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Sample records for stockholm heart epidemiology

  1. Multivitamin supplements are inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction in men and women--Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP).

    PubMed

    Holmquist, Christina; Larsson, Susanna; Wolk, Alicja; de Faire, Ulf

    2003-08-01

    Epidemiologic data relating multivitamin supplement use to the risk of cardiovascular disease are sparse and inconsistent. We examined the association between self-selected use of low dose multivitamin supplements and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Our results are based on data from a large population-based, case-control study of subjects aged 45-70 y residing in Sweden, a country in which consumption of fruits and vegetables is relatively low and foods are not fortified with folic acid. The study included 1296 cases (910 men, 386 women) with a first nonfatal MI and 1685 controls (1143 men, 542 women) frequency-matched to the cases by sex, age and hospital catchment area. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated from unconditional logistic regression models. Among controls, 57% of the women and 35% of the men used dietary supplements; corresponding figures for the cases were 42 and 27%, respectively. Of those taking supplements, 80% used multivitamin preparations. After adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, the OR of MI comparing regular users of supplements with nonusers were 0.79 (95% CI 0.63-0.98) for men and 0.66 (95% CI 0.48-0.91) for women. This inverse association was not modified by such healthy lifestyle habits as consumption of fruits and vegetables, intake of dietary fiber, smoking habits and level of physical activity, although never smoking appeared to outweigh the association in women. Findings from this study indicate that use of low dose multivitamin supplements may aid in the primary prevention of MI.

  2. Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program.

    PubMed

    Hallqvist, Johan; Lynch, John; Bartley, Mel; Lang, Thierry; Blane, David

    2004-04-01

    The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these alternatives. We used a population based case-control study (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme) of all incident first events of myocardial infarction among men and women, living in the Stockholm region 1992-94. The analyses were restricted to men 53-70 years, 511 cases and 716 controls. From a full occupational history each subject was categorized as manual worker or non-manual at three stages of the life course, childhood (from parent's occupation), at the ages 25-29 and 51-55, resulting in 8 possible socio-economic trajectories. We found a graded response to the accumulation of disadvantaged socio-economic positions over the life course. However, we also found evidence for effects of critical periods and of social mobility. A conceptual analysis showed that there are, for theoretical reasons, only a limited number of trajectories available, too small to form distinct empirical categories of each hypothesis. The empirical task of disentangling the life course hypotheses of critical period, social mobility and accumulation is therefore comparable to the problem of separating age, period, and cohort effects. Accordingly, the interpretation must depend on prior knowledge of more specific causal mechanisms.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases. PMID:27602082

  4. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases.

  5. Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Anh L.; Horwich, Tamara B.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of HF may have plateaued, HF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that rival those of many cancers. HF represents a considerable burden to the health-care system, responsible for costs of more than $39 billion annually in the USA alone, and high rates of hospitalizations, readmissions, and outpatient visits. HF is not a single entity, but a clinical syndrome that may have different characteristics depending on age, sex, race or ethnicity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) status, and HF etiology. Furthermore, pathophysiological differences are observed among patients diagnosed with HF and reduced LVEF compared with HF and preserved LVEF, which are beginning to be better appreciated in epidemiological studies. A number of risk factors, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and diabetes, among others, have been identified that both predict the incidence of HF as well as its severity. In this Review, we discuss key features of the epidemiology and risk profile of HF. PMID:21060326

  6. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  7. Egg consumption and coronary heart disease: an epidemiologic overview.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, S B; Kritchevsky, D

    2000-10-01

    Serum cholesterol has been established as a modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease. Experimental feeding studies show that saturated fat and cholesterol increase serum cholesterol levels; thus, dietary recommendations for lowering the risk of heart disease proscribe the intake of both substances. Recommendations have also included limits on the intake of eggs because of their high cholesterol content. In free-living populations, diet reflects a pattern of associated choices. Increases in one food may lead to changes in the consumption of other foods that may modulate disease risk. Epidemiologic data are helpful in assessing the importance of foods and nutrients in the context in which they are actually consumed. We review epidemiologic data relating dietary cholesterol and eggs to coronary disease risk. Cholesterol intake was associated with a modest increase in the risk of coronary events. The true magnitude of the association is difficult to estimate because most studies fail to account for potential confounding by other features of the diet. When a full-range of confounding factors was considered, the association between cholesterol intake and heart disease risk was small (6% increase in risk for 200mg/1,000kcal/day difference in cholesterol intake). Several studies have examined egg intake and its relationship with coronary outcomes. All but one failed to consider the role of other potentially confounding dietary factors. When dietary confounders were considered, no association was seen between egg consumption at levels up to 1 + egg per day and the risk of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic men and women.

  8. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  9. Epidemiological basis for the prevention of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, M. G.

    1979-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have laid the basis for a preventive approach to coronary heart disease (CHD). On balance, present evidence indicates that the following should form the basis of a preventive programme: low-fat diet, cessation of smoking, and control of blood pressure. Other factors likely to produce a beneficial effect on CHD occurrence include reduction of obesity and increased physical activity. Although psychosocial factors are most likely to be causally related to CHD, it is not possible at present to provide clear guidelines as to their role in a preventive programme. Trials are being conducted to investigate the possibility of preventing CHD by a variety of approaches: a doctor-centred approach or health education in certain sectors of a community or in whole communities. These trials have shown that it is possible to achieve behavioural changes and a reduction in the levels of risk factors in a proportion of the participants. It is not yet clear to what extent these changes in levels of risk factors in middle-aged people will lead to a reduction in the incidence of CHD. It can be calculated, however, that the greatest benefit is likely to come from approaches to prevention that involve the whole community, rather than only high-risk groups. PMID:314348

  10. Recent trends in coronary heart disease epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is epidemic in India and one of the major causes of disease-burden and deaths. Mortality data from the Registrar General of India shows that cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death in India now. Studies to determine the precise causes of death in urban Chennai and rural areas of Andhra Pradesh have revealed that cardiovascular diseases cause about 40% of the deaths in urban areas and 30% in rural areas. Analysis of cross-sectional CHD epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years reveals that this condition is increasing in both urban and rural areas. The adult prevalence has increased in urban areas from about 2% in 1960 to 6.5% in 1970, 7.0% in 1980, 9.7% in 1990 and 10.5% in 2000; while in rural areas, it increased from 2% in 1970, to 2.5% in 1980, 4% in 1990, and 4.5% in 2000. In terms of absolute numbers this translates into 30 million CHD patients in the country. The disease occurs at a much younger age in Indians as compared to those in North America and Western Europe. Rural-urban differences reveal that risk factors like obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and diabetes are more in urban areas. Case-control studies also confirm the importance of these risk factors. The INTERHEART-South Asia study identified that eight established coronary risk factors--abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and lack of physical activity--accounted for 89% of the cases of acute myocardial infarction in Indians. There is epidemiological evidence that all these risk factors are increasing. Over the past fifty years prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes have increased significantly in urban (R2 0.45-0.74) and slowly in rural areas (R2 0.19-0.29). There is an urgent need for development and implementation of suitable primordial, primary, and secondary prevention

  11. Progress in Stockholm talks

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.

    1986-02-01

    Public interest focuses on whether the superpowers will eventually agree to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by 50% or better, and on whether Star Wars should be bargained away or preserved at all costs. Yet progress in arms control quietly proceeded in Stockholm at the multilateral Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE), convened on January 17, 1984. The Conference examined ways to reduce the risks of war, but not arbitrarily lowering weapons levels or restricting the deployment of certain systems. Rather, the goal is to lower these risks by clarifying politico-military intentions and regulating the uses of military activities by means of confidence- and security-building measures. Through information exchange, observation, and inspection, along with operational restraints on military activities, these measure seek to diminish the opportunities for wars to start by surprise attack, miscalculation, or accident, and to inhibit the threat or indirect use of force for political intimidation. 2 references.

  12. Letter from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Some of the ideas of Sigmund Freud were preceded in a literary form by the Swedish writer August Strindberg in the late 19th century. Psychoanalysis itself was introduced in Sweden about a decade into the 20th century by two rivalling pioneers, the doctors Emanuel af Geijerstam and Poul Bjerre. After a slow start, the Danish-Norwegian Psychoanalytical Society and the Finnish-Swedish Psychoanalytical Society were formed in 1934 in Stockholm. The same year, Ericastiftelsen [The Erica Foundation], a psychotherapeutic clinic for children, was founded by Hanna Bratt. Five years later, in 1939, also in Stockholm, the organization that was to become St. Lukasstiftelsen [The Saint Luke's Foundation] was founded. It has been, and still is, an association that has trained psychodynamic psychotherapists, with a focus on existential, religious and philosophical questions. Today, St. Luke's tries to be up-dated from an academic standpoint. During the Second World War, several important psychoanalysts came to Sweden, for example René de Monchy, Lajos and Edith Székely, and Stefi Pedersen. Ola Andersson's doctoral dissertation ("Studies in the Prehistory of Psychoanalysis", 1962) and the historian Gunnar Brandell's essay ("Freud, a Man of His Century", 1961) have had an international impact. In the last two decades, an authorized and carefully edited translation of Freud's collected works has been published by Natur och Kultur, and the history of psychoanalysis in Sweden has been written at the University of Gothenburg. As a result of a recent interest in the work of Jacques Lacan, and French psychoanalysis, philosophy and literature, the journal Psykoanalytisk Tid/Skrift was founded in 2002, in Gothenburg. Since 2011 the journal is called Arche. The largest organized group of psychoanalysts in Sweden today is the Swedish Psychoanalytical Association (SPAF), which has around 225 members. Since 2008, it no longer has the right to license psychotherapists, a situation which

  13. [Epidemiology and management of heart failure in a Moroccan center].

