoid action of this hormone has been shown in elasmobranchs and most likely plays a role in osmotic homeostasis. The use of probiotic and especially antibiotic should be avoided since no beneficial effects were observed.

  1. The chilean superfruit black-berry Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui as mediator in inflammation-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Pavon, Natalia; Dominguez, Mariana; Alarcon, Julio; Balbontin, Cristian; Kubo, Isao; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Avila, Jose G

    2017-10-01

    The effects of phytochemicals occurred in fractions and extracts of fruits of "Maqui-berry" (Aristotelia chilensis), on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible-nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and the production of proinflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW-264 cells, as well as their antioxidant activities. The MeOH extract (A), acetone/methanol extract (B), fractions F3, F4, subfractions (SF4-SF6, SF7, SF8-SF10, SF11-SF15, SF16-SF20), quercetin, gallic acid, luteolin, myricetin, mixtures M1, M2 and M3 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The results indicated that anthocyanins, flavonoids and its mixtures suppressed the LPS induced production of nitric oxide (NO), through the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions and showed a potent antioxidant activity against SOD, ABTS, TBARS, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH. The inhibition of enzymes and NO production by selected fractions and compounds was dose-dependent with significant effects seen at concentration as low as 1.0-50.0 (ppm) and 5.0-10.0 μM, for samples (extracts, fractions, subfractions and mixtures) and pure compounds, respectively. Thus, the phenolics (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and organic acids) as the fractions and mixtures may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation associated disorders and therefore might be used as antagonizing agents to ameliorate the effects of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    PubMed Central

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  3. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS).

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species.

  4. The rapid evolution of the exciting star of the Stingray nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Parthasarathy, M.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Hamann, W.-R.; Sander, A.; Todt, H.

    2014-05-01

    Context. SAO 244567, the exciting star of the Stingray nebula, is rapidly evolving. Previous analyses suggested that it has heated up from an effective temperature of about 21 kK in 1971 to over 50 kK in the 1990s. Canonical post-asymptotic giant branch evolution suggests a relatively high mass while previous analyses indicate a low-mass star. Aims: A comprehensive model-atmosphere analysis of UV and optical spectra taken during 1988-2006 should reveal the detailed temporal evolution of its atmospheric parameters and provide explanations for the unusually fast evolution. Methods: Fitting line profiles from static and expanding non-LTE model atmospheres to the observed spectra allowed us to study the temporal change of effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, and terminal wind velocity. In addition, we determined the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Results: We find that the central star has steadily increased its effective temperature from 38 kK in 1988 to a peak value of 60 kK in 2002. During the same time, the star was contracting, as concluded from an increase in surface gravity from log g = 4.8 to 6.0 and a drop in luminosity. Simultaneously, the mass-loss rate declined from log (Ṁ/M⊙ yr-1) = -9.0 to -11.6 and the terminal wind velocity increased from v∞ = 1800 km s-1 to 2800 km s-1. Since around 2002, the star stopped heating and has cooled down again to 55 kK by 2006. It has a largely solar surface composition with the exception of slightly subsolar carbon, phosphorus, and sulfur. The results are discussed by considering different evolutionary scenarios. Conclusions: The position of SAO 244567 in the log Teff-log g plane places the star in the region of sdO stars. By comparison with stellar-evolution calculations, we confirm that SAO 244567 must be a low-mass star (M< 0.55 M⊙). However, the slow evolution of the respective stellar evolutionary models is in strong contrast to the observed fast evolution and the young planetary

  5. Cloning of two members of the calcitonin-family receptors from stingray, Dasyatis akajei: possible physiological roles of the calcitonin family in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Satake, Honoo; Kato, Kanoko; Nishiyama, Yudai; Takahashi, Hideya; Danks, Janine A; Martin, T John; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nakano, Masaki; Kakikawa, Makiko; Yamada, Sotoshi; Ogoshi, Maho; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Funahashi, Hisayuki; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sasayama, Yuichi

    2012-05-15

    In cartilaginous fish, two cDNAs encoding calcitonin-family receptors were isolated for the first time from the stingray brain. The open reading frame of one receptor cDNA coded a 525-amino acid protein. The amino acid identity of this receptor to human calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) is 64.5%, frog CRLR is 64.7%, and flounder CRLR is 61.2% and this was higher than to human calcitonin receptor (CTR) (46.1%), frog CTR (54.7%), and flounder CTR (48.9%). We strongly suggested that this receptor is a ray CRLR based on phylogenetic analysis. In case of the second receptor, amino acid identity among CRLRs (human 50.5%, frog 50.7%, flounder 48.0%) and CTRs (human 43.2%, frog 49.1%, flounder 41.8%) was similar. From phylogenetic analysis of both CRLRs and CTRs, we believe that this receptor is ray CTR. The expression of ray CRLR mRNA was predominantly detected in the nervous system (brain) and vascular system (atrium, ventricle, and gill), which reflects the similar localization of CGRP in the nervous and vascular systems as mammals. It was observed that the second receptor was expressed in several tissues, namely cartilage, brain, pituitary gland, gill, atrium, ventricle, pancreas, spleen, liver, gall bladder, intestine, rectal gland, kidney, testis and ovary. This localization pattern was very similar to flounder CTR. Both receptor mRNAs were strongly expressed in the gill. This suggests that the calcitonin-family members are involved in the osmoregulation of stingray as this fish is known to be euryhaline. When a stingray was transferred to diluted seawater (20% seawater), the expression of both receptors significantly decreased in the gill. Similar results were obtained in the kidney of the stingray. Thus, our cloning and isolation of both receptors in the stingray will be helpful for elucidation of their physiological role(s) such as osmoregulation including calcium metabolism of cartilaginous fish.

  6. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Alzate, Juan F.; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  7. Aerobic secondary utilization of a non-growth and inhibitory substrate 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and sphingopyxis-like strain S32.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos; Godoy, Félix; Becerra, José; Barra, Ricardo; Martínez, Miguel

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246TCP) degradation by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Sphingopyxis chilensis-like strain S32, which were unable to use 246TCP as the sole carbon and energy source. In R2A broth, the strains degraded 246TCP up to 0.5 mM. Results with mixtures of different 246TCP and glucose concentrations in mineral salt media demonstrated dependence on glucose to allow bacterial growth and degradation of 246TCP. Strain S32 degraded halophenol up to 0.2 mM when 5.33 mM glucose was simultaneously added, while strain S37 degraded the compound up to 0.1 mM when 1.33 mM glucose was added. These 246TCP concentrations were lethal for inocula in absence of glucose. Stoichiometric releases of chloride and analysis by HPLC, GC-ECD and GC-MS indicated 246TCP mineralisation by both strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteria able to mineralize a chlorophenol as a non-growth and inhibitory substrate. The concept of secondary utilization instead of cometabolism is proposed for this activity.

  8. A Clinical Trial with Brazilian Arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen) Glycolic Extract in the Treatment of Tendonitis of Flexor and Extensor Tendons of Wrist and Hand.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado

    2015-06-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves.

  10. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Constituents from a Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis) Dietary Supplement Ingredient As Markers for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Yuan, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Benatrehina, P Annécie; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Naman, C Benjamin; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2017-09-26

    Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of a commercially available maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract used in botanical dietary supplement products led to the isolation of 16 compounds, including one phenolic molecule, 1, discovered for the first time from a natural source, along with several known compounds, 2-16, including three substances not reported previously in A. chilensis, 2, 14, and 15. Each isolate was characterized by detailed analysis of NMR spectroscopic and HRESIMS data and tested for their in vitro hydroxyl radical scavenging and quinone-reductase inducing biological activities. A sensitive and accurate LC-DAD-MS method for the quantitative determination of the occurrence of six bioactive compounds, 6, 7, 10-12, and 14, was developed and validated using maqui berry isolates purified in the course of this study as authentic standards. The method presented can be utilized for dereplication efforts in future natural product research projects or to evaluate chemical markers for quality assurance and batch-to-batch standardization of this botanical dietary supplement component.

  11. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    PubMed

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-03

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  12. EROD activity and biliary fluorescence in Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot 1848): biomarkers of PAH exposure in coastal environments of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Rios, Daniel; Orrego, Rodrigo; Rudolph, Anny; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Gavilán, Juan F; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-10-01

    Schroederichthys chilensis is a common shark that lives in Chilean coastal environments. In this work, the relationship between liver 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase dealkylation (EROD) activity and Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FAC) in bile of S. chilensis sampled in three bays with different degrees of pollution were performed including a reference area. Sixty individuals were collected, 20 for each site; (10 males and 10 females per site) livers and bile samples were obtained and immediately frozen. EROD activity and FAC were measured according to three standard methods. EROD activity and FAC were higher in polluted areas than in the reference area. Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra of the bile from the fish collected at the most polluted area showed a peak at 347nm representing a metabolite corresponding to 1-hydroxypyrene. The low EROD activity in the reference area is likely related to the low level of PAH in sediments. We propose that this species is a good indicator of exposure to FACs, since it presents a series of characteristics that make it suitable for monitoring PAH exposure in coastal zones.

  13. Validation of an ultrasound-guided technique to establish a liver-to-coelom ratio and a comparative analysis of the ratios among acclimated and recently wild-caught southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana.

    PubMed

    Grant, Krystan R; Campbell, Terry W; Silver, Tawni I; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, are a well-represented elasmobranch species in public aquaria and other facilities throughout the world. This study was conducted at a facility that experienced some mortality and replenished the collection with wild-caught stingrays. A common necropsy finding among the stingrays was a small, dark liver. The objectives of this study were to assess the reliability of an ultrasound-guided technique for establishing a liver-to-coelom ratio by calculating the approximate length of the liver with respect to the coelomic cavity length and then to compare ratios between acclimated captive and wild-caught stingrays. The ultrasound validation phase of the study measured the distance from the caudal margin of the liver to the pelvic cartilaginous girdle and compared it to the actual distance measured during the necropsy or surgery. There was no significant difference found between the ultrasound and actual distance measurements (P = 0.945). This technique was then used to establish liver-to-coelom ratios and compare two groups of stingrays, presumably under different metabolic states at different periods. Liver-to-coelom ratios were established during initial examinations as well as 8 months after cohabitation in a touch pool exhibit. There were significant differences in liver-to-coelom ratios between the two stingray groups at introduction (median difference = 30.9%, P = 0.007) and after 8 months (median difference = 20.5%, P = 0.008). There were also significant differences in the liver-to-coelom ratios within each group at introduction and at 8 months (acclimated group median difference = 20.4%, P = 0.018; wild-caught group median difference 31%, P = 0.008).

  14. Histology of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifer Compagno and Roberts, 1982 (Elasmobranchii, Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Chatchavalvanich, Kannika; Marcos, Ricardo; Poonpirom, Jintana; Thongpan, Amara; Rocha, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the histology and histochemistry (of carbohydrates and proteins) of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifier. The alimentary tract consists of a mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach (with a descending cardiac and ascending pyloric part), anterior intestine (with an initial portion and a spiral intestine) and posterior intestine, ending in a cloaca. Histologically, three layers--mucosa, muscularis and adventitia/serosa--were defined from the mouth to esophagus and in the posterior intestine, whereas in the stomach and anterior intestine four layers were present, including a submucosa. The epithelial lining of mouth, pharynx and cloaca was of the stratified cuboidal type, whereas that of the esophagus and posterior intestine was stratified columnar. The stomach and anterior intestine were lined by a simple columnar epithelium with microvilli. Goblet cells were observed along the alimentary tract, except in the stomach. In the descending cardiac portion of this organ, gastric glands composed of oxyntic, oxyntic-peptic and peptic cells were observed. The anterior intestine presented a spiral valve with 11 folds, formed by mucosa and submucosa. The posterior intestine was particular in displaying a three-layered muscularis. Mucosubstances secreted along the alimentary tract contained both neutral and acid mucins, but in the stomach only neutral mucins were detected. The stomach presented intense protein content in the epithelial lining of the gastric pits. Enteroendocrine cells were identified in the stomach and intestine. Overall, our data offer a baseline for comparative purposes and future detailed ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies.

  15. Mitochondrion-rich cells distribution, Na+/K+-ATPase activity and gill morphometry of the Amazonian freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Wallice P; Silva, Naara F; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2011-09-01

    Detailed measurements of gill area and constituent variables (total filament number, total filament length and mean filament length), and immunolocalization of the α-subunit of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity were performed on both hemibranchs of all five arches of freshwater potamotrygonid stingrays (Paratrygon aiereba and Potamotrygon sp.). Both species exhibit similar mass-specific gill area, 89.8 ± 6.6 and 91.5 ± 4.3 mm² g⁻¹ for P. aiereba and Potamotrygon sp., respectively. The density of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich MRCs and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity was higher in the 4th gill arch in both species. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity was positively correlated to the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase rich) mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC) distribution among the gill arches of P. aiereba but not in Potamotrygon sp. The levels Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity were not correlated to the gill surface area among the arches for both rays' species. Considering that the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich MRC is the main site for active ion transport in the gill epithelia and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity plays a crucial role in osmoionoregulatory function, we suggesting that 4th gill arch is more relevant for osmoregulation and ion balance in these potamotrygonids.

  16. Synchronized swimming: coordination of pelvic and pectoral fins during augmented punting by the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon orbignyi.

    PubMed

    Macesic, Laura J; Mulvaney, Dana; Blevins, Erin L

    2013-06-01

    Benthic animals live at the juncture of fluid and solid environments, an interface that shapes many aspects of their behavior, including their means of locomotion. Aquatic walking and similar substrate-dependent forms of underwater propulsion have evolved multiple times in benthic invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including batoid elasmobranchs. Skates (Rajidae) use the pelvic fins to punt across the substrate, keeping the pectoral fin disc still. Other batoids combine pelvic fin motions with pectoral fin undulation in augmented punting, but the coordination of these two modes has not been described. In this study of an augmented punter, the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon orbignyi, we demonstrate the synchrony of pelvic and pectoral fin cycles. The punt begins as the pelvic fins, held in an anterior position, are planted into the substrate and used to push the body forward. Meanwhile, a wave of pectoral fin undulation begins, increasing to maximum height just before the cycle's halfway point, when the pelvic fins reach their furthest posterior extension. The pectoral fin wave subsides as the pelvic fins return to their starting position for subsequent punts. Despite definitive links between pectoral and pelvic fin activity, we find no significant relationship between pectoral fin kinematics (frequency, wave height, and wave speed) and punt performance. However, slip calculations indicate that pectoral undulation can produce thrust and augment punting. Pelvic fin kinematics (frequency and duty factor) have significant effects, suggesting that while both sets of fins contribute to thrust generation, the pelvic fins likely determine punt performance.

  17. Breaking news from the HST: the central star of the Stingray Nebula is now returning towards the AGB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Nicole; Rauch, T.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Todt, H.; Werner, K.

    2017-01-01

    SAO 244567 is a rare example of a star that allows us to witness stellar evolution in real time. Between 1971 and 1990, it changed from a B-type star into the hot central star of the Stingray Nebula. This observed rapid heating has been a mystery for decades, since it is in strong contradiction with the low mass of the star and canonical post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution. We speculated that SAO 244567 might have suffered from a late thermal pulse (LTP) and obtained new observations with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/COS to follow the evolution of the surface properties of SAO 244567 and to verify the LTP hypothesis. Our non-LTE spectral analysis reveals that the star cooled significantly since 2002 and that its envelope is now expanding. Therefore, we conclude that SAO 244567 is currently on its way back towards the AGB, which strongly supports the LTP hypothesis. A comparison with state-of-the-art LTP evolutionary calculations shows that these models cannot fully reproduce the evolution of all surface parameters simultaneously, pointing out possible shortcomings of stellar evolution models. Thereby, SAO 244567 keeps on challenging stellar evolution theory and we highly encourage further investigations.

  18. Potamotrygon rex, a new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from the middle and upper rio Tocantins, Brazil, closely allied to Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau, 1855).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marcelo R De

    2016-08-16

    A systematic revision of the rio Tocantins stingrays has confirmed the occurrence of a new species of Potamotrygon first discovered more than two decades ago but which lacked material for a thorough description. Field surveys since undertaken in the middle and upper rio Tocantins have assembled significant material that forms the basis of an ongoing revision of the diverse Tocantins potamotrygonid assemblage. Potamotrygon rex, sp. nov., is a very large, "black stingray" species from the mid and upper rio Tocantins that is closely related to P. henlei (Castelnau), which occurs in the lower Tocantins basin and in rio Araguaia; both species do not co-occur. Potamotrygon rex, sp. nov., has a unique blackish to dark brown dorsal color with numerous small, yellow to orange irregular spots usually forming distinct clusters on dorsal disc, with ocelli in center of clusters on posterior and outer disc, dorsal tail also with clusters but lateral tail with ocelli, and a dark brownish to gray color covering most of ventral surface except nasoral region, gill slits and anterior snout in some specimens, with small whitish spots on ventral disc, pelvic fins and tail. Potamotrygon rex, sp. nov., can be further distinguished by its broad pelvic-fin apices, lack of labial grooves, irregular double row of dorsal tail thorns, and in having two angular cartilages associated with each hyomandibula. Potamotrygon rex, sp. nov., P. henlei, P. leopoldi Castex & Castello, and another new Potamotrygon species from the rio Tapajós (in description) form a species-group (the "black stingrays") occurring in rivers draining the central Brazilian shield, characterized by their black to dark brown but highly ornate dorsal color, wide pelvic fins with broadly convex apices, among other features. Potamotrygon rex, sp. nov., is the 25th species of Potamotrygon, and highlights that very large new species of fishes still await discovery and description in the Neotropical region.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences.

  20. Nematode parasites of the Chilean Flamingo, Phoenicopterus chilensis (Phoenicopteridae) from Central Argentina, with a description of a new species of Tetrameres (Tetrameridae).

    PubMed

    Núñez, Verónica; Drago, Fabiana B; Digiani, María Celina; Lunaschi, Lia I

    2017-06-01

    During the summer of 2013, several specimens of Phoenicopterus chilensis (Phoenicopteridae) were found dead from unknown causes, in lakes from the endorheic system "Encadenadas del Oeste", Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Two species of Nematoda were recovered from the proventriculus, one of them new for science. The tetramerid Tetrameres (Tetrameres) salina n. sp. is mainly characterized by having reduced pseudolabia, lips absent, six bifid teeth, males with lateral alae, four rows of somatic spines and length ratio of spicules 1:12-32, and large females with eggs lacking polar filaments. The acuariid, Echinuria skrjabinensis is described and illustrated, this finding represent the second report of this nematode in Argentina and the first record in flamingos. This is the first record of helminths parasitizing wild Chilean Flamingos, but it is not possible to ensure that they accomplish their life cycle in this system of lakes, because the migratory movements of the population of flamingos studied are unknown.

  1. First report and description of a Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) from a freshwater Cururu Stingray Potamotrygon cf. histrix (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae), from the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magro, N M; de Oliveira, A T; O'Dwyer, L H

    2016-08-01

    A haemogregarine is described in 12 cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix), from Mariuá Archipelago, Negro River, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. All animals, both male and female, were parasitized by the haemogregarine and parasitaemia varied between 0.8% and 10% of erythrocytes. The stages observed included trophozoites or merozoites, suspected meronts, and gamonts presumed to be of two types, macrogamonts and microgamonts. Most stages were observed inside mature erythrocytes, while others were extracellular. The stages observed were most similar to those characteristics of the genus Cyrilia, than to any other fish haemogregarine and may represent a new Cyrilia species.

  2. Monocotyle luquei n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae), from the gills of diamond stingray Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Chero, Jhon D; Cruces, Celso L; Iannacone, José; Sanchez, Lidia; Minaya, David; Sáez, Gloria; Alvariño, Lorena

    2016-12-01

    Monocotyle luquei n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) was described from gills of diamond stingray Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880) (Dasyatidae) off Peru. The new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the combination of the following characteristics: (1) accessory sclerites on the dorsal posterior surface of the body absent, (2) only one testis is present, (3) 1-2 loops in the copulatory organ, (4) the male copulatory organ with a sclerotized accessory piece, (5) shape of five sclerites in marginal papillae, (6) size of anchor and (7) posterolateral septa bifurcated. This is the first record of species of Monocotyle Taschenberg, 1878 from the southern Pacific.

  3. The physiology of the larva of the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis and the utilisation of biochemical energy reserves during development: An extreme case of the brooding habit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, O. R.; Navarrete, L. R.; Thompson, R. J.

    2006-05-01

    In the oyster Ostrea chilensis the adult female broods the young for almost the entire developmental period, releasing a large pediveliger larva (450 μm shell length) with an extremely short pelagic phase. In this study of the larval physiology, the dry weight of the embryo or larva remained constant during the early developmental stages (as far as, and including, the trochophore), but the veliger grew steadily to reach 8 μg at 450 μm shell length, the stage at which it was ready for release. During this growth period the veliger consumed metabolic reserves (62% protein and 38% lipid). Carbohydrate levels were negligible. Chilean oyster veligers larger than 275 μm shell length were able to remove particles from suspension, but clearance rate (2 μl h - 1 larva - 1 at 450 μm shell length) was much lower than published values for planktotrophic veligers. Low clearance rate in the veliger of O. chilensis is probably attributable to the absence of the postoral ciliary band. Oxygen uptake increased from 19 - 22 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for pre-veliger stages to 32 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for a veliger 450 μm long, which is consistent with published values for veligers in general when corrected for body weight. Excretion rate was low, increasing from 0.04 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in the trochophore to 0.13 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in a pediveliger of shell length 450 μm. Biochemical energy reserves were insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the developing larva, suggesting that uptake of particles and/or dissolved organic matter from the mantle cavity of the female is necessary for successful development.

  4. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure).

    PubMed

    López-Rivera, Américo; Pinto, Maricela; Insinilla, Andrea; Suárez Isla, Benjamín; Uribe, Eduardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2009-11-01

    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (DA) the principal toxic component of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Significant DA concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent ASP outbreak in Bahía Inglesa, an important scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) farming area. Several infaunal species were tested for the presence of DA, in addition to the usual scallop monitoring programme. DA was found at sub-toxic levels in filtering bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus chilensis), large mussels (Aulacomya ater) and clams (Protothaca thaca) (6.4, 5.4 and 4.7 microg DA/g tissue respectively). Of particular interest was the observation of significant accumulations of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. diatoms in the internal siphon and atrium spaces of the tunicate. Toxin distribution within major tunicate organs was heterogeneous with 8.7-15.5 microg DA/g in edible tissues, 14.9-17.9 microg DA/g in the fecal material and 13.6-32.7 microg DA/g in the gut content. DA was determined by HPLC-UV and confirmed by diode-array detection and LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first report of the presence of DA in a tunicate that is regularly consumed by coastal populations. These results confirm the need to include these organisms in sanitation programs for marine toxins.

  5. RNA-seq analysis of the head-kidney transcriptome response to handling-stress in the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Aballai, Víctor; Aedo, Jorge E; Maldonado, Jonathan; Bastias-Molina, Macarena; Silva, Herman; Meneses, Claudio; Boltaña, Sebastian; Reyes, Ariel; Molina, Alfredo; Valdés, Juan Antonio

    2017-09-20

    Stress is a primary contributing factor of fish disease and mortality in aquaculture. We have previously reported that the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis), an important farmed marine fish, demonstrates a handling-stress response that results in increased juvenile mortality, which is mainly associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and liver steatosis. To better understand the systemic effects of stress on red cusk-eel immune-related gene expression, the present study assessed the transcriptomic head-kidney response to handling-stress. The RNA sequencing generated a total of 61,655,525 paired-end reads from control and stressed conditions. De novo assembly using the CLC Genomic Workbench produced 86,840 transcripts and created a reference transcriptome with a N50 of 1426bp. Reads mapped onto the assembled reference transcriptome resulted in the identification of 569 up-regulated and 513 down-regulated transcripts. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of the biological processes, like response to stress, response to biotic stimulus, and immune response. Conversely, a significant down-regulation of biological processes is associated with metabolic processes. These results were validated by RT-qPCR analysis for nine candidate genes involved in the immune response. The present data demonstrated that short term stress promotes the immune innate response in the marine teleost G. chilensis. This study is an important step towards understanding the immune adaptive response to stress in non-model teleost species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial Experience and Feasibility of the New Low-Profile Stingray Catheter as Part of the Antegrade Dissection and Re-Entry Revascularization Strategy for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Maeremans, Joren; Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Dens, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 77 • Male, 57 • Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Coronary chronic total occlusion Symptoms: Angina pectoris Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Percutaneous coronary intervention of coronary chronic total occlusions Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: During antegrade dissection re-entry (ADR) of chronic total occlusions (CTO), the first-generation Stingray catheter requires the use of large-bore guides (sheathless 7.5 Fr or 8 Fr), which increases the risk for access site-related complications and compromises radial approaches. Smaller guiding sizes necessitate long guidewires (e.g., 300 cm) or guidewire extensions for catheter advancement or removal. However, friction between guides and the Stingray catheter can result in unstable guidewire position or unintentional removal. Furthermore, failure to deliver the catheter at the distal re-entry zone is a common problem. To overcome issues of deliverability and reduce the need for pre-dilatations, with its inherent risk of creating subintimal hematomas, the Stingray low-profile (LP) balloon catheter was developed. Case Report: We describe 3 cases of successful application of the novel Stingray LP catheter during ADR. In all cases, 7 Fr guiding catheters were successfully used in combination with the device. The lower profile facilitated a good exchange and delivery of the device, without the need for balloon pre-dilatations in 2 cases. This resulted in a limited subintimal plane, enabling a smooth puncture into the true lumen. One case presented with extreme levels of calcification and tortuosity, resulting in a high degree of friction, despite the lower catheter profile. No in-hospital coronary or access site-related complications occurred. Conclusions: This case report illustrates the feasibility of the Stingray LP catheter for the treatment of CTOs via the ADR technique. The lower profile of the catheter potentially increases the deliverability

  7. Initial Experience and Feasibility of the New Low-Profile Stingray Catheter as Part of the Antegrade Dissection and Re-Entry Revascularization Strategy for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions.

    PubMed

    Maeremans, Joren; Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Dens, Joseph

    2017-01-31

    BACKGROUND During antegrade dissection re-entry (ADR) of chronic total occlusions (CTO), the first-generation Stingray catheter requires the use of large-bore guides (sheathless 7.5 Fr or 8 Fr), which increases the risk for access site-related complications and compromises radial approaches. Smaller guiding sizes necessitate long guidewires (e.g., 300 cm) or guidewire extensions for catheter advancement or removal. However, friction between guides and the Stingray catheter can result in unstable guidewire position or unintentional removal. Furthermore, failure to deliver the catheter at the distal re-entry zone is a common problem. To overcome issues of deliverability and reduce the need for pre-dilatations, with its inherent risk of creating subintimal hematomas, the Stingray low-profile (LP) balloon catheter was developed. CASE REPORT We describe 3 cases of successful application of the novel Stingray LP catheter during ADR. In all cases, 7 Fr guiding catheters were successfully used in combination with the device. The lower profile facilitated a good exchange and delivery of the device, without the need for balloon pre-dilatations in 2 cases. This resulted in a limited subintimal plane, enabling a smooth puncture into the true lumen. One case presented with extreme levels of calcification and tortuosity, resulting in a high degree of friction, despite the lower catheter profile. No in-hospital coronary or access site-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case report illustrates the feasibility of the Stingray LP catheter for the treatment of CTOs via the ADR technique. The lower profile of the catheter potentially increases the deliverability, safety, and exchangeability of the device.

  8. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii).

    PubMed

    Baumann, Kate; Casewell, Nicholas R; Ali, Syed A; Jackson, Timothy N W; Vetter, Irina; Dobson, James S; Cutmore, Scott C; Nouwens, Amanda; Lavergne, Vincent; Fry, Bryan G

    2014-09-23

    Fish venoms remain almost completely unstudied despite the large number of species. In part this is due to the inherent nature of fish venoms, in that they are highly sensitive to heat, pH, lyophilisation, storage and repeated freeze-thawing. They are also heavily contaminated with mucus, which makes proteomic study difficult. Here we describe a novel protein-handling protocol to remove mucus contamination, utilising ammonium sulphate and acetone precipitation. We validated this approach using barb venom gland tissue protein extract from the blue-spotted stingray Neotrygon kuhlii. We analysed the protein extract using 1D and 2D gels with LC-MS/MS sequencing. Protein annotation was underpinned by a venom gland transcriptome. The composition of our N. kuhlii venom sample revealed a variety of protein types that are completely novel to animal venom systems. Notably, none of the detected proteins exhibited similarity to the few toxin components previously characterised from fish venoms, including those found in other stingrays. Putative venom toxins identified here included cystatin, peroxiredoxin and galectin. Our study represents the first combined survey of gene and protein composition from the venom apparatus of any fish and our novel protein handling method will aid the future characterisation of toxins from other unstudied venomous fish lineages. These results show an efficient manner for removing mucus from fish venoms. These results are the first insights into the evolution of proteins present on stingrayvenom barbs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mast cells and histamine play an important role in edema and leukocyte recruitment induced by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Louise F; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Távora, Bianca C L F; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L; Pereira, Nicole A; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Simone G S; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response caused by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom (PmV) in mouse paws. Pre-treatment of animals with a mast cell degranulation inhibitor (cromolyn) diminished edema (62% of inhibition) and leukocyte influx into the site of PmV injection. Promethazine (histamine type 1 receptor antagonist) or thioperamide (histamine type 3 and 4 receptor antagonist) also decreased edema (up to 30%) and leukocyte numbers, mainly neutrophils (40-50 %). Cimetidine (histamine type 2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on PmV-induced inflammation. In the RBL-2H3 lineage of mast cells, PmV caused proper cell activation, in a dose-dependent manner, with release of PGD2 and PGE2. In addition, the role of COXs products on PmV inflammatory response was evaluated. Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) or etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) partially diminished edema (around 20%) in PmV-injected mice. Indomethacin, but not etoricoxib, modulated neutrophil influx into the site of venom injection. In conclusion, mast cell degranulation and histamine, besides COXs products, play an important role in PmV-induced reaction. Since PmV mechanism of action remains unknown, hindering accurate treatment, clinical studies can be performed to validate the prescription of antihistaminic drugs, besides NSAIDs, to patients injured by freshwater stingrays.

