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Sample records for stn dbs patients

  1. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD. PMID:26558134

  2. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  3. Stratifying Parkinson's Patients With STN-DBS Into High-Frequency or 60 Hz-Frequency Modulation Using a Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Khojandi, Anahita; Shylo, Oleg; Mannini, Lucia; Kopell, Brian H; Ramdhani, Ritesh A

    2017-07-01

    High frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly the cardinal motor symptoms and levodopa induced motor complications. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of 60 Hz stimulation in STN-deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with gait disorder. The objective of this study was to develop a computational model, which stratifies patients a priori based on symptomatology into different frequency settings (i.e., high frequency or 60 Hz). We retrospectively analyzed preoperative MDS-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III scores (32 indicators) collected from 20 PD patients implanted with STN-DBS at Mount Sinai Medical Center on either 60 Hz stimulation (ten patients) or HFS (130-185 Hz) (ten patients) for an average of 12 months. Predictive models using the Random Forest classification algorithm were built to associate patient/disease characteristics at surgery to the stimulation frequency. These models were evaluated objectively using leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The computational models produced, stratified patients into 60 Hz or HFS (130-185 Hz) with 95% accuracy. The best models relied on two or three predictors out of the 32 analyzed for classification. Across all predictors, gait and rest tremor of the right hand were consistently the most important. Computational models were developed using preoperative clinical indicators in PD patients treated with STN-DBS. These models were able to accurately stratify PD patients into 60 Hz stimulation or HFS (130-185 Hz) groups a priori, offering a unique potential to enhance the utilization of this therapy based on clinical subtypes. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  4. Investigating the effect of STN-DBS stimulation and different frequency settings on the acoustic-articulatory features of vowels.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Atilla; Sarac, Elif Tuğba; Aydinli, Fatma Esen; Yildizgoren, Mustafa Turgut; Okuyucu, Emine Esra; Serarslan, Yurdal

    2018-06-25

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent progressive neuro-degenerative disorder. In addition to motor symptoms, nonmotor symptoms and voice and speech disorders can also develop in 90% of PD patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of DBS and different DBS frequencies on speech acoustics of vowels in PD patients. The study included 16 patients who underwent STN-DBS surgery due to PD. The voice recordings for the vowels including [a], [e], [i], and [o] were performed at frequencies including 230, 130, 90, and 60 Hz and off-stimulation. The voice recordings were gathered and evaluated by the Praat software, and the effects on the first (F1), second (F2), and third formant (F3) frequencies were analyzed. A significant difference was found for the F1 value of the vowel [a] at 130 Hz compared to off-stimulation. However, no significant difference was found between the three formant frequencies with regard to the stimulation frequencies and off-stimulation. In addition, though not statistically significant, stimulation at 60 and 230 Hz led to several differences in the formant frequencies of other three vowels. Our results indicated that STN-DBS stimulation at 130 Hz had a significant positive effect on articulation of [a] compared to off-stimulation. Although there is not any statistical significant stimulation at 60 and 230 Hz may also have an effect on the articulation of [e], [i], and [o] but this effect needs to be investigated in future studies with higher numbers of participants.

  5. Prediction of STN-DBS Electrode Implantation Track in Parkinson's Disease by Using Local Field Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Telkes, Ilknur; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Abosch, Aviva; Ince, Nuri F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal electrophysiological placement of the DBS electrode may lead to better long term clinical outcomes. Inter-subject anatomical variability and limitations in stereotaxic neuroimaging increase the complexity of physiological mapping performed in the operating room. Microelectrode single unit neuronal recording remains the most common intraoperative mapping technique, but requires significant expertise and is fraught by potential technical difficulties including robust measurement of the signal. In contrast, local field potentials (LFPs), owing to their oscillatory and robust nature and being more correlated with the disease symptoms, can overcome these technical issues. Therefore, we hypothesized that multiple spectral features extracted from microelectrode-recorded LFPs could be used to automate the identification of the optimal track and the STN localization. In this regard, we recorded LFPs from microelectrodes in three tracks from 22 patients during DBS electrode implantation surgery at different depths and aimed to predict the track selected by the neurosurgeon based on the interpretation of single unit recordings. A least mean square (LMS) algorithm was used to de-correlate LFPs in each track, in order to remove common activity between channels and increase their spatial specificity. Subband power in the beta band (11–32 Hz) and high frequency range (200–450 Hz) were extracted from the de-correlated LFP data and used as features. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method was applied both for the localization of the dorsal border of STN and the prediction of the optimal track. By fusing the information from these low and high frequency bands, the dorsal border of STN was localized with a root mean square (RMS) error of 1.22 mm. The prediction accuracy for the optimal track was 80%. Individual beta band (11–32 Hz) and the range of high frequency oscillations (200–450 Hz) provided prediction accuracies of 72 and 68% respectively. The best

  6. In Parkinson's disease STN stimulation enhances responsiveness of movement initiation speed to high reward value.

    PubMed

    Kojovic, Maja; Higgins, Andrea; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2016-08-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is part of the motor, associative, and limbic cortico-striatal circuits through which it can influence a range of behaviours, with preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that the STN is involved in motivational modulation of behaviour. In the present study, we investigated if in Parkinson's disease (PD) motivational modulation of movement speed is altered by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN (STN-DBS). We studied the effect of monetary incentive on speed of movement initiation and execution in a computer-based simple reaction time task in 10 operated patients with Parkinson's disease using a STN DBS ON/OFF design and also in 11 healthy participants. Prospect of reward improved speed of movement initiation in PD patients both with STN-DBS ON and OFF. However, only with STN-DBS ON, the patients showed greater speeding of initiation time with higher reward magnitude, suggesting enhanced responsivity to higher reward value. Also, on the rewarded trials, PD patients ON stimulation made more anticipation errors than on unrewarded trials, reflecting a propensity to impulsive responses triggered by prospect of reward by subthalamic stimulation. The motivational modulation of movement speed was preserved and enhanced in PD with STN-DBS. Motivational modulation of movement speed in PD is maintained with STN-DBS, with STN stimulation having a further energizing effect on movement initiation in response to greater incentive value. Our results suggest that STN plays a role in integrating motivational influences into motor action, which may explain some previous reports of STN-DBS induced impulsivity with increased motivational salience of stimuli. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cognitive and Psychiatric Effects of STN versus GPi Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Ji-Ping; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus interna (GPi) can reduce motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and improve their quality of life. However, the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on cognitive functions and their psychiatric effects remain controversial. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to clarify these issues. We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Other sources, including internet-based clinical trial registries and grey literature sources, were also searched. After searching the literature, two investigators independently performed literature screens to assess the quality of the included trials and to extract the data. The outcomes included the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on multiple cognitive domains, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Seven articles related to four randomized controlled trials that included 521 participants were incorporated into the present meta-analysis. Compared with GPi DBS, STN DBS was associated with declines in selected cognitive domains after surgery, including attention, working memory and processing speed, phonemic fluency, learning and memory, and global cognition. However, there were no significant differences in terms of quality of life or psychiatric effects, such as depression and anxiety, between the two groups. A selective decline in frontal-subcortical cognitive functions is observed after STN DBS in comparison with GPi DBS, which should not be ignored in the target selection for DBS treatment in PD patients. In addition, compared to GPi DBS, STN DBS does not affect depression, anxiety, and quality of life.

  8. What is dorso-lateral in the subthalamic Nucleus (STN)?--a topographic and anatomical consideration on the ambiguous description of today's primary target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Volker A; Prescher, Andreas; Schmidt, Thorsten; Picozzi, Piero; Gielen, Frans L H

    2008-11-01

    The most frequently used target for DBS in advanced Parkinson Disease (PD) is the sensorimotor subthalamic nucleus (STN), anatomically referred to as dorso-lateral STN [3]. Ambiguities arise, regarding the true meaning of this description in the STN. Does "dorsal" indicate posterior or superior? At its best, this definition assigns two directions in space to a three-dimensional structure. This paper evaluates the ambiguity and describes the sensorimotor part of the STN in stereotactic space.

  9. Artistic creativity and DBS: a case report.

    PubMed

    Drago, V; Foster, P S; Okun, M S; Haq, I; Sudhyadhom, A; Skidmore, F M; Heilman, K M

    2009-01-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who are not adequately controlled with medications. An artist reported changes in her artistic creativity and art appreciation when treated with left DBS. We sought to study her artistic productions and her appreciation of art while both "on" and "off" left DBS. A 69-year-old right-handed woman with an approximate 20-year history of PD was referred to us for management of a left subthalamic region nucleus (STN) DBS placed at another institution 4 years prior. In Experiment 1 we had her rate several dimensions (Evocative Impact, Aesthetics, Novelty, Technique, Closure and Representation) of another artist's paintings. In Experiment 2, we tested her with the Abbreviated Torrance Test (of creativity) for Adults (ATTA). During testing the patient remained on her dopaminergic medication, but was tested on and off left DBS. On the judgment task while "on" left DBS, versus "off" DBS, there were significant reductions in her appreciation of artistic Closure and Technique. When "off" DBS her ATTA creativity index was above average, but when switched "on" her creativity index was below average. These results suggest the possibility that left ventral STN/SNR DBS reduces creativity as well as appreciation of art. The reason for these alterations is not known, but might be related to enhanced activation of the left hemisphere and reciprocal deactivation of the right hemisphere which mediates both visuospatial skills and global attention, both of which are important in artistic creativity and appreciation.

  10. Reduction of influence of task difficulty on perceptual decision making by STN deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Green, Nikos; Bogacz, Rafal; Huebl, Julius; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Kühn, Andrea A; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-09-09

    Neurocomputational models of optimal decision making ascribe a crucial role-the computation of conflict between choice alternatives-to the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Specifically, these models predict that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN will diminish the influence of decision conflict on decision making. In this work, patients with Parkinson's disease judged the direction of motion in random dot stimuli while ON and OFF DBS. To induce decision conflict, we varied the task difficulty (motion coherence), leading to increased reaction time (RT) in trials with greater task difficulty in healthy subjects. Results indicate that DBS significantly influences performance for perceptual decisions under high decision conflict. RT increased substantially OFF DBS as the task became more difficult, and a diffusion model best accounted for behavioral data. In contrast, ON DBS, the influence of task difficulty on RT was significantly reduced and a race model best accounted for the observed data. Individual data fits of evidence accumulation models demonstrate different information processing under distinct DBS states. Furthermore, ON DBS, speed-accuracy tradeoffs affected the magnitude of decision criterion adjustment significantly less compared to OFF DBS. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role for the STN in adjusting decision making during high-conflict trials in perceptual decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative study of microelectrode recording-based STN location and MRI-based STN location in low to ultra-high field (7.0 T) T2-weighted MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhagen, Rens; Schuurman, P. Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Fiorella Contarino, M.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Bour, Lo J.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. The correspondence between the anatomical STN and the STN observed in T2-weighted MRI images used for deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting remains unclear. Using a new method, we compared the STN borders seen on MRI images with those estimated by intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER). Approach. We developed a method to automatically generate a detailed estimation of STN shape and the location of its borders, based on multiple-channel MER measurements. In 33 STNs of 19 Parkinson patients, we quantitatively compared the dorsal and lateral borders of this MER-based STN model with the STN borders visualized by 1.5 T (n = 14), 3.0 T (n = 10) and 7.0 T (n = 9) T2-weighted MRI. Main results. The dorsal border was identified more dorsally on coronal T2 MRI than by the MER-based STN model, with a significant difference in the 3.0 T (range 0.97-1.19 mm) and 7.0 T (range 1.23-1.25 mm) groups. The lateral border was significantly more medial on 1.5 T (mean: 1.97 mm) and 3.0 T (mean: 2.49 mm) MRI than in the MER-based STN; a difference that was not found in the 7.0 T group. Significance. The STN extends further in the dorsal direction on coronal T2 MRI images than is measured by MER. Increasing MRI field strength to 3.0 T or 7.0 T yields similar discrepancies between MER and MRI at the dorsal STN border. In contrast, increasing MRI field strength to 7.0 T may be useful for identification of the lateral STN border and thereby improve DBS targeting.

  12. Comparison of imaging modalities and source-localization algorithms in locating the induced activity during deep brain stimulation of the STN.

    PubMed

    Mideksa, K G; Singh, A; Hoogenboom, N; Hellriegel, H; Krause, H; Schnitzler, A; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Schmidt, G; Muthuraman, M

    2016-08-01

    One of the most commonly used therapy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Identifying the most optimal target area for the placement of the DBS electrodes have become one of the intensive research area. In this study, the first aim is to investigate the capabilities of different source-analysis techniques in detecting deep sources located at the sub-cortical level and validating it using the a-priori information about the location of the source, that is, the STN. Secondly, we aim at an investigation of whether EEG or MEG is best suited in mapping the DBS-induced brain activity. To do this, simultaneous EEG and MEG measurement were used to record the DBS-induced electromagnetic potentials and fields. The boundary-element method (BEM) have been used to solve the forward problem. The position of the DBS electrodes was then estimated using the dipole (moving, rotating, and fixed MUSIC), and current-density-reconstruction (CDR) (minimum-norm and sLORETA) approaches. The source-localization results from the dipole approaches demonstrated that the fixed MUSIC algorithm best localizes deep focal sources, whereas the moving dipole detects not only the region of interest but also neighboring regions that are affected by stimulating the STN. The results from the CDR approaches validated the capability of sLORETA in detecting the STN compared to minimum-norm. Moreover, the source-localization results using the EEG modality outperformed that of the MEG by locating the DBS-induced activity in the STN.

  13. Targeting the brain: considerations in 332 consecutive patients treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) for severe neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Angelo; Cordella, Roberto; Messina, Giuseppe; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Romito, Luigi Michele; Albanese, Alberto; Rizzi, Michele; Nardocci, Nardo; Zorzi, Giovanna; Zekaj, Edvin; Villani, Flavio; Leone, Massimo; Gambini, Orsola; Broggi, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) extends the treatment of some severe neurological diseases beyond pharmacological and conservative therapy. Our experience extends the field of DBS beyond the treatment of Parkinson disease and dystonia, including several other diseases such as cluster headache and disruptive behavior. Since 1993, at the Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta" in Milan, 580 deep brain electrodes were implanted in 332 patients. The DBS targets include Stn, GPi, Voa, Vop, Vim, CM-pf, pHyp, cZi, Nacc, IC, PPN, and Brodmann areas 24 and 25. Three hundred patients are still available for follow-up and therapeutic considerations. DBS gave a new therapeutic chance to these patients affected by severe neurological diseases and in some cases controlled life-threatening pathological conditions, which would otherwise result in the death of the patient such as in status dystonicus, status epilepticus and post-stroke hemiballismus. The balance of DBS in severe neurological disease is strongly positive even if further investigations and studies are needed to search for new applications and refine the selection criteria for the actual indications.

  14. Verbal Memory Decline following DBS for Parkinson's Disease: Structural Volumetric MRI Relationships.

    PubMed

    Geevarghese, Ruben; Lumsden, Daniel E; Costello, Angela; Hulse, Natasha; Ayis, Salma; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic degenerative movement disorder. The mainstay of treatment is medical. In certain patients Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may be offered. However, DBS has been associated with post-operative neuropsychology changes, especially in verbal memory. Firstly, to determine if pre-surgical thalamic and hippocampal volumes were related to verbal memory changes following DBS. Secondly, to determine if clinical factors such as age, duration of symptoms or motor severity (UPDRS Part III score) were related to verbal memory changes. A consecutive group of 40 patients undergoing bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)-DBS for PD were selected. Brain MRI data was acquired, pre-processed and structural volumetric data was extracted using FSL. Verbal memory test scores for pre- and post-STN-DBS surgery were recorded. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between score change and structural volumetric data. A significant relationship was demonstrated between change in List Learning test score and thalamic (left, p = 0.02) and hippocampal (left, p = 0.02 and right p = 0.03) volumes. Duration of symptoms was also associated with List Learning score change (p = 0.02 to 0.03). Verbal memory score changes appear to have a relationship to pre-surgical MRI structural volumetric data. The findings of this study provide a basis for further research into the use of pre-surgical MRI to counsel PD patients regarding post-surgical verbal memory changes.

  15. Shaking Up the Debate: Ensuring the Ethical Use of DBS Intervention Criteria for Mid-Stage Parkinson's Patients.

    PubMed

    Eijkholt, Marleen; Cabrera, Laura Y; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2017-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment for the management of severe motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Until recently, device regulation, medical, and insurance practices limited DBS to patients with advanced stages of PD. In February 2016 this changed, however, when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted formal approval for the use of brain stimulator in mid-stage PD patients. In this article, we examine whether DBS in mid-stage PD can be ethically justified beyond the FDA approval. We scrutinize the current risk-benefit profile, the costs-benefit profile, and the capacity for informed consent requirement, to ask if use of subthalamic nucleus (STN) in mid-stage DBS is ethically appropriate. We propose that mid-stage DBS decisions could be appropriate under a shared decision-making model, which embraces a broad quality of life perspective. Although it might be too premature to know how the FDA decision will affect medical and insurance practices, we conclude by arguing that revisions to persisting guidelines seems justified both on scientific and ethical grounds. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. Turning off artistic ability: the influence of left DBS in art production.

    PubMed

    Drago, V; Foster, P S; Okun, M S; Cosentino, F I I; Conigliaro, R; Haq, I; Sudhyadhom, A; Skidmore, F M; Heilman, K M

    2009-06-15

    The influence of Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as deep brain stimulation (DBS) on visual-artistic production of people who have been artists is unclear. We systematically assessed the artistic-creative productions of a patient with PD who was referred to us for management of a left subthalamic region (STN) DBS. The patient was an artist before her disease started, permitting us to analyze changes in her artistic-creative production over the course of the illness and during her treatment with DBS. We collected her paintings from four time periods: Time 1 (Early Pre-Presymptomatic), Time 2 (Later Presymptomatic), Time 3 (Symptomatic), and Time 4 (DBS Symptomatic). A total of 59 paintings were submitted to a panel of judges, who rated the paintings on 6 different artistic qualities including: aesthetics, closure, evocative impact, novelty, representation, technique. Aesthetics and evocative impact significantly declined from Time 2 to Time 4. Representation and technique indicated a curvilinear relationship, with initial improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 followed by a decline from Time 2 to Time 4. These results suggest that left STN/SNR-DBS impacted artistic performances in our patient. The reason for these alterations is not known, but it might be that alterations of left hemisphere functions induce a hemispheric bias reducing the influence the right hemisphere which is important for artistic creativity. The left hemisphere itself plays a critical role in artistic creativity and DBS might have altered left hemisphere functions or altered the mesolimbic system which might have also influenced creativity. Future studies will be required to learn how PD and DBS influence creativity.

  17. Effects of neurostimulation for advanced Parkinson’s disease patients on motor symptoms: A multiple-treatments meta-analysas of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Cheng-Long; Shao, Bei; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Yi; Lin, Shi-Yi; Wang, Wen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). We aim to evaluate the efficacy of GPi (globus pallidus internus), STN (subthalamic nucleus)-DBS and medical therapy for PD. We conducted a systematic review and multiple-treatments meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of neurostimulation and medical therapy for PD patients. Sixteen eligible studies were included in this analysis. We pooled the whole data and found obvious difference between GPi-DBS versus medical therapy and STN-DBS versus medical therapy in terms of UPDRS scores (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale). Meanwhile, we found GPi-DBS had the similar efficacy on the UPDRS scores when compared with STN-DBS. What is more, quality of life, measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson’s disease Questionnaire) showed greater improvement after GPi-DBS than STN-DBS. Five studies showed STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Overall, either GPi-DBS or STN-DBS was an effective technique to control PD patients’ symptoms and improved their functionality and quality of life. Meanwhile, the UPDRS scores measuring parkinsonian symptoms revealed no significant difference between GPi-DBS and STN-DBS. STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Alternatively, GPi-DBS was more effective for improving the PDQ-39 score than STN-DBS. PMID:27142183

  18. Articulation Features of Parkinson's Disease Patients with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tsuboi, Takashi; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Kajita, Yasukazu; Nakatsubo, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ohdake, Reiko; Ito, Mizuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-10-19

    Voice and speech disorders are one of the most important issues after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, articulation features in this patient population remain unclear. We studied the articulation features of PD patients with STN-DBS. Participants were 56 PD patients treated with STN-DBS (STN-DBS group) and 41 patients treated only with medical therapy (medical-therapy-alone group). Articulation function was evaluated with acoustic and auditory-perceptual analyses. The vowel space area (VSA) was calculated using the formant frequency data of three vowels (/a/, /i/, and /u/) from sustained phonation task. The VSA reportedly reflects the distance of mouth/jaw and tongue movements during speech and phonation. Correlations between acoustic and auditory-perceptual measurements were also assessed. The VSA did not significantly differ between the medical-therapy-alone group and the STN-DBS group in the off-stimulation condition. In the STN-DBS group, the VSA was larger in the on-stimulation condition than in the off-stimulation condition. However, individual analysis showed the VSA changes after stopping stimulation were heterogeneous. In total, 89.8% of the STN-DBS group showed a large VSA size in the on- than in the off-stimulation condition. In contrast, the VSA of the remaining patients in that group was smaller in the on- than the off-stimulation condition. STN-DBS may resolve hypokinesia of the articulation structures, including the mouth/jaw and tongue, and improve maximal vowel articulation. However, in the on-stimulation condition, the VSA was not significantly correlated with speech intelligibility. This may be because STN-DBS potentially affects other speech processes such as voice and/or respiratory process.

  19. Addition of deep brain stimulation signal to a local field potential driven Izhikevich model masks the pathological firing pattern of an STN neuron.

    PubMed

    Michmizos, Kostis P; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2011-01-01

    The crucial engagement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS) that alleviates medically intractable Parkinsonian tremor augments the need to refine our current understanding of STN. To enhance the efficacy of DBS as a result of precise targeting, STN boundaries are accurately mapped using extracellular microelectrode recordings (MERs). We utilized the intranuclear MER to acquire the local field potential (LFP) and drive an Izhikevich model of an STN neuron. Using the model as the test bed for clinically acquired data, we demonstrated that stimulation of the STN neuron produces excitatory responses that tonically increase its average firing rate and alter the pattern of its neuronal activity. We also found that the spiking rhythm increases linearly with the increase of amplitude, frequency, and duration of the DBS pulse, inside the clinical range. Our results are in agreement with the current hypothesis that DBS increases the firing rate of STN and masks its pathological bursting firing pattern.

  20. Verbal Memory Decline following DBS for Parkinson’s Disease: Structural Volumetric MRI Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Geevarghese, Ruben; Lumsden, Daniel E.; Costello, Angela; Hulse, Natasha; Ayis, Salma; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease is a chronic degenerative movement disorder. The mainstay of treatment is medical. In certain patients Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may be offered. However, DBS has been associated with post-operative neuropsychology changes, especially in verbal memory. Objectives Firstly, to determine if pre-surgical thalamic and hippocampal volumes were related to verbal memory changes following DBS. Secondly, to determine if clinical factors such as age, duration of symptoms or motor severity (UPDRS Part III score) were related to verbal memory changes. Methods A consecutive group of 40 patients undergoing bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)-DBS for PD were selected. Brain MRI data was acquired, pre-processed and structural volumetric data was extracted using FSL. Verbal memory test scores for pre- and post-STN-DBS surgery were recorded. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between score change and structural volumetric data. Results A significant relationship was demonstrated between change in List Learning test score and thalamic (left, p = 0.02) and hippocampal (left, p = 0.02 and right p = 0.03) volumes. Duration of symptoms was also associated with List Learning score change (p = 0.02 to 0.03). Conclusion Verbal memory score changes appear to have a relationship to pre-surgical MRI structural volumetric data. The findings of this study provide a basis for further research into the use of pre-surgical MRI to counsel PD patients regarding post-surgical verbal memory changes. PMID:27557088

  1. Role of dysphagia in evaluating Parkinson patients for subthalamic nucleus stimulation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Allert, Niels; Kelm, Daniela; Spottke, Annika; Coenen, Volker A

    2011-09-01

    In the selection of Parkinson patients for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) a risk-benefit-analysis is performed regarding symptoms that commonly improve and symptoms that may deteriorate. Speech is among the symptoms that may deteriorate. In contrast, the differential effects of STN-DBS on swallowing are less clear. Here, we present a Parkinson patient with dysphagia from concomitant oculo-pharyngeal muscle dystrophy successfully treated by STN-DBS. The role of dysphagia in evaluating Parkinson patients for STN-DBS is discussed.

  2. Effects of subthalamic stimulation on speech of consecutive patients with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Zrinzo, L.; Martinez-Torres, I.; Frost, E.; Pinto, S.; Foltynie, T.; Holl, E.; Petersen, E.; Roughton, M.; Hariz, M.I.; Limousin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Following STN-DBS, speech intelligibility can deteriorate, limiting its beneficial effect. Here we prospectively examined the short- and long-term speech response to STN-DBS in a consecutive series of patients to identify clinical and surgical factors associated with speech change. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients were assessed before surgery, then 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after STN-DBS in 4 conditions on- and off-medication with on- and off-stimulation using established and validated speech and movement scales. Fifteen of these patients were followed up for 3 years. A control group of 12 patients with PD were followed up for 1 year. Results: Within the surgical group, speech intelligibility significantly deteriorated by an average of 14.2% ± 20.15% off-medication and 16.9% ± 21.8% on-medication 1 year after STN-DBS. The medical group deteriorated by 3.6% ± 5.5% and 4.5% ± 8.8%, respectively. Seven patients showed speech amelioration after surgery. Loudness increased significantly in all tasks with stimulation. A less severe preoperative on-medication motor score was associated with a more favorable speech response to STN-DBS after 1 year. Medially located electrodes on the left STN were associated with a significantly higher risk of speech deterioration than electrodes within the nucleus. There was a strong relationship between high voltage in the left electrode and poor speech outcome at 1 year. Conclusion: The effect of STN-DBS on speech is variable and multifactorial, with most patients exhibiting decline of speech intelligibility. Both medical and surgical issues contribute to deterioration of speech in STN-DBS patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that STN-DBS for PD results in deterioration in speech intelligibility in all combinations of medication and stimulation states at 1

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC.

  4. No Effect of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Intertemporal Decision-Making in Parkinson Patients123

    PubMed Central

    Wojtecki, Lars; Storzer, Lena; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). DBS or pharmacological treatment is believed to modulate the tendency to, or reverse, impulse control disorders. Several brain areas involved in impulsivity and reward valuation, such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum, are linked to the STN, and activity in these areas might be affected by STN-DBS. To investigate the effect of STN-DBS on one type of impulsive decision-making—delay discounting (i.e., the devaluation of reward with increasing delay until its receipt)—we tested 40 human PD patients receiving STN-DBS treatment and medication for at least 3 months. Patients were pseudo-randomly assigned to one of four groups to test the effects of DBS on/off states as well as medication on/off states on delay discounting. The delay-discounting task consisted of a series of choices among a smaller. sooner or a larger, later monetary reward. Despite considerable effects of DBS on motor performance, patients receiving STN-DBS did not choose more or less impulsively compared with those in the off-DBS group, as well as when controlling for risk attitude. Although null results have to be interpreted with caution, our findings are of significance to other researchers studying the effects of PD treatment on impulsive decision-making, and they are of clinical relevance for determining the therapeutic benefits of using STN-DBS. PMID:27257622

  5. Mechanisms Underlying Decision-Making as Revealed by Deep-Brain Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Herz, Damian M; Little, Simon; Pedrosa, David J; Tinkhauser, Gerd; Cheeran, Binith; Foltynie, Tom; Bogacz, Rafal; Brown, Peter

    2018-04-23

    To optimally balance opposing demands of speed and accuracy during decision-making, we must flexibly adapt how much evidence we require before making a choice. Such adjustments in decision thresholds have been linked to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and therapeutic STN deep-brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to interfere with this function. Here, we performed continuous as well as closed-loop DBS of the STN while Parkinson's disease patients performed a perceptual decision-making task. Closed-loop STN DBS allowed temporally patterned STN stimulation and simultaneous recordings of STN activity. This revealed that DBS only affected patients' ability to adjust decision thresholds if applied in a specific temporally confined time window during deliberation. Only stimulation in that window diminished the normal slowing of response times that occurred on difficult trials when DBS was turned off. Furthermore, DBS eliminated a relative, time-specific increase in STN beta oscillations and compromised its functional relationship with trial-by-trial adjustments in decision thresholds. Together, these results provide causal evidence that the STN is involved in adjusting decision thresholds in distinct, time-limited processing windows during deliberation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Lexical Switching in Parkinsons Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, Isabelle; Ehlen, Felicitas; Fromm, Ortwin; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Reduced verbal fluency (VF) has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially those treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS). To delineate the nature of this dysfunction we aimed at identifying the particular VF-related operations modified by STN DBS. Eleven PD patients performed VF tasks in their STN DBS ON and OFF condition. To differentiate VF-components modulated by the stimulation, a temporal cluster analysis was performed, separating production spurts (i.e., 'clusters' as correlates of automatic activation spread within lexical fields) from slower cluster transitions (i.e., 'switches' reflecting set-shifting towards new lexical fields). The results were compared to those of eleven healthy control subjects. PD patients produced significantly more switches accompanied by shorter switch times in the STN DBS ON compared to the STN DBS OFF condition. The number of clusters and time intervals between words within clusters were not affected by the treatment state. Although switch behavior in patients with DBS ON improved, their task performance was still lower compared to that of healthy controls. Beyond impacting on motor symptoms, STN DBS seems to influence the dynamics of cognitive procedures. Specifically, the results are in line with basal ganglia roles for cognitive switching, in the particular case of VF, from prevailing lexical concepts to new ones.

  7. Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on Subthalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Internus Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Patients With Parkinson's Disease: Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Rughani, Anand; Schwalb, Jason M; Sidiropoulos, Christos; Pilitsis, Julie; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Sweet, Jennifer A; Mittal, Sandeep; Espay, Alberto J; Martinez, Jorge Gonzalez; Abosch, Aviva; Eskandar, Emad; Gross, Robert; Alterman, Ron; Hamani, Clement

    2018-06-01

    Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms. (Level I). Is bilateral STN DBS more, less, or as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in allowing reduction of dopaminergic medication in Parkinson's disease? When the main goal of surgery is reduction of dopaminergic medications in a patient with Parkinson's disease, then bilateral STN DBS should be performed instead of GPi DBS. (Level I). Is bilateral STN DBS more, less, or as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating dyskinesias associated with Parkinson's disease? There is insufficient evidence to make a generalizable recommendation regarding the target selection for reduction of dyskinesias. However, when the reduction of medication is not anticipated and there is a goal to reduce the severity of "on" medication dyskinesias, the GPi should be targeted. (Level I). Is bilateral STN DBS more, less, or as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in improving quality of life measures in Parkinson's disease? When considering improvements in quality of life in a patient undergoing DBS for Parkinson's disease, there is no basis to recommend bilateral DBS in 1 target over the other. (Level I). Is bilateral STN DBS associated with greater, lesser, or a similar impact on neurocognitive function than bilateral GPi DBS in Parkinson disease? If there is significant concern about cognitive decline, particularly in regards to processing speed and working memory in a patient undergoing DBS

  8. Facilitating effects of deep brain stimulation on feedback learning in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Südmeyer, Martin; Keitel, Ariane; Pollok, Bettina; Bellebaum, Christian

    2016-10-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms. However, findings of effects on cognitive function such as feedback learning remain controversial and rare. The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of cognitive alterations associated with STN-DBS. Therefore, we investigated effects of STN-DBS on active and observational feedback learning in PD. 18 PD patients with STN-DBS and 18 matched healthy controls completed active and observational feedback learning tasks. Patients were investigated ON and OFF STN-DBS. Tasks consisted of learning (with feedback) and test phases (without feedback). STN-DBS improved active learning during feedback trials and PD patients ON (but not OFF) STN-DBS showed comparable performance patterns as healthy controls. No STN-DBS effect was found when assessing performance during active test trials without feedback. In this case, however, STN-DBS effects were found to depend on symptom severity. While more impaired patients benefited from STN-DBS, stimulation had no facilitating effect on patients with less severe symptoms. Along similar lines, the severity of motor symptoms tended to be significantly correlated with differences in active test performance due to STN-DBS. For observational feedback learning, there was a tendency for a positive STN-DBS effect with patients reaching the performance level of healthy controls only ON STN-DBS. The present data suggest that STN-DBS facilitates active feedback learning in PD patients. Furthermore, they provide first evidence that STN-DBS might not only affect learning from own but also from observed actions and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous sensorimotor cortical activity is suppressed by deep brain stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Jarkko; Pekkonen, Eero; Airaksinen, Katja; Helle, Liisa; Nurminen, Jussi; Taulu, Samu; Mäkelä, Jyrki P

    2018-06-22

    Advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by an excessive oscillatory beta band activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of STN alleviates motor symptoms in PD and suppresses the STN beta band activity. The effect of DBS on cortical sensorimotor activity is more ambiguous; both increases and decreases of beta band activity have been reported. Non-invasive studies with simultaneous DBS are problematic due to DBS-induced artifacts. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) from 16 advanced PD patients with and without STN DBS during rest and wrist extension. The strong magnetic artifacts related to stimulation were removed by temporal signal space separation. MEG oscillatory activity at 5-25 Hz was suppressed during DBS in a widespread frontoparietal region, including the sensorimotor cortex identified by the cortico-muscular coherence. The strength of suppression did not correlate with clinical improvement. Our results indicate that alpha and beta band oscillations are suppressed at the frontoparietal cortex by STN DBS in PD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Intraoperative MR-guided DBS implantation for treating PD and ET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Maxwell, Robert E.; Truwit, Charles L.

    2001-05-01

    Deep brain stimulator (DBS) implantation is a promising treatment alternative for suppressing the motor tremor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) patient. The main objective is to develop a minimally invasive approach using high spatial resolution and soft-tissue contrast MR imaging techniques to guide the surgical placement of DBS. In the MR-guided procedure, the high spatial resolution MR images were obtained intra-operatively and used to target stereotactically a specific deep brain location. The neurosurgery for craniotomy was performed in the front of the magnet outside of the 10 Gauss line. Aided with positional registration assembly for the stereotactic head frame, the target location (VIM or GPi or STN) in deep brain areas was identified and measured from the MR images in reference to the markers in the calibration assembly of the head frame before the burrhole prep. In 20 patients, MR- guided DBS implantations have been performed according to the new methodology. MR-guided DBS implantation at high magnetic field strength has been shown to be feasible and desirable. In addition to the improved outcome, this offers a new surgical approach in which intra-operative visualization is possible during intervention, and any complications such as bleeding can be assessed in situ immediately prior to dural closure.

  11. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation impairs emotional conflict adaptation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Irmen, Friederike; Huebl, Julius; Schroll, Henning; Brücke, Christof; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Hamker, Fred H; Kühn, Andrea A

    2017-10-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) occupies a strategic position in the motor network, slowing down responses in situations with conflicting perceptual input. Recent evidence suggests a role of the STN in emotion processing through strong connections with emotion recognition structures. As deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) inhibits monitoring of perceptual and value-based conflict, STN DBS may also interfere with emotional conflict processing. To assess a possible interference of STN DBS with emotional conflict processing, we used an emotional Stroop paradigm. Subjects categorized face stimuli according to their emotional expression while ignoring emotionally congruent or incongruent superimposed word labels. Eleven PD patients ON and OFF STN DBS and eleven age-matched healthy subjects conducted the task. We found conflict-induced response slowing in healthy controls and PD patients OFF DBS, but not ON DBS, suggesting STN DBS to decrease adaptation to within-trial conflict. OFF DBS, patients showed more conflict-induced slowing for negative conflict stimuli, which was diminished by STN DBS. Computational modelling of STN influence on conflict adaptation disclosed DBS to interfere via increased baseline activity. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Voice Tremor Outcomes of Subthalamic Nucleus and Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Malinova, Elin; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik

    2018-01-17

    We aimed to study the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi) on level of perceived voice tremor in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). This is a prospective nonrandomized design with consecutive patients. Perceived voice tremor was assessed in patients with PD having received either STN-DBS (8 patients, 5 bilateral and 3 unilateral, aged 43.1-73.6 years; median = 61.2 years) or cZi-DBS (14 bilateral patients, aged 39.0-71.9 years; median = 56.6 years) 12 months before the assessment. Sustained vowels that were produced OFF and ON stimulation (with simultaneous l-DOPA medication) were assessed perceptually in terms of voice tremor by two raters on a four-point rating scale. The assessments were repeated five times per sample and rated in a blinded and randomized procedure. Three out of the 22 patients (13%) were concluded to have voice tremor OFF stimulation. Patients with PD with STN-DBS showed mild levels of perceived voice tremor OFF stimulation and a group level improvement. Patients with moderate/severe perceived voice tremor and cZi-DBS showed marked improvements, but there was no overall group effect. Six patients with cZi-DBS showed small increases in perceived voice tremor severity. STN-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor on a group level. cZi-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor in patients with PD with moderate to severe preoperative levels of the symptom. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual well being in parkinsonian patients after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, L; Perozzo, P; Genesia, M; Torre, E; Pesare, M; Cinquepalmi, A; Lanotte, M; Bergamasco, B; Lopiano, L

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in sexual well being in a group of patients with Parkinson's disease following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Methods: 31 consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease (21 men and 10 women), bilaterally implanted for DBS of STN, were evaluated one month before and 9–12 months after surgery. Sexual functioning was assessed using a reduced form of the Gollombok Rust inventory of sexual satisfaction (GRISS). Depression (Beck depression inventory) and anxiety (STAI-X1/X2) were also evaluated. Relations between sexual functioning and modifications in the severity of disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage), reduction in levodopa equivalent daily dosage (LEDD), age, and duration of disease were analysed. Results: While no modifications were found in female patients, male patients reported slightly but significantly more satisfaction with their sexual life after DBS of STN. When only male patients under 60 years old were considered, a greater improvement in sexual functioning was found, though still small. Modifications in depressive symptoms and anxiety, as well as duration of the disease, reduction in LEDD, and improvement in the severity of disease, showed no relation with changes in sexual functioning after DBS of STN. Conclusions: DBS of STN appears to affect sexual functioning in a small but positive way. Male patients with Parkinson's disease, especially when under 60, appeared more satisfied with their sexual well being over a short term follow up period. PMID:15314111

  14. Deep brain stimulation of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: role in sleep modulation in advanced Parkinson disease patients: one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peppe, Antonella; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Baiamonte, Valentina; Moschella, Vincenzo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Stanzione, Paolo; Stefani, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent non-motor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD), probably due to multifactorial pathogeneses including disease progression, dopaminergic drugs, or concomitant illness. In recent years, the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPTg) nucleus has been considered a surgical target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in advanced PD patients. As it is involved in controlling the sleep-wake cycle, we investigated the long-lasting effects of PPTg-DBS on the sleep of five PD patients implanted in both the PPTg and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) by rating two subjective clinical scales for sleep: the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Sleep scales were administered a week before surgery (T0), three months after DBS (T1), and one year later (T2). In this study, STN-DBS was kept constantly in ON, and three different patterns of PPTg-DBS were investigated: STN-ON (PPTg switched off); PPTg-ON (PPTg stimulated 24 h/day); PPTg-cycle (PPTg stimulated only at night). In post-surgery follow-up, PD patients reported a marked improvement of sleep quality in all DBS conditions. In particular, stimulation of the PPTg nucleus produced not only a remarkable long-term improvement of nighttime sleep, but unlike STN-DBS, also produced significant amelioration of daytime sleepiness. Our study suggests that PPTg-DBS plays an important role in reorganizing regular sleep in PD patients.

  15. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Zaehle, Tino; Wagenbreth, Caroline; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Galazky, Imke

    2017-02-20

    When faced with difficult decisions, people prefer to stay with the default. This status quo bias often leads to suboptimal choice behavior. Neurophysiological evidence suggests a pivot role of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) for overcoming such status quo bias in difficult decisions, but causal evidence is lacking. The present study investigated whether subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) influences the status quo bias. Eighteen PD patients treated with STN-DBS performed a difficult perceptual decision task incorporating intrinsic status quo option. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. Our results show that DBS of the STN affected perceptual decision making in PD patients depending on the difficulty of decision. STN-DBS improved difficult perceptual decisions due to a selective increase in accuracy (hit rate) that was independent of response bias (no effect on false alarm rate). Furthermore, STN-DBS impacted status quo bias as a function of baseline impulsivity. In impulsive patients, STN-DBS increased the default bias, whereas in less impulsive PD patients, DBS of the STN reduced the status quo bias. In line with our hypothesis, STN-DBS selectively affected the tendency to stick with the default option on difficult decisions, and promoted increased decision accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate the impact of baseline cognitive abilities on DBS-related performance changes in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep-wake functions and quality of life in patients with subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Eugster, Lukas; Oberholzer, Michael; Debove, Ines; Lachenmayer, M. Lenard; Mathis, Johannes; Pollo, Claudio; Schüpbach, W. M. Michael; Bassetti, Claudio L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on SWD is poorly known. In this study we examined the subjective and objective sleep-wake profile and the quality of life (QoL) of PD patients in the context of subthalamic DBS. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed data from PD patients and candidates for DBS in the nucleus suthalamicus (STN). Pre-DBS, sleep-wake assessments included subjective and objective (polysomnography, vigilance tests and actigraphy) measures. Post-DBS, subjective measures were collected. QoL was assessed using the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) and the RAND SF-36-item Health Survey (RAND SF-36). Results Data from 74 PD patients (62% male, mean age 62.2 years, SD = 8.9) with a mean UPDRS-III (OFF) of 34.2 (SD = 14.8) and 11.8 (SD = 4.5) years under PD treatment were analyzed. Pre-DBS, daytime sleepiness, apathy, fatigue and depressive symptoms were present in 49%, 34%, 38% and 25% of patients respectively but not always as co-occurring symptoms. Sleep-wake disturbances were significantly correlated with QoL scores. One year after STN DBS, motor signs, QoL and sleepiness improved but apathy worsened. Changes in QoL were associated with changes in sleepiness and apathy but baseline sleep-wake functions were not predictive of STN DBS outcome. Conclusion In PD patients presenting for STN DBS, subjective and objective sleep-wake disturbances are common and have a negative impact on QoL before and after neurosurgery. Given the current preliminary evidence, prospective observational studies assessing subjective and objective sleep-wake variables prior to and after DBS are needed. PMID:29253029

  17. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves temperature sensation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Tomoyuki; Saitoh, Youichi; Hosomi, Koichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Shimokawa, Toshio; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Morris, Shayne; Harada, Yu; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Aly, Mohamed M; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2011-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) reportedly show deficits in sensory processing in addition to motor symptoms. However, little is known about the effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) on temperature sensation as measured by quantitative sensory testing (QST). This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effects of STN-DBS on temperature sensation and pain in PD patients. We conducted a QST study comparing the effects of STN-DBS on cold sense thresholds (CSTs) and warm sense thresholds (WSTs) as well as on cold-induced and heat-induced pain thresholds (CPT and HPT) in 17 PD patients and 14 healthy control subjects. The CSTs and WSTs of patients were significantly smaller during the DBS-on mode when compared with the DBS-off mode (P<.001), whereas the CSTs and WSTs of patients in the DBS-off mode were significantly greater than those of healthy control subjects (P<.02). The CPTs and HPTs in PD patients were significantly larger on the more affected side than on the less affected side (P<.02). Because elevations in thermal sense and pain thresholds of QST are reportedly almost compatible with decreases in sensation, our findings confirm that temperature sensations may be disturbed in PD patients when compared with healthy persons and that STN-DBS can be used to improve temperature sensation in these patients. The mechanisms underlying our findings are not well understood, but improvement in temperature sensation appears to be a sign of modulation of disease-related brain network abnormalities. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive outcome and reliable change indices two years following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amy E; Arzola, Gladys Marina; Strutt, Adriana M; Simpson, Richard; Jankovic, Joseph; York, Michele K

    2011-06-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for medication-resistant levodopa-related motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). While STN-DBS often results in meaningful motor improvements, consensus regarding long-term neuropsychological outcome continues to be debated. We assessed the cognitive outcomes of 19 STN-DBS patients compared to a group of 18 medically-managed PD patients on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline and two years post-surgery. Patients did not demonstrate changes in global cognitive functioning on screening measures. However, neuropsychological results revealed impairments in nonverbal recall, oral information processing speed, and lexical and semantic fluency in STN-DBS patients compared to PD controls 2 years post-surgery in these preliminary analyses. Additionally, reliable change indices revealed that approximately 50% of STN-DBS patients demonstrated significant declines in nonverbal memory and oral information processing speed compared to 25-30% of PD controls, and 26% of STN-DBS patients declined on lexical fluency compared to 11% of PD patients. Approximately 30% of both groups declined on semantic fluency. The number of STN-DBS patients who converted to dementia 2 years following surgery was not significantly different from the PD participants (32% versus 16%, respectively). Our results suggest that neuropsychological evaluations may identify possible mild cognitive changes following surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patients' expectations in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Harutomo; Samuel, Michael; Douiri, Abdel; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2014-12-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson disease. However, some patients feel less satisfied with the outcome of surgery. We sought to study the relationship between expectations, satisfaction, and outcome in STN DBS for Parkinson disease. Twenty-two consecutive patients undergoing STN DBS completed a modified 39-item Parkinson disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. A satisfaction questionnaire accompanied the postoperative questionnaire. Patients expected a significant improvement from surgery preoperatively: preoperative score (median PDQ-39 summary score [interquartile range]): 37.0 (9.5), expected postoperative score: 13.0 (8.0), P < 0.001. Patients improved after surgery (preoperative score 39.0 [11.5], postoperative score 25.0 [14.3], P = 0.003), although there was a substantial disparity between the expected change (24.0 [15.0]) and actual change (14.0 [22.5]), P = 0.008. However, most patients felt that surgery fulfilled their expectations (mean score on a 0%-100% visual analog scale); (75.3 ± 17.8) and were satisfied (73.3 ± 25.3). Satisfaction correlated with fulfillment of expectations (r = 0.910, P < 0.001) but not with quantitative changes in PDQ-39 scores. Addressing patients' expectations both preoperatively and postoperatively may play an important role in patient satisfaction, and therefore overall success, of STN DBS surgery for Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in regional blood flow induced by unilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanei, Takafumi; Kajita, Yasukazu; Nihashi, Takashi; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Takebayashi, Shigenori; Nakatsubo, Daisuke; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2009-11-01

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) induced by unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) were investigated in 7 consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease, 4 men and 3 women (mean age 62.3 +/- 8.1 years), who underwent rCBF measurement by N-isopropyl-p-(iodine-123)-iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography at rest before and after unilateral STN DBS preoperatively in the on-drug condition, and postoperatively in the on-drug and on-stimulation condition. Statistical parametric mapping was used to identify significant changes in rCBF from the preoperative to the postoperative conditions. rCBF was increased in the bilateral cingulate cortices and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. rCBF was decreased in the bilateral medial frontal cortices and left superior temporal cortex. Unilateral STN DBS produced rCBF changes in the bilateral cingulate cortices, cerebellar hemispheres, and medial frontal cortices. These findings indicate that unilateral STN DBS affects rCBF in both hemispheres.

  1. Self-Reported Executive Functioning in Everyday Life in Parkinson's Disease after Three Months of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.

  2. Subthalamic stimulation, oscillatory activity and connectivity reveal functional role of STN and network mechanisms during decision making under conflict.

    PubMed

    Hell, Franz; Taylor, Paul C J; Mehrkens, Jan H; Bötzel, Kai

    2018-05-01

    Inhibitory control is an important executive function that is necessary to suppress premature actions and to block interference from irrelevant stimuli. Current experimental studies and models highlight proactive and reactive mechanisms and claim several cortical and subcortical structures to be involved in response inhibition. However, the involved structures, network mechanisms and the behavioral relevance of the underlying neural activity remain debated. We report cortical EEG and invasive subthalamic local field potential recordings from a fully implanted sensing neurostimulator in Parkinson's patients during a stimulus- and response conflict task with and without deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS made reaction times faster overall while leaving the effects of conflict intact: this lack of any effect on conflict may have been inherent to our task encouraging a high level of proactive inhibition. Drift diffusion modelling hints that DBS influences decision thresholds and drift rates are modulated by stimulus conflict. Both cortical EEG and subthalamic (STN) LFP oscillations reflected reaction times (RT). With these results, we provide a different interpretation of previously conflict-related oscillations in the STN and suggest that the STN implements a general task-specific decision threshold. The timecourse and topography of subthalamic-cortical oscillatory connectivity suggest the involvement of motor, frontal midline and posterior regions in a larger network with complementary functionality, oscillatory mechanisms and structures. While beta oscillations are functionally associated with motor cortical-subthalamic connectivity, low frequency oscillations reveal a subthalamic-frontal-posterior network. With our results, we suggest that proactive as well as reactive mechanisms and structures are involved in implementing a task-related dynamic inhibitory signal. We propose that motor and executive control networks with complementary oscillatory mechanisms are

  3. Stimulation of the Rat Subthalamic Nucleus is Neuroprotective Following Significant Nigral Dopamine Neuron Loss

    PubMed Central

    Spieles-Engemann, A. L.; Behbehani, M. M.; Collier, T. J.; Wohlgenant, S. L.; Steece-Collier, K.; Paumier, K.; Daley, B. F.; Gombash, S.; Madhavan, L.; Mandybur, G. T.; Lipton, J.W.; Terpstra, B.T.; Sortwell, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is efficacious in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the impact of STN-DBS on the progression of PD is unknown. Previous preclinical studies have demonstrated that STN-DBS can attenuate the degeneration of a relatively intact nigrostriatal system from dopamine (DA)-depleting neurotoxins. The present study examined whether STN-DBS can provide neuroprotection in the face of prior significant nigral DA neuron loss similar to PD patients at the time of diagnosis. STN-DBS between two and four weeks after intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) provided significant sparing of DA neurons in the SN of rats. This effect was not due to inadvertent lesioning of the STN and was dependent upon proper electrode placement. Since STN-DBS appears to have significant neuroprotective properties, initiation of STN-DBS earlier in the course of PD may provide added neuroprotective benefits in addition to its ability to provide symptomatic relief. PMID:20307668

  4. Load-Dependent Interference of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus with Switching from Automatic to Controlled Processing During Random Number Generation in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Isobel Anne; Wilkinson, Leonora; Limousin, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) ameliorates the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, some aspects of executive control are impaired with STN DBS. We tested the prediction that (i) STN DBS interferes with switching from automatic to controlled processing during fast-paced random number generation (RNG) (ii) STN DBS-induced cognitive control changes are load-dependent. Fifteen PD patients with bilateral STN DBS performed paced-RNG, under three levels of cognitive load synchronised with a pacing stimulus presented at 1, 0.5 and 0.33 Hz (faster rates require greater cognitive control), with DBS on or off. Measures of output randomness were calculated. Countscore 1 (CS1) indicates habitual counting in steps of one (CS1). Countscore 2 (CS2) indicates a more controlled strategy of counting in twos. The fastest rate was associated with an increased CS1 score with STN DBS on compared to off. At the slowest rate, patients had higher CS2 scores with DBS off than on, such that the differences between CS1 and CS2 scores disappeared. We provide evidence for a load-dependent effect of STN DBS on paced RNG in PD. Patients could switch to more controlled RNG strategies during conditions of low cognitive load at slower rates only when the STN stimulators were off, but when STN stimulation was on, they engaged in more automatic habitual counting under increased cognitive load. These findings are consistent with the proposal that the STN implements a switch signal from the medial frontal cortex which enables a shift from automatic to controlled processing.

  5. Load-Dependent Interference of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus with Switching from Automatic to Controlled Processing During Random Number Generation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Isobel Anne; Wilkinson, Leonora; Limousin, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) ameliorates the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, some aspects of executive control are impaired with STN DBS. Objective: We tested the prediction that (i) STN DBS interferes with switching from automatic to controlled processing during fast-paced random number generation (RNG) (ii) STN DBS-induced cognitive control changes are load-dependent. Methods: Fifteen PD patients with bilateral STN DBS performed paced-RNG, under three levels of cognitive load synchronised with a pacing stimulus presented at 1, 0.5 and 0.33 Hz (faster rates require greater cognitive control), with DBS on or off. Measures of output randomness were calculated. Countscore 1 (CS1) indicates habitual counting in steps of one (CS1). Countscore 2 (CS2) indicates a more controlled strategy of counting in twos. Results: The fastest rate was associated with an increased CS1 score with STN DBS on compared to off. At the slowest rate, patients had higher CS2 scores with DBS off than on, such that the differences between CS1 and CS2 scores disappeared. Conclusions: We provide evidence for a load-dependent effect of STN DBS on paced RNG in PD. Patients could switch to more controlled RNG strategies during conditions of low cognitive load at slower rates only when the STN stimulators were off, but when STN stimulation was on, they engaged in more automatic habitual counting under increased cognitive load. These findings are consistent with the proposal that the STN implements a switch signal from the medial frontal cortex which enables a shift from automatic to controlled processing. PMID:25720447

  6. Bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation initial impact on nonmotor and motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kurcova, Sandra; Bardon, Jan; Vastik, Miroslav; Vecerkova, Marketa; Frolova, Monika; Hvizdosova, Lenka; Nevrly, Martin; Mensikova, Katerina; Otruba, Pavel; Krahulik, David; Kurca, Egon; Sivak, Stefan; Zapletalova, Jana; Kanovsky, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies document significant improvement in motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). However, little is known about the initial effects of STN-DBS on nonmotor domains. Our objective was to elucidate the initial effects of STN-DBS on non-motor and motor symptoms in PD patients in a 4-month follow-up. This open prospective study followed 24 patients with PD who underwent STN-DBS. The patients were examined using dedicated rating scales preoperatively and at 1 and 4 months following STN-DBS to determine initial changes in motor and nonmotor symptoms. Patients at month 1 after STN-DBS had significantly reduced the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire scores (P = .018) and Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease – Autonomic scores (P = .002); these scores had increased at Month 4 after DBS-STN. Nonmotor Symptoms Scale for Parkinson's Disease had improved significantly at Month 1 (P < .001); at Month 4, it remained significantly lower than before stimulation (P = .036). There was no significant difference in The Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scaleat Month 1 and significant improvement at Month 4 (P = .026). There were no significant changes in The Female Sexual Function Index or International Index of Erectile Function. Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Part III scores show significant improvements at Month 1 (P < .001) and at Month 4 (P < .001). STN-DBS in patients with advanced PD clearly improves not only motor symptoms, but also several domains of nonmotor functions, namely sleep, autonomic functions and quality of life quickly following the start of stimulation. PMID:29384860

  7. The impact of Parkinson's disease and subthalamic deep brain stimulation on reward processing.

    PubMed

    Evens, Ricarda; Stankevich, Yuliya; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Storch, Alexander; Wolz, Martin; Reichmann, Heinz; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Goschke, Thomas; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Due to its position in cortico-subthalamic and cortico-striatal pathways, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is considered to play a crucial role not only in motor, but also in cognitive and motivational functions. In the present study we aimed to characterize how different aspects of reward processing are affected by disease and deep brain stimulation of the STN (DBS-STN) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared 33 PD patients treated with DBS-STN under best medical treatment (DBS-on, medication-on) to 33 PD patients without DBS, but optimized pharmacological treatment and 34 age-matched healthy controls. We then investigated DBS-STN effects using a postoperative stimulation-on/ -off design. The task set included a delay discounting task, a task to assess changes in incentive salience attribution, and the Iowa Gambling Task. The presence of PD was associated with increased incentive salience attribution and devaluation of delayed rewards. Acute DBS-STN increased risky choices in the Iowa Gambling Task under DBS-on condition, but did not further affect incentive salience attribution or the evaluation of delayed rewards. Findings indicate that acute DBS-STN affects specific aspects of reward processing, including the weighting of gains and losses, while larger-scale effects of disease or medication are predominant in others reward-related functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meta-analysis comparing deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus to treat advanced Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Weina; Tan, Changhong; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xin; Gui, Yuejiang; Qin, Lu; Deng, Fen; Hu, Changlin; Chen, Lifen

    2014-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). The globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are commonly targeted by this procedure. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of DBS in each region. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library were searched for English-language studies published before April 2013. of studies investigating the efficacy and clinical outcomes of DBS of the GPi and STN for PD were analyzed. Six eligible trials containing a total of 563 patients were included in the analysis. Deep brain stimulation of the GPi or STN equally improved motor function, measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Section III (UPDRSIII) (motor section, for patients in on- and off-medication phases), within 1 year postsurgery. The change score for the on-medication phase was 0.68 (95% CI - 2.12 to 3.47, p > 0.05; 5 studies, 518 patients) and for the off-medication phase was 1.83 (95% CI - 3.12 to 6.77, p > 0.05; 5 studies, 518 patients). The UPDRS Section II (activities of daily living) scores for patients on medication improved equally in both DBS groups (p = 0.97). STN DBS allowed medication dosages to be reduced more than GPi DBS (95% CI 129.27-316.64, p < 0.00001; 5 studies, 540 patients). Psychiatric symptoms, measured by Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition scores, showed greater improvement from baseline after GPi DBS than after STN DBS (standardized mean difference -2.28, 95% CI -3.73 to -0.84, p = 0.002; 3 studies, 382 patients). GPi and STN DBS improve motor function and activities of daily living for PD patients. Differences in therapeutic efficacy for PD were not observed between the 2 procedures. STN DBS allowed greater reduction in medication for patients, whereas GPi DBS provided greater relief from psychiatric symptoms. An understanding of other symptomatic aspects of targeting each region and long

  9. SPECT and PET analysis of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: analysis using a manual segmentation.

    PubMed

    Haegelen, Claire; García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Le Jeune, Florence; Péron, Julie; Gibaud, Bernard; Riffaud, Laurent; Brassier, Gilles; Barillot, Christian; Vérin, Marc; Morandi, Xavier

    2010-03-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become an effective target of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) in severely disabled patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical studies have reported DBS-induced adverse effects on cognitive functions, mood, emotion and behavior. STN DBS seems to interfere with the limbic functions of the basal ganglia, but the limbic effects of STN DBS are controversial. We measured prospectively resting regional cerebral metabolism (rCMb) with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose and PET, and resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with HMPAO and SPECT in six patients with Parkinson's disease. We compared PET and SPECT 1 month before and 3 months after STN DBS. On cerebral MRI, 13 regions of interest (ROI) were manually delineated slice by slice in frontal and limbic lobes. We obtained mean rCBF and rCMb values for each ROI and the whole brain. We normalized rCBF and rCMB values to ones for the whole brain volume, which we compared before and following STN DBS. No significant difference emerged in the SPECT analysis. PET analysis revealed a significant decrease in rCMb following STN DBS in the superior frontal gyri and left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05). A non-significant decrease in rCMb in the left anterior cingulate gyrus appeared following STN DBS (p = 0.075). Our prospective SPECT and PET study revealed significantly decreased glucose metabolism of the two superior frontal gyri without any attendant perfusion changes following STN DBS. These results suggest that STN DBS may change medial prefrontal function and therefore the integration of limbic information, either by disrupting emotional processes within the STN, or by hampering the normal function of a limbic circuit.

  10. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation does not influence basal glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Nicolette M; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Twickler, Th B Marcel; de Bie, Rob M; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Fliers, Eric; Schuurman, P Richard; La Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that central dopamine signaling influences glucose metabolism. As a first step to show this association in an experimental setting in humans, we studied whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which modulates the basal ganglia circuitry, alters basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 8 patients with PD treated with DBS STN, in the basal state and during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using a stable glucose isotope, in the stimulated and non-stimulated condition. We measured EGP, hepatic insulin sensitivity, peripheral insulin sensitivity (Rd), resting energy expenditure (REE), glucoregulatory hormones, and Parkinson symptoms, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Basal plasma glucose and EGP did not differ between the stimulated and non-stimulated condition. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was similar in both conditions and there were no significant differences in Rd and plasma glucoregulatory hormones between DBS on and DBS off. UPDRS was significantly higher in the non-stimulated condition. DBS of the STN in patients with PD does not influence basal EGP or insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that acute modulation of the motor basal ganglia circuitry does not affect glucose metabolism in humans.