    PubMed

    Kheyi, Jamal; Benelmakki, Abdelilah; Bouzelmat, Hicham; Chaib, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This is a prospective observational study of 424 patients hospitalized for heart failure. Data were collected from the intensive care unit and Rhythmology Depatment of the Mohamed V Military Hospital for Instruction in Rabat, between December 2008 and December 2014. The average age was 60.91±12.77. The main cardiovascular risk factors encountered were: hypertension (46%), smoking (45%), and diabetes (43%). Clinically, 63% of patients were admitted for left-sided heart failure. The left ventricle was dilated in 58% of cases, with a mean ejection fraction estimated at 36.33 ± 13.5%. The dominant etiology was ischemic heart disease (254 cases). In addition to optimal medical treatment, 14.4% of our patients underwent cardiac resynchronization with or without defibrillator system. The intra-hospital evolution under medical treatment was marked by 26 deaths. The average length of stay in hospital was 12.1 ± 6.6 days. PMID:27642424

  14. Heart failure and the emergency department: epidemiology, characteristics, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the impact of heart failure on society is enormous. The research community has responded, resulting in an ongoing period of rapid advancement across a wide range of fields. The pace of progress is perhaps most apparent in the barrage of new and revised terminology appearing in the heart failure literature. Although sometimes confusing, the complexity of nomenclature directly reflects a growing appreciation that the symptom complex previously labeled "heart failure" is actually a spectrum of complex multisystem pathologies. Accordingly, clinicians must adopt a more sophisticated and more effective approach to evaluation and treatment that is increasingly based on objective measurement of outcome-linked physiologic parameters rather than the subjectively described symptom constellations relied on previously.

  15. The Framingham Heart Study and the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Syed S.; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary On October 11, 2013, the Framingham Heart Study will celebrate 65 years since the examination of its first participant in 1948. During this period, the study has provided substantial insight into the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The origin of the study is closely linked to the cardiovascular health of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his premature death from hypertensive heart disease and stroke in 1945. The present article describes the events leading to the founding of the Framingham Heart Study, and provides a brief historical overview of selected contributions from the study. PMID:24084292

  16. Epidemiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Left Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Guha, Ashrith; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Park, Myung H

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the setting of left side heart disease is associated with adverse outcomes. The exact prevalence of PH in the different pathologies that affect the left ventricle, however, is difficult to access with the current literature. The lack of a standard definition of PH in older studies, the different modalities to assess pulmonary artery pressures and the varying disease severity, all account for the great variability in the reported prevalence of PH. PH can accompany heart failure (HF) with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as well as mitral and aortic valve disease; in any of these instances it is important to recognize whether the elevation of pulmonary pressures is driven by elevated left ventricular pressures only (isolated post-capillary PH) or if there is an accompanying remodeling component in the pulmonary arterioles (combined post-capillary and pre-capillary PH). The objective of this review is to describe the definitions, prevalence and the risk factors associated with the development of PH in the setting of HFrEF, HFpEF and valvular heart disease. PMID:27402130

  17. Ischemic heart disease among the general Mongolian population: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is considered to be a pivotal health problem in Mongolia. To summarize the existing epidemiology of IHD in the general Mongolian population is crucial for primary prevention. The present review summarized population-based epidemiological data of IHD in Mongolia. When epidemiological studies were extracted from databases, very limited studies were available. The frequencies of IHD and IHD-attributable death rates appeared to be high and have an increased tendency in Mongolia. This could to be due to a gradually worsening state of potential IHD-related risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. This might indicate an urgent need of strategies for IHD and related risk factors. Anti-IHD strategies, such as more epidemiological studies and campaigns to increase awareness of IHD, at nationwide public health levels would be required in Mongolia for more effective prevention.

  18. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Quilis, Carme; Leischik, Roman; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement. PMID:27500157

  19. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Perez-Quilis, Carme; Leischik, Roman; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement. PMID:27500157

  20. Heart failure and kidney dysfunction: epidemiology, mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Schefold, Joerg C; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health-care problem and the prognosis of affected patients is poor. HF often coexists with a number of comorbidities of which declining renal function is of particular importance. A loss of glomerular filtration rate, as in acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), independently predicts mortality and accelerates the overall progression of cardiovascular disease and HF. Importantly, cardiac and renal diseases interact in a complex bidirectional and interdependent manner in both acute and chronic settings. From a pathophysiological perspective, cardiac and renal diseases share a number of common pathways, including inflammatory and direct, cellular immune-mediated mechanisms; stress-mediated and (neuro)hormonal responses; metabolic and nutritional changes including bone and mineral disorder, altered haemodynamic and acid-base or fluid status; and the development of anaemia. In an effort to better understand the important crosstalk between the two organs, classifications such as the cardio-renal syndromes were developed. This classification might lead to a more precise understanding of the complex interdependent pathophysiology of cardiac and renal diseases. In light of exceptionally high mortality associated with coexisting HF and kidney disease, this Review describes important crosstalk between the heart and kidney, with a focus on HF and kidney disease in the acute and chronic settings. Underlying molecular and cellular pathomechanisms in HF, AKI and CKD are discussed in addition to current and future therapeutic approaches. PMID:27573728

  1. Obesity and heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Martin A; Lavie, Carl J; Agrawal, Harsh; Aggarwal, Kul B; Kumar, Senthil A

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure (HF) in both men and women. The mortality risk of overweight and class I and II obese adults with HF is lower than that of normal weight or underweight adults with HF of comparable severity, a phenomenon referred to as the obesity paradox. Severe obesity produces hemodynamic alterations that predispose to changes in cardiac morphology and ventricular function, which may lead to the development of HF. The presence of systemic hypertension, sleep apnea, and hypoventilation, comorbidities that occur commonly with severe obesity, may contribute to HF in such patients. The resultant syndrome is known as obesity cardiomyopathy. Substantial weight loss in severely obese persons is capable of reversing most obesity-related abnormalities of cardiac performance and morphology and improving the clinical manifestations of obesity cardiomyopathy.

  2. Epidemiology of Heart Failure in Korea: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Lim, Nam-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Heart failure (HF) is an important healthcare issue because of its high mortality, morbidity, and healthcare costs. The number of HF patients is increasing worldwide as a consequence of aging of the population. However, there are limited studies on the prevalence of HF in Korea. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HF, its comorbidities, and the projected population with HF in the future. Materials and Methods The prevalence and comorbidity estimates of HF were determined using data from the 2002-2013 National Sample Cohort based on the National Health Information Database. We calculated the projected prevalence of HF by multiplying the estimated prevalence in 2013 by the projected population counts for 2015-2040. Results The prevalence of HF in Korea was estimated to be 1.53% in 2013. The prevalence of HF in Korea is expected to increase by 2-fold, from 1.60% in 2015 to 3.35% in 2040. By 2040, more than 1.7 million Koreans are expected to have HF. In terms of comorbid diseases of HF, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were common (45.4%, 43.6%, and 49.1% in 2013, respectively). The prevalence rates of arrhythmia, valvular disease, and cardiomyopathy in HF patients were approximately 22.6%, 5.6%, and 3.1% in 2013, respectively. Conclusion This is the first nationwide report in Korea to demonstrate the prevalence and comorbidities of HF. These data may be used for the prevention and management of HF in Korea. PMID:27721857

  3. Visible aging signs as risk markers for ischemic heart disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Association of common aging signs (i.e., male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e., arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from clinicians observing trends in the physical appearance of patients with ischemic heart disease. Following these early observations numerous epidemiological studies have reported these associations. Since the prevalences of both visible aging signs and ischemic heart disease have a strong correlation with increasing age, it has been extensively debated whether the observed associations could be entirely explained by a common association with age. Furthermore, the etiologies of the visible aging signs are rarely fully understood, and pathophysiological explanations for these associations remain controversial, and are mostly speculative. As a consequence of inconsistent findings and lack of mechanistic explanations for the observed associations with ischemic heart disease, consensus on the clinical importance of these visible aging signs has been lacking. The aim of this review is for each of the visible aging signs to (i) review the etiology, (ii) to discuss the current epidemiological evidence for an association with risk of ischemic heart disease, and (iii) to present possible pathophysiological explanations for these associations. Finally this review discusses the potential clinical implications of these findings.

  4. Trends in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Mohan, Indu; Narula, Jagat

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), are epidemic in India. The Registrar General of India reported that CHD led to 17% of total deaths and 26% of adult deaths in 2001-2003, which increased to 23% of total and 32% of adult deaths in 2010-2013. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Global Burden of Disease Study also have highlighted increasing trends in years of life lost (YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from CHD in India. In India, studies have reported increasing CHD prevalence over the last 60 years, from 1% to 9%-10% in urban populations and <1% to 4%-6% in rural populations. Using more stringent criteria (clinical ± Q waves), the prevalence varies from 1%-2% in rural populations and 2%-4% in urban populations. This may be a more realistic prevalence of CHD in India. Case-control studies have reported that important risk factors for CHD in India are dyslipidemias, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, abdominal obesity, psychosocial stress, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. Suitable preventive strategies are required to combat this epidemic. PMID:27372534

  5. The Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Chagas Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Malik, Lindsey H; Singh, Gagan D; Amsterdam, Ezra A

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease results from infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in Latin America. T cruzi is most commonly transmitted through the feces of an infected triatomine, but can also be congenital, via contaminated blood transfusion or through direct oral contact. In the acute phase, the disease can cause cardiac derangements such as myocarditis, conduction system abnormalities, and/or pericarditis. If left untreated, the disease advances to the chronic phase. Up to one-half of these patients will develop a cardiomyopathy, which can lead to cardiac failure and/or ventricular arrhythmias, both of which are major causes of mortality. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Initial treatment consists of the antiparasitic agents benznidazole and nifurtimox. The treatment of Chagas cardiac disease comprises standard medical therapy for heart failure and amiodarone for ventricular arrhythmias, with consideration for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Chagas disease causes the highest infectious burden of any parasitic disease in the Western Hemisphere, and increased awareness of this disease is essential to improve diagnosis, enhance management, and reduce spread.

  6. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  7. Epidemiology and risk factors of cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado

    2010-08-01

    Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease.

  8. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cerebral Ischemia and Ischemic Heart Diseases: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. PMID:21804773

  9. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  10. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  11. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  12. District cooling in Stockholm using sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Fermbaeck, G.

    1995-12-31

    In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

  13. Networks in Coronary Heart Disease Genetics As a Step towards Systems Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Drenos, Fotios; Grossi, Enzo; Buscema, Massimo; Humphries, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    We present the use of innovative machine learning techniques in the understanding of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) through intermediate traits, as an example of the use of this class of methods as a first step towards a systems epidemiology approach of complex diseases genetics. Using a sample of 252 middle-aged men, of which 102 had a CHD event in 10 years follow-up, we applied machine learning algorithms for the selection of CHD intermediate phenotypes, established markers, risk factors, and their previously associated genetic polymorphisms, and constructed a map of relationships between the selected variables. Of the 52 variables considered, 42 were retained after selection of the most informative variables for CHD. The constructed map suggests that most selected variables were related to CHD in a context dependent manner while only a small number of variables were related to a specific outcome. We also observed that loss of complexity in the network was linked to a future CHD event. We propose that novel, non-linear, and integrative epidemiological approaches are required to combine all available information, in order to truly translate the new advances in medical sciences to gains in preventive measures and patients care.