  10. Comparisons of dental morphology in river stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) with new fossils from the middle Eocene of Peruvian Amazonia rekindle debate on their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnet, Sylvain; Salas Gismondi, Rodolfo; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Endemic South American river stingrays (Potamotrygonidae), which include the most diversified living freshwater chondrichthyans, were conspicuously absent from pre-Neogene deposits in South America despite the fact that recent phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest an older origination for this clade. To date, the rare representatives of this family were mostly represented by ambiguous isolated remains. Here, we report 67 isolated fossil teeth of a new obligate freshwater dasyatoid ( Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp) from the fossiliferous level CTA-27 (Yahuarango Formation), near Contamana, in the Peruvian Amazonia. We assigned this sample to a new representative of Potamotrygon by comparison with numerous fresh jaws of living specimens of Potamotrygonidae, thus providing the first detailed review of dental morphology for this poorly understood clade. These new fossils fill a long stratigraphic gap by extending the family range down to the middle Eocene (˜41 Mya). Moreover, the relative modernity and diversity in tooth morphology among Eocene freshwater stingrays (including Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp. and coeval North American dasyatoids) indicate that the hypothetically marine ancestor of potamotrygonids probably invaded the rivers earlier than in the middle Eocene. The first potamotrygonids and affiliates were possibly more generalized and less endemic than now, which is consistent with an opportunistic filling of vacated ecospace.

  11. Seussapex, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) from the stingray genus Himantura (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific with investigation of mode of attachment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsten; Russell, Shelbi L

    2014-06-01

    A new lecanicephalidean genus, Seussapex gen. n., is erected for specimens collected from stingrays from the Indo-West Pacific resembling the little known species Tenia [sic] narinari MacCallum, 1917 from the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen). Members of this new genus are unique in their possession of a multi-tiered apical structure comprising a bipartite apical modification of the scolex proper, and an externally bipartite apical organ with anterior and posterior glandular compartments internally. The appearance of the scolex varies dramatically depending on state of protrusion and/or evagination of these different parts which appear to be able to function independently. Seussapex karybares sp. n. parasitizing Himantura uarnak 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) in northern Australia is described as the type species and Tenia [sic] narinari is transferred to the new genus. The two species differ in scolex length and width of the posterior dome-shaped portion of the apical organ. Histological sections of scoleces stained using the periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) reaction showed the surface of the anterior part of the apical organ and the anterior glandular compartment to stain PAS positive, suggesting a chemical mode of attachment to the host's intestinal mucosal surface. Extensive collecting efforts of stingrays in the Indo-West Pacific shows Seussapex gen. n. to be restricted to species of Himantura Miller et Henle and suggests additional diversity in this group of hosts. In addition, the host identity of Seussapex narinari (MacCallum, 1917) comb. n. is called into question.

  12. Differences in activity level between cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) and Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) are related to differences in heart mass, hemoglobin concentration, and gill surface area.

    PubMed

    Grim, Jeffrey M; Ding, A Adam; Bennett, Wayne A

    2012-10-01

    Aquatic animals are faced with the challenge of extracting oxygen from water, a medium that is metabolically expensive to ventilate and that contains just a fraction of the oxygen concentration relative to air, yet the physiologies of fishes have evolved to support a wide range of activity levels in nature. Oxygen delivery components, including gill surface area (oxygen uptake), blood chemistry (oxygen transport), and the heart (system pump), have been positively correlated to activity level in teleost fishes, yet relatively little is known about how these components are related to activity in elasmobranches. The current study addresses this question by examining heart mass, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit level, and gill surface area in wild-caught representatives of the benthic Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) and active cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). Allometric scaling exponents are similar for all four measures between the study species. Heart mass, gill surfaces areas, and hemoglobin concentrations were 2.1 times, approximately 7.1 times, and 2.0 times higher, respectively, in active cownose rays, when compared to benthic Atlantic stingrays, after correcting for differences in body mass. When considered in the context of functional plasticity within the oxygen delivery systems of benthic and active species, data from the current study indicate that higher activity levels in cownose rays are supported by modifications that, at least in part, are likely to enhance oxygen uptake.

  13. Comparisons of dental morphology in river stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) with new fossils from the middle Eocene of Peruvian Amazonia rekindle debate on their evolution.

    PubMed

    Adnet, Sylvain; Salas Gismondi, Rodolfo; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Endemic South American river stingrays (Potamotrygonidae), which include the most diversified living freshwater chondrichthyans, were conspicuously absent from pre-Neogene deposits in South America despite the fact that recent phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest an older origination for this clade. To date, the rare representatives of this family were mostly represented by ambiguous isolated remains. Here, we report 67 isolated fossil teeth of a new obligate freshwater dasyatoid (Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp) from the fossiliferous level CTA-27 (Yahuarango Formation), near Contamana, in the Peruvian Amazonia. We assigned this sample to a new representative of Potamotrygon by comparison with numerous fresh jaws of living specimens of Potamotrygonidae, thus providing the first detailed review of dental morphology for this poorly understood clade. These new fossils fill a long stratigraphic gap by extending the family range down to the middle Eocene (~41 Mya). Moreover, the relative modernity and diversity in tooth morphology among Eocene freshwater stingrays (including Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp. and coeval North American dasyatoids) indicate that the hypothetically marine ancestor of potamotrygonids probably invaded the rivers earlier than in the middle Eocene. The first potamotrygonids and affiliates were possibly more generalized and less endemic than now, which is consistent with an opportunistic filling of vacated ecospace.

  14. Fatal Fusarium solani species complex infections in elasmobranchs: the first case report for black spotted stingray (Taeniura melanopsila) and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nimal; Hui, Suk-Wai; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Leung, Shui-Yee; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Leung, Raymond W W; Groff, Joseph M; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium species are environmental saprophytic fungi. Among the many Fusarium species, members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are the most prevalent and virulent in causing human and animal infections. In this study, we describe the first case of fatal FSSC infection in a black spotted stingray and three concomitant infections in scalloped hammerhead sharks. In the stingray, cutaneous lesions were characterised by ulcers and haemorrhage of the ventral pectoral fin, or 'ray', especially around the head; while cutaneous lesions in the sharks were characterised by ulcers, haemorrhage, as well as white and purulent exudates at the cephalic canals of the cephalofoil and lateral line. Histological sections of the cutaneous lesions revealed slender (1-4 μm in diameter), branching, septate fungal hyphae. Internal transcribed spacer region and 28S nrDNA sequencing of the fungal isolates from the fish showed two isolates were F. keratoplasticum (FSSC 2) and the other two were FSSC 12. Environmental investigation revealed the FSSC strains isolated from water and biofilms in tanks that housed the elasmobranchs were also F. keratoplasticum and FSSC 12. Fusarium is associated with major infections in elasmobranchs and FSSC 12 is an emerging cause of infections in marine animals. DNA sequencing is so far the most reliable method for accurate identification of Fusarium species.

  15. PHOTOMETRY OF THE STINGRAY NEBULA (V839 ARA) FROM 1889 TO 2015 ACROSS THE IONIZATION OF ITS PLANETARY NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Edwards, Zachary I.

    2015-10-20

    Up until around 1980, the Stingray was an ordinary B1 post-AGB star, but then it suddenly sprouted bright emission lines like in a planetary nebula (PN), and soon after this the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered a small PN around the star, so apparently we have caught a star in the act of ionizing a PN. We report here on a well-sampled light curve from 1889 to 2015, with unique coverage of the prior century plus the entire duration of the PN formation plus three decades of its aftermath. Surprisingly, the star anticipated the 1980s ionization event by declining from B = 10.30 in 1889 to B = 10.76 in 1980. Starting in 1980, the central star faded fast, at a rate of 0.20 mag year{sup −1}, reaching B = 14.64 in 1996. This fast fading is apparently caused by the central star shrinking in size. From 1994 to 2015, the V-band light curve is almost entirely from the flux of two bright [O iii] emission lines from the unresolved nebula, and it shows a consistent decline at a rate of 0.090 mag year{sup −1}. This steady fading (also seen in the radio and infrared) has a timescale equal to that expected for ordinary recombination within the nebula, immediately after a short-duration ionizing event in the 1980s. We are providing the first direct measure of the rapidly changing luminosity of the central star on both sides of a presumed thermal pulse in 1980, with this providing a strong and critical set of constraints, and these are found to sharply disagree with theoretical models of PN evolution.

  16. Physical Properties of the Very Young PN Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) Based on Multiwavelength Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Parthasarathy, M.; Tajitsu, A.; Hubrig, S.

    2017-03-01

    We carried out a detailed analysis of the interesting and important very young planetary nebula (PN) Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) based on a unique data set of optical to far-IR spectra and photometric images. We calculated the abundances of nine elements using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is also supported by the detection of the broad 9/18 μm bands from amorphous silicate grains. The observed elemental abundances can be explained by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models for initially 1-1.5 M ⊙ stars with Z = 0.008. The Ne overabundance might be due to the enhancement of 22Ne isotope in the He-rich intershell. Using the spectrum of the central star synthesized by Tlusty as the ionization/heating source of the PN, we constructed the self-consistent photoionization model with Cloudy to the observed quantities and derived the gas and dust masses, dust-to-gas mass ratio, and core mass of the central star. About 80% of the total dust mass is from warm-cold dust component beyond ionization front. Comparison with other Galactic PNe indicates that Hen3-1357 is an ordinary amorphous silicate-rich and O-rich gas PN. Among other studied PNe, IC4846 shows many similarities in properties of the PN to Hen3-1357, although their post-AGB evolution is quite different from each other. Further monitoring of observations and comparisons with other PNe such as IC4846 are necessary to understand the evolution of Hen3-1357.

  17. Three new species of Anthocephalum Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from dasyatid stingrays of the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, T R; Seaman, H B

    2009-02-01

    Three new species of Anthocephalum Linton, 1890 are described from dasyatid stingrays collected in the Gulf of California. Anthocephalum michaeli n. sp. is described from Dasyatis longus (Garman). This species most closely resembles A. alicae Ruhnke, 1994, but differs from this species in proglottid number. A. lukei n. sp. is also described from D. longus. This new species is most similar to A. cairae Ruhnke, 1994, but differs from that species in marginal loculi number and number of proglottids. The third new species, A. currani n. sp., is described from D. brevis (Garman). This species is most similar to A. centrurum (Southwell, 1925) Ruhnke, 1994, but differs from that species in marginal loculi number, number of testes and ovarian length. Phyllobothrium kingae Schmidt, 1978 is also consistent in morphology with species of Anthocephalum and is transferred to this genus, forming the new combination Anthocephalum kingae n. comb. This species most closely resembles A. michaeli n. sp., but differs in testicular shape. This brings the total number of species of Anthocephalum to nine. The transfer of the species Phyllobothrium arctowskii Wojciechowska, 1991, P. georgiense Wojciechowska, 1991, P. rakusai Wojciechowska, 1991 and P. siedleckii Wojciechowska, 1991 to Anthocephalum is not warranted, as these four species lack a posteriorly recurved cirrus-sac and a sinuous vagina, and have vitelline follicles uninterrupted by the ovary. Of the nine known species, all are parasitic in batoid fishes, and six are found in species of Dasyatis Garman. The phylogenetic status of Anthocephalum species in relationship to Rhinebothroides Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981, Pararhineothroides Zamparo, Brooks & Barriga, 1999 and other rhinebothriin taxa is discussed.

  18. Five new species of Acanthobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the freshwater stingray Himantura chaophraya (Batoidea: Dasyatidae) in Malaysian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Fyler, C A; Caira, J N

    2006-02-01

    Five new species of Acanthobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) are described from the spiral intestine of the Freshwater whipray, Himantura chaophraya, in the Kinabatangan River in Malaysian Borneo. Based on criteria set forth in a previous categorization scheme for species of Acanthobothrium, these consist of 3 Category 1 species, Acanthobothrium asnihae n. sp., Acanthobothrium saliki n. sp., and Acanthobothrium zainali n. sp.; a Category 8 species, Acanthobothrium etini n. sp.; and a Category 2 species, Acanthobothrium masnihae n. sp.. Acanthobothrium asnihae n. sp. differs from all Category 1 species in its possession of a horizontal band of weak musculature that divides the posterior loculus in half. Among Category 1 species, A. saliki n. sp. differs from all but Acanthobothrium southwelli in its possession of postovarian testes. It differs from A. southwelli in its possession of fewer testes and a greater number of proglottids. Acanthobothrium zainali n. sp. differs from the 25 other Category 1 species in a combination of overall size, muscular pad and hook shape, arrangement and number of testes, ovary configuration in cross section, position of ovarian isthmus, and genital pore position. Acanthobothrium etini n. sp. is distinguished from all 5 other Category 8 species in its lack of testes from the proglottid antiporal and postporal regions and in testis number. Acanthobothrium masnihae n. sp. differs from the 35 other Category 2 species in its possession of fewer testes, postporal testes, or a greater number of proglottids. A key to Acanthobothrium species parasitizing H. chayophraya is presented. This represents the first report of Acanthobothrium from freshwater stingrays belonging to a family other than the Potamotrygonidae.

  19. Insectivory in Potamotrygon signata (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), an endemic freshwater stingray from the Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moro, G; Charvet, P; Rosa, R S

    2012-11-01

    Potamotrygon signata is an endemic freshwater stingray species in the Parnaíba River basin, Brazil. After its original description, only citations in systematic lists were recorded in the literature and the biology of the species remains unknown, including the feeding habits. The aim of this study is to characterize the overall diet of P. signata based on analysing stomach contents and to provide preliminary information on intraspecific diet variability between sexes and maturity stages. The stomach contents of 56 specimens of P. signata were analyzed. The taxonomic identification of food items showed the presence of 13 prey orders, including insects, mollusks, crustaceans and teleost fish. The Index of Relative Importance (IRI%) indicated P. signata as an insectivorous species, with a dominance of Diptera larvae (60.64%) and Ephemeroptera nymphs (34.68%). Differences in diet were observed between sexes, as well as between mature and immature individuals. The IRI% of females showed a similar occurrence of Diptera and Ephemeroptera (47.12% and 47.86%, respectively), whereas for males, Ephemeroptera was the main item (79.56%). Immature individuals showed a dominance of Diptera (76.20%) while mature individuals showed a similar occurrence of Diptera (46.95%) and Ephemeroptera (47.23%). The observed sexual and ontogenetic differences in diet may be related to distinct nutritional requirements of males and females, and to the variation of morphological aspects of the oral apparatus and dentition of males and females and of immature individuals and adults. The essentially insectivorous diet of the species is possibly adaptively advantageous in the Caatinga semi-arid environment, where the availability of fish as prey may be subject to strong seasonal variation.

  20. Photometry of the Stingray Nebula (V839 Ara) from 1889 TO 2015 across the Ionization of Its Planetary Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Edwards, Zachary I.

    2015-10-01

    Up until around 1980, the Stingray was an ordinary B1 post-AGB star, but then it suddenly sprouted bright emission lines like in a planetary nebula (PN), and soon after this the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered a small PN around the star, so apparently we have caught a star in the act of ionizing a PN. We report here on a well-sampled light curve from 1889 to 2015, with unique coverage of the prior century plus the entire duration of the PN formation plus three decades of its aftermath. Surprisingly, the star anticipated the 1980s ionization event by declining from B = 10.30 in 1889 to B = 10.76 in 1980. Starting in 1980, the central star faded fast, at a rate of 0.20 mag year-1, reaching B = 14.64 in 1996. This fast fading is apparently caused by the central star shrinking in size. From 1994 to 2015, the V-band light curve is almost entirely from the flux of two bright [O iii] emission lines from the unresolved nebula, and it shows a consistent decline at a rate of 0.090 mag year-1. This steady fading (also seen in the radio and infrared) has a timescale equal to that expected for ordinary recombination within the nebula, immediately after a short-duration ionizing event in the 1980s. We are providing the first direct measure of the rapidly changing luminosity of the central star on both sides of a presumed thermal pulse in 1980, with this providing a strong and critical set of constraints, and these are found to sharply disagree with theoretical models of PN evolution.

  1. Enzymatic properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca group V, IIA and IB phospholipases A(2): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem; Horchani, Habib; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we have purified the group V phospholipase from the heart of cartilaginous fish stingray Dasyatis pastinaca and compared its biochemical properties with group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) and IB (sPLA2-IB) phospholipases previously purified from pancreas and intestine, respectively. Group V phospholipase (sPLA2-V) was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation and RP-HPLC. The N-terminal sequence of the purified sPLA2-V exhibits a high degree of homology with those of mammal. The enzyme was found to be monomeric with a molecular mass estimation of 14 kDa. The specific activity of the purified enzyme, measured at pH 8 and 37 °C was 52 U/mg. Like sPLA2-IB and sPLA2-IIA, the sPLA2-V is found to be stable between pH 3 and 11 after 30 min of incubation. The purified sPLA2-V retained 65% of its activity after 10 min of incubation at 70 °C and it absolutely requires Ca(2+) for enzymatic activity. In addition it displayed high tolerance to organic solvents. Kinetic parameters Kmapp, kcat and the deduced catalytic efficiency (kcat/Kmapp) of the purified group-V, -IB and -IIA PLA2s were determined using phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylserine (PS) as substrate. The three enzymes hydrolyze the zwiterionic PE and PC substrates more efficiently than anionic PS substrate.

  2. Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis and Brackish Water Acclimation in the Euryhaline Freshwater White-Rimmed Stingray, Himantura signifer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samuel Z H; Ching, Biyun; Chng, You R; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2013-01-01

    L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (Gulo) catalyzes the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis, which occurs in the kidney of elasmobranchs. This study aimed to clone and sequence gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) from the kidney of the euryhaline freshwater stingray, Himantura signifer, and to determine the effects of acclimation from freshwater to brackish water (salinity 20) on its renal gulo mRNA expression and Gulo activity. We also examined the effects of brackish water acclimation on concentrations of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the kidney, brain and gill. The complete cDNA coding sequence of gulo from the kidney of H. signifer contained 1323 bp coding for 440 amino acids. The expression of gulo was kidney-specific, and renal gulo expression decreased significantly by 67% and 50% in fish acclimated to brackish water for 1 day and 6 days, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in renal Gulo activity after 6 days of acclimation to brackish water. Hence, brackish water acclimation led to a decrease in the ascorbic acid synthetic capacity in the kidney of H. signifer. However, there were significant increases in concentrations of ascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the gills (after 1 or 6 days), and a significant increase in the concentration of ascorbate and a significant decrease in the concentration of dehydroascorbate in the brain (after 1 day) of fish acclimated to brackish water. Taken together, our results indicate that H. signifer might experience greater salinity-induced oxidative stress in freshwater than in brackish water, possibly related to its short history of freshwater invasion. These results also suggest for the first time a possible relationship between the successful invasion of the freshwater environment by some euryhaline marine elasmobranchs and the ability of these elasmobranchs to increase the capacity of ascorbic acid synthesis in response to hyposalinity stress.

  3. Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis and Brackish Water Acclimation in the Euryhaline Freshwater White-Rimmed Stingray, Himantura signifer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samuel Z. H.; Ching, Biyun; Chng, You R.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2013-01-01

    L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (Gulo) catalyzes the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis, which occurs in the kidney of elasmobranchs. This study aimed to clone and sequence gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) from the kidney of the euryhaline freshwater stingray, Himantura signifer, and to determine the effects of acclimation from freshwater to brackish water (salinity 20) on its renal gulo mRNA expression and Gulo activity. We also examined the effects of brackish water acclimation on concentrations of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the kidney, brain and gill. The complete cDNA coding sequence of gulo from the kidney of H. signifer contained 1323 bp coding for 440 amino acids. The expression of gulo was kidney-specific, and renal gulo expression decreased significantly by 67% and 50% in fish acclimated to brackish water for 1 day and 6 days, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in renal Gulo activity after 6 days of acclimation to brackish water. Hence, brackish water acclimation led to a decrease in the ascorbic acid synthetic capacity in the kidney of H. signifer. However, there were significant increases in concentrations of ascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the gills (after 1 or 6 days), and a significant increase in the concentration of ascorbate and a significant decrease in the concentration of dehydroascorbate in the brain (after 1 day) of fish acclimated to brackish water. Taken together, our results indicate that H. signifer might experience greater salinity-induced oxidative stress in freshwater than in brackish water, possibly related to its short history of freshwater invasion. These results also suggest for the first time a possible relationship between the successful invasion of the freshwater environment by some euryhaline marine elasmobranchs and the ability of these elasmobranchs to increase the capacity of ascorbic acid synthesis in response to hyposalinity stress. PMID:23825042

  4. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D. chilensis

  5. Redescription and Molecular Assessment of Relationships Among Three Species of Echeneibothrium (Rhinebothriidea: Echeneibothriidae) Parasitizing the Yellownose Skate, Dipturus chilensis, in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Veronica M; Caira, Janine N

    2017-06-01

    Much progress has recently been made in revising the taxonomic assignments of genera originally classified in the polyphyletic "Tetraphyllidea." Many of these genera, including Echeneibothrium, were accommodated in the order Rhinebothriidea. However, beyond this larger taxonomic action, little work has been conducted on this genus over the past 50 yr. Consequently, the criteria used for characterizing species of Echeneibothrium have lagged behind those typically used in more modern descriptions of elasmobranch-hosted cestode taxa. A series of collecting trips to Chile to obtain cestodes from the yellownose skate, Dipturus chilensis , provided a unique opportunity to apply modern morphological and molecular methods to investigate the 3 species of Echeneibothrium reported parasitizing this skate, specifically Echeneibothrium megalosoma, Echeneibothrium multiloculatum, and Echeneibothrium williamsi. In addition to redescribing all 3 species, using morphological data from light and scanning electron microscopy, maximum likelihood and bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses of the D1-D3 regions of the 28S rDNA gene were conducted to assess their relationships among other echeneibothriids for which comparable data are available. Sequencing of 59 specimens representing these 3 species of Echeneibothrium allowed us to assess the intra- and interspecific variation in the 28S rDNA gene. The redescriptions use standardized terminology for scolex morphology, proglottid anatomy, and microthrix forms and pattern; they also expand on the original descriptions to include data on scolex size, ovary size, vas deferens and vaginal configurations, testes arrangement, and genital pore position. Our morphological work led to a major reinterpretation of the scolex morphology with the recognition that all 3 species bear an apical bothridial sucker, rather than an apical loculus, prompting emendation of the diagnosis for the family Echeneibothriidae. The presence of a band of spinitriches

  6. Mechanical behavior of idealized, stingray-skeleton-inspired tiled composites as a function of geometry and material properties.

    PubMed

    Jayasankar, A K; Seidel, R; Naumann, J; Guiducci, L; Hosny, A; Fratzl, P; Weaver, J C; Dunlop, J W C; Dean, M N

    2017-09-01

    Tilings are constructs of repeated shapes covering a surface, common in both manmade and natural structures, but in particular are a defining characteristic of shark and ray skeletons. In these fishes, cartilaginous skeletal elements are wrapped in a surface tessellation, comprised of polygonal mineralized tiles linked by flexible joints, an arrangement believed to provide both stiffness and flexibility. The aim of this research is to use two-dimensional analytical models to evaluate the mechanical performance of stingray skeleton-inspired tessellations, as a function of their material and structural parameters. To calculate the effective modulus of modeled composites, we subdivided tiles and their surrounding joint material into simple shapes, for which mechanical properties (i.e. effective modulus) could be estimated using a modification of traditional Rule of Mixtures equations, that either assume uniform strain (Voigt) or uniform stress (Reuss) across a loaded composite material. The properties of joints (thickness, Young's modulus) and tiles (shape, area and Young's modulus) were then altered, and the effects of these tessellation parameters on the effective modulus of whole tessellations were observed. We show that for all examined tile shapes (triangle, square and hexagon) composite stiffness increased as the width of the joints was decreased and/or the stiffness of the tiles was increased; this supports hypotheses that the narrow joints and high tile to joint stiffness ratio in shark and ray cartilage optimize composite tissue stiffness. Our models also indicate that, for simple, uniaxial loading, square tessellations are least sensitive and hexagon tessellations most sensitive to changes in model parameters, indicating that hexagon tessellations are the most "tunable" to specific mechanical properties. Our models provide useful estimates for the tensile and compressive properties of 2d tiled composites under uniaxial loading. These results lay groundwork

  7. Four new species of Acanthobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the whiptail stingray Dasyatis brevis in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ghoshroy, S; Caira, J N

    2001-04-01

    Examination of the spiral intestines of 29 whiptail stingrays, Dasyatis brevis, from 6 sites in the Gulf of California, Mexico in 1993 and 1996 resulted in the discovery of 4 new species of Acanthobothrium: Acanthobothrium bullardi, Acanthobothrium dasi, Acanthobothrium rajivi, and Acanthobothrium soberoni. This brings the total number of species of Acanthobothrium known from the eastern Pacific Ocean to 34. With 22 additional species reported from elasmobranchs from the western Atlantic Ocean, and over 100 species globally, the number of interspecific comparisons required to justify the designation of a new species is rather unwieldy. To facilitate these and future comparisons, and in the absence of a phylogenetic hypothesis for this genus, the 56 species of Acanthobothrium from these 2 geographic regions were categorized for 4 characters: total length (< or = or > 15 mm), number of segments (< or = or > 50 segments), number of testes (< or = or > 80), and symmetry of poral and aporal ovarian lobes. These 56 taxa and their categories are presented in tabular form. Based on these characters, A. bullardi, A. dasi, and A. rajivi are category 2 species (they are relatively small, possess few segments, relatively few testes, and exhibit asymmetrical ovaries); A. soberoni is a category 6 species (it is a relatively longer worm with a larger number of segments, but with fewer testes and an asymmetrical ovary). All 4 species differ from 1 another and from species in other geographic regions in further subtleties of these 4 characters as well as hook size and relative length of hook prongs, cirrus sac size, genital pore position, number of columns of testes anterior to the cirrus sac, and number of postvaginal testes. Five specimens that appear to represent a new species of Acanthobothroides were also collected. This species is figured and some details of the morphology are described, but the material was considered to be insufficient to allow for formal description of

  8. How do cold-sensitive species endure ice ages? Phylogeographic and paleodistribution models of postglacial range expansion of the mesothermic drought-tolerant conifer Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Souto, Cintia P; Kitzberger, Thomas; Arbetman, Marina P; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    In view of global climate change, it is important to understand the responses of tree species to climate changes in the past. Combinations of phylogeographic analysis of genetic evidence, coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), are improving our understanding on this subject. We combined SDMs and microsatellite data from populations of the entire range of Austrocedrus chilensis, a dominant mesotherm (cold-sensitive) conifer of dryland forests of the southern Andes, to test the hypothesis of long-distance postglacial migration from northern and warmer refugia at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The SDM indicated suitable conditions for Austrocedrus in northern Chile (western) at the LGM and largely unsuitable conditions in Argentina (eastern). Population genetic diversity and effective population sizes within populations decreased southward along the Andes, consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal from a northern refugium. Results support the hypothesis of one (or a few) warmer (low latitude) refugia in Chile for Austrocedrus. On balance, the evidence suggests that in contrast to cold-tolerant tree taxa with the capacity to fast-track postglacial warming thanks to local refugia, cold-sensitive species might have undergone long-distance range expansion, lagging behind progressive climate change throughout the Holocene.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of the hepatic response to stress in the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis): Insights into lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and liver steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Jorge E.; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Bastias-Molina, Macarena; Silva, Herman; Meneses, Claudio; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Molina, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts exhibit a broad divergence in their adaptive response to stress, depending on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of stressors and the species receiving the stimulus. We have previously reported that the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis), an important marine farmed fish, shows a physiological response to stress that results in increased skeletal muscle atrophy mediated by over-expression of components of the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems. To better understand the systemic effects of stress on the red cusk-eel metabolism, the present study assessed the transcriptomic hepatic response to repetitive handling-stress. Using high-throughput RNA-seq, 259 up-regulated transcripts were found, mostly associated with angiogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and triacylglyceride catabolism. Conversely, 293 transcripts were down-regulated, associated to cholesterol biosynthesis, PPARα signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis. This gene signature was concordant with hepatic metabolite levels and hepatic oxidative damage. Moreover, the increased plasmatic levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AP (alkaline phosphatase), as well as liver histology suggest stress-induced liver steatosis. This study offers an integrative molecular and biochemical analysis of the hepatic response to handling-stress, and reveals unknown aspects of lipid metabolism in a non-model teleost. PMID:28448552

  10. Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rempt, Martin; Weinberger, Florian; Grosser, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species was monitored by LC–ESIMS-based metabolic profiling and revealed commonalities and differences. Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. Common products are 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and a novel eicosanoid with an unusual γ-lactone moiety. Several prostaglandins were predominantly formed by the invasive species. The role of some of these metabolites was investigated by surveying the attachment of E. peruviana on artificial food containing the respective oxylipins. Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. The role of different oxylipins in the invasive potential of Gracilaria spp. is discussed. PMID:22423296

  11. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of the hepatic response to stress in the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis): Insights into lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Naour, Sebastian; Espinoza, Brisa M; Aedo, Jorge E; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Bastias-Molina, Macarena; Silva, Herman; Meneses, Claudio; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Molina, Alfredo; Valdés, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts exhibit a broad divergence in their adaptive response to stress, depending on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of stressors and the species receiving the stimulus. We have previously reported that the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis), an important marine farmed fish, shows a physiological response to stress that results in increased skeletal muscle atrophy mediated by over-expression of components of the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems. To better understand the systemic effects of stress on the red cusk-eel metabolism, the present study assessed the transcriptomic hepatic response to repetitive handling-stress. Using high-throughput RNA-seq, 259 up-regulated transcripts were found, mostly associated with angiogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and triacylglyceride catabolism. Conversely, 293 transcripts were down-regulated, associated to cholesterol biosynthesis, PPARα signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis. This gene signature was concordant with hepatic metabolite levels and hepatic oxidative damage. Moreover, the increased plasmatic levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AP (alkaline phosphatase), as well as liver histology suggest stress-induced liver steatosis. This study offers an integrative molecular and biochemical analysis of the hepatic response to handling-stress, and reveals unknown aspects of lipid metabolism in a non-model teleost.