  11. [Mental competence in the context of deep brain stimulation].

    PubMed

    Berghmans, R L P; De Wert, G M W R

    2004-07-10

    In a case of Parkinson's disease, the patient was treated with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). STN-DBS affected the mental competence of the patient and ethical questions were raised about the decision as to the direction of further treatment. The patient was asked for his opinion on the therapeutic options during a phase of non-stimulation and chose to be stimulated and admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of mental incompetence rather than remaining unstimulated, mentally competent but bedridden. Developments in the neurosciences (including STN-DBS) raise a number of different fundamental (theoretical and philosophical) as well as practical questions. STN-DBS can have various unintended (behavioural) effects. In the case presented, more weight was rightly given to the mental competence of the unstimulated patient, although comments can be made with regard to his decision making, as his choice was made in a phase of serious distress. Attention is paid to the relevance of a so-called self-binding directive. STN-DBS is not morally neutral and the case involves a tragic dilemma: a conflict between irreconcilable duties for the physician. The further development and proliferation of STN-DBS requires caution and moral deliberation. It remains important to search for alternative treatment strategies with less undesirable side effects.

  12. The effects of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on heart rate variability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang-Du; Shan, Din-E; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-07-01

    The beneficial effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on motor symptoms and quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD) are well known, but little is known of the effects on autonomic function. Diffusion of current during stimulation of the STN may simultaneously involve the motor and nonmotor, limbic and associative areas of the STN. The aims of this study were to examine whether STN stimulation affects functions of the autonomic nervous system and, if so, to correlate the effects with the active contacts of electrodes in the STN. Eight PD patients with good motor control and quality of sleep after STN-DBS surgery were recruited. All patients had two days of recordings with portable polysomnography (PSG) (first night with stimulation "on" and second night "off"). From the PSG data, the first sleep cycle of each recording night was defined. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed between the same uninterrupted periods of the two sleep nights. In addition, the optimal electrode positions were defined from postoperative MRI studies, and the coordinates of active contacts were confirmed. HRV spectral analysis showed that only low-frequency (LF)/high-frequency (HF) power was significantly activated in the stimulation "on" groups (P = 0.011). There was a significant negative correlation between power change of LF/HF and electrode position lateral to the midcommissural point (ρ = 0.857, P = 0.007) These results demonstrate that STN-DBS can enhance sympathetic regulation; the autonomic response may be due to electrical signals being distributed to limbic components of the STN or descending sympathetic pathways in the zona incerta.

  13. Ethical safety of deep brain stimulation: A study on moral decision-making in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Manuela; Marceglia, Sara; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Picascia, Marta; Barbieri, Sergio; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Pacchetti, Claudio; Priori, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    The possibility that deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) alters patients' decisions and actions, even temporarily, raises important clinical, ethical and legal questions. Abnormal moral decision-making can lead to ethical rules violations. Previous experiments demonstrated the subthalamic (STN) activation during moral decision-making. Here we aim to study whether STN DBS can affect moral decision-making in PD patients. Eleven patients with PD and bilateral STN DBS implant performed a computerized moral task in ON and OFF stimulation conditions. A control group of PD patients without DBS implant performed the same experimental protocol. All patients underwent motor, cognitive and psychological assessments. STN stimulation was not able to modify neither reaction times nor responses to moral task both when we compared the ON and the OFF state in the same patient (reaction times, p = .416) and when we compared DBS patients with those treated only with the best medical treatment (reaction times: p = .408, responses: p = .776). Moral judgment is the result of a complex process, requiring cognitive executive functions, problem-solving, anticipations of consequences of an action, conflict processing, emotional evaluation of context and of possible outcomes, and involving different brain areas and neural circuits. Our data show that STN DBS leaves unaffected moral decisions thus implying relevant clinical and ethical implications for DBS consequences on patients' behavior, on decision-making and on judgment ability. In conclusion, the technique can be considered safe on moral behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A network analysis of ¹⁵O-H₂O PET reveals deep brain stimulation effects on brain network of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Park, Bumhee; Kim, Hae Yu; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Kim, Joong Il; Yoon, Misun; Lee, Jong Doo; Chang, Jin Woo

    2015-05-01

    As Parkinson's disease (PD) can be considered a network abnormality, the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) need to be investigated in the aspect of networks. This study aimed to examine how DBS of the bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) affects the motor networks of patients with idiopathic PD during motor performance and to show the feasibility of the network analysis using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) images in DBS studies. We obtained [¹⁵O]H₂O PET images from ten patients with PD during a sequential finger-to-thumb opposition task and during the resting state, with DBS-On and DBS-Off at STN. To identify the alteration of motor networks in PD and their changes due to STN-DBS, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to all the cross-sectional PET images. We analysed the strength of each component according to DBS effects, task effects and interaction effects. ICA blindly decomposed components of functionally associated distributed clusters, which were comparable to the results of univariate statistical parametric mapping. ICA further revealed that STN-DBS modifies usage-strengths of components corresponding to the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits in PD patients by increasing the hypoactive basal ganglia and by suppressing the hyperactive cortical motor areas, ventrolateral thalamus and cerebellum. Our results suggest that STN-DBS may affect not only the abnormal local activity, but also alter brain networks in patients with PD. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of ICA for cross-sectional PET data to reveal network modifications due to DBS, which was not observable using the subtraction method.

  15. Generation and evaluation of an ultra-high-field atlas with applications in DBS planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Brian T.; Poirier, Stefan; Guo, Ting; Parrent, Andrew G.; Peters, Terry M.; Khan, Ali R.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a common treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) and involves the use of brain atlases or intrinsic landmarks to estimate the location of target deep brain structures, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi). However, these structures can be difficult to localize with conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus targeting can be prone to error. Ultra-high-field imaging at 7T has the ability to clearly resolve these structures and thus atlases built with these data have the potential to improve targeting accuracy. Methods T1 and T2-weighted images of 12 healthy control subjects were acquired using a 7T MR scanner. These images were then used with groupwise registration to generate an unbiased average template with T1w and T2w contrast. Deep brain structures were manually labelled in each subject by two raters and rater reliability was assessed. We compared the use of this unbiased atlas with two other methods of atlas-based segmentation (single-template and multi-template) for subthalamic nucleus (STN) segmentation on 7T MRI data. We also applied this atlas to clinical DBS data acquired at 1.5T to evaluate its efficacy for DBS target localization as compared to using a standard atlas. Results The unbiased templates provide superb detail of subcortical structures. Through one-way ANOVA tests, the unbiased template is significantly (p <0.05) more accurate than a single-template in atlas-based segmentation and DBS target localization tasks. Conclusion The generated unbiased averaged templates provide better visualization of deep brain nuclei and an increase in accuracy over single-template and lower field strength atlases.

  16. Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders. Considerations on 276 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Angelo; Cordella, Roberto; Messina, Giuseppe; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Romito, Luigi Michele; Carella, Francesco; Albanese, Alberto; Rizzi, Michele; Nardocci, Nardo; Zorzi, Giovanna; Zekay, Edvin; Broggi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    The links between Stn DBS and advanced Parkinson disease, and between GPi DBS and dystonia are nearly universally accepted by the neurologists and neurosurgeons. Nevertheless, in some conditions, targets such as the ventral thalamus and the Zona Incerta may be considered to optimize the results and avoid the side effects. Positive and negative aspects of current DBS treatments justify the research of new targets, new stimulation programs and new hardware. Since 1993, at the Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta" in Milan, 580 deep brain electrodes were implanted in 332 patients. 276 patients were affected by movement disorders. The DBS targets included Stn, GPi, Voa, Vop, Vim, CM-pf, cZi, IC. The long-term follow-up is reported and related to the chosen target. DBS gave a new therapeutic option to patients affected by severe movement disorders, and in some cases resolved life-threatening pathological conditions that would otherwise result in the death of the patient, such as in status dystonicus, and post-stroke hemiballismus. Nevertheless, the potential occurrence of severe complications still limit a wider use of DBS. At today, the use of DBS in severe movement disorders is strongly positive even if further investigations and studies are needed to unveil potential new applications, and to refine the selection criteria for the actual indications and targets. The experience of different targets may be useful to guide and tailor the target choice to the individual clinical condition.

  17. The impact of pallidal and subthalamic deep brain stimulation on urologic function in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Stephen; Osborn, David J.; Brown, Elizabeth T.; Reynolds, W. Stuart; Turchan, Maxim; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Rodriguez, William; Dmochowski, Roger; Tolleson, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an established adjunctive surgical intervention for treating Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms. Both surgical targets, the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN), appear equally beneficial when treating motor symptoms but effects on nonmotor symptoms are not clear. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common PD complaint. Given prior data in STN-DBS, we aimed to further explore potential benefits in LUTS in both targets. Methods We performed a prospective, non-blinded clinical trial evaluating LUTS in PD patients in both targets pre and post DBS using validated urologic surveys. Participants were already slated for DBS and target selection predetermined before study entry. LUTS was evaluated using: the American Urological Association (AUA-SI), Quality of Life score (QOL), Overactive bladder 8 questionnaire (OAB-q), and sexual health inventory for men (SHIM). Results Of 33 participants, 20 underwent STN DBS and 13 had GPi DBS. Patients demonstrated moderate baseline LUTS. The urologic QOL score significantly improved post DBS (3.24±1.77vs 2.52±1.30; p=0.03). Analyzed by target, only the STN showed significant change in QOL (vs. 2.25±1.33; p=0.04). There were no other significant differences in urologic scores post DBS noted in either target. Conclusion In PD patients with moderate LUTS, there were notable improvements in QOL for LUTS post DBS in the total sample and STN target. There may be differences in DBS effects on LUTS between targets but this will require further larger, blinded studies. PMID:27172446

  18. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus affects resting EEG and visual evoked potentials in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jech, Robert; Růzicka, Evzen; Urgosík, Dusan; Serranová, Tereza; Volfová, Markéta; Nováková, Olga; Roth, Jan; Dusek, Petr; Mecír, Petr

    2006-05-01

    We studied changes of the EEG spectral power induced by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Also analyzed were changes of visual evoked potentials (VEP) with DBS on and off. Eleven patients with advanced PD treated with bilateral DBS STN were examined after an overnight withdrawal of L-DOPA and 2 h after switching off the neurostimulators. All underwent clinical examination followed by resting EEG and VEP recordings, a procedure repeated after DBS STN was switched on. With DBS switched on, the dominant EEG frequency increased from 9.44+/-1.3 to 9.71+/-1.3 Hz (P<0.01) while its relative spectral power dropped by 11% on average (P<0.05). Switching on the neurostimulators caused a decrease in the N70/P100 amplitude of the VEP (P<0.01), which inversely correlated with the intensity of DBS (black-and-white pattern: P<0.01; color pattern: P<0.05). Despite artifacts generated by neurostimulators, the VEP and resting EEG were suitable for the detection of effects related to DBS STN. The acceleration of dominant frequency in the alpha band may be evidence of DBS STN influence on speeding up of intracortical oscillations. The spectral power decrease, seen mainly in the fronto-central region, might reflect a desynchronization in the premotor and motor circuits, though no movement was executed. Similarly, desynchronization of the cortical activity recorded posteriorly may by responsible for the VEP amplitude decrease implying DBS STN-related influence even on the visual system. Changes in idling EEG activity observed diffusely over scalp together with involvement of the VEP suggest that the effects of DBS STN reach far beyond the motor system influencing the basic mechanisms of rhythmic cortical oscillations.

  19. Neuropsychological and quality of life assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to bilateral deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Heluani, Alessandra Shenandoa; Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Listik, Sergio; de Campos, Alexandre Walter; Machado, Alexandre Aluizio Costa; Cukiert, Arthur; de Oliveira Jr, José Oswaldo

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely used to control motor symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). Recently, DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become the preferred target for patients with mixed motor symptoms. Despite resultant motor and quality of life improvements, the procedure has been associated with cognitive decline, mainly in language skills, and also with psychiatric symptoms. Objective To evaluate the influence of DBS in the STN on cognition, mood and quality of life. Methods We studied 20 patients with PD submitted to DBS in the STN from May 2008 to June 2012 with an extensive battery of cognitive tests including memory, language, praxis, executive functions and attention assessments; the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-39); and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), were applied both before and after the surgery. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and results compared using the paired Student's t test. Results A total of 20 patients with pre and post-operative assessments were included. A statistically significant improvement was found in total score and on subscales of mobility, activities of daily living and emotional well-being from the PDQ-39 (P=0.009, 0.025, 0.001 and 0.034, respectively). No significant difference was found on the cognitive battery or mood scale. Conclusion DBS in the SNT improved quality of life in PD with no negative impact on cognitive skills and mood. PMID:29213806

  20. Association between subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation and weight gain: Results of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Strowd, Roy E; Herco, Maja; Passmore-Griffin, Leah; Avery, Bradley; Haq, Ihtsham; Tatter, Stephen B; Tate, Jessica; Siddiqui, Mustafa S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether weight change in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is different in those undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) compared to those not undergoing DBS. A retrospective case-control study was performed in PD patients who had undergone STN DBS (cases) compared to matched PD patients without DBS (controls). Demographic and clinical data including Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores were collected. Repeated measures mixed model regression was used to identify variables associated with weight gain. Thirty-five cases and 34 controls were identified. Baseline age, gender, diagnosis and weight were similar. Duration of diagnosis was longer in cases (6.3 vs 4.9 years, p=0.0015). At 21.3 months, cases gained 2.9 kg (+4.65%) while controls lost 1.8 kg (-3.05%, p<0.02). Postoperative UPDRS motor scores improved by 49% indicating surgical efficacy. Only younger age (p=0.0002) and DBS (p=0.008) were significantly associated with weight gain. In this case-control study, PD patients undergoing STN DBS experienced post-operative weight gain that was significantly different from the weight loss observed in non-DBS PD controls. Patients, especially overweight individuals, should be informed that STN DBS can result in weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alternating verbal fluency performance following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D F; Strutt, A M; Williams, A E; Simpson, R K; Jankovic, J; York, M K

    2012-12-01

    Despite common occurrences of verbal fluency declines following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), alternating fluency measures using cued and uncued paradigms have not been evaluated. Twenty-three STN-DBS patients were compared with 20 non-surgical PD patients on a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, including cued and uncued intradimensional (phonemic/phonemic and semantic/semantic) and extradimensional (phonemic/semantic) alternating fluency measures at baseline and 6-month follow-up. STN-DBS patients demonstrated a greater decline on the cued phonemic/phonemic fluency and the uncued phonemic/semantic fluency tasks compared to the PD patients. For STN-DBS patients, verbal learning and information processing speed accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in declines in alternating phonemic/phonemic and phonemic/semantic fluency scores, respectively, whilst only naming was related to uncued phonemic/semantic performance for the PD patients. Both groups were aided by cueing for the extradimensional task at baseline and follow-up, and the PD patients were also aided by cueing for the phonemic/phonemic task on follow-up. These findings suggest that changes in alternating fluency are not related to disease progression alone as STN-DBS patients demonstrated greater declines over time than the PD patients, and this change was related to declines in information processing speed. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  2. Cortical Plasticity Induction by Pairing Subthalamic Nucleus Deep-Brain Stimulation and Primary Motor Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Bahl, Nina; Ni, Zhen; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2016-01-13

    Noninvasive brain stimulation studies have shown abnormal motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). These studies used peripheral nerve stimulation paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) at specific intervals to induce plasticity. Induction of cortical plasticity through stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG)-M1 connections has not been studied. In the present study, we used a novel technique of plasticity induction by repeated pairing of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the BG with M1 stimulation using TMS. We hypothesize that repeated pairing of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS and M1-TMS at specific time intervals will lead to plasticity in the M1. Ten PD human patients with STN-DBS were studied in the on-medication state with DBS set to 3 Hz. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between STN-DBS and TMS that produced cortical facilitation were determined individually for each patient. Three plasticity induction conditions with repeated pairings (180 times) at specific ISIs (∼ 3 and ∼ 23 ms) that produced cortical facilitation and a control ISI of 167 ms were tested in random order. Repeated pairing of STN-DBS and M1-TMS at short (∼ 3 ms) and medium (∼ 23 ms) latencies increased M1 excitability that lasted for at least 45 min, whereas the control condition (fixed ISI of 167 ms) had no effect. There were no specific changes in motor thresholds, intracortical circuits, or recruitment curves. Our results indicate that paired-associative cortical plasticity can be induced by repeated STN and M1 stimulation at specific intervals. These results show that STN-DBS can modulate cortical plasticity. We introduced a new experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that pairing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) with motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (M1-TMS) at specific times can induce cortical plasticity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that repeated pairing of STN-DBS

  3. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: defining the optimal location within the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bot, Maarten; Schuurman, P Richard; Odekerken, Vincent J J; Verhagen, Rens; Contarino, Fiorella Maria; De Bie, Rob M A; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2018-05-01

    Individual motor improvement after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD) varies considerably. Stereotactic targeting of the dorsolateral sensorimotor part of the STN is considered paramount for maximising effectiveness, but studies employing the midcommissural point (MCP) as anatomical reference failed to show correlation between DBS location and motor improvement. The medial border of the STN as reference may provide better insight in the relationship between DBS location and clinical outcome. Motor improvement after 12 months of 65 STN DBS electrodes was categorised into non-responding, responding and optimally responding body-sides. Stereotactic coordinates of optimal electrode contacts relative to both medial STN border and MCP served to define theoretic DBS 'hotspots'. Using the medial STN border as reference, significant negative correlation (Pearson's correlation -0.52, P<0.01) was found between the Euclidean distance from the centre of stimulation to this DBS hotspot and motor improvement. This hotspot was located at 2.8 mm lateral, 1.7 mm anterior and 2.5 mm superior relative to the medial STN border. Using MCP as reference, no correlation was found. The medial STN border proved superior compared with MCP as anatomical reference for correlation of DBS location and motor improvement, and enabled defining an optimal DBS location within the nucleus. We therefore propose the medial STN border as a better individual reference point than the currently used MCP on preoperative stereotactic imaging, in order to obtain optimal and thus less variable motor improvement for individual patients with PD following STN DBS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Choreatic Side Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anteromedial Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Anne E P; Leentjens, Albert F G; Schruers, Koen; Duits, Annelien; Ackermans, Linda; Temel, Yasin

    2017-08-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are potential candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (STN) is among the most commonly used targets for DBS in OCD. We present a patient with a 30-year history of treatment-resistant OCD who underwent anteromedial STN-DBS. Despite a clear mood-enhancing effect, stimulation caused motor side effects, including bilateral hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, and sudden large amplitude choreatic movements of arms and legs when stimulating at voltages greater than approximately 1.5 V. DBS at lower amplitudes and at other contact points failed to result in a significant reduction of obsessions and compulsions without inducing motor side effects. Because of this limitation in programming options, we decided to reoperate and target the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS), which resulted in a substantial reduction in key obsessive and compulsive symptoms without serious side effects. Choreatic movements and hemiballismus have previously been linked to STN dysfunction and have been incidentally reported as side effects of DBS of the dorsolateral STN in Parkinson disease (PD). However, in PD, these side effects were usually transient, and they rarely interfered with DBS programming. In our patient, the motor side effects were persistent, and they made optimal DBS programming impossible. To our knowledge, such severe and persistent motor side effects have not been described previously for anteromedial STN-DBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Autonomy in Depressive Patients Undergoing DBS-Treatment: Informed Consent, Freedom of Will and DBS' Potential to Restore It.

    PubMed

    Beeker, Timo; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Coenen, Volker A

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Given the promising results of most of these studies, the rising medical interest in this new treatment correlates with a growing sensitivity to ethical questions. One of the most crucial concerns is that DBS might interfere with patients' ability to make autonomous decisions. Thus, the goal of this article is to evaluate the impact DBS presumably has on the capacity to decide and act autonomously in patients with MDD in the light of the autonomy-undermining effects depression has itself. Following the chronological order of the procedure, special attention will first be paid to depression's effects on patients' capacity to make use of their free will in giving valid Informed Consent. We suggest that while the majority of patients with MDD appear capable of autonomous choices, as it is required for Informed Consent, they might still be unable to effectively act according to their own will whenever acting includes significant personal effort. In reducing disabling depressive symptoms like anhedonia and decrease of energy, DBS for treatment resistant MDD thus rather seems to be an opportunity to substantially increase autonomy than a threat to it.

  6. DBS Programming: An Evolving Approach for Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Zeilman, Pam; Fernandez, Hubert; Bajwa, Jawad A; Mehanna, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is a well-established therapy for control of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Despite an appropriate targeting and an accurate placement of DBS lead, a thorough and efficient programming is critical for a successful clinical outcome. DBS programming is a time consuming and laborious manual process. The current approach involves use of general guidelines involving determination of the lead type, electrode configuration, impedance check, and battery check. However there are no validated and well-established programming protocols. In this review, we will discuss the current practice and the recent advances in DBS programming including the use of interleaving, fractionated current, directional steering of current, and the use of novel DBS pulses. These technological improvements are focused on achieving a more efficient control of clinical symptoms with the least possible side effects. Other promising advances include the introduction of computer guided programming which will likely impact the efficiency of programming for the clinicians and the possibility of remote Internet based programming which will improve access to DBS care for the patients.

  7. DBS Programming: An Evolving Approach for Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeilman, Pam; Fernandez, Hubert; Bajwa, Jawad A.

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is a well-established therapy for control of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Despite an appropriate targeting and an accurate placement of DBS lead, a thorough and efficient programming is critical for a successful clinical outcome. DBS programming is a time consuming and laborious manual process. The current approach involves use of general guidelines involving determination of the lead type, electrode configuration, impedance check, and battery check. However there are no validated and well-established programming protocols. In this review, we will discuss the current practice and the recent advances in DBS programming including the use of interleaving, fractionated current, directional steering of current, and the use of novel DBS pulses. These technological improvements are focused on achieving a more efficient control of clinical symptoms with the least possible side effects. Other promising advances include the introduction of computer guided programming which will likely impact the efficiency of programming for the clinicians and the possibility of remote Internet based programming which will improve access to DBS care for the patients. PMID:29147598

  8. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  9. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves pain in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pellaprat, Jean; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Canivet, Cindy; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Radji, Fatai; Arbus, Christophe; Gerdelat, Angélique; Chaynes, Patrick; Brefel-Courbon, Christine

    2014-06-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic pain is a common symptom which markedly affects the quality of life. Some physiological arguments proposed that Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN-DBS) could improve pain in PD. We investigated in 58 PD patients the effect of STN-DBS on pain using the short McGill Pain Questionnaire and other pain parameters such as the Bodily discomfort subscore of the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire 39 and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale section II (UPDRS II) item 17. All pain scores were significantly improved 12 months after STN-DBS. This improvement was not correlated with motor improvement, depression scores or L-Dopa reduction. STN-DBS induced a substantial beneficial effect on pain in PD, independently of its motor effects and mood status of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus using two methods of target structure verification].

    PubMed

    Goubareva, N N; Fedorova, N V; Bril', E V; Tomskiy, A A; Gamaleya, A A; Poddubskaya, A A; Shabalov, V A; Omarova, S M

    To evaluate the efficacy of deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (DBS STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using different methods of targeting according to the dynamics of motor symptoms of PD. The study involved 90 patients treated with DBS STN. In 30 cases intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) was used. MER was not performed in 30 patients of the comparison group. The control group consisted of 30 patients with PD who received conservative treatment. Hoehn and Yahr scale, Tinetti Balance and Mobility Scale (TBMS), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life-39 Scoring System (РDQ-39), Schwab & England ADL Scale were used. Levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD, 2010) was calculated for each patient. The effect of DBS STN using intraoperative microelectrode recording on the main motor symptoms, motor complications, walking as well as indicators of quality of life and daily activities was shown. In both DBS STN groups, there was a significant reduction in the LEDD and marked improvement of the control of motor symptoms of PD. A significant reduction in the severity of motor fluctuations (50%) and drug-induced dyskinesia (51%) was observed. Quality of life and daily activity in off-medication condition were significantly improved in both DBS STN groups of patients, irrespective of the method of target planning (75-100%), compared with the control group.

  11. Association of Deep Brain Stimulation Washout Effects With Parkinson Disease Duration

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Scott E.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Fernandez, Hubert H.; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), including bradykinesia. When stimulation ceases abruptly, bradykinesia returns gradually. The duration of the gradual, slow washout varies across patients, and although the origin of this variability is unclear, it is hypothesized to be related to 1 or more clinical characteristics of patients. Objective To determine if a correlation exists between clinical characteristics of patients with Parkinson disease (age, age at disease onset, disease severity, disease duration, medication dose, or time since surgery) and the washout rate for bradykinesia when STN DBS is discontinued. Design Serial quantitative assessments of bradykinesia were performed during a defined period following cessation of STN DBS. Setting Academic research. Patients Twenty-four patients with Parkinson disease who underwent STN DBS were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed while off medication (medication had been discontinued 10½ to 16½ hours before testing), and stimulator settings were unchanged for a mean (median) of 20 (14) months. Main Outcome Measures We measured bradykinesia in the dominant hand by assessing finger tapping (item 23 on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale), which was quantified using an angular velocity transducer strapped on the index finger. Finger tapping was assessed every 2 minutes for 20 seconds at a time. This was performed during a 20-minute period with DBS on (baseline period), during a 50-minute period following discontinuation of STN DBS for the dominant hand, and again during a 20-minute period after turning on the device. Results When STN DBS was turned off, an initial fast but partial loss of benefit was observed, which was followed by a further slow washout of the residual therapeutic effect. The half-life of the slow washout phase varied significantly across patients, and this variation was strongly related to disease

  12. Three-dimensional brain MRI for DBS patients within ultra-low radiofrequency power limits.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subhendra N; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Hackney, David B; Alsop, David C; Shih, Ludy C; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Busse, Reed F; La Ruche, Susan; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A

    2014-04-01

    For patients with deep brain stimulators (DBS), local absorbed radiofrequency (RF) power is unknown and is much higher than what the system estimates. We developed a comprehensive, high-quality brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for DBS patients utilizing three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance sequences at very low RF power. Six patients with DBS were imaged (10 sessions) using a transmit/receive head coil at 1.5 Tesla with modified 3D sequences within ultra-low specific absorption rate (SAR) limits (0.1 W/kg) using T2 , fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1 -weighted image contrast. Tissue signal and tissue contrast from the low-SAR images were subjectively and objectively compared with routine clinical images of six age-matched controls. Low-SAR images of DBS patients demonstrated tissue contrast comparable to high-SAR images and were of diagnostic quality except for slightly reduced signal. Although preliminary, we demonstrated diagnostic quality brain MRI with optimized, volumetric sequences in DBS patients within very conservative RF safety guidelines offering a greater safety margin. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2013-05-01

    It has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates response inhibition and conflict resolution through the fronto-basal ganglia pathways. Our aim was to compare the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease using a single task. We used the conditional Stop signal reaction time task that provides the Stop signal reaction time (SSRT) as a measure of reactive inhibition, the response delay effect (RDE) as a measure of proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing (CIS) as a measure of conflict resolution. DBS of the STN significantly prolonged SSRT relative to stimulation off. However, while the RDE measure of proactive inhibition was not significantly altered by DBS of the STN, relative to healthy controls, RDE was significantly lower with DBS off but not DBS on. DBS of the STN did not alter the mean CIS but produced a significant differential effect on the slowest and fastest RTs on conflict trials, further prolonging the slowest RTs on the conflict trials relative to DBS off and to controls. These results are the first demonstration, using a single task in the same patient sample, that DBS of the STN produces differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and on conflict resolution, suggesting that these effects are likely to be mediated through the impact of STN stimulation on different fronto-basal ganglia pathways: hyperdirect, direct and indirect.

  14. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves somatosensory function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Aman, Joshua E; Abosch, Aviva; Bebler, Maggie; Lu, Chia-Hao; Konczak, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    An established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) is deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Mounting evidence suggests that PD is also associated with somatosensory deficits, yet the effect of STN-DBS on somatosensory processing is largely unknown. This study investigated whether STN-DBS affects somatosensory processing, specifically the processing of tactile and proprioceptive cues, by systematically examining the accuracy of haptic perception of object size. (Haptic perception refers to one's ability to extract object features such as shape and size by active touch.) Without vision, 13 PD patients with implanted STN-DBS and 13 healthy controls haptically explored the heights of 2 successively presented 3-dimensional (3D) blocks using a precision grip. Participants verbally indicated which block was taller and then used their nonprobing hand to motorically match the perceived size of the comparison block. Patients were tested during ON and OFF stimulation, following a 12-hour medication washout period. First, when compared to controls, the PD group's haptic discrimination threshold during OFF stimulation was elevated by 192% and mean hand aperture error was increased by 105%. Second, DBS lowered the haptic discrimination threshold by 26% and aperture error decreased by 20%. Third, during DBS ON, probing with the motorically more affected hand decreased haptic precision compared to probing with the less affected hand. This study offers the first evidence that STN-DBS improves haptic precision, further indicating that somatosensory function is improved by STN-DBS. We conclude that DBS-related improvements are not explained by improvements in motor function alone, but rather by enhanced somatosensory processing. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. The effect of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on executive functions: impaired verbal fluency and intact updating, planning and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Gyula; Valálik, István; Pajkossy, Péter; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-04-24

    Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study. Neuropsychological tasks were used to assess general mental ability and various executive functions. Each task was administered twice to each participant: before and after surgery (with the stimulators on) in the DBS group and with a matched delay between the two task administration points in the control group. There was no significant difference between the DBS and the control groups' performance in tasks measuring the updating of verbal, spatial or visual information (Digit span, Corsi and N-back tasks), planning and shifting (Trail Making B), and conflict resolution (Stroop task). However, the DBS group showed a significant decline on the semantic verbal fluency task after surgery compared to the control group, which is in line with findings of previous studies. Our results provide support for the relative cognitive safety of the STN DBS using a wait-listed PD control group. Differential effects of the STN DBS on frontostriatal networks are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on dual-task cognitive and motor performance in isolated dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kelly A; Markun, Leslie C; Luciano, Marta San; Rizk, Rami; Allen, I Elaine; Racine, Caroline A; Starr, Philip A; Alberts, Jay L; Ostrem, Jill L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) can improve motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) but may worsen specific cognitive functions. The effect of STN DBS on cognitive function in dystonia patients is less clear. Previous reports indicate that bilateral STN stimulation in patients with PD amplifies the decrement in cognitive-motor dual-task performance seen when moving from a single-task to dual-task paradigm. We aimed to determine if the effect of bilateral STN DBS on dual-task performance in isolated patients with dystonia, who have less cognitive impairment and no dementia, is similar to that seen in PD. Methods Eight isolated predominantly cervical patients with dystonia treated with bilateral STN DBS, with average dystonia duration of 10.5 years and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 26.5, completed working memory (n-back) and motor (forced-maintenance) tests under single-task and dual-task conditions while on and off DBS. Results A multivariate, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no effect of stimulation status (On vs Off) on working memory (F=0.75, p=0.39) or motor function (F=0.22, p=0.69) when performed under single-task conditions, though as working memory task difficulty increased, stimulation disrupted the accuracy of force-tracking. There was a very small worsening in working memory performance (F=9.14, p=0.019) when moving from single-task to dual-tasks when using the ‘dual-task loss’ analysis. Conclusions This study suggests the effect of STN DBS on working memory and attention may be much less consequential in patients with dystonia than has been reported in PD. PMID:25012202

  17. Cognition and Depression Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Pars Internus in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Combs, Hannah L; Folley, Bradley S; Berry, David T R; Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Han, Dong Y; Anderson-Mooney, Amelia J; Walls, Brittany D; van Horne, Craig

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Individuals experience predominantly extrapyramidal symptoms including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait abnormalities, cognitive impairment, depression, and neurobehavioral concerns. Cognitive impairments associated with PD are diverse, including difficulty with attention, processing speed, executive functioning, memory recall, visuospatial functions, word-retrieval, and naming. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) is FDA approved and has been shown to be effective in reducing motor symptoms of PD. Studies have found that stimulating STN and GPi are equally effective at improving motor symptoms and dyskinesias; however, there has been discrepancy as to whether the cognitive, behavioral, and mood symptoms are affected differently between the two targets. The present study used random-effects meta-analytic models along with a novel p-curve analytic procedure to compare the potential cognitive and emotional impairments associated with STN-DBS in the current literature to those associated with GPi-DBS. Forty-one articles were reviewed with an aggregated sample size of 1622 patients. Following STN-DBS, small declines were found in psychomotor speed, memory, attention, executive functions, and overall cognition; and moderate declines were found in both semantic and phonemic fluency. However, GPi-DBS resulted in fewer neurocognitive declines than STN-DBS (small declines in attention and small-moderate declines in verbal fluency). With regards to its effect on depression symptomatology, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS resulted in lower levels of depressive symptoms post-surgery. From a neurocognitive standpoint, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS produce subtle cognitive declines but appears to be relatively well tolerated.

  18. Parkinson's disease patient preference and experience with various methods of DBS lead placement.

    PubMed

    LaHue, Sara C; Ostrem, Jill L; Galifianakis, Nicholas B; San Luciano, Marta; Ziman, Nathan; Wang, Sarah; Racine, Caroline A; Starr, Philip A; Larson, Paul S; Katz, Maya

    2017-08-01

    Physiology-guided deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery requires patients to be awake during a portion of the procedure, which may be poorly tolerated. Interventional MRI-guided (iMRI) DBS surgery was developed to use real-time image guidance, obviating the need for patients to be awake during lead placement. All English-speaking adults with PD who underwent iMRI DBS between 2010 and 2014 at our Center were invited to participate. Subjects completed a structured interview that explored perioperative preferences and experiences. We compared these responses to patients who underwent the physiology-guided method, matched for age and gender. Eighty-nine people with PD completed the study. Of those, 40 underwent iMRI, 44 underwent physiology-guided implantation, and five underwent both methods. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups. The primary reason for choosing iMRI DBS was a preference to be asleep during implantation due to: 1) a history of claustrophobia; 2) concerns about the potential for discomfort during the awake physiology-guided procedure in those with an underlying pain syndrome or severe off-medication symptoms; or 3) non-specific fear about being awake during neurosurgery. Participants were satisfied with both DBS surgery methods. However, identification of the factors associated with a preference for iMRI DBS may allow for optimization of patient experience and satisfaction when choices of surgical methods for DBS implantation are available. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Influence of subthalamic deep-brain stimulation on cognitive action control in incentive context.

    PubMed

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Duprez, Joan; Argaud, Soizic; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Drapier, Sophie; Haegelen, Claire; Jannin, Pierre; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD), but can have cognitive side effects, such as increasing the difficulty of producing appropriate responses when a habitual but inappropriate responses represent strong alternatives. STN-DBS also appears to modulate representations of incentives such as monetary rewards. Furthermore, conflict resolution can be modulated by incentive context. We therefore used a rewarded Simon Task to assess the influence of promised rewards on cognitive action control in 50 patients with PD, half of whom were being treated with STN-DBS. Results were analyzed according to the activation-suppression model. We showed that STN-DBS (i) favored the expression of motor impulsivity, as measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, (ii) facilitated the expression of incentive actions as observed with a greater increase in speed according to promised reward in patients with versus without DBS and (iii) may increase impulsive action selection in an incentive context. In addition, analysis of subgroups of implanted patients suggested that those who exhibited the most impulsive action selection had the least severe disease. This may indicate that patients with less marked disease are more at risk of developing impulsivity postoperatively. Finally, in these patients, incentive context increased the difficulty of resolving conflict situations. As a whole, the current study revealed that in patients with PD, STN-DBS affects the cognitive processes involved in conflict resolution, reward processing and the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motor and Nonmotor Circuitry Activation Induced by Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Intraoperative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Knight, Emily J; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Felmlee, Joel P; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M; Clayton, Daniel A; Klassen, Bryan T; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease would affect the activity of motor and nonmotor networks, we applied intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to patients receiving DBS. Ten patients receiving STN DBS for Parkinson disease underwent intraoperative 1.5-T fMRI during high-frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. We observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes (false discovery rate <0.001) in the motor circuitry (including the primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices; thalamus; pedunculopontine nucleus; and cerebellum) and in the limbic circuitry (including the cingulate and insular cortices). Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (P<.001) to the data set, suggesting that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared with those occurring in the nonmotor network. These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and nonmotor networks and suggest complex mechanisms as the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent than those in the nonmotor network. With further studies combining the use of real-time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809613. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Only physical aspects of quality of life are significantly improved by bilateral subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Drapier, Sophie; Raoul, Sylvie; Drapier, Dominique; Leray, Emmanuelle; Lallement, François; Rivier, Isabelle; Sauleau, Paul; Lajat, Youen; Edan, Gilles; Vérin, Marc

    2005-05-01

    The well known global improvement of quality of life (QoL) after bilateral high frequency chronic deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is in contrast to behavioral disturbances as observed after surgery. Indeed the impact of DBS on physical versus mental aspects of QoL in PD remains unknown. To assess the influence of bilateral STN DBS on physical versus mental aspects of QoL in Parkinson's disease. The results of 27 patients for the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 (PDQ39) and Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF36) were compared before surgery and after 12 months of bilateral STN DBS. Comparing off-dopa conditions before versus 12 months after surgery, both UPDRS part II and part III significantly improved: 32.6% and 52%, respectively. UPDRS part I scores did not change significantly at 12 months. As for PDQ39, the global score significantly improved after surgery (21.1 %) as did four subscores: mobility (25.6 %), activity of daily living (34.5 %), stigma (40.1 %) and bodily discomfort (30 %). Three PDQ39 subscores, however, showed no significant changes: emotional well-being (10.7 %), social support (3.2%) and cognition (8.5 %) and one item even worsened: communication (-7.7 %). In SF36, only physical items significantly improved. Using clinician's based rating scale, bilateral STN DBS showed significant improvement in PD patients at 12 month follow up. However, using patient's self-assessment scales, the clinical benefit of STN DBS was more subtle: physical items of QoL significantly improved, whereas mental items such as emotional well-being, social support, cognition and communication showed no improvement. Our results are suggestive of a dissociation of motor and non-motor symptoms control after bilateral STN DBS in PD patients.

  2. Effect of subthalamic nucleus stimulation during exercise on the mesolimbocortical dopaminergic region in Parkinson's disease: a positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Takao; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yagi, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Kanno, Toshihiko; Asakawa, Tetsuya; Ito, Tae; Terada, Tatsuhiro; Namba, Hiroki; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate the dynamic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during activity on the dopaminergic system, 12 PD patients who had STN-DBS operations at least 1 month prior, underwent two positron emission tomography scans during right-foot movement in DBS-off and DBS-on conditions. To quantify motor performance changes, the motion speed and mobility angle of the foot at the ankle were measured twice. Estimations of the binding potential of [(11)C]raclopride (BP(ND)) were based on the Logan plot method. Significant motor recovery was found in the DBS-on condition. The STN-DBS during exercise significantly reduced the [(11)C]raclopride BP(ND) in the caudate and the nucleus accumbens (NA), but not in the dorsal or ventral putamen. The magnitude of dopamine release in the NA correlated negatively with the magnitude of motor load, indicating that STN-DBS facilitated motor behavior more smoothly and at less expense to dopamine neurons in the region. The lack of dopamine release in the putamen and the significant dopamine release in the ventromedial striatum by STN-DBS during exercise indicated dopaminergic activation occurring in the motivational circuit during action, suggesting a compensatory functional activation of the motor loop from the nonmotor to the motor loop system.

  3. Does subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation really improve quality of life in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Gronchi-Perrin, Aline; Viollier, Sarah; Ghika, Joseph; Combremont, Pierre; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Burkhard, Pierre R; Vingerhoets, François

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the impact of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, as self-assessed before and after surgery by completing the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ39). In addition to this prospective evaluation, we asked patients postoperatively to evaluate their preoperative QOL. In the prospective assessment, results showed that patients perceived a general improvement of QOL after the STN DBS. However, when evaluated retrospectively, they tended to overestimate their preoperative functioning, therefore obscuring the improvement found prospectively. This observation highlights the impact of the method used on obtained results when assessing the effects of STN DBS. (c) 2006 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation impacts language in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lara; Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A; Pelster, Michael; Gelfand, Matthew; Ullman, Michael T; Charles, P David

    2012-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia improves motor outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on cognition, including language, remain unclear. This study examined the impact of subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS on two fundamental capacities of language, grammatical and lexical functions. These functions were tested with the production of regular and irregular past-tenses, which contrast aspects of grammatical (regulars) and lexical (irregulars) processing while controlling for multiple potentially confounding factors. Aspects of the motor system were tested by contrasting the naming of manipulated (motor) and non-manipulated (non-motor) objects. Performance was compared between healthy controls and early-stage PD patients treated with either DBS/medications or medications alone. Patients were assessed on and off treatment, with controls following a parallel testing schedule. STN-DBS improved naming of manipulated (motor) but not non-manipulated (non-motor) objects, as compared to both controls and patients with just medications, who did not differ from each other across assessment sessions. In contrast, STN-DBS led to worse performance at regulars (grammar) but not irregulars (lexicon), as compared to the other two subject groups, who again did not differ. The results suggest that STN-DBS negatively impacts language in early PD, but may be specific in depressing aspects of grammatical and not lexical processing. The finding that STN-DBS affects both motor and grammar (but not lexical) functions strengthens the view that both depend on basal ganglia circuitry, although the mechanisms for its differential impact on the two (improved motor, impaired grammar) remain to be elucidated.

  5. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Impacts Language in Early Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lara; Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A.; Pelster, Michael; Gelfand, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia improves motor outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on cognition, including language, remain unclear. This study examined the impact of subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS on two fundamental capacities of language, grammatical and lexical functions. These functions were tested with the production of regular and irregular past-tenses, which contrast aspects of grammatical (regulars) and lexical (irregulars) processing while controlling for multiple potentially confounding factors. Aspects of the motor system were tested by contrasting the naming of manipulated (motor) and non-manipulated (non-motor) objects. Performance was compared between healthy controls and early-stage PD patients treated with either DBS/medications or medications alone. Patients were assessed on and off treatment, with controls following a parallel testing schedule. STN-DBS improved naming of manipulated (motor) but not non-manipulated (non-motor) objects, as compared to both controls and patients with just medications, who did not differ from each other across assessment sessions. In contrast, STN-DBS led to worse performance at regulars (grammar) but not irregulars (lexicon), as compared to the other two subject groups, who again did not differ. The results suggest that STN-DBS negatively impacts language in early PD, but may be specific in depressing aspects of grammatical and not lexical processing. The finding that STN-DBS affects both motor and grammar (but not lexical) functions strengthens the view that both depend on basal ganglia circuitry, although the mechanisms for its differential impact on the two (improved motor, impaired grammar) remain to be elucidated. PMID:22880117

  6. Effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on dual-task cognitive and motor performance in isolated dystonia.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kelly A; Markun, Leslie C; San Luciano, Marta; Rizk, Rami; Allen, I Elaine; Racine, Caroline A; Starr, Philip A; Alberts, Jay L; Ostrem, Jill L

    2015-04-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) can improve motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) but may worsen specific cognitive functions. The effect of STN DBS on cognitive function in dystonia patients is less clear. Previous reports indicate that bilateral STN stimulation in patients with PD amplifies the decrement in cognitive-motor dual-task performance seen when moving from a single-task to dual-task paradigm. We aimed to determine if the effect of bilateral STN DBS on dual-task performance in isolated patients with dystonia, who have less cognitive impairment and no dementia, is similar to that seen in PD. Eight isolated predominantly cervical patients with dystonia treated with bilateral STN DBS, with average dystonia duration of 10.5 years and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 26.5, completed working memory (n-back) and motor (forced-maintenance) tests under single-task and dual-task conditions while on and off DBS. A multivariate, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no effect of stimulation status (On vs Off) on working memory (F=0.75, p=0.39) or motor function (F=0.22, p=0.69) when performed under single-task conditions, though as working memory task difficulty increased, stimulation disrupted the accuracy of force-tracking. There was a very small worsening in working memory performance (F=9.14, p=0.019) when moving from single-task to dual-tasks when using the 'dual-task loss' analysis. This study suggests the effect of STN DBS on working memory and attention may be much less consequential in patients with dystonia than has been reported in PD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Differential effects of deep brain stimulation on verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Schoenecker, Thomas; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-07-01

    We aimed at gaining insights into principles of subcortical lexical processing. Therefore, effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in different target structures on verbal fluency (VF) were tested. VF was assessed with active vs. inactivated DBS in 13 and 14 patients with DBS in the vicinity of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) and, respectively, of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Results were correlated to electrode localizations in postoperative MRI, and compared to those of 12 age-matched healthy controls. Patients' VF performance was generally below normal. However, while activation of DBS in the vicinity of VIM provoked marked VF decline, it induced subtle phonemic VF enhancement in the vicinity of STN. The effects correlated with electrode localizations in left hemispheric stimulation sites. The results show distinct dependencies of VF on DBS in the vicinity of VIM vs. STN. Particular risks for deterioration occur in patients with relatively ventromedial thalamic electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI directed bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, N; Plaha, P; O'Sullivan, K; McCarter, R; Heywood, P; Gill, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Bilateral chronic high frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has emerged as an appropriate therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease refractory to medical therapy. Advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiology have led to the development of varied targeting methods for the delivery of this treatment. Intraoperative neurophysiological and clinical monitoring is regarded by many to be mandatory for accurate STN localisation. We have examined efficacy of bilateral STN stimulation using a predominantly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-directed technique. Methods: DBS leads were stereotactically implanted into the STN using an MRI directed method, with intraoperative macrostimulation used purely for adjustment. The effects of DBS were evaluated in 16 patients followed up to 12 months, and compared with baseline assessments. Assessments were performed in both off and on medication states, and were based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and timed motor tests. Functional status outcomes were examined using the PDQ-39 quality of life questionnaire. A battery of psychometric tests was used to assess cognition. Results: After 12 months, stimulation in the off medication state resulted in significant improvements in Activities of Daily Living and Motor scores (UPDRS parts II and III) by 62% and 61% respectively. Timed motor tests were significantly improved in the off medication state. Motor scores (UPDRS part III) were significantly improved by 40% in the on medication state. Dyskinesias and off duration were significantly reduced and the mean dose of L-dopa equivalents was reduced by half. Psychometric test scores were mostly unchanged or improved. Adverse events were few. Conclusions: An MRI directed targeting method for implantation of DBS leads into the STN can be used safely and effectively, and results are comparable with studies using intraoperative microelectrode neurophysiological

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Early Stage Parkinson's Disease: An Illustrative Case

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Chandler E.; Allen, Laura A.; Konrad, Peter E.; Davis, Thomas L.; Bliton, Mark J.; Finder, Stuart G.; Tramontana, Michael G.; Kao, C. Chris; Remple, Michael S.; Bradenham, Courtney H.; Charles, P. David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective intervention in advanced Parkinson's Disease (PD), but its efficacy and safety in early PD are unknown. Our team is conducting a randomized pilot trial investigating DBS in early PD. This report describes one participant who received bilateral STN-DBS. Materials/Methods Thirty subjects have been randomized to either optimal drug therapy (ODT) or DBS + ODT. Microelectrode recordings from the STN and substantia nigra (SN) are collected at implantation. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Subscale (UPDRS-III) is administered in the ON and OFF states semi-annually and neuropsychological function and quality of life are assessed annually. We describe a 54-year-old man with a two-year history of PD who was randomized to DBS + ODT and followed for two years. Results The subject showed a lower STN to SN ratio of neuronal activity than advanced PD patients, and higher firing rate than non-PD patients. The subject's ON total UPDRS and UPDRS-III scores improved during the two-year follow-up, while his OFF UPDRS-III score and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) increased. Quality of life, verbal fluency and verbal learning improved. He did not experience any serious adverse events. Conclusions This report details the first successful application of bilateral STN DBS for early stage PD during a clinical trial. PMID:21939467

  10. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease - two cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder with disruption of verbal fluency which is occasionally present in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Long-term medical management of PD is frequently complicated by fluctuating motor functions and dyskinesias. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment of motor fluctuations and is the most common surgical procedure in PD. Here we report the re-occurrence and aggravation of stuttering following STN-DBS in two male patients treated for advanced PD. In both patients the speech fluency improved considerably when the neurostimulator was turned off, indicating that stuttering aggravation was related to neurostimulation of the STN itself, its afferent or efferent projections and/or to structures localized in the immediate proximity. This report supports previous studies demonstrating that lesions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, including the STN, is involved in the development of stuttering. In advanced PD STN-DBS is generally an effective and safe treatment. However, patients with PD and stuttering should be informed about the risk of aggravated symptoms following surgical therapy. PMID:21477305

  11. The Impact of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Sleep-Wake Behavior: A Prospective Electrophysiological Study in 50 Parkinson Patients.

    PubMed

    Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Imbach, Lukas L; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Stieglitz, Lennart; Waldvogel, Daniel; Baumann, Christian R; Werth, Esther

    2017-05-01

    This prospective observational study was designed to systematically examine the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subjective and objective sleep-wake parameters in Parkinson patients. In 50 consecutive Parkinson patients undergoing subthalamic DBS, we assessed motor symptoms, medication, the position of DBS electrodes within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), subjective sleep-wake parameters, 2-week actigraphy, video-polysomnography studies, and sleep electroencepahalogram frequency and dynamics analyses before and 6 months after surgery. Subthalamic DBS improved not only motor symptoms and reduced daily intake of dopaminergic agents but also enhanced subjective sleep quality and reduced sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: -2.1 ± 3.8, p < .001). Actigraphy recordings revealed longer bedtimes (+1:06 ± 0:51 hours, p < .001) without shifting of circadian timing. Upon polysomnography, we observed an increase in sleep efficiency (+5.2 ± 17.6%, p = .005) and deep sleep (+11.2 ± 32.2 min, p = .017) and increased accumulation of slow-wave activity over the night (+41.0 ± 80.0%, p = .005). Rapid eye movement sleep features were refractory to subthalamic DBS, and the dynamics of sleep as assessed by state space analyses did not normalize. Increased sleep efficiency was associated with active electrode contact localization more distant from the ventral margin of the left subthalamic nucleus. Subthalamic DBS deepens and consolidates nocturnal sleep and improves daytime wakefulness in Parkinson patients, but several outcomes suggest that it does not normalize sleep. It remains elusive whether modulated activity in the STN directly contributes to changes in sleep-wake behavior, but dorsal positioning of electrodes within the STN is linked to improved sleep-wake outcomes. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates conscious perception of sensory function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cury, Rubens G; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel J; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria G; Silva, Valquiria; Myczkowski, Martin L; Marcolin, Marco A; Barbosa, Egberto R; Fonoff, Erich T; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is used to treat refractory motor complications in Parkinson disease (PD), but its effects on nonmotor symptoms remain uncertain. Up to 80% of patients with PD may have pain relief after STN-DBS, but it is unknown whether its analgesic properties are related to potential effects on sensory thresholds or secondary to motor improvement. We have previously reported significant and long-lasting pain relief after DBS, which did not correlate with motor symptomatic control. Here we present secondary data exploring the effects of DBS on sensory thresholds in a controlled way and have explored the relationship between these changes and clinical pain and motor improvement after surgery. Thirty-seven patients were prospectively evaluated before STN-DBS and 12 months after the procedure compared with healthy controls. Compared with baseline, patients with PD showed lower thermal and mechanical detection and higher cold pain thresholds after surgery. There were no changes in heat and mechanical pain thresholds. Compared with baseline values in healthy controls, patients with PD had higher thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, which decreased after surgery toward normalization. These sensory changes had no correlation with motor or clinical pain improvement after surgery. These data confirm the existence of sensory abnormalities in PD and suggest that STN-DBS mainly influenced the detection thresholds rather than painful sensations. However, these changes may depend on the specific effects of DBS on somatosensory loops with no correlation to motor or clinical pain improvement.

  13. Deep brain stimulation does not change neurovascular coupling in non-motor visual cortex: an autonomic and visual evoked blood flow velocity response study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Elsa; Santos, Rosa; Freitas, João; Rosas, Maria-José; Gago, Miguel; Garrett, Carolina; Rosengarten, Bernhard

    2010-11-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) improves motor function. Also an effect on the neurovascular coupling in motor cortex was reported due to a parallel activation of a subthalamic vasodilator area (SVA). To address this issue further we analysed neurovascular coupling in a non-motor area. Twenty PD patients selected for bilateral STN-DBS were investigated with functional transcranial Doppler (f-TCD) before and after surgery. Hemodynamic responses to visual stimulation were registered in left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and analysed with a control-system approach (parameters gain, rate time, attenuation and natural frequency). To exclude autonomic effects of STN-DBS, we also addressed spectrum analysis of heart rate and of systolic arterial blood pressure variability, and baroreceptor gain. Findings in the PD group were compared with healthy age-matched controls. PD patients showed no neurovascular coupling changes in PCA territory, compared to controls, and STN-DBS changed neither blood flow regulatory parameters nor autonomic function. Improvement of vasoregulation in some motor cortical areas after STN-DBS might be related to an improved neuronal functional rather than indicating an effect on the neurovascular coupling or autonomic function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does unilateral basal ganglia activity functionally influence the contralateral side? What we can learn from STN stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brun, Yohann; Karachi, Carine; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Jodoin, Nicolas; Grabli, David; Bardinet, Eric; Mallet, Luc; Agid, Yves; Yelnik, Jerome; Welter, Marie-Laure

    2012-09-01

    In humans, the control of voluntary movement, in which the corticobasal ganglia (BG) circuitry participates, is mainly lateralized. However, several studies have suggested that both the contralateral and ipsilateral BG systems are implicated during unilateral movement. Bilateral improvement of motor signs in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported with unilateral lesion or high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the internal part of the globus pallidus or the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS). To decipher the mechanisms of production of ipsilateral movements induced by the modulation of unilateral BG circuitry activity, we recorded left STN neuronal activity during right STN-HFS in PD patients operated for bilateral deep brain stimulation. Left STN single cells were recorded in the operating room during right STN-HFS while patients experienced, or did not experience, right stimulation-induced dyskinesias. Most of the left-side STN neurons (64%) associated with the presence of right dyskinesias were inhibited, with a significant decrease in burst and intraburst frequencies. In contrast, left STN neurons not associated with right dyskinesias were mainly activated (48%), with a predominant increase 4-5 ms after the stimulation pulse and a decrease in oscillatory activity. This suggests that unilateral neuronal STN modulation is associated with changes in the activity of the contralateral STN. The fact that one side of the BG system can influence the functioning of the other could explain the occurrence of bilateral dyskinesias and motor improvement observed in PD patients during unilateral STN-HFS, as a result of a bilateral disruption of the pathological activity in the corticosubcortical circuitry.

  15. Comparative cognitive effects of bilateral subthalamic stimulation and subcutaneous continuous infusion of apomorphine in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Alegret, Montse; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Martí, MaJosé; Pilleri, Manuela; Junqué, Carme; Rumià, Jordi; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and continuous subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine (APM-csi) can provide a comparable improvement on motor function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms by which both therapies exert their effects are different. We analyzed the cognitive effects of APM-csi. We also compared neuropsychological effects induced by STN-DBS and APM-csi in advanced PD to ascertain the neuropsychological aspects relevant in determining the therapeutic procedure that is the most appropriate in a particular patient. We studied 9 patients treated with STN-DBS and 7 patients with APM-csi. Neuropsychological measures included Rey's Auditory-Verbal Learning, Stroop, Trail Making, phonetic verbal fluency, and Judgment of Line Orientation tests. In the APM-csi group, significant changes were not observed in the neuropsychological tests performance. By contrast, in the STN-DBS group, moderate worsening was found in phonetic verbal fluency and Stroop Naming scores that was partially reversible at long-term follow-up and did not have consequences on regular activities. Consequently, these findings could be interpreted as being not relevant in deciding the most suitable treatment in a given patient. 2004 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson׳s disease has no significant effect on perceptual timing in the hundreds of milliseconds range

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Thomas E.; Grube, Manon; Mandal, Arnab; Cooper, Freya E.; Brechany, Una; Burn, David J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral, high-frequency stimulation of the basal ganglia (STN-DBS) is in widespread use for the treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson׳s disease (PD). We present here the first psychophysical investigation of the effect of STN-DBS upon perceptual timing in the hundreds of milliseconds range, with both duration-based (absolute) and beat-based (relative) tasks; 13 patients with PD were assessed with their STN-DBS ‘on’, ‘off’, and then ‘on’ again. Paired parametric analyses revealed no statistically significant differences for any task according to DBS status. We demonstrate, from the examination of confidence intervals, that any functionally relevant effect of STN-DBS on relative perceptual timing is statistically unlikely. For absolute, duration-based timing, we demonstrate that the activation of STN-DBS may either worsen performance or have no effect, but that it is unlikely to lead to significant improvement. Although these results are negative they have important implications for our understanding of perceptual timing and its relationship to motor functions within the timing network of the brain. They imply that the mechanisms involved in the perceptual processing of temporal information are likely to be functionally independent from those that underpin movement. Further, they suggest that the connections between STN and the subtantia nigra and globus pallidus are unlikely to be critical to beat-based perceptual timing. PMID:24613477

  17. Dissociable Effects of Subthalamic Stimulation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder on Risky Reward and Loss Prospects.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Droux, Fabien; Chabardes, Stephan; Bougerol, Thierry; Kohl, Sina; David, Olivier; Krack, Paul; Polosan, Mircea

    2018-07-01

    Our daily decisions involve an element of risk, a behavioral process that is potentially modifiable. Here we assess the role of the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus (STN) in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) testing on and off deep-brain stimulation (DBS) on anticipatory risk taking to obtain rewards and avoid losses. We assessed 12 OCD STN DBS in a randomized double-blind within-subject cross-over design. STN DBS decreased risk taking to rewards (p = 0.02) and greater risk taking to rewards was positively correlated with OCD severity (p = 0.01) and disease duration (p = 0.01). STN DBS was also associated with impaired subjective discrimination of loss magnitude (p < 0.05), an effect mediated by acute DBS rather than chronic DBS. We highlight a role for the STN in mediating dissociable valence prospects on risk seeking. STN stimulation decreases risk taking to rewards and impairs discrimination of loss magnitude. These findings may have implications for behavioral symptoms related to STN DBS and the potential for STN DBS for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Wide-bore 1.5 T MRI-guided deep brain stimulation surgery: initial experience and technique comparison.