  14. Networks in Coronary Heart Disease Genetics As a Step towards Systems Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Drenos, Fotios; Grossi, Enzo; Buscema, Massimo; Humphries, Steve E.

    2015-01-01

    We present the use of innovative machine learning techniques in the understanding of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) through intermediate traits, as an example of the use of this class of methods as a first step towards a systems epidemiology approach of complex diseases genetics. Using a sample of 252 middle-aged men, of which 102 had a CHD event in 10 years follow-up, we applied machine learning algorithms for the selection of CHD intermediate phenotypes, established markers, risk factors, and their previously associated genetic polymorphisms, and constructed a map of relationships between the selected variables. Of the 52 variables considered, 42 were retained after selection of the most informative variables for CHD. The constructed map suggests that most selected variables were related to CHD in a context dependent manner while only a small number of variables were related to a specific outcome. We also observed that loss of complexity in the network was linked to a future CHD event. We propose that novel, non-linear, and integrative epidemiological approaches are required to combine all available information, in order to truly translate the new advances in medical sciences to gains in preventive measures and patients care. PMID:25951190

  15. Facts and numbers on epidemiology and pharmacological treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major and growing public health problem. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that heart failure (HF) can be clinically diagnosed in patients with normal or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. These patients are therefore termed as having HFpEF. In the past, this was often called diastolic HF. Because of the permanent increase of the prevalence of HFpEF during the past decades, HFpEF now accounts for more than 50% of the total HF population. There are uncertainties and debates regarding the definition, diagnosis, and pathophysiology with the consequence that all outcome trials performed so far used criteria for inclusion and exclusion that were not consistent. These trials also failed to document improved prognosis. Recent smaller proof‐of‐concept or Phase II clinical trials investigating different pathophysiological approaches with substances such as the neprilysin inhibitor–angiotensin receptor blocker− combination (LCZ 696), ranolazine, or ivabradine were successful to improve biomarkers, haemodynamics, or functional capacity. Future trials will need to document whether also prognosis can be improved.

  16. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Moser, Melissa A; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin's effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality. PMID:27529239

  17. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Melissa A.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin’s effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality. PMID:27529239

  18. Epidemiology, health systems and stakeholders in rheumatic heart disease in Africa: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moloi, Annesinah Hlengiwe; Watkins, David; Engel, Mark E; Mall, Sumaya; Zühlke, Liesl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic disease affecting the heart valves, secondary to group A streptococcal infection (GAS) and subsequent acute rheumatic fever (ARF). However, RHD cure and preventative measures are inextricably linked with socioeconomic development, as the disease mainly affects children and young adults living in poverty. In order to address RHD, public health officials and health policymakers require up-to-date knowledge on the epidemiology of GAS, ARF and RHD, as well as the existing enablers and gaps in delivery of evidence-based care for these conditions. We propose to conduct a systematic review to assess the literature comprehensively, synthesising all existing quantitative and qualitative data relating to RHD in Africa. Methods and analysis We plan to conduct a comprehensive literature search using a number of databases and reference lists of relevant articles published from January 1995 to December 2015. Two evaluators will independently review and extract data from each article. Additionally, we will assess overall study quality and risk of bias, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme criteria for quantitative and qualitative studies, respectively. We will meta-analyse estimates of prevalence, incidence, case fatality and mortality for each of the conditions separately for each country. Qualitative meta-analysis will be conducted for facilitators and barriers in RHD health access. Lastly, we will create a list of key stakeholders. This protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews, registration number CRD42016032852. Ethics and dissemination The information provided by this review will inform and assist relevant stakeholders in identifying key areas of intervention, and designing and implementing evidence-based programmes and policies at the local and regional level. With slight modifications (ie, to the country terms in the search

  19. Nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a review of epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Hu, F B; Stampfer, M J

    1999-11-01

    Traditionally nuts have been perceived as an unhealthy food because of their high fat content. However, recent accumulative evidence suggests that frequent consumption of nuts may be protective against coronary heart disease (CHD). So far, five large prospective cohort studies (the Adventist Health Study, the Iowa Women Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study, the Physicians' Health Study, and the CARE Study) have examined the relation between nut consumption and the risk of CHD and all have found an inverse association. In addition, several clinical studies have observed beneficial effects of diets high in nuts (including walnuts, peanuts, almonds, and other nuts) on blood lipids. The beneficial effects of nut consumption observed in clinical and epidemiologic studies underscore the importance of distinguishing different types of fat. Most fats in nuts are mono- and polyunsaturated fats that lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Based on the data from the Nurses' Health Study, we estimated that substitution of the fat from 1 ounce of nuts for equivalent energy from carbohydrate in an average diet was associated with a 30% reduction in CHD risk and the substitution of nut fat for saturated fat was associated with 45% reduction in risk. Given the strong scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of nuts, it seems justifiable to move nuts to a more prominent place in the United States Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid. Regular nut consumption can be recommended in the context of a healthy and balanced diet. PMID:11122711

  20. The Hearts of Heroes: the epidemiology of cardiac disease in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew T; Boos, C J; Sharma, S

    2015-09-01

    When the general public look from the outside at the armed services, their impression is often one of earnest young men and women who are the pinnacle of physical fitness and health, and put their lives on the line for their country. There is usually sadness and respect for those killed on active operations, having put themselves in harm's way. Therefore, when the public discover that more than 1 in 10 deaths in the UK Armed Forces are due to cardiovascular disease, the air of sadness is invariably replaced with surprise and disbelief. These figures, while lower than those due to deaths in accidents, are approaching the numbers of those due to suicide in the armed services; yet deaths from cardiac disease are barely recognised by society, in spite of many of them being avoidable. This article reviews the epidemiology of cardiac disease in the UK Armed Forces, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. It outlines current understanding and gaps in the knowledge regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease in the military population. The particular demographics of the Armed Forces and its influence on cardiac disease burden are discussed. The role of inherited and congenital diseases in younger servicemen and women is highlighted, as is the trend that with increasing age, the burden of disease shifts to ischaemic heart disease, which becomes the dominant cause of both death and disability. PMID:26243808

  1. Ischemic heart disease and hypertension: effect of disease coding on epidemiologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, R B; Aubert, R E

    1990-01-01

    During the changeover from the eighth to the ninth revision of the "International Classification of Diseases: Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death" (ICD), there were several major alterations of coding for the rubrics Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Hypertension (HBP). As expected, these changes caused major discontinuities for IHD and HPB. These discontinuities were not, however, uniform over sex-race groups. When examined by component ICD codes, the discontinuities were found to vary in both magnitude and direction among the groups. In addition to discontinuity, there was a change in the rate of decline for IHD and HBP after the changeover. This rate of decline varied as well by sex-race group. In general, the decline among blacks was slower than among whites. Earlier studies that assessed IHD mortality have used different groupings of ICD codes to obviate the discontinuity, and researchers have observed a similar differential decline. These results should be viewed with caution because of the potential impact of differential coding on sex-race groups. As preparations are made for ICD-10, special attention should be given to the preservation of epidemiologic continuity to provide better assessment of trends in population subgroups.

  2. The dynamic nature of group A streptococcal epidemiology in tropical communities with high rates of rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M I; Towers, R J; Andrews, R; Benger, N; Fagan, P; Currie, B J; Carapetis, J R

    2008-04-01

    Prospective surveillance was conducted in three remote Aboriginal communities with high rates of rheumatic heart disease in order to investigate the epidemiology of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GAS). At each household visit, participants were asked about sore throat. Swabs were taken from all throats and any skin sores. GAS isolates were emm sequence and pattern-typed using standard laboratory methods. There were 531 household visits; 43 different emm types and subtypes (emmST) were recovered. Four epidemiological patterns were observed. Multiple emmST were present in the population at any one time and household acquisition rates were high. Household acquisition was most commonly via 5- to 9-year-olds. Following acquisition, there was a 1 in 5 chance of secondary detection in the household. Throat detection of emmST was brief, usually <2 months. The epidemiology of GAS in these remote Aboriginal communities is a highly dynamic process characterized by emmST diversity and turnover.

  3. Critical review of the epidemiologic literature regarding the association between congenital heart defects and exposure to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John

    2014-08-01

    The most recent Integrated Risk Information System review of trichloroethylene (TCE; CAS# 79-01-6) has suggested that congenital heart defects (CHD) are a critical endpoint associated with exposure to this solvent. This conclusion was drawn, at least partly, from epidemiologic data, including several relatively recent studies. The current article critically reviews this epidemiologic literature, focusing on study quality and consistency. Literature searches uncovered approximately a dozen studies that specifically addressed associations between TCE and congenital malformations in eight populations. Four of these reported positive associations between TCE and heart defects, with significant relative risks as high as 5-6 in some subgroups. However, each of the positive studies had substantial design or analytical flaws that could easily explain the results, thereby limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. Five studies found no positive association with TCE, and several of these reported substantially fewer cases than expected despite similar/higher exposures compared to positive studies, further detracting from causal conclusions. Overall, this epidemiologic literature provides no substantive or consistent evidence linking TCE to CHD.