  13. Genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the haploid-diploid red alga Gracilaria chilensis: how farming practices favor asexual reproduction and heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Viard, Frederique; Correa, Juan A; Valero, Myriam

    2008-06-01

    The extent of changes in genetic diversity and life-history traits associated with farming was investigated in the haploid-diploid red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, cultivated in Chile. This alga belongs to one of the most frequently cultivated seaweed genera around the world. Fifteen farmed populations, 11 wild populations, and two subspontaneous populations were sampled along the Chilean coast. The frequency of reproductive versus vegetative individuals and of haploid versus diploid individuals was checked in each population. In addition, the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations was analyzed using six microsatellite markers. Our results first demonstrated that farmed populations are maintained almost exclusively by vegetative propagation. Moreover, the predominance of diploid individuals in farms showed that farming practices had significantly modified life-history traits as compared to wild populations. Second, the expected reduction in genetic diversity due to a cultivation bottleneck and subsequent clonal propagation was detected in farms. Finally, our study suggested that cultural practices in the southern part of the country contributed to the spread of selected genotypes at a local scale. Altogether, these results document for the first time that involuntary selection could operate during the first step of domestication in a marine plant.

  14. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urretavizcaya, María F.; Gonda, Héctor E.; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  15. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that bacteria related to Arcobacter spp. constitute an abundant and common component of the oyster microbiota (Tiostrea chilensis).

    PubMed

    Romero, J; García-Varela, M; Laclette, J P; Espejo, R T

    2002-11-01

    To explore the bacterial microbiota in Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis), a molecular approach that permits detection of different bacteria, independently of their capacity to grow in culture media, was used. Bacterial diversity was assessed by analysis of both the 16S rDNA and the 16S-23S intergenic region, obtained by PCR amplifications of DNA extracted from depurated oysters. RFLP of the PCR amplified 16S rDNA showed a prevailing pattern in most of the individuals analyzed, indicating that a few bacterial species were relatively abundant and common in oysters. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rDNA with the prevailing RFLP pattern indicated that this rRNA was most closely related to Arcobacter spp. However, analysis by the size of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA intergenic regions revealed not Arcobacter spp. but Staphylococcus spp. related bacteria as a major and common component in oyster. These different results may be caused by the absence of target for one of the primers employed for amplification of the intergenic region. Neither of the two bacteria species found in large abundance was recovered after culturing under aerobic, anaerobic, or microaerophilic conditions. This result, however, is expected because the number of bacteria recovered after cultivation was less than 0.01% of the total. All together, these observations suggest that Arcobacter-related strains are probably abundant and common in the Chilean oyster bacterial microbiota.

  16. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Larisa B.; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X.; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group Borrelia chilensis VA1, in honor of its country of origin. PMID:24148079

  17. [An intriguing model for 5S rDNA sequences dispersion in the genome of freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae)].

    PubMed

    Cruz, V P; Oliveira, C; Foresti, F

    2015-01-01

    5S rDNA genes of the stingray Potamotrygon motoro were PCR replicated, purified, cloned and sequenced. Two distinct classes of segments of different sizes were obtained. The smallest, with 342 bp units, was classified as class I, and the largest, with 1900 bp units, was designated as class II. Alignment with the consensus sequences for both classes showed changes in a few bases in the 5S rDNA genes. TATA-like sequences were detected in the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) regions of class I and a microsatellite (GCT) 10 sequence was detected in the NTS region of class II. The results obtained can help to understand the molecular organization of ribosomal genes and the mechanism of gene dispersion.

  18. Status of Red Stingray (Dasyatis akajei) Livers for Japanese Specimen Banking at National Institute for Environmental Studies, Unscathed by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Akinori; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2012-04-01

    It is important to have a resource of environmental specimens in order to investigate changes in contaminant exposure and accumulation over time. At the National Institute for Environmental Studies in Japan, red stingray livers have been archived and the banking activity has expanded successfully since 2003. The developed standard operating procedure helps to maintain quality of the archived homogenized liver samples, and the risk management plan has helped to prevent thawing them from any incidents, including the catastrophic 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The cryogenically homogenized powdered livers will be stored in a cryogenic environment in liquid nitrogen vapor containers at -160 °C and will be analyzed when new pollutants are identified in the future.

  19. Assessment of benthic disturbance associated with stingray foraging for ghost shrimp by aerial survey over an intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Seiji; Tamaki, Akio

    2014-08-01

    One notable type of bioturbation in marine soft sediments involves the excavation of large pits and displacement of sediment associated with predator foraging for infaunal benthos. Batoids are among the most powerful excavators, yet their impact on sediment has been poorly studied. For expansive tidal flats, only relatively small proportions of the habitat can be sampled due to physical and logistical constraints. The knowledge of the dynamics of these habitats, including the spatial and temporal distribution of ray bioturbation, thus remains limited. We combined the use of aerial photogrammetry and in situ benthic sampling to quantify stingray feeding pits in Tomioka Bay, Amakusa, Japan. Specifically, we mapped newly-formed pits over an 11-ha section of an intertidal sandflat over two consecutive daytime low tides. Pit size and distribution patterns were assumed to scale with fish size and reflect size-specific feeding behaviors, respectively. In situ benthic surveys were conducted for sandflat-surface elevation and prey density (callianassid shrimp). The volume versus area relationship was established as a logistic function for pits of varying sizes by photographing and refilling them with sediment. This relationship was applied to the area of every pit detected by air to estimate volume, in which special attention was paid to ray ontogenetic change in space utilization patterns. In total, 18,103 new pits were formed per day, with a mean individual area of 1060 cm2. The pits were divided into six groups (G1 to G6 in increasing areas), with abundances of G1, G2+G3, and G4-G6 being medium, high, and low, respectively. Statistical analyses using generalized linear models revealed a marked preference for the higher prey-density areas in G1 and the restriction of feeding grounds of G4-G6 to the lower shore, with G2+G3 being generalists for prey density and sandflat elevation. The lower degrees of overall bioturbation by G1 and G4-G6 were spatially structured for the

  20. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urretavizcaya, María F; Gonda, Héctor E; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  1. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species.

  2. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species. PMID:26218100

  3. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  4. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May), elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug.), birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500–600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100–200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals showing a clear

  5. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May), elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug.), birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500-600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100-200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals showing a clear

  6. Isolation of Vibrio tapetis from two native fish species (Genypterus chilensis and Paralichthys adspersus) reared in Chile and description of Vibrio tapetis subsp. quintayensis subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Levican, Arturo; Lasa, Aide; Irgang, Rute; Romalde, Jesús L; Poblete-Morales, Matías; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2017-04-01

    A group of seven Chilean isolates presumptively belonging to Vibrio tapetis was isolated from diseased fine flounders (Paralichthys adspersus) and red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) experimentally reared in Quintay (Chile). All isolates were confirmed as members of V. tapetis on the basis of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization values and G+C content. The ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns were homogeneous among those isolates recovered from the same host (red conger or fine flounders), but distinct from the type strains V. tapetis subsp. tapetis CECT 4600T and V. tapetis subsp. britannicus CECT 8161T. On the basis of atpA, rpoA, rpoD, recA and pyrH gene sequence similarities (99.7-100 %) and clustering in the phylogenetic trees, the red conger isolates (Q20, Q047, Q48 and Q50) were confirmed as representing V. tapetis subsp. tapetis. However, they differed from V. tapetis subsp. tapetis CECT 4600T in their lipase, alpha quimiotripsin and non-acid phosphatase production. On the other hand, the fine flounder isolates (QL-9T, QL-35 and QL-41) showed rpoD, recA and pyrH gene sequence similarities ranging from 91.6 to 97.7 % with the type strains of the two V. tapetis subspecies (CECT 4600T and CECT 8161T) and consistently clustered together as an independent phylogenetic line within V. tapetis. Moreover, they could be differentiated phenotypically from strains CECT 4600T and CECT 8161T by nine and three different biochemical tests, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of V. tapetis in diseased red conger eel and fine flounder was demonstrated, extending the known host range and geographical location for this pathogen. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the three isolates from fine flounder represent a novel subdivision within V. tapetis, for which the name V. tapetis subsp. quintayensis subsp. nov. is proposed and with QL-9T (=CECT 8851T=LMG 28759T) as the type strain. Although QL

  7. Solidago chilensis Meyen hydroalcoholic extract reduces JNK/IκB pathway activation and ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Melo, Arine M; Bittencourt, Priscila; Nakutis, Fernanda S; Silva, Anna P; Cursino, Janaina; Santos, Gustavo A; Ashino, Nicole G; Velloso, Licio A; Torsoni, Adriana S; Torsoni, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    Hydroalcoholic extract of Solidago chilensis (Sc) is employed in popular medicine to treat inflammatory disease. The low-grade proinflammatory state and the activation of serine/threonine kinases in adipose tissue, like c-jun kinase (JNK) and IKK, and transcription factors, have an important role in obesity-associated insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of the Sc extract on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity mice. Male Swiss mice were randomized to three groups: a control group (C) fed with standard laboratory chow; a group with an experimental high-fat diet (HFD); and a group fed with a high-fat (45% kcal from fat) diet + extract of Sc (via intraperitoneal, 3 mg/kg) (ScHFD). The dietary treatment lasted for eight weeks. Subsequently, the expression and phosphorylation of proteins of interest in the liver, hypothalamus and skeletal muscle were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Body weight, epididymal fat pad mass and liver triglycerides were higher in HFD than in control mice, but these parameters were reduced by intraperitoneal administration of the extracts (3 mg/kg) to the HFD group. AKT phosphorylation stimulated by insulin in the liver, hypothalamus and skeletal muscle was higher in ScHFD as compared with HFD mice. Additionally, liver expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and fatty acid synthase were lower in ScHFD as compared with HFD mice. Nuclear factor κB, p-IκB and p-JNK levels were higher in HFD when compared with control mice, but they were lowered by treatment with extract (ScHFD). In addition, in db/db mice, Sc extract also improved liver AKT phosphorylation stimulated by insulin and reduced PEPCK expression. The data presented herein show that Sc improves AKT activation. This effect may be promoted by reduction of the proinflammatory pathway in the liver and hypothalamus. Therefore, systemic action of the Sc components may contribute to improve obesity

  8. Molecular classification of an elasmobranch angiotensin receptor: quantification of angiotensin receptor and natriuretic peptide receptor mRNAs in saltwater and freshwater populations of the Atlantic stingray.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Henning, Toni; Gelsleichter, James; Nunez, B Scott

    2010-12-01

    Among the most conserved osmoregulatory hormone systems in vertebrates are the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the natriuretic peptides (NPs). We examined the RAS and NP system in the euryhaline Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur). To determine the relative sensitivity of target organs to these hormonal systems, we isolated cDNA sequences encoding the D. sabina angiotensin receptor (AT) and natriuretic peptide type-B receptor (NPR-B). We then determined the tissue-specific expression of their mRNAs in saltwater D. sabina from local Texas waters and an isolated freshwater population in Lake Monroe, Florida. AT mRNA was most abundant in interrenal tissue from both populations. NPR-B mRNA was most abundant in rectal gland tissue from both populations, and also highly abundant in the kidney of saltwater D. sabina. This study is the first to report the sequence of an elasmobranch angiotensin receptor, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the D. sabina receptor is more similar to AT(1) vs. AT(2) proteins. This classification is further supported by molecular analysis of AT(1) and AT(2) proteins demonstrating conservation of AT(1)-specific amino acid residues and motifs in D. sabina AT. Molecular classification of the elasmobranch angiotensin receptor as an AT(1)-like protein provides fundamental insight into the evolution of the vertebrate RAS.

  9. The 5S rDNA family evolves through concerted and birth-and-death evolution in fish genomes: an example from freshwater stingrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ribosomal 5S genes are well known for the critical role they play in ribosome folding and functionality. These genes are thought to evolve in a concerted fashion, with high rates of homogenization of gene copies. However, the majority of previous analyses regarding the evolutionary process of rDNA repeats were conducted in invertebrates and plants. Studies have also been conducted on vertebrates, but these analyses were usually restricted to the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes. The recent identification of divergent 5S rRNA gene paralogs in the genomes of elasmobranches and teleost fishes indicate that the eukaryotic 5S rRNA gene family has a more complex genomic organization than previously thought. The availability of new sequence data from lower vertebrates such as teleosts and elasmobranches enables an enhanced evolutionary characterization of 5S rDNA among vertebrates. Results We identified two variant classes of 5S rDNA sequences in the genomes of Potamotrygonidae stingrays, similar to the genomes of other vertebrates. One class of 5S rRNA genes was shared only by elasmobranches. A broad comparative survey among 100 vertebrate species suggests that the 5S rRNA gene variants in fishes originated from rounds of genome duplication. These variants were then maintained or eliminated by birth-and-death mechanisms, under intense purifying selection. Clustered multiple copies of 5S rDNA variants could have arisen due to unequal crossing over mechanisms. Simultaneously, the distinct genome clusters were independently homogenized, resulting in the maintenance of clusters of highly similar repeats through concerted evolution. Conclusions We believe that 5S rDNA molecular evolution in fish genomes is driven by a mixed mechanism that integrates birth-and-death and concerted evolution. PMID:21627815

  10. A new species of Rhinebothroides Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the ocellate river stingray in Argentina, with amended descriptions of two other species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Verónica A

    2004-07-01

    A new species of the tetraphyllidean genus Rhinebothroides Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981 is described from the spiral intestine of specimens of the ocellate river stingray Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle) collected in the Río Colastiné, Argentina. R. campbelli n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners particularly in worm size (up to 7 mm long), the number of segments (5-7), the number of testes per segment (26-41), the extension of the ovarian lobes and the absence of darkly-staining cells surrounding the distal end of the cirrus-sac. Comparison of tapeworms matching the original description of R. mclennanae Brooks & Amato, 1992 with the type-specimens of R. glandularis Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981 showed that these are two distinct species. Consequently, R. mclenannae is considered a valid species rather than a synonym of R. glandularis, as suggested by Marques & Brooks (2003). R. mclennanae can be distinguished from R. glandularis by the morphology of the ovary, the number of medial loculi in the bothridia, the number of testes per mature segment and cirrus-sac size. It is concluded that variation in microthrix form and density may prove to be of taxonomic utility for distinguishing species of Rhinebothroides. Some comments on characters noted by Marques & Brooks (2003) in their revision of the genus are also provided, such as the absence of an external seminal vesicle in R. mclennanae and R. glandularis, the absence of microtriches in the genital atrium, intraspecific variation of bothridial shape and ovarian shape.

  11. The 5S rDNA family evolves through concerted and birth-and-death evolution in fish genomes: an example from freshwater stingrays.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Danillo; Yoshimura, Tatiana S; Araki, Carlos S; Martins, Cesar

    2011-05-31

    Ribosomal 5S genes are well known for the critical role they play in ribosome folding and functionality. These genes are thought to evolve in a concerted fashion, with high rates of homogenization of gene copies. However, the majority of previous analyses regarding the evolutionary process of rDNA repeats were conducted in invertebrates and plants. Studies have also been conducted on vertebrates, but these analyses were usually restricted to the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes. The recent identification of divergent 5S rRNA gene paralogs in the genomes of elasmobranches and teleost fishes indicate that the eukaryotic 5S rRNA gene family has a more complex genomic organization than previously thought. The availability of new sequence data from lower vertebrates such as teleosts and elasmobranches enables an enhanced evolutionary characterization of 5S rDNA among vertebrates. We identified two variant classes of 5S rDNA sequences in the genomes of Potamotrygonidae stingrays, similar to the genomes of other vertebrates. One class of 5S rRNA genes was shared only by elasmobranches. A broad comparative survey among 100 vertebrate species suggests that the 5S rRNA gene variants in fishes originated from rounds of genome duplication. These variants were then maintained or eliminated by birth-and-death mechanisms, under intense purifying selection. Clustered multiple copies of 5S rDNA variants could have arisen due to unequal crossing over mechanisms. Simultaneously, the distinct genome clusters were independently homogenized, resulting in the maintenance of clusters of highly similar repeats through concerted evolution. We believe that 5S rDNA molecular evolution in fish genomes is driven by a mixed mechanism that integrates birth-and-death and concerted evolution.

  12. Cestode parasites in Potamotrygon motoro (Natterer) (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from southwestern Brazil, including Rhinebothroides mclennanae n. sp. (Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae), and a revised host-parasite checklist for helminths inhabiting neotropical freshwater stingrays.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; Amato, J F

    1992-06-01

    Specimens of 5 species of cestodes were collected in 6 specimens of the freshwater stingray species Potamotrygon motoro (Natterer), collected in the vicinity of Corumba, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Acanthobothrium regoi, Potamotrygonocestus orinocoensis, Rhinebothroides venezuelensis, and Rhinebothrium paratrygoni are reported from P. motoro and from southwestern Brazil for the first time. Rhinebothroides mclennanae n. sp. appears to be the sister species of Rhinebothroides glandularis, the only other member of the genus exhibiting darkly staining glandular cells lying free in the parenchyma surrounding the terminal genitalia. The new species resembles Rhinebothroides glandularis, Rhinebothroides freitasi, and Rhinebothroides scorzai by having poral ovarian arms that extend anteriorly beyond the posterior margin of the cirrus sac, coiled vaginae, and vitelline follicles not interrupted on the poral side in the vicinity of the genital pore. It differs from all 6 previously described members of the genus by possessing an average of 31 testes per proglottid, compared with an average of 45 for R. glandularis, 55 for R. freitasi and R. venezuelensis, 77 for Rhinebothroides circularisi and Rhinebothroides moralarai, and 80 for R. scorzai. An updated phylogenetic tree for Rhinebothroides is presented.

  13. Branchial Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter 1 and Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in a brackish water-type ionocyte of the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hiong, Kum C.; Wong, Samuel Z. H.; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L.; Soh, Melody M. L.; Chng, You R.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) in the gills of freshwaterH. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold) in response to brackish water (salinity 20) acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na+ into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na+ homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka). We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nkaα in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nkaα, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland. PMID:24339817

  14. Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α1 mRNA expression in the gill and rectal gland of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina, following acclimation to increased salinity.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Lambert, Faith N

    2015-06-05

    The salt-secreting rectal gland plays a major role in elasmobranch osmoregulation, facilitating ion balance in hyperosmotic environments in a manner analogous to the teleost gill. Several studies have examined the central role of the sodium pump Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in osmoregulatory tissues of euryhaline elasmobranch species, including regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and abundance in response to salinity acclimation. However, while the transcriptional regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the teleost gill has been well documented the potential for mRNA regulation to facilitate rectal gland plasticity during salinity acclimation in elasmobranchs has not been examined. Therefore, in this study we acclimated Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur) from 11 to 34 ppt salinity over 3 days, and examined changes in plasma components as well as gill and rectal gland Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1 (atp1a1) mRNA expression. Acclimation to increased salinity did not affect hematocrit but resulted in significant increases in plasma osmolality, chloride and urea. Rectal gland atp1a1 mRNA expression was higher in 34 ppt-acclimated D. sabina vs. There was no significant change in gill atp1a1 mRNA expression, however mRNA expression of this gene in the gill and rectal gland were negatively correlated. This study demonstrates regulation of atp1a1 in the elasmobranch salt-secreting gland in response to salinity acclimation and a negative relationship between rectal gland and gill atp1a1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that the gill and rectal gland play opposing roles in ion balance with the gill potentially facilitating ion uptake in hypoosmotic environments. Future studies should further examine this possibility as well as potential differences in the regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase gene expression between euryhaline and stenohaline elasmobranch species.

  15. Molecular characterization of two Rhesus glycoproteins from the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer, and changes in their transcript levels and protein abundance in the gills, kidney, and liver during brackish water acclimation.

    PubMed

    Yeam, Cheng T; Chng, You R; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2017-03-21

    Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It is ammonotelic in fresh water, but retains the capacities of urea synthesis and ureosmotic osmoregulation to survive in brackish water. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of Rhesus glycoproteins (Rhgp), which are known to transport ammonia, in conserving nitrogen (N) in H. signifer during brackish water acclimation when N became limited resulting from increased hepatic urea synthesis. The complete coding sequence of rhbg from H. signifer consisted of 1383 bp, encoding 460 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 50.5 kDa, while that of rhcg comprised 1395 bp, encoding for 464 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 50.8 kDa. The deduced amino sequences of Rhbg and Rhcg contained ammonia binding sites, which could recruit NH4(+) to be deprotonated, and a hydrophobic pore with two histidine residues, which could mediate the transport of NH3. Our results indicated for the first time that brackish water acclimation resulted in significant decreases in the expression levels of rhbg/Rhbg and rhcg/Rhcg in the gills of H. signifer, which offered a mechanistic explanation of brackish water-related decreased ammonia excretion reported elsewhere. Furthermore, rhbg/Rhbg expression levels increased significantly in the liver of H. signifer during brackish water acclimation, indicating that the ammonia produced by extra-hepatic tissues and released into the blood could be channeled into the liver for increased urea synthesis. Overall, these results lend support to the proposition that H. signifer becomes N-limited upon utilizing urea as an osmolyte in brackish water.

  16. Branchial Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit in a brackish water-type ionocyte of the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Hiong, Kum C; Wong, Samuel Z H; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L; Soh, Melody M L; Chng, You R; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Wilson, Jonathan M; Chew, Shit F

    2013-01-01

    Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) in the gills of freshwaterH. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold) in response to brackish water (salinity 20) acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na(+) into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na(+) homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Nka). We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nkaα in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nkaα, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland.

  17. Review of the genus Shirleyrhynchus Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 (Trypanorhyncha: Shirleyrhynchidae), with the resurrection of S. butlerae Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 and the description of S. panamensis n. sp.

    PubMed

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C

    2016-06-01

    A new species of trypanorhynch cestode is described from two species of stingrays, the Panamic stingray Urotrygon aspidura (Jordan & Gilbert) and the Pacific chupare Himantura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van) collected in the Golfo de Montijo in the Eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Panama. Shirleyrhynchus panamensis n. sp. represents an important addition to the family, which until now consisted of two monotypic genera. The new species is characterised by an elongate scolex with four, ovate bothria, presence of prebulbar organs, absence of gland cells within the muscular bulbs and an oncotaxy with a typical heteroacanthous, heteromorphous tentacular armature, a characteristic basal armature and the presence of a slight basal swelling. It is readily distinguished from its congeners by a smaller scolex and features of the oncotaxy, such as dissimilar hooks on opposing principle rows, a commencement of hook rows from the bothrial to the antibothrial surface and a much shorter basal armature. Although described only on the basis of immature worms lacking a strobila, the new species adds information on features of the oncotaxy within Shirleyrhynchus Beveridge & Campbell, 1988. Observation of the holotype of Shirleyrhynchus aetobatidis (Shipley & Hornell, 1906) revealed apparent differences from Australian specimens that have been described as Shirleyrhynchus butlerae Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 but which were later synonymised. Observations of type-specimens of S. butlerae also revealed differences from the original description and some morphological characteristics are amended. Shirleyrhynchus butlerae is herein resurrected and an amended generic diagnosis and a key to the identification of species are provided. The molecular voucher specimen of 'S. aetobatidis' utilised in previous molecular phylogenetic studies was re-observed which revealed a misidentification of the specimen with Parachristianella indonesiensis Palm, 2004.

  18. Antioxidant Compound Extraction from Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol] Stuntz) Berries: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Campos-Requena, Víctor H.

    2017-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the antioxidant extraction from maqui berry were determined using a response surface methodology. A three level D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables namely, solvent type (methanol, acetone and ethanol), solvent concentration and extraction time over total antioxidant capacity by using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The D-optimal design considered 42 experiments including 10 central point replicates. A second-order polynomial model showed that more than 89% of the variation is explained with a satisfactory prediction (78%). ORAC values are higher when acetone was used as a solvent at lower concentrations, and the extraction time range studied showed no significant influence on ORAC values. The optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction obtained were 29% of acetone for 159 min under agitation. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the given predictive model describes an antioxidant extraction process from maqui berry.

  19. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Giant Virus Megavirus chilensis Encodes the Biosynthetic Pathway for Uncommon Acetamido Sugars*

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2014-01-01

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. PMID:25035429

  1. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  2. Adaptive genetic variation distinguishes Chilean blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from different marine environments.

    PubMed

    Araneda, Cristián; Larraín, María Angélica; Hecht, Benjamin; Narum, Shawn

    2016-04-26

    Chilean mussel populations have been thought to be panmictic with limited genetic structure. Genotyping-by-sequencing approaches have enabled investigation of genomewide variation that may better distinguish populations that have evolved in different environments. We investigated neutral and adaptive genetic variation in Mytilus from six locations in southern Chile with 1240 SNPs obtained with RAD-seq. Differentiation among locations with 891 neutral SNPs was low (FST = 0.005). Higher differentiation was obtained with a panel of 58 putative outlier SNPs (FST = 0.114) indicating the potential for local adaptation. This panel identified clusters of genetically related individuals and demonstrated that much of the differentiation (~92%) could be attributed to the three major regions and environments: extreme conditions in Patagonia, inner bay influenced by aquaculture (Reloncaví), and outer bay (Chiloé Island). Patagonia samples were most distinct, but additional analysis carried out excluding this collection also revealed adaptive divergence between inner and outer bay samples. The four locations within Reloncaví area were most similar with all panels of markers, likely due to similar environments, high gene flow by aquaculture practices, and low geographical distance. Our results and the SNP markers developed will be a powerful tool supporting management and programs of this harvested species.

  3. Novel Compounds From Shark and Stingray Epidermal Mucus With Antimicrobial Activity Against Wound Infection Pathogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    isolated from the mucus consistently demonstrate antibiotic activity in both primary and secondary screens against pathogenic bacterial strains. Many...pathogens, bacterial symbionts, culturable bacterial isolates 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...supernatant and mucus pellet demonstrates that the pigment remains in the mucus pellet (Figure 4D). As visualized using electrophoresis, aqueous

  4. Development and Evaluation of the Stingray, an Amphibious Maritime Interdiction Operations Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    of Ships], Charles Griffin and Company, London, 246-261 (1908). [6] Volpich, H. & Bridge, I . C., “Paddle Wheels Pt 1: Preliminary Model Experiments...Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, 327-380 (1955). [7] Volpich, H. & Bridge, I . C., “Paddle Wheels...Bridge, I . C., “Paddle Wheels Pt III: Ship/Model Correlation,” Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, 512-550

  5. Anindobothrium n. gen. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) inhabiting marine and freshwater potamotrygonid stingrays.

    PubMed

    Marques, F P; Brooks, D R; Lasso, C A

    2001-06-01

    Anindobothrium n. gen. is proposed to accommodate Caulobothrium anacolum inhabiting Himantura schmardae from Colombia, and 2 new species, one inhabiting Potamotrygon orbigny in Brazil and the other inhabiting Paratrygon aereiba in Venezuela. Members of the new genus resemble members of Pararhinebothroides, Rhinebothroides, and Anthocephalum by having bothridia with poorly differentiated apical suckers and vasa deferentia expanded into external seminal vesicles. It further resembles Pararhinebothroides, Rhinebothroides, and Anthocephalum cairae by having vas deferens inserted near the poral rather than aporal end of the cirrus sac. The 3 species assigned to the new genus form an apparent monophyletic group, based on the possession of 3 putative synapomorphies: (1) genital pores in the anterior 1/4 of the proglottid, a trait that is unusual, but not unique, among phyllobothriids; (2) anteroventral ovarian lobes converging to the center of the proglottid, a character not previously reported for phyllobothriids; and (3) ovarian lobes comprising a loose network of digitiform processes.