    PubMed

    Sillay, Karl A; Rusy, Deborah; Buyan-Dent, Laura; Ninman, Nancy L; Vigen, Karl K

    2014-12-01

    We report results of the initial experience with magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided implantation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulating (DBS) electrodes at the University of Wisconsin after having employed frame-based stereotaxy with previously available MR imaging techniques and microelectrode recording for STN DBS surgeries. Ten patients underwent MRI-guided DBS implantation of 20 electrodes between April 2011 and March 2013. The procedure was performed in a purpose-built intraoperative MRI suite configured specifically to allow MRI-guided DBS, using a wide-bore (70 cm) MRI system. Trajectory guidance was accomplished with commercially available system consisting of an MR-visible skull-mounted aiming device and a software guidance system processing intraoperatively acquired iterative MRI scans. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female)-representative of the Parkinson Disease (PD) population-were operated on with standard technique and underwent 20 electrode placements under MRI-guided bilateral STN-targeted DBS placement. All patients completed the procedure with electrodes successfully placed in the STN. Procedure time improved with experience. Our initial experience confirms the safety of MRI-guided DBS, setting the stage for future investigations combining physiology and MRI guidance. Further follow-up is required to compare the efficacy of the MRI-guided surgery cohort to that of traditional frame-based stereotaxy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Medication and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Tongue Movements in Speakers with Parkinson's Disease Using Electropalatography: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartinger, Mariam; Tripoliti, Elina; Hardcastle, William J.; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects speech in the majority of patients. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is particularly effective in reducing tremor and rigidity. However, its effect on speech is variable. The aim of this pilot study was to quantify the effects of bilateral STN-DBS and medication on articulation, using…

  20. Effects of Subthalamic Stimulation on Olfactory Function in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Carvalho, Margarete de Jesus; Lasteros, Fernando Jeyson Lopez; Dias, Alice Estevo; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela; Paiva, Anderson Rodrigues Brandão; Coutinho, Artur Martins; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni

    2018-06-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a nonmotor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with reduction in quality of life. There is no evidence on whether improvements in olfaction after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) may be directly attributable to motor improvement or whether this reflects a direct effect of DBS on olfactory brain areas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DBS on olfactory function in PD, as well as to explore the correlation between these changes and changes in motor symptoms and brain metabolism. Thirty-two patients with PD were screened for STN-DBS. Patients were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery. Primary outcome was the change in olfactory function (Sniffin' Sticks odor-identification test [SST]) after surgery among the patients with hyposmia at baseline. Secondary outcomes included the relationship between motor outcomes and olfactory changes and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography analysis between subgroups with improvement versus no improvement of smell. STN-DBS improved SST after surgery (preoperative SST, median 7.3 ± 2.4 vs. postoperative SST, median 8.2 ± 2.1; P = 0.045) in a subset of patients among 29 of 32 patients who presented with hyposmia at baseline. The improvement in SST was correlated with DBS response (r = 0.424; P = 0.035). There was also an increase in glucose metabolism in the midbrain, cerebellum, and right frontal lobe in patients with SST improvement (P < 0.001). STN-DBS improves odor identification in a subset of patients with PD. Motor improvement together with changes in the brain metabolism may be linked to this improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of repeated deep brain stimulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in rats: comparing entopeduncular and subthalamic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Creed, Meaghan C; Hamani, Clement; Nobrega, José N

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or internal globus pallidus (GPi) has been routinely used for the treatment of some movement disorders. However, DBS may be associated with adverse psychiatric effects, such as depression, anxiety and impulsivity. To compare DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN; the rodent homolog of the GPi) and STN in terms of their effects on depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in rats. DBS was applied for 21 days (4 h a day) to either the STN or EPN. Rats then underwent behavioral testing on learned helplessness and elevated plus maze tasks before being sacrificed for brain analyses of zif268, BDNF and trkB mRNA as well as BDNF protein levels. Repeated DBS of the STN, but not of the EPN, led to impaired performance in the learned helplessness task, suggesting that STN-DBS induces or potentiates depressive-like behavior. There was no effect of DBS on elevated plus maze or on open field behavior. Repeated STN-DBS, but not EPN-DBS, led to decreased levels of BDNF and trkB mRNA in hippocampus. Acute stimulation of the STN or EPN resulted in similar changes in zif268 levels in several brain areas, except for the raphe where decreases were seen only after STB-DBS. Together these results indicate that the effects of STN- and EPN-DBS differ in behavioral and neurochemical respects. Results further suggest that the EPN may be a preferable target for clinical DBS when psychiatric side effects are considered insofar as it may be associated with a lower incidence of depressive-like behavior than the STN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pseudobulbar laughter as a levodopa off phenomenon exacerbated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chattha, P K; Greene, P E; Ramdhani, Ritesh A

    2015-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect is a common symptom in neurodegenerative diseases and can also result from lesions in cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. In Parkinson's disease (PD), pseudobulbar affect (PBA) can occur as a wearing off phenomenon, manifested usually as crying without emotionality. In addition, subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported to induce PBA in PD patients with no prior history of such episodes. We present a case of inappropriate laughter lacking mirth as a levodopa OFF phenomenon in a patient with PD, whose laughter also worsened with STN-DBS in his non-medicated state. Levodopa ameliorated his PBA both with and without stimulation. The case demonstrates pseudobulbar laughter as a levodopa OFF phenomenon that is also exacerbated by STN-DBS.

  3. Speech outcomes in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Danielle; Theodoros, Deborah; Angwin, Anthony; Vogel, Adam P

    2016-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is effective in reducing motor symptoms for many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, STN DBS does not appear to influence speech in the same way, and may result in a variety of negative outcomes for people with PD (PWP). A high degree of inter-individual variability amongst PWP regarding speech outcomes following STN DBS is evident in many studies. Furthermore, speech studies in PWP following STN DBS have employed a wide variety of designs and methodologies, which complicate comparison and interpretation of outcome data amongst studies within this growing body of research. An analysis of published evidence regarding speech outcomes in PWP following STN DBS, according to design and quality, is missing. This systematic review aimed to analyse and coalesce all of the current evidence reported within observational and experimental studies investigating the effects of STN DBS on speech. It will strengthen understanding of the relationship between STN DBS and speech, and inform future research by highlighting methodological limitations of current evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on inhibitory and executive control over prepotent responses in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of inappropriate, habitual or prepotent responses is an essential component of executive control and a cornerstone of self-control. Via the hyperdirect pathway, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives inputs from frontal areas involved in inhibition and executive control. Evidence is reviewed from our own work and the literature suggesting that in Parkinson's disease (PD), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN has an impact on executive control during attention-demanding tasks or in situations of conflict when habitual or prepotent responses have to be inhibited. These results support a role for the STN in an inter-related set of processes: switching from automatic to controlled processing, inhibitory and executive control, adjusting response thresholds and influencing speed-accuracy trade-offs. Such STN DBS-induced deficits in inhibitory and executive control may contribute to some of the psychiatric problems experienced by a proportion of operated cases after STN DBS surgery in PD. However, as no direct evidence for such a link is currently available, there is a need to provide direct evidence for such a link between STN DBS-induced deficits in inhibitory and executive control and post-surgical psychiatric complications experienced by operated patients. PMID:24399941

  5. Network effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation drive a unique mixture of responses in basal ganglia output.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Mark D; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a remarkably successful treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) within the basal ganglia is a main clinical target, but the physiological mechanisms of therapeutic STN DBS at the cellular and network level are unclear. We set out to begin to address the hypothesis that a mixture of responses in the basal ganglia output nuclei, combining regularized firing and inhibition, is a key contributor to the effectiveness of STN DBS. We used our computational model of the complete basal ganglia circuit to show how such a mixture of responses in basal ganglia output naturally arises from the network effects of STN DBS. We replicated the diversification of responses recorded in a primate STN DBS study to show that the model's predicted mixture of responses is consistent with therapeutic STN DBS. We then showed how this 'mixture of response' perspective suggests new ideas for DBS mechanisms: first, that the therapeutic frequency of STN DBS is above 100 Hz because the diversification of responses exhibits a step change above this frequency; and second, that optogenetic models of direct STN stimulation during DBS have proven therapeutically ineffective because they do not replicate the mixture of basal ganglia output responses evoked by electrical DBS. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson׳s disease has no significant effect on perceptual timing in the hundreds of milliseconds range.

    PubMed

    Cope, Thomas E; Grube, Manon; Mandal, Arnab; Cooper, Freya E; Brechany, Una; Burn, David J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-05-01

    Bilateral, high-frequency stimulation of the basal ganglia (STN-DBS) is in widespread use for the treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson׳s disease (PD). We present here the first psychophysical investigation of the effect of STN-DBS upon perceptual timing in the hundreds of milliseconds range, with both duration-based (absolute) and beat-based (relative) tasks; 13 patients with PD were assessed with their STN-DBS 'on', 'off', and then 'on' again. Paired parametric analyses revealed no statistically significant differences for any task according to DBS status. We demonstrate, from the examination of confidence intervals, that any functionally relevant effect of STN-DBS on relative perceptual timing is statistically unlikely. For absolute, duration-based timing, we demonstrate that the activation of STN-DBS may either worsen performance or have no effect, but that it is unlikely to lead to significant improvement. Although these results are negative they have important implications for our understanding of perceptual timing and its relationship to motor functions within the timing network of the brain. They imply that the mechanisms involved in the perceptual processing of temporal information are likely to be functionally independent from those that underpin movement. Further, they suggest that the connections between STN and the subtantia nigra and globus pallidus are unlikely to be critical to beat-based perceptual timing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Target Selection Recommendations Based on Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries on Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Lin; Sperry, Laura; Olichney, John; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Chang, Norika Malhado; Liu, Ying; Wang, Su-Ping; Wang, Cui

    2015-12-20

    This review examines the evidence that deep brain stimulation (DBS) has extensive impact on nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We retrieved information from the PubMed database up to September, 2015, using various search terms and their combinations including PD, NMSs, DBS, globus pallidus internus (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. We included data from peer-reviewed journals on impacts of DBS on neuropsychological profiles, sensory function, autonomic symptoms, weight changes, and sleep disturbances. For psychological symptoms and cognitive impairment, we tried to use more reliable proofs: Random, control, multicenter, large sample sizes, and long period follow-up clinical studies. We categorized the NMSs into four groups: those that would improve definitively following DBS; those that are not significantly affected by DBS; those that remain controversial on their surgical benefit; and those that can be worsened by DBS. In general, it seems to be an overall beneficial effect of DBS on NMSs, such as sensory, sleep, gastrointestinal, sweating, cardiovascular, odor, urological symptoms, and sexual dysfunction, GPi-DBS may produce similar results; Both STN and Gpi-DBS are safe with regard to cognition and psychology over long-term follow-up, though verbal fluency decline is related to DBS; The impact of DBS on behavioral addictions and dysphagia is still uncertain. As the motor effects of STN-DBS and GPi-DBS are similar, NMSs may determine the target choice in surgery of future patients.

  8. Tackling psychosocial maladjustment in Parkinson's disease patients following subthalamic deep-brain stimulation: A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Flores Alves Dos Santos, Joao; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Gargiulo, Marcella; Behar, Cecile; Montel, Sébastien; Hergueta, Thierry; Navarro, Soledad; Belaid, Hayat; Cloitre, Pauline; Karachi, Carine; Mallet, Luc; Welter, Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for the motor and non-motor signs of Parkinson's disease (PD), however, psychological disorders and social maladjustment have been reported in about one third of patients after STN-DBS. We propose here a perioperative psychoeducation programme to limit such social and familial disruption. Nineteen PD patients and carers were included in a randomised single blind study. Social adjustment scale (SAS) scores from patients and carers that received the psychoeducation programme (n = 9) were compared, both 1 and 2 years after surgery, with patients and carers with usual care (n = 10). Depression, anxiety, cognitive status, apathy, coping, parkinsonian disability, quality-of-life, carers' anxiety and burden were also analysed. Seventeen patients completed the study, 2 were excluded from the final analysis because of adverse events. At 1 year, 2/7 patients with psychoeducation and 8/10 with usual care had an aggravation in at least one domain of the SAS (p = .058). At 2 years, only 1 patient with psychoeducation suffered persistent aggravated social adjustment as compared to 8 patients with usual care (p = .015). At 1 year, anxiety, depression and instrumental coping ratings improved more in the psychoeducation than in the usual care group (p = .038, p = .050 and p = .050, respectively). No significant differences were found between groups for quality of life, cognitive status, apathy or motor disability. Our results suggest that a perioperative psychoeducation programme prevents social maladjustment in PD patients following STN-DBS and improves anxiety and depression compared to usual care. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  9. Hyperhidrosis associated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: Insights into central autonomic functional anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Smith, Heather; Youn, Youngwon; Durphy, Jennifer; Shin, Damian S; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-07-15

    There is limited evidence regarding the precise location and connections of thermoregulatory centers in humans. We present two patients managed with subthalamic nucleus (STN) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for motor fluctuations in PD that developed reproducible hyperhidrosis with high frequency DBS. To describe the clinical features and analyze the location of the electrodes leading to autonomic activation in both patients. We retrospectively assessed the anatomical localization, electrode programming settings and effects of unilateral STN DBS leading to hyperhidrosis. Unilateral stimulation of anterior and medially located contacts within the STN and zona incerta (Zi) caused bilateral, consistent, reproducible, and reversible sweating in our patients. Adequate control of motor symptoms without autonomic side effects was accomplished with alternative programming settings. Stimulation of the medial Zi and medial and anterior STN causes hyperhidrosis in a pattern similar to that described in primates and rats. We speculate that central autonomic fibers originating in the lateral hypothalamic area project laterally to the ventral/medial Zi and then to brainstem nuclei following an medial and posterior trajectory in relationship to STN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tackling psychosocial maladjustment in Parkinson’s disease patients following subthalamic deep-brain stimulation: A randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Flores Alves Dos Santos, Joao; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Gargiulo, Marcella; Behar, Cecile; Montel, Sébastien; Hergueta, Thierry; Navarro, Soledad; Belaid, Hayat; Cloitre, Pauline; Karachi, Carine; Mallet, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Background Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for the motor and non-motor signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD), however, psychological disorders and social maladjustment have been reported in about one third of patients after STN-DBS. We propose here a perioperative psychoeducation programme to limit such social and familial disruption. Methods Nineteen PD patients and carers were included in a randomised single blind study. Social adjustment scale (SAS) scores from patients and carers that received the psychoeducation programme (n = 9) were compared, both 1 and 2 years after surgery, with patients and carers with usual care (n = 10). Depression, anxiety, cognitive status, apathy, coping, parkinsonian disability, quality-of-life, carers’ anxiety and burden were also analysed. Results Seventeen patients completed the study, 2 were excluded from the final analysis because of adverse events. At 1 year, 2/7 patients with psychoeducation and 8/10 with usual care had an aggravation in at least one domain of the SAS (p = .058). At 2 years, only 1 patient with psychoeducation suffered persistent aggravated social adjustment as compared to 8 patients with usual care (p = .015). At 1 year, anxiety, depression and instrumental coping ratings improved more in the psychoeducation than in the usual care group (p = .038, p = .050 and p = .050, respectively). No significant differences were found between groups for quality of life, cognitive status, apathy or motor disability. Conclusions Our results suggest that a perioperative psychoeducation programme prevents social maladjustment in PD patients following STN-DBS and improves anxiety and depression compared to usual care. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:28399152

  11. Validity of Single Tract Microelectrode Recording in Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Atsushi; Oka, Yuichi; Yamada, Kazuo; Oyama, Genko; Shimo, Yasushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    In surgery for subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), precise implantation of the lead into the STN is essential. Physiological refinement with microelectrode recording (MER) is the gold standard for identifying STN. We studied single tract MER findings and surgical outcomes and verified our surgical method using single tract MER. The number of trajectories in MER and the final position of lead placement were retrospectively analyzed in 440 sides of STN DBS in 221 patients. Bilateral STN DBS yielded marked improvement in the motor score, dyskinesia/fluctuation score, and reduced requirement of dopaminergic medication in this series. The number of trajectories required to obtain sufficient activity of the STN was one in 79.0%, two in 18.2%, and three or more in 2.5% of 440 sides. In 92 sides requiring altered trajectory, the final direction of trajectory movement was posterior in 73.9%, anterior in 13.0%, lateral in 5.4%, and medial in 4.3%. In 18 patients, posterior moves were required due to significant brain shift with intracranial air caused by outflow of CSF during the second side procedure. Sufficient STN activity is obtained with minimum trajectories by proper targeting and precise interpretation of MER findings even in the single tract method. Anterior–posterior moves rather than medial–lateral moves should be attempted first in cases with insufficient recording of STN activity. PMID:24140767

  12. Subthalamic Nucleus Visualization on Routine Clinical Preoperative MRI Scans: A Retrospective Study of Clinical and Image Characteristics Predicting Its Visualization.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Manish; Boutet, Alexandre; Xu, David S; Lozano, Christopher S; Kumar, Rajeev; Fasano, Alfonso; Kucharczyk, Walter; Lozano, Andres M

    2018-05-30

    The visualization of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is variable. Studies of the contribution of patient-related factors and intrinsic brain volumetrics to STN visualization have not been reported previously. To assess the visualization of the STN during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in a clinical setting. Eighty-two patients undergoing pre-operative MRI to plan for STN DBS for Parkinson disease were retrospectively studied. The visualization of the STN and its borders was assessed and scored by 3 independent observers using a 4-point ordinal scale (from 0 = not seen to 3 = excellent visualization). This measure was then correlated with the patients' clinical information and brain volumes. The mean STN visualization scores were 1.68 and 1.63 for the right and left STN, respectively, with a good interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.744). Older age and decreased white matter volume were negatively correlated with STN visualization (p < 0.05). STN visualization is only fair to good on routine MRI with good concordance of interindividual rating. Advancing age and decreased white matter are associated with poor visualization of the STN. Knowledge about factors contributing to poor visualization of the STN could alert a surgeon to modify the imaging strategy to optimize surgical targeting. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Electrode Position and Current Amplitude Modulate Impulsivity after Subthalamic Stimulation in Parkinsons Disease—A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandali, Alekhya; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Rajan, Roopa; Sarma, Sankara; Kishore, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation (STN-DBS) is highly effective in alleviating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) which are not optimally controlled by dopamine replacement therapy. Clinical studies and reports suggest that STN-DBS may result in increased impulsivity and de novo impulse control disorders (ICD). Objective/Hypothesis: We aimed to compare performance on a decision making task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in healthy conditions (HC), untreated and medically-treated PD conditions with and without STN stimulation. We hypothesized that the position of electrode and stimulation current modulate impulsivity after STN-DBS. Methods: We built a computational spiking network model of basal ganglia (BG) and compared the model's STN output with STN activity in PD. Reinforcement learning methodology was applied to simulate IGT performance under various conditions of dopaminergic and STN stimulation where IGT total and bin scores were compared among various conditions. Results: The computational model reproduced neural activity observed in normal and PD conditions. Untreated and medically-treated PD conditions had lower total IGT scores (higher impulsivity) compared to HC (P < 0.0001). The electrode position that happens to selectively stimulate the part of the STN corresponding to an advantageous panel on IGT resulted in de-selection of that panel and worsening of performance (P < 0.0001). Supratherapeutic stimulation amplitudes also worsened IGT performance (P < 0.001). Conclusion(s): In our computational model, STN stimulation led to impulsive decision making in IGT in PD condition. Electrode position and stimulation current influenced impulsivity which may explain the variable effects of STN-DBS reported in patients. PMID:27965590

  14. Subthalamic GAD gene transfer in Parkinson disease patients who are candidates for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    During, M J; Kaplitt, M G; Stern, M B; Eidelberg, D

    2001-08-10

    two isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65 and GAD-67), which synthesizes the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA. The STN is a very small nucleus (140 cubic mm or 0.02% of the total brain volume, consisting of approximately 300,000 neurons) which is disinhibited in PD, leading to pathological excitation of its targets, the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr). Increased GPi/SNpr outflow is believed responsible for many of the cardinal symptoms of PD, i.e., tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait disturbance. A large amount of data based on lesioning, electrical stimulation, and local drug infusion studies with GABA-agonists in human PD patients have reinforced this circuit model of PD and the central role of the STN. Moreover, the closest conventional surgical intervention to our proposal, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN, has shown remarkable efficacy in even late stage PD, unlike the early failures associated with recombinant GDNF infusion or cell transplantation approaches in PD. We believe that our gene transfer strategy will not only palliate symptoms by inhibiting STN activity, as with DBS, but we also have evidence that the vector converts excitatory STN projections to inhibitory projections. This additional dampening of outflow GPi/SNpr outflow may provide an additional advantage over DBS. Moreover, of perhaps the greatest interest, our preclinical data suggests that this strategy may also be neuroprotective, so this therapy may slow the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. We will use both GAD isoforms since both are typically expressed in inhibitory neurons in the brain, and our data suggest that the combination of both isoforms is likely to be most beneficial. Our preclinical data includes three model systems: (1) old, chronically lesioned parkinsonian rats in which intraSTN GAD gene transfer results not only in improvement in both drug-induced asymmetrical

  15. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: recent trends and future direction.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    2015-01-01

    To date, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has already been performed on more than 120,000 patients worldwide and in more than 7,000 patients in Japan. However, fundamental understanding of DBS effects on the pathological neural circuitry remains insufficient. Recent studies have specifically shown the importance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loops, which were identified as functionally and anatomically discrete units. Three main circuits exist in the CSTC loops, namely, the motor, associative, and limbic circuits. From these theoretical backgrounds, it is determined that DBS sometimes influences not only motor functions but also the cognitive and affective functions of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The main targets of DBS for PD are subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi). Ventralis intermedius (Vim)-DBS was found to be effective in improving tremor. However, Vim-DBS cannot sufficiently improve akinesia and rigidity. Therefore, Vim-DBS is seldom carried out for the treatment of PD. In this article, we review the present state of DBS, mainly STN-DBS and GPi-DBS, for PD. In the first part of the article, appropriate indications and practical effects established in previous studies are discussed. The findings of previous investigations on the complications caused by the surgical procedure and on the adverse events induced by DBS itself are reviewed. In the second part, we discuss target selection (GPi vs. STN) and the effect of DBS on nonmotor symptoms. In the final part, as issues that should be resolved, the suitable timing of surgery, symptoms unresponsive to DBS such as on-period axial symptoms, and the related postoperative programing of stimulation parameters, are discussed.

  16. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and impulsivity: release your horses.

    PubMed

    Ballanger, Benedicte; van Eimeren, Thilo; Moro, Elena; Lozano, Andres M; Hamani, Clement; Boulinguez, Philippe; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Houle, Sylvain; Poon, Yu Yan; Lang, Anthony E; Strafella, Antonio P

    2009-12-01

    In Parkinson disease (PD) patients, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may contribute to certain impulsive behavior during high-conflict decisions. A neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia has recently been proposed that suggests this behavioral aspect may be related to the role played by the STN in relaying a "hold your horses" signal intended to allow more time to settle on the best option. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: 1) to extend these observations by providing evidence that the STN may influence and prevent the execution of any response even during low-conflict decisions; and 2) to identify the neural correlates of this effect. We measured regional cerebral blood flow during a Go/NoGo and a control (Go) task to study the motor improvement and response inhibition deficits associated with STN-DBS in patients with PD. Although it improved Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor ratings and induced a global decrease in reaction time during task performance, STN-DBS impaired response inhibition, as revealed by an increase in commission errors in NoGo trials. These behavioral effects were accompanied by changes in synaptic activity consisting of a reduced activation in the cortical networks responsible for reactive and proactive response inhibition. The present results suggest that although it improves motor functions in PD patients, modulation of STN hyperactivity with DBS may tend at the same time to favor the appearance of impulsive behavior by acting on the gating mechanism involved in response initiation.

  17. Neuropsychological and psychiatric changes after deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: a randomised, multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Reiff, Julia; Krack, Paul; Volkmann, Jens; Pinsker, Markus O; Krause, Martin; Tronnier, Volker; Kloss, Manja; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars; Bötzel, Kai; Danek, Adrian; Hilker, Rüdiger; Sturm, Volker; Kupsch, Andreas; Karner, Elfriede; Deuschl, Günther

    2008-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) reduces motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and improves their quality of life; however, the effect of DBS on cognitive functions and its psychiatric side-effects are still controversial. To assess the neuropsychiatric consequences of DBS in patients with PD we did an ancillary protocol as part of a randomised study that compared DBS with the best medical treatment. 156 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations were randomly assigned to have DBS of the STN or the best medical treatment for PD according to the German Society of Neurology guidelines. 123 patients had neuropsychological and psychiatric examinations to assess the changes between baseline and after 6 months. The primary outcome was the comparison of the effect of DBS with the best medical treatment on overall cognitive functioning (Mattis dementia rating scale). Secondary outcomes were the effects on executive function, depression, anxiety, psychiatric status, manic symptoms, and quality of life. Analysis was per protocol. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00196911. 60 patients were randomly assigned to receive STN-DBS and 63 patients to have best medical treatment. After 6 months, impairments were seen in executive function (difference of changes [DBS-best medical treatment] in verbal fluency [semantic] -4.50 points, 95% CI -8.07 to -0.93, Cohen's d=-;0.4; verbal fluency [phonemic] -3.06 points, -5.50 to -0.62, -0.5; Stroop 2 naming colour error rate -0.37 points, -0.73 to 0.00, -0.4; Stroop 3 word reading time -5.17 s, -8.82 to -1.52, -0.5; Stroop 4 colour naming time -13.00 s, -25.12 to -0.89, -0.4), irrespective of the improvement in quality of life (difference of changes in PDQ-39 10.16 points, 5.45 to 14.87, 0.6; SF-36 physical 16.55 points, 10.89 to 22.21, 0.9; SF-36 psychological 9.74 points, 2.18 to 17.29, 0.5). Anxiety was reduced in the DBS group compared with the

  18. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation-induced regional blood flow responses correlate with improvement of motor signs in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M; Golchin, N; Tabbal, S D; Hershey, T; Videen, T O; Wu, J; Usche, J W M; Revilla, F J; Hartlein, J M; Wernle, A R; Mink, J W; Perlmutter, J S

    2008-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that STN DBS increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in immediate downstream targets but does not reveal which brain regions may have functional changes associated with improved motor manifestations. We studied 48 patients with STN DBS who withheld medication overnight and underwent PET scans to measure rCBF responses to bilateral STN DBS. PET scans were performed with bilateral DBS OFF and ON in a counterbalanced order followed by clinical ratings of motor manifestations using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale 3 (UPDRS 3). We investigated whether improvement in UPDRS 3 scores in rigidity, bradykinesia, postural stability and gait correlate with rCBF responses in a priori determined regions. These regions were selected based on a previous study showing significant STN DBS-induced rCBF change in the thalamus, midbrain and supplementary motor area (SMA). We also chose the pedunculopontine nucleus region (PPN) due to mounting evidence of its involvement in locomotion. In the current study, bilateral STN DBS improved rigidity (62%), bradykinesia (44%), gait (49%) and postural stability (56%) (paired t-tests: P < 0.001). As expected, bilateral STN DBS also increased rCBF in the bilateral thalami, right midbrain, and decreased rCBF in the right premotor cortex (P < 0.05, corrected). There were significant correlations between improvement of rigidity and decreased rCBF in the SMA (r(s) = -0.4, P < 0.02) and between improvement in bradykinesia and increased rCBF in the thalamus (r(s) = 0.31, P < 0.05). In addition, improved postural reflexes correlated with decreased rCBF in the PPN (r(s) = -0.38, P < 0.03). These modest correlations between selective motor manifestations and rCBF in specific regions suggest possible regional selectivity for improvement of different motor

  19. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation-induced regional blood flow responses correlate with improvement of motor signs in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, M.; Golchin, N.; Tabbal, S. D.; Hershey, T.; Videen, T. O.; Wu, J.; Usche, J. W. M.; Revilla, F. J.; Hartlein, J. M.; Wernle, A. R.; Mink, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that STN DBS increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in immediate downstream targets but does not reveal which brain regions may have functional changes associated with improved motor manifestations. We studied 48 patients with STN DBS who withheld medication overnight and underwent PET scans to measure rCBF responses to bilateral STN DBS. PET scans were performed with bilateral DBS OFF and ON in a counterbalanced order followed by clinical ratings of motor manifestations using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale 3 (UPDRS 3). We investigated whether improvement in UPDRS 3 scores in rigidity, bradykinesia, postural stability and gait correlate with rCBF responses in a priori determined regions. These regions were selected based on a previous study showing significant STN DBS-induced rCBF change in the thalamus, midbrain and supplementary motor area (SMA). We also chose the pedunculopontine nucleus region (PPN) due to mounting evidence of its involvement in locomotion. In the current study, bilateral STN DBS improved rigidity (62%), bradykinesia (44%), gait (49%) and postural stability (56%) (paired t-tests: P < 0.001). As expected, bilateral STN DBS also increased rCBF in the bilateral thalami, right midbrain, and decreased rCBF in the right premotor cortex (P < 0.05, corrected). There were significant correlations between improvement of rigidity and decreased rCBF in the SMA (rs = –0.4, P < 0.02) and between improvement in bradykinesia and increased rCBF in the thalamus (rs = 0.31, P < 0.05). In addition, improved postural reflexes correlated with decreased rCBF in the PPN (rs = –0.38, P < 0.03). These modest correlations between selective motor manifestations and rCBF in specific regions suggest possible regional selectivity for improvement of different motor signs

  20. Effect of unilateral versus bilateral electrostimulation in subthalamic nucleus on speech in Parkinsons disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Bakay, Roy; Arzbaecher, Jean; Bernard, Bryan

    2004-05-01

    Previously, it was found that 16 right-handed patients with idiopathic Parkinsons disease who underwent unilateral implantation of deep brain stimulator in subthalamic nucleus (STN) showed significant improvement in their nonspeech motor functions. Eight of the 16 patients had stimulator in the left STN and eight in the right STN. In contrast, their speech function showed very mild improvement that was limited to the respiratory/phonotory subsystems. Further, there seemed a trend that the patients with right STN stimulation did better than those with left STN stimulation. It was speculated that the difference might be due to a micro lesion caused by the surgical procedure to the corticobulbar fibers run in the left internal capsule. This paper reports speech changes associated with bilateral DBS in STN in four of the 16 subjects who elected to have deep brain stimulator implanted in STN on the opposite side of the brain at a later time. Results show negative changes in speech after bilateral DBS in STN. The changes were not limited to the micro lesion effect due to the surgery itself, but also related to the active stimulation on the dominant hemisphere for speech processing. [Work supported by NIH.

  1. Target Selection Recommendations Based on Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries on Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Lin; Sperry, Laura; Olichney, John; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Chang, Norika Malhado; Liu, Ying; Wang, Su-Ping; Wang, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review examines the evidence that deep brain stimulation (DBS) has extensive impact on nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Data Sources: We retrieved information from the PubMed database up to September, 2015, using various search terms and their combinations including PD, NMSs, DBS, globus pallidus internus (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Study Selection: We included data from peer-reviewed journals on impacts of DBS on neuropsychological profiles, sensory function, autonomic symptoms, weight changes, and sleep disturbances. For psychological symptoms and cognitive impairment, we tried to use more reliable proofs: Random, control, multicenter, large sample sizes, and long period follow-up clinical studies. We categorized the NMSs into four groups: those that would improve definitively following DBS; those that are not significantly affected by DBS; those that remain controversial on their surgical benefit; and those that can be worsened by DBS. Results: In general, it seems to be an overall beneficial effect of DBS on NMSs, such as sensory, sleep, gastrointestinal, sweating, cardiovascular, odor, urological symptoms, and sexual dysfunction, GPi-DBS may produce similar results; Both STN and Gpi-DBS are safe with regard to cognition and psychology over long-term follow-up, though verbal fluency decline is related to DBS; The impact of DBS on behavioral addictions and dysphagia is still uncertain. Conclusions: As the motor effects of STN-DBS and GPi-DBS are similar, NMSs may determine the target choice in surgery of future patients. PMID:26668154

  2. A new biomarker for subthalamic deep brain stimulation for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease—a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmel, Gerrit E.; Hamilton, Tara J.; Obradovic, Milan; Gorman, Robert B.; Single, Peter S.; Chenery, Helen J.; Coyne, Terry; Silburn, Peter A.; Parker, John L.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become the standard treatment for advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other motor disorders. Although the surgical procedure has improved in accuracy over the years thanks to imaging and microelectrode recordings, the underlying principles that render DBS effective are still debated today. The aim of this paper is to present initial findings around a new biomarker that is capable of assessing the efficacy of DBS treatment for PD which could be used both as a research tool, as well as in the context of a closed-loop stimulator. Approach. We have used a novel multi-channel stimulator and recording device capable of measuring the response of nervous tissue to stimulation very close to the stimulus site with minimal latency, rejecting most of the stimulus artefact usually found with commercial devices. We have recorded and analyzed the responses obtained intraoperatively in two patients undergoing DBS surgery in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for advanced PD. Main results. We have identified a biomarker in the responses of the STN to DBS. The responses can be analyzed in two parts, an initial evoked compound action potential arising directly after the stimulus onset, and late responses (LRs), taking the form of positive peaks, that follow the initial response. We have observed a morphological change in the LRs coinciding with a decrease in the rigidity of the patients. Significance. These initial results could lead to a better characterization of the DBS therapy, and the design of adaptive DBS algorithms that could significantly improve existing therapies and help us gain insights into the functioning of the basal ganglia and DBS.

  3. Differential effects of deep brain stimulation target on motor subtypes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Katz, Maya; Luciano, Marta San; Carlson, Kimberly; Luo, Ping; Marks, William J; Larson, Paul S; Starr, Philip A; Follett, Kenneth A; Weaver, Frances M; Stern, Matthew B; Reda, Domenic J; Ostrem, Jill L

    2015-04-01

    The Veterans Administration Cooperative Studies Program #468, a multicenter study that randomized Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to either subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS), found that stimulation at either target provided similar overall motoric benefits. We conducted an additional analysis of this data set to evaluate whether PD motor subtypes responded differently to the 2 stimulation targets. We classified 235 subjects by motor subtype: tremor dominant (TD), intermediate (I), or postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD), based on pre-DBS baseline Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores off-medication. The primary outcome was change in UPDRS part III (UPDRS-III) off-medication scores from baseline to 24 months post-DBS, compared among subjects with particular PD motor subtypes and by DBS target (STN vs GPi). Changes in tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and gait scores were also assessed using the UPDRS. TD patients had greater mean overall motor improvement, measured by UPDRS-III, after GPi DBS, compared to STN DBS (17.5 ± 13.0 vs 14.6 ± 14.9, p = 0.02), with improvement in gait accounting for this difference. Regardless of stimulation target, PIGD subjects had lower mean overall improvement in UPDRS-III scores compared with I or TD subjects (8.7 ± 12.2 vs 21.7 ± 11.2 vs 16.3 ± 13.8, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that responsiveness to both GPi and STN DBS is similar among different PD motor subtypes, although the TD motor subtype may have a greater response to GPi DBS with respect to gait. PIGD patients obtained less overall benefit from stimulation. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  4. Modulation of human time processing by subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wojtecki, Lars; Elben, Saskia; Timmermann, Lars; Reck, Christiane; Maarouf, Mohammad; Jörgens, Silke; Ploner, Markus; Südmeyer, Martin; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Sturm, Volker; Niedeggen, Michael; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Timing in the range of seconds referred to as interval timing is crucial for cognitive operations and conscious time processing. According to recent models of interval timing basal ganglia (BG) oscillatory loops are involved in time interval recognition. Parkinsońs disease (PD) is a typical disease of the basal ganglia that shows distortions in interval timing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a powerful treatment of PD which modulates motor and cognitive functions depending on stimulation frequency by affecting subcortical-cortical oscillatory loops. Thus, for the understanding of BG-involvement in interval timing it is of interest whether STN-DBS can modulate timing in a frequency dependent manner by interference with oscillatory time recognition processes. We examined production and reproduction of 5 and 15 second intervals and millisecond timing in a double blind, randomised, within-subject repeated-measures design of 12 PD-patients applying no, 10-Hz- and ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS compared to healthy controls. We found under(re-)production of the 15-second interval and a significant enhancement of this under(re-)production by 10-Hz-stimulation compared to no stimulation, ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS and controls. Milliseconds timing was not affected. We provide first evidence for a frequency-specific modulatory effect of STN-DBS on interval timing. Our results corroborate the involvement of BG in general and of the STN in particular in the cognitive representation of time intervals in the range of multiple seconds.

  5. Modulation of Human Time Processing by Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Timmermann, Lars; Reck, Christiane; Maarouf, Mohammad; Jörgens, Silke; Ploner, Markus; Südmeyer, Martin; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Sturm, Volker; Niedeggen, Michael; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Timing in the range of seconds referred to as interval timing is crucial for cognitive operations and conscious time processing. According to recent models of interval timing basal ganglia (BG) oscillatory loops are involved in time interval recognition. Parkinsońs disease (PD) is a typical disease of the basal ganglia that shows distortions in interval timing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a powerful treatment of PD which modulates motor and cognitive functions depending on stimulation frequency by affecting subcortical-cortical oscillatory loops. Thus, for the understanding of BG-involvement in interval timing it is of interest whether STN-DBS can modulate timing in a frequency dependent manner by interference with oscillatory time recognition processes. We examined production and reproduction of 5 and 15 second intervals and millisecond timing in a double blind, randomised, within-subject repeated-measures design of 12 PD-patients applying no, 10-Hz- and ≥130-Hz-STN-DBS compared to healthy controls. We found under(re-)production of the 15-second interval and a significant enhancement of this under(re-)production by 10-Hz-stimulation compared to no stimulation, ≥130-Hz-STN-DBS and controls. Milliseconds timing was not affected. We provide first evidence for a frequency-specific modulatory effect of STN-DBS on interval timing. Our results corroborate the involvement of BG in general and of the STN in particular in the cognitive representation of time intervals in the range of multiple seconds. PMID:21931767

  6. A Computerized Microelectrode Recording to Magnetic Resonance Imaging Mapping System for Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dodani, Sunjay S; Lu, Charles W; Aldridge, J Wayne; Chou, Kelvin L; Patil, Parag G

    2018-06-01

    Accurate electrode placement is critical to the success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Suboptimal targeting may arise from poor initial target localization, frame-based targeting error, or intraoperative brain shift. These uncertainties can make DBS surgery challenging. To develop a computerized system to guide subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS electrode localization and to estimate the trajectory of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) on magnetic resonance (MR) images algorithmically during DBS surgery. Our method is based upon the relationship between the high-frequency band (HFB; 500-2000 Hz) signal from MER and voxel intensity on MR images. The HFB profile along an MER trajectory recorded during surgery is compared to voxel intensity profiles along many potential trajectories in the region of the surgically planned trajectory. From these comparisons of HFB recordings and potential trajectories, an estimate of the MER trajectory is calculated. This calculated trajectory is then compared to actual trajectory, as estimated by postoperative high-resolution computed tomography. We compared 20 planned, calculated, and actual trajectories in 13 patients who underwent STN DBS surgery. Targeting errors for our calculated trajectories (2.33 mm ± 0.2 mm) were significantly less than errors for surgically planned trajectories (2.83 mm ± 0.2 mm; P = .01), improving targeting prediction in 70% of individual cases (14/20). Moreover, in 4 of 4 initial MER trajectories that missed the STN, our method correctly indicated the required direction of targeting adjustment for the DBS lead to intersect the STN. A computer-based algorithm simultaneously utilizing MER and MR information potentially eases electrode localization during STN DBS surgery.

  7. Impulse control behaviors and subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Merola, Aristide; Romagnolo, Alberto; Rizzi, Laura; Rizzone, Mario Giorgio; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lanotte, Michele; Mandybur, George; Duker, Andrew P; Espay, Alberto J; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic correlates of persistent, remitting, and new-onset impulse control behaviors (ICBs) before and after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the pre- and post-surgical prevalence of ICBs, classified as impulse control disorders (ICD), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), and punding in 150 consecutive PD STN-DBS-treated patients and determined the association with motor, cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric endpoints. At baseline (before STN-DBS), ICBs were associated with younger age (p = 0.045) and male gender (85 %; p = 0.001). Over an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 2.1 years of chronic STN-DBS there was an overall trend for reduction in ICBs (from 17.3 to 12.7 %; p = 0.095) with significant improvement in hypersexuality (12-8.0 %; p = 0.047), gambling (10.7-5.3 %; p = 0.033), and DDS (4.7-0 %; p < 0.001). ICB remitted in 18/26 patients (69 %) and persisted in 8/26 (31 %); the latter group was characterized by higher levodopa equivalent daily dose. Patients who developed a new-onset ICB during follow-up (n = 11/150) were characterized by younger age (p = 0.042), lower dyskinesia improvement (p ≤ 0.035), and a gender distribution with higher prevalence of women (p = 0.018). In addition, new-onset ICB was more common among patients with borderline, schizoid, and/or schizotypal traits of personality disorders; persistent ICB in those with obsessive-compulsive traits. PD-related ICBs exhibit a complex outcome after STN-DBS, with a tendency for overall reduction but with age, gender, dopaminergic therapy, and neuropsychiatric features exerting independent effects.

  8. Connectivity Predicts Deep Brain Stimulation Outcome in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Andreas; Reich, Martin; Vorwerk, Johannes; Li, Ningfei; Wenzel, Gregor; Fang, Qianqian; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Nickl, Robert; Kupsch, Andreas; Volkmann, Jens; Kühn, Andrea A.; Fox, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The benefit of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson disease (PD) may depend on connectivity between the stimulation site and other brain regions, but which regions and whether connectivity can predict outcome in patients remain unknown. Here, we identify the structural and functional connectivity profile of effective DBS to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and test its ability to predict outcome in an independent cohort. Methods A training dataset of 51 PD patients with STN DBS was combined with publicly available human connectome data (diffusion tractography and resting state functional connectivity) to identify connections reliably associated with clinical improvement (motor score of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]). This connectivity profile was then used to predict outcome in an independent cohort of 44 patients from a different center. Results In the training dataset, connectivity between the DBS electrode and a distributed network of brain regions correlated with clinical response including structural connectivity to supplementary motor area and functional anticorrelation to primary motor cortex (p<0.001). This same connectivity profile predicted response in an independent patient cohort (p<0.01). Structural and functional connectivity were independent predictors of clinical improvement (p<0.001) and estimated response in individual patients with an average error of 15% UPDRS improvement. Results were similar using connectome data from normal subjects or a connectome age, sex, and disease matched to our DBS patients. Interpretation Effective STN DBS for PD is associated with a specific connectivity profile that can predict clinical outcome across independent cohorts. This prediction does not require specialized imaging in PD patients themselves. PMID:28586141

  9. Atlas-Independent, Electrophysiological Mapping of the Optimal Locus of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for the Motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Erin C; Mossner, James M; Chou, Kelvin L; Patil, Parag G

    2018-05-23

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). However, motor outcomes can be variable, perhaps due to inconsistent positioning of the active contact relative to an unknown optimal locus of stimulation. Here, we determine the optimal locus of STN stimulation in a geometrically unconstrained, mathematically precise, and atlas-independent manner, using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor outcomes and an electrophysiological neuronal stimulation model. In 20 patients with PD, we mapped motor improvement to active electrode location, relative to the individual, directly MRI-visualized STN. Our analysis included a novel, unconstrained and computational electrical-field model of neuronal activation to estimate the optimal locus of DBS. We mapped the optimal locus to a tightly defined ovoid region 0.49 mm lateral, 0.88 mm posterior, and 2.63 mm dorsal to the anatomical midpoint of the STN. On average, this locus is 11.75 lateral, 1.84 mm posterior, and 1.08 mm ventral to the mid-commissural point. Our novel, atlas-independent method reveals a single, ovoid optimal locus of stimulation in STN DBS for PD. The methodology, here applied to UPDRS and PD, is generalizable to atlas-independent mapping of other motor and non-motor effects of DBS. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease with early motor complications.

    PubMed

    Dams, Judith; Balzer-Geldsetzer, Monika; Siebert, Uwe; Deuschl, Günther; Schuepbach, W M Michael; Krack, Paul; Timmermann, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons; Reese, Jens-Peter; Dodel, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Recent research efforts have focused on the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) for selected patients with mild-to-moderate PD experiencing motor complications. We assessed the cost utility of subthalamic DBS compared with the best medical treatment for German patients below the age of 61 with early motor complications of PD. We applied a previously published Markov model that integrated health utilities based on EuroQoL and direct costs over patients' lifetime adjusted to the German health care payer perspective (year of costing: 2013). Effectiveness was evaluated using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 summary index. We performed sensitivity analyses to assess uncertainty. In the base-case analysis, the incremental cost-utility ratio for STN DBS compared to best medical treatment was 22,700 Euros per quality-adjusted life year gained. The time to, and costs for, battery exchange had a major effect on the incremental cost-utility ratios, but never exceeded a threshold of 50,000 Euros per quality-adjusted life year. Our decision analysis supports the fact that STN DBS at earlier stages of the disease is cost-effective in patients below the age of 61 when compared with the best medical treatment in the German health care system. This finding was supported by detailed sensitivity analyses reporting robust results. Whereas the EARLYSTIM study has shown STN DBS to be superior to medical therapy with respect to quality of life for patients with early motor complications, this further analysis has shown its cost-effectiveness. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Methods for Surgical Targeting of the STN in Early-Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Camalier, Corrie R.; Konrad, Peter E.; Gill, Chandler E.; Kao, Chris; Remple, Michael R.; Nasr, Hana M.; Davis, Thomas L.; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Molinari, Anna L.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Charles, David

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn–Yahr Stage III or IV) is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery, the ability to identify this nucleus in early-stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN in 15 patients with early PD (Hoehn–Yahr Stage II), using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings, and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates and root mean squared activity) have previously been found to be lower than in later-stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson’s patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early-stage PD using traditional methods. PMID:24678307

  12. Dopamine replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei induce modulation of emotional processes at different spatial frequencies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mermillod, Martial; Mondillon, Laurie; Rieu, Isabelle; Devaux, Damien; Chambres, Patrick; Auxiette, Catherine; Dalens, Hélène; Coulangeon, Louise Marie; Jalenques, Isabelle; Durif, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for the most severe forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is intended to suppress these patients' motor symptoms. However, be it in association with Dopamine Replacement Therapy (DRT) or not, STN-DBS may in some cases induce addictive or emotional disorders. In the current study, we suggest that PD patients suffer from emotional deficits that have not been revealed in previous studies because in those experiments the stimuli were displayed for a time long enough to allow patients to have recourse to perceptual strategies in order to recognize the emotional facial expressions (EFE). The aim of the current article is to demonstrate the existence of emotional disorders in PD by using a rapid presentation of the visual stimuli (200-ms display time) which curtails their perceptual analysis, and to determine whether STN-DBS, either associated or not associated with DRT, has an impact on the recognition of emotions. The results show that EFE recognition performance depends on both STN-DBS ('on' vs. 'off') and medication ('on' vs. 'off'), but also that these variables have an interactive influence on EFE recognition performance. Moreover, we also reveal how these EFE impairments depend on different spatial frequencies perceptual channels (related to different cortical vs. subcortical neural structures). The effect of PD without therapy seems to be particularly acute for LSF emotional faces, possibly due to a subcortical dysfunction. However, our results indicate that the joint action of STN-DBS and DRT could also disrupt recognition of emotional expressions at the level of occipito-temporal cortical areas (processing HSF visual information) inducing broad global impairment of EFE at the level of HSF visual channels.

  13. Effects of dopaminergic and subthalamic stimulation on musical performance.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Floris T; Schüpbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Hälbig, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    Although subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an efficient treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on fine motor functions are not clear. We present the case of a professional violinist with PD treated with STN-DBS. DBS improved musical articulation, intonation and emotional expression and worsened timing relative to a timekeeper (metronome). The same effects were found for dopaminergic treatment. These results suggest that STN-DBS, mimicking the effects of dopaminergic stimulation, improves fine-tuned motor behaviour whilst impairing timing precision.

  14. The Subthalamic Nucleus, Limbic Function, and Impulse Control.

    PubMed

    Rossi, P Justin; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function. In particular, the STN has been implicated in impulse control and the related construct of valence processing. A better understanding of STN involvement in these phenomena could have important implications for treating impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs affect up to 40% of PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy and approximately 15% of PD patients overall. ICDs have been reported to be associated with STN DBS. In this paper we will focus on impulse control and review pre-clinical, clinical, behavioral, imaging, and electrophysiological studies pertaining to the limbic function of the STN.

  15. Complications of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Atsushi; Oka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yamada, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is effective for medically refractory Parkinson's disease. We retrospectively analyzed complications in 180 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. Surgery-related complications were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 2, chronic subdural hematoma in 1, and transient deterioration of medication-induced psychosis in 2 patients. Device-related complications involved device infection in 5, skin erosion in 5, and implantable pulse generator malfunction in 2 patients. All of these patients required surgical repair. Surgery and device-related complications could be reduced with increased surgical experience and the introduction of new surgical equipment and technology. Treatment or stimulation-related complications were intractable dyskinesia/dystonia in 11, problematic dysarthria in 7, apraxia of eyelid opening (ALO) in 11, back pain in 10, and restless leg syndrome in 6 patients. Neuropsychiatric complications were transient mood changes in some, impulse control disorder in 2, severe depression related to excessive reduction of dopaminergic medications in 2, rapid progression of dementia in 1, and suicide attempts in 2 patients. Most complications were mild and transient. Dysarthria and ALO were the most frequent permanent sequelae after STN-DBS. Treatment-related adverse events may be caused not only by the effect of stimulation effect but also excessive reduction of dopaminergic medication, or progression of the disease. In conclusion, STN-DBS seems to be a relatively safe procedure. Although serious complications with permanent sequelae are rare, significant incidences of adverse effects occur. Physicians engaged in this treatment should have a comprehensive understanding of the probable complications and how to avoid them.

  16. Subthalamic stimulation differentially modulates declarative and nondeclarative memory.

    PubMed

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Gruber, Doreen; Kopp, Ute A; Scherer, Peter; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Trottenberg, Thomas; Arnold, Guy; Kupsch, Andreas

    2004-03-01

    Declarative memory has been reported to rely on the medial temporal lobe system, whereas non-declarative memory depends on basal ganglia structures. We investigated the functional role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a structure closely connected with the basal ganglia for both types of memory. Via deep brain high frequency stimulation (DBS) we manipulated neural activity of the STN in humans. We found that DBS-STN differentially modulated memory performance: declarative memory was impaired, whereas non-declarative memory was improved in the presence of STN-DBS indicating a specific role of the STN in the activation of memory systems. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  17. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Neuroanatomical and pathophysiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Mulders, A E P; Plantinga, B R; Schruers, K; Duits, A; Janssen, M L F; Ackermans, L; Leentjens, A F G; Jahanshahi, A; Temel, Y

    2016-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most disabling chronic psychiatric disorders and has a significant negative impact on multiple domains of quality of life. For patients suffering from severe refractory OCD, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been applied. Reviewing the literature of the last years we believe that through its central position within the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, the STN has a coordinating role in decision-making and action-selection mechanisms. Dysfunctional information-processing at the level of the STN is responsible for some of the core symptoms of OCD. Research confirms an electrophysiological dysfunction in the associative and limbic (non-motor) parts of the STN. Compared to Parkinson׳s disease patients, STN neurons in OCD exhibit a lower firing rate, less frequent but longer bursts, increased burst activity in the anterior ventromedial area, an asymmetrical left-sided burst distribution, and a predominant oscillatory activity in the δ-band. Moreover, there is direct evidence for the involvement of the STN in both checking behavior and OCD symptoms, which are both related to changes in electrophysiological activity in the non-motor STN. Through a combination of mechanisms, DBS of the STN seems to interrupt the disturbed information-processing, leading to a normalization of connectivity within the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and consequently to a reduction in symptoms. In conclusion, based on the STN׳s strategic position within cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and its involvement in action-selection mechanisms that are responsible for some of the core symptoms of OCD, the STN is a mechanism-based target for DBS in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Becoming more oneself? Changes in personality following DBS treatment for psychiatric disorders: Experiences of OCD patients and general considerations.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Sanneke; Rietveld, Erik; Stokhof, Martin; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-01-01

    Does DBS change a patient's personality? This is one of the central questions in the debate on the ethics of treatment with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). At the moment, however, this important debate is hampered by the fact that there is relatively little data available concerning what patients actually experience following DBS treatment. There are a few qualitative studies with patients with Parkinson's disease and Primary Dystonia and some case reports, but there has been no qualitative study yet with patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. In this paper, we present the experiences of 18 patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) who are undergoing treatment with DBS. We will also discuss the inherent difficulties of how to define and assess changes in personality, in particular for patients with psychiatric disorders. We end with a discussion of the data and how these shed new light on the conceptual debate about how to define personality.

  19. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on motor cortex plasticity in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Jin; Udupa, Kaviraja; Ni, Zhen; Moro, Elena; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Lozano, Andres M.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lang, Anthony E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) will improve long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in motor cortex in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: We studied 8 patients with PD treated with STN-DBS and 9 age-matched healthy controls. Patients with PD were studied in 4 sessions in medication (Med) OFF/stimulator (Stim) OFF, Med-OFF/Stim-ON, Med-ON/Stim-OFF, and Med-ON/Stim-ON states in random order. Motor evoked potential amplitude and cortical silent period duration were measured at baseline before paired associated stimulation (PAS) and at 3 different time intervals (T0, T30, T60) up to 60 minutes after PAS in the abductor pollicis brevis and abductor digiti minimi muscles. Results: Motor evoked potential size significantly increased after PAS in controls (+67.7% of baseline at T30) and in patients in the Med-ON/Stim-ON condition (+55.8% of baseline at T30), but not in patients in the Med-OFF/Stim-OFF (−0.4% of baseline at T30), Med-OFF/Stim-ON (+10.3% of baseline at T30), and Med-ON/Stim-OFF conditions (+17.3% of baseline at T30). Cortical silent period duration increased after PAS in controls but not in patients in all test conditions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that STN-DBS together with dopaminergic medications restore LTP-like plasticity in motor cortex in PD. Restoration of cortical plasticity may be one of the mechanisms of how STN-DBS produces clinical benefit. PMID:26156511

  20. Posterolateral Trajectories Favor a Longer Motor Domain in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Idit; Marmor-Levin, Odeya; Eitan, Renana; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2017-10-01

    The clinical outcome of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who undergo subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is, in part, determined by the length of the electrode trajectory through the motor STN domain, the dorsolateral oscillatory region (DLOR). Trajectory length has been found to correlate with the stimulation-related improvement in patients' motor function (estimated by part III of the United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]). Therefore, it seems that ideally trajectories should have maximal DLOR length. We retrospectively studied the influence of various anatomic aspects of the brains of patients with PD and the geometry of trajectories planned on the length of the DLOR and STN recorded during DBS surgery. We examined 212 trajectories and 424 microelectrode recording tracks in 115 patients operated on in our center between 2010 and 2015. We found a strong correlation between the length of the recorded DLOR and STN. Trajectories that were more lateral and/or posterior in orientation had a longer STN and DLOR pass, although the DLOR/STN fraction length remained constant. The STN target was more lateral when the third ventricle was wider, and the latter correlated with older age and male gender. Trajectory angles correlate with the recorded STN and DLOR lengths, and should be altered toward a more posterolateral angle in older patients and atrophied brains to compensate for the changes in STN location and geometry. These fine adjustments should yield a longer motor domain pass, thereby improving the patient's predicted outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A biophysical model of the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus network in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumaravelu, Karthik; Brocker, David T; Grill, Warren M

    2016-04-01

    Electrical stimulation of sub-cortical brain regions (the basal ganglia), known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic high frequency (HF) DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus interna (GPi) reduces motor symptoms including bradykinesia and tremor in patients with PD, but the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not fully understood. We developed a biophysical network model comprising of the closed loop cortical-basal ganglia-thalamus circuit representing the healthy and parkinsonian rat brain. The network properties of the model were validated by comparing responses evoked in basal ganglia (BG) nuclei by cortical (CTX) stimulation to published experimental results. A key emergent property of the model was generation of low-frequency network oscillations. Consistent with their putative pathological role, low-frequency oscillations in model BG neurons were exaggerated in the parkinsonian state compared to the healthy condition. We used the model to quantify the effectiveness of STN DBS at different frequencies in suppressing low-frequency oscillatory activity in GPi. Frequencies less than 40 Hz were ineffective, low-frequency oscillatory power decreased gradually for frequencies between 50 Hz and 130 Hz, and saturated at frequencies higher than 150 Hz. HF STN DBS suppressed pathological oscillations in GPe/GPi both by exciting and inhibiting the firing in GPe/GPi neurons, and the number of GPe/GPi neurons influenced was greater for HF stimulation than low-frequency stimulation. Similar to the frequency dependent suppression of pathological oscillations, STN DBS also normalized the abnormal GPi spiking activity evoked by CTX stimulation in a frequency dependent fashion with HF being the most effective. Therefore, therapeutic HF STN DBS effectively suppresses pathological activity by influencing the activity of a greater proportion of neurons in the output nucleus of the BG.

  2. Optimized beamforming for simultaneous MEG and intracranial local field potential recordings in deep brain stimulation patients.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Eusebio, Alexandre; Jha, Ashwani; Oostenveld, Robert; Barnes, Gareth R; Penny, William D; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan I; Limousin, Patricia; Friston, Karl J; Brown, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Insight into how brain structures interact is critical for understanding the principles of functional brain architectures and may lead to better diagnosis and therapy for neuropsychiatric disorders. We recorded, simultaneously, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals and subcortical local field potentials (LFP) in a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). These recordings offer a unique opportunity to characterize interactions between the subcortical structures and the neocortex. However, high-amplitude artefacts appeared in the MEG. These artefacts originated from the percutaneous extension wire, rather than from the actual DBS electrode and were locked to the heart beat. In this work, we show that MEG beamforming is capable of suppressing these artefacts and quantify the optimal regularization required. We demonstrate how beamforming makes it possible to localize cortical regions whose activity is coherent with the STN-LFP, extract artefact-free virtual electrode time-series from regions of interest and localize cortical areas exhibiting specific task-related power changes. This furnishes results that are consistent with previously reported results using artefact-free MEG data. Our findings demonstrate that physiologically meaningful information can be extracted from heavily contaminated MEG signals and pave the way for further analysis of combined MEG-LFP recordings in DBS patients. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring risk factors for stuttering development in Parkinson disease after deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Picillo, Marina; Vincos, Gustavo B; Sammartino, Francesco; Lozano, Andres M; Fasano, Alfonso

    2017-05-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder with disruption of verbal fluency, occasionally present in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD co-incident stuttering may either worsen or improve after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Sixteen out of 453 PD patients (3.5%) exhibited stuttering after DBS (PD-S) and were compared with a group of patients without stuttering (PD-NS) using non-parametric statistics. After DBS, stuttering worsened in 3 out of 4 patients with co-incidental stuttering. Most PD-S underwent subthalamic (STN) DBS, but 4 were implanted in the globus pallidus (GPi). Nine out of 16 PD-S (56.3%) reported a positive familial history for stuttering compared to none of the PD-NS. PD-S were mainly male (81.3%) with slight worse motor features compared to PD-NS. Herein, we describe a group of PD patients developing stuttering after DBS and report the presence of a positive familial history for stuttering as the most relevant risk factor, suggesting a possible underlying genetic cause. The fact that stuttering occurred after either STN or GPi DBS is an argument against the impact of medication reduction on stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Does Not Affect the Decrease of Decision Threshold during the Choice Process When There Is No Conflict, Time Pressure, or Reward.

    PubMed

    Leimbach, Friederike; Georgiev, Dejan; Litvak, Vladimir; Antoniades, Chrystalina; Limousin, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Bogacz, Rafal

    2018-06-01

    During a decision process, the evidence supporting alternative options is integrated over time, and the choice is made when the accumulated evidence for one of the options reaches a decision threshold. Humans and animals have an ability to control the decision threshold, that is, the amount of evidence that needs to be gathered to commit to a choice, and it has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for this control. Recent behavioral and neurophysiological data suggest that, in some circumstances, the decision threshold decreases with time during choice trials, allowing overcoming of indecision during difficult choices. Here we asked whether this within-trial decrease of the decision threshold is mediated by the STN and if it is affected by disrupting information processing in the STN through deep brain stimulation (DBS). We assessed 13 patients with Parkinson disease receiving bilateral STN DBS six or more months after the surgery, 11 age-matched controls, and 12 young healthy controls. All participants completed a series of decision trials, in which the evidence was presented in discrete time points, which allowed more direct estimation of the decision threshold. The participants differed widely in the slope of their decision threshold, ranging from constant threshold within a trial to steeply decreasing. However, the slope of the decision threshold did not depend on whether STN DBS was switched on or off and did not differ between the patients and controls. Furthermore, there was no difference in accuracy and RT between the patients in the on and off stimulation conditions and healthy controls. Previous studies that have reported modulation of the decision threshold by STN DBS or unilateral subthalamotomy in Parkinson disease have involved either fast decision-making under conflict or time pressure or in anticipation of high reward. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of reward, decision conflict, or time pressure for decision

  5. What neurophysiological recordings tell us about cognitive and behavioral functions of the human subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Marceglia, Sara; Fumagalli, Manuela; Priori, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The behavioral implications of deep brain stimulation (DBS) observed in Parkinson's disease patients provided evidence for a possible nonexclusively motor role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in basal ganglia circuitry. Basal ganglia pathophysiology can be studied directly by the analysis of neural rhythms measured in local field potentials recorded through DBS electrodes. Recent studies demonstrated that specific oscillations in the STN are involved in cognitive and behavioral information processing: action representation is mediated through β oscillations (13-35 Hz); cognitive information related to decision-making processes is mediated through the low-frequency oscillation (5-12 Hz); and limbic and emotional information is mediated through the α oscillation (8-12 Hz). These results revealed an important involvement of STN in decisional processes, cognitive functions, emotion control and conflict that could explain the post-DBS occurrence of behavioral disturbances.