  4. Methodological and conceptual issues regarding occupational psychosocial coronary heart disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren; Pohrt, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Overview Psychosocial occupational epidemiology has mainly focused on the demand-control and, to a much lesser extent, the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. These models and the strong focus on them raise some conceptual and methodological issues we will address in the following letter. The conceptual issues include the empirical confirmation of the assumptions of these models, the extent to which the focus on the demand-control and ERI models is warranted, and whether the sub-dimensions of the scales in these models have common health effects. We argue that there is a lack of empirical approval of (i) the assumptions behind both models and (ii) the focus on these models. The methodological issues include how exposure to job strain is categorized, how ERI previously has been measured, and the validity of self-reports of job strain. We argue that (i) a population independent definition of job strain is lacking, (ii) the older measurements of ERI mix exposure and effect, and (iii) we know little regarding the validity of the measurement of the psychosocial working environment. Finally, we suggest that analyses of monitoring data with a broader focus on the psychosocial working environment can be used to shed light to some of the issues raised above. Introduction In the last three decades (1, 2), psychosocial occupational epidemiology related to coronary heart disease (CHD) has mainly focused on the job-strain model, also referred to as the demand-control model (3, 4). In this model, two aspects of work are deemed relevant: demands and control. Negative consequences to health are to be expected when high demands are simultaneously present with low control. This combination has been termed job strain (3, 4). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the ERI model (5, 6) which considers the level of effort relative to rewards at work: an imbalance is present when the efforts outweigh the rewards (5, 6). In longitudinal studies of CHD, there has been only a

  5. Methodological and conceptual issues regarding occupational psychosocial coronary heart disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren; Pohrt, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Overview Psychosocial occupational epidemiology has mainly focused on the demand-control and, to a much lesser extent, the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. These models and the strong focus on them raise some conceptual and methodological issues we will address in the following letter. The conceptual issues include the empirical confirmation of the assumptions of these models, the extent to which the focus on the demand-control and ERI models is warranted, and whether the sub-dimensions of the scales in these models have common health effects. We argue that there is a lack of empirical approval of (i) the assumptions behind both models and (ii) the focus on these models. The methodological issues include how exposure to job strain is categorized, how ERI previously has been measured, and the validity of self-reports of job strain. We argue that (i) a population independent definition of job strain is lacking, (ii) the older measurements of ERI mix exposure and effect, and (iii) we know little regarding the validity of the measurement of the psychosocial working environment. Finally, we suggest that analyses of monitoring data with a broader focus on the psychosocial working environment can be used to shed light to some of the issues raised above. Introduction In the last three decades (1, 2), psychosocial occupational epidemiology related to coronary heart disease (CHD) has mainly focused on the job-strain model, also referred to as the demand-control model (3, 4). In this model, two aspects of work are deemed relevant: demands and control. Negative consequences to health are to be expected when high demands are simultaneously present with low control. This combination has been termed job strain (3, 4). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the ERI model (5, 6) which considers the level of effort relative to rewards at work: an imbalance is present when the efforts outweigh the rewards (5, 6). In longitudinal studies of CHD, there has been only a

  6. Similarities in the epidemiology of neural tube defects and coronary heart disease: is homocysteine the missing link?

    PubMed Central

    Stone, D. H.; McCarron, P.; Smith, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    It is hypothesised that a single aetiological pathway could explain both the strong ecological association between the birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the potential efficacy of dietary measures, especially increased folic acid intake, in their prevention. The epidemiological similarities between NTD and CHD are strong and consistent suggesting that the relation is real rather than artefactual. It is suggested that this epidemiological association reflects a shared aetiology arising from the role of disturbed homocysteine metabolism in the pathogenesis of both conditions. Current public health measures designed to increase the intake of periconceptional folic acid in women, reinforced by a broadening of this policy to target both sexes throughout life, will (if successful) result in a reduction in both the birth prevalence of NTD and the incidence of CHD, although not necessarily contemporaneously. If disordered homocysteine metabolism is the cause of both NTD and CHD, this has implications for future research and preventive strategies for these serious and often lethal diseases.   PMID:10656088

  7. Occupational magnetic field exposure among women in Stockholm County, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Forssen, U; Mezei, G; Nise, G; Feychting, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Most epidemiological studies on adverse health effects among women in relation to occupational magnetic field exposure have been based on information about men's exposure. Aims: To create a job-exposure matrix for occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields among women. Methods and Results: Measurements were performed using personal magnetic field meters (Emdex Lite) carried by the subjects for 24 hours on a normal workday. Subjects were volunteer women working in the occupations identified as common among women in Stockholm County based on the 1980 census. A total of 471 measurements were made in 49 different occupations, with a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 24 measurements in each occupation. The included occupations cover about 85% of the female population gainfully employed in 1980. Parameters representing average and peak magnetic field exposures, temporal change in the exposure, and proportion of time spent above certain exposure levels were calculated both for the workday and for the total 24 hour period grouped by occupational titles. The occupations with higher than average exposure were cashiers, working proprietors in retail trade, air stewardesses, dental nurses, cooks, post-office clerks and kitchen maids. Conclusions: This new job-exposure matrix substantially increases the knowledge about magnetic field exposure among women and can be used for exposure assessment in future studies. PMID:15208375

  8. Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009

    PubMed Central

    Åström, Daniel Oudin; Tornevi, Andreas; Ebi, Kristie L.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality impacts of hot and cold temperatures have been thoroughly documented, with most locations reporting a U-shaped relationship with a minimum mortality temperature (MMT) at which mortality is lowest. How MMT may have evolved over previous decades as the global mean surface temperature has increased has not been thoroughly explored. Objective: We used observations of daily mean temperatures to investigate whether MMT changed in Stockholm, Sweden, from the beginning of the 20th century until 2009. Methods: Daily mortality and temperature data for the period 1901–2009 in Stockholm, Sweden, were used to model the temperature–mortality relationship. We estimated MMT using distributed lag nonlinear Poisson regression models considering lags up to 21 days of daily mean temperature as the exposure variable. To avoid large influences on the MMT from intra- and interannual climatic variability, we estimated MMT based on 30-year periods. Furthermore, we investigated whether there were trends in the absolute value of the MMT and in the relative value of the MMT (the corresponding percentile of the same-day temperature distribution) over the study period. Results: Our findings suggest that both the absolute MMT and the relative MMT increased in Stockholm, Sweden, over the course of the 20th century. Conclusions: The increase in the MMT over the course of the 20th century suggests autonomous adaptation within the context of the large epidemiological, demographical, and societal changes that occurred. Whether the rate of increase will be sustained with climate change is an open question. Citation: Oudin Åström D, Tornevi A, Ebi KL, Rocklöv J, Forsberg B. 2016. Evolution of minimum mortality temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009. Environ Health Perspect 124:740–744; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509692 PMID:26566270

  9. Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Suárez, J. A.; Yépez, C. Gil

    1966-01-01

    It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4 PMID:4957485

  10. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  11. The challenge of congenital heart disease worldwide: epidemiologic and demographic facts.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Pierre-Luc; Stefanescu, Ada; Samoukovic, Gordan; Tchervenkov, Christo I

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) afflicts a large number of children every year. The incidence of CHD is generally considered to be 8 per 1,000 live births. However, this estimate is perhaps inaccurate and does not take into consideration regional differences. A large review of the literature was performed to establish the true incidence of CHD and geographical variations. Data on the incidence of specific lesions and their geographical variation, as well as on mortality from CHD, was also reviewed. Taking into consideration the available data on incidence, mortality, and access to care, the global challenge that CHD represents was analyzed. Insight into how to confront this challenge is given. PMID:20307858

  12. Strategic Transformation of Population Studies: Recommendations of the Working Group on Epidemiology and Population Sciences From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Véronique L.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Granger, Christopher B.; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. PMID:25743324

  13. The Aeronautical Laboratory of the Stockholm Technical Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malmer, Ivar

    1935-01-01

    This report presents a detailed analysis and history of the construction and operation of the aeronautical laboratory of the Stockholm Technical Institute. Engines and balances are discussed and experimental results are also given.

  14. Dietary lipids and their relation to ischaemic heart disease: from epidemiology to prevention.

    PubMed

    Renaud, S; de Lorgeril, M

    1989-01-01

    From the Seven Countries Study and recent statistics from WHO and the OECD, it is clear that saturated fats, mainly dairy fats, are closely associated with the mortality rate from ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Consumption of alcohol, especially wine, but not polyunsaturated fats, seem to offer protection. Racial and other environmental factors do not seem to be confounding factors for that relationship as evaluated by studies in migrants, Japanese to USA, Southern Europeans to Australia, and in vegetarians in California. By contrast, very few trials using dietary polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratios from 1.5-2.5 vs 0.4-0.7 have really prevented coronary death by diet modification. The only successful trial had a P/S ratio of 0.7. High P/S ratio increases platelet reactivity. Recent studies indicate that thrombosis and platelets play a more prominent role in IHD than expected. To decrease platelet activity and prevent IHD, a P/S ratio of 0.4-0.7 should be preferred.

  15. Epidemiology as a Guide to Clinical Decisions—II. Diet and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hulley, Stephen B.; Sherwin, Roger; Nestle, Marion; Lee, Philip R.

    1981-01-01

    Should clinicians prescribe fat-controlled diets to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD), and, if so, which patients should be given this advice? In this report, we use a three-step model to explain the hypothesis that dietary fats are a cause of CHD: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol raise serum cholesterol levels (step 1), which are a cause of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (step 2), and, in turn, clinically manifest CHD (step 3). An evaluation of the scientific evidence for each step leads us to conclude that dietary fats definitely influence the level of serum cholesterol, and that serum cholesterol is probably a cause of atherosclerosis and CHD. To determine the clinical implications, we examined the potential of various foods to keep cholesterol levels lower, as well as the projected magnitude of reduction in CHD risk. The likelihood of benefit varies among patients, ranging from uncertain or trivial (for those with lower serum cholesterol levels, those who are free of other risk factors and the elderly) to substantial (for patients with higher serum cholesterol levels, those who have other risk factors and those who are young). This analysis supports an individualized approach to clinical management; each decision to prescribe a fat-controlled diet should be a judgment that depends on art—the therapeutic philosophy of each clinician and the particular needs of each patient—as well as on science. The implication for public health policies is that they should promote rather than a uniform eating pattern for all Americans, a uniform environment that enhances individual choices. This should include efforts to educate the medical profession and the public, and more comprehensive and informative foodlabeling practices. PMID:7257376

  16. Chronic Chagas' heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Saravia, Silvia Gilka; Haberland, Annekathrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Schimke, Ingolf

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening complications, and with a latency of 10-30 years, mostly Chagas' heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients' social and labor situations. Because of increasing migration, international tourism and parasite transfer by blood contact, intrauterine transfer and organ transplantation, Chagas' heart disease could potentially become a worldwide problem. To raise awareness of this problem, we reflect on the epidemiology and etiopathology of Chagas' disease, particularly Chagas' heart disease. To counteract Chagas' heart disease, in addition to the general interruption of the infection cycle and chemotherapeutic elimination of the infection agent, early and effective causal or symptomatic therapies would be indispensable. Prerequisites for this are improved knowledge of the pathogenesis and optimized patient management. From economic and logistics viewpoints, this last prerequisite should be performed using laboratory medicine tools. Consequently, we first summarize the mechanisms that have been suggested as driving Chagas' heart disease, mainly those associated with the presence of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors; secondly, we indicate new treatment strategies involving autoantibody apheresis and in vivo autoantibody neutralization; thirdly, we present laboratory medicine tools such as autoantibody estimation and heart marker measurement, proposed for diagnosis, risk assessment and patient guidance and lastly, we critically reflect upon the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress markers in Chagas' heart disease.