  6. Orders out of chaos – molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships

    PubMed Central

    Caira, Janine N.; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian Inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea, and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognize the integrated nature of one undescribed and ten described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously of the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterized by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for 8 additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose these 17 genera remain in the “Tetraphyllidea”. Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium, and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e., Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of “terrestrial” cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus; as was the sister to the freshwater fish and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

  7. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognise the integrated nature of one undescribed and 10 described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously placed in the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterised by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for eight additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose that these 17 genera remain in the "Tetraphyllidea". Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e. Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of "terrestrial" cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus, as was the sister to the freshwater fish- and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Late Double-Barrel Lumen Following Successful CTO-PCI Using the Crossboss Stingray System.

    PubMed

    Roy, James; Rees, David; Ramsay, David; Weaver, James

    2017-02-01

    There remains limited randomized controlled trials on long-term clinical outcomes after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI). New techniques involving dissection of the subintimal space and reentry into the true lumen increase success rates in CTO-PCI. However, their longer-term safety and efficacy remain unknown and poorly studied. We present a case of double-lumen formation seen at 1 year post CTO-PCI using subintimal dissection reentry with late restoration of major side branches.

  9. Philosophy with Children, the Stingray and the Educative Value of Disequilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murris, Karin Saskia

    2008-01-01

    Philosophy with children (P4C) presents significant positive challenges for educators. Its "community of enquiry" pedagogy assumes not only an epistemological shift in the role of the educator, but also a different ontology of "child" and balance of power between educator and learner. After a brief historical sketch and an outline of the diversity…

  10. Population characteristics, habitat and diet of a recently discovered stingray Dasyatis marianae: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Costa, T L A; Thayer, J A; Mendes, L F

    2015-01-06

    This study examined population density, habitat and diet of Dasyatis marianae, a recently discovered species, in the reef complex of Maracajaú in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The highest concentration of D. marianae occurred in seagrass beds. Habitat use differed significantly between sex and age classes, with females and juveniles using areas other than reefs. Females utilized primarily seagrass beds and juveniles occurred mainly along the sandy bottom near the beach, highlighting the importance of protecting these areas. Dasyatis marianae diet was characterized primarily by crustaceans (91·9% index of relative importance, IRI ), including shrimp, crabs and lobsters. The availability of prey in different habitat types influences occupation by D. marianae, but the prey selectivity of D. marianae, among other factors, may affect this relationship. Intense shrimp and lobster fishing in the region probably has an effect on preferred prey resources of this ray. Information on feeding habits of this species contributes to a better understanding of trophic dynamics and food webs, which is critical if ecosystem principles are to be integrated into fisheries management.

  11. Philosophy with Children, the Stingray and the Educative Value of Disequilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murris, Karin Saskia

    2008-01-01

    Philosophy with children (P4C) presents significant positive challenges for educators. Its "community of enquiry" pedagogy assumes not only an epistemological shift in the role of the educator, but also a different ontology of "child" and balance of power between educator and learner. After a brief historical sketch and an outline of the diversity…

  12. Studies on the Biology, Venom and Ultrastructure of Selected Venomous Fishes, Including the Scorpionfishes and Stingrays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-25

    and venous pressures; respirations ; and blood pH, P02 , PC0 2 and hematocrit; and total serum protein. The results indicated a fairly consistent...by the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca in the Adriatic. -------. ... . Abstract of the 6th International Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins...designed to study hypotension was employed to measure arterial and venous pressures/’ respirations ; and blood pH, P02, PC02 and hematocrit; and total

  13. Novel Compounds From Shark And Stingray Epidermal Mucus With Antimicrobial Activity Against Wound Infection Pathogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    containing at least 20 proteins or protein subunits and a viscous pellet containing significant amounts of symbiotic bacteria that are NOT seawater...such as dialysis, lyophilization, and evaporation. Epidermal mucus also contains a natural flora of symbiotic bacteria , which tend to be...approximately 2 x 108 colony forming units of bacteria /mL. Mucus pellets and aqueous supernatants from fresh samples were serially diluted in sterile

  14. 77 FR 74179 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Reference Room or may be viewed on the Commission's Web site web at http://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary... Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the Web site that...

  15. Improving Survival and Growth of Planted Austrocedrus chilensis Seedlings in Disturbed Patagonian Forests of Argentina by Managing Understory Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M. Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  16. Improving survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis seedlings in disturbed patagonian forests of Argentina by managing understory vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  17. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells based on naturally extracted dye from the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyrer, Julio; Hunter, Renato; Rubilar, Monica; Pavez, Boris; Morales, Eduardo; Torres, Simonet

    2016-10-01

    The mini modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated for their conversion efficiency using anthocyanin-enriched extracts from maqui berry, which to date has never been tested in a DSSC. Anthocyanins are a group of red, purple, violet and blue water-soluble polyphenolic pigments widely found in berry fruits. Maqui berries are a particularly rich source. The aqueous extract concentrations of maqui fruit were tested at 750 and 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L. The immersion time to produce sensitized TiO2 film was 8 h. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared with 750 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.14%, with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.43 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.38 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.450. The conversion efficiency attained with 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.19%, with (VOC) of 0.45 V, (JSC) of 0.44 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.55. Therefore, a higher concentration brought about a higher photosensitized performance. The maqui extracts were successfully dye sensitized over a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles, providing useful information for further studies related to the use of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  18. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  19. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin.

  20. Diet of the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) on Marajó Island (Pará, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Almeida, M P; Lins, P M O; Charvet-Almeida, P; Barthem, R B

    2010-02-01

    The stomach contents of 137 examples of Potamotrygon motoro caught in 3 locations (Muaná, Afuá and Lake Arari) on Marajó Island were analysed. The values of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI) and its respective percentage (%IRI) were calculated. The level of repletion 1 (1/4 full) was the most representative for both sexes, as well as for immature and mature specimens. Most of the food items found were well-digested. The food items identification indicated the presence of 15 orders, including insects, mollusks, crustaceans, annelids and fish. Differences in diet were observed among the locations studied when comparing %IRI, crustaceans being the most preferred in Afuá, fish in Lake Arari and mollusks in Muaná.

  1. A new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil: the smallest species of Potamotrygon.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marcelo R De; Rosa, Ricardo S; Araújo, Maria Lúcia G De

    2016-05-04

    A new species of Potamotrygon is described from the Rio Negro drainage, Amazonas, Brazil. In spite of being cited or pictured several times in the scientific and aquarium fish literature since the 19th Century, it had been misidentified and still lacked a scientific name. Potamotrygon wallacei, n. sp., is diagnosed by the following characters: dorsal surface of disc light brown, with black irregularly-shaped vermiculate markings forming an amphora- or Ω-shaped figure on mid-disc, delimiting light brown reniform areas at disc center, and with subcircular light brown ocellate markings on disc margins; small body size (smallest known Potamotrygon species; largest examined specimen measured 310 mm DW); dorsal spines on tail usually rather low, without broad bases, in one to rarely three irregular rows, but extending posteriorly only to tail mid-length and not to caudal stings, with altogether relatively few spines; denticles on posterior mid-disc and tail base Y-shaped, with a central, anterior, bulbous cusp and usually two posterior pairs of smaller, rounded cusps; and single (anterior) angular cartilage. The new species is similar to P. orbignyi and other "reticulated" species in having a single (anterior) angular cartilage and in the color pattern of the tail, but is easily distinguished based on its size, dorsal tail spine arrangement, and specific details of color pattern.

  2. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., a new species of freshwater stingray from the upper Madeira River system, Amazon basin (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, João Pedro; Da Silva, João Paulo C B; De Carvalho, Marcelo R

    2014-02-18

    Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is described from the Jamari River, upper Madeira River system (Amazon basin), state of Rondônia, Brazil. This new species differs from congeners by presenting unique polygonal or concentric patterns formed by small whitish spots better defined over the posterior disc and tail-base regions. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., can be further distinguished from congeners in the same basin by other characters in combination, such as two to three rows of midtail spines converging to a single irregular row at level of caudal sting origin, proportions of head, tail and disc, patterns of dermal denticles on rostral, cranial and tail regions, among other features discussed herein. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is most similar to, and occurs sympatrically with, P. scobina, and is distinguished from it by lacking ocellated spots on disc, by its characteristic polygonal pattern on posterior disc, a comparatively much shorter and broader tail, greater intensity of denticles on disc, more midtail spine rows at tail-base, and other features including size at maturity and meristic characters. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is also distinguished from other species of Potamotrygon occurring in the Amazon region, except P. scobina, by presenting three angular cartilages (vs. two or one). This new species was discovered during a detailed taxonomic and morphological revision of the closely related species P. scobina, and highlights the necessity for thorough and all-embracing taxonomic studies, particularly in groups with pronounced endemism and morphological variability.

  3. 75 FR 22397 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Time on Monday, April 26, 2010. Docket Numbers: RP10-603-000. Applicants: Stingray Pipeline Company, LLC. Description: Stingray Pipeline Company, LLC submits Seventh Revised Sheet 139 et al. to FERC...

  4. 76 FR 4099 - Combined Notice of Filings No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ..., January 25, 2011. Docket Numbers: RP10-778-002. Applicants: Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Description: Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. submits tariff filing per 154.203: Baseline Compliance Filing to...

  5. 76 FR 12950 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Monday, March 14, 2011. Docket Numbers: RP11-1863-000. Applicants: Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Description: Report of Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Filed Date: 03/01/2011. Accession Number:...

  6. Demonstration of Remotely Operated Vehicles to Aid Underwater Inspection of Corps of Engineers Navigation Structures. Winfield Locks and Dam 13-17 August 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    2 Teledyne-Benthos Stingray ...Teledyne-Benthos Stingray shown from above (left) and underneath (right) with longitudinal thrusters at left end, lateral thruster and electronics...Hydroacoustics Model Triggerfish LBV150SE Stingray Pro 3 XE GTO (two systems) Proteus 500 Weight (kg) 33 13 34 5―6 43 Dimensions (m) 1.09 x 0.53 x

  7. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Larisa B; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2014-04-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group B. chilensis VA1 in honor of its country of origin. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Molecular systematics of the freshwater stingrays (myliobatiformes: potamotrygonidae) of the Amazon, Orinoco, Magdalena, Esequibo, Caribbean, and Maracaibo basins (Colombia - Venezuela): evidence from three mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Garcia, David Alejandro; Lasso, Carlos Andres; Morales, Monica; Caballero, Susana Josefina

    2016-11-01

    Lack of adequate information about the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships, ecology, biology, and distribution of several species belonging to the family Potamotrygonidae makes these species vulnerable to anthropic activities, including commercial overexploitation for the ornamental fish market. The aim of this study was to investigate the systematic relationships among genera and species belonging to this family by analyses of three mitochondrial gene regions. Samples were collected from the main river basins in Colombia and Venezuela for four genera and seven species of the family, as well as for what appear to be unidentified species. Three mitochondrial molecular markers COI, Cytb, and ATP6 were amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis were performed to obtain topologies for each marker and for a concatenated dataset including the three genes. Small dataset may compromise some methods estimations of sequence divergence in the ATP6 marker. Monophyly of the four genera in Potamotrygonidae was confirmed and phylogenetic relationships among members of the Potamotrygon genus were not clearly resolved. However, results obtained with the molecular marker Cytb appear to offer a good starting point to differentiate among genera and species as a tool that could be used for barcoding. The application of this gene as a barcode could be applied for management and regulation of extraction practices for these genera. Sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes would be the next step for testing evolutionary hypothesis among these genera. Population structure analyses should be undertaken for Paratrygon, Potamotrygon magdalenae and motoro.

  9. Four new cestode species from the spiral intestine of the round stingray, Urobatis halleri, in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Megan M. Friggens; Donald W. Duszynski

    2005-01-01

    The spiral intestines of 40 specimens of Urobatis halleri from the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, were examined for cestodes. Four new species, Rhinebothrium chollaensis n. sp., Rhinebothrium gravidum n. sp., Eutetrarhynchus cortezensis n. sp., and Prochristianella minima n. sp., are described. This is the first record of these 3 genera in the Gulf of...

  10. Sexual dimorphism of the electrosensory system: a quantitative analysis of nerve axons in the dorsal anterior lateral line nerve of the blue-spotted Fantail Stingray (Taeniura lymma).

    PubMed

    Kempster, R M; Garza-Gisholt, E; Egeberg, C A; Hart, N S; O'Shea, O R; Collin, S P

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies of sensory axons provide invaluable insights into the functional significance and relative importance of a particular sensory modality. Despite the important role electroreception plays in the behaviour of elasmobranchs, to date, there have been no studies that have assessed the number of electrosensory axons that project from the peripheral ampullae to the central nervous system (CNS). The complex arrangement and morphology of the peripheral electrosensory system has a significant influence on its function. However, it is not sufficient to base conclusions about function on the peripheral system alone. To fully appreciate the function of the electrosensory system, it is essential to also assess the neural network that connects the peripheral system to the CNS. Using stereological techniques, unbiased estimates of the total number of axons were obtained for both the electrosensory bundles exiting individual ampullary organs and those entering the CNS (via the dorsal root of the anterior lateral line nerve, ALLN) in males and females of different sizes. The dorsal root of the ALLN consists solely of myelinated electrosensory axons and shows both ontogenetic and sexual dimorphism. In particular, females exhibit a greater abundance of electrosensory axons, which may result in improved sensitivity of the electrosensory system and may facilitate mate identification for reproduction. Also presented are detailed morphological data on the peripheral electrosensory system to allow a complete interpretation of the functional significance of the sexual dimorphism found in the ALLN. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Moving Target Indicator (MTI) Applications For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-14

    nicknamed STINGRAY for the mari- time MTI applications, was successfully completed in two phases. Phase I consisted of a risk mitigation phase where...3. Fig. 3 STINGRAY Situational Awareness Display bjectives and Results s mentioned above, the overall objectives associated this initiative...roviding wide field of view cues to the Predator’s R sensor was clearly demonstrated in both the RS – UAV Cross cueing and STINGRAY initia- . hile

  12. Review of the South American-Antarctic triplefin fish genus Helcogrammoides (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, J T; Springer, V G

    2001-07-01

    The genus Helcogrammoides comprises three species of small, cryptic shorefishes, H. antarcticus, H. chilensis, and H. cunninghami. All three species inhabit shallow water along exposed rocky coasts. Specimens reported herein extend the known distributions of H. chilensis and H. cunninghami to the vicinity of Lima, Peru, approximately 1600 km north of their previously reported northernmost records in Chile. Helcogrammoides chilensis and H. cunninghami occur sympatrically over most of their ranges in Peru and Chile and are frequently taken together in the same field collections. Lectotypes are designated for H. chilensis and H. cunninghami. Diagnoses and an identification key are provided for the species.

  13. Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    2Amitay, M., Washburn, A.E., Anders, S.G., Parekh, D.E., and Glezer, A., “Active Flow Control on the Stingray UAV: Transient Behavior,” AIAA Paper 2003...on the Stingray Uninhabited Air Vehicle: Transient Behavior,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 42. No. 11, Nov. 2004, pp. 2205-2215. 4 Bevacqua, T., Best, E

  14. Behavior, Ecology and Toxicity of Venomous Marine Fishes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-31

    u ltrastructure of the venom apparatus of the stingrays and scorpion fishes ’~~nd~ .. I# )”the chemistry and pharmacolo~~~~~~M~~ ~~~~~~ o of stingray

  15. Joint Terminal Attack Controller, A Primary MOS For The Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-07

    can be traced back to the Vietnam Conflict. These small patrols, teams dubbed “ Stingray ,” could consist of five to eighteen members, depending on...instructors in an accredited schoolhouse. 6 War, Major G.R. Martin states, “Many Stingray patrols were inserted by helicopter, then moved

  16. Integrated Flight Control and Flow Control Using Synthetic Jet Arrays (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    A.E., Anders, S.G., Parekh, D.E. and Glezer, A., “Active Flow Control on the Stingray UAV: Transient Behavior,” AIAA Paper 2003-4001, 33rd AIAA Fluid...Dynamics Conference, Orlando, FL, June 2003. 13. Amitay, M., Washburn, A. E., Anders, S. G. and Parekh, D. E., “Active Flow Control on the Stingray

  17. Sensing Shallow Seafloor and Sediment Properties, Recent History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    developed a number of tools for this purpose: Swordfish, Stingray , and Dolphin (originally McClelland Engineers), Wipsampler , Seaclam, Seasprite, and...not provide drilling capability and are limited to about 200kN of thrust. Examples of such platforms are Stingray (formerly, McClelland) and

  18. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from the cowtail stingray Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf, with a key to the species of Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994.

    PubMed

    Haseli, Mohammad; Palm, Harry W

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the genus Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994 is described from Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. is allocated to the genus Dollfusiella based on the possession of two bothria, prebulbar organs, a heteroacanthous typical armature with tightly spaced rows of hollow hooks, a basal swelling and a characteristic basal armature without prominent macrohooks. The presence of an enlarged external seminal vesicle in Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. distinguishes this species from D. michiae (Southwell, 1929), D. bareldsi (Beveridge, 1990), D. owensi (Beveridge, 1990), D. geraschmidti (Dollfus, 1974), D. angustiformis Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. hemispinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. spinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013 and D. taminii Menoret & Ivanov, 2014. The new species is distinguished from the remaining species within the genus by a combination of the following morphological features: the number of testes per segment, the number of testis columns and the number of homeomorphous hooks per half spiral row in the metabasal region. In the most recent taxonomic key to the species of Dollfusiella, the presence or absence of enlarged, microscopically visible spinitriches on the scolex was used as the first distinguishing character dividing the congeners into two groups. Since the existence of visible microtriches on the scolex peduncle of D. vooremi (São Clemente & Gomes, 1989), a species so far grouped among the species lacking visible microtriches on the scolex, has been recently demonstrated, and given the fact that the presence of microscopically visible microtriches on the scolex is variable in some eutetrarhynchid species, a new key to the species of Dollfusiella is provided in which the spinitriches have been given less priority.

  19. On the hydrodynamics of ray-like swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottom, Richard G., II; Borazjani, Iman; Blevins, Erin; Lauder, George V.

    2013-11-01

    There are substantial differences in body shape and motion of stingrays relative to other fish, which drastically affect the hydrodynamics of locomotion. Discovering the flow physics of ray-like locomotion is invaluable not only from a biological standpoint but also for practical application in the development of novel, bio-inspired, man-made vehicles. Here we first develop an analytical model for the stingray's body and fin motion based on experimental laser scan of body shape in the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon orbignyi, and on experimental 3D kinematic data of the wing and body surface obtained from freely-swimming stingrays. The accurate model for the stingray motion is constructed by Fourier analysis of the experimental data resulting in a traveling wave equation with an amplitude coefficient, which is spatially dependent across the fin. Based on this model, we carry out large eddy simulations of the stingray using the immersed boundary method, i.e., the motion of the stingray body is prescribed based on the model, and the motion of the center of mass is calculated. We validate our simulations against experimental data. The simulations reveal the 3D structure of the wake and quantify the swimming performance under different conditions. This work was partly supported by the Center for Computational Research (CCR), University at Buffalo.

  20. Hybridization and introgression in Carpobrotus spp. (Aizoaceae) in California. I. Morphological evidence.

    PubMed

    Albert, M; D'Antonio, C; Schierenbeck, K

    1997-07-01

    Individuals of the invasive non-native plant species Carpobrotus edulis, its native or naturalized congener C. chilensis, and putative hybrids are found throughout coastal California. This study characterized morphological variation within the genus and assessed the extent of hybridization and direction of introgression between C. edulis and C. chilensis. Twelve randomly selected Carpobrotus individuals from each of 49 sample locations were classified as "C. edulis," "C. chilensis," or one of three intermediate morphotype classes, and compared for clonal, vegetative, and fruit characters. Univariate comparisons showed that C. edulis individuals had deeper mats with more cover within the mat boundary, longer, wider, more serrate leaves, and wider fruits with more carpels than intermediate and C. chilensis morphotype classes. Carpobrotus edulis and intermediates had more lateral branches than did C. chilensis, suggesting that hybrids tend to vary toward C. edulis. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) identified the following characters as discriminating significantly among Carpobrotus groups: leaf length, leaf width, leaf length/width, number of lateral branches, number of carpels, and fruit diameter. Using these characters, DFA correctly classified 98% of apparently pure C. edulis and C. chilensis, but only 76% of all Carpobrotus individuals when putative hybrids were included. Principal components analysis showed that C. edulis and C. chilensis cluster into distinct morphotypes, but that hybrids overlap with both groups, particularly with C. edulis. The genus Carpobrotus in California resembles a large hybrid swarm, with putative hybrids forming a large portion of the overall population and tending to vary toward C. edulis.

  1. Genetic variation and phylogeographic analyses of two species of Carpobrotus and their hybrids in California.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Kristina A; Symonds, V Vaughan; Gallagher, Kelly G; Bell, Jeffrey

    2005-02-01

    Despite the commonality and study of hybridization in plants, there are few studies between invasive and noninvasive species that examine the genetic variability and gene flow of cytoplasmic DNA. We describe the phylogeographical structure of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation within and among several interspecific populations of the putative native, Carpobrotus chilensis and the introduced, Carpobrotus edulis (Aizoaceae). These species co-occur throughout much of coastal California and form several 'geographical hybrid populations'. Two hundred and thirty-seven individuals were analysed for variation in an approximate 7.0 kb region of the chloroplast genome using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Phylogenetic analyses and cpDNA population differentiation were conducted for all morphotypes. Historic geographical dispersion and the coefficient of ancestry of the haplotypes were determined using nested clade analyses. Two haplotypic groupings (I and II) were represented in C. chilensis and C. edulis, respectively. The variation in cpDNA data is in agreement with the previously reported allozyme and morphological data; this supports relatively limited variation and high population differentiation among C. chilensis and hybrids and more wide-ranging variation in C. edulis and C. edulis populations backcrossed with C. chilensis. C. chilensis disproportionately contributes to the creation of hybrids with the direction of gene flow from C. chilensis into C. edulis. The cpDNA data support C. chilensis as the maternal contributor to the hybrid populations.

  2. Time Domain Non-Linear SAR Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-18

    Simulation Results The simulation results were obtained on both machines Stingray and Hellfire. Here, Stingray is an SGI Origin 2000 machine with 16 MIPS...600 300 600 600 600 600 sub-range(m) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 sub-azimuth(m) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Runtime(sec) on Stingray 4747.8 3083.0 2239.7...1774.5 1821.4 1818.9 1665.7 N/A Runtime(sec) on Hellfire 1539.2 1212.0 1025.9 960.2 969.1 953.2 917.2 921.7 Ratio (Hellfire/ Stingray ) 32.4% 39.3% 45.8

  3. Behavior, Ecology and Toxicity of Venomous Marine Fishes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-30

    man, and more definitive investigations on the usual ultracellular structure of their venom glands. The present report treats of our most recent study on the venom gland of the stingray Dasytis sabina. (Author)

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector...

  6. Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II (ADST-II) Hybrid Electric Combat Vehicle Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    700 700 Round Velocity 838 838 75MM ETC Gun Min Range 0 Max Range 3000 Rate 20 Round Velocity 1500 Stingray Min Range N/A Max Range N/A Rate...75 MM ETC Gun - 50 rounds Stingray Unlimited 30 MM HE 340 Issue Class Datum Bradley CHPS BM 30 MM SABOT 160 7.62x54R Coax Machine Gun 2,00

  7. Revision of the South American window fly genus Heteromphrale Kröber, 1937 (Diptera, Scenopinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Gaimari, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical window fly genus Heteromphrale Kröber, 1937 is revised. Two previously described species (Heteromphrale chilensis (Kröber, 1937) and Heteromphrale cyanops (Edwards, 1932)) are redescribed while a new species (Heteromphrale blanca sp. n.) is described from Argentina. The male of Heteromphrale chilensis and female of Heteromphrale cyanops are described and figured for the first time, and a key to species is presented. PMID:21594165

  8. Diet Reconstruction and Resource Partitioning of a Caribbean Marine Mesopredator Using Stable Isotope Bayesian Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Alexander; López-Angarita, Juliana; Turner, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The trophic ecology of epibenthic mesopredators is not well understood in terms of prey partitioning with sympatric elasmobranchs or their effects on prey communities, yet the importance of omnivores in community trophic dynamics is being increasingly realised. This study used stable isotope analysis of 15N and 13C to model diet composition of wild southern stingrays Dasyatis americana and compare trophic niche space to nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum and Caribbean reef sharks Carcharhinus perezi on Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models were used to investigate prey choice as well as viable Diet-Tissue Discrimination Factors for use with stingrays. Stingray δ15N values showed the greatest variation and a positive relationship with size, with an isotopic niche width approximately twice that of sympatric species. Shark species exhibited comparatively restricted δ15N values and greater δ13C variation, with very little overlap of stingray niche space. Mixing models suggest bivalves and annelids are proportionally more important prey in the stingray diet than crustaceans and teleosts at Glovers Reef, in contrast to all but one published diet study using stomach contents from other locations. Incorporating gut contents information from the literature, we suggest diet-tissue discrimination factors values of Δ15N ≊ 2.7‰ and Δ13C ≊ 0.9‰ for stingrays in the absence of validation experiments. The wide trophic niche and lower trophic level exhibited by stingrays compared to sympatric sharks supports their putative role as important base stabilisers in benthic systems, with the potential to absorb trophic perturbations through numerous opportunistic prey interactions. PMID:24236144

  9. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  10. Local Host Adaptation and Use of a Novel Host in the Seed Beetle Megacerus eulophus

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Gisela C.; Suárez, Lorena H.; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations. PMID:23326528

  11. Systematic implications of brain morphology in potamotrygonidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes).

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, João Pedro; de Carvalho, Marcelo R

    2016-02-01

    The gross brain morphology, brain proportions, and position of cranial nerves in all four genera (Potamotrygon, Plesiotrygon, Paratrygon, and Heliotrygon) and 11 of the species of the Neotropical stingray family Potamotrygonidae were studied to provide new characters that may have a bearing on internal potamotrygonid systematics. The brain was also studied in four other stingray (Myliobatiformes) genera (Hexatrygon, Taeniura, Dasyatis, and Gymnura) to provide a more inclusive phylogenetic context for the interpretation of features of the brain in potamotrygonids. Our results indicate, based on neuroanatomical characters, that the genera Paratrygon and Heliotrygon are sister groups, as are the genera Potamotrygon and Plesiotrygon, agreeing with previous morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Both groups of genera share distinct conditions of the olfactory tracts, telencephalon and its central nuclei, hypophysis and infundibulum, morphology and orientation of the metencephalic corpus cerebelli, orientation of the glossopharyngeal nerve, and overall encephalic proportions. The corpus cerebelli of Paratrygon and Heliotrygon is interpreted as being more similar to the general batoid condition and, given their phylogenetic position highly nested within stingrays, is considered secondarily derived, not plesiomorphically retained. Our observations of the corpus cerebelli of stingrays, including Hexatrygon, corroborate that the general stingray pattern previously advanced by Northcutt is derived among batoids. The morphology of the brain is shown to be a useful source of phylogenetically informative characters at lower hierarchical levels, such as between genera and species, and thus, has significant potential in phylogenetic studies of elasmobranchs.

  12. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes.