  6. 7T MRI subthalamic nucleus atlas for use with 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Norris, Scott A; Poston, Kathleen; Campbell, Meghan C; Ushe, Mwiza; Perlmutter, Joel S; Snyder, Abraham Z

    2018-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) reduces motor symptoms in most patients with Parkinson disease (PD), yet may produce untoward effects. Investigation of DBS effects requires accurate localization of the STN, which can be difficult to identify on magnetic resonance images collected with clinically available 3T scanners. The goal of this study is to develop a high-quality STN atlas that can be applied to standard 3T images. We created a high-definition STN atlas derived from seven older participants imaged at 7T. This atlas was nonlinearly registered to a standard template representing 56 patients with PD imaged at 3T. This process required development of methodology for nonlinear multimodal image registration. We demonstrate mm-scale STN localization accuracy by comparison of our 3T atlas with a publicly available 7T atlas. We also demonstrate less agreement with an earlier histological atlas. STN localization error in the 56 patients imaged at 3T was less than 1 mm on average. Our methodology enables accurate STN localization in individuals imaged at 3T. The STN atlas and underlying 3T average template in MNI space are freely available to the research community. The image registration methodology developed in the course of this work may be generally applicable to other datasets.

  7. Becoming more oneself? Changes in personality following DBS treatment for psychiatric disorders: Experiences of OCD patients and general considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Erik; Stokhof, Martin; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-01-01

    Does DBS change a patient’s personality? This is one of the central questions in the debate on the ethics of treatment with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). At the moment, however, this important debate is hampered by the fact that there is relatively little data available concerning what patients actually experience following DBS treatment. There are a few qualitative studies with patients with Parkinson’s disease and Primary Dystonia and some case reports, but there has been no qualitative study yet with patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. In this paper, we present the experiences of 18 patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) who are undergoing treatment with DBS. We will also discuss the inherent difficulties of how to define and assess changes in personality, in particular for patients with psychiatric disorders. We end with a discussion of the data and how these shed new light on the conceptual debate about how to define personality. PMID:28426824

  8. Betting on DBS: Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on risk taking and decision making in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jason; Rogerson, Mark; Al-Joudi, Haya; Reckess, Gila; Shpritz, Barnett; Umeh, Chizoba C; Aljehani, Noha; Mills, Kelly; Mari, Zoltan

    2015-07-01

    Concerns persist that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) increases impulsivity or induces excessive reward seeking. We report here the performance of PD patients with implanted subthalamic nucleus electrodes, with stimulation on and off, on 3 laboratory tasks of risk taking and decision making. They are compared with PD patients maintained on medication and healthy participants. In the Game of Dice Task, a test of "risky" decision making, PD patients with or without DBS made highest risk bets more often and ended up with less money than did healthy participants. There was a trend for DBS stimulation to ameliorate this effect. Deal or No-Deal is an "ambiguous" decision-making task that assessed preference for risk (holding on to one's briefcase) over a "sure thing" (accepting the banker's offer). Here, DBS patients were more conservative with stimulation on than with it off. They accepted smaller offers from the banker and won less money in the DBS-on condition. Overall, the 2 PD groups won less money than did healthy participants. The Framing Paradigm assessed willingness to gamble on a fixed (unambiguous) prize depending on whether the reward was "framed" as a loss or a gain. Nonsurgical PD patients tended to be more risk-averse than were healthy participants, whereas DBS patients were more willing to gamble for gains as well as losses both on and off stimulation. On risky decision-making tasks, DBS patients took more risks than did healthy participants, but stimulation may temper this tendency. In contrast, in an ambiguous-risk situation, DBS patients were more risk-averse (conservative) than were healthy participants, and this tendency was greatest with stimulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Mental Health-Related Healthcare Use Following Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation For Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Westbay, Lauren C; Cao, Lishan; Burnett-Zeigler, Inger; Reizine, Natalie; Barton, Brandon; Ippolito, Dolores; Weaver, Frances M; Stroupe, Kevin T

    2015-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi) are both effective targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to relieve motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, studies have reported varied effects on mental health-related adverse events and depressed mood following DBS. The current observational study sought to compare mental health healthcare utilization and costs for three years following STN or GPi DBS. For a cohort of Veterans (n = 161) with Parkinson's disease who participated in a larger multi-site randomized trial, we compared mental health outpatient visits, medication use, inpatient admissions, and associated costs by DBS target site (STN vs. GPi). Neither group nor time differences were significant for mental health outpatient or inpatient utilization following DBS. Overall costs associated with mental health visits and medications did not differ by time or by group. However, the percentage of patients with mental health medication use increased in the 6-month and 6 to 12 month periods post-surgery. The STN group had significantly greater increase in medication use at 6 to 12 months post-surgery compared to the GPi group (p <  0.05). Despite a brief increase in medication use following surgery, this study suggests that mental health healthcare use and costs are stable over time and similar between DBS targets. Prior research findings of mental health-related adverse events and mood following DBS did not translate to greater mental health service utilization in our cohort. The changes seen in the year following surgery may reflect temporary adjustments with stabilization over time.

  10. Non-motor outcomes of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depend on location of active contacts.

    PubMed

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Weis, Luca; Dembek, Till A; Samuel, Michael; Rizos, Alexandra; Silverdale, Monty; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Antonini, Angelo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-03-16

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS. To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 50 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we collected NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression, HADS-A/-D), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, motor complications, activities of daily living (ADL), and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up. Changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank/t-test and Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. Although the STN was targeted visually, we employed an atlas-based approach to explore the relationship between active contact locations and DBS outcomes. Based on fused MRI/CT-images, we identified Cartesian coordinates of active contacts with patient-specific Mai-atlas standardization. We computed linear mixed-effects models with x-/y-/z-coordinates as independent, hemispheres as within-subject, and test change scores as dependent variables. NMSS, NMSQ, PDQ-8, motor examination, complications, and LEDD significantly improved at follow-up. Linear mixed-effect models showed that NMS and QoL improvement significantly depended on more medial (HADS-D, NMSS), anterior (HADS-D, NMSQ, PDQ-8), and ventral (HADS-A/-D, NMSS, PDQ-8) neurostimulation. ADL improved more in posterior, LEDD in lateral neurostimulation locations. No relationship was observed for motor examination and complications scores. Our study provides evidence that more anterior, medial, and ventral STN-DBS is significantly related to more beneficial non-motor outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Lindsey G; Mannava, Sishir; Camalier, Corrie R; Folley, Bradley S; Albritton, Aaron; Konrad, Peter E; Charles, David; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD) were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT), or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT + DBS). Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC) and young controls (HYC) also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT + DBS) nor therapy state (ON/OFF) altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function.

  12. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus restores neural and behavioral functions during reaction time task in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Jin-Yan; Gao, Ge; Chang, Jing-Yu; Woodward, Donald J; Luo, Fei

    2010-05-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in the clinic to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Our previous work has shown that DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve major motor deficits, and induce a variety of neural responses in rats with unilateral dopamine (DA) lesions. In the present study, we examined the effect of STN DBS on reaction time (RT) performance and parallel changes in neural activity in the cortico-basal ganglia regions of partially bilateral DA- lesioned rats. We recorded neural activity with a multiple-channel single-unit electrode system in the primary motor cortex (MI), the STN, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) during RT test. RT performance was severely impaired following bilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the dorsolateral part of the striatum. In parallel with such behavioral impairments, the number of responsive neurons to different behavioral events was remarkably decreased after DA lesion. Bilateral STN DBS improved RT performance in 6-OHDA lesioned rats, and restored operational behavior-related neural responses in cortico-basal ganglia regions. These behavioral and electrophysiological effects of DBS lasted nearly an hour after DBS termination. These results demonstrate that a partial DA lesion-induced impairment of RT performance is associated with changes in neural activity in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit. Furthermore, STN DBS can reverse changes in behavior and neural activity caused by partial DA depletion. The observed long-lasting beneficial effect of STN DBS suggests the involvement of the mechanism of neural plasticity in modulating cortico-basal ganglia circuits. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Subthalamic stimulation may inhibit the beneficial effects of levodopa on akinesia and gait.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Vanessa; Pollak, Pierre; Gere, Julien; Tommasi, Giorgio; Romito, Luigi; Combescure, Christophe; Bardinet, Eric; Chabardes, Stephan; Momjian, Shahan; Krainik, Alexandre; Burkhard, Pierre; Yelnik, Jérôme; Krack, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Gait and akinesia deterioration in PD patients during the immediate postoperative period of DBS has been directly related to stimulation in the subthalamic region. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to clinically and anatomically describe this side effect. PD patients presenting with a worsening of gait and/or akinesia following STN-DBS, that was reversible on stimulation arrest were included. The evaluation included (1) a Stand Walk Sit Test during a monopolar survey of each electrode in the on-drug condition; (2) a 5-condition test with the following conditions: off-drug/off-DBS, off-drug/on-best-compromise-DBS, on-drug/off-DBS, on-drug/on-best-compromise-DBS, and on-drug/on-worsening-DBS, which utilized the contact inducing the most prominent gait deterioration. The following scales were performed: UPDRSIII subscores, Stand Walk Sit Test, and dyskinesia and freezing of gait scales. Localization of contacts was performed using a coregistration method. Twelve of 17 patients underwent the complete evaluation. Stimulation of the most proximal contacts significantly slowed down the Stand Walk Sit Test. The on-drug/on-worsening-DBS condition compared with the on-drug/off-DBS condition worsened akinesia (P = 0.02), Stand Walk Sit Test (P = 0.001), freezing of gait (P = 0.02), and improved dyskinesias (P = 0.003). Compared with the off-drug/off-DBS condition, the on-drug/on-worsening-DBS condition improved rigidity (P = 0.007) and tremor (P = 0.007). Worsening contact sites were predominantly dorsal and anterior to the STN in the anterior zona incerta and Forel fields H2. A paradoxical deterioration of gait and akinesia is a rare side effect following STN-DBS. We propose that this may be related to misplaced contacts, and we discuss the pathophysiology and strategies to identify and manage this complication. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International

  14. Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates.

    PubMed

    Drapier, D; Péron, J; Leray, E; Sauleau, P; Biseul, I; Drapier, S; Le Jeune, F; Travers, D; Bourguignon, A; Haegelen, C; Millet, B; Vérin, M

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that emotion recognition and apathy share the same functional circuit involving the subthalamic nucleus (STN). A consecutive series of 17 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed 3 months before (M-3) and 3 months (M+3) after STN deep brain stimulation (DBS). Mean (+/-S.D.) age at surgery was 56.9 (8.7) years. Mean disease duration at surgery was 11.8 (2.6) years. Apathy was measured using the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) at both M-3 and M3. Patients were also assessed using a computerised paradigm of facial emotion recognition [Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press] before and after STN DBS. Prior to this, the Benton Facial Recognition Test was used to check that the ability to perceive faces was intact. Apathy had significantly worsened at M3 (42.5+/-8.9, p=0.006) after STN-DBS, in relation to the preoperative assessment (37.2+/-5.5). There was also a significant reduction in recognition percentages for facial expressions of fear (43.1%+/-22.9 vs. 61.6%+/-21.4, p=0.022) and sadness (52.7%+/-19.1 vs. 67.6%+/-22.8, p=0.031) after STN DBS. However, the postoperative worsening of apathy and emotion recognition impairment were not correlated. Our results confirm that the STN is involved in both the apathy and emotion recognition networks. However, the absence of any correlation between apathy and emotion recognition impairment suggests that the worsening of apathy following surgery could not be explained by a lack of facial emotion recognition and that its behavioural and cognitive components should therefore also be taken into consideration.

  15. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: meta-analysis of results of randomized trials at varying lengths of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Alireza; Taslimi, Shervin; Badhiwala, Jetan H; Witiw, Christopher D; Nassiri, Farshad; Odekerken, Vincent J J; De Bie, Rob M A; Kalia, Suneil K; Hodaie, Mojgan; Munhoz, Renato P; Fasano, Alfonso; Lozano, Andres M

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in the management of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). While both the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are accepted targets, their relative efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has not been established beyond 12 months. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of RCTs to compare outcomes among adults with PD undergoing DBS of GPi or STN at various time points, including 36 months of follow-up. METHODS The MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched. Registries for clinical trials, selected conference proceedings, and the table of contents for selected journals were also searched. Screens were conducted independently and in duplicate. Among the 623 studies initially identified (615 through database search, 7 through manual review of bibliographies, and 1 through a repeat screen of literature prior to submission), 19 underwent full-text review; 13 of these were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias. The GRADE evidence profile tool was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Motor scores, medication dosage reduction, activities of daily living, depression, dyskinesias, and adverse events were compared. The influence of disease duration (a priori) and the proportion of male patients within a study (post hoc) were explored as potential subgroups. RESULTS Thirteen studies (6 original cohorts) were identified. No difference in motor scores or activities of daily living was identified at 36 months. Medications were significantly reduced with STN stimulation (5 studies, weighted mean difference [WMD] -365.46, 95% CI -599.48 to -131.44, p = 0.002). Beck Depression Inventory scores were significantly better with GPi stimulation (3 studies; WMD 2.53, 95% CI 0.99-4.06 p = 0.001). The

  16. Eight-hours adaptive deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Arlotti, Mattia; Marceglia, Sara; Foffani, Guglielmo; Volkmann, Jens; Lozano, Andres M.; Moro, Elena; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Prenassi, Marco; Bocci, Tommaso; Cortese, Francesca; Rampini, Paolo; Barbieri, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and clinical efficacy of local field potentials (LFPs)–based adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) during daily activities in an open-label, nonblinded study. Methods We monitored neurophysiologic and clinical fluctuations during 2 perioperative experimental sessions lasting for up to 8 hours. On the first day, the patient took his/her daily medication, while on the second, he/she additionally underwent subthalamic nucleus aDBS driven by LFPs beta band power. Results The beta band power correlated in both experimental sessions with the patient's clinical state (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.506, p < 0.001, and r = 0.477, p < 0.001). aDBS after LFP changes was effective (30% improvement without medication [3-way analysis of variance, interaction day × medication p = 0.036; 30.5 ± 3.4 vs 22.2 ± 3.3, p = 0.003]), safe, and well tolerated in patients performing regular daily activities and taking additional dopaminergic medication. aDBS was able to decrease DBS amplitude during motor “on” states compared to “off” states (paired t test p = 0.046), and this automatic adjustment of STN-DBS prevented dyskinesias. Conclusions The main findings of our study are that aDBS is technically feasible in everyday life and provides a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment method for the management of clinical fluctuations. Classification of evidence This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with advanced PD, aDBS is safe, well tolerated, and effective in controlling PD motor symptoms. PMID:29444973

  17. Betting on DBS: Effects of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Jason; Rogerson, Mark; Al-Joudi, Haya; Reckess, Gila; Shpritz, Barnett; Umeh, Chizoba C.; Aljehani, Noha; Mills, Kelly; Mari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concerns persist that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) increases impulsivity and/or induces excessive reward-seeking. We report here the performance of PD patients with implanted subthalamic nucleus electrodes, with stimulation on and off, on three laboratory tasks of risk-taking and decision-making. They are compared to PD patients maintained on medication and normal control subjects. Methods and Results In the Game of Dice Task, a test of “risky” decision-making, PD patients with or without DBS made highest-risk bets more often, and ended up with less money, than normal controls. There was a trend for DBS stimulation to ameliorate this effect. Deal or No-Deal is an “ambiguous” decision-making task that assessed preference for risk (holding on to one’s briefcase) over a “sure thing” (accepting the banker’s offer). Here, DBS patients were more conservative with stimulation on than off. They accepted smaller offers from the banker and won less money in the DBS-on condition. Overall, the two PD groups won less money than healthy participants. The Framing Paradigm assessed willingness to gamble on a fixed (unambiguous) prize depending on whether the reward was “framed” as a loss or a gain. Nonsurgical PD patients tended to be more risk-averse than normal subjects, whereas DBS patients were more willing to gamble for gains as well as losses both on and off stimulation. Conclusions On “risky” decision-making tasks, DBS patients were more risk-taking than normal, but stimulation may temper this tendency. In contrast, in an “ambiguous risk” situation, DBS patients were more risk-averse (conservative) than normal, and this tendency was greatest with stimulation. PMID:25486385

  18. Altered functional connectivity of the subthalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cano, M; Alonso, P; Martínez-Zalacaín, I; Subirà, M; Real, E; Segalàs, C; Pujol, J; Cardoner, N; Menchón, J M; Soriano-Mas, C

    2018-04-01

    The assessment of inter-regional functional connectivity (FC) has allowed for the description of the putative mechanism of action of treatments such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, the possible FC alterations of other clinically-effective DBS targets have not been explored. Here we evaluated the FC patterns of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in patients with OCD, as well as their association with symptom severity. Eighty-six patients with OCD and 104 healthy participants were recruited. A resting-state image was acquired for each participant and a seed-based analysis focused on our two regions of interest was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM8). Between-group differences in FC patterns were assessed with two-sample t test models, while the association between symptom severity and FC patterns was assessed with multiple regression analyses. In comparison with controls, patients with OCD showed: (1) increased FC between the left STN and the right pre-motor cortex, (2) decreased FC between the right STN and the lenticular nuclei, and (3) increased FC between the left BNST and the right frontopolar cortex. Multiple regression analyses revealed a negative association between clinical severity and FC between the right STN and lenticular nucleus. This study provides a neurobiological framework to understand the mechanism of action of DBS on the STN and the BNST, which seems to involve brain circuits related with motor response inhibition and anxiety control, respectively.

  19. Modeling shifts in the rate and pattern of subthalamopallidal network activity during deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Philip J; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2010-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthlamic nucleus (STN) represents an effective treatment for medically refractory Parkinson's disease; however, understanding of its effects on basal ganglia network activity remains limited. We constructed a computational model of the subthalamopallidal network, trained it to fit in vivo recordings from parkinsonian monkeys, and evaluated its response to STN DBS. The network model was created with synaptically connected single compartment biophysical models of STN and pallidal neurons, and stochastically defined inputs driven by cortical beta rhythms. A least mean square error training algorithm was developed to parameterize network connections and minimize error when compared to experimental spike and burst rates in the parkinsonian condition. The output of the trained network was then compared to experimental data not used in the training process. We found that reducing the influence of the cortical beta input on the model generated activity that agreed well with recordings from normal monkeys. Further, during STN DBS in the parkinsonian condition the simulations reproduced the reduction in GPi bursting found in existing experimental data. The model also provided the opportunity to greatly expand analysis of GPi bursting activity, generating three major predictions. First, its reduction was proportional to the volume of STN activated by DBS. Second, GPi bursting decreased in a stimulation frequency dependent manner, saturating at values consistent with clinically therapeutic DBS. And third, ablating STN neurons, reported to generate similar therapeutic outcomes as STN DBS, also reduced GPi bursting. Our theoretical analysis of stimulation induced network activity suggests that regularization of GPi firing is dependent on the volume of STN tissue activated and a threshold level of burst reduction may be necessary for therapeutic effect.

  20. Asymmetric right/left encoding of emotions in the human subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Renana; Shamir, Reuben R.; Linetsky, Eduard; Rosenbluh, Ovadya; Moshel, Shay; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN), an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12–30 Hz), the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs. In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and psychiatric

  1. Subthalamus stimulation in Parkinson disease: Accounting for the bilaterality of contacts.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Pereira, Bruno; Derost, Philippe; Vassal, François; Ulla, Miguel; Morand, Dominique; Coll, Guillaume; Gabrillargues, Jean; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; Coste, Jérôme; Durif, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease uses bi-hemispheric high-frequency stimulation within the subthalamus, however, the specific impacts of bilaterality of DBS are still not clear. Thus, we aimed to study the individual-level clinical impact of locations of right-left contact pair-up accounting for each subthalamic nucleus (STN) anatomy. Contact locations and effects at 1 year were studied retrospectively in an unselected series of 53 patients operated between 2004 and 2010. Location of contacts was defined relatively to the main axis of STN used to map longitudinal and transversal positions, and STN membership (out meaning out-of-STN). Contact pairings were described via three methods: (i) Unified contact location (UCL) collapsing DBS into an all-in-one contact; (ii) balance of contact pair-up (BCPU), defined as symmetric or asymmetric regardless of laterality; (iii) hemisphere-wise most frequent contact pair-up (MFCP) regardless of BCPU. Clinical data were: mean levodopa equivalent dose, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score III without medication, UPDRS II and III speech sub-scores, UPDRS II freezing sub-score, 1 year versus preoperative values, with and without levodopa. Ad-hoc two-sided tests were used for statistical analysis. Worsening speech, was more frequent for UCL_out patients and when the left MFCP contact was rear and/or superolateral, however, it less frequent for BCPU-asymmetric patients. Worsening freezing was more frequent when the right MFCP contact was rear and superolateral. These results point to strategies for minimizing dysarthria and freezing as adverse effects of DBS.

  2. Subthalamus stimulation in Parkinson disease: Accounting for the bilaterality of contacts

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Pereira, Bruno; Derost, Philippe; Vassal, François; Ulla, Miguel; Morand, Dominique; Coll, Guillaume; Gabrillargues, Jean; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; Coste, Jérôme; Durif, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease uses bi-hemispheric high-frequency stimulation within the subthalamus, however, the specific impacts of bilaterality of DBS are still not clear. Thus, we aimed to study the individual-level clinical impact of locations of right-left contact pair-up accounting for each subthalamic nucleus (STN) anatomy. Methods: Contact locations and effects at 1 year were studied retrospectively in an unselected series of 53 patients operated between 2004 and 2010. Location of contacts was defined relatively to the main axis of STN used to map longitudinal and transversal positions, and STN membership (out meaning out-of-STN). Contact pairings were described via three methods: (i) Unified contact location (UCL) collapsing DBS into an all-in-one contact; (ii) balance of contact pair-up (BCPU), defined as symmetric or asymmetric regardless of laterality; (iii) hemisphere-wise most frequent contact pair-up (MFCP) regardless of BCPU. Clinical data were: mean levodopa equivalent dose, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score III without medication, UPDRS II and III speech sub-scores, UPDRS II freezing sub-score, 1 year versus preoperative values, with and without levodopa. Ad-hoc two-sided tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Worsening speech, was more frequent for UCL_out patients and when the left MFCP contact was rear and/or superolateral, however, it less frequent for BCPU-asymmetric patients. Worsening freezing was more frequent when the right MFCP contact was rear and superolateral. Conclusions: These results point to strategies for minimizing dysarthria and freezing as adverse effects of DBS. PMID:27990316

  3. Are there adaptive changes in the human brain of patients with Parkinson's disease treated with long-term deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus? A 4-year follow-up study with regional cerebral blood flow SPECT.

    PubMed

    Sestini, Stelvio; Pupi, Alberto; Ammannati, Franco; Silvia, Ramat; Sorbi, Sandro; Castagnoli, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to assess persistent motor and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Ten PD patients with STN-DBS underwent three rCBF SPECT studies at rest, once preoperatively in the off-drug condition (T(0)), and twice postoperatively in the off-drug/off-stimulation conditions at 5 +/- 2 (T(1)) and 42 +/- 7 months (T(2)). Patients were assessed using the UPDRS, H&Y and S&E scales. SPM was used to investigate baseline rCBF changes from the preoperative condition to the postoperative conditions and the relationship between rCBF and UPDRS scores used as covariate of interest. Parkinsonian patients showed a clinical improvement which was significant only on follow-up at 42 months. The main effect of treatment from T(0) to T(1) was to produce baseline rCBF increases in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), premotor cortex and somatosensory association cortex. From T(1) to T(2) a further baseline rCBF increase was detected in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001). A correlation was detected between the slight improvement in motor scores and the rCBF increase in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001), which is known to play a crucial role in clinical progression. Our study suggests the presence of adaptive functional changes in the human brain of PD patients treated with long-term STN-DBS. Such adaptive processes seem to occur in the pre-SMA and to play only a slightly beneficial role in terms of functional compensation of motor impairment.

  4. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  5. Selective left, right and bilateral stimulation of subthalamic nuclei in Parkinson's disease: differential effects on motor, speech and language function.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Geralyn M; Hosey, Lara A; Bradberry, Trent J; Stager, Sheila V; Lee, Li-Ching; Pawha, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but may produce a worsening of speech and language performance at rates and amplitudes typically selected in clinical practice. The possibility that these dissociated effects might be modulated by selective stimulation of left and right STN has never been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we analyzed motor, speech and language functions of 12 patients implanted with bilateral stimulators configured for optimal motor responses. Behavioral responses were quantified under four stimulator conditions: bilateral DBS, right-only DBS, left-only DBS and no DBS. Under bilateral and left-only DBS conditions, our results exhibited a significant improvement in motor symptoms but worsening of speech and language. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that bilateral STN DBS compromises speech and language function and suggests that these negative effects may be principally due to left-sided stimulation. These findings may have practical clinical consequences, suggesting that clinicians might optimize motor, speech and language functions by carefully adjusting left- and right-sided stimulation parameters.

  6. Microsample analyses via DBS: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Henion, Jack; Oliveira, Regina V; Chace, Donald H

    2013-10-01

    The use of DBS is an appealing approach to employing microsampling techniques for the bioanalysis of samples, as has been demonstrated for the past 50 years in the metabolic screening of metabolites and diseases. In addition to its minimally invasive sample collection procedures and its economical merits, DBS microsampling benefits from the very high sensitivity, selectivity and multianalyte capabilities of LC-MS, which has been especially well demonstrated in newborn screening applications. Only a few microliters of a biological fluid are required for analysis, which also translates to significantly reduced demands on clinical samples from patients or from animals. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry and other arenas have begun to explore the utility and practicality of DBS microsampling. This review discusses the basis for why DBS techniques are likely to be part of the future, as well as offering insights into where these benefits may be realized.

  7. A disposable sampling device to collect volume-measured DBS directly from a fingerprick onto DBS paper.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Gabriel; Sandkvist, Sören; Pohanka, Anton; Stemme, Göran; Beck, Olof; Roxhed, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    DBS samples collected from a fingerprick typically vary in volume and homogeneity and hence make an accurate quantitative analysis of DBS samples difficult. We report a prototype which first defines a precise liquid volume and subsequently stores it to a conventional DBS matrix. Liquid volumes of 2.2 µl ± 7.1% (n = 21) for deionized water and 6.1 µl ± 8.8% (n = 15) for whole blood have been successfully metered and stored in DBS paper. The new method of collecting a defined volume of blood by DBS sampling has the potential to reduce assay bias for the quantitative evaluation of DBS samples while maintaining the simplicity of conventional DBS sampling.

  8. Remotely Programmed Deep Brain Stimulation of the Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus for the Treatment of Primary Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Safety and Efficacy of a Novel Deep Brain Stimulation System.

    PubMed

    Li, Dianyou; Zhang, Chencheng; Gault, Judith; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jianmin; Shao, Ming; Zhao, Yanyan; Zeljic, Kristina; Gao, Guodong; Sun, Bomin

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most commonly performed surgery for the debilitating symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). However, DBS systems remain largely unaffordable to patients in developing countries, warranting the development of a safe, economically viable, and functionally comparable alternative. To investigate the efficacy and safety of wirelessly programmed DBS of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with primary PD. Sixty-four patients with primary PD were randomly divided into test and control groups (1:1), where DBS was initiated at either 1 month or 3 months, respectively, after surgery. Safety and efficacy of the treatment were compared between on- and off-medication states 3 months after surgery. Outcome measures included analysis of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, duration of "on" periods, and daily equivalent doses of levodopa. All patients were followed up both 6 and 12 months after surgery. Three months after surgery, significant decrease in the UPDRS motor scores were observed for the test group in the off-medication state (25.08 ± 1.00) versus the control group (4.20 ± 1.99). Bilateral wireless programming STN-DBS is safe and effective for patients with primary PD in whom medical management has failed to restore motor function. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Microelectrode Recordings Validate the Clinical Visualization of Subthalamic-Nucleus Based on 7T Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Machine Learning for Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Reuben R; Duchin, Yuval; Kim, Jinyoung; Patriat, Remi; Marmor, Odeya; Bergman, Hagai; Vitek, Jerrold L; Sapiro, Guillermo; Bick, Atira; Eliahou, Ruth; Eitan, Renana; Israel, Zvi; Harel, Noam

    2018-05-24

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a proven and effective therapy for the management of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). While accurate positioning of the stimulating electrode is critical for success of this therapy, precise identification of the STN based on imaging can be challenging. We developed a method to accurately visualize the STN on a standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method incorporates a database of 7-Tesla (T) MRIs of PD patients together with machine-learning methods (hereafter 7 T-ML). To validate the clinical application accuracy of the 7 T-ML method by comparing it with identification of the STN based on intraoperative microelectrode recordings. Sixteen PD patients who underwent microelectrode-recordings guided STN DBS were included in this study (30 implanted leads and electrode trajectories). The length of the STN along the electrode trajectory and the position of its contacts to dorsal, inside, or ventral to the STN were compared using microelectrode-recordings and the 7 T-ML method computed based on the patient's clinical 3T MRI. All 30 electrode trajectories that intersected the STN based on microelectrode-recordings, also intersected it when visualized with the 7 T-ML method. STN trajectory average length was 6.2 ± 0.7 mm based on microelectrode recordings and 5.8 ± 0.9 mm for the 7 T-ML method. We observed a 93% agreement regarding contact location between the microelectrode-recordings and the 7 T-ML method. The 7 T-ML method is highly consistent with microelectrode-recordings data. This method provides a reliable and accurate patient-specific prediction for targeting the STN.

  10. External pallidal stimulation improves parkinsonian motor signs and modulates neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Jerrold L; Zhang, Jianyu; Hashimoto, Takao; Russo, Gary S; Baker, Kenneth B

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are effective for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We have shown previously that DBS of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) is associated with improvements in parkinsonian motor signs; however, the mechanism of this effect is not known. In this study, we extend our findings on the effect of STN and GPi DBS on neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network to include GPe DBS using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1.2.3.6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkey model. Stimulation parameters that improved bradykinesia were associated with changes in the pattern and mean discharge rate of neuronal activity in the GPi, STN, and the pallidal [ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)] and cerebellar [ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)] receiving areas of the motor thalamus. Population post-stimulation time histograms revealed a complex pattern of stimulation-related inhibition and excitation for the GPi and VA/VLo, with a more consistent pattern of inhibition in STN and excitation in VPLo. Mean discharge rate was reduced in the GPi and STN and increased in the VPLo. Effective GPe DBS also reduced bursting in the STN and GPi. These data support the hypothesis that therapeutic DBS activates output from the stimulated structure and changes the temporal pattern of neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network and provide further support for GPe as a potential therapeutic target for DBS in the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of a cellular immune response against sialyl-Tn in breast and ovarian cancer patients after high-dose chemotherapy, stem cell rescue, and immunization with Theratope STn-KLH cancer vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sandmaier, B M; Oparin, D V; Holmberg, L A; Reddish, M A; MacLean, G D; Longenecker, B M

    1999-01-01

    Seven ovarian and 33 breast high-risk stage II/III and stage IV cancer patients received high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue. Thirty to 151 days after stem cell transplantation, the patients received their first immunotherapy treatment with Theratope STn-KLH cancer vaccine. Most patients developed increasing IgG anti-STn titers to a sustained peak after the fourth or fifth immunizations. Only one patient had elevated CA27.29 (MUC1 mucin) serum levels at trial entry. Five of the seven patients with preimmunotherapy elevated serum CA125 levels demonstrated decreasing CA125 levels during immunotherapy, consistent with an antitumor response. Evidence of STn antigen-specific T-cell proliferation was obtained from 17 of the 27 evaluable patients who received at least three immunotherapy treatments. Eleven of the 26 patients tested had evidence of an anti-STn TH1 antigen-specific T-cell response as determined by interferon-gamma, but not interleukin (IL)-4, production. After immunization, lytic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) tested against a lymphokine activated killer (LAK)-sensitive cell line, a natural killer (NK)-sensitive cell line, and an STn-expressing cancer cell line (OVCAR) increased significantly. In vitro IL-2 treatment of the PBLs after vaccination greatly enhanced killing of the STn+ cancer cell line. Evidence of the development of OVCAR specific killing activity, over and above that seen due to LAK or NK killing, is presented. These studies provide the strongest evidence in humans of the development of an antitumor T-cell response after immunization with a cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen.

  12. PyDBS: an automated image processing workflow for deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    D'Albis, Tiziano; Haegelen, Claire; Essert, Caroline; Fernández-Vidal, Sara; Lalys, Florent; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure for treating motor-related neurological disorders. DBS clinical efficacy hinges on precise surgical planning and accurate electrode placement, which in turn call upon several image processing and visualization tasks, such as image registration, image segmentation, image fusion, and 3D visualization. These tasks are often performed by a heterogeneous set of software tools, which adopt differing formats and geometrical conventions and require patient-specific parameterization or interactive tuning. To overcome these issues, we introduce in this article PyDBS, a fully integrated and automated image processing workflow for DBS surgery. PyDBS consists of three image processing pipelines and three visualization modules assisting clinicians through the entire DBS surgical workflow, from the preoperative planning of electrode trajectories to the postoperative assessment of electrode placement. The system's robustness, speed, and accuracy were assessed by means of a retrospective validation, based on 92 clinical cases. The complete PyDBS workflow achieved satisfactory results in 92 % of tested cases, with a median processing time of 28 min per patient. The results obtained are compatible with the adoption of PyDBS in clinical practice.

  13. Speed effects of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Fabian; Wahl, Michael; Marzinzik, Frank; Vesper, Jan; Sommer, Werner; Curio, Gabriel

    2010-12-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) accelerates reaction time (RT) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in tasks in which decisions on the response side have to be made. This might indicate that DBS speeds up both motor and nonmotor operations. Therefore, we studied the extent to which modifications of different processing streams could explain changes of RT under subthalamic DBS. Ten PD patients on-DBS and off-DBS and 10 healthy subjects performed a choice-response task (CRT), requiring either right or left finger button presses. At the same time, EEG recordings were performed, so that RTs could be assessed together with lateralized readiness potentials (LRP), indicative of movement preparation. Additionally, an oddball task (OT) was run, in which right finger responses to target stimuli were recorded along with cognitive P300 responses. Generally, PD patients off-DBS had longer RTs than controls. Subthalamic DBS accelerated RT only in CRT. This could largely be explained by analog shortenings of LRP. No DBS-dependent changes were identified in OT, neither on the level of RT nor on the level of P300 latencies. It follows that RT accelerations under DBS of the STN are predominantly due to effects on the timing of motor instead of nonmotor processes. This starting point explains why DBS gains of response speed are low in tasks in which reactions are initiated from an advanced level of movement preparation (as in OT), and high whenever motor responses have to be raised from scratch (as in CRT). © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Radiosurgical Subthalamic Nucleotomy.

    PubMed

    Régis, Jean; Carron, Romain; Witjas, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the reference technique in Parkinson's disease (PD) at different stages of complications. Some patients cannot afford DBS due to anticoagulation or comorbidities or due to pecuniary reasons. Radiosurgery is a minimally invasive stereotactic technique, with no craniotomy and subsequently no risk of bleeding or infection. Its good safety efficacy profile has been established in the treatment of tremor, and the postoperative care issues are simple with a much shorter hospital stay (mean 48 h). The application of radiosurgery to STN target in PD as an alternative to DBS is being debated. The lesion of the STN is presumed to induce hemiballism. Experimental works suggest a potential lower risk of hemiballism in animal models of PD. However, radiofrequency ablation of the STN is associated with a significant rate of severe dyskinesia, sometimes permanent and severe enough to request salvage pallidotomies. The positive experience of VIM radiosurgery in tremor and its capacity to create precise, accurate and well-controlled lesions provides reasonable rationale for the evaluation of this technique when applied to STN in PD. Preliminary results till date have shown the absence of severe permanent dyskinesia. Prospective controlled trials are mandatory to evaluate the safety efficacy of this technique in PD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuronal Responses in the Globus Pallidus during Subthalamic Nucleus Electrical Stimulation in Normal and Parkinson's Disease Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sang Baek; Bae, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jinhyung; Hwang, Yong Sup; Im, Changkyun; Chang, Jin Woo; Shin, Hyung-Cheul

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been widely used as a treatment for the movement disturbances caused by Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite successful application of DBS, its mechanism of therapeutic effect is not clearly understood. Because PD results from the degeneration of dopamine neurons that affect the basal ganglia (BG) network, investigation of neuronal responses of BG neurons during STN DBS can provide informative insights for the understanding of the mechanism of therapeutic effect. However, it is difficult to observe neuronal activity during DBS because of large stimulation artifacts. Here, we report the observation of neuronal activities of the globus pallidus (GP) in normal and PD model rats during electrical stimulation of the STN. A custom artifact removal technique was devised to enable monitoring of neural activity during stimulation. We investigated how GP neurons responded to STN stimulation at various stimulation frequencies (10, 50, 90 and 130 Hz). It was observed that activities of GP neurons were modulated by stimulation frequency of the STN and significantly inhibited by high frequency stimulation above 50 Hz. These findings suggest that GP neuronal activity is effectively modulated by STN stimulation and strongly dependent on the frequency of stimulation. PMID:23946689

  17. Apathy following Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaona

    2018-01-01

    Bilateral deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has proven effective in improving motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, psychiatric changes after surgery are controversial. In this study, we specifically analyzed apathy following bilateral STN-DBS in PD patients using a meta-analysis. Relevant articles utilized for this study were obtained through literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Embase databases. The articles included were those contained both pre- and postsurgery apathy data acquired using the Starkstein Apathy Scale or Apathy Evaluation Scale with patient follow-up of at least three months. A total of 9 out of 86 articles were included in our study through this strict screening process. Standardized mean difference (SMD), that is, Cohen's d, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the change. We found a significant difference between the presurgery stage and the postsurgery stage scores (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17∼0.52, P < 0.001). STN-DBS seems to relatively worsen the condition of apathy, which may result from both the surgery target (subthalamic nucleus) and the reduction of dopaminergic medication. Further studies should focus on the exact mechanisms of possible postoperative apathy in the future.

  18. Non-stationary discharge patterns in motor cortex under subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B; Gale, John T; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) directly modulates the basal ganglia (BG), but how such stimulation impacts the cortex upstream is largely unknown. There is evidence of cortical activation in 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned rodents and facilitation of motor evoked potentials in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical activity in normal vs. Parkinsonian conditions is still debated. We use point process models to analyze non-stationary activation patterns and inter-neuronal dependencies in the motor and sensory cortices of two non-human primates during STN DBS. These features are enhanced after treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which causes a consistent PD-like motor impairment, while high-frequency (HF) DBS (i.e., ≥100 Hz) strongly reduces the short-term patterns (period: 3-7 ms) both before and after MPTP treatment, and elicits a short-latency post-stimulus activation. Low-frequency DBS (i.e., ≤50 Hz), instead, has negligible effects on the non-stationary features. Finally, by using tools from the information theory [i.e., receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and information rate (IR)], we show that the predictive power of these models is dependent on the DBS settings, i.e., the probability of spiking of the cortical neurons (which is captured by the point process models) is significantly conditioned on the timely delivery of the DBS input. This dependency increases with the DBS frequency and is significantly larger for high- vs. low-frequency DBS. Overall, the selective suppression of non-stationary features and the increased modulation of the spike probability suggest that HF STN DBS enhances the neuronal activation in motor and sensory cortices, presumably because of reinforcement mechanisms, which perhaps involve the overlap between feedback antidromic and feed-forward orthodromic responses along the BG-thalamo-cortical loop.

  19. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Changes Velopharyngeal Control in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Michael J.; Barlow, Steven M.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Adequate velopharyngeal control is essential for speech, but may be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) improves limb function in PD, but the effects on velopharyngeal control remain unknown. We tested whether STN DBS would change aerodynamic measures of velopharyngeal…

  20. Effects of varying subthalamic nucleus stimulation on apraxia of lid opening in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Giorgio; Krack, Paul; Fraix, Valérie; Pollak, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Apraxia of lid opening (ALO) is a non-paralytic inability to open the eyes or sustain lid elevation at will. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the syndrome are still unknown. ALO has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), suggesting a possible involvement of the basal ganglia. We aimed to assess the effects of varying STN stimulation voltage on ALO in PD patients. Seven out of 14 PD patients with bilateral STN stimulation consecutively seen in our centre presented with ALO. We progressively increased voltage on each STN, using either 130 Hz (high-frequency stimulation, HFS) or 2 or 3 Hz (low-frequency stimulation, LFS). In five patients, HFS induced ALO time-locked to stimulation in 7 out of 10 STNs at a voltage higher than that used for chronic stimulation. LFS induced myoclonus in the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle (pOOm) with a rhythm synchronous to the frequency. In the other two patients with ALO already present at the time of the study, HFS improved ALO in 3 out of 4 STNs. ALO recurred within minutes of stimulation arrest. Our findings show that STN-DBS can have opposite effects on ALO. On the one hand, ALO is thought to be a corticobulbar side effect due to lateral current spreading from the STN, in which case it is necessary to use voltages below the ALO-inducing threshold. On the other hand, ALO may be considered a form of off-phase focal dystonia possibly improved by increasing the stimulation voltages.

  1. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease in Hong Kong: A Prospective Territory-Wide 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Danny T M; Zhu, Cannon X L; Lau, Claire K Y; Poon, Tak L; Cheung, Fung C; Lee, Michael; Taw, Benedict; Hung, Kwan N; Choi, Priscilla; AuYeung, Mandy; Chan, Germaine; Cheung, Yuk F; Chan, Anne Y Y; Yeung, Jonas H M; Mok, Vincent C T; Poon, Wai S

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease at the 1-year and 2-year follow-up evaluations. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score at "off" medication ("on" DBS) and quality-of-life assessments (39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire [PDQ-39]) were conducted. The percentage of awake "on" time and awake "off" time and levodopa requirement were also assessed. A 2-year prospective study was conducted of 25 consecutive patients from 3 DBS referral centers in Hong Kong. The patients were treated with bilateral stimulation of the STN. Assessments were performed at 1 year and 2 years after DBS and were compared with the baseline. The 2-year outcome assessments were completed by 18 patients. The mean UPDRS motor score improvement was 57% in the first year and 45% in the second year. PDQ-39 showed significant improvement in quality of life for 2 consecutive years. The levodopa requirement decreased 63% in the first year and 55.9% in the second year. The awake "on" time was doubled in the first year and sustained in the second year. Awake "off" time was reduced from 28.1% to 5.9% in the first year and returned to 10.6% in the second year. Improvement of UPDRS motor score, reduction in awake "off" time, and decrease of daily levodopa dosage all were main factors correlated with the improvement in PDQ-39 summary index. The effects of STN DBS in patients with Parkinson disease in Hong Kong were satisfactory. The results showed that reduction in UPDRS motor score, awake "off"-time, and daily levodopa dosage were the major drivers of overall improvement in PDQ-39. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term evaluation of impedance levels and clinical development in subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, C J; Wojtecki, L; Vesper, J; Volkmann, J; Groiss, S J; Schnitzler, A; Südmeyer, M

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the development of clinical efficacy and impedance levels in the long-term course of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this retrospective study of twenty PD patients, the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was periodically assessed i) after withdrawal of medication and inactivated stimulation, ii) after withdrawal of medication with activated stimulation and iii) after challenge with l-Dopa during activated stimulation up to 13 years after surgery. STN-DBS with or without medication significantly improved motor function up to 13 years after surgery. The contribution of axial symptoms increased over time. While the stimulation parameters were kept constant, the therapeutic impedances progressively declined. STN-DBS in PD remains effective in the long-term course of the disease. Constant current stimulation might be preferable over voltage-controlled stimulation, as it would alleviate the impact of impedance changes on the volume of tissue activated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of multichannel microelectrode recording (MER) in deep brain stimulation of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kinfe, Thomas M; Vesper, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia (Ncl. subthalamicus, Ncl. ventralis intermedius thalami, globus pallidus internus) has become an evidence-based and well-established treatment option in otherwise refractory movement disorders. The Ncl. subthalamicus (STN) is the target of choice in Parkinson's disease.However, a considerable discussion is currently ongoing with regard to the necessity for micro-electrode recording (MER) in DBS surgery.The present review provides an overview on deep brain stimulation and (MER) of the STN in patients with Parkinson's disease. Detailed description is given concerning the multichannel MER systems nowadays available for DBS of the basal ganglia, especially of the STN, as a useful tool for target refinement. Furthermore, an overview is given of the historical aspects, spatial mapping of the STN by MER, and its impact for accuracy and precision in current functional stereotactic neurosurgery.The pros concerning target refinement by MER means on the one hand, and cons including increased bleeding risk, increased operation time, local or general anesthesia, and single versus multichannel microelectrode recording are discussed in detail. Finally, the authors favor the use of MER with intraoperative testing combined with imaging to achieve a more precise electrode placement, aiming to ameliorate clinical outcome in therapy-resistant movement disorders.

  4. Different patterns of local field potentials from limbic DBS targets in patients with major depressive and obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, W-J; Huebl, J; Brücke, C; Gabriëls, L; Bajbouj, M; Merkl, A; Schneider, G-H; Nuttin, B; Brown, P; Kühn, AA

    2016-01-01

    The role of distinct limbic areas in emotion regulation has been largely inferred from neuroimaging studies. Recently, the opportunity for intracranial recordings from limbic areas has arisen in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for neuropsychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we test the hypothesis that distinct temporal patterns of local field potential (LFP) activity in the human limbic system reflect disease state and symptom severity in MDD and OCD patients. To this end, we recorded LFPs via implanted DBS electrodes from the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST area) in 12 patients (5 OCD, 7 MDD) and from the subgenual cingulate cortex in 7 MDD patients (CG25 area). We found a distinct pattern of oscillatory activity with significantly higher α-power in MDD compared with OCD in the BNST area (broad α-band 8–14 Hz; P<0.01) and a similar level of α-activity in the CG25 area as in the BNST area in MDD patients. The mean α-power correlated with severity of depressive symptoms as assessed by the Beck depression inventory in MDD (n = 14, r = 0.55, P = 0.042) but not with severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD. Here we show larger α-band activity in MDD patients compared with OCD recorded from intracranial DBS targets. Our results suggest that α-activity in the limbic system may be a signature of symptom severity in MDD and may serve as a potential state biomarker for closed loop DBS in MDD. PMID:24514569

  5. Subcortical neuronal ensembles: an analysis of motor task association, tremor, oscillations, and synchrony in human patients.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Timothy L; Fuller, Andrew M; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Turner, Dennis A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2012-06-20

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has expanded as an effective treatment for motor disorders, providing a valuable opportunity for intraoperative recording of the spiking activity of subcortical neurons. The properties of these neurons and their potential utility in neuroprosthetic applications are not completely understood. During DBS surgeries in 25 human patients with either essential tremor or Parkinson's disease, we acutely recorded the single-unit activity of 274 ventral intermediate/ventral oralis posterior motor thalamus (Vim/Vop) neurons and 123 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons. These subcortical neuronal ensembles (up to 23 neurons sampled simultaneously) were recorded while the patients performed a target-tracking motor task using a cursor controlled by a haptic glove. We observed that modulations in firing rate of a substantial number of neurons in both Vim/Vop and STN represented target onset, movement onset/direction, and hand tremor. Neurons in both areas exhibited rhythmic oscillations and pairwise synchrony. Notably, all tremor-associated neurons exhibited synchrony within the ensemble. The data further indicate that oscillatory (likely pathological) neurons and behaviorally tuned neurons are not distinct but rather form overlapping sets. Whereas previous studies have reported a linear relationship between power spectra of neuronal oscillations and hand tremor, we report a nonlinear relationship suggestive of complex encoding schemes. Even in the presence of this pathological activity, linear models were able to extract motor parameters from ensemble discharges. Based on these findings, we propose that chronic multielectrode recordings from Vim/Vop and STN could prove useful for further studying, monitoring, and even treating motor disorders.

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Parameter Optimization for Vowel Acoustics and Speech Intelligibility in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Thea; Adams, Scott; Abeyesekera, Anita; Mancinelli, Cynthia; Gilmore, Greydon; Jog, Mandar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The settings of 3 electrical stimulation parameters were adjusted in 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) to examine their effects on vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Method: Participants were tested under permutations of low, mid, and high STN-DBS frequency,…

  7. Frequency-dependent, transient effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on methamphetamine-induced circling and neuronal activity in the hemiparkinsonian rat.

    PubMed

    So, Rosa Q; McConnell, George C; Grill, Warren M

    2017-03-01

    Methamphetamine-induced circling is used to quantify the behavioral effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in hemiparkinsonian rats. We observed a frequency-dependent transient effect of DBS on circling, and quantified this effect to determine its neuronal basis. High frequency STN DBS (75-260Hz) resulted in transient circling contralateral to the lesion at the onset of stimulation, which was not sustained after the first several seconds of stimulation. Following the transient behavioral change, DBS resulted in a frequency-dependent steady-state reduction in pathological ipsilateral circling, but no change in overall movement. Recordings from single neurons in globus pallidus externa (GPe) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) revealed that high frequency, but not low frequency, STN DBS elicited transient changes in both firing rate and neuronal oscillatory power at the stimulation frequency in a subpopulation of GPe and SNr neurons. These transient changes were not sustained, and most neurons exhibited a different response during the steady-state phase of DBS. During the steady-state, DBS produced elevated neuronal oscillatory power at the stimulus frequency in a majority of GPe and SNr neurons, and the increase was more pronounced during high frequency DBS than during low frequency DBS. Changes in oscillatory power during both transient and steady-state DBS were highly correlated with changes in firing rates. These results suggest that distinct neural mechanisms were responsible for transient and sustained behavioral responses to STN DBS. The transient contralateral turning behavior following the onset of high frequency DBS was paralleled by transient changes in firing rate and oscillatory power in the GPe and SNr, while steady-state suppression of ipsilateral turning was paralleled by sustained increased synchronization of basal ganglia neurons to the stimulus pulses. Our analysis of distinct frequency-dependent transient and

  8. Motor outcome and electrode location in deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Koivu, Maija; Huotarinen, Antti; Scheperjans, Filip; Laakso, Aki; Kivisaari, Riku; Pekkonen, Eero

    2018-05-30

    To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and the possible correlation between electrode location and clinical outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 87 PD-related STN-DBS operations at Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) from 2007 to 2014. The changes of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III score, Hoehn & Yahr stage, antiparkinson medication, and adverse effects were studied. We estimated the active electrode location in three different coordinate systems: direct visual analysis of MRI correlated to brain atlas, location in relation to the nucleus borders and location in relation to the midcommisural point. At 6 months after operation, both levodopa equivalent doses (LEDs; 35%, Wilcoxon signed-rank test = 0.000) and UPDRS part III scores significantly decreased (38%, Wilcoxon signed-rank test = 0.000). Four patients (5%) suffered from moderate DBS-related dysarthria. The generator and electrodes had to be removed in one patient due to infection (1%). Electrode coordinates in the three coordinate systems correlated well with each other. On the left side, more ventral location of the active contact was associated with greater LED decrease. STN-DBS improves motor function and enables the reduction in antiparkinson medication with an acceptable adverse effect profile. More ventral location of the active contact may allow stronger LED reduction. Further research on the correlation between contact location, clinical outcome, and LED reduction is warranted. © 2018 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 Gene Expression Levels throughout the Mouse Subthalamic Nucleus Cause Cell Loss and Structural Disorganization Followed by Increased Motor Activity and Decreased Sugar Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Anttila, Casey J.A.; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Mahmoudi, Souha; Zampera, André; Wärner Jonsson, Hanna; Bergquist, Jonas; Lévesque, Daniel; Andersson, Malin; Dumas, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN. Recent studies in rodent STN models have exposed different roles for STN neurons in reward-related functions. We have previously shown that the majority of STN neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene (Vglut2/Slc17a6) and that reduction of Vglut2 mRNA levels within the STN of mice [conditional knockout (cKO)] causes reduced postsynaptic activity and behavioral hyperlocomotion. The cKO mice showed less interest in fatty rewards, which motivated analysis of reward-response. The current results demonstrate decreased sugar consumption and strong rearing behavior, whereas biochemical analyses show altered dopaminergic and peptidergic activity in the striatum. The behavioral alterations were in fact correlated with opposite effects in the dorsal versus the ventral striatum. Significant cell loss and disorganization of the STN structure was identified, which likely accounts for the observed alterations. Rare genetic variants of the human VGLUT2 gene exist, and this study shows that reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene expression levels exclusively within the STN of mice is sufficient to cause strong modifications in both the STN and the mesostriatal dopamine system. PMID:27699212

  10. Reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 Gene Expression Levels throughout the Mouse Subthalamic Nucleus Cause Cell Loss and Structural Disorganization Followed by Increased Motor Activity and Decreased Sugar Consumption.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Nadine; Viereckel, Thomas; Smith-Anttila, Casey J A; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Mahmoudi, Souha; Zampera, André; Wärner Jonsson, Hanna; Bergquist, Jonas; Lévesque, Daniel; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Andersson, Malin; Dumas, Sylvie; Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN. Recent studies in rodent STN models have exposed different roles for STN neurons in reward-related functions. We have previously shown that the majority of STN neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene ( Vglut2/Slc17a6 ) and that reduction of Vglut2 mRNA levels within the STN of mice [conditional knockout (cKO)] causes reduced postsynaptic activity and behavioral hyperlocomotion. The cKO mice showed less interest in fatty rewards, which motivated analysis of reward-response. The current results demonstrate decreased sugar consumption and strong rearing behavior, whereas biochemical analyses show altered dopaminergic and peptidergic activity in the striatum. The behavioral alterations were in fact correlated with opposite effects in the dorsal versus the ventral striatum. Significant cell loss and disorganization of the STN structure was identified, which likely accounts for the observed alterations. Rare genetic variants of the human VGLUT2 gene exist, and this study shows that reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene expression levels exclusively within the STN of mice is sufficient to cause strong modifications in both the STN and the mesostriatal dopamine system.

  11. Monitoring the onset of neuromuscular blockade with double burst stimulation (DBS).

    PubMed

    Gorgias, N; Maidatsi, P; Zaralidou, A; Ourailoglou, V; Fakidou, A; Giala, M

    1998-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of the DBS mode in the determination of the proper time to perform tracheal intubation following cisatracurium muscle relaxation. The DBS3.3 pattern was administered to the ulnar nerve at the wrist in 45 patients paralyzed with cisatracurium 0.15 mg.kg-1 and tracheal intubation was attempted immediately after the disappearance of both palpable contractions of the adductor pollicis. Intubation conditions were assessed with a standard four-graded scoring system and the onset time of the relaxant was determined. Forty-two patients (93%) exhibited acceptable intubation conditions as soon as both responses to DBS were absent and the estimated apparent onset time, according to the stimulation mode applied, was 114.68 +/- 13.2 sec. Our data suggest that disappearance of both palpable responses to DBS3.3 may be used as an accurate predictor of acceptable intubation conditions, following nondepolarizing relaxants such as cisatracurium.

  12. Autonomy in Depressive Patients Undergoing DBS-Treatment: Informed Consent, Freedom of Will and DBS’ Potential to Restore It

    PubMed Central

    Beeker, Timo; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Coenen, Volker A.

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Given the promising results of most of these studies, the rising medical interest in this new treatment correlates with a growing sensitivity to ethical questions. One of the most crucial concerns is that DBS might interfere with patients’ ability to make autonomous decisions. Thus, the goal of this article is to evaluate the impact DBS presumably has on the capacity to decide and act autonomously in patients with MDD in the light of the autonomy-undermining effects depression has itself. Following the chronological order of the procedure, special attention will first be paid to depression’s effects on patients’ capacity to make use of their free will in giving valid Informed Consent. We suggest that while the majority of patients with MDD appear capable of autonomous choices, as it is required for Informed Consent, they might still be unable to effectively act according to their own will whenever acting includes significant personal effort. In reducing disabling depressive symptoms like anhedonia and decrease of energy, DBS for treatment resistant MDD thus rather seems to be an opportunity to substantially increase autonomy than a threat to it. PMID:28642690

  13. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Activates Motor Cortex Pyramidal Tract Neurons by a Process Involving Local Glutamate, GABA and Dopamine Receptors in Hemi-Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chi-Fen; Wu, Chen-Wei; Weng, Ying; Hu, Pei-San; Yeh, Shin-Rung; Chang, Yen-Chung

    2018-04-30

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we investigated how DBS applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) influenced the neural activity in the motor cortex. Rats, which had the midbrain dopaminergic neurons partially depleted unilaterally, called the hemi-Parkinsonian rats, were used as a study model. c-Fos expression in the neurons was used as an indicator of neural activity. Application of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) upon the STN was used to mimic the DBS treatment. The motor cortices in the two hemispheres of hemi-Parkinsonian rats were found to contain unequal densities of c-Fos-positive (Fos+) cells, and STN-HFS rectified this bilateral imbalance. In addition, STN-HFS led to the intense c-Fos expression in a group of motor cortical neurons which exhibited biochemical and anatomical characteristics resembling those of the pyramidal tract (PT) neurons sending efferent projections to the STN. The number of PT neurons expressing high levels of c-Fos was significantly reduced by local application of the antagonists of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) glutamate receptors, gammaaminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors and dopamine receptors in the upper layers of the motor cortex. The results indicate that the coincident activations of synapses and dopamine receptors in the motor cortex during STN-HFS trigger the intense expression of c-Fos of the PT neurons. The implications of the results on the cellular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of STN-DBS on the movement disorders of PD are also discussed.