  17. Stockholm's Day-Care Centres: 1974-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Nils-Olof; Sellebjerg, Asa

    The intention of this lavishly illustrated brochure is to show how a decade of expansion in day care services in Stockholm was organized and to depict the different types of centers built between 1974 and 1984 in response to a municipal directive to meet the huge need for day care services by building new centers. Introductory material provides a…

  18. Stockholm Recommendation 96: Viable in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton L.; Roth, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has taken steps to develop and implement a comprehensive plan (called Plan Sierra) for national natural resources management. The plan (which includes an environmental education component) demonstrates a commitment to Stockholm Recommendation 96 in a way that could become a model for other Latin American nations. (JN)

  19. Review of the global environment 10 years after Stockholm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    International Environmental Policy has three major areas of focus: establish a scorecard of the major accomplishments and failures since Stockholm, assess where we stand today in relation to global environmental problems, and explore the global environmental agenda for the 1980's.

  20. Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.

    PubMed

    Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

    2012-07-01

    A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case.

  1. Role of radiation and non-radiation factors on the development of coronary heart disease in the Chornobyl clean-up workers: epidemiological study results.

    PubMed

    Krasnikova, L I; Buzunov, V O

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to establish the risks for coronary heart disease in the Chornobyl clean-up workers with regard to a whole-body external radiation dose and non-radiation (biological, social-and-hygienic and behavioral) factors. Materials and methods. Risk-analysis was based on the cohort of the Chornobyl male clean-up workers 1986-1987 (8,625 men, including 3,623 with available whole-body external doses). Data of clinical-and-epidemiological registry, National Research Centre for Radiation Medicine were used for 1992-2013 monitoring period. We used the internal control group with radiation doses less than 0.05 Gy. Results. Statistically significant radiation risks in the Chornobyl clean-up workers were established for the coronary heart disease at doses 0.15-0.249 Gy, 0.25-0.99 Gy, 1 Gy and more (dose group 0.15-0.249 Gy RRY=1.9 (1.2; 3.1), ERR=4.6 (1.5; 14.9) Gy-1, EAR=64.2 cases per 1000 person-years, Gy); among exposed people aged 40 years and older - at doses 0.5-0.99 Gy (RRY=1.4 (1.05; 1.81), ERR=0.5 (0.03; 1.1) Gy-1, EAR=30.5 cases per 1000 person-years, Gy). Statistically significant risks for the disease under consideration were also identified with regard to non-radiation factors (smoking, improper physical training, adverse working conditions, diseases etc; age and psychoemotional overstrain were of a particular impact). Non-radiation factors are at most responsible for development of coronary heart disease. For this reason the control of potential confounding factors is required to assess the effect of the radiation factor both at a stage of comparison groups selection and analysis using the Mantel-Haenszel method.

  2. Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.

    PubMed

    Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

    2012-07-01

    A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

  3. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  4. [Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of ischemic heart disease in a group of physically handicapped individuals (blind and mute)].

    PubMed

    Stanić, R

    1993-01-01

    Our long clinical experience, with observations of some authors as well, indicate that the epidemic data of the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (I.H.D.) is significantly reduced in some physically handicapped people (the blind and the deaf-mute) if we compare them with the similar ones who have not such anomalies. With no regard to patho-physiologic mechanism of such condition, 233 examinees of both sex, chosen by the method of accidental choice, were examined by clinical, ECG, and laboratory (non- invasive) methods and divided into three groups: the blind 81 (34.76%), the deaf-mute 76 (32.61%), and industrial workers 76 (32.61%) who were taken a as control group. The obtained results show that the incidence of I.H.D. (4,56%), and the control group 11 (8,36%), which, from the point of statistics, offer a significant piece of information.

  5. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. PMID:25958035

  6. Targeted sequencing in candidate genes for atrial fibrillation: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Honghuang; Sinner, Moritz F.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Arking, Dan E.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Rienstra, Michiel; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Bis, Joshua C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Gupta, Mayetri; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kääb, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that predispose to atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants in genes implicated by such GWAS confer additional risk of AF. Objective To study the association of genetic variants with AF at GWAS top loci. Methods In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study, we selected and sequenced 77 target gene regions from GWAS loci of complex diseases or traits, including 4 genes hypothesized to be related to AF (PRRX1, CAV1, CAV2, and ZFHX3). Sequencing was performed in participants with (n = 948) and without (n = 3330) AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. Results One common variant (rs11265611; P = 1.70 × 10−6) intronic to IL6R (interleukin-6 receptor gene) was significantly associated with AF after Bonferroni correction (odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.85). The variant was not genotyped or imputed by prior GWAS, but it is in linkage disequilibrium (r2 = .69) with the single-nucleotide polymorphism, with the strongest association with AF so far at this locus (rs4845625). In the rare variant joint analysis, damaging variants within the PRRX1 region showed significant association with AF after Bonferroni correction (P = .01). Conclusions We identified 1 common single-nucleotide polymorphism and 1 gene region that were significantly associated with AF. Future sequencing efforts with larger sample sizes and more comprehensive genome coverage are anticipated to identify additional AF-related variants. PMID:24239840

  7. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  8. Maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-17

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I(2) = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  9. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs. PMID:25687545

  10. Individual Exposure to NO2 in Relation to Spatial and Temporal Exposure Indices in Stockholm, Sweden: The INDEX Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, Janine; Lind, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology studies of health effects from air pollution, as well as impact assessments, typically rely on ambient monitoring data or modelled residential levels. The relationship between these and personal exposure is not clear. To investigate personal exposure to NO2 and its relationship with other exposure metrics and time-activity patterns in a randomly selected sample of healthy working adults (20–59 years) living and working in Stockholm. Personal exposure to NO2 was measured with diffusive samplers in sample of 247 individuals. The 7-day average personal exposure was 14.3 µg/m3 and 12.5 µg/m3 for the study population and the inhabitants of Stockholm County, respectively. The personal exposure was significantly lower than the urban background level (20.3 µg/m3). In the univariate analyses the most influential determinants of individual exposure were long-term high-resolution dispersion-modelled levels of NO2 outdoors at home and work, and concurrent NO2 levels measured at a rural location, difference between those measured at an urban background and rural location and difference between those measured in busy street and at an urban background location, explaining 20, 16, 1, 2 and 4% (R2) of the 7-day personal NO2 variation, respectively. A regression model including these variables explained 38% of the variation in personal NO2 exposure. We found a small improvement by adding time-activity variables to the latter model (R2 = 0.44). The results adds credibility primarily to long-term epidemiology studies that utilise long-term indices of NO2 exposure at home or work, but also indicates that such studies may still suffer from exposure misclassification and dilution of any true effects. In contrast, urban background levels of NO2 are poorly related to individual exposure. PMID:22745780

  11. Comparison between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Stockholm 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jerker; Hoffner, Sven; Berggren, Ingela; Bruchfeld, Judith; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Groenheit, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze the difference between methods for genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. We collected genotyping results from Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) in a geographically limited area (Stockholm) during a period of three years. The number and proportion of isolates belonging to clusters was reduced by 45 and 35% respectively when combining the two methods compared with using RFLP or MIRU-VNTR only. The mean size of the clusters was smaller when combining methods and smaller with RFLP compared to MIRU-VNTR. In clusters with confirmed epidemiological links RFLP coincided slightly better than MIRU-VNTR but where there was a difference, the variation in MIRU-VNTR pattern was only in a single locus. In isolates with few IS6110 bands in RFLP, MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates more, dividing the RFLP clusters. Since MIRU-VNTR is faster and less labour-intensive it is the method of choice for routine genotyping. In most cases it will be sufficient for epidemiological purposes but true clustering might still be considered if there are epidemiological links and the MIRU-VNTR results differ in only one of its 24 loci.

  12. Inversion of Seabed Parameters in the Stockholm Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, L.; Andersson, B. L.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply acoustic inversion to a bay in the Stockholm archipelago with strong variations of the bottom both vertically and horizontally. The inversions were based on measurements undertaken in May 2001 of transmission loss over a 2.5 km long track. The bottom parameters were estimated by minimizing the difference between simulated and measured data. The parabolic wave equation was used as a wave propagation model and the inversions were carried out by a genetic algorithm. They resulted in a relatively good fit. The inverted bottom parameters were also evaluated by model predictions against a control data set of other frequencies than those of the inversion. The agreement between the estimated and measured parameters was good.

  13. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  14. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihong; Teichert, Martina; Chasman, Daniel I; Heit, John A; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Li, Guo; Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R; Uitterlinden, André G; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L; Pankow, James S; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C; Bovill, Edwin G; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ridker, Paul M; Folsom, Aaron R; Smith, Nicholas L

    2013-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to approximately 2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (P ≤ 0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P < 5.0 × 10(-13) for both). The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (P < 5.0 × 10(-6) ) and constitute new candidate genes. In conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations.

  15. Maternal Parity and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Jin; Tong, Xing; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Shen, Shutong; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06; Q = 32.34; P = 0.006; I2 = 53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR = 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31; (Q = 74.61, P<0.001, I2 = 82.6%). A dose–response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09); Q = 68.09; P<0.001; I2 = 80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD. PMID:25295723

  16. Review of the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) family of studies: a comprehensively examined sample for genetic and epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes and its complications.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Donald W; Cox, Amanda J; Freedman, Barry I; Hugenschimdt, Christina E; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Herrington, David; Agarwal, Subhashish; Register, Thomas C; Maldjian, Joseph A; Ng, Maggie C-Y; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Langefeld, Carl D; Williamson, Jeff D; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) is a genetic and epidemiological study of 1,443 European American and African American participants from 564 families with multiple cases of type 2 diabetes. Initially, participants were comprehensively examined for measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) including computed tomography measurement of vascular calcified plaque, ultrasound imaging of carotid artery wall thickness, and electrocardiographic intervals. Subsequent studies have investigated the relationship between bone mineral density and vascular calcification, measures of adiposity, and biomarkers. Ongoing studies are carrying out an extensive evaluation of cerebrovascular disease using magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessment. A second, parallel study, the African American DHS, has expanded the sample of African Americans to investigate marked racial differences in subclinical CVD between European Americans and African Americans. Studies in development will evaluate the impact of social stress during the lifecourse on CVD risk, and the prevalence of gastroparesis in this diabetes enriched sample. In addition, the ongoing high mortality rate in DHS participants provides novel insights into the increased risks for type 2 diabetes affected individuals. A comprehensive genetic analysis of the sample is underway using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. Data from this GWAS survey will complement prior family-based linkage data in the analysis of genetic contributors to the wide range of traits in the sample. To our knowledge the DHS family of studies has created the most comprehensively examined sample of individuals with type 2 diabetes yet available, and represents a unique resource for the study people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide a collective overview of the major results from the DHS family of studies, and relate them to the larger body of biomedical investigations of diabetes and its complications. PMID