  13. Electrosensitive Spatial Vectors in Elasmobranch Fishes: Implications for Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vicente, Ariel C.; Sewell, Josiah; Tricas, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    The electrosense of sharks and rays is used to detect weak dipole-like bioelectric fields of prey, mates and predators, and several models propose a use for the detection of streaming ocean currents and swimming-induced fields for geomagnetic orientation. We assessed pore distributions, canal vectors, complementarity and possible evolutionary divergent functions for ampullary clusters in two sharks, the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) and the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), and the brown stingray (Dasyatis lata). Canal projections were determined from measured coordinates of each electrosensory pore and corresponding ampulla relative to the body axis. These species share three ampullary groups: the buccal (BUC), mandibular (MAN) and superficial ophthalmic (SO), which is subdivided into anterior (SOa) and posterior (SOp) in sharks. The stingray also has a hyoid (HYO) cluster. The SOp in both sharks contains the longest (most sensitive) canals with main projections in the posterior-lateral quadrants of the horizontal plane. In contrast, stingray SO canals are few and short with the posterior-lateral projections subsumed by the HYO. There was strong projection coincidence by BUC and SOp canals in the posterior lateral quadrant of the hammerhead shark, and laterally among the stingray BUC and HYO. The shark SOa and stingray SO and BUC contain short canals located anterior to the mouth for detection of prey at close distance. The MAN canals of all species project in anterior or posterior directions behind the mouth and likely coordinate prey capture. Vertical elevation was greatest in the BUC of the sandbar shark, restricted by the hammerhead cephalofoil and extremely limited in the dorsoventrally flattened stingray. These results are consistent with the functional subunit hypothesis that predicts specialized ampullary functions for processing of weak dipole and geomagnetic induced fields, and provides an anatomical basis for future experiments on central

  14. Electrosensitive spatial vectors in elasmobranch fishes: implications for source localization.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vicente, Ariel C; Sewell, Josiah; Tricas, Timothy C

    2011-01-13

    The electrosense of sharks and rays is used to detect weak dipole-like bioelectric fields of prey, mates and predators, and several models propose a use for the detection of streaming ocean currents and swimming-induced fields for geomagnetic orientation. We assessed pore distributions, canal vectors, complementarity and possible evolutionary divergent functions for ampullary clusters in two sharks, the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) and the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), and the brown stingray (Dasyatis lata). Canal projections were determined from measured coordinates of each electrosensory pore and corresponding ampulla relative to the body axis. These species share three ampullary groups: the buccal (BUC), mandibular (MAN) and superficial ophthalmic (SO), which is subdivided into anterior (SOa) and posterior (SOp) in sharks. The stingray also has a hyoid (HYO) cluster. The SOp in both sharks contains the longest (most sensitive) canals with main projections in the posterior-lateral quadrants of the horizontal plane. In contrast, stingray SO canals are few and short with the posterior-lateral projections subsumed by the HYO. There was strong projection coincidence by BUC and SOp canals in the posterior lateral quadrant of the hammerhead shark, and laterally among the stingray BUC and HYO. The shark SOa and stingray SO and BUC contain short canals located anterior to the mouth for detection of prey at close distance. The MAN canals of all species project in anterior or posterior directions behind the mouth and likely coordinate prey capture. Vertical elevation was greatest in the BUC of the sandbar shark, restricted by the hammerhead cephalofoil and extremely limited in the dorsoventrally flattened stingray. These results are consistent with the functional subunit hypothesis that predicts specialized ampullary functions for processing of weak dipole and geomagnetic induced fields, and provides an anatomical basis for future experiments on central

  15. Reptile trade and the risk of exotic tick introductions into southern South American countries.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, D; Beldoménico, P M; Venzal, J M; Fabry, M; Keirans, J E; Guglielmone, A A

    2005-01-01

    Ticks exotic for the Neotropical region were found on Python regius imported into Argentina and Chile. All ticks (7 males and 3 females) were classified as Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844 ( = Aponomma latum). Additionally, four lots comprising 18 males of the Argentinean tortoise tick, Amblyomma argentinae Neumann, 1904, were found on a terrestrial tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis, and on three terrestrial tortoises (probably C. chilensis) imported to Uruguay presumably from Argentina). These findings alert us to the risk of expanding the distribution of reptile parasites and their diseases into regions previously free of these parasites.

  16. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  17. Biology and Identification of Rays in the Chesapeake Bay. Sea Grant Program. Educational Series Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joseph W.; Merriner, J. V.

    This booklet provides a brief discussion of the anatomy and biology of rays in the Chesapeake Bay and a key to their identification. Descriptions of seven types of rays are also provided (with accompanying illustrations). These include electric rays, stingrays, butterfly rays, eagle rays, cownose rays, and manta rays. (JN)

  18. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  19. Hazardous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  20. Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California: Fish Remains. Supplement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    diamond stingray X Myliobatis californica bat ray x X X X Cluvea harengus Pacific herring X Sardinov s agax Pacific sardine X X X Opshnm p thread herring X...bonefish 5 0.06 Sebastes elongatus green striped rockfish 4 0.05 * Clupea harenaus Pacific herring 3 0.04 *AmDhisticus araenteus barred surfpe:ch 3

  1. A new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1849 (Eucestoda:Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) in Dasyatis longus Garman (Chondrichthyes:Myliobatiformes:Dasyatididae) from Chamela Bay, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monks, S; Brooks, D R; de León, G P

    1996-06-01

    A new species of Acanthobothrium in Dasyatis longus from Chamela Bay, Jalisco, Mexico, is a member of a presumed clade of species diagnosed by being anapolytic or nearly so, having more than 100 testes per proglottis, with immature and mature proglottides wider than long to square, aspinose scolex, muscular bothridia fused to the scolex at their posterior ends, H- to V -shaped ovaries, relatively short symmetrical to asymmetrical ovarian arms that extend anteriorly to, or nearly to, the cirrus sac, and vitellaria arranged in fields rather than a single row of follicles. The new species most closely resembles Acanthobothrium terezae from the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro in the following characters: bothridial hooks longer than 200 microns with inner hooks having bent asymmetrical prongs, an average of 130-140 testes per proglottis, and shallow genital atria located posterior to midline of proglottis. The new species differs from A. terezae by having outer hooks approximately the same size and shape as the inner hooks, inner hooks averaging 230 microns rather than 313 microns in total length, and cirrus sacs averaging 255 microns rather than 450 microns in length. The new species is unique among all described species of Acanthobothrium by having a cleft in the posterior margin of each apical bothridial pad. The apparent close relationship of the new species to one inhabiting a Neotropical freshwater stingray provides support for the hypothesized Pacific marine ancestry of Neotropical freshwater stingrays and raises the possibility that the Neotropical freshwater stingrays may not be monophyletic.

  2. Biology and Identification of Rays in the Chesapeake Bay. Sea Grant Program. Educational Series Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joseph W.; Merriner, J. V.

    This booklet provides a brief discussion of the anatomy and biology of rays in the Chesapeake Bay and a key to their identification. Descriptions of seven types of rays are also provided (with accompanying illustrations). These include electric rays, stingrays, butterfly rays, eagle rays, cownose rays, and manta rays. (JN)

  3. Gondwanamyia, a new empidoid (Diptera) genus of uncertain placement

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Bradley J.; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Brooks, Scott E.; Plant, Adrian R.; Saigusa, Toyohei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new minute-size empidoid fly genus, Gondwanamyia gen. n. and two new species (Gondwanamyia chilensis Cumming & Saigusa, sp. n., Gondwanamyia zealandica Sinclair & Brooks, sp. n.) are described, illustrated, and their distributions mapped. The family and subfamily assignments remain uncertain, but features of the female terminalia potentially suggest Trichopezinae (Brachystomatidae). PMID:27833421

  4. Desert Southwest Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs and Strategic Planting

    Treesearch

    Greg McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; S.E. Maco; Q. Xiao; E. Mulrean

    2004-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for typical large-, medium-, small-stature, deciduous trees (Fraxinus uhdei, Prosopis chilensis, Acacia farnesiana), as well as a conifer (Pinus halapensis). The analysis assumed that trees were planted in a residential yard site or a public (street/park) site, a 40-year time frame, and...

  5. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  6. Taxonomical and Ecological Studies on the Lung Fluke, ’Paragonimus’ in the Pacific Area, with Special Reference to South-East Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    from Aguaytia, an undescribed metacercaria of Paragonimus was found from one of 13 crabs, Pseudothelphusa chilensis collected in the university campus...be infected with Paragonimus metacercariae, which were separated into two species by their characteristics. The first species was identified as P.peruvianus, and the second one was presumed to belong to P.mexicanus. (Author)

  7. The Decline of Austrocedrus Forests in Patagonia (Mal del Ciprés): Another Phytophthora-Caused Forest Disease

    Treesearch

    Alina Greslebin; Everett Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Austrocedrus chilensis, an indigenous Cupressaceae of the Patagonian Andes forests, is suffering a disease that has been called "Mal del Ciprés" (MDC). This disease was first reported more than 50 years ago but, in spite of many studies, its causes remained unclear until recently. The disease begins in the root system, the distribution...

  8. Phytophthora austrocedrae.

    Treesearch

    A. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen; L. La Manna

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora austrocedrae Gresl. & E.M. Hansen (2007) was isolated from necrotic lesions of stem and roots of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae). It is homothallic with semi-papillate sporangia, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia, and very slow growth. It is the cause of "mal del...

  9. Some hepatic neoplasms in non-domesticated birds.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P F; Majeed, S K; Brancker, W M; Jones, D M

    1978-10-01

    A metastasising hepatocellular carcinoma in a Lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor), a metastasising bile duct carcinoma in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) and a liver cell adenoma in a Luzon hornbill (Buceros hydrocerox hydrocerox) are described. Hepatic neoplasia in birds is discussed.

  10. Bioaccumulation of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and rays from the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas H; Lepoint, Gilles; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Organohalogenated compounds are widespread in the marine environment and can be a serious threat to organisms in all levels of aquatic food webs, including elasmobranch species. Information about the concentrations of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) and of MeO-PBDEs (methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in elasmobranchs is scarce and potential toxic effects are poorly understood. The aims of the present study were therefore to investigate the occurrence of multiple POP classes (PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCB, CHLs) and of MeO-PBDEs in various elasmobranch species from different trophic levels in estuarine and marine waters of the southeastern United States. Overall, levels and patterns of PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCB, CHLs and of MeO-PBDEs varied according to the species, maturity stage, gender and habitat type. The lowest levels of POPs were found in Atlantic stingrays and the highest levels were found in bull sharks. As both species are respectively near the bottom and at top of the trophic web, with juvenile bull sharks frequently feeding on Atlantic stingrays, these findings further suggest a bioaccumulation and biomagnification process with trophic position. MeO-PBDEs were not detected in Atlantic stingrays, but were found in all shark species. HCB was not found in Atlantic stingrays, bonnetheads or lemon sharks, but was detected in the majority of bull sharks examined. Comparison with previous studies suggests that Atlantic stingrays may be experiencing toxic effects of PCBs and DDXs on their immune system. However, the effect of these compounds on the health of shark species remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trophic transfer and accumulation of mercury in ray species in coastal waters affected by historic mercury mining (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Horvat, Milena; Degenek, Nina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-03-01

    Total mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were analysed in the gills, liver and muscle of four cartilaginous fish species (top predators), namely, the eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), the bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus), the pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), collected in the Gulf of Trieste, one of the most Hg-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and worldwide due to past mining activity in Idrija (West Slovenia). The highest Hg and MMHg concentrations expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis were found in the muscle of the pelagic stingray (mean, 2.529 mg/kg; range, 1.179-4.398 mg/kg, d.w.), followed by the bull ray (mean, 1.582 mg/kg; range, 0.129-3.050 mg/kg d.w.) and the eagle ray (mean, 0.222 mg/kg; range, 0.070-0.467 mg/kg, d.w.). Only one specimen of the common stingray was analysed, with a mean value in the muscle of 1.596 mg/kg, d.w. Hg and MMHg contents in the bull ray were found to be positively correlated with species length and weight. The highest MMHg accumulation was found in muscle tissue. Hg and MMHg were also found in two embryos of a bull ray, indicating Hg transfer from the mother during pregnancy. The number of specimens and the size coverage of the bull rays allowed an assessment of Hg accumulation with age. It was shown that in bigger bull ray specimens, the high uptake of inorganic Hg in the liver and the slower MMHg increase in the muscle were most probably due to the demethylation of MMHg in the liver. The highest Hg and MMHg contents in all organs were found in the pelagic stingray, which first appeared in the northern Adriatic in 1999. High Hg and MMHg concentrations were also found in prey species such as the banded murex (Hexaplex trunculus), the principal prey of the eagle rays and bull rays, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) and the red bandfish (Cepola rubescens), which are preyed upon by the pelagic stingray, as well as in zooplankton and seawater. Based on previously published

  12. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  13. Comparison between the polypeptide profile of halophilic bacteria and salt tolerant plants.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; González, C; Flores, P; Prado, B; Campos, V

    1997-12-01

    Changes in the polypeptide profile induced by salt stress in halotolerant and halophilic bacteria, isolated from the Atacama desert (northern Chile), were compared with those in the cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis (Leguminoseae) seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. SDS-PAGE analyses show the presence of four predominant polypeptides, with molecular weights around 78, 70, 60 and 44 kDa respectively, both in bacteria and in cotyledons from P. chilensis seedlings raised under salt stress conditions. Moreover, the 60 and 44 kDa polypeptides seem to be salt responsive, since their concentration increases with increasing NaCl in the growth medium. Our results suggest a common mechanism for salt tolerance in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes.

  14. Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmijn, Ad. J.

    1982-11-01

    Sharks, skates, and rays receive electrical information about the positions of their prey, the drift of ocean currents, and their magnetic compass headings. At sea, dogfish and blue sharks were observed to execute apparent feeding responses to dipole electric fields designed to mimic prey. In training experiments, stingrays showed the ability to orient relative to uniform electric fields similar to those produced by ocean currents. Voltage gradients of only 5 nanovolts per centimeter would elicit either behavior.

  15. A Review of One Dimensional Shaped Charge Theory. Part 1. Jet Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    o A REVIEW OF ONE DIMENSIONAL SHAPED CHARGE THEORY PART 1 - JET FORMATION 1o INTRODUCTION -,. ". The shaped charge warhead , based on the Munroe...these weapons has recently been given by Backofen (1]. Shaped charge warheads are currently in use by the Australian Army in the 66 mm M72L A2 (IAW) and...charge warheads for defeat of submarine pressure hulls, as in the Stingray torpedo used by the Royal Navy. MRL has been engaged on various investigations

  16. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Behavioral responses of batoid elasmobranchs to prey-simulating electric fields are correlated to peripheral sensory morphology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Christine N; Harris, Lindsay L; Kajiura, Stephen M

    2014-04-01

    Electrosensory pore number, distribution, and sensitivity to prey-simulating electric fields have been described for many shark species. Electrosensory systems in batoids have received much less attention. Pore number and distribution have yet to be correlated to differences in sensitivity. However, pore number, pore distribution and sensitivity have been linked to behavior, diet, and morphology and follow species-specific trends. We report here that cownose rays have a greater number of pores than the yellow stingray, most of which are concentrated on the anterior ventral surface for both species. However, yellow stingrays have a broader arrangement of pores on both their dorsal and ventral surfaces than the cownose rays. Yellow stingrays demonstrated a median behavioral sensitivity to weak electric fields of 22nVcm(-1) and are among the most highly sensitive batoids studied to date. Cownose rays are less sensitive than all other elasmobranch species with a median sensitivity of 107nVcm(-1). As reported in previous studies, a higher pore number did not result in greater sensitivity. Cownose rays are benthopelagic schooling rays and may benefit from reduced sensitivity to bioelectric fields when they are surrounded by the bioelectric fields of conspecifics. Yellow stingrays, on the other hand, are typically solitary and bury in the substrate. A greater number of pores on their dorsal surface might improve detection of predators above them. Also, increased sensitivity and a broader distribution of pores may be beneficial as small prey items move past a buried ray. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Marine envenomations. Part 2--Other marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Nimorakiotakis, B; Winkel, K D

    2003-12-01

    Australian waters contain a variety of venomous creatures, including jellyfish, stinging fish, blue-ringed octopus, sea snakes, cone snails and stingrays. Part 2 of this article focusses on common marine envenomations other than jellyfish stings. Even though mortality from these envenomations is low, there is a high level of morbidity especially with stonefish and other stinging fish envenomations. Some envenomations, however, are serious enough to require antivenom treatment and deaths still occasionally occur.

  19. Birth and early evolution of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    2000-06-01

    Birth and early evolution of planetary nebulae is described. The study of the young planetary nebula Hen 1357 (Stingray Nebula) with HST is discussed. The observed characteristics of few interesting PPNe and PNe are described. The presence of multiple arcs or rings, knots, jets, collimated and bipolar out flows and disks shows the complex nature of mass loss process during the AGB and post-AGB phases of evolution.

  20. Description of a New Temnocephala Species (Platyhelminthes) from the Southern Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    de León, Rodrigo Ponce; Vera, Bárbara Berón; Volonterio, Odile

    2015-08-01

    The genus Temnocephala is endemic to the Neotropical region. Temnocephala mexicana and Temnocephala chilensis are the only 2 temnocephalans whose known distribution ranges extend to the south beyond Parallel 40°S. No Temnocephala species has ever been recorded from the extensive area between Parallel 43°S and the southern end of the South American continent, which makes the study of the southern limit of the distribution of the genus a topic of great interest. The southernmost report corresponds to T. chilensis from the Telsen River, Chubut Province, Argentina. In March 2000, several temnocephalans were found on the freshwater anomuran crustacean Aegla neuquensis from the same locality; the specimens were identified as belonging to a new species, which is described here. This species is characterized by possessing an unusually thin-walled, narrow zone that has the appearance of a deep groove connecting the introvert to the shaft of the penial stylet; an introvert with 36 longitudinal rows of spines, each bearing 6-8 spines that are progressively smaller towards the distal end; a distal end of the introvert with a very thin, sclerotized wall without spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a pair of paranephrocytes at the level of the pharynx and a second pair at the level of the anterior portion of the anterior testes, and eggs with very long stalks. On the basis of their overall morphology, host preference, and geographical distribution, T. chilensis and the new species are closely related, so a diagnostic key for the southern species of Temnocephala is also included. The type locality of the new species is in the southern limit of the known distribution area of T. chilensis, so after this work there are 2 known species marking the southern limit of the distribution of the genus.

  1. Taxonomic and Ecological Studies on the Lung Fluke, ’Paragonimus’ in Central and South America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In Tingo Maria, Peru, 25 crabs, Pseudothelphusa chilensis were examined for Paragonimus metacercariae with negative results. Five lung flukes were...minimus. These flukes belonged to the same species characterized by their extremely elongated body, and were named Paragonimus amazonicus sp. n. by...harbored 44 Paragonimus metacercariae in all. These larvae were divided into two species, five of them being identified as Paragonimus peruvianus and

  2. Argentinean species of Chalarus Walker (Diptera: Pipunculidae): new records and description of Chalarus tani n. sp.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, H C; Rafael, J A; Virla, E G

    2012-04-01

    The Argentinean species of Chalarus Walker were studied. Pipunculidae adults belonging to four species, C halarus chilensis Collin, Chalarus triramosus Rafael, Chalarus absonus Rafael and Chalarus tani n. sp. were described based on two male specimens collected in the La Rioja and Tucuman Provinces, northwestern region of Argentina. Chalarus absonus is recorded for the first time in Argentina. New distributional data and an identification key to the adult males of the Argentinean representatives are provided including figures.

  3. [Fleas from the Neuguén Province (Argentina); description of 4 new taxa (Insecta, Siphonaptera)].

    PubMed

    Beaucournu, J C; Alcover, J A

    1989-01-01

    The collect of 973 Fleas on various small terrestrial mammals, from December 1987 till May 1988, in the Neuquén Province (Argentina), has given 20 taxa. Hectopsylla pascuali n. sp., Plocopsylla consobrina n. sp., Agastopsylla boxi gibbosa n. ssp., Chiliopsylla allophyla tonnii n. ssp. are described. Plocopsylla diana Beaucournu, Gallardo and Launay, 1986, Ctenoparia inopinata Rothschild, 1909, Neotyphloceras crassispina chilensis Jordan, 1936, Tetrapsyllus satyrus Beaucournu and Torrés-Mura, 1986, Ectinorus martini Lewis, 1976, are new from Argentina.

  4. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  5. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Mesas, Andres; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  6. Understanding morphological variability in a taxonomic context in Chilean diplomystids (Teleostei: Siluriformes), including the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River) to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus) and is diagnosed. An identification key to the Chilean species, including the new species, is presented. All specific diagnoses are based on external morphological characters, such as aspects of the skin, neuromast lines, and main lateral line, and position of the anus and urogenital pore, as well as certain osteological characters to facilitate the identification of these species that previously was based on many internal characters. Diplomystids below 150 mm standard length (SL) share a similar external morphology and body proportions that make identification difficult; however, specimens over 150 mm SL can be diagnosed by the position of the urogenital pore and anus, and a combination of external and internal morphological characters. According to current knowledge, diplomystid species have an allopatric distribution with each species apparently endemic to particular basins in continental Chile and one species (O. viedmensis) known only from one river in the Chilean Patagonia, but distributed extensively in southern Argentina. PMID:28224053

  7. Detection of recent hybridization between sympatric Chilean Puya species (Bromeliaceae) using AFLP markers and reconstruction of complex relationships.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Katharina; Silvestro, Daniele; Kiehlmann, Elke; Vesely, Sanja; Novoa, Patricio; Zizka, Georg

    2010-12-01

    The Chilean Puya species constitute a monophyletic group, co-occurring in different species combinations within the country and displaying a remarkable morphological variability. Here, we studied the importance of recent hybridization and introgression in the group and reconstructed the complex inter- and intraspecific relationships. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, including 109 accessions of all Chilean Puya species and four putative hybrids, yielded 984 characters. Three main genetic groups were revealed, with the chilensis group (P. chilensis, P. gilmartiniae, P. boliviensis) diverging first, and the alpestris (P. alpestris, P. berteroniana) and coerulea group (P. venusta, P. coerulea) forming sister groups. STRUCTURE analyses confirmed a hybrid origin of morphologically intermediate individuals, and detected several additional hybrids. Hybrids were found between the chilensis and alpestris group, and between the alpestris and coerulea group. Exclusion of hybrids improved phylogenetic reconstructions. The study demonstrates that the detection of hybrids within Bromeliaceae can be difficult based on morphological characters alone and that efficient reproductive barriers may only slowly establish, leading to hybridization between closely related sympatric species. The importance of hybridization for the rapid diversification of Puya is discussed.

  8. Hybridization and introgression in Carpobrotus spp. (Aizoaceae) in California. II. Allozyme evidence.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, K; Schierenbeck, K; D'Antonio, C

    1997-07-01

    Morphological evidence has indicated that hybridization and introgression are occurring between Carpobrotus edulis L., a nonindigenous, invasive species in California (Bolus), and its putative native congener, C. chilensis. The identification of allozyme markers has enabled us to quantify hybridization and the extent of introgression between these species. Samples from 20 individuals of each of five morphological types (both parent species and three hybrid phenotypes) were collected from 39 populations along the coast of California from the Mexico to Oregon borders. Ten enzyme systems revealed a total of 17 resolvable loci, eight of which were polymorphic for the genus. Five of the polymorphic loci easily differentiate C. edulis and C. chilensis. Allele frequencies among the morphologically defined types are consistent with estimations of allele frequency changes due to first- and second-generation backcrossing. In comparison to long-lived, herbaceous perennials and widespread species, C. edulis and intermediate types have more variation in their populations (P = 41.73, Ap = 2.11, Ho = 0.246, and P = 38.13, Ap = 2.06, Ho = 0.216, respectively) than C. chilensis (P = 11.76, Ap = 2.00, Ho = 0.082). Indirect estimates of gene flow indicate four of the five morphological types are outcrossing. Gene flow between previously allopatric species may have broad implications if it results in an increase in fitness; further experimentation is needed to determine the ultimate ecological consequences of this phenomenon and its possible threat to limited, remaining natural habitat in California.

  9. Automated Sound Recognition Provides Insights into the Behavioral Ecology of a Tropical Bird.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Olaf; Ganchev, Todor D; Marques, Marinez I; Schuchmann, Karl-L

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted species recognition facilitates the analysis of relevant biological information in continuous audio recordings. In the present study, we assess the suitability of this approach for determining distinct life-cycle phases of the Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis lampronotus based on adult vocal activity. For this purpose we use passive 14-min and 30-min soundscape recordings (n = 33 201) collected in 24/7 mode between November 2012 and October 2013 in Brazil's Pantanal wetlands. Time-stamped detections of V. chilensis call events (n = 62 292) were obtained with a species-specific sound recognizer. We demonstrate that the breeding season fell in a three-month period from mid-May to early August 2013, between the end of the flood cycle and the height of the dry season. Several phases of the lapwing's life history were identified with presumed error margins of a few days: pre-breeding, territory establishment and egg-laying, incubation, hatching, parental defense of chicks, and post-breeding. Diurnal time budgets confirm high acoustic activity levels during midday hours in June and July, indicative of adults defending young. By August, activity patterns had reverted to nonbreeding mode, with peaks around dawn and dusk and low call frequency during midday heat. We assess the current technological limitations of the V. chilensis recognizer through a comprehensive performance assessment and scrutinize the usefulness of automated acoustic recognizers in studies on the distribution pattern, ecology, life history, and conservation status of sound-producing animal species.

  10. Morphological and genetic analyses of the invasive forest pathogen Phytophthora austrocedri reveal two clonal lineages colonised Britain and Argentina from a common ancestral population.

    PubMed

    Henricot, Béatrice; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Armstrong, April; Sharp, Paul; Green, Sarah

    2017-07-25

    Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina and Germany are homothallic with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance although most isolates regardless of origin grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C. Argentinian and British isolates caused lesions on both hosts when inoculated onto A. chilensis and J. communis; however the Argentinian isolate caused longer lesions on A. chilensis than on J. communis and vice versa for the British isolate. Genetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial loci showed that all British isolates are identical. Argentinian isolates and the German isolate are also identical but differ from the British isolates. Single nucleotide polymorphisms are shared between the British and Argentinian isolates. It is concluded that British isolates and Argentinian isolates conform to two distinct clonal lineages of P. austrocedri founded from the same as-yet unidentified source population. These lineages should be recognised and treated as separate risks by international plant health legislation.

  11. Acanthobothrium nicoyaense n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) in Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen) (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; McCorquodale, S

    1995-04-01

    A new species of Acanthobothrium in Aetobatus narinari from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, most closely resembles Acanthobothrium colombianum in the same host and A. urotrygoni in Urotrygon venezuelae from Cartagena, Colombia, by having relatively few proglottides per strobila, spinose cephalic peduncles, bothridial margins free at their posterior ends, and irregularly shaped rather than spherical or elongate cirrus sacs. Acanthobothrium colombianum differs from the new species by being as much as 35 mm rather than no more than 4.7 mm long and by having 31-48 rather than 13-19 proglottides, an average of 46 rather than 15 testes per proglottis, and bothridial hooks averaging 185 microns rather than 137 microns in total length. Acanthobothrium urotrygoni differs from the new species by being as much as 15 mm rather than no more than 4.7 mm long and by having V-shaped rather than H-shaped ovaries, bothridial hooks averaging 95 microns rather than 137 microns in total length, by having an average of 28 rather than 15 testes per proglottis, and by having poral ovarian arms extending anteriorly to the posterior margin of the cirrus sac and aporal arms extending to the lateral margin of the cirrus sac.

  12. Prey handling using whole-body fluid dynamics in batoids.

    PubMed

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Maia, Anabela; Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Lauder, George V

    2012-02-01

    Fluid flow generated by body movements is a foraging tactic that has been exploited by many benthic species. In this study, the kinematics and hydrodynamics of prey handling behavior in little skates, Leucoraja erinacea, and round stingrays, Urobatis halleri, are compared using kinematics and particle image velocimetry. Both species use the body to form a tent to constrain the prey with the pectoral fin edges pressed against the substrate. Stingrays then elevate the head, which increases the volume between the body and the substrate to generate suction, while maintaining pectoral fin contact with the substrate. Meanwhile, the tip of the rostrum is curled upwards to create an opening where fluid is drawn under the body, functionally analogous to suction-feeding fishes. Skates also rotate the rostrum upwards although with the open rostral sides and the smaller fin area weaker fluid flow is generated. However, skates also use a rostral strike behavior in which the rostrum is rapidly rotated downwards pushing fluid towards the substrate to potentially stun or uncover prey. Thus, both species use the anterior portion of the body to direct fluid flow to handle prey albeit in different ways, which may be explained by differences in morphology. Rostral stiffness and pectoral fin insertion onto the rostrum differ between skates and rays and this corresponds to behavioral differences in prey handling resulting in distinct fluid flow patterns. The flexible muscular rostrum and greater fin area of stingrays allow more extensive use of suction to handle prey while the stiff cartilaginous rostrum of skates lacking extensive fin insertion is used as a paddle to strike prey as well as to clear away sand cover. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A new species of Potamotrygonocestus Brooks & Thorson, 1976 (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson (Mylliobatoidea: Potamotrygonidae) and a redescription of Potamotrygonocestus chaoi Marques, Brooks & Araujo, 2003.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, N M; Marques, F P L; Charvet-Almeida, P

    2008-06-01

    Potamotrygonocestus Brooks & Thorson, 1976 is currently represented by six recognised species of tetraphyllidean cestodes inhabiting Neotropical freshwater stingrays. Potamotrygonid stingrays examined to date have included only a single specimen of Plesiotrygon iwamae. Only one species of tetraphyllidean, Potamotrygonocestus chaoi Marques, Brooks & Araujo, 2003, has been described from this host, and this description was based on limited material. New efforts to document the diversity in this host species resulted in the collection of eight additional specimens of P. iwamae, one of these from the upper Rio Solimões, at São Paulo de Olivença Amazonas during September, 2003, and seven from the Baía do Marajó, Pará, during November, 2003. The specimen from the upper Solimões was found to be infected with P. chaoi. Voucher material from this stingray was used for the redescription of this cestode, which is characterized by strobila 8.78-22.83 mm long and a great number of proglottides, 58-93; the new material provided strobilar length and proglottis counts for complete worms. Potamotrygonocestus marajoara n. sp. is the second species of this genus reported from Plesiotrygon iwamae, although it appears to be restricted to the lower Amazon. This new species resembles P. chaoi in possessing filitriches and blade-like spinitriches on the scolex, cephalic peduncle and cirrus, but differs from other species of the genus in the number of testes, which is 44 on average per proglottis, and by having apical sucker measuring 95-175 microm in length. Additional data on the distribution and morphology of the microtriches and a detailed description of the female reproductive system are also provided in this study.