  14. To move or not to move: subthalamic deep brain stimulation effects on implicit motor simulation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Eleopra, Roberto; Rinaldo, Sara; Cristian, Lettieri; Marco, Mucchiut; Enrico, Belgrado; Zanier, Monica; Budai, Riccardo; Mondani, Massimo; D'Auria, Stanislao; Skrap, Miran; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-07-29

    We explored implicit motor simulation processes in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients with ON-OFF subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN). Participants made lexical decisions about hand action-related verbs, abstract verbs, and pseudowords presented either within a positive (e.g., "Do …") or a negative (e.g., "Don't …") sentence context. Healthy controls showed significantly slower responses for hand-action verbs (vs. abstract verbs) in the negative (vs. positive) context, which suggests that negative contexts may suppress motor simulation or preparation processes. The STN-DBS improves cortical motor functions, thus patients are expected to perform at the same level as unimpaired subjects in the ON condition. By contrast, the 50% reduced DBS is expected to result in a reduced activation for motor information, which in turn might cause a reduced, if not absent, context modulation. PD patients exhibited the same pattern as controls when their DBS was at 100% ON; however, reducing the DBS to 50% had a deleterious outcome on the positive faster than negative context effect, suggesting that the altered inhibition mechanism in PD could be responsible for the missed effect. In addition, our results confirm the view that implicit motor simulation mechanisms behind action-related verb processing are flexible and context-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutations in STN1 cause Coats plus syndrome and are associated with genomic and telomere defects

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Amos J.; Lev, Atar; Zhang, Yong; Weiss, Batia; Rylova, Anna; Eyal, Eran; Kol, Nitzan; Cesarkas, Keren; Rhodes, Michele; Schiby, Ginette; Barshack, Iris; Katz, Shulamit; Reznik-Wolf, Haike; Ribakovsky, Elena; Simon, Carlos; Hazou, Wadi; Katzir, Hagar; Sagie, Shira; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with telomere defects may shed light on the delicate interplay of factors controlling genome stability, premature aging, and cancer. We herein describe two Coats plus patients with telomere and genomic defects; both harbor distinct, novel mutations in STN1, a member of the human CTC1–STN1–TEN1 (CST) complex, thus linking this gene for the first time to a human telomeropathy. We characterized the patients’ phenotype, recapitulated it in a zebrafish model and rescued cellular and clinical aspects by the ectopic expression of wild-type STN1 or by thalidomide treatment. Interestingly, a significant lengthy control of the gastrointestinal bleeding in one of our patients was achieved by thalidomide treatment, exemplifying a successful bed-to-bench-and-back approach. PMID:27432940

  16. Constant Current versus Constant Voltage Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ramirez de Noriega, Fernando; Eitan, Renana; Marmor, Odeya; Lavi, Adi; Linetzky, Eduard; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2015-02-18

    Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor efficacy and safety have been established for constant voltage (CV) devices and more recently for constant current (CC) devices. CC devices adjust output voltage to provide CC stimulation irrespective of impedance fluctuation, while the current applied by CV stimulation depends on the impedance that may change over time. No study has directly compared the clinical effects of these two stimulation modalities. Objective: To compare the safety and clinical impact of CC STN DBS to CV STN DBS in patients with advanced PD 2 years after surgery. Methods: Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had undergone STN DBS surgery for idiopathic PD, had been implanted with a Medtronic Activa PC and if their stimulation program and medication had been stable for at least 1 year. This single-center trial was designed as a double-blind, randomized, prospective study with crossover after 2 weeks. Motor equivalence of the 2 modalities was confirmed utilizing part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). PD diaries and multiple subjective and objective evaluations of quality of life, depression, cognition and emotional processing were evaluated on both CV and on CC stimulation. Analysis using the paired t test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was performed to identify any significant difference between the stimulation modalities. Results: 8 patients were recruited (6 men, 2 women); 1 patient did not complete the study. The average age at surgery was 56.7 years (range 47-63). Disease duration at the time of surgery was 7.5 years (range 3-12). Patients were recruited 23.8 months (range 22.5-24) after surgery. At the postoperative study baseline, this patient group showed an average motor improvement of 69% (range 51-97) as measured by the change in UPDRS part III with stimulation alone. Levodopa equivalent

  17. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects theory of mind network: a PET study in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Péron, Julie; Le Jeune, Florence; Haegelen, Claire; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Dominique; Sauleau, Paul; Reymann, Jean-Michel; Drapier, Sophie; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Millet, Bruno; Vérin, Marc

    2010-03-29

    There appears to be an overlap between the limbic system, which is modulated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the brain network that mediates theory of mind (ToM). Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of STN DBS on ToM of PD patients and to correlate ToM modifications with changes in glucose metabolism. To this end, we conducted (18)FDG-PET scans in 13 PD patients in pre- and post-STN DBS conditions and correlated changes in their glucose metabolism with modified performances on the Eyes test, a visual ToM task requiring them to describe thoughts or feelings conveyed by photographs of the eye region. Postoperative PD performances on this emotion recognition task were significantly worse than either preoperative PD performances or those of healthy controls (HC), whereas there was no significant difference between preoperative PD and HC. Conversely, PD patients in the postoperative condition performed within the normal range on the gender attribution task included in the Eyes test. As far as the metabolic results are concerned, there were correlations between decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in several cortical areas: the bilateral cingulate gyrus (BA 31), right middle frontal gyrus (BA 8, 9 and 10), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), temporal lobe (fusiform gyrus, BA 20), bilateral parietal lobe (right BA 3 and right and left BA 7) and bilateral occipital lobe (BA 19). There were also correlations between increased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 13 and BA 47) and right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). All these structures overlap with the brain network that mediates ToM. These results seem to confirm that STN DBS hinders the ability to infer the mental states of others and modulates a distributed network known to subtend ToM.

  18. Deep brain stimulation with a pre-existing cochlear implant: Surgical technique and outcome.

    PubMed

    Eddelman, Daniel; Wewel, Joshua; Wiet, R Mark; Metman, Leo V; Sani, Sepehr

    2017-01-01

    Patients with previously implanted cranial devices pose a special challenge in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We report the implantation of bilateral DBS leads in a patient with a cochlear implant. Technical nuances and long-term interdevice functionality are presented. A 70-year-old patient with advancing Parkinson's disease and a previously placed cochlear implant for sensorineural hearing loss was referred for placement of bilateral DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Prior to DBS, the patient underwent surgical removal of the subgaleal cochlear magnet, followed by stereotactic MRI, frame placement, stereotactic computed tomography (CT), and merging of imaging studies. This technique allowed for successful computational merging, MRI-guided targeting, and lead implantation with acceptable accuracy. Formal testing and programming of both the devices were successful without electrical interference. Successful DBS implantation with high resolution MRI-guided targeting is technically feasible in patients with previously implanted cochlear implants by following proper precautions.

  19. Movement-Related Discharge in the Macaque Globus Pallidus during High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zimnik, Andrew J.; Nora, Gerald J.; Desmurget, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has largely replaced ablative therapies for Parkinson's disease. Because of the similar efficacies of the two treatments, it has been proposed that DBS acts by creating an “informational lesion,” whereby pathologic neuronal firing patterns are replaced by low-entropy, stimulus-entrained firing patterns. The informational lesion hypothesis, in its current form, states that DBS blocks the transmission of all information from the basal ganglia, including both pathologic firing patterns and normal, task-related modulations in activity. We tested this prediction in two healthy rhesus macaques by recording single-unit spiking activity from the globus pallidus (232 neurons) while the animals completed choice reaction time reaching movements with and without STN-DBS. Despite strong effects of DBS on the activity of most pallidal cells, reach-related modulations in firing rate were equally prevalent in the DBS-on and DBS-off states. This remained true even when the analysis was restricted to cells affected significantly by DBS. In addition, the overall form and timing of perimovement modulations in firing rate were preserved between DBS-on and DBS-off states in the majority of neurons (66%). Active movement and DBS had largely additive effects on the firing rate of most neurons, indicating an orthogonal relationship in which both inputs contribute independently to the overall firing rate of pallidal neurons. These findings suggest that STN-DBS does not act as an indiscriminate informational lesion but rather as a filter that permits task-related modulations in activity while, presumably, eliminating the pathological firing associated with parkinsonism. PMID:25740526

  20. Cognition following bilateral deep brain stimulation surgery of the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Casey H; Rick, Jacqueline H; Danish, Shabbar F; Grossman, Murray; Baltuch, Gordon H

    2009-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by significant motor dysfunction and various non-motor disturbances, including cognitive alterations. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an increasingly utilized therapeutic option for patients with PD that yields remarkable success in alleviating disabling motor symptoms. DBS has additionally been associated with changes in cognition, yet the evidence is not consistent across studies. The following review sought to provide a clearer understanding of the various cognitive sequelae of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS while taking into account corresponding neuroanatomy and potential confounding variables. A literature search was performed using the following inclusion criteria: (1) at least five subjects followed for a mean of at least 3 months after surgery; (2) pre- and postoperative cognitive data using at least one standardized measure; (3) adequate report of study results using means and standard deviations. Two recent meta-analyses found mild post-operative impairments in verbal learning and executive function in patients who underwent DBS surgery. However, studies have revealed improved working memory and psychomotor speed in the 'on' vs 'off' stimulation state. A deficit in language may be a consequence of the surgical procedure. While cognitive decline has been observed in some domains, our review of the data suggests that STN DBS is a worthwhile and safe method to treat PD. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Effects of Mechanical and Thermal Stimuli on Local Field Potentials and Single Unit Activity in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Belasen, Abigail; Youn, Youngwon; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Lai, Brant; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Rizvi, Khizer; Yeung, Philip; Shin, Damian S; Argoff, Charles; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain is a major, debilitating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to improve pain outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. Microelectrode recording allows us to measure both local field potentials (LFPs) and single neuronal unit activity (SUA). In this study, we examined how single unit and LFP oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia are impacted by mechanical and thermal sensory stimuli and explored their role in pain modulation. We assessed changes in LFPs and SUAs in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (Gpi), and globus pallidus externa (Gpe) following exposure with mechanical or thermal stimuli. Sensory thresholds were determined pre-operatively using quantitative sensory testing. Based on these data, patients were exposed to innocuous and noxious mechanical, pressure, and thermal stimuli at individualized thresholds. In the STN, LFP alpha oscillatory activity and SUA increased in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli; SUA further increased in response to noxious mechanical, noxious pressure, and noxious thermal stimuli (p < 0.05). In the Gpe, LFP low betaactivity and SUA increased with noxious thermal stimuli; SUA also increased in response to innocuous thermal stimuli (p < 0.05). In the Gpi, innocuous thermal stimuli increased LFP gammaactivity; noxious pressure stimuli decreased low betaactivity; SUA increased in response to noxious thermal stimuli (p < 0.05). Our study is the first to demonstrate that mechanical and thermal stimuli alter basal ganglia LFPs and SUAs in PD. While STN SUA increases nearly uniformly to all sensory stimuli, SUA in the pallidal nuclei respond solely to thermal stimuli. Similarly, thermal stimuli yield increases in pallidal LFP activity, but not STN activity. We speculate that DBS may provide analgesia through suppression of stimuli-specific changes in basal ganglia activity, supporting a role for these nuclei

  2. Thalamic DBS with a constant-current device in essential tremor: A controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wharen, Robert E; Okun, Michael S; Guthrie, Barton L; Uitti, Ryan J; Larson, Paul; Foote, Kelly; Walker, Harrison; Marshall, Frederick J; Schwalb, Jason; Ford, Blair; Jankovic, Joseph; Simpson, Richard; Dashtipour, Khashayar; Phibbs, Fenna; Neimat, Joseph S; Stewart, R Malcolm; Peichel, DeLea; Pahwa, Rajesh; Ostrem, Jill L

    2017-07-01

    This study of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) investigated whether a novel constant-current device improves tremor and activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with essential tremor (ET). A prospective, controlled, multicenter study was conducted at 12 academic centers. We investigated the safety and efficacy of unilateral and bilateral constant-current DBS of the ventralis intermedius (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus in patients with essential tremor whose tremor was inadequately controlled by medications. The primary outcome measure was a rater-blinded assessment of the change in the target limb tremor score in the stimulation-on versus stimulation-off state six months following surgery. Multiple secondary outcomes were assessed at one-year follow-up, including motor, mood, and quality-of-life measures. 127 patients were implanted with VIM DBS. The blinded, primary outcome variable (n = 76) revealed a mean improvement of 1.25 ± 1.26 points in the target limb tremor rating scale (TRS) score in the arm contralateral to DBS (p < 0.001). Secondary outcome variables at one year revealed significant improvements (p ≤ 0.001) in quality of life, depression symptoms, and ADL scores. Forty-seven patients had a second contralateral VIM-DBS, and this group demonstrated reduction in second-sided tremor at 180 days (p < 0.001). Serious adverse events related to the surgery included infection (n = 3), intracranial hemorrhage (n = 3), and device explantation (n = 3). Unilateral and bilateral constant-current VIM DBS significantly improves upper extremity tremor, ADL, quality of life, and depression in patients with severe ET. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complex analysis of neuronal spike trains of deep brain nuclei in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Lin, Ming-An; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Tsai, Yu-Tai; Chao, Pei-Kuang; Wu, Tony

    2010-04-05

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been used to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease. During image-guided stereotactic surgery, signals from microelectrode recordings are used to distinguish the STN from adjacent areas, particularly from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Neuronal firing patterns based on interspike intervals (ISI) are commonly used. In the present study, arrival time-based measures, including Lempel-Ziv complexity and deviation-from-Poisson index were employed. Our results revealed significant differences in the arrival time-based measures among non-motor STN, motor STN and SNr and better discrimination than the ISI-based measures. The larger deviations from the Poisson process in the SNr implied less complex dynamics of neuronal discharges. If spike classification was not used, the arrival time-based measures still produced statistical differences among STN subdivisions and SNr, but the ISI-based measures only showed significant differences between motor and non-motor STN. Arrival time-based measures are less affected by spike misclassifications, and may be used as an adjunct for the identification of the STN during microelectrode targeting. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic stereotypic responses of Basal Ganglia neurons to subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation in the parkinsonian primate.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anan; Stein, Edward; Tischler, Hadass; Belelovsky, Katya; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2011-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for patients with severe Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study we explored static and dynamic activation patterns in the basal ganglia (BG) during high-frequency macro-stimulation of the STN. Extracellular multi-electrode recordings were performed in primates rendered parkinsonian using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Recordings were preformed simultaneously in the STN and the globus pallidus externus and internus. Single units were recorded preceding and during the stimulation. During the stimulation, STN mean firing rate dropped significantly, while pallidal mean firing rates did not change significantly. The vast majority of neurons across all three nuclei displayed stimulation driven modulations, which were stereotypic within each nucleus but differed across nuclei. The predominant response pattern of STN neurons was somatic inhibition. However, most pallidal neurons demonstrated synaptic activation patterns. A minority of neurons across all nuclei displayed axonal activation. Temporal dynamics were observed in the response to stimulation over the first 10 seconds in the STN and over the first 30 seconds in the pallidum. In both pallidal segments, the synaptic activation response patterns underwent delay and decay of the magnitude of the peak response due to short term synaptic depression. We suggest that during STN macro-stimulation the STN goes through a functional ablation as its upper bound on information transmission drops significantly. This notion is further supported by the evident dissociation between the stimulation driven pre-synaptic STN somatic inhibition and the post-synaptic axonal activation of its downstream targets. Thus, BG output maintains its firing rate while losing the deleterious effect of the STN. This may be a part of the mechanism leading to the beneficial effect of DBS in PD.

  5. Patients' expectations of deep brain stimulation, and subjective perceived outcome related to clinical measures in Parkinson's disease: a mixed-method approach.

    PubMed

    Maier, Franziska; Lewis, Catharine J; Horstkoetter, Nina; Eggers, Carsten; Kalbe, Elke; Maarouf, Mohammad; Kuhn, Jens; Zurowski, Mateusz; Moro, Elena; Woopen, Christiane; Timmermann, Lars

    2013-11-01

    To study patients' expectations of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and their subjective perceived outcome, by using qualitative and quantitative methods in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients were prospectively examined before and 3 months after surgery. Semistructured interviews regarding preoperative expectations and postsurgical subjective perceived outcome were conducted. These were analysed using content analysis. For statistical analyses, patients were classified according to their subjective perceived outcome, resulting in three different subjective outcome groups (negative, mixed, positive outcome). The groups were used for multiple comparisons between and within each group regarding motor impairment, quality of life (QoL), neuropsychiatric status and cognitive functioning, using standard instruments. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to find predictors of subjective negative outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyse cut-off scores for predictive tests. Of the 30 PD patients participating, 8 had a subjective negative outcome, 8 a mixed and 14 a positive outcome. All groups significantly improved in motor functioning. Patients with subjective negative outcome were characterised by preoperative unrealistic expectations, no postsurgical improvement in QoL, and significantly higher presurgical and postsurgical apathy and depression scores. Higher preoperative apathy and depression scores were significant predictors of negative subjective outcome. Cut-off scores for apathy and depression were identified. The mixed-method approach proved useful in examining a patient's subjective perception of STN-DBS outcome. Our results show that significant motor improvement does not necessarily lead to a positive subjective outcome. Moreover, PD patients should be screened carefully before surgery regarding apathy and depression. (DRKS-ID: DRKS00003221).

  6. Complex repetitive behavior: punding after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, Stefano; Bernardi, Silvia; Raglione, Laura Maria; Marini, Paolo; Ammannati, Franco; Sorbi, Sandro; Ramat, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    "Punding" is the term used to describe a stereotyped motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive purposeless movements, such as taking apart mechanical objects, handling common objects as if they were new and entertaining, constantly picking at oneself, etc. As a phenomenon with both impulsive and compulsive features, the phenomenology of punding is currently being questioned. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, we screened a population of Parkinson's disease (PD) outpatients who underwent subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). We conducted a patient-and-relative-completed survey with 24 consecutive patients in an academic outpatient care center, using a modified version of a structured interview. Patients were administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Five (20.8%) of the 24 subjects were identified as punders, including three men (60%) and two women. The punders were comparable to the non-punders in terms of clinical and demographic factors. The punder and non-punder groups only differed statistically with regard to the length of time from DBS implantation. Those findings suggest that punding might be induced by STN DBS, and its rate of occurrence in DBS population seems to be more common than previously suspected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimized programming algorithm for cylindrical and directional deep brain stimulation electrodes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daria Nesterovich; Osting, Braxton; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dorval, Alan D; Butson, Christopher R

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a growing treatment option for movement and psychiatric disorders. As DBS technology moves toward directional leads with increased numbers of smaller electrode contacts, trial-and-error methods of manual DBS programming are becoming too time-consuming for clinical feasibility. We propose an algorithm to automate DBS programming in near real-time for a wide range of DBS lead designs. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are used to build finite element models that include anisotropic conductivity. The algorithm maximizes activation of target tissue and utilizes the Hessian matrix of the electric potential to approximate activation of neurons in all directions. We demonstrate our algorithm's ability in an example programming case that targets the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease for three lead designs: the Medtronic 3389 (four cylindrical contacts), the direct STNAcute (two cylindrical contacts, six directional contacts), and the Medtronic-Sapiens lead (40 directional contacts). The optimization algorithm returns patient-specific contact configurations in near real-time-less than 10 s for even the most complex leads. When the lead was placed centrally in the target STN, the directional leads were able to activate over 50% of the region, whereas the Medtronic 3389 could activate only 40%. When the lead was placed 2 mm lateral to the target, the directional leads performed as well as they did in the central position, but the Medtronic 3389 activated only 2.9% of the STN. This DBS programming algorithm can be applied to cylindrical electrodes as well as novel directional leads that are too complex with modern technology to be manually programmed. This algorithm may reduce clinical programming time and encourage the use of directional leads, since they activate a larger volume of the target area than cylindrical electrodes in central and off-target lead placements.

  8. Stn1-Ten1 is an Rpa2-Rpa3-like complex at telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Eun Young; Yang, Yuting

    2010-09-02

    In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form a heterotrimeric complex (CST) that is essential for telomere protection and maintenance. Previous bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold at the N terminus of Stn1 (Stn1N) that shows limited sequence similarity to the OB fold of Rpa2, a subunit of the eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein complex replication protein A (RPA). Here we present functional and structural analyses of Stn1 and Ten1 from multiple budding and fission yeast. The crystal structure of the Candida tropicalis Stn1N complexed with Ten1 demonstrates an Rpa2N-Rpa3-like complex. In both structures, the OB folds of the twomore » components pack against each other through interactions between two C-terminal helices. The structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 (Stn1C) was found to comprise two related winged helix-turn-helix (WH) motifs, one of which is most similar to the WH motif at the C terminus of Rpa2, again supporting the notion that Stn1 resembles Rpa2. The crystal structure of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Stn1N-Ten1 complex exhibits a virtually identical architecture as the C. tropicalis Stn1N-Ten1. Functional analyses of the Candida albicans Stn1 and Ten1 proteins revealed critical roles for these proteins in suppressing aberrant telomerase and recombination activities at telomeres. Mutations that disrupt the Stn1-Ten1 interaction induce telomere uncapping and abolish the telomere localization of Ten1. Collectively, our structural and functional studies illustrate that, instead of being confined to budding yeast telomeres, the CST complex may represent an evolutionarily conserved RPA-like telomeric complex at the 3' overhangs that works in parallel with or instead of the well-characterized POT1-TPP1/TEBP{alpha}-{beta} complex.« less

  9. The CMS DBS query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

    2010-04-01

    The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

  10. Zolpidem improves neuropsychiatric symptoms and motor dysfunction in a patient with Parkinson's disease after deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Yu-Chin; Chiou, Shang-Ming; Kao, Chia-Hung; Tsai, Mu-Chieh; Tsai, Chon-Haw

    2012-06-01

    To illustrate the beneficial effect of zolpidem on the neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms in a patient with Parkinson disease (PD) after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The 61-year-old housewife was diagnosed to have PD for 12 years with initial presentation of clumsiness and rest tremor of right limbs. She was referred to our hospital in March 2009 due to shortening of drug beneficial period since 3 years ago and on-phase dyskinesia in recent 2 years. Bilateral STN DBS was conducted on 18 June, 2009. Fluctuating spells of mental confusion were developed on the next day after surgery. Electric stimuli via DBS electrodes were delivered with parameters of 2 volts, 60 μs, 130 Hz on bilateral STN 32 days after DBS. The incoherent behaviors and motor fluctuation remained to occur. The beneficial effect of zolpidem on her neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms was detected incidentally in early July 2009. She could chat normally with her caregiver and walk with assistance after taking zolpidem. The beneficial period may last for 2 hours. Zolpidem was then given in dosage of 10 mg three times per day. The neuropsychiatric inventory was scored 56 during zolpidem 'off' and 30 during zolpidem 'on'. To understand the intriguing feature, we conducted FDG-PET during 'off' and 'on' zolpidem conditions. The results revealed that the metabolism was decreased in the right frontal, parietal cortex and caudate nucleus during zolpidem 'off'. These cool spots can be partially restored by zolpidem. Zolpidem ameliorated the neuropsychiatric and parkinsonian motor symptom in the PD patient. Since GABAA benzodiazepine receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, zolpidem probably acts via modulating structures lying within the cortico-subcortical loop or by direct effect on these cortical regions.

  11. STN1 OB Fold Mutation Alters DNA Binding and Affects Selective Aspects of CST Function

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Stewart, Jason; Chaiken, Mary; Price, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) participates in multiple aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide recovery from replication stress. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that it binds ssDNA and STN1 and TEN1 are structurally similar to RPA2 and RPA3. Conservation between CTC1 and RPA1 is less apparent. Currently the mechanism underlying CST action is largely unknown. Here we address CST mechanism by using a DNA-binding mutant, (STN1 OB-fold mutant, STN1-OBM) to examine the relationship between DNA binding and CST function. In vivo, STN1-OBM affects resolution of endogenous replication stress and telomere duplex replication but telomeric C-strand fill-in and new origin firing after exogenous replication stress are unaffected. These selective effects indicate mechanistic differences in CST action during resolution of different replication problems. In vitro binding studies show that STN1 directly engages both short and long ssDNA oligonucleotides, however STN1-OBM preferentially destabilizes binding to short substrates. The finding that STN1-OBM affects binding to only certain substrates starts to explain the in vivo separation of function observed in STN1-OBM expressing cells. CST is expected to engage DNA substrates of varied length and structure as it acts to resolve different replication problems. Since STN1-OBM will alter CST binding to only some of these substrates, the mutant should affect resolution of only a subset of replication problems, as was observed in the STN1-OBM cells. The in vitro studies also provide insight into CST binding mechanism. Like RPA, CST likely contacts DNA via multiple OB folds. However, the importance of STN1 for binding short substrates indicates differences in the architecture of CST and RPA DNA-protein complexes. Based on our results, we propose a dynamic DNA binding model that provides a general mechanism for CST action at diverse forms of replication stress. PMID:27690379

  12. Human subthalamic nucleus-medial frontal cortex theta phase coherence is involved in conflict and error related cortical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Baltazar; Tan, Huiling; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Zaghloul, Kareem; Brown, Peter

    2016-08-15

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to control the shift from automatic to controlled action selection when conflict is present or when mistakes have been recently committed. Growing evidence suggests that this process involves frequency specific communication in the theta (4-8Hz) band between the mPFC and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which is the main target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease. Key in this hypothesis is the finding that DBS can lead to impulsivity by disrupting the correlation between higher mPFC oscillations and slower reaction times during conflict. In order to test whether theta band coherence between the mPFC and the STN underlies adjustments to conflict and to errors, we simultaneously recorded mPFC and STN electrophysiological activity while DBS patients performed an arrowed flanker task. These recordings revealed higher theta phase coherence between the two sites during the high conflict trials relative to the low conflict trials. These differences were observed soon after conflicting arrows were displayed, but before a response was executed. Furthermore, trials that occurred after an error was committed showed higher phase coherence relative to trials that followed a correct trial, suggesting that mPFC-STN connectivity may also play a role in error related adjustments in behavior. Interestingly, the phase coherence we observed occurred before increases in theta power, implying that the theta phase and power may influence behavior at separate times during cortical monitoring. Finally, we showed that pre-stimulus differences in STN theta power were related to the reaction time on a given trial, which may help adjust behavior based on the probability of observing conflict during a task. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adverse events in deep brain stimulation: A retrospective long-term analysis of neurological, psychiatric and other occurrences

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Katja; Gulberti, Alessandro; Hidding, Ute; Poetter-Nerger, Monika; Goerendt, Ines; Ludewig, Peter; Braass, Hanna; Choe, Chi-un; Krajewski, Kara; Oehlwein, Christian; Mittmann, Katrin; Engel, Andreas K.; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Köppen, Johannes A.; Moll, Christian K. E.; Hamel, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The extent to which deep brain stimulation (DBS) can improve quality of life may be perceived as a permanent trade-off between neurological improvements and complications of therapy, comorbidities, and disease progression. Patients and methods We retrospectively investigated 123 consecutive and non-preselected patients. Indications for DBS surgery were Parkinson's disease (82), dystonia (18), tremor of different etiology (21), Huntington's disease (1) and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (1). AEs were defined as any untoward clinical occurrence, sign or patient complaint or unintended disease if related or unrelated to the surgical procedures, implanted devices or ongoing DBS therapy. Results Over a mean/median follow-up period of 4.7 years (578 patient-years) 433 AEs were recorded in 106 of 123 patients (86.2%). There was no mortality or persistent morbidity from the surgical procedure. All serious adverse events (SAEs) that occurred within 4 weeks of surgery were reversible. Neurological AEs (193 in 85 patients) and psychiatric AEs (78 in 48 patients) were documented most frequently. AEs in 4 patients (suicide under GPI stimulation, weight gain >20 kg, impairment of gait and speech, cognitive decline >2 years following surgery) were severe or worse, at least possibly related to DBS and non reversible. In PD 23.1% of the STN-stimulated patients experienced non-reversible (or unknown reversibility) AEs that were at least possibly related to DBS in the form of impaired speech or gait, depression, weight gain, cognitive disturbances or urinary incontinence (severity was mild or moderate in 15 of 18 patients). Age and Hoehn&Yahr stage of STN-simulated PD patients, but not preoperative motor impairment or response to levodopa, showed a weak correlation (r = 0.24 and 0.22, respectively) with the number of AEs. Conclusions DBS-related AEs that were severe or worse and non-reversible were only observed in PD (4 of 82 patients; 4.9%), but not in

  14. Evolution of Deep Brain Stimulation: Human Electrometer and Smart Devices Supporting the Next Generation of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.; Garris, Paul A.; Mohseni, Pedram; Horne, April E.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Agnesi, Filippo; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Lester, Deranda B.; Kimble, Chris; Min, Hoon-Ki; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) provides therapeutic benefit for several neuropathologies including Parkinson’s disease (PD), epilepsy, chronic pain, and depression. Despite well established clinical efficacy, the mechanism(s) of DBS remains poorly understood. In this review we begin by summarizing the current understanding of the DBS mechanism. Using this knowledge as a framework, we then explore a specific hypothesis regarding DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of PD. This hypothesis states that therapeutic benefit is provided, at least in part, by activation of surviving nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, subsequent striatal dopamine release, and resumption of striatal target cell control by dopamine. While highly controversial, we present preliminary data that are consistent with specific predications testing this hypothesis. We additionally propose that developing new technologies, e.g., human electrometer and closed-loop smart devices, for monitoring dopaminergic neurotransmission during STN DBS will further advance this treatment approach. PMID:20657744

  15. Technical Case Report of Deep Brain Stimulation: Is it Possible Single Electrode Reach to Both of Subthalamic Nucleus and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus in One Stage?

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Hülagu; Çakmur, Raif

    2018-04-15

    The primary target of this operation is Ventral Intermediate Nucleus (VIM); however VIM - Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) were tried to be reached with one electrode, adjusting the angle well, the coronal section; medial of VIM can partially reach the STN. Using the properties of the electrode; we believe we could act on a wide area. An analysis was performed on one patient who underwent VIM Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in 3 periods (pre - peri - post-operation). A 53 - year - old woman diagnosed with Parkinson's disease 8 years earlier including symptoms of severe tremor on the right than left underwent bilateral DBS VIM. Obtaining a satisfactory improvement of tremor, the patient did well, and postoperative complications were not observed. The patient was discharged from hospital on postoperative thirty day. It is certain that more research and experience are needed. However, we believe that the two targets can reach the same point and the second operations for another target can be avoided.We believe that this initiative is advantageous and promising regarding patient and cost.

  16. One-pass deep brain stimulation of dentato-rubro-thalamic tract and subthalamic nucleus for tremor-dominant or equivalent type Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Volker Arnd; Rijntjes, Michel; Prokop, Thomas; Piroth, Tobias; Amtage, Florian; Urbach, Horst; Reinacher, Peter Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Refractory tremor in tremor-dominant (TD) or equivalent-type (EQT) idiopathic Parkinson's syndrome (IPS) poses the challenge of choosing the best target region to for deep brain stimulation (DBS). While the subthalamic nucleus is typically chosen in younger patients as the target for dopamine-responsive motor symptoms, it is more complicated if tremor does not (fully) respond under trial conditions. In this report, we present the first results from simultaneous bilateral DBS of the DRT (dentato-rubro-thalamic tract) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in two elderly patients with EQT and TD IPS and dopamine-refractory tremor. Two patients received bilateral octopolar DBS electrodes in the STN additionally traversing the DRT region. Achieved electrode positions were determined with helical CT, overlaid onto DTI tractography data, and compared with clinical data of stimulation response. Both patients showed immediate and sustained improvement of their tremor, bilaterally. The proposed approach appears to be safe and feasible and a combined stimulation of the two target regions was performed tailored to the patients' symptoms. Clinically, no neuropsychiatric effects were seen. Our pilot data suggest a viable therapeutic option to treat the subgroup of TD and EQT IPS and with tremor as the predominant symptom. A clinical study to further investigate this approach ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT02288468) is the focus of our ongoing research.

  17. Somatic therapies for treatment-resistant depression: ECT, TMS, VNS, DBS.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Cristina; Dougherty, Darin D

    2012-08-17

    The field of non-pharmacological therapies for treatment resistant depression (TRD) is rapidly evolving and new somatic therapies are valuable options for patients who have failed numerous other treatments. A major challenge for clinicians (and patients alike) is how to integrate the results from published clinical trials in the clinical decision-making process.We reviewed the literature for articles reporting results for clinical trials in particular efficacy data, contraindications and side effects of somatic therapies including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Each of these devices has an indication for patients with different level of treatment resistance, based on acuteness of illness, likelihood of response, costs and associated risks. ECT is widely available and its effects are relatively rapid in severe TRD, but its cognitive adverse effects may be cumbersome. TMS is safe and well tolerated, and it has been approved by FDA for adults who have failed to respond to one antidepressant, but its use in TRD is still controversial as it is not supported by rigorous double-blind randomized clinical trials. The options requiring surgical approach are VNS and DBS. VNS has been FDA-approved for TRD, however it is not indicated for management of acute illness. DBS for TRD is still an experimental area of investigation and double-blind clinical trials are underway.

  18. The national DBS brain tissue network pilot study: need for more tissue and more standardization.

    PubMed

    Vedam-Mai, V; Krock, N; Ullman, M; Foote, K D; Shain, W; Smith, K; Yachnis, A T; Steindler, D; Reynolds, B; Merritt, S; Pagan, F; Marjama-Lyons, J; Hogarth, P; Resnick, A S; Zeilman, P; Okun, M S

    2011-08-01

    Over 70,000 DBS devices have been implanted worldwide; however, there remains a paucity of well-characterized post-mortem DBS brains available to researchers. We propose that the overall understanding of DBS can be improved through the establishment of a Deep Brain Stimulation-Brain Tissue Network (DBS-BTN), which will further our understanding of DBS and brain function. The objectives of the tissue bank are twofold: (a) to provide a complete (clinical, imaging and pathological) database for DBS brain tissue samples, and (b) to make available DBS tissue samples to researchers, which will help our understanding of disease and underlying brain circuitry. Standard operating procedures for processing DBS brains were developed as part of the pilot project. Complete data files were created for individual patients and included demographic information, clinical information, imaging data, pathology, and DBS lead locations/settings. 19 DBS brains were collected from 11 geographically dispersed centers from across the U.S. The average age at the time of death was 69.3 years (51-92, with a standard deviation or SD of 10.13). The male:female ratio was almost 3:1. Average post-mortem interval from death to brain collection was 10.6 h (SD of 7.17). The DBS targets included: subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus interna, and ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. In 16.7% of cases the clinical diagnosis failed to match the pathological diagnosis. We provide neuropathological findings from the cohort, and perilead responses to DBS. One of the most important observations made in this pilot study was the missing data, which was approximately 25% of all available data fields. Preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and utility of creating a National DBS-BTN resource for the scientific community. We plan to improve our techniques to remedy omitted clinical/research data, and expand the Network to include a larger donor pool. We will enhance sample preparation to

  19. Neuropsychological performance changes following subthalamic versus pallidal deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Elgebaly, Ahmed; Elfil, Mohamed; Attia, Attia; Magdy, Mayar; Negida, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Studies comparing subthalamus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the management of Parkinson's disease in terms of neuropsychological performance are scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and metaanalysis to compare neuropsychological outcomes following STN DBS versus GPi DBS. A computer literature search of PubMed, the Web of Science, and Cochrane Central was conducted. Records were screened for eligible studies, and data were extracted and synthesized using Review Manager (v. 5.3 for Windows). Seven studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of them, four randomized controlled trials (n=345 patients) were pooled in the metaanalysis models. The standardized mean difference (SMD) of change in the Stroop color-naming test favored the GPi DBS group (SMD=-0.31, p=0.009). However, other neuropsychological outcomes did not favor either of the two groups (Stroop word-reading: SMD=-0.21, p=0.08; the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) digits forward: SMD=0.08, p=0.47; Trail Making Test Part A: SMD=-0.05, p=0.65; WAIS-R digit symbol: SMD=-0.16, p=0.29; Trail Making Test Part B: SMD=-0.14, p=0.23; Stroop color-word interference: SMD=-0.16, p=0.18; phonemic verbal fluency: bilateral DBS SMD=-0.04, p=0.73, and unilateral DBS SMD=-0.05, p=0.83; semantic verbal fluency: bilateral DBS SMD=-0.09, p=0.37, and unilateral DBS SMD=-0.29, p=0.22; Boston Naming Test: SMD=-0.11, p=0.33; Beck Depression Inventory: bilateral DBS SMD=0.15, p=0.31, and unilateral DBS SMD=0.36, p=0.11). There was no statistically significant difference in most of the neuropsychological outcomes. The present evidence does not favor any of the targets in terms of neuropsychological performance.

  20. Targeted neural network interventions for auditory hallucinations: Can TMS inform DBS?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joseph J; Krystal, John H; D'Souza, Deepak C; Gerrard, Jason Lee; Corlett, Philip R

    2018-05-01

    The debilitating and refractory nature of auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders has stimulated investigations into neuromodulatory interventions that target the aberrant neural networks associated with them. Internal or invasive forms of brain stimulation such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) are currently being explored for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. The process of developing and implementing DBS is limited by symptom clustering within psychiatric constructs as well as a scarcity of causal tools with which to predict response, refine targeting or guide clinical decisions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an external or non-invasive form of brain stimulation, has shown some promise as a therapeutic intervention for AH but remains relatively underutilized as an investigational probe of clinically relevant neural networks. In this editorial, we propose that TMS has the potential to inform DBS by adding individualized causal evidence to an evaluation processes otherwise devoid of it in patients. Although there are significant limitations and safety concerns regarding DBS, the combination of TMS with computational modeling of neuroimaging and neurophysiological data could provide critical insights into more robust and adaptable network modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Failed DBS for palliation of visual problems in a case of oculopalatal tremor.

    PubMed

    Wang, David; Sanchez, Justin; Foote, Kelly D; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Bhatti, M Tariq; Lewis, Steven; Okun, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    To report the results of attempted bilateral red nucleus (RN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the palliative treatment of visual problems associated with oculopalatal tremor (OPT). It is hypothesized that OPT results from a defect in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle, a circuit that includes connections with the dentate nucleus, the contralateral red nucleus, and the inferior olive. We present a high functioning patient (an accountant) who underwent a palliative trial of RN region DBS in an approach targeted through the subthalamic nucleus region. The aim was to reduce eye tremor and improve vision through interruption of the pathologically oscillating circuit in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. Following informed consent, a patient with OPT (and failure of multiple classes of medication and botulinum toxin therapy) underwent placement of bilateral DBS electrodes within the region of the RN. He underwent preoperative testing and testing after 12 months of continuous stimulation with the device in monopolar, bipolar, low frequency, and high frequency settings. The patient did not demonstrate significant changes in the neurological examination following the procedure and postoperative programming sessions. Eye tremor was monitored pre- and postoperatively by ocular EMG and did not change in frequency. Following the one-year trial, stimulation was discontinued as there were no improvements in vision. DBS for OPT was not clinically effective. There were many potential reasons for failed efficacy including a failure to implant the electrodes deep and medial enough into the target region because of stimulation induced side effects. Other targets within the Guillain-Mollaret circuit (and outside of the circuit) may be more useful, though they may prove to be less safe and even more difficult to access. Better custom designed DBS leads may be needed for such small targets in critical brain regions.

  2. Effects of Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Naming and Reading Nouns and Verbs in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Baldonero, Eleonora; Piano, Carla; Zinno, Massimiliano; Soleti, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    An impairment for verbs has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits may result in dysfunction of the neural systems involved in action-verb processing. A previous study suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during verb generation…

  3. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5: A COMPARISON OF IMPROVE AND ENHANCED STN DATA SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seattle, WA, STN and IMPROVE data sets with STN temperature resolved carbon peaks were analyzed with both the PMF and Unmix receptor models. In addition, the IMPROVE trace element data was combined with the major STN species to examine the role of IMPROVE metals. To compare the ...

  4. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography image fusion technology in patients with Parkinson's disease after deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; He, Pin; Cai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Doudou; Xie, Ni

    2017-10-15

    Electrode position after deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) needs to be confirmed, but there are concerns about the risk of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after DBS. These issues could be avoided by fusion images obtained from preoperative MRI and postoperative computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to investigate image fusion technology for displaying the position of the electrodes compared with postoperative MRI. This was a retrospective study of 32 patients with PD treated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS between April 2015 and March 2016. The postoperative (same day) CT and preoperative MRI were fused using the Elekta Leksell 10.1 planning workstation (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden). The position of the electrodes was compared between the fusion images and postoperative 1-2-week MRI. The position of the electrodes was highly correlated between the fusion and postoperative MRI (all r between 0.865 and 0.996; all P<0.001). The differences of the left electrode position in the lateral and vertical planes was significantly different between the two methods (0.30 and 0.24mm, respectively, both P<0.05), but there were no significant differences for the other electrode and planes (all P>0.05). The position of the electrodes was highly correlated between the fusion and postoperative MRI. The CT-MRI fusion images could be used to avoid the potential risks of MRI after DBS in patients with PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Role of 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Targeting the Human Subthalamic Nucleus in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Michele; Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Tommasi, Giorgio; Nicolato, Antonio; Foroni, Roberto; Bertolasi, Laura; Beltramello, Alberto; Moretto, Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Gerosa, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Chronic stimulation of the human subthalamic nucleus (STN) is gradually becoming accepted as a long-term therapeutic option for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). 3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves contrast resolution in basal ganglia nuclei containing high levels of iron, because of magnetic susceptibility effects that increase significantly as the magnetic field gets higher. This phenomenon can be used for better visualization of the STN and may reduce the time necessary for detailed microrecording (MER) mapping, increasing surgery efficacy and lowering morbidity. The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze a population of 20 deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode implanted patients with PD divided into two groups in which different targeting methods were used. Mean age was 56 years (range 37 to 69 years). Mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Mean follow-up was 12 months (range 6 to 36 months). Patients were divided into two groups: Group A contained 6 patients who underwent STN targeting using 1T stereotactic (T1w + T2w) MRI plus STN indirect atlas derived targeting. Group B consisted of 14 patients who underwent STN targeting using 3T nonstereotactic (T2w) MRI fused with 1T T1w stereotactic MRI and STN direct targeting. For statistical analysis, we compared (five different parameters in both (matched) groups: Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) score reduction (medication off before surgery against stimulation on/medication off after surgery), postoperative drug reduction, duration of surgery, the "central preoperative track" chosen as final implantation track during surgery, and correspondence between the targeted STN and the intraoperative neurophysiologic data. Mean UPDRS III score reduction (medication off/stimulation on versus preoperative medication off) was 69% in Group A and 74% in Group B (p = 0.015, log-rank test) respectively. Postoperatively, antiparkinsonian treatment was reduced by 66

  6. Multicontrast multiecho FLASH MRI for targeting the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yiming; Beriault, Silvain; Pike, G Bruce; Collins, D Louis

    2012-06-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the most common stimulation targets for treating Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation (DBS). This procedure requires precise placement of the stimulating electrode. Common practice of DBS implantation utilizes microelectrode recording to locate the sites with the correct electrical response after an initial location estimate based on a universal human brain atlas that is linearly scaled to the patient's anatomy as seen on the preoperative images. However, this often results in prolonged surgical time and possible surgical complications since the small-sized STN is difficult to visualize on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images and its intersubject variability is not sufficiently considered in the atlas customization. This paper proposes a multicontrast, multiecho MR imaging (MRI) method that directly delineates the STN and other basal ganglia structures through five co-registered image contrasts (T1-weighted navigation image, R2 map, susceptibility-weighted imaging (phase, magnitude and fusion image)) obtained within a clinically acceptable time. The image protocol was optimized through both simulation and in vivo experiments to obtain the best image quality. Taking advantage of the multiple echoes and high readout bandwidths, no interimage registration is required since all images are produced in one acquisition, and image distortion and chemical shift are reduced. This MRI protocol is expected to mitigate some of the shortcomings of the state-of-the-art DBS implantation methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortical visual evoked potentials recorded after optic tract near field stimulation during GPi-DBS in non-cooperative patients.

    PubMed

    Landi, Andrea; Pirillo, David; Cilia, Roberto; Antonini, Angelo; Sganzerla, Erik P

    2011-02-01

    Neurophysiologic monitoring during deep brain stimulation (DBS) interventions in the globus pallidus internum (Gpi) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease or primary dystonia is generally based upon microelectrode recordings (MER); moreover, MER request sophisticated technology and high level trained personnel for a reliable monitoring. Recordings of cortical visual evoked potentials (CVEPs) obtained after stimulation of the optic tract may be a potential option to MER; since optic tract lies just beneath the best target for Gpi DBS, changes in CVEPs during intraoperative exploration may drive a correct electrode positioning. Cortical VEPs from optic tract stimulation (OT C-CEPs) have been recorded in seven patients during GPi-DBS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and primary dystonia under general sedation. OT C-VEPs were obtained after near-field monopolar stimulation of the optic tract; recording electrodes were at the scalp. Cortical responses after optic tract versus standard visual stimulation were compared. After intraoperative near-field OT stimulation a biphasic wave, named N40-P70, was detected in all cases. N40-P70 neither change in morphology nor in latency at different depths, but increased in amplitude approaching the optic tract. The electrode tip was positioned just 1mm above the point where OT-CVEPs showed the larger amplitude. No MERs were obtained in these patients; OT CVEPs were the only method to detect the Gpi before positioning the electrodes. OT CVEPs seem to be as reliable as MER to detail the optimal target in Gpi surgery: in addition they are less expensive, faster to perform and easier to decode. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. DBS-LC-MS/MS assay for caffeine: validation and neonatal application.

    PubMed

    Bruschettini, Matteo; Barco, Sebastiano; Romantsik, Olga; Risso, Francesco; Gennai, Iulian; Chinea, Benito; Ramenghi, Luca A; Tripodi, Gino; Cangemi, Giuliana

    2016-09-01

    DBS might be an appropriate microsampling technique for therapeutic drug monitoring of caffeine in infants. Nevertheless, its application presents several issues that still limit its use. This paper describes a validated DBS-LC-MS/MS method for caffeine. The results of the method validation showed an hematocrit dependence. In the analysis of 96 paired plasma and DBS clinical samples, caffeine levels measured in DBS were statistically significantly lower than in plasma but the observed differences were independent from hematocrit. These results clearly showed the need for extensive validation with real-life samples for DBS-based methods. DBS-LC-MS/MS can be considered to be a good alternative to traditional methods for therapeutic drug monitoring or PK studies in preterm infants.

  9. Investigating Synchronous Oscillation and Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment in A Model of Cortico-Basal Ganglia Network.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meili; Wei, Xile; Loparo, Kenneth A

    2017-11-01

    Altered firing properties and increased pathological oscillations in the basal ganglia have been proven to be hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synchronous oscillations and suppression in the cortex may also play a critical role in the pathogenic process and treatment of PD. In this paper, a new closed-loop network including the cortex and basal ganglia using the Izhikevich models is proposed to investigate the synchrony and pathological oscillations in motor circuits and their modulation by deep brain stimulation (DBS). Results show that more coherent dynamics in the cortex may cause stronger effects on the synchrony and pathological oscillations of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The pathological beta oscillations of the STN can both be efficiently suppressed with DBS applied directly to the STN or to cortical neurons, respectively, but the underlying mechanisms by which DBS suppresses the beta oscillations are different. This research helps to understand the dynamics of pathological oscillations in PD-related motor regions and supports the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons.

  10. Stimulation of subgenual cingulate area decreases limbic top-down effect on ventral visual stream: A DBS-EEG pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kibleur, Astrid; Polosan, Mircea; Favre, Pauline; Rudrauf, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Chabardès, Stéphan; David, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate gyrus (area CG25) is beneficial in treatment resistant depression. Though the mechanisms of action of Cg25 DBS remain largely unknown, it is commonly believed that Cg25 DBS modulates limbic activity of large networks to achieve thymic regulation of patients. To investigate how emotional attention is influenced by Cg25 DBS, we assessed behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to an emotional Stroop task in 5 patients during ON and OFF stimulation conditions. Using EEG source localization, we found that the main effect of DBS was a reduction of neuronal responses in limbic regions (temporal pole, medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices) and in ventral visual areas involved in face processing. In the dynamic causal modeling (DCM) approach, the changes of the evoked response amplitudes are assumed to be due to changes of long range connectivity induced by Cg25 DBS. Here, using a simplified neural mass model that did not take explicitly into account the cytoarchitecture of the considered brain regions, we showed that the remote action of Cg25 DBS could be explained by a reduced top-down effective connectivity of the amygdalo-temporo-polar complex. Overall, our results thus indicate that Cg25 DBS during the emotional Stroop task causes a decrease of top-down limbic influence on the ventral visual stream itself, rather than a modulation of prefrontal cognitive processes only. Tuning down limbic excitability in relation to sensory processing might be one of the biological mechanisms through which Cg25 DBS produces positive clinical outcome in the treatment of resistant depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Temperature control at DBS electrodes using a heat sink: experimentally validated FEM model of DBS lead architecture.

    PubMed

    Elwassif, Maged M; Datta, Abhishek; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom

    2012-08-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders and other neurological and psychiatric conditions. The extent of temperature increases around DBS electrodes during normal operation (joule heating and increased metabolic activity) or coupling with an external source (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging) remains poorly understood and methods to mitigate temperature increases are being actively investigated. We developed a heat transfer finite element method (FEM) simulation of DBS incorporating the realistic architecture of Medtronic 3389 leads. The temperature changes were analyzed considering different electrode configurations, stimulation protocols and tissue properties. The heat-transfer model results were then validated using micro-thermocouple measurements during DBS lead stimulation in a saline bath. FEM results indicate that lead design (materials and geometry) may have a central role in controlling temperature rise by conducting heat. We show how modifying lead design can effectively control temperature increases. The robustness of this heat-sink approach over complimentary heat-mitigation technologies follows from several features: (1) it is insensitive to the mechanisms of heating (e.g. nature of magnetic coupling); (2) it does not interfere with device efficacy; and (3) can be practically implemented in a broad range of implanted devices without modifying the normal device operations or the implant procedure.

  12. Temperature control at DBS electrodes using a heat sink: experimentally validated FEM model of DBS lead architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwassif, Maged M.; Datta, Abhishek; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom

    2012-08-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders and other neurological and psychiatric conditions. The extent of temperature increases around DBS electrodes during normal operation (joule heating and increased metabolic activity) or coupling with an external source (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging) remains poorly understood and methods to mitigate temperature increases are being actively investigated. We developed a heat transfer finite element method (FEM) simulation of DBS incorporating the realistic architecture of Medtronic 3389 leads. The temperature changes were analyzed considering different electrode configurations, stimulation protocols and tissue properties. The heat-transfer model results were then validated using micro-thermocouple measurements during DBS lead stimulation in a saline bath. FEM results indicate that lead design (materials and geometry) may have a central role in controlling temperature rise by conducting heat. We show how modifying lead design can effectively control temperature increases. The robustness of this heat-sink approach over complimentary heat-mitigation technologies follows from several features: (1) it is insensitive to the mechanisms of heating (e.g. nature of magnetic coupling); (2) it does not interfere with device efficacy; and (3) can be practically implemented in a broad range of implanted devices without modifying the normal device operations or the implant procedure.

  13. Programming for Stimulation-Induced Transient Nonmotor Psychiatric Symptoms after Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xi; Qiu, Yiqing; Simfukwe, Keith; Wang, Jiali; Chen, Jianchun

    2017-01-01

    Background Stimulation-induced transient nonmotor psychiatric symptoms (STPSs) are side effects following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We designed algorithms which (1) determine the electrode contacts that induce STPSs and (2) provide a programming protocol to eliminate STPS and maintain the optimal motor functions. Our objective is to test the effectiveness of these algorithms. Materials and Methods 454 PD patients who underwent programming sessions after STN-DBS implantations were retrospectively analyzed. Only STPS patients were enrolled. In these patients, the contacts inducing STPS were found and the programming protocol algorithms used. Results Eleven patients were diagnosed with STPS. Of these patients, two had four episodes of crying, and two had four episodes of mirthful laughter. In one patient, two episodes of abnormal sense of spatial orientation were observed. Hallucination episodes were observed twice in one patient, while five patients recorded eight episodes of hypomania. There were no statistical differences between the UPDRS-III under the final stimulation parameter (without STPS) and previous optimum UPDRS-III under the STPSs (p = 1.000). Conclusion The flow diagram used for determining electrode contacts that induce STPS and the programming protocol employed in the treatment of these symptoms are effective. PMID:28894620

  14. Neuropsychological changes following deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease: comparisons of treatment at pallidal and subthalamic targets versus best medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Rothlind, Johannes C; York, Michele K; Carlson, Kim; Luo, Ping; Marks, William J; Weaver, Frances M; Stern, Matthew; Follett, Kenneth; Reda, Domenic

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but questions remain regarding neuropsychological decrements sometimes associated with this treatment, including rates of statistically and clinically meaningful change, and whether there are differences in outcome related to surgical target. Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at baseline and after 6 months in a prospective, randomised, controlled study comparing best medical therapy (BMT, n=116) and bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS, n=164) at either the subthalamic nucleus (STN, n=84) or globus pallidus interna (GPi, n=80), using standardised neuropsychological tests. Measures of functional outcomes were also administered. Comparison of the two DBS targets revealed few significant group differences. STN DBS was associated with greater mean reductions on some measures of processing speed, only one of which was statistically significant in comparison with stimulation of GPi. GPi DBS was associated with lower mean performance on one measure of learning and memory that requires mental control and cognitive flexibility. Compared to the group receiving BMT, the combined DBS group had significantly greater mean reductions at 6-month follow-up in performance on multiple measures of processing speed and working memory. After calculating thresholds for statistically reliable change from data obtained from the BMT group, the combined DBS group also displayed higher rates of decline in neuropsychological test performance. Among study completers, 18 (11%) study participants receiving DBS displayed reliable decline by multiple indicators in two or more cognitive domains, a significantly higher rate than in the BMT group (3%). This multi-domain cognitive decline was associated with less beneficial change in subjective ratings of everyday functioning and quality of life (QOL). The multi-domain cognitive decline group continued to function at a

  15. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves deglutition in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Michelle R; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M; Sherman, Scott J

    2008-04-15

    Relatively little is known about the role of the basal ganglia in human deglutition. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) affords us a model for examining deglutition in humans with known impairment of the basal ganglia. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of subthalamic nuclei (STN) DBS on the oral and pharyngeal stages of deglutition in individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD). It was hypothesized that DBS would be associated with improved deglutition. Within participant, comparisons were made between DBS in the ON and OFF conditions using the dependent variables: pharyngeal transit time, maximal hyoid bone excursion, oral total composite score, and pharyngeal total composite score. Significant improvement occurred for the pharyngeal composite score and pharyngeal transit time in the DBS ON condition compared with DBS OFF. Stimulation of the STN may excite thalamocortical or brainstem targets to sufficiently overcome the bradykinesia/hypokinesia associated with PD and return some pharyngeal stage motor patterns to performance levels approximating those of "normal" deglutition. However, the degree of hyoid bone excursion and oral stage measures did not improve, suggesting that these motor acts may be under the control of different sensorimotor pathways within the basal ganglia. 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  16. Commentary: Unexpected Benefits that Challenge the Orthodoxy of DBS Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The case of Ms. L. provides a wonderful opportunity to highlight the underlying value commitments that often deeply influence decisionmaking in medicine and more specifically in innovative neurosurgical procedures. In order to give a fair opinion on how Dr. Impf, as clinician and researcher, should act, a much richer and thicker understanding of the actual perspectives of the stakeholders would be necessary. Because this is not available, I highlight three important elements: the terms under which the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is implanted, the proper goals of a healthcare team, and the fallacy of a "natural" or immutable self. These elements are brought together in this case by a set of unexpected effects on the patient that were not intended and that are judged and categorized differently by various stakeholders within the case. In the end, I hope that there was full transparency and agreement about obligations, responsibilities, and outcomes prior to the implantation of the DBS between the physician and patient. Further, it is important to remember that just because a result is serendipitous does not mean that it should be discounted as a proper benefit. Finally, each person authors variations on their own self that are molded by environment and social networks. If Ms. L. continues to demonstrate an ability to author a desired self, the DBS is no more inappropriate a tool than many other artifacts that are used regularly by others to mold themselves.

  17. Quality of life outcome after subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depends on age.

    PubMed

    Dafsari, Haidar S; Reker, Paul; Stalinski, Lisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Steffen, Julia; Samuel, Michael; Dembek, Till A; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how quality of life outcome after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) depends on age. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 120 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we investigated the PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Unified PD Rating Scale-III, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose preoperatively and at 5 months follow-up. Significant changes at follow-up were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. To explore the influence of age post hoc, the patients were classified into 3 age groups (≤59, 60-69, ≥70 years). Intragroup changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank and intergroup differences with Kruskal-Wallis tests. The strength of clinical responses was evaluated using effect size. The PDQuestionnaire-8, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose significantly improved in the overall cohort and all age groups with no significant intergroup differences. However, PDQuestionnaire-8 effect sizes for age groups ≤59, 60 to 69, and ≥70 years, respectively, were strong, moderate, and small. Furthermore, PDQuestionnaire-8 domain analyses revealed that all domains except cognition and emotional well-being significantly improved in patients aged ≤59 years, whereas only communication, activities of daily living, and stigma improved in patients aged 60-69 years, and activities of daily living and stigma in patients aged ≥70 years. Although quality of life, motor complications, and activities of daily living significantly improved in all age groups after bilateral STN-DBS, the beneficial effect on overall quality of life was more pronounced and affected a wider range of quality of life domains in younger patients. © 2017 International

  18. Disability in Activities of Daily Living and Severity of Dyskinesias Determine the Handicap of Parkinson's Disease Patients in Advanced Stage Selected to DBS.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel; Abreu, Daisy; Correia-Guedes, Leonor; Lobo, Patricia Pita; Fabbri, Margherita; Godinho, Catarina; Domingos, Josefa; Albuquerque, Luisa; Freitas, Vanda; Pereira, João Miguel; Cattoni, Begona; Carvalho, Herculano; Reimão, Sofia; Rosa, Mário M; Ferreira, António Gonalves; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2017-01-01

    There is scarce data on the level of handicap in Parkinson's disease (PD) and none in advanced stage PD. To assess the handicap in advanced stage PD patients with disabling levodopa-induced motor complications selected to deep brain stimulation (DBS). Data was prospectively recorded during routine evaluation for DBS. Handicap was measured using London Handicap Scale (LHS) (0 = maximal handicap; 1 = no handicap). Disease severity was evaluated using the Hoehn & Yahr scale and the UPDRS/MDS-UPDRS, during off and on after a supra-maximal dose of levodopa. Schwab and England Scale (S&E) was scored in off and on. Dyskinesias were scored using the modified Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (mAIMS). Results concern cross-sectional assessment before DBS. 100 PD patients (mean age 61 (±7.6); mean disease duration 12.20 (±4.6) years) were included. Median score of motor MDS-UPDRS was 54 in off and 25 in on. Mean total LHS score was 0.56 (±0.14). Patients were handicapped in several domains with a wide range of severity. Physical Independence and Social Integration were the most affected domains. Determinants of total LHS score were MDS-UPDRS part II off (β= -0.271; p = 0.020), S&E on (β= 0.264; p = 0.005) and off (β= 0.226; p = 0.020), and mAIMS on (β= -0.183; p = 0.042) scores (R2  = 29.6%). We were able to use handicap to measure overall health condition in advanced stage PD. Patients were moderately to highly handicapped and this was strongly determined by disability in ADL and dyskinesias. Change in handicap may be a good patient-centred outcome to assess efficiency of DBS.

  19. Practice Parameter: treatment of Parkinson disease with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, R; Factor, S A; Lyons, K E; Ondo, W G; Gronseth, G; Bronte-Stewart, H; Hallett, M; Miyasaki, J; Stevens, J; Weiner, W J

    2006-04-11

    To make evidence-based treatment recommendations for the medical and surgical treatment of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with levodopa-induced motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. To that end, five questions were addressed. 1. Which medications reduce off time? 2. What is the relative efficacy of medications in reducing off time? 3. Which medications reduce dyskinesia? 4. Does deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi), or ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus reduce off time, dyskinesia, and antiparkinsonian medication usage and improve motor function? 5. Which factors predict improvement after DBS? A 10-member committee including movement disorder specialists and general neurologists evaluated the available evidence based on a structured literature review including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases from 1965 through June 2004. 1. Entacapone and rasagiline should be offered to reduce off time (Level A). Pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and tolcapone should be considered to reduce off time (Level B). Apomorphine, cabergoline, and selegiline may be considered to reduce off time (Level C). 2. The available evidence does not establish superiority of one medicine over another in reducing off time (Level B). Sustained release carbidopa/levodopa and bromocriptine may be disregarded to reduce off time (Level C). 3. Amantadine may be considered to reduce dyskinesia (Level C). 4. Deep brain stimulation of the STN may be considered to improve motor function and reduce off time, dyskinesia, and medication usage (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the efficacy of DBS of the GPi or VIM nucleus of the thalamus in reducing off time, dyskinesia, or medication usage, or to improve motor function. 5. Preoperative response to levodopa predicts better outcome after DBS of the STN (Level B).

  20. Effective deep brain stimulation suppresses low-frequency network oscillations in the basal ganglia by regularizing neural firing patterns.

    PubMed

    McConnell, George C; So, Rosa Q; Hilliard, Justin D; Lopomo, Paola; Grill, Warren M

    2012-11-07

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effects of DBS depend strongly on stimulation frequency: high frequencies (>90 Hz) improve motor symptoms, while low frequencies (<50 Hz) are either ineffective or exacerbate symptoms. The neuronal basis for these frequency-dependent effects of DBS is unclear. The effects of different frequencies of STN-DBS on behavior and single-unit neuronal activity in the basal ganglia were studied in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of PD. Only high-frequency DBS reversed motor symptoms, and the effectiveness of DBS depended strongly on stimulation frequency in a manner reminiscent of its clinical effects in persons with PD. Quantification of single-unit activity in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) revealed that high-frequency DBS, but not low-frequency DBS, reduced pathological low-frequency oscillations (∼9 Hz) and entrained neurons to fire at the stimulation frequency. Similarly, the coherence between simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons within and across GPe and SNr shifted from the pathological low-frequency band to the stimulation frequency during high-frequency DBS, but not during low-frequency DBS. The changes in firing patterns in basal ganglia neurons were not correlated with changes in firing rate. These results indicate that high-frequency DBS is more effective than low-frequency DBS, not as a result of changes in firing rate, but rather due to its ability to replace pathological low-frequency network oscillations with a regularized pattern of neuronal firing.