  17. Age at immigration and crime in Stockholm using sibling comparisons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Amber L

    2015-09-01

    Past Swedish research has shown that immigrants arriving in the receiving country at an older age are less likely to commit crime than immigrants arriving at a younger age. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the family and neighborhood may be important factors affecting how age at immigration and crime are related to one another. This study used population-based register data on foreign-background males from Stockholm to test the effect of age at immigration on crime. Potential confounding from the family and neighborhood was addressed using variables and modeling strategies. Initial results, using variables to control for confounding, showed that people who immigrated around age 4 were the most likely to be suspected of a crime. When controlling for unmeasured family characteristics, it seemed that a later age at immigration was tied to a lower likelihood of crime, which does not corroborate past research findings. The effect of age at immigration, however, was not statistically significant. The results imply that future research on entire families may be a worthwhile endeavor. PMID:26188451

  18. Electromagnetic fields and health effects--epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    This epidemiologic investigation comprised separate studies of the risk of cancer, cause-specific mortality rates, risks for neurodegenerative diseases, and the risk of arrhythmia-related heart disease among employees exposed to extremely low-frequency (50-Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the Danish utility industry. All the employees in this industry were followed-up in several registers. The risk of disease was analyzed in relation to occupational exposure to EMF, latency, and duration of employment. A specific job-exposure matrix was developed and validated by comparison with direct measurements of EMF during a workday. Linkage with the Danish Cancer Register did not identify increased risks for the cancers suggested a priori to be associated with exposure to EMF, including leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer. Significantly increased risks for lung cancer and mesothelioma were identified for workers highly exposed to asbestos. Linkage with the National Mortality Register revealed a significantly increased overall mortality rate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with an increasing trend with duration of employment and EMF exposure. In addition, a significantly increased mortality rate from electric accidents was observed. It was hypothesized that the observation of increased mortality from ALS was associated with exposure to EMF or electric shocks. No increased mortality rate from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease was observed. Linkage with the National Hospital Register also revealed an increased risk of ALS and, thereby confirmed the finding of an increased mortality rate for this disease in the previous study. Linkage of the cohort with the Multiple Sclerosis Register revealed an increased risk of multiple sclerosis, which was not, however, significant. Linkage with the Pacemaker Register showed no increased risk of severe arrhythmia-related heart disease. The second part of the study included the establishment of a large, nationwide

  19. Exact results in gauge-string dualities (Stockholm, Sweden, 23 January-17 February 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarembo, Konstantin

    2012-08-01

    Exactly solvable models play a distinguished role in physics, as they help us understand the behavior of strongly correlated, strongly coupled systems in the regimes where other methods fail. For a long time, the exact solvability was associated with (1+1)-dimensional systems, where powerful methods of integrability allow one to find the exact spectrum, to study thermodynamics and to compute correlation functions for a number of strongly interacting field theories. The AdS/CFT duality established a rigorous relationship between gauge fields and strings, and paved the way for applying the methods of integrability in four-dimensional gauge theories. The two-dimensional dynamics on the string worldsheet (dual to the fluctuating electric flux tube in a gauge theory) is in many cases integrable, which opens the avenue for applications of non-perturbative, integrability-based methods to four-dimensional gauge theories. The progress in understanding non-perturbative phenomena in gauge theories has been rapid in recent years, and required synergy of methods from exactly solvable models, gauge theories, strings and integrable systems. The program 'Exact Results in Gauge-String Dualities' took place at Nordita, Stockholm from 23 January to 17 February 2012 and brought together specialists with common interests in string theory, quantum field theory and exactly solvable models. Topics discussed during the program included: (i) exact results in the AdS/CFT correspondence, (ii) scattering amplitudes, (iii) supersymmetric gauge theories, and (iv) Bethe ansatz and exact solvability in quantum field theory and statistical systems. The articles by D Sorokin [1] and M de Leeuw et al [2] give an overview of the string-theory origins of integrability in gauge theories, and of the algebraic structures omnipresent in quantum integrable systems. The topics covered in these articles underpin the integrability approach to gauge--string dualities and lie at the heart of the integrability

  20. Sick Leave and Work Participation among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to…

  1. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  2. Use of a genetic algorithm to improve the rail profile on Stockholm underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Ingemar; Nilsson, Rickard; Bik, Ulf; Lundgren, Magnus; Iwnicki, Simon

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, a genetic algorithm optimisation method has been used to develop an improved rail profile for Stockholm underground. An inverted penalty index based on a number of key performance parameters was generated as a fitness function and vehicle dynamics simulations were carried out with the multibody simulation package Gensys. The effectiveness of each profile produced by the genetic algorithm was assessed using the roulette wheel method. The method has been applied to the rail profile on the Stockholm underground, where problems with rolling contact fatigue on wheels and rails are currently managed by grinding. From a starting point of the original BV50 and the UIC60 rail profiles, an optimised rail profile with some shoulder relief has been produced. The optimised profile seems similar to measured rail profiles on the Stockholm underground network and although initial grinding is required, maintenance of the profile will probably not require further grinding.

  3. Fluxes of 13 selected pharmaceuticals in the water cycle of Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, C; Björlenius, B; Paxéus, N

    2011-01-01

    Mass flows of 13 pharmaceutical active ingredients (APIS) found in drinking water were studied in the water cycle of Stockholm. Data were collected by analyzing samples of surface water, raw water and drinking water as well as influents, effluents and sludges from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Stockholm area. A mass balance was performed, based on sold amounts of pharmaceuticals and the measured concentrations in water and sludge. The selected APls were all present in WWTP effluents and the removal rates for many of them were poor. Mass balance calculations showed that the three studied WWTPs in Stockholm release considerable amounts of the selected APIs into the Baltic Sea while the portions ending up in WWTP sludge were significantly lower. The levels of APIs found in drinking water are low at present, but may increase in the future unless the releases from WWTPs in the catchment of Lake Mälären are mitigated.

  4. Unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants in Stockholm County 1998-09.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Andreas; Hansson, Anders

    2014-08-01

    The association between unemployment rates and population mental health has been studied with contradictory results. We examine the association between unemployment and antidepressants in Stockholm County. Age- and sex-specific monthly data on unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants from January 1998 to January 2008 in Stockholm County were used. The association was studied with bivariate cointegration analysis with stationarity check of the residuals. We found that dispensing of antidepressants was inversely associated with unemployment. One interpretation is that antidepressants have not followed decreasing unemployment rates.

  5. A technique to re-assess epidemiologic evidence in light of the healthy worker effect: the case of firefighting and heart disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, B C

    2000-10-01

    The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a bias that is believed to have strongly affected the validity of previous cohort mortality studies on the relationship between firefighting and heart disease. There is a strong healthy hired effect (a component of the HWE) among firefighters, owing particularly to the recruitment of nondiabetic candidates. This is shown in previous studies in which the reported standardized mortality ratios for diabetes are much less than unity, generally around 0.3 to 0.5. Because diabetes is known to increase the risk of heart disease, a deficit of diabetes among firefighters is expected to lead to a deficit of heart injury and disease. This would make the cohort mortality studies incapable of detecting any increase in risk of heart injury and disease among firefighters. There is also a strong healthy worker survivor effect (another component of the HWE) among firefighters. In addition, heart disease is a classic example of the HWE because heart disease is chronic and its risk factors can be identified in the selection process. It is believed that (1) a major problem of previous studies on firefighting and heart disease is their failure to recognize the importance of the HWE when interpreting their results, and (2) a technique to re-assess results in light of the HWE is urgently needed. This article addresses the generally accepted principles relating to the HWE, including its definition and sources, and proposes a technique for re-assessing the literature in light of the HWE. The technique was applied to carefully re-assess 23 studies that provided direct evidence for the relationship between firefighting and heart disease. Before the re-assessment, 7 of the 23 studies showed positive evidence and 16 showed no evidence. After the re-assessment, 11 studies showed positive evidence and 12 showed no evidence. Based on the results of the re-assessment of the 23 studies, we concluded that (1) there is strong evidence of an increased risk of death

  6. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  7. Bullying in Context: An Analysis of Psychosomatic Complaints among Adolescents in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel modeling, this study examined how different types of bullying, involving both peers and teachers, relate to psychosomatic health complaints. Data were obtained via the Stockholm School Survey from 41,032 ninth- and eleventh-grade students in the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. Results showed that students involved in bullying as…

  8. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  9. Circular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kuller, L H

    1999-11-01

    Circular epidemiology can be defined as the continuation of specific types of epidemiologic studies beyond the point of reasonable doubt of the true existence of an important association or the absence of such an association. Circular epidemiology is an extreme example of studies of the consistency of associations. A basic problem for epidemiology is the lack of a systematic approach to acquiring new knowledge to reach a goal of improving public health and preventive medicine. For epidemiologists, research support unfortunately is biased toward the continued study of already proven hypotheses. Circular epidemiology, however, freezes at one point in the evolution of epidemiologic studies, failing to move from descriptive to analytical case-control and longitudinal studies, for example, to experimental, clinical trials. Good epidemiology journals are filled with very well-conducted epidemiologic studies that primarily repeat the obvious or are variations on the theme.