  14. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  15. Automated Sound Recognition Provides Insights into the Behavioral Ecology of a Tropical Bird

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Olaf; Ganchev, Todor D.; Marques, Marinez I.; Schuchmann, Karl-L.

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted species recognition facilitates the analysis of relevant biological information in continuous audio recordings. In the present study, we assess the suitability of this approach for determining distinct life-cycle phases of the Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis lampronotus based on adult vocal activity. For this purpose we use passive 14-min and 30-min soundscape recordings (n = 33 201) collected in 24/7 mode between November 2012 and October 2013 in Brazil’s Pantanal wetlands. Time-stamped detections of V. chilensis call events (n = 62 292) were obtained with a species-specific sound recognizer. We demonstrate that the breeding season fell in a three-month period from mid-May to early August 2013, between the end of the flood cycle and the height of the dry season. Several phases of the lapwing’s life history were identified with presumed error margins of a few days: pre-breeding, territory establishment and egg-laying, incubation, hatching, parental defense of chicks, and post-breeding. Diurnal time budgets confirm high acoustic activity levels during midday hours in June and July, indicative of adults defending young. By August, activity patterns had reverted to nonbreeding mode, with peaks around dawn and dusk and low call frequency during midday heat. We assess the current technological limitations of the V. chilensis recognizer through a comprehensive performance assessment and scrutinize the usefulness of automated acoustic recognizers in studies on the distribution pattern, ecology, life history, and conservation status of sound-producing animal species. PMID:28085893

  16. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  17. Observations of marine wildlife tourism effects on a non-focal species.

    PubMed

    Rizzari, J R; Semmens, J M; Fox, A; Huveneers, C

    2017-09-01

    A radio-acoustic positioning system was used to assess the effects of shark cage-diving operators (SCDO) on the fine-scale movements of a non-focal species, the smooth stingray Bathytoshia brevicaudata. The results revealed that the time spent in the array was individually variable, but generally increased when SCDO were present and that the presence of SCDO may have the capacity to elicit changes in the space use of B. brevicaudata. These results indicate that the effects of marine wildlife tourism may extend beyond the focal species of interest. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Stonefish envenomation of hand with impending compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tay, Terence Khai Wei; Chan, Han Zhe; Ahmad, Tunku Sara Tunku; Teh, Kok Kheng; Low, Tze Hau; Wahab, Nuraliza Ab

    2016-01-01

    Marine stings and envenomation are fairly common in Malaysia. Possible contact to various marine life occurs during diving, fishing and food handling. Even though majority of fish stings are benign, there are several venomous species such as puffer fish, scorpion fish, lionfish, stingray and stonefish that require urgent medical treatment. Stonefish is one of the most venomous fish in the world with potential fatal local and systemic toxicity effects to human. We reported a case of stonefish sting complicated with impending compartment syndrome. Medical staff should be alert about the possibility of this potential emergency in standard management of stonefish stings.

  19. Marine Envenomation.

    PubMed

    Hornbeak, Kirsten B; Auerbach, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes. Immediate and long-term treatment options and management of common sequelae are reviewed. Antivenom administration, treatment of anaphylaxis, and surgical indications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Records of new and rare elasmobranchs from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hua Hsun; Joung, Shoou Jeng; Ebert, David A; Lin, Chia Yen

    2013-01-01

    Five new records of elasmobranchs collected from eastern Taiwan fish markets, Da-xi and Cheng-gong, are presented. Samples were caught by deepsea longliners and bottom trawlers which operate in northeastern waters off Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. These five new species records include the smalltooth sandtiger, Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), salamander shark, Parmaturus pilosus Garman, 1906 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae), leadhued skate Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae), giant skate Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), and the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), Diagnostic characteristics for each species are given and a key to the genera Parmaturus and Dipturus from Taiwan is presented.

  1. Clinical performance of a prototype flat-panel digital detector for general radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Scalzetti, Ernest M.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Geiger, Robert

    2001-08-01

    Digital radiographs obtained using a prototype Digital Radiography System (Stingray) were compared with those obtained using conventional screen-film. Forty adult volunteers each had two identical radiographs taken at the same level of radiation exposure, one using screen-film and the other the digital detector. Each digital image was processed by hand to ensure that the printed quality was optimal. Ten radiologists compared the diagnostic image quality of the digital images with the corresponding film radiographs using a seven point ranking scheme.

  2. In vitro polymerization of mussel polyphenolic proteins catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Burzio, L A; Burzio, V A; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro enzymatic polymerization of the polyphenolic protein purified from the mussels Aulacomya ater, Mytilus edulis chilensis and Choromytilus chorus was studied. Mushroom tyrosinase was used to oxidize the dopa residues present in these proteins, and polymerization was monitored by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein from A. ater polymerized at a faster rate than the other two. Amino acid analysis of the crosslinked protein showed a notable decrease in the content of dopa, but no significant change of other amino acids. This suggests that crosslink formation may be limited to the oxidized dopa derivatives of the protein molecules.

  3. Purification of adhesive proteins from mussels.

    PubMed

    Pardo, J; Gutierrez, E; Sáez, C; Brito, M; Burzio, L O

    1990-11-01

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from the mussels Mytilus chilensis and Choromytilus chorus have been purified based on their solubility in dilute perchloric acid and on differential precipitation with acetone containing about 0.3 N HCl. The specific activity of the proteins obtained was 0.16 mg of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine per milligram of protein, or higher. The proteins have an apparent molecular weight of about 100,000 and they contain a high proportion of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, lysine, and proline.

  4. The caudinid sea cucumbers of New Zealand (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Molpadida: Caudinidae).

    PubMed

    Davey, Nicola; O'Loughlin, Mark

    2013-02-12

    Five species of Caudinidae occur in New Zealandwaters. Two new species are described: Paracaudina alta sp. nov.; Paracaudina reductia sp. nov. Two species reported previously are discussed: Paracaudina chilensis (Müller) and Paracaudina coriacea (Hutton). A lectotype has been established for P. coriacea (Hutton). Hedingia albicans var. glabra (Théel) is raised out of synonymy with Hedingia albicans (Théel), and the variety elevated to species status as Hedingia glabra (Théel). A key is provided for the New Zealand species of Caudinidae.

  5. Use of thermography and fluorescein angiography in the management of a Chilean flamingo with avascular necrosis of the wing.

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Bowman, Karl F; Wolfe, Barbara A; Nutter, Felicia B; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    A Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) was presented to the veterinary clinic at the North Carolina Zoological Park for evaluation of acute weakness of the right wing. Results of a physical examination revealed a lack of a palpable pulse in the radial artery, which suggested occlusion or obstruction of the vessel. Radiography, thermography, and fluorescein angiography confirmed right wing injury and vascular compromise. Based on the poor prognosis for return to function associated with irreversible vascular damage, the wing was amputated. After a period of observation and treatment, the bird was returned to public exhibit.

  6. A monoclinic form of dendocarbin A: a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, dendocarbin A [systematic name: (1R,5aS,9aS,9bR)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9a-trimethyldodecahydronaphtho[1,2-c]furan-3-one], C15H22O3, is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Drimys winteri var chilensis. The monoclinic phase described herein displays an identical molecular structure to the orthorhombic phase that we reported previously [Paz Robles et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. C70, 1007-1010], while varying significantly in chain pitch, and can thus be considered as a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

  7. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of a polyadenylate synthase from Megavirus

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Jeudy, Sandra; Bertaux, Lionel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is also the most complex virus sequenced to date, with a 1.26 Mb double-stranded DNA genome encoding 1120 genes. The two viruses share common regulatory elements such as a peculiar palindrome governing the termination/polyadenylation of viral transcripts. They also share a predicted polyadenylate synthase that presents a higher than average percentage of residue conservation. The Megavirus enzyme Mg561 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A 2.24 Å resolution MAD data set was recorded from a single crystal on the ID29 beamline at the ESRF. PMID:23295487

  8. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Natalia V.; Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Rakitov, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996) was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence were determined. Additionally, the male internal reproductive system was studied. PMID:25610543

  9. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  10. New species of Dinychus Kramer, 1886 from fragments of the former Gondwanaland (Acari: Uropodina: Dinychidae).

    PubMed

    Kontschán, Jenő; Ripka, Géza

    2016-07-15

    We describe two new species of Dinychus Kramer, 1886 from fragments of the former Gondwanaland supercontinent. Dinychus indica sp. nov. from India belongs to the Dinychus woelkei-group It differs from the previously known Dinychus species on the basis of the sculptural pattern of the sternal and genital shields of female. The female of Dinychus chilensis sp. nov. from Chile has a quadrangular genital shield, which is a unique character state in the genus Dinychus. New keys to the Central and South American Dinychus and to Dinychus woelkei-group are presented.

  11. Three new species of Merizocotyle Cerfontaine, 1894 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the nasal tissues of dasyatid rays collected off Malaysian and Indonesian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Leslie A; Whittington, Ian D

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of Merizocotyle Cerfontaine, 1894 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) are described from the nasal tissues of stingrays collected off Borneo. Merizocotyle macrostrobus n. sp. is described from the dwarf whipray Himantura walga (Müller & Henle) collected in shallow waters off Sematan, Sarawak, Malaysia. This species can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by the morphology of the sclerotised male copulatory organ, which is long with many twists and loops. The vaginae of this species are also long and looped. Merizocotyle papillae n. sp. is described from the roughnose stingray Pastinachus solocirostris Last, Manjaji & Yearsley collected off Sematan and Mukah, Sarawak, Malaysia. It is distinguished from the other species of Merizocotyle by the morphology of the male copulatory organ, which is a sclerotised tube that expands slightly and then tapers at the distal end, and by the presence of papillae on the dorsal edge of the haptor. Merizocotyle rhadinopeos n. sp. is described from the whitenose whip ray Himantura uarnacoides (Bleeker) collected off Manggar, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. It can be differentiated by the male copulatory organ, which is a short, narrow, curved, sclerotised tube tapering distally, and the path of the ovary, which runs anteriorly to the base of the oötype. We also provide details of new host and/or locality records for M. australensis (Beverley-Burton & Williams, 1989) Chisholm, Wheeler & Beverley-Burton, 1995, M. icopae Beverley-Burton & Williams, 1989 and M. pseudodasybatis (Hargis, 1955) Chisholm, Wheeler & Beverley-Burton, 1995.

  12. HUBBLE CAPTURES UNVEILING OF PLANETARY NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image captures the infancy of the Stingray nebula (Hen-1357), the youngest known planetary nebula. In this image, the bright central star is in the middle of the green ring of gas. Its companion star is diagonally above it at 10 o'clock. A spur of gas (green) is forming a faint bridge to the companion star due to gravitational attraction. The image also shows a ring of gas (green) surrounding the central star, with bubbles of gas to the lower left and upper right of the ring. The wind of material propelled by radiation from the hot central star has created enough pressure to blow open holes in the ends of the bubbles, allowing gas to escape. The red curved lines represent bright gas that is heated by a 'shock' caused when the central star's wind hits the walls of the bubbles. The nebula is as large as 130 solar systems, but, at its distance of 18,000 light-years, it appears only as big as a dime viewed a mile away. The Stingray is located in the direction of the southern constellation Ara (the Altar). The colors shown are actual colors emitted by nitrogen (red), oxygen (green), and hydrogen (blue). The filters used were F658N ([N II]), F502N ([O III]), and F487N (H-beta). The observations were made in March 1996. Credit: Matt Bobrowsky, Orbital Sciences Corporation and NASA

  13. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Berling, Ingrid; Isbister, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Marine stings are common but most are minor and do not require medical intervention. Severe and systemic marine envenoming is uncommon, but includes box jellyfish stings, Irukandji syndrome, major stingray trauma and blue-ringed octopus envenoming. Almost all marine injuries are caused by jellyfish stings, and penetrating injuries from spiny fish, stingrays or sea urchins. This article describes the presentation and management of marine envenomations and injuries that may occur in Australia. First aid for jellyfish includes tentacle removal, application of vinegar for box jellyfish, and hot water immersion (45°C for 20 min) for bluebottle jellyfish stings. Basic life support is essential for severe marine envenomings that result in cardiac collapse or paralysis. Irukandji syndrome causes severe generalised pain, autonomic excess and minimal local pain, which may require large amounts of analgesia, and, uncommonly, myocardial depression and pulmonary oedema occur. Penetrating marine injuries can cause significant trauma depending on location of the injury. Large and unclean wounds may have delayed healing and secondary infection if not adequately irrigated, debrided and observed.

  14. Compensation for hypercapnia by a euryhaline elasmobranch: effect of salinity and roles of gills and kidneys in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Choe, Keith Patrick; Evans, David H

    2003-05-01

    Specimens of the euryhaline elasmobranch, Dasyatis sabina were acclimated to seawater and fresh water, and exposed to normocapnic (air) and hypercapnic (1% CO2 in air) environmental water. Blood pH, PCO2, and [HCO3-], as well as whole-animal net-acid excretion, were measured for up to 24 h of hypercapnia. In a separate experimental series, urine was collected from freshwater acclimated stingrays during 8 h of normocapnia and hypercapnia. Stingrays in both salinities at least partially compensated for the respiratory acidosis by accumulating HCO3- in their extracellular spaces. The degree of compensation for blood pH was 88.5% in seawater, but only 31.0% in fresh water after 24 h of hypercapnia. Whole-animal net-acid excretion was also greater in seawater than in fresh water, as was the increase in extracellular fluid [HCO3-]. Mean urinary net-acid excretion rates were slightly negative, and never increased above normocapnic control rates during hypercapnia. Since whole-animal net-acid excretion rates increased with blood [HCO3-], and urinary excretion was always negative, the gills were probably the primary organ responsible for compensation from environmental hypercapnia. The faster, and more complete, compensation for hypercapnia in seawater than in fresh water for this euryhaline elasmobranch is consistent with data for euryhaline teleosts, and probably reflects Na+-dependent mechanisms of branchial acid excretion.

  15. Rhinebothrium devaneyi n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) and Echinocephalus overstreeti Deardorff and Ko, 1983 (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) in a thorny back ray, Urogymnus asperrimus, from Enewetak Atoll, with phylogenetic analysis of both species groups.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; Deardorff, T L

    1988-06-01

    The new species is a member of an apparently monophyletic group within the genus that includes R. flexile, R. walga, R. himanturi, R. burgeri, R. euzeti, R. hawaiiensis, R. urobatidium, R. paratrygoni, R. ditesticulum, R. tetralobatum, R. margaritense, R. biorchidum, and R. spinicephalum. All of these species have bothridia with medial longitudinal septa, a constriction at mid-bothridium, and, primitively, at least 42 loculi per bothridium and 17-22 testes per proglottid. Of the above, the new species is apparently most closely related to R. burgeri, with which it shares an increased number of testes (30-43) per proglottid, a V-shaped ovary, and a muscular genital pore. The new species is distinct by virtue of possessing 94-152 loculi per bothridium--no other known species has more than 78. This is the second report of Echinocephalus overstreeti from a stingray. It represents a new host, U. asperrimus, and a new location, Enewetak Atoll. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of each species group suggests an ancient Tethys Sea-circum-Pacific origin and evolution. This supports the hypothesis of ancient Pacific origins for potamotrygonid stingrays.

  16. Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S

    2004-02-15

    In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention.

  17. Presence of the delta-MSH sequence in a proopiomelanocortin cDNA cloned from the pituitary of the galeoid shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni.

    PubMed

    Dores, Robert M; Cameron, Erin; Lecaude, Stephanie; Danielson, Phillip B

    2003-08-01

    Since a fourth MSH sequence, delta-MSH, has been detected in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene of a dogfish and a stingray, members of superorder Squalea (class Chondrichthyes), it is possible that this novel MSH sequence might be a feature common to the POMC genes of all modern sharks and rays. As an initial step towards addressing this question, a full-length POMC cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the pituitary of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. The Port Jackson shark represents one of the oldest lineages in superorder Galea, and this superorder together with superorder Squalea form infraclass Neoselachii (the extant sharks and rays). The Port Jackson shark POMC cDNA has an open reading frame that is 1032 nucleotides in length and encodes the deduced amino acids sequences for beta-endorphin, ACTH/alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, gamma-MSH, and delta-MSH. Port Jackson shark delta-MSH has 83% primary sequence identity with dogfish and stingray delta-MSH, and it appears that the delta-MSH sequence may have been the result of an internal domain duplication and reinsertion of the beta-MSH sequence. The presence of the delta-MSH sequence in the POMC genes of representatives of both superorders of infraclass Neoselachii would indicate that the delta-MSH sequence must have been present in the ancestral euselachian shark that gave rise to the neoselachian radiation.

  18. Echinocephalus janzeni n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) in Himantura pacifica (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Mexico, with historical biogeographic analysis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Brooks, D R; Molina-Ureña, H; Erbe, E

    1998-06-01

    Echinocephalus janzeni n. sp. in the stingray, Himantura pacifica, is described from the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coasts of Costa Rica and southern Mexico. On the basis of the presence of 6 postanal caudal papillae, and modified annules anterior to the caudal alae in males, E. janzeni is most similar to Echinocephalus daileyi and Echinocephalus diazi. Specimens of E. janzeni are distinguished from those of E. daileyi by bilobed caudal alae and long cervical sacs that extend up to 65% of the length of the esophagus; E. janzeni is differentiated from E. diazi by the number of rows of cephalic spines (30-38 vs. 26-27), arrangement of the postanal caudal papillae, 3 rather than 2 preanal papillae, relative position and distance between the anus and vulva (395-460 microm vs. 70 microm), the digitiform female tail with a terminal cuticular fold, and the length of the female tail (450-480 microm vs. 270 microm). Cladistic analysis of the 10 Echinocephalus spp. resulted in a single most parsimonious tree (consistency index=0.893) and placed E. janzeni in a highly derived subclade where E. daileyi is the sister species of E. diazi + E. janzeni. Historical biogeographic analysis of hosts and parasites provides support for origins in the Pacific rather than the Atlantic for the potamotrygonid stingrays.

  19. Driver assist behaviors for high-speed small UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Currently deployed small UGVs operate at speeds up to around 6 mph and have proven their usefulness in explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) missions. As part of the TARDEC-funded Stingray Project, iRobot is investigating techniques to increase the speed of small UGVs so they can be useful in a wider range of missions, such as high-speed reconnaissance and infantry assault missions. We have developed a prototype Stingray PackBot, using wheels rather than tracks, that is capable of traveling at speeds up to 18 mph. A key issue when traveling at such speeds is how to maintain stability during sharp turns and over rough terrain. We are developing driver assist behaviors that will provide dynamic stability control for high-speed small UGVs using techniques such as dynamic weight shifting to limit oversteer and understeer. These driver assist behaviors will enable operators to use future high-speed small UGVs in high optempo infantry missions and keep warfighters out of harm's way.

  20. Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galápagos tortoises.

    PubMed

    Caccone, A; Gibbs, J P; Ketmaier, V; Suatoni, E; Powell, J R

    1999-11-09

    Perhaps the most enduring debate in reptile systematics has involved the giant Galápagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra), whose origins and systematic relationships captivated Charles Darwin and remain unresolved to this day. Here we report a phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from Galápagos tortoises and Geochelone from mainland South America and Africa. The closest living relative to the Galápagos tortoise is not among the larger-bodied tortoises of South America but is the relatively small-bodied Geochelone chilensis, or Chaco tortoise. The split between G. chilensis and the Galápagos lineage probably occurred 6 to 12 million years ago, before the origin of the oldest extant Galápagos island. Our data suggest that the four named southern subspecies on the largest island, Isabela, are not distinct genetic units, whereas a genetically distinct northernmost Isabela subspecies is probably the result of a separate colonization. Most unexpectedly, the lone survivor of the abingdoni subspecies from Pinta Island ("Lonesome George") is very closely related to tortoises from San Cristobal and Espanola, the islands farthest from the island of Pinta. To rule out a possible recent transplant of Lonesome George, we sequenced DNA from three tortoises collected on Pinta in 1906. They have sequences identical to Lonesome George, consistent with his being the last survivor of his subspecies. This finding may provide guidance in finding a mate for Lonesome George, who so far has failed to reproduce.

  1. Fleas associated with non-flying small mammal communities from northern and central Chile: with new host and locality records.

    PubMed

    Bazán-León, E A; Lareschi, M; Sanchez, J; Soto-Nilo, G; Lazzoni, I; Venegas, C I; Poblete, Y; Vásquez, R A

    2013-12-01

    Fleas associated with small mammals from seven localities from northern and central Chile were assessed. We captured 352 small mammals belonging to 12 species from which we obtained 675 fleas belonging to 15 different species. The most frequently captured flea species were Neotyphloceras crassispina crassispina (n = 198) and N. chilensis (n = 175). High values of flea species richness and diversity were found in Fray Jorge National Park (NP), a north-central Chilean site, whereas the highest values of mean abundance (MA) and prevalence were found in three diverse sites that include Los Molles River, a high altitude site located in north-central Chile, Fray Jorge NP and Dichato, in south-central Chile. On the other hand, high values of flea richness and diversity were found on two rodent species, Abrothrix olivacea and A. longipilis, whereas the highest values of MA and prevalence were found on Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, A. longipilis and Phyllotis xanthopygus. A total of three new host recordings, nine new localities and nine new host species and locality recordings are reported. Also, this study represents the first known record of Tetrapsyllus (Tetrapsyllus) comis in Chile and the first ecological analysis of Neotyphloceras chilensis.

  2. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  3. Phylogenetics of Bonamia parasites based on small subunit and internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kristina M; Stokes, Nancy A; Webb, Stephen C; Hine, P Mike; Kroeck, Marina A; Moore, James D; Morley, Margaret S; Reece, Kimberly S; Burreson, Eugene M; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2014-07-24

    The genus Bonamia (Haplosporidia) includes economically significant oyster parasites. Described species were thought to have fairly circumscribed host and geographic ranges: B. ostreae infecting Ostrea edulis in Europe and North America, B. exitiosa infecting O. chilensis in New Zealand, and B. roughleyi infecting Saccostrea glomerata in Australia. The discovery of B. exitiosa-like parasites in new locations and the observation of a novel species, B. perspora, in non-commercial O. stentina altered this perception and prompted our wider evaluation of the global diversity of Bonamia parasites. Samples of 13 oyster species from 21 locations were screened for Bonamia spp. by PCR, and small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of Bonamia sp. ribosomal DNA were sequenced from PCR-positive individuals. Infections were confirmed histologically. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and Bayesian methods revealed one species, B. exitiosa, to be widely distributed, infecting 7 oyster species from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, eastern and western USA, and Tunisia. More limited host and geographic distributions of B. ostreae and B. perspora were confirmed, but nothing genetically identifiable as B. roughleyi was found in Australia or elsewhere. Newly discovered diversity included a Bonamia sp. in Dendostrea sandvicensis from Hawaii, USA, that is basal to the other Bonamia species and a Bonamia sp. in O. edulis from Tomales Bay, California, USA, that is closely related to both B. exitiosa and the previously observed Bonamia sp. from O. chilensis in Chile.

  4. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g.

  5. High resolution melting analysis for identification of commercially-important Mytilus species.

    PubMed

    Jilberto, Felipe; Araneda, Cristián; Larraín, María Angélica

    2017-08-15

    Mytilus are edible mussels, including commercially-significant species such as M. chilensis, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. The scientific name of the species must be indicated on commercial products to satisfy labelling and traceability requirements. Species identification using morphological criteria is difficult due the plasticity of these characteristics and the absence of shells in processed products, and conventional PCR-based methods are laborious and time-intensive. As alternative, we propose high resolution melting (HRM) analysis as a simple tool to detect and identify SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and length polymorphisms in Mytilus spp. We designed HRM-specific primers for the Mytilus genus to identify M. chilensis, M. galloprovincialis, M. edulis and their hybrids through clearly-distinguishable melting curves. HRM analysis showed high sensitivity (0.9639), specificity (1.0000) and precision (1.0000) compared to a conventional PCR-RFLP test. HRM is a fast and low cost method, being a reliable tool for species identification within the Mytilus genus.

  6. Echinostomatid larval stages in Lymnaea viatrix (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from southwest Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Prepelitchi, Lucila; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2007-04-01

    The partial life cycle of an echinostomatid found in Lymnaea viatrix from Patagonia, Argentina, was experimentally clarified. Emerging cercariae were exposed to laboratory-reared specimens of Biomphalaria sp. Metacercariae obtained from both naturally and experimentally infected snails were force-fed to chicks. Specimens recovered from the chicks belong to Echinoparyphium sp. on the basis of morphological features. The studied species possesses 43 collar spines arranged in 4-4-27-4-4 at all stages, a cercariae with over 100 small corpuscles in the excretory system, a cercariae tail without finfolds, and a metacercariae with a thin cyst wall. The present species cannot be assigned to Echinoparyphium megacirrus despite their morphological similarity because of differences in the habitats of L. viatrix and the intermediate hosts of E. megacirrus, namely Chilina dombeiana, Diplodon chilensis, and Temnocephala chilensis. More information on some life cycle stages and on the ecology of the intermediate hosts is needed to clarify the taxonomic status of the parasite. This study represents the first detailed description of parasites other than Fasciola hepatica in L. viatrix from Argentina.

  7. Morphology, nectar characteristics and avian pollinators in five Andean Puya species (Bromeliaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung-Leoni, C. T.; González-Gómez, P. L.; Troncoso, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Five Andean Puya species (Puya alpestris, Puya chilensis, Puya coerulea, Puya raimondii and Puya venusta) were studied to determine the relationship between their avian visitors, and plant morphology and nectar characteristics. Our results showed a significant relationship between nectar concentration, presence of sterile apex and avian pollinators's species. In contrast, nectar composition was not related to the frequency of avian visits. We found that Puya species were mainly visited by specialist nectarivorous birds such as hummingbirds (i.e., P. coerulea and P. venusta), lacked a sterile apex and produced high nectar concentration in low volumes. In contrast, species mainly visited by generalist passerines (i.e., P. chilensis and P. alpestris) were characterized by the presence of a sterile apex and production of highly diluted nectar in large volumes. In a mono-specific group we found that P. raimondii produces highly concentrated nectar in large volumes, and its flowers were visited by hummingbirds and passerine birds. We found no effect of nectar composition on bird's visits. Our study highlights the interplay between morphological traits, nectar characteristics and the ecological framework to explain specialized and generalized birds pollination systems.

  8. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundles to allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and Gl. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  9. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    PubMed

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundlesto allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and GI. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  10. Phototactic guidance of a tissue-engineered soft-robotic ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; di Santo, Valentina; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V.; Mahadevan, L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-11-01

    Inspired by the relatively simple morphological blueprint provided by batoid fish such as stingrays and skates, we created a biohybrid system that enables an artificial animal, a tissue-engineered ray - to swim and phototactically follow a light cue. By patterning dissociated rat cardiomyocytes on an elastomeric body enclosing a microfabricated gold skeleton, we replicated fish morphology at 1/10 scale and captured basic fin deflection patterns of batoid fish. Optogenetics allows for phototactic guidance, steering, and turning maneuvers. Optical stimulation induced sequential muscle activation via serpentine-patterned muscle circuits, leading to coordinated undulatory swimming. The speed and direction of the ray was controlled by modulating light frequency and by independently eliciting right and left fins, allowing the biohybrid machine to maneuver through an obstacle course.

  11. Molecular identification of larvae of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) in a razor clam as an alternative intermediate host in the life cycle of Acanthobothrium brevissime.

    PubMed

    Holland, Nicholas D; Wilson, Nerida G

    2009-10-01

    Dwarf razor clams (Ensis minor) in the Gulf of Mexico are known to be infected with plerocercoid larvae of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Here, we show that these larvae live unencysted in the intestinal lumen of the clam. Morphologically, the larvae are similar to (although significantly larger than) tapeworm larvae previously described living in the gut of amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) from the same habitat. Sequence data from the D2 region of the 28S rDNA from clam-infecting larvae were identical to the sequence of Acanthobothrium brevissime isolated as larvae from amphioxus and as adults from a stingray (Dasyatis say). The sequence data leave little doubt that the dwarf razor clam and the amphioxus are alternative intermediate hosts in the life cycle of A. brevissime.

  12. Varo-achro-phobia: the fear of broad spectrum zoom optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Steven; Pollica, Naomi

    2015-05-01

    Today's battlefield is evolving at light speed. Our war fighters are being tasked with highly complex missions requiring the very best technology our industry can offer. The demand for advanced ISR platforms is challenging designers and engineers in the optics industry to push the envelope and develop wider band solutions to support multiple and broadband sensor platforms. Recently, significant attention has been directed towards the development of optical systems that enable simultaneous operation in the visible and shortwave infrared spectral wavebands. This paper will present a review of the evolution of StingRay Optics' GhostSight™ continuous zoom optics that offer broad chromatic imaging capabilities from the visible through the shortwave infrared spectrum.

  13. Miocene marine incursions and marine/freshwater transitions: Evidence from Neotropical fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Nathan R.; Albert, James S.; Crampton, William G. R.