  1. Effective deep brain stimulation suppresses low frequency network oscillations in the basal ganglia by regularizing neural firing patterns

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, George C.; So, Rosa Q.; Hilliard, Justin D; Lopomo, Paola; Grill, Warren M.

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effects of DBS depend strongly on stimulation frequency: high frequencies (>90Hz) improve motor symptoms, while low frequencies (<50Hz) are either ineffective or exacerbate symptoms. The neuronal basis for these frequency-dependent effects of DBS is unclear. The effects of different frequencies of STN-DBS on behavior and single-unit neuronal activity in the basal ganglia were studied in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of PD. Only high frequency DBS reversed motor symptoms and the effectiveness of DBS depended strongly on stimulation frequency in a manner reminiscent of its clinical effects in persons with PD. Quantification of single-unit activity in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) revealed that high frequency DBS, but not low frequency DBS, reduced pathological low frequency oscillations (~9Hz) and entrained neurons to fire at the stimulation frequency. Similarly, the coherence between simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons within and across GPe and SNr shifted from the pathological low frequency band to the stimulation frequency during high frequency DBS, but not during low frequency DBS. The changes in firing patterns in basal ganglia neurons were not correlated with changes in firing rate. These results indicate that high frequency DBS is more effective than low frequency DBS, not as a result of changes in firing rate, but rather due to its ability to replace pathological low frequency network oscillations with a regularized pattern of neuronal firing. PMID:23136407

  2. Surgical treatment of Parkinson’s disease: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Duker, Andrew P.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in functional neurosurgery have expanded the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), from early lesional procedures to targeted electrical stimulation of specific nodes in the basal ganglia circuitry. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), applied to selected patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and difficult-to-manage motor fluctuations, yields substantial reductions in off time and dyskinesia. Outcomes for DBS targeting the two major studied targets in PD, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), appear to be broadly similar and the choice is best made based on individual patient factors and surgeon preference. Emerging concepts in DBS include examination of new targets, such as the potential efficacy of pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) stimulation for treatment of freezing and falls, the utilization of pathologic oscillations in the beta band to construct an adaptive “closed-loop” DBS, and new technologies, including segmented electrodes to steer current toward specific neural populations. PMID:23896506

  3. The RAI DBS experiment with Olympus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Enzo

    The Italian broadcasting network (RAI) has studied the development of a national DBS service in an effort to outline a proposal for a space segment configuration compatible with development of new services, including HDTV. Proposals so far considered feature the integration of RAI's channel on Olympus in a future operational system and after extensive experimental use. Contents of the experimental program are discussed, and need for a broadcasting standard which considers projected introduction of HDTV is noted. The debate between RAI and consumer electronic industries on the use of broadcasting standards is outlined. The position of RAI in the context of HDTV and DBS is defined and the issue of determining the most effective transmission standard during the experimental stage is raised. It is pointed out that, in the absence of new production facilities for HDTV, the maximum quality which MAC will yield will be that of PAL since programs must be produced in PAL and then converted into MAC. Two alternatives for strategy on the use of broadcasting standards for DBS are offered. Finally, technical experiments and a market survey are discussed.

  4. 47 CFR 101.1440 - MVDDS protection of DBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensees are notified of a potential MVDDS site in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the DBS licensees are... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Service Rules for the 12.2-12.7 GHz Band § 101.1440 MVDDS protection of DBS. (a) An MVDDS licensee shall not begin operation unless it can...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1440 - MVDDS protection of DBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensees are notified of a potential MVDDS site in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the DBS licensees are... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Service Rules for the 12.2-12.7 GHz Band § 101.1440 MVDDS protection of DBS. (a) An MVDDS licensee shall not begin operation unless it can...

  6. 47 CFR 101.1440 - MVDDS protection of DBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensees are notified of a potential MVDDS site in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the DBS licensees are... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Service Rules for the 12.2-12.7 GHz Band § 101.1440 MVDDS protection of DBS. (a) An MVDDS licensee shall not begin operation unless it can...

  7. Stop! border ahead: Automatic detection of subthalamic exit during deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Valsky, Dan; Marmor-Levin, Odeya; Deffains, Marc; Eitan, Renana; Blackwell, Kim T; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2017-01-01

    Microelectrode recordings along preplanned trajectories are often used for accurate definition of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) borders during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease. Usually, the demarcation of the STN borders is performed manually by a neurophysiologist. The exact detection of the borders is difficult, especially detecting the transition between the STN and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Consequently, demarcation may be inaccurate, leading to suboptimal location of the DBS lead and inadequate clinical outcomes. We present machine-learning classification procedures that use microelectrode recording power spectra and allow for real-time, high-accuracy discrimination between the STN and substantia nigra pars reticulata. A support vector machine procedure was tested on microelectrode recordings from 58 trajectories that included both STN and substantia nigra pars reticulata that achieved a 97.6% consistency with human expert classification (evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation). We used the same data set as a training set to find the optimal parameters for a hidden Markov model using both microelectrode recording features and trajectory history to enable real-time classification of the ventral STN border (STN exit). Seventy-three additional trajectories were used to test the reliability of the learned statistical model in identifying the exit from the STN. The hidden Markov model procedure identified the STN exit with an error of 0.04 ± 0.18 mm and detection reliability (error < 1 mm) of 94%. The results indicate that robust, accurate, and automatic real-time electrophysiological detection of the ventral STN border is feasible. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Effects of medication and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on tongue movements in speakers with Parkinson's disease using electropalatography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hartinger, Mariam; Tripoliti, Elina; Hardcastle, William J; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects speech in the majority of patients. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is particularly effective in reducing tremor and rigidity. However, its effect on speech is variable. The aim of this pilot study was to quantify the effects of bilateral STN-DBS and medication on articulation, using electropalatography (EPG). Two patients, PT1 and PT2, were studied under four conditions: on and off medication and ON and OFF stimulation. The EPG protocol consisted of a number of target words with alveolar and velar stops, repeated 10 times in random order. The motor part III of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) indicated significantly improved motor scores in the ON stimulation condition in both patients. However, PT1's articulation patterns deteriorated with stimulation whereas PT2 showed improving articulatory accuracy in the same condition. The results revealed different effects of stimulation and medication on articulation particularly with regard to timing. The study quantified less articulatory undershoot for velar stops in comparison to alveolars. Furthermore, the findings provided preliminary evidence that stimulation with medication has a more detrimental effect on articulation than stimulation without medication.

  9. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease Is Not Associated with Increased Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Mallory L.; Turchan, Maxim; Molinari, Anna L.; Currie, Amanda D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to weight gain. This study analyzes changes in body mass index (BMI) in 29 subjects from a prospective, single-blind trial of DBS in early stage PD (age 50–75, Hoehn & Yahr stage II off medication, treated with antiparkinsonian medications for ≥6 months but <4 years, and without a history of motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, or dementia). Subjects were randomized to DBS plus optimal drug therapy (DBS+ODT; n = 15) or ODT (n = 14) and followed for 24 months. Weight and height were recorded at baseline and each follow-up visit and used to calculate BMI. BMIs were compared within and between groups using nonparametric t-tests. Mean BMI at baseline was 29.7 in the ODT group and 32.3 in the DBS+ODT group (p > 0.05). BMI change over two years was not different between the groups (p = 0.62, ODT = −0.89; DBS+ODT = −0.17). This study suggests that STN-DBS is not associated with weight gain in subjects with early stage PD. This finding will be tested in an upcoming FDA-approved phase III multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pivotal clinical trial evaluating DBS in early stage PD (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00282152). PMID:28676842

  10. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease Is Not Associated with Increased Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Millan, Sarah H; Hacker, Mallory L; Turchan, Maxim; Molinari, Anna L; Currie, Amanda D; Charles, David

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to weight gain. This study analyzes changes in body mass index (BMI) in 29 subjects from a prospective, single-blind trial of DBS in early stage PD (age 50-75, Hoehn & Yahr stage II off medication, treated with antiparkinsonian medications for ≥6 months but <4 years, and without a history of motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, or dementia). Subjects were randomized to DBS plus optimal drug therapy (DBS+ODT; n = 15) or ODT ( n = 14) and followed for 24 months. Weight and height were recorded at baseline and each follow-up visit and used to calculate BMI. BMIs were compared within and between groups using nonparametric t -tests. Mean BMI at baseline was 29.7 in the ODT group and 32.3 in the DBS+ODT group ( p > 0.05). BMI change over two years was not different between the groups ( p = 0.62, ODT = -0.89; DBS+ODT = -0.17). This study suggests that STN-DBS is not associated with weight gain in subjects with early stage PD. This finding will be tested in an upcoming FDA-approved phase III multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pivotal clinical trial evaluating DBS in early stage PD (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00282152).

  11. Failure to suppress low-frequency neuronal oscillatory activity underlies the reduced effectiveness of random patterns of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    McConnell, George C; So, Rosa Q; Grill, Warren M

    2016-06-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms of action of DBS are unknown. Random temporal patterns of DBS are less effective than regular DBS, but the neuronal basis for this dependence on temporal pattern of stimulation is unclear. Using a rat model of PD, we quantified the changes in behavior and single-unit activity in globus pallidus externa and substantia nigra pars reticulata during high-frequency STN DBS with different degrees of irregularity. Although all stimulus trains had the same average rate, 130-Hz regular DBS more effectively reversed motor symptoms, including circling and akinesia, than 130-Hz irregular DBS. A mixture of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal responses was present during all stimulation patterns, and mean firing rate did not change during DBS. Low-frequency (7-10 Hz) oscillations of single-unit firing times present in hemiparkinsonian rats were suppressed by regular DBS, and neuronal firing patterns were entrained to 130 Hz. Irregular patterns of DBS less effectively suppressed 7- to 10-Hz oscillations and did not regularize firing patterns. Random DBS resulted in a larger proportion of neuron pairs with increased coherence at 7-10 Hz compared with regular 130-Hz DBS, which suggested that long pauses (interpulse interval >50 ms) during random DBS facilitated abnormal low-frequency oscillations in the basal ganglia. These results suggest that the efficacy of high-frequency DBS stems from its ability to regularize patterns of neuronal firing and thereby suppress abnormal oscillatory neural activity within the basal ganglia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy on Fear-Related Capture of Attention in Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor: A Comparison to Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Camalier, Corrie R; McHugo, Maureen; Zald, David H; Neimat, Joseph S

    2018-01-01

    In addition to motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) involves significant non-motor sequelae, including disruptions in cognitive and emotional processing. Fear recognition appears to be affected both by the course of the disease and by a common interventional therapy, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). Here, we examined if these effects extend to other aspects of emotional processing, such as attentional capture by negative emotional stimuli. Performance on an emotional attentional blink (EAB) paradigm, a common paradigm used to study emotional capture of attention, was examined in a cohort of individuals with PD, both on and off STN-DBS therapy (n=20). To contrast effects of healthy aging and other movement disorder and DBS targets, we also examined performance in a healthy elderly (n=20) and young (n=18) sample on the same task, and a sample diagnosed with Essential Tremor (ET) undergoing therapeutic deep brain stimulation of the ventral-intermediate nucleus (VIM-DBS, n=18). All four groups showed a robust attentional capture of emotional stimuli, irrespective of aging processes, movement disorder diagnosis, or stimulation. PD patients on average had overall worse performance, but this decrement in performance was not related to the emotional capture of attention. PD patients exhibited a robust EAB, indicating that the ability of emotion to direct attention remains intact in PD. Congruent with other recent data, these findings suggest that fear recognition deficits in PD may instead reflect a highly specific problem in recognition, rather than a general deficit in emotional processing of fearful stimuli.

  13. Cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease: practical issues and management.

    PubMed

    Emre, Murat; Ford, Paul J; Bilgiç, Başar; Uç, Ergun Y

    2014-04-15

    Cognitive impairment and dementia pose particular challenges in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Decision-making capacity can render patients vulnerable in a way that requires careful ethical considerations by clinicians with respect to medical decision making, research participation, and public safety. Clinicians should discuss how future decisions will be made as early in the disease course as possible. Because of cognitive, visual, and motor impairments, PD may be associated with unsafe driving, leading to early driving cessation in many. DBS of the STN and, to a lesser degree, globus pallidus interna (GPi) has consistently been associated with decreased verbal fluency, but significant global cognitive decline is usually not observed in patients who undergo rigorous selection. There are some observations suggesting lesser cognitive decline in GPi DBS than STN DBS, but further research is required. Management of PD dementia (PDD) patients involves both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures. Patients with PDD should be offered treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor taking into account expected benefits and potential risks. Treatment with neuroleptics may be necessary to treat psychosis; classical neuroleptics, as well as risperidone and olanzapine, should be avoided. Quetiapine might be considered first-line treatment because it does not need special monitoring, although the strongest evidence for efficacy exists for clozapine. Evidence from randomized, controlled studies in the PDD population is lacking; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may be used to treat depressive features. Clonazepam or melatonin may be useful in the treatment of rapid eye movement behavior disorder. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Assessing the direct effects of deep brain stimulation using embedded axon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.; Steinmetz, Peter N.

    2007-06-01

    To better understand the spatial extent of the direct effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on neurons, we implemented a geometrically realistic finite element electrical model incorporating anisotropic and inhomogenous conductivities. The model included the subthalamic nucleus (STN), substantia nigra (SN), zona incerta (ZI), fields of Forel H2 (FF), internal capsule (IC) and Medtronic 3387/3389 electrode. To quantify the effects of stimulation, we extended previous studies by using multi-compartment axon models with geometry and orientation consistent with anatomical features of the brain regions of interest. Simulation of axonal firing produced a map of relative changes in axonal activation. Voltage-controlled stimulation, with clinically typical parameters at the dorso-lateral STN, caused axon activation up to 4 mm from the target. This activation occurred within the FF, IC, SN and ZI with current intensities close to the average injected during DBS (3 mA). A sensitivity analysis of model parameters (fiber size, fiber orientation, degree of inhomogeneity, degree of anisotropy, electrode configuration) revealed that the FF and IC were consistently activated. Direct activation of axons outside the STN suggests that other brain regions may be involved in the beneficial effects of DBS when treating Parkinsonian symptoms.

  15. Short-term quality of life after subthalamic stimulation depends on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Weiß, Luisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Reddy, Prashanth; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Evans, Julian; Reker, Paul; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Samuel, Michael; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-02-24

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, considerable inter-individual variability has been observed for QoL outcome. We hypothesized that demographic and preoperative NMS characteristics can predict postoperative QoL outcome. In this ongoing, prospective, multicenter study (Cologne, Manchester, London) including 88 patients, we collected the following scales preoperatively and on follow-up 6 months postoperatively: PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Scales for Outcomes in PD (SCOPA)-motor examination, -complications, and -activities of daily living, levodopa equivalent daily dose. We dichotomized patients into "QoL responders"/"non-responders" and screened for factors associated with QoL improvement with (1) Spearman-correlations between baseline test scores and QoL improvement, (2) step-wise linear regressions with baseline test scores as independent and QoL improvement as dependent variables, (3) logistic regressions using aforementioned "responders/non-responders" as dependent variable. All outcomes improved significantly on follow-up. However, approximately 44% of patients were categorized as "QoL non-responders". Spearman-correlations, linear and logistic regression analyses were significant for NMSS and NMSQ but not for SCOPA-motor examination. Post-hoc, we identified specific NMS (flat moods, difficulties experiencing pleasure, pain, bladder voiding) as significant contributors to QoL outcome. Our results provide evidence that QoL improvement after STN-DBS depends on preoperative NMS characteristics. These findings are important in the advising and selection of individuals for DBS therapy. Future studies investigating motor and non-motor PD clusters may enable stratifying QoL outcomes and help predict patients' individual prospects of benefiting from DBS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier

  16. Temperature Control at DBS Electrodes using Heat Sink: Experimentally Validated FEM Model of DBS lead Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Elwassif, Maged M.; Datta, Abhishek; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of Deep Brain Stimulation for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders and other neurological and psychiatric conditions. The extent of temperature increases around DBS electrodes during normal operation (joule heating and increased metabolic activity) or coupling with an external source (e.g. MRI) remains poorly understood and methods to mitigate temperature increases are being actively investigated. We developed a heat transfer finite element method simulation of DBS incorporating the realistic architecture of Medtronic 3389 leads. The temperature changes were analyzed considering different electrode configurations, stimulation protocols, and tissue properties. The heat-transfer model results were then validated using micro-thermocouple measurements during DBS lead stimulation in a saline bath. FEM results indicate that lead design (materials and geometry) may have a central role in controlling temperature rise by conducting heat. We show how modifying lead design can effectively control temperature increases. The robustness of this heat-sink approach over complimentary heat-mitigation technologies follows from several features: 1) it is insensitive to the mechanisms of heating (e.g. nature of magnetic coupling); 2) does not interfere with device efficacy; and 3) can be practically implemented in a broad range of implanted devices without modifying the normal device operations or the implant procedure. PMID:22764359

  17. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2014-09-01

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  18. A critical reflection on the technological development of deep brain stimulation (DBS)

    PubMed Central

    Ineichen, Christian; Glannon, Walter; Temel, Yasin; Baumann, Christian R.; Sürücü, Oguzkan

    2014-01-01

    Since the translational research findings of Benabid and colleagues which partly led to their seminal paper regarding the treatment of mainly tremor-dominant Parkinson patients through thalamic high-frequency-stimulation (HFS) in 1987, we still struggle with identifying a satisfactory mechanistic explanation of the underlying principles of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Furthermore, the technological advance of DBS devices (electrodes and implantable pulse generators, IPG’s) has shown a distinct lack of dynamic progression. In light of this we argue that it is time to leave the paleolithic age and enter hellenistic times: the device-manufacturing industry and the medical community together should put more emphasis on advancing the technology rather than resting on their laurels. PMID:25278864

  19. Radiofrequency Lesions through Deep Brain Stimulation Electrodes in Movement Disorders: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Suárez, Javier; Torres Díaz, Cristina V; López Manzanares, Lydia; Navas García, Marta; Pastor, Jesús; Barrio Fernández, Patricia; G de Sola, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Although there are few reports of radiofrequency lesions performed through deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in patients with movement disorders, experience with this method is scarce. We present 2 patients who had been previously treated with DBS of subthalamic nuclei (STN) and the ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus for Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, respectively, and underwent a radiofrequency lesion through their DBS electrodes after developing a hardware infection. The authors conduct a review of the literature regarding this method. Both patients had a good clinical outcome after 20 and 8 months, respectively, as assessed by a reduction in Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. The second patient underwent a second DBS system implantation surgery after his radiofrequency treatment to optimize his management, achieving optimal clinical control with lower current and drug requirements than before the radiofrequency intervention. No adverse effects were observed. Radiofrequency lesions through DBS electrodes allow the creation of small and localized lesions. Its effectiveness and low-risk profile, in addition to its low cost, make this procedure suitable and a possible alternative in the therapeutic repertoire for the surgical treatment of movement disorders. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Interaction of oscillations, and their suppression via deep brain stimulation, in a model of the cortico-basal ganglia network.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guiyeom; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that synchronized neural oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia network may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. In this study, a new model of the closed loop network is used to explore the generation and interaction of network oscillations and their suppression through deep brain stimulation (DBS). Under simulated dopamine depletion conditions, increased gain through the hyperdirect pathway resulted in the interaction of neural oscillations at different frequencies in the cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN), leading to the emergence of synchronized oscillations at a new intermediate frequency. Further increases in synaptic gain resulted in the cortex driving synchronous oscillatory activity throughout the network. When DBS was added to the model a progressive reduction in STN power at the tremor and beta frequencies was observed as the frequency of stimulation was increased, with resonance effects occurring for low frequency DBS (40 Hz) in agreement with experimental observations. The results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which synchronous oscillations can arise within the network and how DBS may suppress unwanted oscillatory activity.

  1. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compoundmore » of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.« less

  2. HIV-1 viral load measurement in venous blood and fingerprick blood using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 DBS assay.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Bagley, Zowie; Viana, Raquel; Lampinen, John; Leckie, Gregor; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; Wallis, Carole L

    2017-07-01

    HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood. To evaluate correlation, bias, and agreement, 497 HIV-1 positive adult clinical samples were collected from Ivory Coast, Uganda and South Africa. For each HIV-1 participant, DBS-fingerprick, DBS-venous and plasma sample results were compared. Correlation and bias values were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed at a threshold of 1000 HIV-1 copies/mL generated using the standard plasma protocol. The Abbott HIV-1 DBS protocol had an LOD of 839 copies/mL, a linear range from 500 to 1×10 7 copies/mL, an LLQ of 839 copies/mL, a ULQ of 1×10 7 copies/mL, and an inter-assay SD of ≤0.30 log copies/mL for all tested levels within this range. With clinical samples, the correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.896 between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and 0.901 between DBS-venous and plasma, and the bias was -0.07 log copies/mL between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and -0.02 log copies/mL between DBS-venous and plasma. The sensitivity of DBS-fingerprick and DBS-venous was 93%, while the specificity of both DBS methods was 95%. The results demonstrated that the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol is highly sensitive, specific and precise across a wide dynamic range and correlates well with plasma values. The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol provides an

  3. Cocaine and metabolite concentrations in DBS and venous blood after controlled intravenous cocaine administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Concheiro, Marta; Anizan, Sebastien; Barnes, Allan J; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-01-01

    Background: DBS are an increasingly common clinical matrix. Methods & results: Sensitive and specific methods for DBS and venous blood cocaine and metabolite detection by LC–HRMS and 2D GC–MS, respectively, were validated to examine correlation between concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration. Linear ranges from 1 to 200 µg/l were achieved, with acceptable bias and imprecision. Authentic matched specimens’ (392 DBS, 97 venous blood) cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations were qualitatively similar, but DBS had much greater variability (21.4–105.9 %CV) and were lower than in blood. Conclusion: DBS offer advantages for monitoring cocaine intake; however, differences between capillary and venous blood and DBS concentration variability must be addressed. PMID:26327184

  4. Moving Forward: Advances in the Treatment of Movement Disorders with Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, Terry K.; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2011-01-01

    The modern era of stereotactic and functional neurosurgery has ushered in state of the art technologies for the treatment of movement disorders, particularly Parkinson’s disease (PD), tremor, and dystonia. After years of experience with various surgical therapies, the eventual shortcomings of both medical and surgical treatments, and several serendipitous discoveries, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has risen to the forefront as a highly effective, safe, and reversible treatment for these conditions. Idiopathic advanced PD can be treated with thalamic, globus pallidus internus (GPi), or subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS. Thalamic DBS primarily relieves tremor while GPi and STN DBS alleviate a wide range of Parkinsonian symptoms. Thalamic DBS is also used in the treatment of other types of tremor, particularly essential tremor, with excellent results. Both primary and various types of secondary dystonia can be treated very effectively with GPi DBS. The variety of anatomical targets for these movement disorders is indicative of the network-level dysfunction mediating these movement disturbances. Despite an increasing understanding of the clinical benefits of DBS, little is known about how DBS can create such wide sweeping neuromodulatory effects. The key to improving this therapeutic modality and discovering new ways to treat these and other neurologic conditions lies in better understanding the intricacies of DBS. Here we review the history and pertinent clinical data for DBS treatment of PD, tremor, and dystonia. While multiple regions of the brain have been targeted for DBS in the treatment of these movement disorders, this review article focuses on those that are most commonly used in current clinical practice. Our search criteria for PubMed included combinations of the following terms: DBS, neuromodulation, movement disorders, PD, tremor, dystonia, and history. Dates were not restricted. PMID:22084629

  5. Postoperative apathy can neutralise benefits in quality of life after subthalamic stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Fernandez, Raul; Pelissier, Pierre; Quesada, Jean-Louis; Klinger, Hélène; Lhommée, Eugénie; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Fraix, Valerie; Chabardes, Stephan; Mertens, Patrick; Castrioto, Anna; Kistner, Andrea; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Pollak, Pierre; Thobois, Stéphane; Krack, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) improves motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, leading to improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, an excessive decrease in dopaminergic medication can lead to a withdrawal syndrome with apathy as the predominant feature. The present study aims to assess the impact of postoperative apathy on HRQoL. A cohort of 88 patients who underwent STN-DBS was divided into two groups, those who were apathetic at 1 year and those who were not, as measured by the Starkstein scale. HRQoL was assessed using the Parkinson's disease questionnaire 39 (PDQ-39) and was compared between the two groups. We also compared activities of daily living, motor improvement and motor complications (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, UPDRS), depression and anxiety, as well as cognition and drug dosages. Baseline characteristics and postoperative complications were recorded. One year after surgery, 27.1% of patients suffered from apathy. While motor improvement was significant and equivalent in both the apathy (-40.4% of UPDRS motor score) and non-apathy groups (-48.6%), the PDQ-39 score did not improve in the apathy group (-5.5%; p=0.464), whereas it improved significantly (-36.7%; p≤0.001) in the non-apathy group. Change in apathy scores correlated significantly with change in HRQoL scores (r=0.278, p=0.009). Depression and anxiety scores remained unchanged from baseline in the apathy group (p=0.409, p=0.075), while they improved significantly in patients without apathy (p=0.006, p≤0.001). A significant correlation was found between changes in apathy and depression (r=0.594, p≤0.001). The development of apathy after STN-DBS can cancel out the benefits of motor improvement in terms of HRQoL. Systematic evaluation and management of apathy occurring after subthalamic stimulation appears mandatory. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  6. Ten1 functions in telomere end protection and length regulation in association with Stn1 and Cdc13

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Nathalie; Damon, Christelle; Charbonneau, Michel

    2001-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc13 has been proposed to mediate telomerase recruitment at telomere ends. Stn1, which associates with Cdc13 by the two-hybrid interaction, has been implicated in telomere maintenance. Ten1, a previously uncharacterized protein, was found to associate physically with both Stn1 and Cdc13. A binding defect between Stn1-13 and Ten1 was responsible for the long telomere phenotype of stn1-13 mutant cells. Moreover, rescue of the cdc13-1 mutation by STN1 was much improved when TEN1 was simultaneously overexpressed. Several ten1 mutations were found to confer telomerase-dependent telomere lengthening. Other, temperature-sensitive, mutants of TEN1 arrested at G2/M via activation of the Rad9-dependent DNA damage checkpoint. These ten1 mutant cells were found to accumulate single-stranded DNA in telomeric regions of the chromosomes. We propose that Ten1 is required to regulate telomere length, as well as to prevent lethal damage to telomeric DNA. PMID:11230140

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation to Alleviate Freezing of Gait and Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Update on Current Research and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuyi; Chu, Heling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a gait disorder featured by recurrent episodes of temporary gait halting and mainly found in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). FOG has a severe impact on the quality of life of patients with PD. The pathogenesis of FOG is unclear and considered to be related to several brain areas and neural circuits. Its close connection with cognitive disorder has been proposed and some researchers explain the pathogenesis using the cognitive model theory. FOG occurs concurrently with cognitive disorder in some PD patients, who are poorly responsive to medication therapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) proves effective for FOG in PD patients. Cognitive impairment plays a role in the formation of FOG. Therefore, if DBS works by improving the cognitive function, both two challenging conditions can be ameliorated by DBS. We reviewed the clinical studies related to DBS for FOG in PD patients over the past decade. In spite of the varying stimulation parameters used in different studies, DBS of either subthalamic nucleus (STN) or pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) alone or in combination can improve the symptoms of FOG. Moreover, the treatment efficacy can last for 1-2 years and DBS is generally safe. Although few studies have been conducted concerning the use of DBS for cognitive disorder in FOG patients, the existing studies seem to indicate that PPN is a potential therapeutic target to both FOG and cognitive disorder. However, most of the studies have a small sample size and involve sporadic cases, so it remains uncertain which nucleus is the optimal target of stimulation. Prospective clinical trials with a larger sample size are needed to systematically assess the efficacy of DBS for FOG and cognitive disorder.

  8. Clinical Phenotype Predicts Early Staged Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Victor W.; Watts, Ray L.; Schrandt, Christian J.; Guthrie, Stephanie; Wang, Deli; Amara, Amy W.; Guthrie, Barton L.; Walker, Harrison C.

    2014-01-01

    Object While many centers place bilateral DBS systems simultaneously, unilateral STN DBS followed by a staged contralateral procedure has emerged as a treatment option for many patients. However little is known about whether the preoperative phenotype predicts when staged placement of a DBS electrode in the opposite subthalamic nucleus will be required. We aimed to determine whether preoperative clinical phenotype predicts early staged placement of a second subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode in patients who undergo unilateral subthalamic DBS for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Eighty-two consecutive patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral subthalamic DBS contralateral to the most affected hemibody and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression determined preoperative characteristics that predicted staged placement of a second electrode in the opposite subthalamic nucleus. Preoperative measurements included aspects of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor asymmetry index, and body weight. Results At 2 years follow-up, 28 of the 82 patients (34%) had undergone staged placement of a contralateral electrode while the remainder chose to continue with unilateral stimulation. Statistically significant improvements in UPDRS total and part 3 scores were retained at the end of the 2 year follow-up period in both subsets of patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the most important predictors for early staged placement of a second subthalamic stimulator were low asymmetry index (odds ratio 13.4; 95% confidence interval 2.8, 64.9), high tremor subscore (OR 7.2; CI 1.5, 35.0), and low body weight (OR 5.5; CI 1.4, 22.3). Conclusions This single center study provides evidence that elements of the preoperative PD phenotype predict whether patients will require early staged bilateral subthalamic DBS. These data may aid in the management of patients with advanced PD who undergo subthalamic DBS. PMID

  9. Tractographical model of the cortico-basal ganglia and corticothalamic connections: Improving Our Understanding of Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Avecillas-Chasin, Josué M; Rascón-Ramírez, Fernando; Barcia, Juan A

    2016-05-01

    The cortico-basal ganglia and corticothalamic projections have been extensively studied in the context of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known to modulate many of these pathways to produce the desired clinical effect. The aim of this work is to describe the anatomy of the main circuits of the basal ganglia using tractography in a surgical planning station. We used imaging studies of 20 patients who underwent DBS for movement and psychiatric disorders. We segmented the putamen, caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and we also segmented the cortical areas connected with these subcortical areas. We used tractography to define the subdivisions of the basal ganglia and thalamus through the generation of fibers from the cortical areas to the subcortical structures. We were able to generate the corticostriatal and corticothalamic connections involved in the motor, associative and limbic circuits. Furthermore, we were able to reconstruct the hyperdirect pathway through the corticosubthalamic connections and we found subregions in the STN. Finally, we reconstructed the cortico-subcortical connections of the ventral intermediate nucleus, the nucleus accumbens and the CN. We identified a feasible delineation of the basal ganglia and thalamus connections using tractography. These results could be potentially useful in DBS if the parcellations are used as targets during surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dissociation of metabolic and neurovascular responses to levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shigeki; Asanuma, Kotaro; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chengke; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Carbon, Maren; Eidelberg, David

    2008-04-16

    We compared the metabolic and neurovascular effects of levodopa (LD) therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). Eleven PD patients were scanned with both [15O]-H2O and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the unmedicated state and during intravenous LD infusion. Images were used to quantify LD-mediated changes in the expression of motor- and cognition-related PD covariance patterns in scans of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMR). These changes in network activity were compared with those occurring during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), and those observed in a test-retest PD control group. Separate voxel-based searches were conducted to identify individual regions with dissociated treatment-mediated changes in local cerebral blood flow and metabolism. We found a significant dissociation between CBF and CMR in the modulation of the PD motor-related network by LD treatment (p < 0.001). This dissociation was characterized by reductions in network activity in the CMR scans (p < 0.003) occurring concurrently with increases in the CBF scans (p < 0.01). Flow-metabolism dissociation was also evident at the regional level, with LD-mediated reductions in CMR and increases in CBF in the putamen/globus pallidus, dorsal midbrain/pons, STN, and ventral thalamus. CBF responses to LD in the putamen and pons were relatively greater in patients exhibiting drug-induced dyskinesia. In contrast, flow-metabolism dissociation was not present in the STN DBS treatment group or in the PD control group. These findings suggest that flow-metabolism dissociation is a distinctive feature of LD treatment. This phenomenon may be especially pronounced in patients with LD-induced dyskinesia.

  11. [Early Experience with the VerciseTM DBS System in the Treatment of Dystonic Tremor].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    Six cases of dystonic tremor were treated with the VerciseTM deep brain stimulation(DBS)system, which has the multiple independent current control(MICC)technology. The mean preoperative score of Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale was 16.2±9.4, which was reduced to 6.1±4.6 at 5 months postoperatively. A 65-year-old male presented an intractable dystonic tremor of the jaw, neck, and shoulders due to tardive syndrome. He experienced the successful tremor relief after unipolar DBS in the globus pallidus internus(GPi)with VerciseTM but complained of dysarthria. Steering the current ventrally induced nausea without alleviating dysarthria, while steering the current dorsally alleviated dysarthria but a further dorsal current induced mandibular dyskinesia. The current steering with MICC enabled the simulation field in GPi with successful balance, maximizing tremor suppression, and minimizing the adverse effects. In a second case, 61-year-old male in whom cervical dystonia with rotatory tremor had been successfully treated with interleaving stimulation of GPi-DBS had needed to repeat the replacement of a non-rechargeable pulse generator in only 15-month interval. After the substitution of VerciseTM, the interleaving stimulation of 9.5mA in total was replaced by 8.5mA with the current steering of MICC, while the patient's symptomatic control was unchanged. The microlesion effects after lead implantation are unclear and therapeutic effects are often delayed in cases of dystonia;therefore, the submaximal stimulation intensities must be frequently applied in the early phase following the implantation of DBS. A fine current steering of VerciseTM DBS is very useful in both, the early and late phases of GPi-DBS for dystonic syndrome.

  12. CTC1-STN1 coordinates G- and C-strand synthesis to regulate telomere length.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peili; Jia, Shuting; Takasugi, Taylor; Smith, Eric; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan; Hendrickson, Eric; Chang, Sandy

    2018-05-17

    Coats plus (CP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in CTC1, a component of the CST (CTC1, STN1, and TEN1) complex important for telomere length maintenance. The molecular basis of how CP mutations impact upon telomere length remains unclear. The CP CTC1 L1142H mutation has been previously shown to disrupt telomere maintenance. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer this mutation into both alleles of HCT116 and RPE cells to demonstrate that CTC1:STN1 interaction is required to repress telomerase activity. CTC1 L1142H interacts poorly with STN1, leading to telomerase-mediated telomere elongation. Impaired interaction between CTC1 L1142H :STN1 and DNA Pol-α results in increased telomerase recruitment to telomeres and further telomere elongation, revealing that C:S binding to DNA Pol-α is required to fully repress telomerase activity. CP CTC1 mutants that fail to interact with DNA Pol-α resulted in loss of C-strand maintenance and catastrophic telomere shortening. Our findings place the CST complex as an important regulator of both G-strand extensions by telomerase and C-strand synthesis by DNA Pol-α. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The case for testing memory with both stories and word lists prior to dbs surgery for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Bowers, Dawn; Price, Catherine C; Bauer, Russell M; Nisenzon, Anne; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Patients seeking deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) typically undergo neuropsychological assessment to determine candidacy for surgery, with poor memory performance interpreted as a contraindication. Patients with PD may exhibit worse memory for word lists than for stories due to the lack of inherent organization in a list of unrelated words. Unfortunately, word list and story tasks are typically developed from different normative datasets, and the existence of a memory performance discrepancy in PD has been challenged. We compared recall of stories and word lists in 35 non-demented PD candidates for DBS. We administered commonly used neuropsychological measures of word list and story memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Logical Memory), along with a second word list task that was co-normed with the story task. Age-corrected scores were higher for the story task than for both word list tasks. Compared to story recall, word list recall correlated more consistently with motor severity and composite measures of processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning. These results support the classic view of fronto-subcortical contributions to memory in PD and suggest that executive deficits may influence word list recall more than story recall. We recommend a multi-componential memory battery in the neuropsychological assessment of DBS candidates to characterize both mesial temporal and frontal-executive memory processes. One should not rely solely on a word list task because patients exhibiting poor memory for word lists may perform better with stories and therefore deserve an interdisciplinary discussion for DBS surgery.

  14. Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Troche, Michelle S.; Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Foote, Kelly D.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. “on” vs. “off”, pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:23726461

  15. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS

    PubMed Central

    Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hyam, Jonathan A.; Limousin, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method. In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and speed of processing, before and after DBS. Results. As expected, there was a marked decline in verbal fluency but also in a timed test of executive functions and two measures of speed of processing. Verbal fluency decline was associated with markers of linguistic and executive functioning, but not after speed of processing was statistically controlled for. In contrast, greater decline in verbal fluency was associated with higher levels of apathy at baseline, which was not associated with changes in cognitive speed. Discussion. Reduced generativity and processing speed may account for the marked reduction in verbal fluency commonly observed following DBS. PMID:28408788

  16. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jennifer A; Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hyam, Jonathan A; Limousin, Patricia; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Objective . Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method . In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and speed of processing, before and after DBS. Results . As expected, there was a marked decline in verbal fluency but also in a timed test of executive functions and two measures of speed of processing. Verbal fluency decline was associated with markers of linguistic and executive functioning, but not after speed of processing was statistically controlled for. In contrast, greater decline in verbal fluency was associated with higher levels of apathy at baseline, which was not associated with changes in cognitive speed. Discussion . Reduced generativity and processing speed may account for the marked reduction in verbal fluency commonly observed following DBS.

  17. Comparison of dysphagia before and after deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Silbergleit, Alice K; LeWitt, Peter; Junn, Fred; Schultz, Lonni R; Collins, Denise; Beardsley, Tausha; Hubert, Meghan; Trosch, Richard; Schwalb, Jason M

    2012-12-01

    Although dysphagia is a common problem for many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on swallowing is unclear. Fourteen subjects with advanced PD underwent videofluorographic swallowing studies prior to bilateral DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and at 3 and 12 months postprocedure. They were tested under several stimulation and medication conditions. Subjects completed the Dysphagia Handicap Index at each time. There was a strong trend toward improved swallowing response for solid intake in the medication-free condition with the stimulator on compared with the stimulator off (P = .0107). Also, there was a trend toward improved oral preparation of thin liquids (P = .0368) in the medication-free condition when the stimulator was on versus off 12 months later. The remaining swallowing parameters showed no change or worsening of swallowing function regardless of stimulator or medication status. Results of the Dysphagia Handicap Index revealed significant improvement in subject self-perception of swallowing 3 and 12 months following the procedure compared with baseline on the functional subscale (P = .020 and P = .010, respectively), the emotional subscale (P = .013 and P = .003, respectively), and the total score (P = .025 and P = .003, respectively). These data suggest that bilateral STN-DBS does not substantively impair swallowing in PD. In addition, it may improve motor sequencing of the oropharyngeal swallow for solid consistencies (which are known to provide increased sensory feedback to assist motor planning of the oropharyngeal swallow). Subjects with advanced PD who are undergoing DBS may perceive significant improvement in swallowing ability despite the lack of objective improvements in swallowing function. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  19. Optimal control of directional deep brain stimulation in the parkinsonian neuronal network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Denggui; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qingyun

    2016-07-01

    The effect of conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) on debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be limited because it can only yield the spherical field. And, some side effects are clearly induced with influencing their adjacent ganglia. Recent experimental evidence for patients with Parkinson's disease has shown that a novel DBS electrode with 32 independent stimulation source contacts can effectively optimize the clinical therapy by enlarging the therapeutic windows, when it is applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This is due to the selective activation in clusters of various stimulation contacts which can be steered directionally and accurately on the targeted regions of interest. In addition, because of the serious damage to the neural tissues, the charge-unbalanced stimulation is not typically indicated and the real DBS utilizes charge-balanced bi-phasic (CBBP) pulses. Inspired by this, we computationally investigate the optimal control of directional CBBP-DBS from the proposed parkinsonian neuronal network of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. By appropriately tuning stimulation for different neuronal populations, it can be found that directional steering CBBP-DBS paradigms are superior to the spherical case in improving parkinsonian dynamical properties including the synchronization of neuronal populations and the reliability of thalamus relaying the information from cortex, which is in a good agreement with the physiological experiments. Furthermore, it can be found that directional steering stimulations can increase the optimal stimulation intensity of desynchronization by more than 1 mA compared to the spherical case. This is consistent with the experimental result with showing that there exists at least one steering direction that can allow increasing the threshold of side effects by 1 mA. In addition, we also simulate the local field potential (LFP) and dominant frequency (DF) of the STN neuronal population induced by the activation

  20. Investigation of DBS electro-oxidation reaction in the aqueous-organic solution of LiClO4.

    PubMed

    Darlewski, Witold; Popiel, Stanisław; Nalepa, Tomasz; Gromotowicz, Waldemar; Szewczyk, Rafał; Stankiewicz, Romuald

    2010-03-15

    A process of dibutyl sulphide (DBS) electro-oxidation using electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry was investigated in water-methanol solution using different electrodes (platinum, boron doped diamond, graphite and glassy carbon). Obtained results indicate that the DBS electro-oxidation process is irreversible in voltamperometric conditions. It was shown that during DBS electrolytic oxidation on Pt, at the low anode potential (1.8 V), DBS was oxidized to sulphoxide and sulphone. Electrolysis at higher potential (up to 3.0 V) resulted in complete DBS oxidation and formation of various products, including: butyric acid, sulphuric acid, butanesulphinic acid, butanesulphonic acid, identified using gas chromatography (GC-AED) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 47 CFR 101.1440 - MVDDS protection of DBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... along with main beam azimuth and altitude orientation information, and description of the antenna... responsible for providing information they deem necessary for those entities who install all future DBS...

  2. Stimulation sites in the subthalamic nucleus projected onto a mean 3-D atlas of the thalamus and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Sarnthein, Johannes; Péus, Dominik; Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Baumann, Christian R; Sürücü, Oguzkan

    2013-09-01

    In patients with severe forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), deep brain stimulation (DBS) commonly targets the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Recently, the mean 3-D Morel-Atlas of the basal ganglia and the thalamus was introduced. It combines information contained in histological data from ten post-mortem brains. We were interested whether the Morel-Atlas is applicable for the visualization of stimulation sites. In a consecutive PD patient series, we documented preoperative MRI planning, intraoperative target adjustment based on electrophysiological and neurological testing, and perioperative CT target reconstruction. The localization of the DBS electrodes and the optimal stimulation sites were projected onto the Morel-Atlas. We included 20 patients (median age 62 years). The active contact had mean coordinates Xlat = ±12.1 mm, Yap = -1.8 mm, Zvert = -3.2 mm. There was a significant difference between the initially planned site and the coordinates of the postoperative active contact site (median 2.2 mm). The stimulation site was, on average, more anterior and more dorsal. The electrode contact used for optimal stimulation was found within the STN of the atlas in 38/40 (95 %) of implantations. The cluster of stimulation sites in individual patients-as deduced from preoperative MR, intraoperative electrophysiology and neurological testing-showed a high degree of congruence with the atlas. The mean 3D Morel Atlas is thus a useful tool for postoperative target visualization. This represents the first clinical evaluation of the recently created atlas.

  3. Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Troche, Michelle S; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. "on" vs. "off", pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of DBS-Radio using concatenated coding and equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevargiz, J.; Bell, D.; Truong, L.; Vaisnys, A.; Suwitra, K.; Henson, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) receiver is being developed for operation in a multipath Rayleigh channel. This receiver uses equalization and concatenated coding, in addition to open loop and closed loop architectures for carrier demodulation and symbol synchronization. Performance test results of this receiver are presented in both AWGN and multipath Rayleigh channels. Simulation results show that the performance of the receiver operating in a multipath Rayleigh channel is significantly improved by using equalization. These results show that fractional-symbol equalization offers a performance advantage over full symbol equalization. Also presented is the base-line performance of the DBS-R receiver using concatenated coding and interleaving.

  5. Local field potential recordings in a non-human primate model of Parkinsons disease using the Activa PC + S neurostimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Allison T.; Muralidharan, Abirami; Hendrix, Claudia; Johnson, Luke; Gupta, Rahul; Stanslaski, Scott; Denison, Tim; Baker, Kenneth B.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Using the Medtronic Activa® PC + S system, this study investigated how passive joint manipulation, reaching behavior, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) modulate local field potential (LFP) activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP). Approach. Five non-human primates were implanted unilaterally with one or more DBS leads. LFPs were collected in montage recordings during resting state conditions and during motor tasks that facilitate the expression of parkinsonian motor signs. These recordings were made in the naïve state in one subject, in the parkinsonian state in two subjects, and in both naïve and parkinsonian states in two subjects. Main results. LFPs measured at rest were consistent over time for a given recording location and parkinsonian state in a given subject; however, LFPs were highly variable between subjects, between and within recording locations, and across parkinsonian states. LFPs in both naïve and parkinsonian states across all recorded nuclei contained a spectral peak in the beta band (10-30 Hz). Moreover, the spectral content of recorded LFPs was modulated by passive and active movement of the subjects’ limbs. LFPs recorded during a cued-reaching task displayed task-related beta desynchronization in STN and GP. The bidirectional capabilities of the Activa® PC + S also allowed for recording LFPs while delivering DBS. The therapeutic effect of STN DBS on parkinsonian rigidity outlasted stimulation for 30-60 s, but there was no correlation with beta band power. Significance. This study emphasizes (1) the variability in spontaneous LFPs amongst subjects and (2) the value of using the Activa® PC + S system to record neural data in the context of behavioral tasks that allow one to evaluate a subject’s symptomatology.

  6. Local field potential recordings in a non-human primate model of Parkinsons disease using the Activa PC + S neurostimulator

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Allison T; Muralidharan, Abirami; Hendrix, Claudia; Johnson, Luke; Gupta, Rahul; Stanslaski, Scott; Denison, Tim; Baker, Kenneth B; Vitek, Jerrold L; Johnson, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Using the Medtronic Activa® PC + S system, this study investigated how passive joint manipulation, reaching behavior, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) modulate local field potential (LFP) activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP). Approach Five non-human primates were implanted unilaterally with one or more DBS leads. LFPs were collected in montage recordings during resting state conditions and during motor tasks that facilitate the expression of parkinsonian motor signs. These recordings were made in the naïve state in one subject, in the parkinsonian state in two subjects, and in both naïve and parkinsonian states in two subjects. Main results LFPs measured at rest were consistent over time for a given recording location and parkinsonian state in a given subject; however, LFPs were highly variable between subjects, between and within recording locations, and across parkinsonian states. LFPs in both naïve and parkinsonian states across all recorded nuclei contained a spectral peak in the beta band (10–30 Hz). Moreover, the spectral content of recorded LFPs was modulated by passive and active movement of the subjects’ limbs. LFPs recorded during a cued-reaching task displayed task-related beta desynchronization in STN and GP. The bidirectional capabilities of the Activa® PC + S also allowed for recording LFPs while delivering DBS. The therapeutic effect of STN DBS on parkinsonian rigidity outlasted stimulation for 30–60 s, but there was no correlation with beta band power. Significance This study emphasizes (1) the variability in spontaneous LFPs amongst subjects and (2) the value of using the Activa® PC + S system to record neural data in the context of behavioral tasks that allow one to evaluate a subject’s symptomatology. PMID:26469737

  7. Analysis of benzodiazepines and their metabolites using DBS cards and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesang; Park, Yujin; Jo, Jiyeong; In, Sangwhan; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Pyo, Jaesung; Choe, Sanggil

    2015-10-01

    Dried Blood Spot (DBS) has been used a blood extraction method for inherited metabolic disorder screening since 1960s. With introduction of LC-MS/MS, not only DBS could be used to analysis drugs in small blood volume, but in various fields, such as toxicology, drug therapeutic monitoring, drug diagnostic screening, and illicit drugs. In toxicology field, many drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines, acetaminophen, small molecule drugs) have been tested with DBS. Compared with earlier blood extraction methods (SPE and LLE), DBS has lots of advantages; lower blood volume (less than 50μL), shorter analysis time caused by a more concise analysis procedure and lower cost. We optimized the DBS procedure and LC-MS/MS conditions for 18 benzodiazepines, seven benzodiazepine metabolites, and one z-drug (zolpidem) analysis in blood. 30μL of whole blood was spotted on FTA DMPK card C and dried for 2h in a desiccator. A 6-mm disk was punched and vortexed for 1min in a centrifuge tube with 300μL methanol/acetonitrile mixture (1:1, v/v). After evaporation, redissolved in 100μL mobile phase of LC-MS/MS and 5μL was injected. In the analysis for 26 target compounds in blood, all of the method validation parameters - LLOD, LLOQ, accuracy (intra- and inter-assay), and precision (intra- and inter-assay) - were satisfied with method validation criteria, within 15%. The results of matrix effect, recovery, and process efficiency were good. We developed a fast and reliable sample preparation method using DBS for 26 benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine metabolites, and z-drug (zolpidem). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence from a rare case study for Hebbian-like changes in structural connectivity induced by long-term deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    van Hartevelt, Tim J; Cabral, Joana; Møller, Arne; FitzGerald, James J; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Deco, Gustavo; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether Hebbian-like learning occurs at the level of long-range white matter connections in humans, i.e., where measurable changes in structural connectivity (SC) are correlated with changes in functional connectivity. However, the behavioral changes observed after deep brain stimulation (DBS) suggest the existence of such Hebbian-like mechanisms occurring at the structural level with functional consequences. In this rare case study, we obtained the full network of white matter connections of one patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after long-term DBS and combined it with a computational model of ongoing activity to investigate the effects of DBS-induced long-term structural changes. The results show that the long-term effects of DBS on resting-state functional connectivity is best obtained in the computational model by changing the structural weights from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to the putamen and the thalamus in a Hebbian-like manner. Moreover, long-term DBS also significantly changed the SC towards normality in terms of model-based measures of segregation and integration of information processing, two key concepts of brain organization. This novel approach using computational models to model the effects of Hebbian-like changes in SC allowed us to causally identify the possible underlying neural mechanisms of long-term DBS using rare case study data. In time, this could help predict the efficacy of individual DBS targeting and identify novel DBS targets.

  9. Validation of the Use of Dried Blood Spot (DBS) Method to Assess Vitamin A Status

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Elham; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency is an important dietary deficiency in the world. Thus, the ne¬cessity of screening for deficient populations is obvious. This paper introduces a fast, cheap and relatively reliable method called “dried blood spot” (DBS) method in screening the deficient populations. The validity of this method for retinol measurement was investigated. Method: The “precision” and “agreement” criteria of the DBS method were assessed. The preci¬sion was calculated and compared with those of plasma using F-test. The agreement was eva¬luated using Bland-Altman plot. Results: The imprecision of retinol measurements in dried spots was not significantly different from those of the control (plasma). A good correlation coefficient (r2=0.78) was obtained for dried spots’ retinol measurements versus plasma’s retinol analysis (P < 0.01). Paired t-test showed no significant difference between the DBS and retinol methods on a group level. Imprecision of DBS measurement was acceptable, compared to that of the plasma method. The difference be¬tween these two methods was not statistically significant on a group level. Conclusion: Application of DBS standard samples, in which a part of the plasma was replaced with the artificial plasma, was shown to be a reliable calibration mean for retinol measurements in DBS samples. Retinol in dried spots was stable for 90 days. Overall, the DBS method provided a precise measurement of retinol, showing results that were comparable with the measurement of retinol in plasma. PMID:24688932

  10. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Paschali, Anna; Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Vassilakos, Paulos

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scale. During all assessments patients were "on" standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings.

  11. Rapid battery depletion and loss of therapy due to a short circuit in bipolar DBS for essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Allert, Niels; Barbe, Michael Thomas; Timmermann, Lars; Coenen, Volker Arnd

    2017-05-01

    Technical dysfunctions have been reported reducing efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Here, we report on an essential-tremor patient in whom a short circuit in bipolar DBS resulted not only in unilateral loss of therapy but also in high current flow and thereby rapid decline of the impulse-generator battery voltage from 2.83 V a week before the event to 2.54 V, indicating the need for an impulse-generator replacement. Immediate re-programming restored therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, the reduction in current flow allowed the battery voltage to recover without immediate surgical intervention to 2.81 V a week later.

  12. Decoding gripping force based on local field potentials recorded from subthalamic nucleus in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia are known to be involved in the planning, execution and control of gripping force and movement vigour. Here we aim to define the nature of the basal ganglia control signal for force and to decode gripping force based on local field potential (LFP) activities recorded from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We found that STN LFP activities in the gamma (55–90 Hz) and beta (13–30m Hz) bands were most informative about gripping force, and that a first order dynamic linear model with these STN LFP features as inputs can be used to decode the temporal profile of gripping force. Our results enhance the understanding of how the basal ganglia control gripping force, and also suggest that deep brain LFPs could potentially be used to decode movement parameters related to force and movement vigour for the development of advanced human-machine interfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19089.001 PMID:27855780

  13. Performance characteristics of finger-stick dried blood spots (DBS) on the determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment failure in a pediatric population in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joy; de Sousa, Amina; Sabatier, Jennifer; Assane, Mariamo; Zhang, Guoqing; Bila, Dulce; Vaz, Paula; Alfredo, Charity; Cossa, Loide; Bhatt, Nilesh; Koumans, Emilia H.; Yang, Chunfu; Rivadeneira, Emilia; Jani, Ilesh; Houston, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative plasma viral load (VL) at 1000 copies /mL was recommended as the threshold to confirm antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure by the World Health Organization (WHO). Because of ongoing challenges of using plasma for VL testing in resource-limited settings (RLS), especially for children, this study collected 717 DBS and paired plasma samples from children receiving ART ≥1 year in Mozambique and compared the performance of DBS using Abbott’s VL test with a paired plasma sample using Roche’s VL test. At a cut-off of 1000 copies/mL, sensitivity of DBS using Abbott DBS VL test was 79.9%, better than 71.0% and 63.9% at 3000 and 5000 copies/mL, respectively. Specificities were 97.6%, 98.8%, 99.3% at 1000, 3000, and 5000 copies/mL, respectively. The Kappa value at 1000 copies/mL, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87), was higher than 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.80) and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.73) at 3000, 5000 copies/mL, respectively, also indicating better agreement. The mean difference between the DBS and plasma VL tests with 95% limits of agreement by Bland-Altman was 0.311 (-0.908, 1.530). Among 73 children with plasma VL between 1000 to 5000 copies/mL, the DBS results were undetectable in 53 at the 1000 copies/mL threshold. While one DBS sample in the Abbott DBS VL test may be an alternative method to confirm ART failure at 1000 copies/mL threshold when a plasma sample is not an option for treatment monitoring, because of sensitivity concerns between 1,000 and 5,000 copies/ml, two DBS samples may be preferred accompanied by careful patient monitoring and repeat testing. PMID:28704560

  14. [Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Goto, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    The introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) was a historical step forward for the treatment of advanced and medically intractable movement disorders that include Parkinson's disease, dystonias, essential tremor, and Holmes' tremor. DBS is able to modulate the target region electrically in a reversible and adjustable fashion in contrast to an irreversible and destructive lesioning procedure. In the treatment of movement disorders, the potential targets are the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim), globus pallidus internus (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN), pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and thalamic Vo-complex nucleus. With the development of DBS technology and stereotactic neurosurgical techniques, its therapeutic efficacy has been increased while reducing surgical complications. DBS has become an established therapy for disabling movement disorders and is currently being used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. A PC-based system for predicting movement from deep brain signals in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Constantinos; Brown, Peter

    2012-07-01

    There is much current interest in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). This type of surgery has enabled unprecedented access to deep brain signals in the awake human. In this paper we present an easy-to-use computer based system for recording, displaying, archiving, and processing electrophysiological signals from the STN. The system was developed for predicting self-paced hand-movements in real-time via the online processing of the electrophysiological activity of the STN. It is hoped that such a computerised system might have clinical and experimental applications. For example, those sites within the STN most relevant to the processing of voluntary movement could be identified through the predictive value of their activities with respect to the timing of future movement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal nanoparticles in DBS card materials modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, A.; Frolov, G.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years the method of collecting and storing Dried Blood Spots (DBS) on special cellulose membrane (paper) has gained wide popularity. But possible damage of biosamples caused by microorganisms in case of their incomplete drying is a disadvantage of the method. It can be overcome by treating sample-collection membranes with colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles, having antibacterial effect. The team studied antibacterial properties of nonwoven material samples with various coatings (alcohol sols of copper, aluminium, iron, titanium, silver and vanadium nanoparticles). Colloidal solutions of nanoparticles were obtained by means of electroerosion method with further low-temperature plasma condensation. Antibacterial activity of fiberglass and cellulose membrane samples with nanoparticle coatings was studied using B. cereus and plaque bacteria cultures. It was revealed that nanostructured coatings can suppress bacterial activity; in addition they can diffuse from the membrane surface into medium which leads to widening the areas of inhibiting testing cultures’ growth. Thus, membrane materials treatment with alcohol-sols of metal nanoparticles can be seen as promising for conferring antibacterial properties to DBS carriers.

  17. Local Fields in Human Subthalamic Nucleus Track the Lead-up to Impulsive Choices.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John M; Hickey, Patrick T; Lad, Shivanand P; Platt, Michael L; Turner, Dennis A

    2017-01-01

    The ability to adaptively minimize not only motor but cognitive symptoms of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a primary goal of next-generation deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices. On the basis of studies demonstrating a link between beta-band synchronization and severity of motor symptoms in PD, the minimization of beta band activity has been proposed as a potential training target for closed-loop DBS. At present, no comparable signal is known for the impulsive side effects of PD, though multiple studies have implicated theta band activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the site of DBS treatment, in processes of conflict monitoring and countermanding. Here, we address this challenge by recording from multiple independent channels within the STN in a self-paced decision task to test whether these signals carry information sufficient to predict stopping behavior on a trial-by-trial basis. As in previous studies, we found that local field potentials (LFPs) exhibited modulations preceding self-initiated movements, with power ramping across multiple frequencies during the deliberation period. In addition, signals showed phasic changes in power around the time of decision. However, a prospective model that attempted to use these signals to predict decision times showed effects of risk level did not improve with the addition of LFPs as regressors. These findings suggest information tracking the lead-up to impulsive choices is distributed across multiple frequency scales in STN, though current techniques may not possess sufficient signal-to-noise ratios to predict-and thus curb-impulsive behavior on a moment-to-moment basis.

  18. Deep brain stimulation improves orthostatic regulation of patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Stemper, B; Beric, A; Welsch, G; Haendl, T; Sterio, D; Hilz, M J

    2006-11-28

    To evaluate whether subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has an effect on the orthostatic regulation of patients with Parkinson disease (PD), we studied cardiovascular regulation during on and off phases of STN stimulation. We examined 14 patients with PD (mean age 58.1 +/- 5.8 years, 4 women, 10 men) with bilateral STN stimulators. Patients underwent 3 minutes of head-up tilt (HUT) testing during STN stimulation and after 90 minutes interruption of stimulation. We monitored arterial blood pressure (BP), RR intervals (RRI), respiration, and skin blood flow (SBF). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed as the square root of the ratio of low-frequency power of RRI to the low-frequency power of systolic BP for coherences above 0.5. During the on phase of the STN stimulation, HUT induced no BP decrease, a significant tachycardia, and a significant decrease of SBF. During the off phase of stimulation, HUT resulted in significant decreases in BPsys and RRI and only a slight SBF decrease. HUT induced no change of BRS during stimulation, but lowered BRS when the stimulator was off (p < 0.05). STN stimulation of patients with PD increases peripheral vasoconstriction and BRS and stabilizes BP, thereby improving postural hypotension in patients with PD. The results indicate that STN stimulation not only alleviates motor deficits but also influences autonomic regulation in patients with PD.