  10. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  11. Heart Rate Variability, Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution, and Glucose Homeostasis: The Environmental Epidemiology of Arrhythmogenesis in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Quibrera, P. Miguel; Christ, Sharon L.; Liao, Duanping; Prineas, Ronald J.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic neuropathophysiology underlying the prediabetic state may confer susceptibility to the adverse health effects of ambient particulate matter <10 μm in diameter (PM10). The authors therefore examined whether impaired glucose homeostasis modifies the effect of PM10 on heart rate variability in a stratified, random sample of 4,295 Women's Health Initiative clinical trial participants, among whom electrocardiograms and fasting blood draws were repeated at 3-year intervals from 1993 to 2004. In multilevel, mixed models weighted for sampling design and adjusted for clinical and environmental covariables, PM10 exposure was inversely associated with heart rate variability. Inverse PM10–heart rate variability associations were strongest for the root mean square of successive differences in normal-to-normal RR intervals (RMSSD). Among participants with impaired fasting glucose, there were −8.3% (95% confidence interval: −13.9, −2.4) versus −0.6% (95% confidence interval: −2.4, 1.3), −8.4% (95% confidence interval: −13.8, −2.7) versus −0.3% (95% confidence interval: −2.1, 1.6), and −4.3% (95% confidence interval: −9.4, 1.0) versus −0.8% (95% confidence interval: −2.7, 1.0) decreases in the RMSSD per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10 at high versus low levels of insulin (P < 0.01), insulin resistance (P < 0.01), and glucose (P = 0.16), respectively. These associations were stronger among participants with diabetes and weaker among those without diabetes or impaired fasting glucose. The findings suggest that insulin and insulin resistance exacerbate the adverse effect of PM10 on cardiac autonomic control and thus risk of coronary heart disease among nondiabetic, postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose. PMID:19208727

  12. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  13. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  14. Identity, place, and erotic community within gay leather culture in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Graham, M

    1998-01-01

    There has been much recent attention to the relationship between the construction of place, identity, and the body. This paper examines some of these themes in a presentation of the gay leather scene in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on ethnography of Stockholm's only true leather club, it shows how identity and spatial location are implicated in one another. It also looks at social and cultural processes of containment and dispersion within leather culture, the creation of erotic bodies, and forms of erotic interaction. These processes are seen as reflecting features of the wider Swedish gay scene and society in general, which is sometimes less tolerant than it is imagined to be. Aspects of current and possible future transformations of leather culture and style are also briefly considered.

  15. Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts-A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jan; Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai and Stockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated from support vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix features. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configuration and to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbanization is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified by ecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of cropland in both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120% in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover change was a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results, it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted in ecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to the decrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very little. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2 and 100 km2 in Stockholm. The developed methodology is considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions in urban and regional planning.

  16. Marginal Structural Models in Occupational Epidemiology: Application in a Study of Ischemic Heart Disease Incidence and PM2.5 in the US Aluminum Industry

    PubMed Central

    Neophytou, Andreas M.; Costello, Sadie; Brown, Daniel M.; Picciotto, Sally; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Cullen, Mark R.; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal structural models (MSMs) and inverse probability weighting can be used to estimate risk in a cohort of active workers if there is a time-varying confounder (e.g., health status) affected by prior exposure—a feature of the healthy worker survivor effect. We applied Cox MSMs in a study of incident ischemic heart disease and exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) in a cohort of 12,949 actively employed aluminum workers in the United States. The cohort was stratified by work process into workers in smelting facilities, herein referred to as “smelters” and workers in fabrication facilities, herein referred to as “fabricators.” The outcome was assessed by using medical claims data from 1998 to 2012. A composite risk score based on insurance claims was treated as a time-varying measure of health status. Binary PM2.5 exposure was defined by the 10th-percentile cutoff for each work process. Health status was associated with past exposure and predicted the outcome and subsequent exposure in smelters but not in fabricators. In smelters, the Cox MSM hazard ratio comparing those always exposed above the cutoff with those always exposed below the cutoff was 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 3.32). In fabricators, the hazard ratio from a traditional Cox model was 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.83). Results suggest that occupational PM2.5 exposure increases the risk of incident ischemic heart disease in workers in both aluminum smelting and fabrication facilities. PMID:25125691

  17. Heart failure in South America.

    PubMed

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-05-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries.

  18. Heart Failure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

  19. Sick Leave and Work Participation Among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-07-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to parents who did not have a child with ASD and these results remained after adjusting for familial socioeconomic factors and parental psychiatric care. Sick leave among parents was associated with having a child with ASD without intellectual disability (ID) but not ASD with ID. Although Sweden has policies helping families with children with ASD this study suggests that there exist unmet needs among these parents. PMID:25697737

  20. Variations in incidence of type 1 diabetes in different municipalities of stockholm.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Sreevalsam; Ortqvist, Eva; Norgren, Svante; Green, Anders; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2008-12-01

    This article reports a test of the hypothesis that municipalities within the County of Stockholm have varying incidence rates of type 1 diabetes (T1D), suggesting a strong etiologic environmental component to the disease. The study group included T1D patients in the age group from birth to 18 years who were diagnosed each year from 20 municipalities in Stockholm County during the 1990-2003. Specific incidence rates by age, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics (income level, proportion of taxpayers, proportion of foreigners, population density and green cover) were estimated annually together with age standardization. chi(2) analyses were used for the statistical assessment of variability in incidence. During the study period, 733 newly diagnosed T1D patients aged 0-18 years were recorded from the 20 municipalities under study. The overall age-standardized incidence in these 20 municipalities was 24.38 (22.65-26.21) per 100,000, with 45.35 (32.08-62.29) as highest and 13.41 (9.53-18.35) as lowest estimated incidence. For all socioeconomic variables statistically significant heterogeneity was demonstrated in the standardized incidence rate. High green index was positively associated with the incidence of T1D, as was low population density. For the three remaining socioeconomic variables no clear patterns of associations with incidence of T1D were seen. This study demonstrates a considerable and statistically significant variation between the lowest and highest values in the incidence and prevalence rates for T1D in municipalities of Stockholm County. Such variation seems unlikely to be explained by genetic differences since the population is homogeneous. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that environmental factors have a major influence on the pathogenesis of T1D.

  1. HCH contamination from former pesticide production in Brazil--a challenge for the Stockholm Convention implementation.

    PubMed

    Torres, J P M; Fróes-Asmus, C I R; Weber, R; Vijgen, J M H

    2013-04-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α-, β- and γ- HCH [lindane]) were recently added to the list of persistent organic pollutants regulated by the Stockholm Convention, and therefore, the legacy of HCH and lindane production has become an issue of global relevance. The production of lindane with the much larger quantities of associated waste isomers has generated large waste deposits and contaminated sites. This article presents an overview of HCH-polluted sites in Brazil as a basis for further activities related to the Stockholm Convention. The locations of HCH stockpiles and contaminated sites in Brazil arising from production and formulation have been compiled and mapped. This shows that the measures taken over the past 25 years have not resulted in remediation of the HCH pollution. An exposure risk study has been summarised for one major site and is included to demonstrate the contemporary relevance of the contamination. Major site remediation efforts are planned at one site but people live close to several other sites, and there is an urgent need of further assessments and remediation to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. The Stockholm Convention requires a systematic approach and should be adopted for the assessment of all sites and appropriate isolation/remediation measures should be facilitated. The appropriate planning of these activities for the production site in Rio de Janeiro could be a positive contribution for Rio+20 highlighting that green economy and sustainable production also include the appropriate management of legacies of historic production of an industrial sector (here the organochlorine industry). PMID:22825640

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Idring, Selma; Rai, Dheeraj; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina; Sturm, Harald; Zander, Eric; Lee, Brian K.; Serlachius, Eva; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity. Method The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0–17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001–2007 (N = 589,114). ASD cases (N = 5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study. Results The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2–11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0–44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0–98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2–95.8) of affected twins. Conclusions Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further. PMID:22911770

  3. Stress May Take Greatest Toll on Younger Women's Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow to the heart, said study leader Dr. Viola Vaccarino. She is chair of epidemiology at Emory ... spokesperson, Go Red for Women, American Heart Association; Viola Vaccarino, M.D., Ph.D., professor and chair, ...

  4. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  5. Ten years after entry into force of the Stockholm Convention: What do air monitoring data tell about its effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Scheringer, Martin; Bogdal, Christian; Hung, Hayley; Salamova, Amina; Venier, Marta; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Hites, Ronald A; Hungerbuhler, Konrad; Fiedler, Heidelore

    2016-10-01

    More than a decade ago, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), one of the multilateral environmental agreements administered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), entered into force. The objective of this Convention is to protect human health and the environment by controlling the releases of POPs. According to its Article 16, the effectiveness of the Stockholm Convention shall be evaluated using comparable monitoring data on the presence of POPs as well as their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we present a time series analysis on atmospheric POP concentrations from 15 monitoring stations in North America and Europe that provide long-term data and have started operations between 1990 and 2003. We systematically searched for temporal trends and significant structural changes in temporal trends that might result from the provisions of the Stockholm Convention. We find that such structural changes do occur, but they are related mostly to effects of national regulations enforced prior to the implementation of the Stockholm Convention, rather than to the enforcement of the provisions laid out in the Convention. One example is that concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, many of which started to decrease rapidly during the 1990s. Also effects of chemical transport and fate, for instance the re-volatilization of POPs from secondary sources, are thought to be a cause of some of the observed structural changes. We conclude that a decade of air monitoring data has not been sufficient for detecting general and statistically significant effects of the Stockholm Convention. Based on these lessons, we present recommendations for the future operation of existing monitoring programs and advocate for a stricter enforcement of the provisions of the Stockholm Convention, in the current absence of proof for its effectiveness. PMID:27015905

  6. Stockholm Arlanda Airport as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to water, sediment and fish.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Norström, Karin; Viktor, Tomas; Cousins, Anna Palm; Josefsson, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Fire training facilities are potential sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the nearby environment due to the usage of PFAS-containing aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFFs). The multimedia distribution of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA) was investigated near a fire training facility at Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sweden. The whole body burden of PFASs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) was 334±80μg absolute and was distributed as follows: Gonad>liver≈muscle>blood>gill. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and sediment/water partition coefficient (Kd) increased by 0.6-1.7 and 0.2-0.5 log units, respectively, for each additional CF2 moiety for PFCAs and PFSAs. PFAS concentrations in water showed no significant decreasing trend between 2009 and 2013 (p>0.05), which indicates that Stockholm Arlanda Airport may be an important source for long-term contamination of the nearby environment with PFASs.