    2006-03-01

    Amazonian rivers contain a remarkable fauna of endemic species derived from taxa that generally occur in oceans and seas. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine-derived lineages, including opportunistic invasions via estuaries, vicariance related to uplift of the Andes, and vicariance related to Miocene marine incursions and connections. Here, we examine available data for marine-derived lineages of four groups: stingrays (Myliobatiformes), drums (Sciaenidae), anchovies (Engraulididae), and needlefish (Belonidae). Geographic distributions, age estimates (determined using fossils, biogeography, and molecular data sets), and phylogenies for these taxa are most compatible with origination during the Miocene from marine sister groups distributed along the northern coast of South America. We speculate that unique ecological and biogeographic aspects of the Miocene upper Amazonian wetland system, most notably long-term connections with marine systems, facilitated the evolutionary transition from marine to freshwater habitats.

  14. Phototactic guidance of a tissue-engineered soft-robotic ray.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jin; Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; Di Santo, Valentina; Blevins, Erin L; Lind, Johan U; Campbell, Patrick H; Dauth, Stephanie; Capulli, Andrew K; Pasqualini, Francesco S; Ahn, Seungkuk; Cho, Alexander; Yuan, Hongyan; Maoz, Ben M; Vijaykumar, Ragu; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V; Mahadevan, L; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-07-08

    Inspired by the relatively simple morphological blueprint provided by batoid fish such as stingrays and skates, we created a biohybrid system that enables an artificial animal--a tissue-engineered ray--to swim and phototactically follow a light cue. By patterning dissociated rat cardiomyocytes on an elastomeric body enclosing a microfabricated gold skeleton, we replicated fish morphology at 1/10 scale and captured basic fin deflection patterns of batoid fish. Optogenetics allows for phototactic guidance, steering, and turning maneuvers. Optical stimulation induced sequential muscle activation via serpentine-patterned muscle circuits, leading to coordinated undulatory swimming. The speed and direction of the ray was controlled by modulating light frequency and by independently eliciting right and left fins, allowing the biohybrid machine to maneuver through an obstacle course.

  15. A new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from Pastinachus atrus (Macleay) (Batoidea: Dasyatidae) in Australian waters, with a reassessment of the host associations of Acanthobothrium spp. parasitising Pastinachus spp.

    PubMed

    Zschoche, Michael; Caira, J N; Fyler, Caroline A

    2011-02-01

    A new Category 1 species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 is described from the cowtail stingray Pastinachus atrus (Macleay) collected from the Gulf of Carpentaria near Weipa, Queensland, Australia. This species is unique among Acanthobothrium Category 1 species in that it retains gravid proglottids on its strobila. It differs further from the 34 other Category 1 species in total length, proglottid number and testis number. The host identities of other Acanthobothrium species reported from Pastinachus are revised based on recent taxonomic work on rays of this genus. Given the revised host taxonomy, according to which P. atrus is the only member of its genus occurring off Australia, this should be considered to be the fifth species of Acanthobothrium reported from this Australian endemic species.

  16. Phototactic guidance of a tissue-engineered soft-robotic ray

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Jin; Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; Di Santo, Valentina; Blevins, Erin L.; Lind, Johan U.; Campbell, Patrick H.; Dauth, Stephanie; Capulli, Andrew; Pasqualini, Francesco S.; Ahn, Seungkuk; Cho, Alexander; Yuan, Hongyan; Maoz, Ben M.; Vijaykumar, Ragu; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V.; Mahadevan, L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the relatively simple morphological blueprint provided by batoid fish such as stingrays and skates, we create a biohybrid system that enables an artificial animal, a tissue-engineered ray, to swim and phototactically follow a light cue. By patterning dissociated rat cardiac myocytes on an elastomeric body enclosing a microfabricated gold skeleton, we replicated fish morphology at one-tenth scale and captured basic fin deflection patterns of batoid fish. Optogenetics allows for phototactic guidance, steering and turning maneuvers. Optical stimulation induced sequential muscle activation via serpentine patterned muscle circuits leading to coordinated undulatory swimming. The speed and direction of the ray was controlled by modulating light frequency and by independently eliciting right and left fins, allowing the biohybrid machine to maneuver through an obstacle course. (125/125 max) PMID:27387948

  17. Outsourcing neural active control to passive composite mechanics: a tissue engineered cyborg ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Sung Jin; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; di Santo, Valentina; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V.; Mahadevan, L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-11-01

    Translating the blueprint that stingrays and skates provide, we create a cyborg swimming ray capable of orchestrating adaptive maneuvering and phototactic navigation. The impossibility of replicating the neural system of batoids fish is bypassed by outsourcing algorithmic functionalities to the body composite mechanics, hence casting the active control problem into a design, passive one. We present a first step in engineering multilevel "brain-body-flow" systems that couple sensory information to motor coordination and movement, leading to behavior. This work paves the way for the development of autonomous and adaptive artificial creatures able to process multiple sensory inputs and produce complex behaviors in distributed systems and may represent a path toward soft-robotic "embodied cognition".

  18. Tropical marine neurotoxins: venoms to drugs.

    PubMed

    Watters, Michael R

    2005-09-01

    Neurotoxic venoms are common among tropical marine creatures, which have specialized apparatuses for delivery of the venoms. These include jellyfish and anemones, venomous cone snails, venomous fish, stingrays, sea snakes, and venomous octopuses. Numerous toxic neuropeptides are found within these venoms, and some can discriminate between closely related intracellular targets, a characteristic that makes them useful to define cation channels and attractive for drug development. A synthetic derivative of an omega-conotoxin is now available, representing a new class of analgesics. In general, toxic marine venoms contain proteins that are heat labile, providing opportunity for therapeutic intervention following envenomation, while ingestible seafood toxins are thermostable toxins. Ingestible toxins found in the tropics include those associated with reef fish, pufferfish, and some shellfish, which serve as food-chain vectors for toxins produced by marine microorganisms.

  19. Descriptions of two new freshwater neotropical species of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda: Rhinebothriidea) from Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Menoret, Adriana; Ivanov, Verónica A

    2011-09-01

    Two new species of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda, Rhinebothriidea) from potamotrygonid stingrays in the Neotropical region are herein described, which raises the total number of Rhinebothrium species known from Neotropical freshwaters to five. Rhinebothrium corbatai sp. n., and Rhinebothrium mistyae sp. n. were both collected from Potamotrygon motoro (Müller et Henle), captured in four tributaries of the Paraná River in Santa Fé Province, Argentina. The new species can be distinguished from their congeners, and from each other, by a combination of various features, including worm size (length and number of proglottids), number of loculi per bothridium, microthrix pattern, size of the cirrus sac, and the extent of the vas deferens. The discovery of these new species from P. motoro supports the pattern of high host specificity in this cestode genus, and reinforces the notion that some of the previous records of the enigmatic R. paratrygoni may correspond to new species of Rhinebothrium yet to be described.

  20. Mitochondrial genome of Dasyatis bennettii (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jie; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Zhang, Baowei

    2013-08-01

    Dasyatis bennettii is a bottom-dweller that inhabits in the coastal waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans as well as the freshwaters of Southern China. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of this species of stingrays. The results showed that the total length of the mitogenome was 17,668 bp as a circular DNA and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region. The base composition of the complete mitochondrial DNA was 31.1% A, 28.7% T, 26.7% C, and 13.5% G. All the genes in D. bennettii were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes which were encoded on the L-strand.

  1. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Comparison of the imaging physics performance of a prototype flat-panel detector with a 400-speed screen-film system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Rush, Charles

    2001-06-01

    The performance of a digital radiography system that included a prototype flat panel detector (StingRay) was compared with a 400 speed screen-film system. The flat panel detector consisted of a 500 micrometers thick CsI scintillator with an image matrix size of 3k2. The limiting spatial resolution of screen-film (approximately 4 line pairs/mm) was superior to that of the flat panel detector (approximately 2.5 line pairs/mm). The digital detector had an excellent linearity response (r2 equals 0.997), a dynamic range of 20,000:1, and saturated at a radiation exposure of 60 mR.

  3. Birth and early evolution of a planetary nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, Matthew; Sahu, Kailash C.; Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, Pedro

    1998-04-01

    The final expulsion of gas by a star as it forms a planetary nebula - the ionized shell of gas often observed surrounding a young white dwarf - is one of the most poorly understood stages of stellar evolution,. Such nebulae form extremely rapidly (about 100 years for the ionization) and so the formation process is inherently difficult to observe. Particularly puzzling is how a spherical star can produce a highly asymmetric nebula with collimated outflows. Here we report optical observations of the Stingray nebula,, which has become an ionized planetary nebula within the past few decades. We find that the collimated outflows are already evident, and we have identified the nebular structure that focuses the outflows. We have also found a companion star, reinforcing previous suspicions that binary companions play an important role in shaping planetary nebulae and changing the direction of successive outflows.

  4. Parabolic Ejecta Features on Titan? Probably Not

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Melosh, H. J.

    1996-03-01

    Radar mapping of Venus by Magellan indicated a number of dark parabolic features, associated with impact craters. A suggested mechanism for generating such features is that ejecta from the impact event is 'winnowed' by the zonal wind field, with smaller ejecta particles falling out of the atmosphere more slowly, and hence drifting further. What discriminates such features from simple wind streaks is the 'stingray' or parabolic shape. This is due to the ejecta's spatial distribution prior to being winnowed during fallout, and this distribution is generated by the explosion plume of the impact piercing the atmosphere, allowing the ejecta to disperse pseudoballistically before re-entering the atmosphere, decelerating to terminal velocity and then being winnowed. Here we apply this model to Titan, which has a zonal wind field similar to that of Venus. We find that Cassini will probably not find parabolic features, as the winds stretch the deposition so far that ejecta will form streaks or bands instead.

  5. Somewhere under the rainbow: the visible to far infrared imaging lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Troy A.; Alexay, Christopher C.; Vogel, Steven

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the complex design challenges of optical imaging systems that can operate over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering all bands from the visible to the far infrared simultaneously. Although the focus is placed on a refractive solution to these challenges, an effort to outline the limitations of reflective solutions is also presented. After exploring a novel method to optimize the choice of optical materials, an elegant and efficient example is provided: a refractive lens that is at once a total optical solution (one lens covering a broad spectral range) and a common aperture solution (one lens that works simultaneously with several camera types). This solution, StingRay Optics' own SuperBandTM Optic, is ultimately explored in its functionality to address this need in an advantageous manner.

  6. The rapidly evolving planetary nebula Hen 3-1357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gry, C.

    Hen 3-1357 (known as the 'Stingray Nebula') is the youngest Planetary Nebula known in the sky. It has become ionized within the past few decades and its central star seems to be still rapidly evolving in the H-R diagram towards hotter effective temperatures. With this proposal we want to determine the current effective temperature of the central star and the characteristics of the stellar wind thirteen years after its discovery with IUE. This will enable us to determine whether the rapid spectral changes observed in the last few years are the consequence of an episodic post-AGB mass loss event or the result of a continuous evolution in the H-R digram. In any of these cases, the observations will help us to understand this short and, thus, still poorly known transition phase which leads to the formation of a new PN.

  7. Management of wounds in a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) caused by traumatic bycatch injury from the spines of a spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari).

    PubMed

    Bezjian, Marisa; Wellehan, James F X; Walsh, Michael T; Anderson, Eric; Jacobson, Elliott

    2014-06-01

    A subadult female loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) was caught in a trawl net off the west coast of Florida with a spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) spine lodged in the left stifle. Surgical removal of the spine was performed and antibiotic treatment was initiated. Four weeks later, endoscopy revealed a second spine entering an intestinal lumen. The fistulous tract of the left prefemoral fossa was surgically excised and the intestinal perforation was repaired. Dehiscence occurred and a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) system was used on the wound for approximately 18 days to help reduce infection and increase the rate of healing. The left stifle wound was treated to heal by second intention. The turtle remained in rehabilitation for 19 mo before being released off the west coast of Florida. This case describes stingray envenomation injuries as a complex and potentially life-threatening bycatch effect to sea turtles caught in trawl nets.

  8. Three Dendromonocotyle species (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) reported from captive rays, including D. lotteri sp. n. from Himantura gerrardi (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae) in the public aquarium at the Atlantis resort, Dubai.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David B; Chisholm, Leslie A

    2009-06-01

    Dendromonocotyle lotteri sp. n. is described from the dorsal skin surface of the stingray Himantura gerrardi (Gray) on exhibit in the public aquarium at the Atlantis resort in Dubai. It is differentiated from all other Dendromonocotyle species by the unique morphology of the distal portion of the sclerotised male copulatory organ. Dendromonocotyle lotteri is the second representative in the genus with 56 marginal haptoral papillae having a papillae to loculus association represented numerically as 6-6-8-8. We found Dendromonocotyle colorni Chisholm, Whittington et Kearn, 2001 on the same host specimens at the Atlantis resort public aquarium and Dendromonocotyle kuhlii Young, 1967 on Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller et Henle) kept at Burgers' Zoo Aquarium in Arnhem, The Netherlands. Supplemental information is provided for both D. colorni and D. kuhlii. The presence of Dendromonocotyle infections in public aquaria and host specificity are discussed. A key to the 17 species of Dendromonocotyle is also provided.

  9. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations.

  10. Grazing and excretion by zooplankton in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagg, M.; Cowles, T.; Whitledge, T.; Smith, S.; Howe, S.; Judkins, D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of ingestion and excretion by adult females of the copepods Calanus chilensis, Eucalanus inermis, and Centropages brachiatus were measured in natural seawater during a cruise in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977. Simultaneously, zooplankton samples were collected for later determination of the abundance and distribution of these and other species. For these three organisms, feeding, and excretion rates of individuals are combined with information on the animal concentrations to estimate the grazing stress on the phytoplankton at each station, and to estimate the excretory nitrogen produced at each station. Comparison of grazing stresses with measured rates of primary production indicates that these large copepods were harvesting less than 5% of the daily phytoplankton production. Comparison of the nitrogen excretion rates with the amounts of excreted nitrogen in the water column indicates that less than 3% of the ambient excretory nitrogen was produced daily by these copepods. The importance of the abundant small zooplankton in the system is suggested.

  11. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  12. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations.

  13. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway.

  14. The Tribe Anisoscelini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis

    2015-10-23

    Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan.

  15. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Megavirus superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Philippe, Nadège; Jeudy, Sandra; Abergel, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is able to replicate in Acanthamoeba castellanii. The first step of viral infection involves the internalization of the virions in host vacuoles. It has been experimentally demonstrated that Mimivirus particles contain many proteins capable of resisting oxidative stress, as encountered in the phagocytic process. These proteins are conserved in Megavirus, which has an additional gene (Mg277) encoding a putative superoxide dismutase. The Mg277 ORF product was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A SAD data set was collected to 2.24 Å resolution at the selenium peak wavelength on the BM30 beamline at the ESRF from a single crystal of selenomethionine-substituted recombinant superoxide dismutase protein. PMID:23192047

  16. New isotonic drinks with antioxidant and biological capacities from berries (maqui, açaí and blackthorn) and lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Villaño, Débora; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz], açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following on from previous research. Quality parameters - including colour (CIELab parameters), minerals, phytochemical identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH• and [Formula: see text] assays) and biological activities (in vitro alpha-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects) - were tested in the samples and compared to commercially available isotonic drinks. The new isotonic blends with lemon and anthocyanins-rich berries showed an attractive colour, especially in maqui samples, which is essential for consumer acceptance. Significantly higher antioxidant and biological effects were determined in the new blends, in comparison with the commercial isotonic beverages.

  17. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Roehrig, J T; Deubel, V; Smith, J; Parker, M; Steele, K; Crise, B; Volpe, K E; Crabtree, M B; Scherret, J H; Hall, R A; MacKenzie, J S; Cropp, C B; Panigrahy, B; Ostlund, E; Schmitt, B; Malkinson, M; Banet, C; Weissman, J; Komar, N; Savage, H M; Stone, W; McNamara, T; Gubler, D J

    1999-12-17

    In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998.

  18. Aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) in Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Dubrajpur, Birbhum, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sou, Sujan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2015-09-01

    Aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov., recovered from the rectum of Indian bull frog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, collected from Dubrajpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, is described and illustrated. This species is characterised by absence of gubernaculum and differs from other species of Aplectana which lack a gubernaculum (viz. A. akhrami, A. artigasi, A. chilensis, A. crossodactyli, A. crucifer, A. delirae, A. meridionalis, A. papillifera, A. praeputialis, A. tarija and A. vercammeni) by smaller size of males and females, absence of somatic papillae in females and number and distribution of caudal papillae in males which include 3 pairs precloacal, 1 pair adcloacal, 14 pairs postcloacal and a single unpaired small papilla on the upper lip of cloaca. Aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov. represents 51st species assigned to the genus and 3rd from India.

  19. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution.

  20. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  1. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in pet mammals, reptiles, fish aquarium water, and birds in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Seepersadsingh, N; Adesiyun, A A

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was determined in 970 animals comprising 423 pet birds, 485 fish aquaria water and 62 other pets (40 pet mammals, 14 reptiles, eight others - crustaceans, snail, stingray) from both pet shops and households throughout Trinidad. The serotypes of Salmonella spp. isolated were identified and the resistance to various antimicrobial agents was determined. Overall nine (0.9%) of 970 pet animals were positive for Salmonella spp. Six isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from all pet birds with two isolates of serotype Aberdeen and one isolate each of Thompson, Rubislaw, Panama and Newport. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in birds was 0.9%. Four isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from fish aquaria water, serotypes included Panama (two isolates), Newport (one isolate) and Virchow (one isolate). Prevalence of Salmonella spp. from fish aquaria was 0.4%. No isolate of Salmonella spp. was detected in pet mammals sampled while two isolates were recovered from reptiles, S. Enteritidis and S. Montevideo. One isolate of Salmonella spp. was recovered from a stingray, serotype unknown. Antimicrobial resistance was present is all animal types. The highest prevalence of resistance was to streptomycin among isolates from birds (83.3%) and other pets (100.0%) while isolates from fish aquarium water exhibited comparatively high resistance to cephalothin (50.0%). It was concluded that the isolation of Salmonella spp. from apparently healthy birds, fish aquarium water and other pet animals may pose a health risk to their owners and contacts as all serotypes are known to be potentially pathogenic depending on the oral dosage of the organism and the immune status of those in contact. The high prevalence of resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates across pet species may pose chemotherapeutic consequences to their owners and contacts.

  3. Pararhinebothroides hobergi n. gen. n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) in Urobatis tumbesensis (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from coastal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, D; Brooks, D R; Barriga, R

    1999-06-01

    A new species of tetraphyllidean eucestode inhabiting Urobatis tumbesensis from inshore waters of southeastern Ecuador shares 3 synapomorphies with Rhinebothroides spp.: apical bothridial suckers poorly differentiated from the marginal loculi, internal seminal vesicles, and insertion of the vas deferens dorsally closer to the poral than the aporal end of the cirrus sac. The new species differs from Rhinebothroides spp. by lacking medial bothridial septa and loculi and having symmetrical ovarian arms, and possesses an apparent autapomorphic trait by having the vas deferens tapering to a narrow tube before entering the cirrus sac, extending posteriorly to the posterior end of the cirrus sac where it expands into an external seminal vesicle running ventral to the cirrus sac anteriorly to anterior to the vagina. In Rhinebothroides spp., the vas deferens is expanded into an external seminal vesicle near the insertion into the cirrus sac As the sister group of Rhinebothroides, we propose a new genus to accommodate the new species. Phylogenetic evaluation of phyllobothriids recently assigned to Anthocephalum shows that they represent a paraphyletic assemblage of species of varying degrees of relatedness to Rhinebothroides spp. and the new species. Uncovering the relationships of the new species and the various species assigned to Anthocephalum permitted reevaluation of character transformations used in previous phylogenetic analysis of Rhinebothroides. Transformation series for 3 characters, previously based on functional outgroup comparisons, changed and a new character, length of cirrus sac, was added. The new phylogenetic analysis differs from the previous hypothesis only in placing R. scorzai as the sister species of R. circularisi + R. venezuelae + R. moralarai rather than of R. freitasi + R. glandularis + R. mclennanae. The occurrence of the sister species of Rhinebothroides in a Pacific Ocean stingray adds additional support to the hypothesis of Pacific origins of

  4. UREA TRANSPORT BY HEPATOCYTES AND RED BLOOD CELLS OF SELECTED ELASMOBRANCH AND TELEOST FISHES

    PubMed

    Walsh; Wood; Perry; Thomas

    1994-08-01

    Although urea transport is receiving increased attention in mammalian systems, very little is known about urea transport in fish tissues. This study examined mechanisms of urea transport in red blood cells and hepatocytes from the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina), turbot (Scopthalmus maximus), redfish (Scianops ocellatus), gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau). Urea appeared to be passively distributed in both tissues (i.e. there was no difference between plasma and tissue urea concentrations). Additionally, a number of in vitro experiments examining [14C]urea flux were performed. In red blood cells from all species except redfish, urea transport occurred via simple passive diffusion, but redfish red blood cells showed a small (25 %) phloretin-sensitive uptake component. In hepatocytes of the two elasmobranch species (dogfish and stingray), urea efflux was also by simple passive diffusion. However, urea efflux in toadfish (both O. beta and O. tau) hepatocytes exhibited a marked phloretin-sensitivity, and O. beta hepatocytes were used in further experiments with other inhibitors and treatments. Urea transport in O. beta had a relatively high specificity for urea compared with the urea analogues acetamide, thiourea and N-methylurea, was unaffected by phloridzin and extracellular Na+ removal, and was not inhibited by physiological levels of glucose (0.5­10 mmol l-1). A phloretin-sensitive glucose transport, that was not inhibited by physiological levels of urea, was discovered in O. beta hepatocytes. The results are discussed in terms of patterns of species distribution and similarities between urea and glucose transport.

  5. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Potamotrygonocotyle Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981 (Monogenoidea: Monocotylidae) with a description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Domingues, M V; Marques, F P L

    2011-12-01

    The marine-derived stingrays of Potamotrygonidae, endemic to South American river systems, host an interesting parasite fauna equally related to marine lineages. Among those lineages, the diversity and phylogenetic relationships within Potamotrygonocotyle - a monocotylid monogenoidean specific to potamotrygonids - are poorly known, since 9 of 10 species attributed to this genus have been described in the past 3 years. Here, we readdress the diversity of Potamotrygonocotyle after examining the gills of 436 potamotrygonid individuals representing 12 described and 14 potentially undescribed species of freshwater stingrays from 19 major river systems of South America (i.e. sub-basins). We recognized 12 valid species within the parasite genus, of which four are described in this study. Our taxonomic decisions were based on the phylogenetic analysis of 14 ingroup terminal taxa and 12 morphological characters, which resulted in the following hypothesis of sister-group relationships: ((P. dromedarius, P. tatianae sp. nov.), (P. rionegrense, P. auriculocotyle sp. nov., ((P. quadracotyle, P. umbella), (P. septemcotyle sp. nov., (P. chisholmae, P. uruguayense)), (P. tsalickisi, P. eurypotamoxenus, P. rarum, (P. tocantinsense sp. nov., P. aramasae))))). According to our hypothesis, the absence of autapomorphic features for some nominal species, and the re-evaluation of morphological variation among populations, led us to consider P. eurypotamoxenus and P. uruguayense as junior synonymys of P. tsalicksi and P. chisholmae, respectively. Finally, we address the importance of biogeographic and host representation, in order to fully understand the patterns of morphological variation and host specificity within this group. We found that hypotheses of species delimitation depend greatly on efforts to sample specimens throughout its distributional range and that host specificity within this genus varies dramatically among lineages.

  6. Fine-scale vertical distribution of coastal and offshore copepods in the Golfo de Arauco, central Chile, during the upwelling season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Leonardo R.; Troncoso, Victor A.; Figueroa, Dante R.

    2007-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanism by which zooplankters from different origins co-occur during the upwelling season within Golfo de Arauco, one of the most productive areas in central Chile, we assessed short term variations in the vertical distribution of the most abundant copepod species. Fine-scale, day and night vertical zooplankton sampling was done with a pump over 12 days in summer. The water column in the gulf consisted of three layers: Equatorial Subsurface Water of low dissolved oxygen content in the deeper part of the water column, strong temperature and oxygen gradients at mid-depth (15-25 m), and a layer of warmer, more oxygenated, less saline water at the surface. Copepods within the gulf originated from offshore, from the continental shelf, and from the coastal area. Most taxa showed distinctive vertical distributions. Three copepod groups were identified by their mean weighted depths of residence. One group included shallow residents found above the thermocline/oxycline ( Acartia tonsa, Centropages brachiatus, Corycaeus sp., Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea sp.). A second group was comprised by species distributed at or below the thermocline/oxycline ( Oithona sp., Oncaea conifera, Lucicutia sp., Metridia sp., Heterorhabdus papilliger). The third group was composed of vertical migrators that crossed the thermocline/oxycline ( Calanus chilensis, Calanoides patagoniensis, Aetideus armatus, Pleuromamma piseki). In spite of their different vertical distribution ranges, the most abundant and frequent copepod species ( P. parvus, C. chilensis, C. patagoniensis, C. brachiatus) share a common capacity to withstand wide ranges of oxygen concentration and temperature. This characteristic, along with the capacity to vary their life strategies under different environmental conditions, seems to facilitate the maintenance of large numbers of copepods in coastal waters along the Humboldt Current.

  7. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Marcela P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources. PMID:25540651

  8. Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America.

    PubMed

    Blake, James A

    2017-01-12

    The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.

  9. Survival, growth and vulnerability to drought in fire refuges: implications for the persistence of a fire-sensitive conifer in northern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gowda, Juan H; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Fire severity and extent are expected to increase in many regions worldwide due to climate change. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic factors producing remnant vegetation to understand their function in the persistence of fire-sensitive plants. Vegetation remnants (areas within the landscape that have not burned for a considerable amount of time) may occur stochastically or in more predictable locations (fire refuges) where physical conditions decrease fire severity. Our aim was to determine if remnant forests of the fire-sensitive conifer Austrocedrus chilensis are associated with biophysical attributes that allow persistence in a fire-prone Patagonian landscape. We conducted a multi-scale approach, determining attributes of forest remnants and their surroundings (matrices) through remote sensing and field-based biophysical and functional characteristics, and quantifying how tree survival probability relates to microsite conditions. Trees within remnants displayed abundant fire scars, were twofold older and had threefold larger growth rates than matrix trees. Remnants were associated with high rocky cover and elevated topographical positions. Tree survival increased in hilltops, eastern aspects, and with sparse vegetation. Trees within remnants experienced severe reductions in growth during droughts. Our results suggest that A. chilensis remnants are mainly the result of refuges, where environmental conditions increase fire survival, but also increase susceptibility to drought. A trade-off between fire survival and drought vulnerability may imply that under increasing drought and fire severity, locations that in the past have served as refuges may reduce their ability to allow the persistence of fire-sensitive taxa.

  10. Effects of macroalgal mats and hypoxia on burrowing depth of the New Zealand cockle ( Austrovenus stutchburyi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Bressington, Melanie J.

    2009-02-01

    Macroalgal mats commonly occur in estuaries and sheltered embayments where they are thought to affect the oxygen conditions in the sediment, influence the geochemical process and influence the burrowing activity of bivalves. Laboratory experiments evaluated the effects of sediment hypoxia and algal mats on the burrowing ability and survival of the New Zealand cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi at 15 °C. Both dissolved oxygen concentration and time affected the burial depth of the cockles over the 12 days of the experiment. In hypoxic conditions (<2 mg L -1), cockles migrated to the sediment surface after 3.5 days and mortality occurred after 11 days. Bivalves exposed to oxygen concentrations of 2-3 mg L -1 buried closer to the sediment surface than those in the other treatments. Using a simulated tidal regime, in a mesocosm, burrowing behaviour of the cockle and pore-water oxygen conditions in the sediment were measured on exposure to experimental mats of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva spp. for over 6 days. Algal mats on the surface of the sediment significantly lowered the dissolved oxygen concentration of the sediment pore-water and this effect was greater for the Ulva spp. treatment than the G. chilensis treatment. Cockles were buried more deeply in the control treatment without algae than in either of the two algal treatments. It is concluded that reduced oxygen conditions (<3.5 mg L -1) develop under macroalgal mats and that this reduces the burial depth of cockles. The potential harmful effects of the mats can depend on the species forming the mat and these effects are likely to be greater in the field than they are in controlled laboratory conditions.

  11. Germination and growth responses of hybridizing Carpobrotus species (Aizoaceae) from coastal California to soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Weber, E; D'Antonio, C M

    1999-09-01

    Germination, growth, and physiological responses of hybridizing Carpobrotus from coastal California to soil salinity were studied. Hybrids are presumably the result of hybridization and introgression between the exotic Carpobrotus edulis, a succulent perennial invading coastal habitats, and the native or long-naturalized C. chilensis. Germination responses were investigated at 0, 10, 20, and 50% seawater. Seedling growth and physiology were compared by irrigating seedlings with solutions of the same seawater concentrations and in low and high nutrients. Germination was inhibited in the presence of salt, but recovered after transferring the seeds to fresh water. Seeds exposed to salt had higher final germination rates than control. Growth of Carpobrotus was slightly enhanced by low seawater concentrations but reduced at high salinity at both nutrient regimes. Leaf cell sap osmolarity increased with increasing soil salinity, and taxa did not differ significantly in this physiological adjustment. Leaf carbon isotope ratios (∂(13)C) ranged from -28 to -22‰ and became less negative at higher salinities, indicating an improved water use efficiency in the seedlings at high salt concentrations. In addition, ∂(13)C values were generally less negative at high than at low nutrients. Differences among taxa were generally small. The results show that salinity affects both establishment and growth of hybridizing Carpobrotus. The overall weak species differences in salt tolerance indicate that the exotic C. edulis can occupy the same sites as C. chilensis in terms of salinity. The similarity of hybrids in their response to salinity suggests that they may contribute to the invasion by Carpobrotus.