  19. Analysis of electrodes' placement and deformation in deep brain stimulation from medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehri, Maroua; Lalys, Florent; Maumet, Camille; Haegelen, Claire; Jannin, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to reduce the motor symptoms such as rigidity or bradykinesia, in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) has emerged as prime target of DBS in idiopathic PD. However, DBS surgery is a difficult procedure requiring the exact positioning of electrodes in the pre-operative selected targets. This positioning is usually planned using patients' pre-operative images, along with digital atlases, assuming that electrode's trajectory is linear. However, it has been demonstrated that anatomical brain deformations induce electrode's deformations resulting in errors in the intra-operative targeting stage. In order to meet the need of a higher degree of placement accuracy and to help constructing a computer-aided-placement tool, we studied the electrodes' deformation in regards to patients' clinical data (i.e., sex, mean PD duration and brain atrophy index). Firstly, we presented an automatic algorithm for the segmentation of electrode's axis from post-operative CT images, which aims to localize the electrodes' stimulated contacts. To assess our method, we applied our algorithm on 25 patients who had undergone bilateral STNDBS. We found a placement error of 0.91+/-0.38 mm. Then, from the segmented axis, we quantitatively analyzed the electrodes' curvature and correlated it with patients' clinical data. We found a positive significant correlation between mean curvature index of the electrode and brain atrophy index for male patients and between mean curvature index of the electrode and mean PD duration for female patients. These results help understanding DBS electrode' deformations and would help ensuring better anticipation of electrodes' placement.

  20. Using "Functional" Target Coordinates of the Subthalamic Nucleus to Assess the Indirect and Direct Methods of the Preoperative Planning: Do the Anatomical and Functional Targets Coincide?

    PubMed

    Rabie, Ahmed; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2016-12-21

    To answer the question of whether the anatomical center of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), as calculated indirectly from stereotactic atlases or by direct visualization on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), corresponds to the best functional target. Since the neighboring red nucleus (RN) is well visualized on MRI, we studied the relationships of the final target to its different borders. We analyzed the data of 23 PD patients (46 targets) who underwent bilateral frame-based STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedure with microelectrode recording guidance. We calculated coordinates of the active contact on DBS electrode on postoperative MRI, which we referred to as the final "functional/optimal" target. The coordinates calculated by the atlas-based "indirect" and "direct" methods, as well as the coordinates of the different RN borders were compared to these final coordinates. The mean ± SD of the final target coordinates was 11.7 ± 1.5 mm lateral (X), 2.4 ± 1.5 mm posterior (Y), and 6.1 ± 1.7 mm inferior to the mid-commissural point (Z). No significant differences were found between the "indirect" X, Z coordinates and those of the final targets. The "indirect" Y coordinate was significantly posterior to Y of the final target, with mean difference of 0.6 mm ( p = 0.014). No significant differences were found between the "direct" X, Y, and Z coordinates and those of the final targets. The functional STN target is located in direct proximity to its anatomical center. During preoperative targeting, we recommend using the "direct" method, and taking into consideration the relationships of the final target to the mid-commissural point (MCP) and the different RN borders.

  1. Stimulation of contacts in ventral but not dorsal subthalamic nucleus normalizes response switching in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Greenhouse, Ian; Gould, Sherrie; Houser, Melissa; Aron, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Switching between responses is a key executive function known to rely on the frontal cortex and the basal ganglia. Here we aimed to establish with greater anatomical specificity whether such switching could be mediated via different possible frontal–basal-ganglia circuits. Accordingly, we stimulated dorsal vs. ventral contacts of electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's patients during switching performance, and also studied matched controls. The patients underwent three sessions: once with bilateral dorsal contact stimulation, once with bilateral ventral contact stimulation, and once Off stimulation. Patients Off stimulation showed abnormal patterns of switching, and stimulation of the ventral contacts but not the dorsal contacts normalized the pattern of behavior relative to controls. This provides some of the first evidence in humans that stimulation of dorsal vs. ventral STN DBS contacts has differential effects on executive function. As response switching is an executive function known to rely on prefrontal cortex, these results suggest that ventral contact stimulation affected an executive/associative cortico-basal ganglia circuit. PMID:23562963

  2. Beta oscillations in freely moving Parkinson's subjects are attenuated during deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Emma J; Blumenfeld, Zack; Velisar, Anca; Koop, Mandy Miller; Shreve, Lauren A; Trager, Megan H; Hill, Bruce C; Kilbane, Camilla; Henderson, Jaimie M; Brontë-Stewart, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Investigations into the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subthalamic (STN) beta (13-30 Hz) oscillations have been performed in the perioperative period with the subject tethered to equipment. Using an embedded sensing neurostimulator, this study investigated whether beta power was similar in different resting postures and during forward walking in freely moving subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether STN DBS attenuated beta power in a voltage-dependent manner. Subthalamic local field potentials were recorded from the DBS lead, using a sensing neurostimulator (Activa(®) PC+S, Medtronic, Inc., Food and Drug Administration- Investigational Device Exemption (IDE)-, institutional review board-approved) from 15 PD subjects (30 STNs) off medication during lying, sitting, and standing, during forward walking, and during randomized periods of 140 Hz DBS at 0 V, 1 V, and 2.5/3 V. Continuous video, limb angular velocity, and forearm electromyography recordings were synchronized with neural recordings. Data were parsed to avoid any movement or electrical artifact during resting states. Beta power was similar during lying, sitting, and standing (P = 0.077, n = 28) and during forward walking compared with the averaged resting state (P = 0.466, n = 24), although akinetic rigid PD subjects tended to exhibit decreased beta power when walking. Deep brain stimulation at 3 V and at 1 V attenuated beta power compared with 0 V (P < 0.003, n = 14), and this was voltage dependent (P < 0.001). Beta power was conserved during resting and forward walking states and was attenuated in a voltage-dependent manner during 140-Hz DBS. Phenotype may be an important consideration if this is used for closed-loop DBS. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  4. Donnai–Barrow Syndrome (DBS/FOAR) in a Child With a Homozygous LRP2 Mutation Due to Complete Chromosome 2 Paternal Isodisomy

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Sibel; Ragge, Nicola K.; Thomas, N. Simon; Robinson, David O.; Noonan, Kristin M.; Russell, Meaghan K.; Donnai, Dian; Raymond, F. Lucy; Walsh, Christopher A.; Donahoe, Patricia K.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Donnai–Barrow syndrome [Faciooculoacousticorenal (FOAR) syndrome; DBS/FOAR] is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the LRP2 gene located on chromosome 2q31.1. We report a unique DBS/FOAR patient homozygous for a 4-bp LRP2 deletion secondary to paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 2. The propositus inherited the mutation from his heterozygous carrier father, whereas the mother carried only wild-type LRP2 alleles. This is the first case of DBS/FOAR resulting from uniparental disomy (UPD) and the fourth published case of any paternal UPD 2 ascertained through unmasking of an autosomal recessive disorder. The absence of clinical symptoms above and beyond the classical phenotype in this and the other disorders suggests that paternal chromosome 2 is unlikely to contain imprinted genes notably affecting either growth or development. This report highlights the importance of parental genotyping in order to give accurate genetic counseling for autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:18553518

  5. Automated DBS microsampling, microscale automation and microflow LC-MS for therapeutic protein PK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Tomazela, Daniela; Vasicek, Lisa A; Spellman, Daniel S; Beaumont, Maribel; Shyong, BaoJen; Kenny, Jacqueline; Fauty, Scott; Fillgrove, Kerry; Harrelson, Jane; Bateman, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Reduce animal usage for discovery-stage PK studies for biologics programs using microsampling-based approaches and microscale LC-MS. We report the development of an automated DBS-based serial microsampling approach for studying the PK of therapeutic proteins in mice. Automated sample preparation and microflow LC-MS were used to enable assay miniaturization and improve overall assay throughput. Serial sampling of mice was possible over the full 21-day study period with the first six time points over 24 h being collected using automated DBS sample collection. Overall, this approach demonstrated comparable data to a previous study using single mice per time point liquid samples while reducing animal and compound requirements by 14-fold. Reduction in animals and drug material is enabled by the use of automated serial DBS microsampling for mice studies in discovery-stage studies of protein therapeutics.

  6. Toward defining deep brain stimulation targets in MNI space: A subcortical atlas based on multimodal MRI, histology and structural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Siobhan; Plettig, Philip; Li, Ningfei; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Collins, D Louis; Herrington, Todd M; Kühn, Andrea A; Horn, Andreas

    2018-04-15

    Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity. In a first step, four key structures were defined on the template itself using a combination of multispectral image analysis and manual segmentation. Second, these structures were used as anchor points to coregister a detailed histological atlas into standard space. Results show that this approach significantly improved coregistration accuracy over previously published methods. Finally, a sub-segmentation of STN and GPi into functional zones was achieved based on structural connectivity. The result is a composite atlas that defines key nuclei on the template itself, fills the gaps between them using histology and further subdivides them using structural connectivity. We show that the atlas can be used to segment DBS targets in single subjects, yielding more accurate results compared to priorly published atlases. The atlas will be made publicly available and constitutes a resource to study DBS electrode localizations in combination with modern neuroimaging methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of focused ultrasound, radiosurgery, and DBS for essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Vinod K; Parker, Jonathon J; Hornbeck, Traci S; Santini, Veronica E; Pauly, Kim Butts; Wintermark, Max; Ghanouni, Pejman; Stein, Sherman C; Halpern, Casey H

    2017-08-01

    Essential tremor remains a very common yet medically refractory condition. A recent phase 3 study demonstrated that magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy significantly improved upper limb tremor. The objectives of this study were to assess this novel therapy's cost-effectiveness compared with existing procedural options. Literature searches of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy, DBS, and stereotactic radiosurgery for essential tremor were performed. Pre- and postoperative tremor-related disability scores were collected from 32 studies involving 83 magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomies, 615 DBSs, and 260 stereotactic radiosurgery cases. Utility, defined as quality of life and derived from percent change in functional disability, was calculated; Medicare reimbursement was employed as a proxy for societal cost. Medicare reimbursement rates are not established for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor; therefore, reimbursements were estimated to be approximately equivalent to stereotactic radiosurgery to assess a cost threshold. A decision analysis model was constructed to examine the most cost-effective option for essential tremor, implementing meta-analytic techniques. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy resulted in significantly higher utility scores compared with DBS (P < 0.001) or stereotactic radiosurgery (P < 0.001). Projected costs of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy were significantly less than DBS (P < 0.001), but not significantly different from radiosurgery. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy is cost-effective for tremor compared with DBS and stereotactic radiosurgery and more effective than both. Even if longer follow-up finds changes in effectiveness or costs, focused ultrasound thalamotomy will likely remain competitive with both alternatives. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement

  8. Are Patients Ready for "EARLYSTIM"? Attitudes towards Deep Brain Stimulation among Female and Male Patients with Moderately Advanced Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sperens, Maria; Hamberg, Katarina; Hariz, Gun-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To explore, in female and male patients with medically treated, moderately advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), their knowledge and reasoning about Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Methods . 23 patients with PD (10 women), aged 46-70, were interviewed at a mean of 8 years after diagnosis, with open-ended questions concerning their reflections and considerations about DBS. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to the difference and similarity technique in Grounded Theory. Results . From the patients' narratives, the core category "Processing DBS: balancing symptoms, fears and hopes" was established. The patients were knowledgeable about DBS and expressed cautious and well considered attitudes towards its outcome but did not consider themselves ill enough to undergo DBS. They were aware of its potential side-effects. They considered DBS as the last option when oral medication is no longer sufficient. There was no difference between men and women in their reasoning and attitudes towards DBS. Conclusion . This study suggests that knowledge about the pros and cons of DBS exists among PD patients and that they have a cautious attitude towards DBS. Our patients did not seem to endorse an earlier implementation of DBS, and they considered that it should be the last resort when really needed.

  9. International Parkinson and movement disorder society evidence-based medicine review: Update on treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Susan H; Katzenschlager, Regina; Lim, Shen-Yang; Barton, Brandon; de Bie, Rob M A; Seppi, Klaus; Coelho, Miguel; Sampaio, Cristina

    2018-03-23

    The objective of this review was to update evidence-based medicine recommendations for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Committee recommendations for treatments of PD were first published in 2002 and updated in 2011, and we continued the review to December 31, 2016. Level I studies of interventions for motor symptoms were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion and quality scoring were as previously reported. Five clinical indications were considered, and conclusions regarding the implications for clinical practice are reported. A total of 143 new studies qualified. There are no clinically useful interventions to prevent/delay disease progression. For monotherapy of early PD, nonergot dopamine agonists, oral levodopa preparations, selegiline, and rasagiline are clinically useful. For adjunct therapy in early/stable PD, nonergot dopamine agonists, rasagiline, and zonisamide are clinically useful. For adjunct therapy in optimized PD for general or specific motor symptoms including gait, rivastigmine is possibly useful and physiotherapy is clinically useful; exercise-based movement strategy training and formalized patterned exercises are possibly useful. There are no new studies and no changes in the conclusions for the prevention/delay of motor complications. For treating motor fluctuations, most nonergot dopamine agonists, pergolide, levodopa ER, levodopa intestinal infusion, entacapone, opicapone, rasagiline, zonisamide, safinamide, and bilateral STN and GPi DBS are clinically useful. For dyskinesia, amantadine, clozapine, and bilateral STN DBS and GPi DBS are clinically useful. The options for treating PD symptoms continues to expand. These recommendations allow the treating physician to determine which intervention to recommend to an individual patient. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Are Patients Ready for “EARLYSTIM”? Attitudes towards Deep Brain Stimulation among Female and Male Patients with Moderately Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To explore, in female and male patients with medically treated, moderately advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), their knowledge and reasoning about Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Methods. 23 patients with PD (10 women), aged 46–70, were interviewed at a mean of 8 years after diagnosis, with open-ended questions concerning their reflections and considerations about DBS. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to the difference and similarity technique in Grounded Theory. Results. From the patients' narratives, the core category “Processing DBS: balancing symptoms, fears and hopes” was established. The patients were knowledgeable about DBS and expressed cautious and well considered attitudes towards its outcome but did not consider themselves ill enough to undergo DBS. They were aware of its potential side-effects. They considered DBS as the last option when oral medication is no longer sufficient. There was no difference between men and women in their reasoning and attitudes towards DBS. Conclusion. This study suggests that knowledge about the pros and cons of DBS exists among PD patients and that they have a cautious attitude towards DBS. Our patients did not seem to endorse an earlier implementation of DBS, and they considered that it should be the last resort when really needed. PMID:28458943

  11. MRI-verified "asleep" deep brain stimulation in Malta through cross border collaboration: clinical outcome of the first five years.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Charmaine; Dingli, Nicola; Aquilina, Annelise; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Aquilina, Josanne

    2018-05-26

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) requires a specialist multidisciplinary approach and lifelong follow-up. Patient access can be a challenge for small nation states. Malta is an island nation with a population of just under 450 000. The number of patients likely to benefit from DBS is around 5 to 10 per year. This study explores the outcome of a cross border collaboration between specialist services at Queen Square, London and a tertiary centre in Malta. Between 2011 and 2015, 35 patients underwent MRI-Guided and MRI-Verified DBS with 29 receiving bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for Parkinson's Disease under general anaesthesia. Pre-operative motor function was compared with one year post-operative motor function assessments in 26 patients (16 male; age 60 ± 9, range 32-70; disease duration 8.8 ± 2.7). Pre-operative and post-operative quality of life scores were also completed in 24 patients. There was significant improvement in off-medication Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III motor function (41.7%), reduction in Levodopa Equivalent Dose (LED) (30.6%) and improvement in quality of life as measured by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) (52.3%) (p < .001). All PDQ-39 dimensions showed significant improvement except communication, with greatest benefit in activities of daily living (ADLs) (72.4%) and stigma (66.3%). Surgical complications did not lead to any permanent deficit. Patients receiving DBS to other targets and for different indications also benefitted from surgery. An MRI-guided and MRI-verified approach to DBS was successfully implemented through cross border collaboration with achievement of expected clinical results. This healthcare collaboration developed out of necessity and opportunity, taking advantage of a UK-based neurosurgeon from Malta. The UK healthcare system benefits from numerous immigrants at Consultant level. Such a mutually beneficial arrangement could enable such individuals to offer their

  12. Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT[R]LOUD) for Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielman, Jennifer; Mahler, Leslie; Halpern, Angela; Gilley, Phllip; Klepitskaya, Olga; Ramig, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intensive voice therapy (LSVT[R]LOUD) can effectively manage voice and speech symptoms associated with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). This small-group study evaluated voice and speech in individuals with and without deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) before and after LSVT LOUD, to determine whether outcomes…

  13. Immune responses of mice and human breast cancer patients following immunization with synthetic sialyl-Tn conjugated to KLH plus detox adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, B M; Reddish, M; Koganty, R; MacLean, G D

    1993-08-12

    We generated a synthetic epitope, NANA alpha(2-6) GalNAc alpha-O-Crotyl (STn-crotyl), designed to "mimic" the natural O-linked epitope expressed on human carcinoma cells, NANA alpha(2-6)GalNAc alpha-O-Serine (STn-serine). STn-crotyl was conjugated to the carrier protein KLH through the crotyl linker arm, and a "vaccine" containing STn-KLH plus DETOX adjuvant was formulated. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated preclinically in CAF1 mice and subsequently in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The specificity and titers of IgG antibodies were evaluated by kinetic ELISA on synthetic STn-HSA and on ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM) solid phases. Ovine submaxillary mucin is a convenient source of repeating, natural O-linked STn-serine structures. Mice immunized three times with as little as 0.25 micrograms of STn-KLH produced IgG titers ranging from 1:10(4) to 1:10(5) when tested on solid phase OSM. Anti-OSM IgG, both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, generated from these mice were completely inhibited in their binding to solid phase OSM equally well by STn-serine and STn-crotyl synthetic haptens but not by several other closely related synthetic haptens. These monoclonal antibodies also bound to STn determinants on human tumor cell surfaces. Breast cancer patients immunized with 100 micrograms of the same vaccine produced median peak IgG titers 1:1280 measured on STn-HSA and 1:160 on OSM. Hapten inhibition experiments with the human sera demonstrated the specificities of the IgG antibodies for STn-crotyl and STn-serine, but not against several other related synthetic haptens. We found little evidence that the artificial linker arm (crotyl linker) contributed substantially to either the titer or affinity of the antibodies generated in either mice or human breast cancer patients. This suggests that the antibodies recognized the cancer-associated disaccharide NANA alpha(2-->6)-GalNAc. Small but not large doses of STn-KLH immunogen induced anti-STn DTH

  14. Impact of various factors on radioactivity distribution in different DBS papers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao; Paehler, Tobias; Zimmer, Manfred; Guo, Zuyu; Zane, Patricia; Emmons, Gary T

    2010-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling could potentially become the preferred blood collection technique in toxicological and clinical studies. Autoradiography was performed to study compound distribution within a dbs under different conditions using five papers, 31ETF, Grade 226, 903(®), FTA(®) and FTA(®) Elute. The results showed an uneven distribution in all papers with common distribution patterns regardless of compounds: decreased concentrations along the edge, the volcano effect in the middle and the speckle pattern in the center. Treated papers were more readily influenced by environmental factors. Autoradiography enables visualization of a compound's distribution and can guide bioanalytical assay development by allowing convenient evaluation of factors, such as choice of paper, spotting volume, punch size, punch location, temperature and humidity.

  15. Faculty Perceptions of Loughborough's Online Reading List System (LORLS) at Dublin Business School (DBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Marie; Musto, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Using a mixed methods research approach this study explores faculty perceptions of LORLS at DBS. Data generated by the study will inform advocacy, marketing and training initiatives to promote the platform. The study concludes with a number of deductive and inductive findings. The first is that although DBS faculty are highly predisposed to using…

  16. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates sensitivity to decision outcome value in Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Ben; Barbe, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Ray; Fink, Gereon R.

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson’s disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration. We tested 22 Parkinson’s Disease patients both on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), while they performed an instrumental learning task involving financial rewards and losses, and an inter-temporal choice task for financial rewards. We found that instrumental learning performance was significantly worse following stimulation, due to modulation of instrumental outcome sensitivity. Specifically, patients became less sensitive to decision values for both rewards and losses, but without any change to the learning rate or reward-loss trade-offs. However, we found no evidence that DBS modulated different components of temporal impulsivity. In conclusion, our results implicate the subthalamic nucleus in a modulation of outcome value in experience-based learning and decision-making in Parkinson’s disease, suggesting a more pervasive role of the subthalamic nucleus in the control of human decision-making than previously thought.

  17. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates sensitivity to decision outcome value in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Ben; Barbe, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Ray; Fink, Gereon R.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson’s disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration. We tested 22 Parkinson’s Disease patients both on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), while they performed an instrumental learning task involving financial rewards and losses, and an inter-temporal choice task for financial rewards. We found that instrumental learning performance was significantly worse following stimulation, due to modulation of instrumental outcome sensitivity. Specifically, patients became less sensitive to decision values for both rewards and losses, but without any change to the learning rate or reward-loss trade-offs. However, we found no evidence that DBS modulated different components of temporal impulsivity. In conclusion, our results implicate the subthalamic nucleus in a modulation of outcome value in experience-based learning and decision-making in Parkinson’s disease, suggesting a more pervasive role of the subthalamic nucleus in the control of human decision-making than previously thought. PMID:27624437

  18. Immunization of breast cancer patients using a synthetic sialyl-Tn glycoconjugate plus Detox adjuvant.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G D; Reddish, M; Koganty, R R; Wong, T; Gandhi, S; Smolenski, M; Samuel, J; Nabholtz, J M; Longenecker, B M

    1993-01-01

    We have synthesized various formulations that have potential for active specific immunotherapy (ASI) of human cancers. Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a potentially important target structure for ASI because its expression on mucins is a strong, independent predictor of poor prognosis, suggesting that it may have functional significance in the metastatic process. In this first pilot study of synthetic sialyl-Tn hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (STn-KLH), with Detox adjuvant, toxicity and humoral immunogenicity were assessed in 12 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Toxicity was minimal, restricted to local cutaneous reactions (apart from transient nausea and vomiting following single low-dose cyclophosphamide treatment). Using STn-conjugated human serum albumin in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, it was shown that all patients developed IgM and IgG specific for the synthetic STn hapten. Following immunization, most patients were shown to develop increased titres of complement-mediated cytotoxic antibodies, partially inhibited by synthetic STn hapten, but not by the related TF hapten. We also detected IgM and IgG antibodies reactive with natural STn determinants expressed on ovine submaxillary mucin, the STn specificity of this reactivity being confirmed by hapten inhibition. Evaluation of clinical efficacy in a small pilot study is difficult. Five patients are alive 12 or more months after entry, and another 4 patients are alive 6 or more months after entry into the study. All 3 patients with known widespread bulky disease progressed despite ASI, 2 having died from widespread cancer. Two patients had partial responses, each lasting 6 months. While several patients had disease stability for 3-10 months, 1 patient with pulmonary metastases remains stable 15 months after entry into the program.

  19. 47 CFR 73.756 - System specifications for double-sideband (DBS) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System specifications for double-sideband (DBS... Stations § 73.756 System specifications for double-sideband (DBS) modulated emissions in the HF... processing. If audio-frequency signal processing is used, the dynamic range of the modulating signal shall be...

  20. Atlas-based identification of targets for functional radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Stancanello, Joseph; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Modugno, Nicola

    2006-06-15

    Functional disorders of the brain, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain, may exhibit poor response to medical therapy. In such cases, surgical intervention may become necessary. Modern surgical approaches to such disorders include radio-frequency lesioning and deep brain stimulation (DBS). The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the most useful stereotactic targets available: STN DBS is known to induce substantial improvement in patients with end-stage Parkinson's disease. Other targets include the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) for dystonia and Parkinson's disease, and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus (CMN) for neuropathic pain. Radiosurgery is an attractive noninvasivemore » alternative to treat some functional brain disorders. The main technical limitation to radiosurgery is that the target can be selected only on the basis of magnetic resonance anatomy without electrophysiological confirmation. The aim of this work is to provide a method for the correct atlas-based identification of the target to be used in functional neurosurgery treatment planning. The coordinates of STN, CMN, and GPi were identified in the Talairach and Tournoux atlas and transformed to the corresponding regions of the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) electronic atlas. Binary masks describing the target nuclei were created. The MNI electronic atlas was deformed onto the patient magnetic resonance imaging-T1 scan by applying an affine transformation followed by a local nonrigid registration. The first transformation was based on normalized cross correlation and the second on optimization of a two-part objective function consisting of similarity criteria and weighted regularization. The obtained deformation field was then applied to the target masks. The minimum distance between the surface of an implanted electrode and the surface of the deformed mask was calculated. The validation of the method consisted of comparing the electrode

  1. How to improve patient education on deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: the CARE Monitor study.

    PubMed

    Dinkelbach, Lars; Möller, Bettina; Witt, Karsten; Schnitzler, Alfons; Südmeyer, Martin

    2017-02-21

    The introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) about 25 years ago provided one of the major breakthroughs in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a high percentage of patients are reluctant to undergo DBS. Previous research revealed that the critical step on the patient's path to DBS is the decision whether to undergo further diagnostic assessment for surgery at a specialized DBS-center. The aims of the current study were to evaluate how effective the combination of an outpatient DBS screening tool, STIMULUS, with specially developed educational material was to enhance patient education on DBS and to identify motivational aspects which influenced the patients' willingness to undergo further assessment. In total, 264 patients were identified as appropriate candidates for DBS by general neurologists using the electronic preselection tool STIMULUS. Patient-centered information material was designed and handed out to support education on DBS. Further, several clinical characteristics and details of the patient counseling were documented. Refusal or consent to show up at a DBS center was registered over the following 16 months. 114 (43.2%) patients preselected as eligible for DBS (STIMULUS Score ≥ 6) agreed to show up at a specialized DBS center to undergo further diagnostic assessment. The patients' ages, PD classification as an akinetic-rigid type and the talks' topics side-effects of dopaminergic medication and the optimal time frame had a significant influence on the patients' decisions. The combination of preselection tools as STIMULUS with comprehensive information material is effective to increase DBS-acceptance rate in PD patients. Important topics of the information about DBS cover the optimal time frame for DBS surgery, the side-effects of dopaminergic medication as well as side-effects and complications of DBS surgery.

  2. Cdk1 Regulates the Temporal Recruitment of Telomerase and Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 Complex for Telomere Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Ching; Gopalakrishnan, Veena; Poon, Lai-Fong; Yan, TingDong

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the cell cycle-dependent telomere elongation by telomerase is controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). The telomere length homeostasis is balanced between telomerase-unextendable and telomerase-extendable states that both require Cdc13. The recruitment of telomerase complex by Cdc13 promotes telomere elongation, while the formation of Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 (CST) complex at the telomere blocks telomere elongation by telomerase. However, the cellular signaling that regulates the timing of the telomerase-extendable and telomerase-unextendable states is largely unknown. Phosphorylation of Cdc13 by Cdk1 promotes the interaction between Cdc13 and Est1 and hence telomere elongation. Here, we show that Cdk1 also phosphorylates Stn1 at threonine 223 and serine 250 both in vitro and in vivo, and these phosphorylation events are essential for the stability of the CST complexes at the telomeres. By controlling the timing of Cdc13 and Stn1 phosphorylations during cell cycle progression, Cdk1 regulates the temporal recruitment of telomerase complexes and CST complexes to the telomeres to facilitate telomere maintenance. PMID:24164896

  3. Use of finger-prick dried blood spots (fpDBS) and capillary electrophoresis for carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) screening in forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bertaso, Anna; Sorio, Daniela; Vandoros, Anthula; De Palo, Elio F; Bortolotti, Federica; Tagliaro, Franco

    2016-10-01

    Continued progress in chronic alcohol abuse investigation requires the development of less invasive procedures for screening purposes. The application of finger-prick and related dried blood spots (fpDBS) for carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) detection appears suitable for this aim. Therefore, the goal of this project was to develop a screening method for CDT using fpDBS with CZE analysis. Blood samples prepared by finger-prick were placed on DBS cards and left to air dry; each dried fpDBS disc was shredded into small pieces and suspended in acid solution (60 μL of HCl 120 mmol/L). After centrifugation (10 min at 1500 × g), the collected sample was adjusted to pH 3.5. After an overnight incubation, the pH was neutralised and an iron rich solution was added. After 1 h, CZE analysis was carried out. A group of 47 individuals was studied. Parallel serum samples were collected from each investigated subject and the %CDT for each sample was measured using HPLC and CZE techniques. The fpDBS transferrin sialo isoform electropherograms were similar to those obtained with serum. Moreover, fpDBS CZE CDT percentage levels demonstrated significant statistical correlation with those obtained from serum for both HPLC and CZE %CDT (p < 0.01; r 2 = 0.8913 and 0.8976, respectively), with %CDT from 0.8 to 13.7% for fpDBS and from 0.7 to 12.7% for serum. The newly developed fpDBS procedure for CDT analysis provides a simple and inexpensive tool for use in population screening. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Normalizing motor-related brain activity: subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Grafton, S T; Turner, R S; Desmurget, M; Bakay, R; Delong, M; Vitek, J; Crutcher, M

    2006-04-25

    To test whether therapeutic unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) leads to normalization in the pattern of brain activation during movement execution and control of movement extent. Six patients with PD were imaged off medication by PET during performance of a visually guided tracking task with the DBS voltage programmed for therapeutic (effective) or subtherapeutic (ineffective) stimulation. Data from patients with PD during ineffective stimulation were compared with a group of 13 age-matched control subjects to identify sites with abnormal patterns of activation. Conjunction analysis was used to identify those areas in patients with PD where activity normalized when they were treated with effective stimulation. For movement execution, effective DBS caused an increase of activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA), superior parietal cortex, and cerebellum toward a more normal pattern. At rest, effective stimulation reduced overactivity of SMA. Therapeutic stimulation also induced reductions of movement related "overactivity" compared with healthy subjects in prefrontal, temporal lobe, and basal ganglia circuits, consistent with the notion that many areas are recruited to compensate for ineffective motor initiation. Normalization of activity related to the control of movement extent was associated with reductions of activity in primary motor cortex, SMA, and basal ganglia. Effective subthalamic nucleus stimulation leads to task-specific modifications with appropriate recruitment of motor areas as well as widespread, nonspecific reductions of compensatory or competing cortical activity.

  5. DBS-platform for biomonitoring and toxicokinetics of toxicants: proof of concept using LC-MS/MS analysis of fipronil and its metabolites in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Taneja, Isha; Rashid, Mamunur; Sonkar, Ashish Kumar; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap

    2016-03-01

    A simple, sensitive and high throughput LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantification of fipronil, fipronil sulfone and fipronil desulfinyl in rat and human dried blood spots (DBS). DBS samples were prepared by spiking 10 μl blood on DMPK-C cards followed by drying at room temperature. The whole blood spots were then punched from the card and extracted using acetonitrile. The total chromatographic run time of the method was only 2 min. The lower limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 ng/ml for all the analytes. The method was successfully applied to determine fipronil desulfinyl in DBS samples obtained from its toxicokinetic study in rats following intravenous dose (1 mg/kg). In conclusion, the proposed DBS methodology has significant potential in toxicokinetics and biomonitoring studies of environmental toxicants. This microvolume DBS technique will be an ideal tool for biomonitoring studies, particularly in paediatric population. Small volume requirements, minimally invasive blood sampling method, easier storage and shipping procedure make DBS a suitable technique for such studies. Further, DBS technique contributes towards the principles of 3Rs resulting in significant reduction in the number of rodents used and refinement in sample collection for toxicokinetic studies.

  6. Efficient and Specific Detection of Salmonella in Food Samples Using a stn-Based Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) gene exhibits high homology among S. enterica serovars and S. bongori. A set of 6 specific primers targeting the stn gene were designed for detection of Salmonella spp. using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The primers amplified target sequences in all 102 strains of 87 serovars of Salmonella tested and no products were detected in 57 non-Salmonella strains. The detection limit in pure cultures was 5 fg DNA/reaction when amplified at 65°C for 25 min. The LAMP assay could detect Salmonella in artificially contaminated food samples as low as 220 cells/g of food without a preenrichment step. However, the sensitivity was increased 100-fold (~2 cells/g) following 5 hr preenrichment at 35°C. The LAMP technique, with a preenrichment step for 5 and 16 hr, was shown to give 100% specificity with food samples compared to the reference culture method in which 67 out of 90 food samples gave positive results. Different food matrixes did not interfere with LAMP detection which employed a simple boiling method for DNA template preparation. The results indicate that the LAMP method, targeting the stn gene, has great potential for detection of Salmonella in food samples with both high specificity and high sensitivity. PMID:26543859

  7. The Franco-German DBS program 'TV-SAT/TDF-1'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnim, R.

    Governmental authorities of Germany and France have jointly awarded a contract to industry for two DBS satellites, to be launched in 1985, which will then serve Germany and France with direct-to-home broadcasting. This paper provides an overview of the background of the Franco-German program, the scope of the program, its technical baseline and configuration, its delivery schedule, its present status, and information on the customer and contractor side.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of serological diagnosis of hepatitis C and B using dried blood spot samples (DBS): two systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Lange, Berit; Cohn, Jennifer; Roberts, Teri; Camp, Johannes; Chauffour, Jeanne; Gummadi, Nina; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nagarathnam, Anupriya; Tuaillon, Edouard; van de Perre, Philippe; Pichler, Christine; Easterbrook, Philippa; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2017-11-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) from DBS samples compared to venous blood samples. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Cochrane library were searched for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS and agreement between DBS and venous sampling. Heterogeneity of results was assessed and where possible a pooled analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using a bivariate analysis with maximum likelihood estimate and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or limits of detection in subsets of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. For the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg from DBS compared to venous blood, 19 studies were included in a quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 in a narrative review. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95%CI:95%-99%) and 100% (95%CI:99-100%), respectively. For the diagnostic accuracy of HCV-Ab from DBS, 19 studies were included in a pooled quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 studies were included in a narrative review. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 98% (CI95%:95-99) and 99% (CI95%:98-100), respectively. Overall quality of studies and heterogeneity were rated as moderate in both systematic reviews. HCV-Ab and HBsAg testing using DBS compared to venous blood sampling was associated with excellent diagnostic accuracy

  9. CranialVault and its CRAVE tools: a clinical computer assistance system for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) therapy

    PubMed Central

    D’Haese, Pierre-François; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Li, Rui; Remple, Michael S.; Kao, Chris; Neimat, Joseph S.; Konrad, Peter E.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2010-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to assist surgeons at various stages of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. These include construction of anatomical atlases, functional databases, and electrophysiological atlases and maps. But, a complete system that can be integrated into the clinical workflow has not been developed. In this paper we present a system designed to assist physicians in pre-operative target planning, intra-operative target refinement and implantation, and post-operative DBS lead programming. The purpose of this system is to centralize the data acquired a the various stages of the procedure, reduce the amount of time needed at each stage of the therapy, and maximize the efficiency of the entire process. The system consists of a central repository (CranialVault), of a suite of software modules called CRAVE (CRAnialVault Explorer) that permit data entry and data visualization at each stage of the therapy, and of a series of algorithms that permit the automatic processing of the data. The central repository contains image data for more than 400 patients with the related pre-operative plans and position of the final implants and about 10,550 electrophysiological data points (micro-electrode recordings or responses to stimulations) recorded from 222 of these patients. The system has reached the stage of a clinical prototype that is being evaluated clinically at our institution. A preliminary quantitative validation of the planning component of the system performed on 80 patients who underwent the procedure between January 2009 and December 2009 shows that the system provides both timely and valuable information. PMID:20732828

  10. Application of DBS sampling in combination with LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic evaluation of a compound with species-specific blood-to-plasma partitioning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guifen; Chen, Jiyun S; Phadnis, Ruta; Huang, Tom; Uyeda, Craig; Soto, Marcus; Stouch, Brian; Wells, Mary C; James, Christopher A; Carlson, Timothy J

    2012-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling in combination with LC-MS/MS has been used increasingly in drug discovery for quantitative analysis to support pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. In this study, we assessed the effect of blood-to-plasma (B:P) partitioning on the bioanalytical performance and PK data acquired by DBS for a compound AMG-1 with species and concentration-dependent B:P ratio. B:P partitioning did not adversely affect bioanalytical performance of DBS for AMG-1. For rat, (B:P ratio of 0.63), PK profiles from DBS and plasma methods were comparable. For dog, concentration-dependence of B:P ratio was observed both in vivo and in vitro. Additional studies demonstrated concentration-dependence of the compound's unbound fraction in plasma, which may contribute to the concentration-dependence of the B:P ratio. DBS is a promising sampling technique for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. For compounds with high B:P ratio, caution needs to be applied for data comparison and interpretation between matrices.

  11. Quantitation of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in Dried Blood Spots (DBS) with LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia-Hua; Guida, Louis A; Rower, Caitlin; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Meditz, Amie; Klein, Brandon; Kerr, Becky Jo; Langness, Jacob; Bushman, Lane; Kiser, Jennifer; Anderson, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (LC), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay for the determination of tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC) in dried blood spots (DBS) from human whole blood was developed and validated. Whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and a 3mm punch was extracted with methanol for analysis by LC-MS/MS utilizing stable isotope labeled internal standards. The assay was validated over the range of 2.5ng/mL to 1,000ng/mL for TFV and 2.5ng/mL to 5,000ng/mL for FTC. The method was accurate (within ± 15% of control) and precise (coefficient of variation ≤ 15%) for hematocrit concentrations ranging from 25% to 76%; using edge punches versus center punches; and spot volumes of 10µL to 50µL. Analytes were stable for five freeze/thaw cycles and up to 6 days at room temperature, whereas long-term storage required −20°C or −80°C. Comparison of TFV and FTC in DBS versus plasma yielded r2 ≥ 0.96, indicating that DBS can be used as a plasma alternative for pharmacokinetic analyses in vivo. PMID:24055850

  12. In vivo mapping of current density distribution in brain tissues during deep brain stimulation (DBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2017-01-01

    New methods for in vivo mapping of brain responses during deep brain stimulation (DBS) are indispensable to secure clinical applications. Assessment of current density distribution, induced by internally injected currents, may provide an alternative method for understanding the therapeutic effects of electrical stimulation. The current flow and pathway are affected by internal conductivity, and can be imaged using magnetic resonance-based conductivity imaging methods. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is an imaging method that can enable highly resolved mapping of electromagnetic tissue properties such as current density and conductivity of living tissues. In the current study, we experimentally imaged current density distribution of in vivo canine brains by applying MREIT to electrical stimulation. The current density maps of three canine brains were calculated from the measured magnetic flux density data. The absolute current density values of brain tissues, including gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid were compared to assess the active regions during DBS. The resulting current density in different tissue types may provide useful information about current pathways and volume activation for adjusting surgical planning and understanding the therapeutic effects of DBS.

  13. Dopamine and the Biology of Creativity: Lessons from Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lhommée, Eugénie; Batir, Alina; Quesada, Jean-Louis; Ardouin, Claire; Fraix, Valérie; Seigneuret, Eric; Chabardès, Stéphan; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Pollak, Pierre; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by reduced flexibility, conceptualization, and visuo-spatial abilities. Although these are essential to creativity, case studies show emergence of creativity during PD. Knowledge about the role of dopamine in creativity so far only stems from a few case reports. We aim at demonstrating that creativity can be induced by dopaminergic treatments in PD, and tends to disappear after withdrawal of dopamine agonists. Methods: Eleven consecutive creative PD patients were selected from candidates for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery, and compared to 22 non-creative control PD patients. Motor disability (UPDRS III), cognition (Frontal score, Mattis scale), and behavior (Ardouin scale) were assessed before surgery and 1 year after. Results: Before surgery, whereas cognitive and motor assessments were similar between groups, dopamine agonist (but not levodopa) dosages were higher in creative patients (p = 0.01). The Ardouin scale revealed also a specific psycho-behavioral profile of creative patients which had higher scores for mania (p < 0.001), hobbyism (p = 0.001), nocturnal hyperactivity (p = 0.041), appetitive functioning (p = 0.003), and ON euphoria (p = 0.007) and lower scores for apathy and OFF dysphoria (p = 0.04 for each). Post-operative motor, cognitive, and behavioral scores as dopaminergic treatment dosages were equivalent between groups. Motor improvement allowed for a 68.6% decrease in dopaminergic treatment. Only 1 of the 11 patients remained creative after surgery. Reduction of dopamine agonist was significantly correlated to the decrease in creativity in the whole population of study (Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.47 with confidence index of 95% = 0.16; 0.70, p = 0.0053). Conclusion: Creativity in PD is linked to dopamine agonist therapy, and tends to disappear after STN DBS in parallel to reduction of dopamine agonists

  14. Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Substance Use Disorders and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Peisker, Canan B; Schüller, Thomas; Peters, Jan; Wagner, Ben J; Schilbach, Leonhard; Müller, Ulf J; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Kuhn, Jens

    2018-01-27

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shows first promising results in patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD), a patient group known to have deficits in self-control. One facet of self-control is the ability to forego smaller sooner rewards in favor of larger later rewards (delay discounting, DD). The NAc has been suggested to integrate motivational information to guide behavior while the consequences of NAc-DBS on DD are unknown. To this end, nine patients with SUD performed a DD task with DBS on and after a 24 h DBS off period. Furthermore, 18 healthy controls were measured to assess possible alterations in DD in patients with SUD. Our findings implicate that DD was not significantly modulated by NAc-DBS and also that patients with SUD did not differ from healthy controls. While null results must be interpreted with caution, the commonly observed association of impaired DD in SUD might suggest a long-term effect of NAc-DBS that was not sufficiently modulated by a 24 h DBS off period.

  15. Subaru Telescope Network III (STN-III): more effective, more operation-oriented, and more inexpensive solutions for the observatory's needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumaru, Junichi; Kawai, Jun A.; Schubert, Kiaina; Yagi, Masafumi; Takata, Tadafumi; Winegar, Tom; Scanlon, Tim; Nishida, Takuhiro; Fox, Camron; Hayasaka, James; Forester, Jason; Uchida, Kenji; Nakamura, Isamu; Tom, Richard; Koura, Norikazu; Yamamoto, Tadahiro; Tanoue, Toshiya; Yamada, Toru

    2008-07-01

    Subaru Telescope has recently replaced most equipment of Subaru Telescope Network II with the new equipment which includes 124TB of RAID system for data archive. Switching the data storage from tape to RAID enables users to access the data faster. The STN-III dropped some important components of STN-II, such as supercomputers, development & testing subsystem for Subaru Observation Control System, or data processing subsystem. On the other hand, we invested more computers to the remote operation system. Thanks to IT innovations, our LAN as well as the network between Hilo and summit were upgraded to gigabit network at the similar or even reduced cost from the previous system. As the result of the redesigning of the computer system by more focusing on the observatory operation, we greatly reduced the total cost for computer rental, purchase and maintenance.

  16. CranialVault and its CRAVE tools: a clinical computer assistance system for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy.

    PubMed

    D'Haese, Pierre-François; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Li, Rui; Remple, Michael S; Kao, Chris; Neimat, Joseph S; Konrad, Peter E; Dawant, Benoit M

    2012-04-01

    A number of methods have been developed to assist surgeons at various stages of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. These include construction of anatomical atlases, functional databases, and electrophysiological atlases and maps. But, a complete system that can be integrated into the clinical workflow has not been developed. In this paper we present a system designed to assist physicians in pre-operative target planning, intra-operative target refinement and implantation, and post-operative DBS lead programming. The purpose of this system is to centralize the data acquired a the various stages of the procedure, reduce the amount of time needed at each stage of the therapy, and maximize the efficiency of the entire process. The system consists of a central repository (CranialVault), of a suite of software modules called CRAnialVault Explorer (CRAVE) that permit data entry and data visualization at each stage of the therapy, and of a series of algorithms that permit the automatic processing of the data. The central repository contains image data for more than 400 patients with the related pre-operative plans and position of the final implants and about 10,550 electrophysiological data points (micro-electrode recordings or responses to stimulations) recorded from 222 of these patients. The system has reached the stage of a clinical prototype that is being evaluated clinically at our institution. A preliminary quantitative validation of the planning component of the system performed on 80 patients who underwent the procedure between January 2009 and December 2009 shows that the system provides both timely and valuable information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measures to Evaluate the Effects of DBS on Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Gary; Yunusova, Yana; Bunton, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate measures of speech production that could be used to document effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) on speech performance, especially in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A small set of evaluative criteria for these measures is presented first, followed by consideration of several speech physiology and speech acoustic measures that have been studied frequently and reported on in the literature on normal speech production, and speech production affected by neuromotor disorders (dysarthria). Each measure is reviewed and evaluated against the evaluative criteria. Embedded within this review and evaluation is a presentation of new data relating speech motions to speech intelligibility measures in speakers with PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control speakers (CS). These data are used to support the conclusion that at the present time the slope of second formant transitions (F2 slope), an acoustic measure, is well suited to make inferences to speech motion and to predict speech intelligibility. The use of other measures should not be ruled out, however, and we encourage further development of evaluative criteria for speech measures designed to probe the effects of DBS or any treatment with potential effects on speech production and communication skills. PMID:24932066

  18. Intraoperative neurophysiological responses in epileptic patients submitted to hippocampal and thalamic deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cukiert, Arthur; Cukiert, Cristine Mella; Argentoni-Baldochi, Meire; Baise, Carla; Forster, Cássio Roberto; Mello, Valeria Antakli; Burattini, José Augusto; Lima, Alessandra Moura

    2011-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in an increasing frequency for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Acute deep brain macrostimulation intraoperative findings were sparsely published in the literature. We report on our intraoperative macrostimulation findings during thalamic and hippocampal DBS implantation. Eighteen patients were studied. All patients underwent routine pre-operative evaluation that included clinical history, neurological examination, interictal and ictal EEG, high resolution 1.5T MRI and neuropsychological testing. Six patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were submitted to hippocampal DBS (Hip-DBS); 6 patients with focal epilepsy were submitted to anterior thalamic nucleus DBS (AN-DBS) and 6 patients with generalized epilepsy were submitted to centro-median thalamic nucleus DBS (CM-DBS). Age ranged from 9 to 40 years (11 males). All patients were submitted to bilateral quadripolar DBS electrode implantation in a single procedure, under general anesthesia, and intraoperative scalp EEG monitoring. Final electrode's position was checked postoperatively using volumetric CT scanning. Bipolar stimulation using the more proximal and distal electrodes was performed. Final standard stimulation parameters were 6Hz, 4V, 300μs (low frequency range: LF) or 130Hz, 4V, 300μs (high frequency range: HF). Bilateral recruiting response (RR) was obtained after unilateral stimulation in all patients submitted to AN and CM-DBS using LF stimulation. RR was widespread but prevailed over the fronto-temporal region bilaterally, and over the stimulated hemisphere. HF stimulation led to background slowing and a DC shift. The mean voltage for the appearance of RR was 4V (CM) and 3V (AN). CM and AN-DBS did not alter inter-ictal spiking frequency or morphology. RR obtained after LF Hip-DBS was restricted to the stimulated temporal lobe and no contralateral activation was noted. HF stimulation yielded no visually recognizable EEG modification. Mean intensity for initial

  19. Response inhibition rapidly increases single-neuron responses in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Benis, Damien; David, Olivier; Piallat, Brigitte; Kibleur, Astrid; Goetz, Laurent; Bhattacharjee, Manik; Fraix, Valérie; Seigneuret, Eric; Krack, Paul; Chabardès, Stéphan; Bastin, Julien

    2016-11-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a critical role during action inhibition, perhaps by acting like a fast brake on the motor system when inappropriate responses have to be rapidly suppressed. However, the mechanisms involving the STN during motor inhibition are still unclear, particularly because of a relative lack of single-cell responses reported in this structure in humans. In this study, we used extracellular microelectrode recordings during deep brain stimulation surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to study STN neurophysiological correlates of inhibitory control during a stop signal task. We found two neuronal subpopulations responding either during motor execution (GO units) or during motor inhibition (STOP units). GO units fired selectively before patients' motor responses whereas STOP units fired selectively when patients successfully withheld their move at a latency preceding the duration of the inhibition process. These results provide electrophysiological evidence for the hypothesized role of the STN in current models of response inhibition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Microelectrode Recording-Guided Versus Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery for Parkinson Disease: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemeng; Zhang, Jibo; Fu, Kai; Gong, Rui; Chen, Jincao; Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Microelectrode recording (MER) and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) have been used in deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease (PD), but comparative methodology is lacking. Therefore, we compared the 1-year follow-up outcomes of MER-guided and iMRI-guided subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in PD patients. We conducted a review comparing PD patients who underwent MER-guided (n = 76, group A) and iMRI-guided STN DBS surgery (n = 61, group B) in our institution. Pre- and postoperative assessments included Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) score, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), levodopa equivalent daily doses (LEDDs), and magnetic resonance images. The mean magnitudes of electrode discrepancy were x = 1.1 ± 0.2 mm, y = 1.3 ± 0.3 mm, and z = 2.1 ± 0.5 mm in group A and x = 1.3 ± 0.4 mm, y = 1.2 ± 0.2 mm, and z = 2.5 ± 0.7 mm in group B. Significant differences were not found between 2 groups for x, y, or z (P = 0.34, P = 0.26, and P = 0.41, respectively). At 1 year, when levodopa was withdrawn for 12 hours, the UPDRS-III score improved by 66.3% ± 13.5% in group A and 64.8% ± 12.7% in group B (P = 0.24); the PDQ-39 summary index score improved by 49.7% ± 14.3% in group A and 44.1% ± 12.7% in group B (P = 0.16); the MMSE score improved by 4.2% ± 2.1% in group A and 11.1% ± 3.2% in group B (P = 0.43); and LEDDs decreased by 48.7% ± 10.1% in group A and 56.9% ± 12.0% in group B (P = 0.32). MER and iMRI both are effective ways to ensure adequate electrode placement in DBS surgery, but there is no superiority between both techniques, at least in terms of 1-year follow-up outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECT OF MOLECULAR ARCHITECTURE ON DBS-INDUCED BLOCK COPOLYMER GELS: A RHEOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) is capable of gelling a variety of organic solvents and polymeric materials by forming a rigid, 3-D hydrogen-bonded network. In this work, two poly(siloxane)/poly(propylene oxide) segmented copolymers of equal composition and molecular weight, but di...

  2. [Deep brain stimulation in parkinsonian patients with dopa intolerance].

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Pedro J; Feliz-Feliz, Cici; Ayerbe Gracia, Joaquín; Matías Arbelo, José; Salvador, Carlos; Val Fernández, Javier Del; García-Caldentey, Juan

    2017-10-28

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is at present, a useful treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and motor complications. The crucial step toward consistent DBS outcomes remains careful patient selection; several conditions must be fulfilled including excellent levo dopa response. We report two cases of early onset Parkinson's disease with severe intolerance to levo dopa but excellent and sustained response to DBS. DBS can be a useful alternative for parkinsonian patients with severe intolerance to levo dopa, provided a positive acute response to levo dopa or apomorphine is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Internal Globus Pallidus Improves Response Initiation and Proactive Inhibition in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yixin; Wang, Linbin; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Chencheng; Qiu, Xian; Tan, Yuyan; Zhou, Haiyan; Sun, Bomin; Li, Dianyou

    2018-01-01

    Background: Impulse control disorder is not uncommon in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy and subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). Internal globus pallidus (GPi)-DBS is increasingly used, but its role in inhibitory control has rarely been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effect of GPi-DBS on inhibitory control in PD patients. Methods: A stop-signal paradigm was used to test response initiation, proactive inhibition, and reactive inhibition. The subjects enrolled in the experiment were 27 patients with PD, of whom 13 had received only drug treatment and 14 had received bilateral GPi-DBS in addition to conventional medical treatment and 15 healthy individuals. Results: Our results revealed that with GPi-DBS on, patients with PD showed significantly faster responses than the other groups in trials where it was certain that no stop signal would be presented. Proactive inhibition was significantly different in the surgical patients with GPi-DBS on versus when GPi-DBS was off, in surgical patients with GPi-DBS on versus drug-treated patients, and in healthy controls versus drug-treated patients. Correlation analyses revealed that when GPi-DBS was on, there was a statistically significant moderate positive relationship between proactive inhibition and dopaminergic medication. Conclusion: GPi-DBS may lead to an increase in response initiation speed and improve the dysfunctional proactive inhibitory control observed in PD patients. Our results may help us to understand the role of the GPi in cortical-basal ganglia circuits. PMID:29681869

  4. Using on-line altered auditory feedback treating Parkinsonian speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen, Leo; de Vries, Meinou H.

    2005-09-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease tend to have dysarthric speech that is hesitant, accelerated, and repetitive, and that is often resistant to behavior speech therapy. In this pilot study, the speech disturbances were treated using on-line altered feedbacks (AF) provided by SpeechEasy (SE), an in-the-ear device registered with the FDA for use in humans to treat chronic stuttering. Eight PD patients participated in the study. All had moderate to severe speech disturbances. In addition, two patients had moderate recurring stuttering at the onset of PD after long remission since adolescence, two had bilateral STN DBS, and two bilateral pallidal DBS. An effective combination of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered feedback was selected for each subject and provided via SE worn in one ear. All subjects produced speech samples (structured-monologue and reading) under three conditions: baseline, with SE without, and with feedbacks. The speech samples were randomly presented and rated for speech intelligibility goodness using UPDRS-III item 18 and the speaking rate. The results indicted that SpeechEasy is well tolerated and AF can improve speech intelligibility in spontaneous speech. Further investigational use of this device for treating speech disorders in PD is warranted [Work partially supported by Janus Dev. Group, Inc.].

  5. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients 70 Years and Older with Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Mathkour, Mansour; Garces, Juanita; Scullen, Tyler; Hanna, Joshua; Valle-Giler, Edison; Kahn, Lora; Arrington, Teresa; Houghton, David; Lea, Georgia; Biro, Erin; Bui, Cuong J; Sulaiman, Olawale A R; Smith, Roger D

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in elderly patients that may be treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is an accepted surgical treatment in PD patients <70 years that demonstrates marked improvement in disease symptomology. Patients ≥70 years historically have been excluded from DBS therapy. Our objective is to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes in patients with PD ≥70 years who underwent DBS at our center. In our single-center study, we retrospectively assessed a prospective registry of patients with PD treated with DBS who were ≥70 years old at the time of their procedure. Univariate analyses and 1-sample paired t test were used to evaluate data. Motor scores were evaluated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III, and the effects on medication requirements were evaluated with levodopa equivalence daily doses (LEDD). Thirty-seven patients were followed for an average of 42.2 months post-DBS. The average ages at diagnosis and at the time of DBS surgery were 63.05 years and 72.45 years, respectively. Significant reductions in the average Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III score were observed (preoperative 31.8; postoperative 15.6; P < 0.0001). Significant reductions in the average LEDD (preoperative 891.94 mg; postoperative 559.6 mg; P = 0.0008) and medication doses per day (preoperative 11.54; postoperative 7.97; P = 0.0112) also were present. DBS is effective in treating elderly patients with PD. Patients experienced improvement in motor function, LEDD, and medication doses per day after DBS. Our results suggest that DBS is an effective treatment modality in elderly patients with PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Creating and parameterizing patient-specific deep brain stimulation pathway-activation models using the hyperdirect pathway as an example.

    PubMed

    Gunalan, Kabilar; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Howell, Bryan; Duchin, Yuval; Lempka, Scott F; Patriat, Remi; Sapiro, Guillermo; Harel, Noam; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established clinical therapy and computational models have played an important role in advancing the technology. Patient-specific DBS models are now common tools in both academic and industrial research, as well as clinical software systems. However, the exact methodology for creating patient-specific DBS models can vary substantially and important technical details are often missing from published reports. Provide a detailed description of the assembly workflow and parameterization of a patient-specific DBS pathway-activation model (PAM) and predict the response of the hyperdirect pathway to clinical stimulation. Integration of multiple software tools (e.g. COMSOL, MATLAB, FSL, NEURON, Python) enables the creation and visualization of a DBS PAM. An example DBS PAM was developed using 7T magnetic resonance imaging data from a single unilaterally implanted patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). This detailed description implements our best computational practices and most elaborate parameterization steps, as defined from over a decade of technical evolution. Pathway recruitment curves and strength-duration relationships highlight the non-linear response of axons to changes in the DBS parameter settings. Parameterization of patient-specific DBS models can be highly detailed and constrained, thereby providing confidence in the simulation predictions, but at the expense of time demanding technical implementation steps. DBS PAMs represent new tools for investigating possible correlations between brain pathway activation patterns and clinical symptom modulation.

  7. Stacked STN LCDs for true-color projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Paul E.; Conner, Arlie R.

    1991-08-01

    The demand for a true color LCD projection panel for use with standard overhead projectors has been around ever since the first monochrome OHP projection panel was introduced in 1986. The monochrome panels evolved along with the LCD technology from the first blue- and-yellow mode units to black-and-white with levels of gray, and to yellow-and-magenta panels with limited intermediate color shades known as pseudo-color. Finally, a novel solution has been implemented using a stack of custom designed STN panels, making possible true color LCD projection panels that are reasonably priced, available in high volume and quite acceptable in overall image quality. This stacked technology relies on the inherent birefringence colors of each layer to switch between white (passing all wavelengths) and a subtractive color primary (passing all wavelengths but red, green, or blue) so the full spectrum can be projected. Standard gray-scale techniques expand the displayable color palette to almost 5,000 colors and beyond. The same technology can also be applied to various self-contained projection architectures.

  8. Deep brain stimulation of anterior nucleus thalami disrupts sleep in epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Voges, Berthold R; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Hamel, Wolfgang; House, Patrick M; Kluge, Christian; Moll, Christian K E; Stodieck, Stefan R

    2015-08-01

    In view of the regulatory function of the thalamus in the sleep-wake cycle, the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus thalami (ANT) on sleep was assessed in a small consecutive cohort of epilepsy patients with standardized polysomnography (PSG). In nine patients treated with ANT-DBS (voltage 5 V, frequency 145 Hz, cyclic mode), the number of arousals during stimulation and nonstimulation periods, neuropsychiatric symptoms (npS), and seizure frequency were determined. Electroclinical arousals were triggered in 14.0 to 67.0% (mean 42.4 ± SD 16.8%) of all deep brain stimuli. Six patients reported npS. Nocturnal DBS voltages were reduced in eight patients (one patient without npS refused) and PSGs were repeated. Electroclinical arousals occurred between 1.4 and 6.7 (mean 3.3 ± 1.7) times more frequently during stimulation periods compared to nonstimulation periods; the number of arousals positively correlated with the level of DBS voltage (range 1 V to 5 V) (Spearman's rank coefficient 0.53121; p < 0.05). No patient experienced seizure deterioration and four patients reported remission of npS. This case-cohort study provides evidence that ANT-DBS interrupts sleep in a voltage-dependent manner, thus putatively resulting in an increase of npS. Reduction of nocturnal DBS voltage seems to lead to improvement of npS without hampering efficacy of ANT-DBS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Optimization of tannase production by Aureobasidium pullulans DBS66.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pati, Bikas R

    2007-06-01

    Tannase production by Aureobasidium pullulans DBS66 was optimized. The organism produced maximum tannase in the presence of 1% tannic acid after 36 h. Maximum gallic acid accumulation was observed within 36 h and tannic acid in the fermented broth was completely degraded after 42 h of growth. Glucose had a stimulatory effect on tannase synthesis at 0.1% (w/v) concentration. The organism showed maximum tannase production with (NH4)2HPO4 as nitrogen source. Shaking speed of 120 rpm and 50-ml broth volume have been found to be suitable for maximum tannase production.

  10. A new feature extraction method and classification of early stage Parkinsonian rats with and without DBS treatment.

    PubMed

    Iravani, B; Towhidkhah, F; Roghani, M

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson Disease (PD) is one of the most common neural disorders worldwide. Different treatments such as medication and deep brain stimulation (DBS) have been proposed to minimize and control Parkinson's symptoms. DBS has been recognized as an effective approach to decrease most movement disorders of PD. In this study, a new method is proposed for feature extraction and separation of treated and untreated Parkinsonan rats. For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 12.5 μg/5 μl of saline-ascorbate)-lesioned rats were treated with DBS. We performed a behavioral experiment and video tracked traveled trajectories of rats. Then, we investigated the effect of deep brain stimulation of subthalamus nucleus on their behavioral movements. Time, frequency and chaotic features of traveled trajectories were extracted. These features provide the ability to quantify the behavioral movements of Parkinsonian rats. The results showed that the traveled trajectories of untreated were more convoluted with the different time/frequency response. Compared to the traditional features used before to quantify the animals' behavior, the new features improved classification accuracy up to 80 % for untreated and treated rats.

  11. Pulsatile desynchronizing delayed feedback for closed-loop deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lysyansky, Borys; Rosenblum, Michael; Pikovsky, Arkady; Tass, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency (HF) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the gold standard for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, with a significant potential for application to other neurological diseases. The standard setup of HF DBS utilizes an open-loop stimulation protocol, where a permanent HF electrical pulse train is administered to the brain target areas irrespectively of the ongoing neuronal dynamics. Recent experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that a closed-loop, adaptive DBS might be superior to the open-loop setup. We here combine the notion of the adaptive high-frequency stimulation approach, that aims at delivering stimulation adapted to the extent of appropriately detected biomarkers, with specifically desynchronizing stimulation protocols. To this end, we extend the delayed feedback stimulation methods, which are intrinsically closed-loop techniques and specifically designed to desynchronize abnormal neuronal synchronization, to pulsatile electrical brain stimulation. We show that permanent pulsatile high-frequency stimulation subjected to an amplitude modulation by linear or nonlinear delayed feedback methods can effectively and robustly desynchronize a STN-GPe network of model neurons and suggest this approach for desynchronizing closed-loop DBS. PMID:28273176

  12. Creating and parameterizing patient-specific deep brain stimulation pathway-activation models using the hyperdirect pathway as an example

    PubMed Central

    Gunalan, Kabilar; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Howell, Bryan; Duchin, Yuval; Lempka, Scott F.; Patriat, Remi; Sapiro, Guillermo; Harel, Noam; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established clinical therapy and computational models have played an important role in advancing the technology. Patient-specific DBS models are now common tools in both academic and industrial research, as well as clinical software systems. However, the exact methodology for creating patient-specific DBS models can vary substantially and important technical details are often missing from published reports. Objective Provide a detailed description of the assembly workflow and parameterization of a patient-specific DBS pathway-activation model (PAM) and predict the response of the hyperdirect pathway to clinical stimulation. Methods Integration of multiple software tools (e.g. COMSOL, MATLAB, FSL, NEURON, Python) enables the creation and visualization of a DBS PAM. An example DBS PAM was developed using 7T magnetic resonance imaging data from a single unilaterally implanted patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This detailed description implements our best computational practices and most elaborate parameterization steps, as defined from over a decade of technical evolution. Results Pathway recruitment curves and strength-duration relationships highlight the non-linear response of axons to changes in the DBS parameter settings. Conclusion Parameterization of patient-specific DBS models can be highly detailed and constrained, thereby providing confidence in the simulation predictions, but at the expense of time demanding technical implementation steps. DBS PAMs represent new tools for investigating possible correlations between brain pathway activation patterns and clinical symptom modulation. PMID:28441410

  13. [Deep brain stimulation - expectations and doubts. A nationwide questionnaire study of patients with Parkinson's disease and their family members].

    PubMed

    Südmeyer, M; Volkmann, J; Wojtecki, L; Deuschl, G; Schnitzler, A; Möller, B

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to determine the decision-making motives from Parkinson's patients and their family members for deep brain stimulation (DBS), which are crucial for the attitude towards this therapy and which should be considered during the clinical interview. The questionnaire was sent out nationwide to members of the German Parkinson Association. Patient and family specific data as well as information sources, doubts and expectations with respect to DBS were assessed. A total of 582 patients and 476 family members answered the questionnaire, revealing that 96% of the patients and 91% of the family members already possessed information regarding DBS. While a large proportion of interviewees had specific expectations concerning DBS, more than two thirds expressed concerns regarding DBS; the most frequent with respect to intraoperative complications and stimulation-induced worsening of symptoms. The quantity of realistic patients and family expectations significantly correlated with a positive evaluation of DBS and doubts as well as unrealistic expectations of family members correlated with a negative attitude towards the operation. The findings suggest that patients and their relatives organized in support groups indeed possess detailed information regarding DBS. However, for the acceptance of the treatment a timely elucidation about DBS as well as responding to the individual concerns by the consulting physician is essential.

  14. Implementing DBS methodology for the determination of Compound A in monkey blood: GLP method validation and investigation of the impact of blood spreading on performance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Leimin; Lee, Jacob; Hall, Jeffrey; Tolentino, Edward J; Wu, Huaiqin; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol

    2011-06-01

    This article describes validation work for analysis of an Abbott investigational drug (Compound A) in monkey whole blood with dried blood spots (DBS). The impact of DBS spotting volume on analyte concentration was investigated. The quantitation range was between 30.5 and 10,200 ng/ml. Accuracy and precision of quality controls, linearity of calibration curves, matrix effect, selectivity, dilution, recovery and multiple stabilities were evaluated in the validation, and all demonstrated acceptable results. Incurred sample reanalysis was performed with 57 out of 58 samples having a percentage difference (versus the mean value) less than 20%. A linear relationship between the spotting volume and the spot area was drawn. The influence of spotting volume on concentration was discussed. All validation results met good laboratory practice acceptance requirements. Radial spreading of blood on DBS cards can be a factor in DBS concentrations at smaller spotting volumes.

  15. Downlinks for DBS - Design and engineering considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecker, M.; Martin, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The subsystem interrelationships and design parameters choice procedures for a DBS downlink design are discussed from a business decisions point of view. The image quality is determined by customer satisfaction, which is translated to a required carrier/noise (C/N) ratio. The C/N ratio defines acceptable levels of signal fading, a subjective value which is modified by the demographics of the service area. Increasing the satellite on-board transmitting power to meet acceptable broadcast reliability places burdens on the start-up capitalization of the business. Larger receiving antennas in rural areas ameliorates some of the power requirements. The dish size, however, affects the labor costs of installation, but must be kept small enough to be used in heavily populated areas. The satellites must be built, as far as is possible, from off-the-shelf components to keep costs down. Design selections for a sample complete system are listed.

  16. Long-term effect of low frequency stimulation of STN on dysphagia, freezing of gait and other motor symptoms in PD.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Bloom, Lisa; Padmanaban, Mahesh; Bertacchi, Breanna; Kang, Wenjun; MacCracken, Ellen; Dachman, Abraham; Vigil, Julie; Satzer, David; Zadikoff, Cindy; Markopoulou, Katerina; Warnke, Peter; Kang, Un Jung

    2018-04-13

    To evaluate the long-term effect of 60 Hz stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on dysphagia, freezing of gait (FOG) and other motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have FOG at the usual 130 Hz stimulation. This is a prospective, sequence randomised, crossover, double-blind study. PD patients with medication refractory FOG at 130 Hz stimulation of the STN were randomised to the sequences of 130 Hz, 60 Hz or deep brain stimulation off to assess swallowing function (videofluoroscopic evaluation and swallowing questionnaire), FOG severity (stand-walk-sit test and FOG questionnaire) and motor function (Unified PD Rating Scale, Part III motor examination (UPDRS-III)) at initial visit (V1) and follow-up visit (V2, after being on 60 Hz stimulation for an average of 14.5 months), in their usual medications on state. The frequency of aspiration events, perceived swallowing difficulty and FOG severity at 60 Hz compared with 130 Hz stimulation at V2, and their corresponding changes at V2 compared with V1 at 60 Hz were set as primary outcomes, with similar comparisons in UPDRS-III and its subscores as secondary outcomes. All 11 enrolled participants completed V1 and 10 completed V2. We found the benefits of 60 Hz stimulation compared with 130 Hz in reducing aspiration frequency, perceived swallowing difficulty, FOG severity, bradykinesia and overall axial and motor symptoms at V1 and persistent benefits on all of them except dysphagia at V2, with overall decreasing efficacy when comparing V2 to V1. The 60 Hz stimulation, when compared with 130 Hz, has long-term benefits on reducing FOG, bradykinesia and overall axial and motor symptoms except dysphagia, although the overall benefits decrease with long-term use. NCT02549859;Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Subthalamic nucleus modulates social and anxogenic-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Jean-Michel; Naudet, Florian; Pihan, Morgane; Saïkali, Stephan; Laviolle, Bruno; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle

    2013-09-01

    In Parkinson's disease, global social maladjustment and anxiety are frequent after subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation and are generally considered to be linked with sociofamilial alterations induced by the motor effects of stimulation. We hypothesized that the STN is per se involved in these changes and aimed to explore the role of STN in social and anxogenic-like behaviors using an animal model. Nineteen male Wistar rats with bilateral lesions of the STN were compared with 26 sham-lesioned rats by synchronizing an ethological approach based upon direct observation of social behaviors and a standardized approach, the elevated plus maze (EPM). Comparisons between groups were performed by a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Lesioned rats showed impairments in their social (P=0.05) and aggressive behaviors with a diminution of attacking (P=0.04) and chasing (P=0.06). In the EPM, concerning the open arms, the percentage of distance, time, inactive time, and entry were significantly decreased in lesioned rats (P=0.02, P=0.01, P=0.04, and P=0.05). The time spent in non-protected head dips was also diminished in the lesioned rats (P=0.01). These results strongly implicate the STN in social behavior and anxogenic-like behavior. In human, as DBS induces changes in the underlying dynamics of the stimulated brain networks, it could create an abnormal brain state in which anxiety and social behavior are altered. These results highlight another level of complexity of the behavioral changes after stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bimanual Force Coordination in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gorniak, Stacey L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Alberts, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies of bimanual actions similar to activities of daily living (ADLs) are currently lacking in evaluating fine motor control in Parkinson’s disease patients implanted with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulators. We investigated basic time and force characteristics of a bimanual task that resembles performance of ADLs in a group of bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients. Methods Patients were evaluated in three different DBS parameter conditions off stimulation, on clinically derived stimulation parameters, and on settings derived from a patient-specific computational model. Model-based parameters were computed as a means to minimize spread of current to non-motor regions of the subthalamic nucleus via Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. Patients were evaluated off parkinsonian medications in each stimulation condition. Results The data indicate that DBS parameter state does not affect most aspects of fine motor control in ADL-like tasks; however, features such as increased grip force and grip symmetry varied with the stimulation state. In the absence of DBS parameters, patients exhibited significant grip force asymmetry. Overall UPDRS-III and UPDRS-III scores associated with hand function were lower while patients were experiencing clinically-derived or model-based parameters, as compared to the off-stimulation condition. Conclusion While bilateral subthalamic DBS has been shown to alleviate gross motor dysfunction, our results indicate that DBS may not provide the same magnitude of benefit to fine motor coordination. PMID:24244388

  19. Neuropsychological function before and after subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation in patients with treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Moreines, Jared L; McClintock, Shawn M; Kelley, Mary E; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Mayberg, Helen S

    2014-08-01

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a pervasive and difficult to treat condition for which deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate white matter (SCCwm) is an emerging therapeutic option. However, neuropsychological safety data for this novel treatment have only been published for a small number of subjects. Moreover, little is known regarding the neuropsychological profile present in TRD patients at baseline, prior to initiation of DBS therapy. This report describes the neuropsychological effects of TRD and acute and chronic DBS of the SCCwm in patients with unipolar and bipolar TRD. Patients with TRD (N = 17) were compared to a healthy control group (N = 15) on subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and the Stroop Task. Patients were then tested again at subsequent time points of 1 and 6 months following the initiation of chronic DBS of the SCCwm. Patients with TRD showed similar levels of performance to healthy controls on most neuropsychological measures, with the exception that the TRD group had slower processing speed. Patients with bipolar TRD, relative to those with unipolar TRD, obtained lower scores on measures of executive function and memory only at baseline. With acute and chronic SCCwm DBS, neuropsychological function improved in multiple domains including processing speed and executive function (planning, set shifting, response inhibition), and memory remained stable. Patients with TRD show slowed processing speed but otherwise largely preserved neuropsychological functioning. DBS of the SCCwm does not result in worsening of any aspect of neuropsychological function and may improve certain domains. Future research is warranted to better understand the effects of TRD and DBS on neuropsychological function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTION BEFORE AND AFTER SUBCALLOSAL CINGULATE DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION IN PATIENTS WITH TREATMENT-RESISTANT DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Moreines, Jared L.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Kelley, Mary E.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mayberg, Helen S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a pervasive and difficult to treat condition for which deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate white matter (SCCwm) is an emerging therapeutic option. However, neuropsychological safety data for this novel treatment have only been published for a small number of subjects. Moreover, little is known regarding the neuropsychological profile present in TRD patients at baseline, prior to initiation of DBS therapy. This report describes the neuropsychological effects of TRD and acute and chronic DBS of the SCCwm in patients with unipolar and bipolar TRD. Methods Patients with TRD (N =17) were compared to a healthy control group (N = 15) on subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and the Stroop Task. Patients were then tested again at subsequent time points of 1 and 6 months following the initiation of chronic DBS of the SCCwm. Results Patients with TRD showed similar levels of performance to healthy controls on most neuropsychological measures, with the exception that the TRD group had slower processing speed. Patients with bipolar TRD, relative to those with unipolar TRD, obtained lower scores on measures of executive function and memory only at baseline. With acute and chronic SCCwm DBS, neuropsychological function improved in multiple domains including processing speed and executive function (planning, set shifting, response inhibition), and memory remained stable. Conclusions Patients with TRD show slowed processing speed but otherwise largely preserved neuropsychological functioning. DBS of the SCCwm does not result in worsening of any aspect of neuropsychological function and may improve certain domains. Future research is warranted to better understand the effects of TRD and DBS on neuropsychological function. PMID:24753183

  1. The effect of selective tibial neurotomy and rehabilitation in a quadriplegic patient with ankle spasticity following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Seong Ho; Ahn, Sang Ho; Cho, Yun Woo; Ahn, Mi Ok

    2004-08-31

    Ankle spasticity following brain injury leads to abnormal posture and joint contracture; making standing or walking impossible. This study investigates the efficacy of selective tibial neurotomy (STN) and intensive rehabilitation in a patient who suffered ankle spasticity after brain injury. This case describes a 37-year-old man whose traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulted in severe right ankle spasticity and contracture. He was unable to stand due to severe right ankle spasticity and contracture. Intensive rehabilitation and STN allowed him to walk without brace at 6 months and run at 12 months after STN. STN is an effective procedure to resolve localized spasticity of the ankle and it may be considered as a management strategy after local injection to alleviate ankle spasticity and/or contracture prior to orthopaedic surgery.

  2. Electrocorticography reveals beta desynchronization in the basal ganglia-cortical loop during rest tremor in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Salman E.; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole C.; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Ostrem, Jill L.; Starr, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of rest tremor in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not well understood, and its severity does not correlate with the severity of other cardinal signs of PD. We hypothesized that tremor-related oscillatory activity in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical loop might serve as a compensatory mechanism for the excessive beta band synchronization associated with the parkinsonian state. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the sensorimotor cortex and local field potentials (LFP) from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients undergoing lead implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We analyzed differences in measures of network synchronization during epochs of spontaneous rest tremor, versus epochs without rest tremor, occurring in the same subjects. The presence of tremor was associated with reduced beta power in the cortex and STN. Cortico-cortical coherence and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreased during rest tremor, as did basal ganglia-cortical coherence in the same frequency band. Cortical broadband gamma power was not increased by tremor onset, in contrast to the movement-related gamma increase typically observed at the onset of voluntary movement. These findings suggest that the cortical representation of rest tremor is distinct from that of voluntary movement, and support a model in which tremor acts to decrease beta band synchronization within the basal ganglia-cortical loop. PMID:26639855

  3. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies: Comparing lipids and metabolites in serum and DBS samples

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Casey, Cameron P.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability for sampling in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature and compared them to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if they could be effectively used as specific time points in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. Four hundred small molecules weremore » identified in both the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC-IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant polar metabolite in a case-control study was conserved, indicating degradation occurs in the DBS samples affecting quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, thirty-six statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types indicating that lipid quantitation was more stable across the sample types.« less

  4. Deep brain stimulation for patients with Parkinson's disease: Effect on caregiver burden.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Burillo, J A; Rivero-Celada, D; Saenz-de Cabezón, A; Casado-Pellejero, J; Alberdi-Viñas, J; Alarcia-Alejos, R

    2018-04-01

    Our aim is to assess the burden on caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) compared to those caring for patients at advanced stages and undergoing other treatments. We have also assessed the variables associated with presence of caregiver overload. We included consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease treated with DBS. Our control group included patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease undergoing other treatments. Patients were assessed with the following scales: UPDRS-II, UPDRS-III, UPDRS-IV, Hoehn and Yahr, Schwab & England, Barthel, PDQ-39, MoCA, Apathy Evaluation Scale, HADS, and the abbreviated QUIP. Caregiver burden was evaluated with the Zarit caregiver burden interview and their moods were assessed with the HADS scale. We included 11 patients treated with DBS and 11 with other treatments. For patients treated with DBS, we observed a better quality of life according to the PDQ-39 questionnaire (P=.028), and a lower score on the HADS anxiety subscale (P=.010). Caregiver overload was observed in 54.5% of the caregivers of patients in both groups (P=1.000); Zarit scores were similar (P=.835). Caregiver overload was associated with higher scores on the caregiver's Apathy Evaluation Scale (P=.048) and on the HADS anxiety subscale (P=.006). According to our results, treatment with DBS is not associated with lower caregiver burden. Apathy in patients and anxiety in caregivers are factors associated with the appearance of overload. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Subthalamic Synchronized Oscillatory Activity Correlates With Motor Impairment in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Degen, Katharina; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Brown, Peter; Kühn, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Beta band oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) have been proposed as a pathophysiological signature in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between oscillatory activity in the STN and symptom severity in PD. Methods Subthalamic local field potentials were recorded from 63 PD patients in a dopaminergic OFF state. Power-spectra were analyzed for the frequency range from 5 to 95 Hz and correlated with individual UPDRS-III motor scores in the OFF state. Results A correlation between total UPDRS-III scores and 8 to 35 Hz activity was revealed across all patients (ρ = 0.44, P <.0001). When correlating each frequency bin, a narrow range from 10 to 15 Hz remained significant for the correlation (false discovery rate corrected P <.05). Conclusion Our results show a correlation between local STN 8 to 35 Hz power and impairment in PD, further supporting the role of subthalamic oscillatory activity as a potential biomarker for PD. PMID:27548068

  6. Resting state cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease and with and without subthalamic deep brain stimulation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chunyan; Li, Dianyou; Jiang, Tianxiao; Ince, Nuri Firat; Zhan, Shikun; Zhang, Jing; Sha, Zhiyi; Sun, Bomin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the modification to cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) by subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Spontaneous cortical oscillations of patients with PD were recorded with magnetoencephalography during on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation states. Several features such as average frequency, average power, and relative subband power in regions of interest were extracted in the frequency domain, and these features were correlated with Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III evaluation. The same features were also investigated in patients with PD without surgery and healthy controls. Patients with Parkinson disease without surgery compared with healthy controls had a significantly lower average frequency and an increased average power in 1 to 48 Hz range in whole cortex. Higher relative power in theta and simultaneous decrease in beta and gamma over temporal and occipital were also observed in patients with PD. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity score correlated with the average frequency and with the relative power of beta and gamma in frontal areas. During subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, the average frequency increased significantly when stimulation was on compared with off state. In addition, the relative power dropped in delta, whereas it rose in beta over the whole cortex. Through the course of stimulation, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity and tremor scores correlated with the relative power of alpha over left parietal. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves the symptoms of PD by suppressing the synchronization of alpha rhythm in somatomotor region.

  7. Modulation of subthalamic T-type Ca2+ channels remedies locomotor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Chun-Hwei; Yang, Ya-Chin; Pan, Ming-Kai; Huang, Chen-Syuan; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2011-01-01

    An increase in neuronal burst activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-documented electrophysiological feature of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the causal relationship between subthalamic bursts and PD symptoms and the ionic mechanisms underlying the bursts remain to be established. Here, we have shown that T-type Ca2+ channels are necessary for subthalamic burst firing and that pharmacological blockade of T-type Ca2+ channels reduces motor deficits in a rat model of PD. Ni2+, mibefradil, NNC 55-0396, and efonidipine, which inhibited T-type Ca2+ currents in acutely dissociated STN neurons, but not Cd2+ and nifedipine, which preferentially inhibited L-type or the other non–T-type Ca2+ currents, effectively diminished burst activity in STN slices. Topical administration of inhibitors of T-type Ca2+ channels decreased in vivo STN burst activity and dramatically reduced the locomotor deficits in a rat model of PD. Cd2+ and nifedipine showed no such electrophysiological and behavioral effects. While low-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been considered ineffective in PD, we found that lengthening the duration of the low-frequency depolarizing pulse effectively improved behavioral measures of locomotion in the rat model of PD, presumably by decreasing the availability of T-type Ca2+ channels. We therefore conclude that modulation of subthalamic T-type Ca2+ currents and consequent burst discharges may provide new strategies for the treatment of PD. PMID:21737877

  8. Assessment of the within- and between-lot variability of Whatman™ FTA(®) DMPK and 903(®) DBS papers and their suitability for the quantitative bioanalysis of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Luckwell, Jacquelynn; Denniff, Philip; Capper, Stephen; Michael, Paul; Spooner, Neil; Mallender, Philip; Johnson, Barry; Clegg, Sarah; Green, Mark; Ahmad, Sheelan; Woodford, Lynsey

    2013-11-01

    To ensure that PK data generated from DBS samples are of the highest quality, it is important that the paper substrate is uniform and does not unduly contribute to variability. This study investigated any within and between lot variations for four cellulose paper types: Whatman™ FTA(®) DMPK-A, -B and -C, and 903(®) (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK). The substrates were tested to demonstrate manufacturing reproducibility (thickness, weight, chemical coating concentration) and its effect on the size of the DBS produced, and the quantitative data derived from the bioanalysis of human DBS samples containing six compounds of varying physicochemical properties. Within and between lot variations in paper thickness, mass and chemical coating concentration were within acceptable manufacturing limits. No variation in the spot size or bioanalytical data was observed. Bioanalytical results obtained for DBS samples containing a number of analytes spanning a range of chemical space are not affected by the lot used or by the location within a lot.

  9. Fully automated determination of nicotine and its major metabolites in whole blood by means of a DBS online-SPE LC-HR-MS/MS approach for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Piper, Thomas; Hedeland, Mikael; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-05-10

    Dried blood spots (DBS) represent a sample matrix collected under minimal-invasive, straightforward and robust conditions. DBS specimens have been shown to provide appropriate test material for different analytical disciplines, e.g., preclinical drug development, therapeutic drug monitoring, forensic toxicology and diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in newborns. However, the sample preparation has occasionally been reported as laborious and time consuming. In order to minimize the manual workload and to substantiate the suitability of DBS for high sample-throughput, the automation of sample preparation processes is of paramount interest. In the current study, the development and validation of a fully automated DBS extraction method coupled to online solid-phase extraction using the example of nicotine, its major metabolites nornicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and the tobacco alkaloids anabasine and anatabine is presented, based on the rationale that the use of nicotine-containing products for performance-enhancing purposes has been monitored by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for several years. Automation-derived DBS sample extracts were directed online to liquid chromatography high resolution/high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry, and target analytes were determined with support of four deuterated internal standards. Validation of the method yielded precise (CV <7.5% for intraday and <12.3% for interday measurements) and linear (r(2)>0.998) results. The limit of detection was established at 5 ng mL(-1) for all studied compounds, the extraction recovery ranged from 25 to 44%, and no matrix effects were observed. To exemplify the applicability of the DBS online-SPE LC-MS/MS approach for sports drug testing purposes, the method was applied to authentic DBS samples obtained from smokers, snus users, and e-cigarette users. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results indicated differences in metabolic behavior depending on the route

  10. Administration of electroconvulsive therapy for depression associated with deep brain stimulation in a patient with post-traumatic Parkinson's Disease: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Miles G; Yadollahikhales, Golnaz; Vitaliano, Gordana; van Horne, Craig

    2016-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective for parkinsonian symptoms poorly responsive to medications. DBS is typically well-tolerated, as are the maintenance battery changes. Here we describe an adverse event during a battery replacement procedure that caused rapid onset of severe depression. The patient is a 58-year-old woman who was in a serious motor vehicle accident and sustained a concussion with loss of consciousness. Within weeks of the accident she began developing parkinsonian symptoms that progressively worsened over the subsequent 10 years. Responding poorly to medications, she received DBS, which controlled her movement symptoms. Five years after initiating DBS, during a routine battery change, an apparent electrical event occurred that triggered the rapid onset of severe depression. Anti-seizure and antidepressant medications were ineffective, and the patient was offered a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which resulted in complete reversal of her depressive episode. Parkinson's syndrome can be seen after a single closed head injury event. Post-traumatic parkinsonism is responsive to DBS; however, DBS has been associated with an infrequent occurrence of dramatic disruption in mood. ECT is a therapeutic option for patients who develop intractable depressive illness associated with DBS.

  11. The Use of Dried Blood Spots for Pharmacokinetic Monitoring of Vemurafenib Treatment in Melanoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, Cynthia M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Marchetti, Serena; Blank, Christian; Haanen, John B A G; van Thienen, Johannes V; Rosing, Hilde; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic monitoring is increasingly becoming an important part of clinical care of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Vemurafenib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits mutated serine/threonine protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF) and is approved for the treatment of adult patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between dried blood spot (DBS) and plasma concentrations of vemurafenib to enable the use of DBS sampling, which is a minimally invasive form of sample collection. In total, 43 paired plasma and DBS samples (in duplicate) were obtained from 8 melanoma patients on vemurafenib therapy and were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations were predicted from the DBS concentrations using 2 methods: (1) individual hematocrit correction and blood cell-to-plasma partitioning and (2) the calculated slope explaining the relationship between DBS and plasma concentrations (without individual hematocrit correction). Vemurafenib DBS concentrations and plasma concentrations showed a strong correlation (r = 0.964), and the relationship could be described by ([vemurafenib]plasma = [vemurafenib]DBS /0.64). The predicted plasma concentrations were within ±20% of the analyzed plasma concentrations in 97% and 100% of the samples for the methods with and without hematocrit correction, respectively. In conclusion, DBS concentrations and plasma concentrations of vemurafenib are highly correlated. Plasma concentrations can be predicted from DBS concentration using the blood cell-to-plasma partition and the average hematocrit value of this cohort (0.40 L/L). DBS sampling for pharmacokinetic monitoring of vemurafenib treatment can be used in clinical practice. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Bibliometric profile of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kejia; Moses, Ziev B; Xu, Wendong; Williams, Ziv

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to identify and analyze the characteristics of the 100 most highly-cited papers in the research field of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The Web of Science was searched for highly-cited papers related to DBS research. The number of citations, countries, institutions of origin, year of publication, and research area were noted and analyzed. The 100 most highly-cited articles had a mean of 304.15 citations. These accrued an average of 25.39 citations a year. The most represented target by far was the subthalamic nucleus (STN). These articles were published in 46 high-impact journals, with Brain (n = 10) topping the list. These articles came from 11 countries, with the USA contributing the most highly-cited articles (n = 29); however, it was the University of Toronto (n = 13) in Canada that was the institution with the most highly-cited studies. This study identified the 100 most highly-cited studies and highlighted a historical perspective on the progress in the field of DBS. These findings allow for the recognition of the most influential reports and provide useful information that can indicate areas requiring further investigation.

  13. Quantification of sulfatides in dried blood and urine spots from metachromatic leukodystrophy patients by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barcenas, Mariana; Suhr, Teryn R; Scott, C Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H

    2014-06-10

    Treatments are being developed for metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), suggesting the need for eventual newborn screening. Previous studies have shown that sulfatide molecular species are increased in the urine of MLD patients compared to samples from non-MLD individuals, but there is no data using dried blood spots (DBS), the most common sample available for newborn screening laboratories. We used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) to quantify sulfatides in DBS and dried urine spots from 14 MLD patients and 50 non-MLD individuals. Several sulfatide molecular species were increased in dried urine samples from all MLD samples compared to non-MLD samples. Sulfatides, especially low molecular species, were increased in DBS from MLD patients, but the sulfatide levels were relatively low. There was good separation in sulfatide levels between MLD and non-MLD samples when dried urine spots were used, but not with DBS, because DBS from non-MLD individuals have measurable levels of sulfatides. Sulfatide accumulation studies in urine, but not in DBS, emerges as the method of choice if newborn screening is to be proposed for MLD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in Therapeutic Options for Gait and Balance in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Albin, Roger L.; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Chou, Kelvin

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to explore non-dopaminergic approaches to treating balance and gait problems in PD. There is emerging evidence on the role of cholinergic denervation of the PPN-thalamus system and falls in PD. Preliminary clinical trial data suggest that the subgroup of PD patients with frequent falls may be suitable candidates for future cholinergic augmentation clinical trials. Recent controlled clinical trials using methylphenidate have been unable to confirm earlier reports of improved gait in PD. Although progressive deterioration of axial motor symptoms occur with DBS of the STN or GPi, new preliminary research suggests that other surgical stimulation sites, such as the PPN, may have a potential benefit on gait and balance impairments in PD. Ongoing vigorous exercise and physical fitness should be highly encouraged to patients with PD who are at risk of physical deconditioning and fear of falling but effective anti-fall physical therapy interventions remain an unmet clinical need. PMID:24348751

  15. Common and unique responses to dopamine agonist therapy and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: an H(2)(15)O PET study.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Trent J; Metman, Leonard Verhagen; Contreras-Vidal, José L; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Hosey, Lara A; Thompson, Jennifer L W; Schulz, Geralyn M; Lenz, Fredrick; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Braun, Allen R

    2012-10-01

    Dopamine agonist therapy and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are antiparkinsonian treatments that act on a different part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuitry, yet produce similar symptomatic improvements. The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique brain network features of these standard treatments. We analyzed images produced by H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at rest. Nine patients were scanned before and after injection of apomorphine, and 11 patients were scanned while bilateral stimulators were off and while they were on. Both treatments produced common deactivations of the neocortical sensorimotor areas, including the supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus, and in subcortical structures, including the putamen and cerebellum. We observed concomitant activations of the superior parietal lobule and the midbrain in the region of the substantia nigra/STN. We also detected unique, treatment-specific changes with possible motor-related consequences in the basal ganglia, thalamus, neocortical sensorimotor cortex, and posterolateral cerebellum. Unique changes in nonmotor regions may reflect treatment-specific effects on verbal fluency and limbic functions. Many of the common effects of these treatments are consistent with the standard pathophysiologic model of PD. However, the common effects in the cerebellum are not readily explained by the model. Consistent deactivation of the cerebellum is interesting in light of recent reports of synaptic pathways directly connecting the cerebellum and basal ganglia, and may warrant further consideration for incorporation into the model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Lack of benefit of accumbens/capsular deep brain stimulation in a patient with both tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Adam; Foote, Kelly D; Goodman, Wayne; Ward, Herbert E; Ricciuti, Nicola; Murphy, Tanya; Haq, Ihtsham; Okun, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    LAY SUMMARY: This case report illustrates lack of clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for control of tics in a case of mild Tourette syndrome (TS) with severe comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The brain target for stimulation was the anterior limb internal capsule (ALIC). To investigate the effect of anterior limb of internal capsule/nucleus accumbens (ALIC-NA) DBS on mild motor and vocal tics in a Tourette syndrome (TS) patient with severe OCD. The optimum target to address symptoms of TS with DBS remains unknown. Earlier lesional therapy utilized thalamic targets and also the ALIC for select cases which had been diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders. Evidence regarding the efficacy of DBS for the symptoms of TS may aid in better defining a brain target's suitability for use. We report efficacy data on ALIC-NA DBS in a patient with severe OCD and mild TS. A 33-year-old man underwent bilateral ALIC-NA DBS. One month following implantation, a post-operative CT scan was obtained to verify lead locations. Yale Global Tic Severity Scales (YGTSS) and modified Rush Videotape Rating scales (MRVRS) were obtained throughout the first 6 months, as well as careful clinical examinations by a specialized neurology and psychiatry team. The patient has been followed for 30 months. YGTSS scores worsened by 17% during the first 6 months. MRVRS scores also worsened over 30 total months of follow-up. There was a lack of clinically significant tic reduction although subjectively the patient felt tics improved mildly. DBS in the ALIC-NA failed to effectively address mild vocal and motor tics in a patient with TS and severe comorbid OCD.

  17. Experimental results supporting the determination of service quality objectives for DBS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, G.; Whyte, W. A., Jr.; Goldberg, A. A.; Jones, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the results of a joint United States and Canadian program on subjective measurements of the picture degradation caused by noise and interference on an NTSC encoded color television signal is given in this paper. The effects of system noise, cochannel and adjacent channel interference, and both single entry and aggregate as well as a combination of these types of interference were subjectively evaluated by expert and nonexpert viewers under reference conditions. These results were used to develop the rationale used at RARC '83 to establish the service quality objective for planning the DBS service for the American continents.

  18. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Knowledge and concerns among psychiatrists, psychotherapists and patients.

    PubMed

    Naesström, Matilda; Blomstedt, Patric; Hariz, Marwan; Bodlund, Owe

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under investigation for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to other therapies. The number of implants worldwide is slowly increasing. Therefore, it is of importance to explore knowledge and concerns of this novel treatment among patients and their psychiatric healthcare contacts. This information is relevant for scientific professionals working with clinical studies for DBS for this indication. Especially, for future study designs and the creation of information targeting healthcare professionals and patients. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and concerns toward DBS among patients with OCD, psychiatrists, and cognitive behavioral therapists. The study was conducted through web-based surveys for the aimed target groups -psychiatrist, patients, and cognitive behavioral therapists. The surveys contained questions regarding previous knowledge of DBS, source of knowledge, attitudes, and concerns towards the therapy. The main source of information was from scientific sources among psychiatrists and psychotherapists. The patient's main source of information was the media. Common concerns among the groups included complications from surgery, anesthesia, stimulation side effects, and the novelty of the treatment. Specific concerns for the groups included; personality changes mentioned by patients and psychotherapists, and ethical concerns among psychiatrists. There are challenges for DBS in OCD as identified by the participants of this study; source and quality of information, efficacy, potential adverse effects, and eligibility. In all of which the current evidence base still is limited. A broad research agenda is needed for studies going forward.

  19. Chinese expert consensus on programming deep brain stimulation for patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengdi; Gao, Guodong; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) is now a well-established option for some patients. Postoperative standardized programming processes can improve the level of postoperative management and programming, relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. In order to improve the quality of the programming, the experts on DBS and PD in neurology and neurosurgery in China reviewed the relevant literatures and combined their own experiences and developed this expert consensus on the programming of deep brain stimulation in patients with PD in China. This Chinese expert consensus on postoperative programming can standardize and improve postoperative management and programming of DBS for PD.

  20. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    support of this effort, and acknowleedge in-kind support from the estate of William Herschel Womble. Details at website www.du.edu/~rstencel/stn.htm.

  1. Aspects of oral communication in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Aline Nunes da; Beber, Bárbara Costa; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Rieder, Carlos Roberto de Mello; Dornelles, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been satisfactorily used to control the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about its impact on communication. This study aimed to characterize the aspects of cognition, language, speech, voice, and self-perception in two patients with PD, pre- and post- DBS implant surgery. The patients were assessed using a cognitive screening test, a brief language evaluation, a self-declared protocol, and an analysis of the aspects of voice and speech, which was conducted by a specialized Speech-language Therapist who was blinded for the study. At the pre-surgery assessment, Case I showed impairment regarding the aspects of cognition, language and voice, whereas Case II showed impairment only with respect to the voice aspect. The post-surgery evaluation of the cases showed an opposite pattern of the effect of DBS after analysis of the communication data: Case I, who presented greater impairment before the surgery, showed improvement in some aspects; Case II, who presented lower communicative impairment before the surgery, showed worsening in other aspects. This study shows that DBS may influence different communication aspects both positively and negatively. Factors associated with the different effects caused by DBS on the communication of patients with PD need to be further investigated.

  2. Electrocorticography reveals beta desynchronization in the basal ganglia-cortical loop during rest tremor in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Salman E; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole C; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Ostrem, Jill L; Starr, Philip A

    2016-02-01

    The pathophysiology of rest tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well understood, and its severity does not correlate with the severity of other cardinal signs of PD. We hypothesized that tremor-related oscillatory activity in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical loop might serve as a compensatory mechanism for the excessive beta band synchronization associated with the parkinsonian state. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the sensorimotor cortex and local field potentials (LFP) from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients undergoing lead implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We analyzed differences in measures of network synchronization during epochs of spontaneous rest tremor, versus epochs without rest tremor, occurring in the same subjects. The presence of tremor was associated with reduced beta power in the cortex and STN. Cortico-cortical coherence and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreased during rest tremor, as did basal ganglia-cortical coherence in the same frequency band. Cortical broadband gamma power was not increased by tremor onset, in contrast to the movement-related gamma increase typically observed at the onset of voluntary movement. These findings suggest that the cortical representation of rest tremor is distinct from that of voluntary movement, and support a model in which tremor acts to decrease beta band synchronization within the basal ganglia-cortical loop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Deep brain stimulation abolishes slowing of reactions to unlikely stimuli.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Bogacz, Rafal; Kennard, Christopher; FitzGerald, James J; Aziz, Tipu; Green, Alexander L

    2014-08-13

    The cortico-basal-ganglia circuit plays a critical role in decision making on the basis of probabilistic information. Computational models have suggested how this circuit could compute the probabilities of actions being appropriate according to Bayes' theorem. These models predict that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides feedback that normalizes the neural representation of probabilities, such that if the probability of one action increases, the probabilities of all other available actions decrease. Here we report the results of an experiment testing a prediction of this theory that disrupting information processing in the STN with deep brain stimulation should abolish the normalization of the neural representation of probabilities. In our experiment, we asked patients with Parkinson's disease to saccade to a target that could appear in one of two locations, and the probability of the target appearing in each location was periodically changed. When the stimulator was switched off, the target probability affected the reaction times (RT) of patients in a similar way to healthy participants. Specifically, the RTs were shorter for more probable targets and, importantly, they were longer for the unlikely targets. When the stimulator was switched on, the patients were still faster for more probable targets, but critically they did not increase RTs as the target was becoming less likely. This pattern of results is consistent with the prediction of the model that the patients on DBS no longer normalized their neural representation of prior probabilities. We discuss alternative explanations for the data in the context of other published results. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410844-09$15.00/0.

  4. The Effect of Uni- and Bilateral Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Speech in Patients With Essential Tremor: Acoustics and Intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johannes; Barbe, Michael T; Hartinger, Mariam; Dembek, Till A; Pochmann, Jil; Wirths, Jochen; Allert, Niels; Mücke, Doris; Hermes, Anne; Meister, Ingo G; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Grice, Martine; Timmermann, Lars

    2017-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) is performed to suppress medically-resistant essential tremor (ET). However, stimulation induced dysarthria (SID) is a common side effect, limiting the extent to which tremor can be suppressed. To date, the exact pathogenesis of SID in VIM-DBS treated ET patients is unknown. We investigate the effect of inactivated, uni- and bilateral VIM-DBS on speech production in patients with ET. We employ acoustic measures, tempo, and intelligibility ratings and patient's self-estimated speech to quantify SID, with a focus on comparing bilateral to unilateral stimulation effects and the effect of electrode position on speech. Sixteen German ET patients participated in this study. Each patient was acoustically recorded with DBS-off, unilateral-right-hemispheric-DBS-on, unilateral-left-hemispheric-DBS-on, and bilateral-DBS-on during an oral diadochokinesis task and a read German standard text. To capture the extent of speech impairment, we measured syllable duration and intensity ratio during the DDK task. Naïve listeners rated speech tempo and speech intelligibility of the read text on a 5-point-scale. Patients had to rate their "ability to speak". We found an effect of bilateral compared to unilateral and inactivated stimulation on syllable durations and intensity ratio, as well as on external intelligibility ratings and patients' VAS scores. Additionally, VAS scores are associated with more laterally located active contacts. For speech ratings, we found an effect of syllable duration such that tempo and intelligibility was rated worse for speakers exhibiting greater syllable durations. Our data confirms that SID is more pronounced under bilateral compared to unilateral stimulation. Laterally located electrodes are associated with more severe SID according to patient's self-ratings. We can confirm the relation between diadochokinetic rate and SID in that listener's tempo and intelligibility ratings can be

  5. Short-Term Adverse Outcomes After Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kejia; Moses, Ziev B; Hutter, Matthew M; Williams, Ziv

    2017-02-01

    Despite ongoing progress in our understanding of long-term outcomes after neuromodulation procedures, acute adverse outcomes shortly after deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment have remained remarkably limited. To identify risk factors associated with acute 30-day outcomes after DBS treatment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). We evaluated patients who underwent DBS treatment for PD from 2005 to 2014 through the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. We used bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression to identify short-term postoperative outcomes, including 30-day complication, discharge destination, and unplanned readmission. Overall, 650 patients with PD underwent DBS procedures and complications were identified in 32 patients (4.9%). Of 481 patients who had complete discharge data, 18 patients (3.7%) were discharged to a facility and 16 patients (3.3%) experienced an unplanned readmission. Patients with PD who were obese (P = 0.045), who had preoperative anemia (P = 0.008), and who experienced longer operative durations (P = 0.01) had increased odds of postoperative complications. Inpatient status (P = 0.001), dependent functional status (P < 0.001), and anemia (P = 0.043) were all associated with discharge to a facility other than home. Longer operative duration (P = 0.013), anemia (P = 0.036), and dependent functional status (P = 0.03) were significantly associated with unplanned readmission. As expected, complications increased the likelihood of unplanned readmission (P < 0.001). This study provides individualized estimates of the risks associated with short-term adverse outcomes based on patient demographics and comorbidities. These data can be used as an adjunct for short-term risk stratification of patients with PD being considered for DBS treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Current steering to activate targeted neural pathways during deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic region

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Foutz, Thomas J.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has steadily evolved into an established surgical therapy for numerous neurological disorders, most notably Parkinson’s disease (PD). Traditional DBS technology relies on voltage-controlled stimulation with a single source; however, recent engineering advances are providing current-controlled devices with multiple independent sources. These new stimulators deliver constant current to the brain tissue, irrespective of impedance changes that occur around the electrode, and enable more specific steering of current towards targeted regions of interest. In this study, we examined the impact of current steering between multiple electrode contacts to directly activate three distinct neural populations in the subthalamic region commonly stimulated for the treatment of PD: projection neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus internus (GPi) fibers of the lenticular fasiculus, and internal capsule (IC) fibers of passage. We used three-dimensional finite element electric field models, along with detailed multi-compartment cable models of the three neural populations to determine their activations using a wide range of stimulation parameter settings. Our results indicate that selective activation of neural populations largely depends on the location of the active electrode(s). Greater activation of the GPi and STN populations (without activating any side-effect related IC fibers) was achieved by current steering with multiple independent sources, compared to a single current source. Despite this potential advantage, it remains to be seen if these theoretical predictions result in a measurable clinical effect that outweighs the added complexity of the expanded stimulation parameter search space generated by the more flexible technology. PMID:22277548

  7. Lead screening in DBS by solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: application to newborns and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rello, Luis; Aramendía, Maite; Belarra, Miguel A; Resano, Martín

    2015-01-01

    DBS have become a clinical specimen especially adequate for establishing home-based collection protocols. In this work, high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is evaluated for the direct monitoring of Pb in DBS, both as a quantitative tool and a screening method. The development of the screening model is based on the establishment of the unreliability region around the threshold limits, 100 or 50 μg l(-1). More than 500 samples were analyzed to validate the model. The screening method demonstrated high sensitivity (the rate of true positives detected was always higher than 95%), an excellent LOD (1 µg l(-1)) and high throughput (10 min per sample).

  8. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  9. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Knowledge and concerns among psychiatrists, psychotherapists and patients

    PubMed Central

    Naesström, Matilda; Blomstedt, Patric; Hariz, Marwan; Bodlund, Owe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under investigation for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to other therapies. The number of implants worldwide is slowly increasing. Therefore, it is of importance to explore knowledge and concerns of this novel treatment among patients and their psychiatric healthcare contacts. This information is relevant for scientific professionals working with clinical studies for DBS for this indication. Especially, for future study designs and the creation of information targeting healthcare professionals and patients. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and concerns toward DBS among patients with OCD, psychiatrists, and cognitive behavioral therapists. Methods: The study was conducted through web-based surveys for the aimed target groups –psychiatrist, patients, and cognitive behavioral therapists. The surveys contained questions regarding previous knowledge of DBS, source of knowledge, attitudes, and concerns towards the therapy. Results: The main source of information was from scientific sources among psychiatrists and psychotherapists. The patient's main source of information was the media. Common concerns among the groups included complications from surgery, anesthesia, stimulation side effects, and the novelty of the treatment. Specific concerns for the groups included; personality changes mentioned by patients and psychotherapists, and ethical concerns among psychiatrists. Conclusion: There are challenges for DBS in OCD as identified by the participants of this study; source and quality of information, efficacy, potential adverse effects, and eligibility. In all of which the current evidence base still is limited. A broad research agenda is needed for studies going forward. PMID:29285414

  10. Deep brain stimulation for the early treatment of the minimally conscious state and vegetative state: experience in 14 patients.

    PubMed

    Chudy, Darko; Deletis, Vedran; Almahariq, Fadi; Marčinković, Petar; Škrlin, Jasenka; Paradžik, Veronika

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE An effective treatment of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) or vegetative state (VS) caused by hypoxic encephalopathy or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet available. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic reticular nuclei has been attempted as a therapeutic procedure mainly in patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic use of DBS for patients in VS or MCS. METHODS Fourteen of 49 patients in VS or MCS qualified for inclusion in this study and underwent DBS. Of these 14 patients, 4 were in MCS and 10 were in VS. The etiology of VS or MCS was TBI in 4 cases and hypoxic encephalopathy due to cardiac arrest in 10. The selection criteria for DBS, evaluating the status of the cerebral cortex and thalamocortical reticular formation, included: neurological evaluation, electrophysiological evaluation, and the results of positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI examinations. The target for DBS was the centromedian-parafascicular (CM-pf) complex. The duration of follow-up ranged from 38 to 60 months. RESULTS Two MCS patients regained consciousness and regained their ability to walk, speak fluently, and live independently. One MCS patient reached the level of consciousness, but was still in a wheelchair at the time the article was written. One VS patient (who had suffered a cerebral ischemic lesion) improved to the level of consciousness and currently responds to simple commands. Three VS patients died of respiratory infection, sepsis, or cerebrovascular insult (1 of each). The other 7 patients remained without substantial improvement of consciousness. CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous recovery from MCS/VS to the level of consciousness with no or minimal need for assistance in everyday life is very rare. Therefore, if a patient in VS or MCS fulfills the selection criteria (presence of somatosensory evoked potentials from upper extremities, motor and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with cerebral glucose

  11. Perceptions of living with a device-based treatment: an account of patients treated with deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Gun-Marie; Hamberg, Katarina

    2014-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease. Little is known about patients' own perceptions of living with the implanted hardware. We aimed to explore patients' own perceptions of living with an implanted device. Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with 42 patients (11 women) who had been on DBS for a mean of three years. The questions focused on patients' experiences of living with and managing the DBS device. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed according to the difference and similarity technique in grounded theory. From the patients' narratives concerning living with and managing the DBS device, the following four categories emerged: 1) The device-not a big issue: although the hardware was felt inside the body and also visible from outside, the device as such was not a big issue. 2) Necessary carefulness: Patients expressed the need to be careful when performing certain daily activities in order not to dislocate or harm the device. 3) Continuous need for professional support: Most patients relied solely on professionals for fine-tuning the stimulation rather than using their handheld controller, even if this entailed numerous visits to a remote hospital. 4) Balancing symptom relief and side-effects: Patients expressed difficulties in finding the optimal match between decrease of symptoms and stimulation-induced side-effects. The in-depth interviews of patients on chronic DBS about their perceptions of living with an implanted device provided useful insights that would be difficult to capture by quantitative evaluations. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  12. The effects of Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on speech dynamics in patients with Essential Tremor: An articulographic study.

    PubMed

    Mücke, Doris; Hermes, Anne; Roettger, Timo B; Becker, Johannes; Niemann, Henrik; Dembek, Till A; Timmermann, Lars; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Fink, Gereon R; Grice, Martine; Barbe, Michael T

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic studies have revealed that patients with Essential Tremor treated with thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may suffer from speech deterioration in terms of imprecise oral articulation and reduced voicing control. Based on the acoustic signal one cannot infer, however, whether this deterioration is due to a general slowing down of the speech motor system (e.g., a target undershoot of a desired articulatory goal resulting from being too slow) or disturbed coordination (e.g., a target undershoot caused by problems with the relative phasing of articulatory movements). To elucidate this issue further, we here investigated both acoustics and articulatory patterns of the labial and lingual system using Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) in twelve Essential Tremor patients treated with thalamic DBS and twelve age- and sex-matched controls. By comparing patients with activated (DBS-ON) and inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF) with control speakers, we show that critical changes in speech dynamics occur on two levels: With inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF), patients showed coordination problems of the labial and lingual system in terms of articulatory imprecision and slowness. These effects of articulatory discoordination worsened under activated stimulation, accompanied by an additional overall slowing down of the speech motor system. This leads to a poor performance of syllables on the acoustic surface, reflecting an aggravation either of pre-existing cerebellar deficits and/or the affection of the upper motor fibers of the internal capsule.

  13. Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy.

    PubMed

    Welter, M-L; Burbaud, P; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Bardinet, E; Coste, J; Piallat, B; Borg, M; Besnard, S; Sauleau, P; Devaux, B; Pidoux, B; Chaynes, P; Tézenas du Montcel, S; Bastian, A; Langbour, N; Teillant, A; Haynes, W; Yelnik, J; Karachi, C; Mallet, L

    2011-05-03

    Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed in 12 OCD patients, in relation to the severity of obsessions and compulsions and response to STN stimulation, and compared with that obtained in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN neurons in OCD patients had lower discharge frequency than those in PD patients, with a similar proportion of burst-type activity (69 vs 67%). Oscillatory activity was present in 46 and 68% of neurons in OCD and PD patients, respectively, predominantly in the low-frequency band (1-8 Hz). In OCD patients, the bursty and oscillatory subthalamic neuronal activity was mainly located in the associative-limbic part. Both OCD severity and clinical improvement following STN stimulation were related to the STN neuronal activity. In patients with the most severe OCD, STN neurons exhibited bursts with shorter duration and interburst interval, but higher intraburst frequency, and more oscillations in the low-frequency bands. In patients with best clinical outcome with STN stimulation, STN neurons displayed higher mean discharge, burst and intraburst frequencies, and lower interburst interval. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a dysfunction in the associative-limbic subdivision of the basal ganglia circuitry in OCD's pathophysiology.

  14. Some Clinically Useful Information that Neuropsychology Provides Patients, Carepartners, Neurologists, and Neurosurgeons About Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tröster, Alexander I

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective (but non-curative) treatment for some of the motor symptoms and treatment complications associated with dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease (PD). DBS can be done relatively safely and is associated with quality of life gains. In most DBS centers, neuropsychological evaluations are performed routinely before surgery, and sometimes after surgery. The purpose of such evaluation is not to decide solely on its results whether or not to offer DBS to a given candidate, but to provide the patient and treatment team with the best available information to make reasonable risk-benefit assessments. This review provides information relevant to the questions often asked by patients and their carepartners, neurologists, and neurosurgeons about neuropsychological outcomes of DBS, including neuropsychological adverse event rates, magnitude of cognitive changes, outcomes after unilateral versus bilateral surgery directed at various targets, impact of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on outcome, factors implicated in neurobehavioral outcomes, and safety of newer interventions or techniques such as asleep surgery and current steering. PMID:29077802

  15. Web-based telemonitoring and delivery of caregiver support for patients with Parkinson disease after deep brain stimulation: protocol.

    PubMed

    Marceglia, Sara; Rossi, Elena; Rosa, Manuela; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Bertolasi, Laura; Vogrig, Alberto; Pinciroli, Francesco; Barbieri, Sergio; Priori, Alberto

    2015-03-06

    The increasing number of patients, the high costs of management, and the chronic progress of the disease that prevents patients from performing even simple daily activities make Parkinson disease (PD) a complex pathology with a high impact on society. In particular, patients implanted with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes face a highly fragile stabilization period, requiring specific support at home. However, DBS patients are followed usually by untrained personnel (caregivers or family), without specific care pathways and supporting systems. This projects aims to (1) create a reference consensus guideline and a shared requirements set for the homecare and monitoring of DBS patients, (2) define a set of biomarkers that provides alarms to caregivers for continuous home monitoring, and (3) implement an information system architecture allowing communication between health care professionals and caregivers and improving the quality of care for DBS patients. The definitions of the consensus care pathway and of caregiver needs will be obtained by analyzing the current practices for patient follow-up through focus groups and structured interviews involving health care professionals, patients, and caregivers. The results of this analysis will be represented in a formal graphical model of the process of DBS patient care at home. To define the neurophysiological biomarkers to be used to raise alarms during the monitoring process, neurosignals will be acquired from DBS electrodes through a new experimental system that records while DBS is turned ON and transmits signals by radiofrequency. Motor, cognitive, and behavioral protocols will be used to study possible feedback/alarms to be provided by the system. Finally, a set of mobile apps to support the caregiver at home in managing and monitoring the patient will be developed and tested in the community of caregivers that participated in the focus groups. The set of developed apps will be connected to the already

  16. Web-Based Telemonitoring and Delivery of Caregiver Support for Patients With Parkinson Disease After Deep Brain Stimulation: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Elena; Rosa, Manuela; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Bertolasi, Laura; Vogrig, Alberto; Pinciroli, Francesco; Barbieri, Sergio; Priori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing number of patients, the high costs of management, and the chronic progress of the disease that prevents patients from performing even simple daily activities make Parkinson disease (PD) a complex pathology with a high impact on society. In particular, patients implanted with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes face a highly fragile stabilization period, requiring specific support at home. However, DBS patients are followed usually by untrained personnel (caregivers or family), without specific care pathways and supporting systems. Objective This projects aims to (1) create a reference consensus guideline and a shared requirements set for the homecare and monitoring of DBS patients, (2) define a set of biomarkers that provides alarms to caregivers for continuous home monitoring, and (3) implement an information system architecture allowing communication between health care professionals and caregivers and improving the quality of care for DBS patients. Methods The definitions of the consensus care pathway and of caregiver needs will be obtained by analyzing the current practices for patient follow-up through focus groups and structured interviews involving health care professionals, patients, and caregivers. The results of this analysis will be represented in a formal graphical model of the process of DBS patient care at home. To define the neurophysiological biomarkers to be used to raise alarms during the monitoring process, neurosignals will be acquired from DBS electrodes through a new experimental system that records while DBS is turned ON and transmits signals by radiofrequency. Motor, cognitive, and behavioral protocols will be used to study possible feedback/alarms to be provided by the system. Finally, a set of mobile apps to support the caregiver at home in managing and monitoring the patient will be developed and tested in the community of caregivers that participated in the focus groups. The set of developed apps will be

  17. Long-Term Effective Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Neuropathic Tremor in Two Patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Cabañes-Martínez, Lidia; Del Álamo de Pedro, Marta; de Blas Beorlegui, Gema; Bailly-Bailliere, Ignacio Regidor

    2017-01-01

    It has been described that many Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome type 2 patients are affected by a very disabling type of tremor syndrome, the pathophysiology of which remains unclear. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully applied to treat most types of tremors by implanting electrodes in the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (Vim). We used DBS applied to the Vim in 2 patients with severe axonal inherited polyneuropathies who developed a disabling tremor. Both patients responded positively to stimulation, with a marked reduction of the tremor and with an improvement of their quality of life. We report 2 cases of tremor associated with a hereditary neuropathy with a good response to DBS. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A common optimization principle for motor execution in healthy subjects and parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Baraduc, Pierre; Thobois, Stéphane; Gan, Jing; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Desmurget, Michel

    2013-01-09

    Recent research on Parkinson's disease (PD) has emphasized that parkinsonian movement, although bradykinetic, shares many attributes with healthy behavior. This observation led to the suggestion that bradykinesia in PD could be due to a reduction in motor motivation. This hypothesis can be tested in the framework of optimal control theory, which accounts for many characteristics of healthy human movement while providing a link between the motor behavior and a cost/benefit trade-off. This approach offers the opportunity to interpret movement deficits of PD patients in the light of a computational theory of normal motor control. We studied 14 PD patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation and 16 age-matched healthy controls, and tested whether reaching movements were governed by similar rules in these two groups. A single optimal control model accounted for the reaching movements of healthy subjects and PD patients, whatever the condition of STN stimulation (on or off). The choice of movement speed was explained in all subjects by the existence of a preset dynamic range for the motor signals. This range was idiosyncratic and applied to all movements regardless of their amplitude. In PD patients this dynamic range was abnormally narrow and correlated with bradykinesia. STN stimulation reduced bradykinesia and widened this range in all patients, but did not restore it to a normal value. These results, consistent with the motor motivation hypothesis, suggest that constrained optimization of motor effort is the main determinant of movement planning (choice of speed) and movement production, in both healthy and PD subjects.

  19. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection

    PubMed Central

    Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M. J. X.; Blesson, S.; Mengesha, B.; Diro, E.; Hailu, A.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. PMID:26787691

  20. Late Consequential Surgical Bed Soft Tissue Necrosis in Advanced Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Treated With Transoral Robotic Surgery and Postoperative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, J. Nicholas; Lin, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.lin@uphs.upenn.edu; Gamerman, Victoria

    Purpose: A subset of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OP-SCC) managed with transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) developed soft tissue necrosis (STN) in the surgical bed months after completion of PORT. We investigated the frequency and risk factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis included 170 consecutive OP-SCC patients treated with TORS and PORT between 2006 and 2012, with >6 months' of follow-up. STN was defined as ulceration of the surgical bed >6 weeks after completion of PORT, requiring opioids, biopsy, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Results: A total of 47 of 170 patients (28%) hadmore » a diagnosis of STN. Tonsillar patients were more susceptible than base-of-tongue (BOT) patients, 39% (41 of 104) versus 9% (6 of 66), respectively. For patients with STN, median tumor size was 3.0 cm (range 1.0-5.6 cm), and depth of resection was 2.2 cm (range 1.0-5.1 cm). Median radiation dose and dose of fraction to the surgical bed were 6600 cGy and 220 cGy, respectively. Thirty-one patients (66%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Median time to STN was 2.5 months after PORT. All patients had resolution of STN after a median of 3.7 months. Multivariate analysis identified tonsillar primary (odds ratio [OR] 4.73, P=.01), depth of resection (OR 3.12, P=.001), total radiation dose to the resection bed (OR 1.51 per Gy, P<.01), and grade 3 acute mucositis (OR 3.47, P=.02) as risk factors for STN. Beginning May 2011, after implementing aggressive avoidance of delivering >2 Gy/day to the resection bed mucosa, only 8% (2 of 26 patients) experienced STN (all grade 2). Conclusions: A subset of OP-SCC patients treated with TORS and PORT are at risk for developing late consequential surgical bed STN. Risk factors include tonsillar location, depth of resection, radiation dose to the surgical bed, and severe mucositis. STN risk is significantly decreased with carefully avoiding a radiation dosage of >2 Gy

  1. Penicillin Dried Blood Spot Assay for Use in Patients Receiving Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G and Other Penicillin Preparations To Prevent Rheumatic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Coward, Jonathan; Moore, Brioni R.; Marshall, Lewis; Batty, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains an important global health challenge. Administration of benzathine penicillin (BPG) every 3 to 4 weeks is recommended as a secondary prophylaxis to prevent recurrent episodes of acute rheumatic fever and subsequent RHD. Following intramuscular injection, BPG is hydrolyzed to penicillin G (benzylpenicillin). However, little is known of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPG in pediatric populations at high risk of RHD or of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship between penicillin exposure and clinically relevant outcomes. Dried blood spot (DBS) assays can facilitate PK studies in situations where frequent venous blood sampling is logistically difficult. A liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy assay for penicillin G in plasma and DBS