  12. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported.

  13. Morphological plasticity in response to shading in three Convolvulus species of different ecological breadth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Alejandra V.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2004-12-01

    We evaluated in common-garden experiments the morphological plasticity to shading of three Convolvulus species that occur in Chile and differ in ecological breadth. Convolvulus arvensis L. is a world weed distributed along the country, and is found in open as well as in shaded habitats. Convolvulus chilensis Pers. is a Chilean endemic species typical of coastal habitats, and is found in open to partially open sites. C. demissus choisy occurs only on slopes of the Andes of Chile and Argentina, habitats with high incidence of solar radiation. We hypothesized that the magnitude of phenotypic plasticity to shading of these species would correlate with their ecological breadth. Shading had a significant effect on internode length, petiole length, stem diameter, stem length, number of branches, leaf area, leaf shape, leaf biomass, and specific leaf area. Species differed in all the morphological traits except leaf biomass. A significant Shading × Species interaction in the two-way ANOVA, i.e. differential plasticity to shading of Convolvulus species, was found for petiole length, stem length, number of branches, leaf shape, and specific leaf area. Contrary to our hypothesis, tests of parallelism showed that, in general, the plasticity to shading of C. chilensis (the species of intermediate ecological breadth) was the greatest, and that of C. arvensis (the weed) and C. demissus (the species of narrow distribution) was similar. Issues of ecotype differentiation, in the case of C. arvensis, and the role of life history traits are raised to explain the observed lack of association between ecological breadth and magnitude of phenotypic plasticity.

  14. Natural distribution of parasitoids of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gabriela Murúa, M; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  15. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  16. The cestode order Rhinebothriidea no longer family-less: A molecular phylogenetic investigation with erection of two new families and description of eight new species of Anthocephalum.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Timothy R; Caira, Janine N; Cox, Allison

    2015-01-05

    The spiral intestines of a total of 30 specimens of 14 species of batoids from around the world were examined for rhinebothriideans. These consisted of Taeniura grabata, Dasyatis margaritella, and Dasyatis sp. from Senegal, Dasyatis americana from Florida, Dasyatis dipterura and Dasyatis longa from México, Himantura jenkinsii, Himantura leoparda, Himantura uarnak 2, Urogymnus asperrimus 1, and Neotrygon kuhlii 4 from Australia, in addition to Himantura uarnacoides and Neotrygon kuhlii 1 from Borneo. Each of these hosted one or more species of Anthocephalum. Eleven of the cestode species were new to science; four represented described species. In addition, Urotrygon aspidura from Costa Rica hosted a species of Escherbothrium. Sufficient material was available for formal description of the following eight species of Anthocephalum: A. decrisantisorum n. sp., A. healyae n. sp., A. jensenae n. sp., A. mattisi n. sp., A. meadowsi n. sp., A. odonnellae n. sp., A. papefayi n. sp., and A. philruschi n. sp. These species differ from their nine described congeners in overall size, number of proglottids and marginal loculi, number and arrangement of testes, apical sucker size, arrangement and distribution of vitelline follicles particularly with respect in the post-poral field, and muscularity of the genital pore. The diagnosis of Anthocephalum is emended slightly to accommodate these new species. Material of four previously described Anthocephalum species, seven of the novel Anthocephalum species described here, 3 undescribed Anthocephalum species, and the species of Escherbothrium was preserved in 95% ethanol and partial 28S rDNA (D1-D3) and complete 18S rDNA sequence data were generated de novo. These data were combined with data from GenBank for Anthocephalum cf. centrurum (recognized as A. mattisi n. sp. below) and 29 species representing 12 other putative rhinebothriidean genera. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods were

  17. Structure and function of the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) cranium through ontogeny: development of a hard prey specialist.

    PubMed

    Summers, Adam P; Ketcham, Richard A; Rowe, Timothy

    2004-04-01

    The horn sharks (Heterodontidae: Chondrichthyes) represent one of four independent evolutions of durophagy in the cartilaginous fishes. We used high-resolution computed tomography (CT scanning) to visualize and quantify the mineralized tissue of an ontogenetic series of horn sharks. CT scanning of neonatal through adult California horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci) confirmed that this technique is effective for examining mineralized tissue in even small (<10 mm) specimens. The jaw joint is among the first areas to become mineralized and is the most heavily mineralized area in the cranium of a neonatal horn shark. The hyoid is also well mineralized, although the poorly mineralized molariform teeth indicate that the neonatal animal may be a suction feeder on softer prey. The symphysis of the jaws never mineralizes, in sharp contrast to the condition in the hard prey-crushing stingrays. Digitally reslicing the CT scans along the jaws allowed measurement of the second moment of area (Ina). Assuming that the jaws are made of the same material at all ages, Ina is an indicator of the flexural stiffness of the jaws. In all sizes of shark the lower jaws were stiffer than the upper and the stiffness increased in the area of the molariform teeth. The central region of the jaws, where the rami meet, support cuspidate grasping teeth and has the lowest Ina. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari), a hard prey-crushing stingray, shows a different pattern of flexural stiffness, with the peak at the central part of the jaws where the prey is reduced between flattened tooth plates. Although the eagle ray jaws have a higher Ina than the horn shark, they are also far more heavily mineralized. When the relative amounts of mineralization are taken into account, horn sharks do better with what mineral they have than does the eagle ray. With a tight jaw joint and loose mandibular symphysis, as well as nearly opposite patterns of stiffness in the jaws, it is clear that two of the

  18. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  19. Bites and stings by exotic pets in Europe: an 11 year analysis of 404 cases from Northeastern Germany and Southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Andreas; Desel, Herbert; Ebbecke, Martin; De Haro, Luc; Deters, Michael; Hentschel, Helmut; Hermanns-Clausen, Maren; Langer, Claus

    2009-01-01

    The presence of exotic, and sometimes venomous, pets in European homes is becoming more common. This phenomenon is the basis of a French-German cooperative evaluation of the species causing the injuries and the circumstances, severity, and treatment of the envenomations A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, case series of data from 1996 to 2006. The study sample consists of all cases of bites and stings by exotic pets that were registered at four poisons European poisons centers. The inclusion criteria were bites and stings of human beings. From 1996 to 2006 four poisons centers in Europe were consulted on 404 bites and stings by exotic pets. The average age of the patients was 36 (2 to 75) years and 73% of the patients were male. The severity of the envenomations, according to the Poisoning Severity Score, was as follows: 29 severe (7.1%), 55 moderate (14.2%) and 320 minor (78.7%). There were no fatalities in this case series. Exotic snakebites from rattlesnakes, cobras, mambas, and other venomous snakes caused 39% of envenomations, aquatic animals (mostly lionfish of the Pterois genus and stingrays) caused 30% of envenomations and arthropods (tarantulas and scorpions) caused 27% of envenomations. All severe envenomations were caused by venomous snakes. European healthcare professionals may encounter patients bitten or stung by exotic pets. Poisons center consultation can help manage these unusual presentations and help obtain rarely used antivenoms.

  20. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    PubMed

    Volpov, Beth L; Hoskins, Andrew J; Battaile, Brian C; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application.

  1. Hunting poisons of the North Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Bisset, N G

    1976-01-01

    The hunting poisons of the North Pacific region are discussed. The most important one used by the Ainu was based on Aconitum species (surku or suruku): on Hokkaido, to some extent A. japonicum Thumb. but probably mainly A. yezoense Nakai and A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; on southern Sakhalin, perhaps A. fischeri Reichb., A. maximum Pall. ex DC., and/or A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; and on the Kuril Islands, A. maximum Pall. ex DC. Poison from the Japanese stingray Dasyatis akajei (Müller et Henle) (aikor chiep) was also much used, alone or mixed with aconite, and was believed by some Ainu to be better than aconite. Adjuvants to these poisons were numerous and varied in each locality. Daphne kamtschatica Maxim. var. yezoensis (Maxim.) Ohwi (ketuhas) was used in hunting walrus. The use of Cynanchum caudatum (Miq.) Maxim. (penup) enabled birds to be caught. Juglans ailanthifolia Carr (nesko) was a fish poison. A critical evaluation of the accounts by Krasheninnikov, Steller, Harms, and others, indicates that the inhibitants of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kamchadal (Itelmen), hunted with a poison derived from Aconitum maximum Pall. ex DC. This same species was almost certainly used in the Aleutian Islands and the Kodiak Island region, principally for hunting whales. There is some evidence that the inhabitants of the far north-eastern part of Siberia and of the Alaskan coasts opposite may also have used poison in hunting. The chemistry and toxicology of the poisons are briefly considered.

  2. Description of a new trypanorhynch species (Cestoda) from Indonesian Borneo, with the suppression of Oncomegoides and the erection of a new genus Hispidorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Beveridge, Ian

    2012-04-01

    A new species of Oncomegas Dollfus, 1929 is described from the cowtail stingray, Pastinachus atrus (Macleay), collected in the Makassar Strait, Indonesian Borneo. Oncomegas trimegacanthus n. sp. possesses 2 oval bothria, gland cells within the bulbs, prebulbar organs, a distinctive basal armature with a single macrohook on the bothrial surface of the asymmetrical basal swelling, and a heteroacanthous, heteromorphous metabasal armature with 10 hooks per principle row. It differs from congeners by its possession of additional enlarged hooks at the base of the tentacle. Because of apparent morphological similarities, we suppress the genus Oncomegoides Beveridge & Campbell, 2005 with Oncomegas, and place the type and only species, Oncomegoides celatus Beveridge & Campbell, 2005 , within Oncomegas as Oncomegas celatus n. comb. Three species of Oncomegas , namely, Oncomegas paulinae Toth, Campbell & Schmidt, 1992, Oncomegas australiensis Toth, Campbell & Schmidt, 1992, and Oncomegas aetobatidis Campbell & Beveridge, 2009, differ from other species, possessing testes posterior to the ovary and a metabasal armature consisting of tiny, relatively homeomorphous hooks, with more than 14 hooks per principle row. Based on these morphological differences, a new genus, Hispidorhynchus n. gen., is erected, with Hispidorhynchus australiensis n. comb. as the type species.

  3. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth; Lamb, Bradford; Prudell, Joseph; Hammagren, Erik; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  4. Adaptation of a corticosterone ELISA to demonstrate sequence-specific effects of angiotensin II peptides and C-type natriuretic peptide on 1alpha-hydroxycorticosterone synthesis and steroidogenic mRNAs in the elasmobranch interrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Rimoldi, John M; Gadepalli, Rama S V; Nunez, B Scott

    2010-06-01

    It is thought that a single corticosteroid, 1alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1alpha-B), is both a glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid in the elasmobranch fishes. We investigated the putative mineralocorticoid role of 1alpha-B by examining regulation of interrenal 1alpha-B synthesis by osmoregulatory hormones in the euryhaline stingray Dasyatis sabina. Using synthesized steroid, a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay was validated for the quantification of 1alpha-B. In interrenal cultures, the antinatriuretic peptide angiotensin II (ANG II) was potently steroidogenic, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide had no effect on 1alpha-B titers. However, both peptides significantly decreased abundance of rate-limiting steroidogenic mRNAs (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR; cholesterol side-chain cleavage, P450scc). We also isolated cDNAs encoding ANG II from three species of elasmobranch, verifying heterogeneity among elasmobranch peptides at the first amino acid position. Potential implications of this heterogeneity were investigated by examining the effects of homologous and heterologous ANG II on interrenal steroid production and steroidogenic mRNAs. Changes at amino acid position three, but not position one, of ANG II significantly affected steroidogenic potency. Conversely, changes at position one, but not position three, significantly affected the potency of ANG II to alter levels of steroidogenic mRNAs. This study is the first to demonstrate regulation of elasmobranch steroidogenic mRNAs by osmoregulatory peptides. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stability Design and Response to Waves by Batoids.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E; Hoffman, Jessica L

    2015-10-01

    Unsteady flows in the marine environment can affect the stability and locomotor costs of animals. For fish swimming at shallow depths, waves represent a form of unsteady flow. Waves consist of cyclic oscillations, during which the water moves in circular or elliptical orbits. Large gravity waves have the potential to displace fish both cyclically and in the direction of wave celerity for animals floating in the water column or holding station on the bottom. Displacement of a fish can exceed its stability control capability when the size of the wave orbit is equivalent to the size of the fish. Previous research into compensatory behaviors of fishes to waves has focused on pelagic osteichthyan fishes with laterally compressed bodies. However, dorsoventrally compressed batoid rays must also contend with waves. Examination of rays subjected to waves showed differing strategies for stability between pelagic and demersal species. Pelagic cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) would glide through or be transported by waves, maintaining a positive dihedral of the wing-like pectoral fins. Demersal Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) and freshwater rays (Potamotrygon motoro) maintained contact with the bottom and performed compensatory fin motions and body postures. The ability to limit displacement due to wave action by the demersal rays was also a function of the bottom texture. The ability of rays to maintain stability due to wave action suggests mechanisms to compensate for the velocity flux of the water impinging on the large projected area of the enlarged pectoral fins of rays.

  6. Envenomation: a real risk of keeping exotic house pets.

    PubMed

    de Haro, Luc; Pommier, Philip

    2003-08-01

    The fashion of exotic animals maintained as pets is increasing in France. Cases of envenomation after exotic animals bites or stings were studied. All 54 non-native animal envenomations reported by hospitals at the Poison Centre of Marseilles (3 south-eastern regions of France) between 1997 and 2002 were surveyed. They involved 22 snakes, 18 fishes, 11 spiders, 1 scorpion and 2 marine invertebrates. The snakes belonged to crotalids (genus Crotalus, Sistrurus, Agkistrodon and Trimeresurus), viperids (genus Bitis, Echis and Macrovipera, responsible for extensive swelling and coagulation disturbances), elapids (Naja and Dendroaspis which induce severe neurological signs), and colubrids (Lampropeltis with pain, edema and lymphangitis). Nine of the 22 patients bitten by snakes needed Intensive Care Unit management, and 5 of them received antivenom. Fish stings produced severe pain and local swelling. An Amazonian Stingray Potamotrygon histrix case had extensive swelling and malaise, headache and tremor. Pain and lymphangitis developed from tarantulas bites, and a black widow bite produced a severe diffuse muscle pain and contractions, and blood pressure disturbances. Exotic pets can be dangerous for their owners and family. Since antivenom from foreign countries is not often available in France, these cases raise the question of society's responsibility for treatment costs.

  7. Surgical hazards posed by marine and freshwater animals in Florida.

    PubMed

    Howard, R J; Burgess, G H

    1993-11-01

    Marine and freshwater animals can cause injury to humans by biting, stinging, being poisonous to eat, and causing infections. Biting aquatic animals in Florida include sharks, barracudas, alligators, and moray eels. Devitalized tissue should be débrided, and vascular, neurologic, and tendinous injuries should be repaired. Radiographs should be obtained to examine the injury sit for fractures and retained foreign bodies (teeth). The spines of stingrays and marine catfish can cause soft tissue injury and infection. The spine has a recurved, serrated shape that may cause further injury and break if it is pulled out. The venom may cause local tissue necrosis requiring débridement. Soft tissue infections with marine Vibrio bacteria can occur after eating raw oysters or receiving even minor injuries from marine animals. Thirty-one individuals developed soft tissue infections, 49 developed sepsis, and 23 developed both sepsis and soft tissue infection with marine Vibrio species during a 12-year period. Sixteen patients developed necrotizing soft tissue infections. Treatment is with antibiotics and débridement when necrosis occurs.

  8. Auditory evoked potential measurements in elasmobranchs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Brandon; Mann, David

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were first used to examine hearing in elasmobranchs by Corwin and Bullock in the late 1970s and early 1980s, marking the first time AEPs had been measured in fishes. Results of these experiments identified the regions of the ear and brain in which sound is processed, though no actual hearing thresholds were measured. Those initial experiments provided the ground work for future AEP experiments to measure fish hearing abilities in a manner that is much faster and more convenient than classical conditioning. Data will be presented on recent experiments in which AEPs were used to measure the hearing thresholds of two species of elasmobranchs: the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicencis. Audiograms were analyzed and compared to previously published audiograms obtained using classical conditioning with results indicating that hearing thresholds were similar for the two methods. These data suggest that AEP testing is a viable option when measuring hearing in elasmobranchs and can increase the speed in which future hearing measurements can be obtained.

  9. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Volpov, Beth L.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Battaile, Brian C.; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application. PMID:26107647

  10. Major pathologic findings and probable causes of mortality in bottlenose dolphins stranded in South Carolina from 1993 to 2006.

    PubMed

    McFee, Wayne E; Lipscomb, Thomas P

    2009-07-01

    Although cause-of-death information on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be located in the literature, few citations include mortality data over a long period of time covering a broad geographic region. This study describes major pathologic findings and probable causes of death of bottlenose dolphins over a 14-yr period (1993-2006) for the coastal region of South Carolina. Probable causes of death for 97 cases were determined based on gross pathology and histopathology. In an additional 30 cases, probable cause of death was apparent from gross pathology alone, and carcass condition precluded histopathology. Of the 97 dolphins examined grossly and histologically, 30 (31%) likely died of infectious disease and 46 (47%) of noninfectious disease; the cause of death was unknown in 21 (22%). Bacterial infections accounted for the large majority of fatal infections and emaciation was the leading cause of noninfectious mortality. Twelve dolphins were killed by human interactions. Of the 30 dolphins diagnosed from gross examination alone, 23 likely died from human interaction and seven were killed by stingray-spine inflictions. Although the absence of consistent use of microbiology, biotoxin analysis and contaminant testing decreases the conclusiveness of the findings, this study has broad implications in establishing baseline data on causes of death of bottlenose dolphins for future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases.

  11. Two new species of Tetragonocephalum (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from Pastinachus sephen (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Aminjan, Atabak Roohi; Masoumeh, Malek

    2017-04-24

    In the present study two new species of Tetragonocephalum Shipley et Hornell, 1905, T. mackenziei sp. n. and T. kazemii sp. n., are described from the spiral intestine of the cowtail stingray, Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål), from the northern coast of the Gulf of Oman. Tetragonocephalum mackenziei is distinguished from the 16 other valid species of Tetragonocephalum by a unique combination of characteristics, i.e. sperm-filled seminal receptacle in immature proglottids, body length (7.7-17.5 mm), body width (213-288 µm), number of proglottids (34-49), number of testes (10-14), size of scolex (228-315 µm × 213-288 µm) and size of acetabula (56-73 µm × 61-75 µm). Tetragonocephalum kazemii is morphologically distinguishable from its valid congeners and T. mackenziei based on a combination of characteristics, including body length (28.8-36.6 mm), number of proglottids (50-65), number of testes (30-42), size of scolex (388-564 µm × 326-448 µm), size of acetabula (62-86 µm × 57-90 µm) and testes (25-39 × 21-32). This brings the total number of validly described species of Tetragonocephalum to 18 and expands our knowledge of this diverse genus to now include the Gulf of Oman, as well as Arafura Sea, northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean.

  12. Spatial learning and memory retention in the grey bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium griseum).

    PubMed

    Schluessel, Vera; Bleckmann, Horst

    2012-12-01

    Like other vertebrates, fish can learn to solve a wide variety of tasks; however, many of their cognitive abilities, particularly in cartilaginous fishes, still remain unknown. This study investigated memory retention capabilities of spatial learning tasks in the grey bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium griseum, n=8) after behavioural training in a two-choice experiment (T-maze). Sharks learned to obtain food at a goal location, either by performing a specific turn response or by using a variety of external landmarks for guidance. Following successful training, sharks were subjected to several training breaks ranging from one to six weeks, after which they were tested again for memory retention capabilities. Sharks successfully mastered the spatial tasks after 5-21 sessions and retained this knowledge in the absence of reinforcement for a period of up to six weeks. This is the first study to show that sharks, like stingrays and other vertebrates, can solve spatial tasks and retain spatial knowledge for an extended period of time, possibly aiding them in activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice and habitat selection.

  13. Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hadi; Sajjadi, Mir Masoud; Parto, Paria; Rajaian, Hamid; Mokhlesi, Amin

    2010-06-01

    Rays are common elasmobranches in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea that may have one or more mineralized serrated stingers on the whip-like tail. The stingers are covered by epidermal cells among which some can produce venom. When these animals are dorsally touched, the stinger can be introduced into the aggressor by a whip reflex mechanism of the tail when the pectoral fins are touched, causing severe mechanical injuries and inoculating the venom. The exact localization of the venom secretory cells in the stinger of different species is controversial, but it is known that the cells are preferentially located in the ventro-lateral grooves in marine stingrays. A comparative morphological characterization of the stinger epidermal tissue of different ray species in the northern part of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea was carried out in this study. EDTA was used for decalcification of stings and conventional histological processes were subsequently employed. The results indicated that structure of dermis and epidermis layers of stings in all species are similar to the structure of corresponding layers in other parts of fish's body. The results of the present study have shown that all examined species of Dasyatidae family, but not Myliobatidae and Gymnuridae families, had venom secretory cells. Distribution of venom secretory cells varies in each species and is often located around or inside the stinger ventro-lateral grooves. These differences among the stingers of various species may explain the envenomation severity in these species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth of Tropical dasyatid Rays Estimated Using a Multi-Analytical Approach

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Owen R.; Braccini, Matias; McAuley, Rory; Speed, Conrad W.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the age and growth of four sympatric stingrays: reticulate whipray, Himanutra uarnak (n=19); blue mask, Neotrygon kuhlii (n=34); cowtail, Pastinachus atrus (n=32) and blue-spotted fantail, Taeniura lymma (n=40) rays at Ningaloo Reef, a fringing coral reef on the north-western coast of western Australia. Age estimates derived from band counts within sectioned vertebrae ranged between 1 and 27 years (H. uarnak, 1 - 25 yrs.; N. kuhlii, 1.5 - 13 yrs.; P. atrus, 1 - 27 yrs. and T. lymma, 1 -11 yrs.). Due to limitations of sample sizes, we combined several analytical methods for estimating growth parameters. First, we used nonlinear least squares (NLS) to identify the growth model that best fitted the data. We then used this model, prior information and the data within a Bayesian framework to approximate the posterior distribution of the growth parameters. For all species the two-parameter von Bertalanffy growth model provided the best fit to size-at-age datasets. Based on this model, the Bayesian approach allowed the estimation of median values of WD∞ (cm) and k (yr-1) for the four species (H. uarnak: 149 and 0.12; N. kuhlii: 42 and 0.38; P. atrus 156 and 0.16, and T. lymma 33 and 0.24, respectively). Our approach highlights the value of combining different analytical methods and prior knowledge for estimating growth parameters when data quality and quantity are limited. PMID:24146968

  15. Hypothesis and Theory: Revisiting Views on the Co-evolution of the Melanocortin Receptors and the Accessory Proteins, MRAP1 and MRAP2

    PubMed Central

    Dores, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) is closely associated with the evolution of the melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs). Recent annotation of the elephant shark genome project revealed the sequence of a putative MRAP1 ortholog. The presence of this sequence in the genome of a cartilaginous fish raises the possibility that the mrap1 and mrap2 genes in the genomes of gnathostome vertebrates were the result of the chordate 2R genome duplication event. The presence of a putative MRAP1 ortholog in a cartilaginous fish genome is perplexing. Recent studies on melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) in the genomes of the elephant shark and the Japanese stingray indicate that these MC2R orthologs can be functionally expressed in CHO cells without co-expression of an exogenous mrap1 cDNA. The novel ligand selectivity of these cartilaginous fish MC2R orthologs is discussed. Finally, the origin of the mc2r and mc5r genes is reevaluated. The distinctive primary sequence conservation of MC2R and MC5R is discussed in light of the physiological roles of these two MCR paralogs. PMID:27445982

  16. [Peculiarities of the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte plasma membranes of the Black Sea fish].

    PubMed

    Silkin, Iu A; Silkina, E N; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2012-01-01

    The phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the main phospholipids families of erythrocyte plasma membranes was studied in two species of cartilaginous fish: the common thrasher (Raja clavata L.) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) and three bony fish species: the scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus L.), the smarida (Spicara flexuosa Raf.), and the horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev). It was shown that in the studied fish, 70.0-80.0 % of all membrane phospholipids were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylserine, monophosphoinositide, and sphingomyelin were minor components whose content in the erythrocyte membrane fluctuated from 3.0 % to 13.0 %. The fatty acid phospholipids composition was represented by a large specter of acids. From saturated acids, basic for plasma membranes are palmitic (C16: 0) and stearic (C18: 0) acids. From unsaturated acids, the larger part belong to mono-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaenoic acids in fish phospholipids. The calculation of the double bond index and of the unsaturation coefficient showed difference in the deformation ability of erythrocyte membranes of the studied fish.

  17. Body plan convergence in the evolution of skates and rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea).

    PubMed

    Aschliman, Neil C; Nishida, Mutsumi; Miya, Masaki; Inoue, Jun G; Rosana, Kerri M; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2012-04-01

    Skates, rays and allies (Batoidea) comprise more than half of the species diversity and much of the morphological disparity among chondrichthyan fishes, the sister group to all other jawed vertebrates. While batoids are morphologically well characterized and have an excellent fossil record, there is currently no consensus on the interrelationships of family-level taxa. Here we construct a resolved, robust and time-calibrated batoid phylogeny using mitochondrial genomes, nuclear genes, and fossils, sampling densely across taxa. Data partitioning schemes, biases in the sequence data, and the relative informativeness of each fossil are explored. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with morphology crownward in the tree, but the branching orders of major batoid groups are mostly novel. Body plan convergence appears to be widespread in batoids. A depressed, rounded pectoral disk supported to the snout tip by fin radials, common to skates and stingrays, is indicated to have been derived independently by each group, while the long, spiny rostrum of sawfishes similarly appears to be convergent with that of sawsharks, which are not batoids. The major extant batoid lineages are inferred to have arisen relatively rapidly from the Late Triassic into the Jurassic, with long stems followed by subsequent radiations in each group around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. The fossil record indicates that batoids were affected with disproportionate severity by the end-Cretaceous extinction event.

  18. Systematics and morphology of Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) and allied forms (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, João Paulo C B Da; Carvalho, Marcelo R De

    2015-07-08

    The Neotropical freshwater stingray Potamotrygom orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855), and other similar "reticulated" species occurring in northern South American basins, were submitted to a thorough taxonomic analysis based on an extensive external and internal morphological study. The identity of P. orbignyi and the taxonomic status of the related nominal species Potamotrygon dumerilii (Castelnau, 1855), Potamotrygon reticulata (Günther, 1880), and Potamotrygon humerosa Garman, 1913, are defined. Taxonomic and morphological analyses revealed that P. reticulata and P. dumerilii fall within the range of variation found in P. orbignyi and were consequently treated as junior synonyms, corroborating previous works. The extensive variation in coloration observed in P. orbignyi could not be divided into consistent morphotypes; P. orbignyi is therefore a widespread species in the upper, mid and lower Amazonas basin, the Orinoco drainage, and in rivers of Suriname and the Guianas. Additionally, P. humerosa and Potamotrygon marinae Deynat, 2007 were found to present characters that support their validity, and are redescribed based on newly collected material. Potamotrygon humerosa occurs predominantly in the mid and lower Amazonas River and in lower reaches of many of its affluents, whereas P. marinae is known only from French Guiana and Suriname. Characters that proved valuable as diagnostic indicators, either in combination or as derived features, are primarily from coloration, dermal denticles and spines (morphology, development and distribution), meristic features (e.g. numbers of tooth rows, vertebrae and mesopterygial radials), morphometric proportions (e.g. snout length, tail width at base and length), and size at sexual maturity.

  19. Molecular phylogenetics of myliobatiform fishes (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes), with comments on the effects of missing data on parsimony and likelihood.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Katherine A; McEachran, John D; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2003-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences from the 12S rRNA gene, four tRNA genes, and a portion of two protein coding genes were used to investigate the relationship of myliobatoid genera. In addition, we conducted an investigation of the sister group to the freshwater stingrays by sampling additional DNA sequences from GenBank. Consequently, two datasets were used to examine myliobatoid relationships. The first consisted of the genes sequenced in this study. The second dataset was compiled by combining the first dataset with cytochrome b sequences from GenBank. The second dataset, however, included a number of missing characters due to differences in sampling. The effect of the missing characters on both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis was investigated by conducting a simulation study. Results of the simulation study indicated that maximum likelihood was not sensitive to the missing data, whereas the accuracy of maximum parsimony analysis was expected to decrease. Phylogenetic analysis of