  7. Anthropogenic phosphorus flows under different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiechen; Franzén, Daniel; Malmström, Maria E

    2016-01-15

    Today, concerns prevail about the unsustainable use of phosphorus and worldwide eutrophication, thus requiring efficient management of phosphorus flows. With increasing population and associated urban growth, urban management of phosphorus flows in the perspectives of recycling, eutrophication and total budget becomes increasingly important. This study mapped phosphorus flows for a reference year (2013) and a future year (2030) using different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The results indicated that the Swedish goal of recycling phosphorus from wastewater would cover the majority of the total phosphorus budget for Stockholm. However, in 2013, only 10% of phosphorus was recycled for agricultural use, around half of which was from sewage sludge and the other half from food waste. Almost 50% of total phosphorus was sent to landfill/mining waste capping with sewage sludge, for economic reasons and lack of market. Among the scenarios of upstream and downstream urban management options studied in combination with population growth, recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge had the greatest potential to increase the fraction recycled to agriculture. However, only upstream measures, e.g. changed diet, were able to reduce the total phosphorus budget. Urban management of phosphorus flows based on the different perspectives of recycling, eutrophication or total budget was shown to potentially result in different preferred management actions and both upstream and downstream measures need to be considered. Moreover, management needs to pay attention to small but environmentally sensitive flows, particularly when setting city goals on phosphorus recycling by percentage in a large budget. PMID:26442719

  8. Community-based cancer prevention--the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Holm, L E

    1991-01-01

    The Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program (SCPP) is among the first comprehensive community intervention programs in the world aimed at reducing cancer incidence and mortality. The program began in 1987 in an urban area with more than 1.6 million inhabitants. In its work, SCPP utilizes a community-based approach focusing on (1) reduction in tobacco consumption, (2) reduction in dietary fat consumption and increase in dietary fiber consumption, and (3) changing sunbathing behavior in order to reduce the incidence of malignant melanoma. The overall philosophy of the program is to initiate activities capable of affecting the life style of the Stockholm population in these directions. SCPP intends to influence behavior through individual face-to-face contact. The tool for this contact is collaboration with independent organizations which are already active in the target communities. Food supply to the general public will be influenced through food producers, wholesalers, retailers, and caterers. Tobacco use, food habits, and sunbathing habits will be influenced via occupational health services; public health services including primary care, schools and municipal social services; voluntary organizations; and mass media. A model for possible ways of evaluating the program has been designed. PMID:1782634

  9. Hyperkalemia in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Chaudhry M S; Papadimitriou, Lampros; Pitt, Bertram; Piña, Ileana; Zannad, Faiez; Anker, Stefan D; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Butler, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Disorders of potassium homeostasis can potentiate the already elevated risk of arrhythmia in heart failure. Heart failure patients have a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease, which further heightens the risk of hyperkalemia, especially when renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are used. Acute treatment for hyperkalemia may not be tolerated in the long term. Recent data for patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, used to treat and prevent high serum potassium levels on a more chronic basis, have sparked interest in the treatment of hyperkalemia, as well as the potential use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients who were previously unable to take these drugs or tolerated only low doses. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and outcomes of hyperkalemia in heart failure; provides an overview of traditional and novel ways to approach management of hyperkalemia; and discusses the need for further research to optimally treat heart failure.

  10. Hyperkalemia in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Chaudhry M S; Papadimitriou, Lampros; Pitt, Bertram; Piña, Ileana; Zannad, Faiez; Anker, Stefan D; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Butler, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Disorders of potassium homeostasis can potentiate the already elevated risk of arrhythmia in heart failure. Heart failure patients have a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease, which further heightens the risk of hyperkalemia, especially when renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are used. Acute treatment for hyperkalemia may not be tolerated in the long term. Recent data for patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, used to treat and prevent high serum potassium levels on a more chronic basis, have sparked interest in the treatment of hyperkalemia, as well as the potential use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients who were previously unable to take these drugs or tolerated only low doses. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and outcomes of hyperkalemia in heart failure; provides an overview of traditional and novel ways to approach management of hyperkalemia; and discusses the need for further research to optimally treat heart failure. PMID:27687200

  11. [Field epidemiology and social epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Segura del Pozo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of changing epistemological, methodological and practice grounds, beginning with field epidemiologists teaching programmes. Field epidemiology would tend to act in an absent theoretical frame. On the other hand, social epidemiology would tend to prioritize theoretical developments (thinking and research about social determinants) without correspondent action, because of the limits to change public policies. Other differences are found at intervention level (micro-macrospace), its aim (outbreak control vs. inequalities control) and the way to communicate with society. They are similar in the methodological concern, the predominance of orientation based on positivism and framed through statistic methods, but in process of epistemological opening, the stress experienced between the alternative relationship to a virtual world of data bases or to the real society, their peripherical situation in relation of the political, social, institutional and professional system and the tendency to professional frustration. Finally, we ask ten questions to the field epidemiologists related with their present practice, in order to consider if they are developing social epidemiology, and propose some changes in epidemiologist teaching and practice.

  12. Polygenic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  13. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  14. Polygenic Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Dudbridge, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  15. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  16. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  17. Council of Europe Special Experimental Classes for Migrant Workers' Children, Academic Year 1972-73. (Stockholm, Sweden).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    The study's overriding objective was to map out the situation of immigrant pupils in the Rinkey School in Stockholm, Sweden. Two immigrant classes were selected: a class with 13 pupils of whom 12 were of Turkish origin and one with 7 Finnish pupils. All pupils were between 14 and 16 years of age and were formally enrolled in one of the upper…

  18. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  19. A Multilevel Study on Ethnic and Socioeconomic School Stratification and Health-Related Behaviors among Students in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Gabriella; Fritzell, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines the extent to which high alcohol consumption, drug use, and delinquency vary between schools with different socioeconomic characteristics, over and above the pupil's own sociodemographic background. Methods: Analyses are based on data on 5484 ninth-grade students distributed over 93 schools in Stockholm, from the…

  20. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  1. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  2. Population exposure to atmospheric particles (PM) caused by emissions in Stockholm - local and regional/European scale modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, R.; Johansson, C.

    2009-04-01

    Local and regional-scale model calculations have been performed to estimate the effects of emissions in Stockholm on the population exposure to particulate matter (PM) within the city, in surrounding areas, and in the rest of Europe. The impacts of five different emission sources were investigated: Road traffic exhaust, split into Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) and Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV), Sea Traffic, Power Plants and Residential Heating. The emissions from non-exhaust (mainly road wear due to use of studded tyres) were also treated, in addition to combustion sources. The calculated impact of the Stockholm emissions on atmospheric concentrations of particles were weighted by the population distribution and the calculated yearly average total European population exposures for the different sources are summarised below (unit: person μg/m3). Wear particles: Road Traffic 2 520 000 Directly emitted PM: LDV-exhaust 150 000, HDV-exhaust 55 000, Sea Traffic 17 000, Power Plants 87 000, Residential Heating 178 000 - 886 000 Secondarily formed inorganic particles (nitrate, sulphate, ammonium): LDV 315 000, HDV 117 000, Sea Traffic 70 000, Power Plants 193 000, Residential Heating 26 000 - 70 000 Non-exhaust (road wear) particles dominate the total impact on PM10 exposure, contributing about 60-70% to the total exposure, due to all the studied sources in Stockholm. The calculated population exposure to the wear particles is to a very large extent (87%) occurring within the Stockholm area. The uncertainties in the emission estimates for Residential Heating using biomass (wood) are very large but it seems to be an important PM source in Stockholm. Two different estimates of the emissions were used; in the lowest estimate, which seems more realistic, the contribution to population exposure of directly emitted combustion particles from residential heating is of similar magnitude (178 000 person μg/m3) as the contribution from road traffic exhaust (205 000 person μg/m3). For all

  3. Use of the Cultural Formulation in Stockholm: a qualitative study of mental illness experience among migrants.

    PubMed

    Scarpinati Rosso, Marco; Bäärnhielm, Sofie

    2012-04-01

    This paper explores the contributions of the Cultural Formulation (CF) interview to an overall understanding of patients, and focuses on the narratives of 23 newly referred patients with migrant backgrounds seeking help at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Stockholm. Through text content analysis methods we identified five themes: displacement in space and time; mental illness as a physical disability; life events as etiological factors; concealing as a coping strategy; and being lost in a fragmented health care system. Findings indicate the need to contextualize symptoms for an in-depth comprehension of patients' phenomenology. Both clinical and policy implications are discussed. The findings suggest that a section on migration and acculturation should be added to the cultural formulation in the next edition of DSM.

  4. Recycling behaviour of householders living in multicultural urban area: a case study of Jarva, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Andersson, Mari

    2013-05-01

    The recycling behaviour of multicultural householders was investigated in the urban area of Järva, northwest Stockholm, Sweden, which is home to a significant proportion of immigrants from different parts of the world. Different ethnic minorities currently make up an important proportion of the urban population in Sweden, but little is known about their recycling behaviour and attitudes. Using quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interviews) methodology, possible determinants of recycling behaviour were investigated among Järva householders. It was found that attitude toward the importance of recycling had a positive correlation and was the main determinant of recycling behaviour among these householders. In contrast, environmental concern, satisfaction with the facilities provided, recycling confidence, community identity and socio-demographical factors showed no correlation with their recycling behaviour. Other results of the study indicated a need to investigate the specific behaviour of multicultural householders regarding source-separated collection and the recycling of hazardous, electronic and bulky wastes.

  5. Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities.

  6. Perspectives from the world's largest Alzheimer's disease research conference: Stockholm, Sweden, July 2002.

    PubMed

    Ward Robinson, Jennie; Halderman, Sally

    2002-10-01

    The 8th International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, held in Stockholm, Sweden from July 20 to 25, 2002, provided an exciting forum for nearly 3700 researchers from 78 countries to present and discuss advances in dementia research on a worldwide stage. Hosted by the Alzheimer's Association (Chicago, IL), this largest dementia research conference ever held united experienced researchers and relative newcomers to the field to learn from one another, challenge one another's thinking, and explore new possibilities for collaboration. The 12-fold growth in attendance, up from 300 scientists at the 1st International Research Conference in 1988, signals the increasing global importance of Alzheimer's disease in the research community as well as among policy makers and the general public. In fact, a recent survey of older Americans by the National Council on the Aging revealed that future memory loss was the number one health worry of the American elderly population.

  7. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occur. Prompt treatment of a heart attack can help prevent or limit damage to the heart and prevent sudden death. Call 9-1-1 Right Away A heart ...

  8. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  9. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST - elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD - heart attack; Coronary artery disease - heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  10. Heart murmurs

    MedlinePlus

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... classified ("graded") depending on how loud the murmur sounds with a stethoscope. The grading is on a ...

  11. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  12. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Alberti, K G M M; Eckel, Robert H; Grundy, Scott M; Zimmet, Paul Z; Cleeman, James I; Donato, Karen A; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; James, W Philip T; Loria, Catherine M; Smith, Sidney C

    2009-10-20

    A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used. PMID:19805654

  13. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  14. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  15. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  16. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  17. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass concentrations (MLAC) were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean and standard deviation MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36 (rural) to 5.39 μg m-3 (street canyon) and from 0.50 to 3.60 μg m-3, respectively. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at

  18. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean (± standard deviation) MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36±0.50 at the rural site to 5.39±3.60 μg m-3 at the street canyon site. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background

  19. Estimated Short-Term Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Christer; Forsberg, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although serious health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine fraction) are documented in many studies, the effects of coarse PM (PM2.5–10) are still under debate. Objective: In this study, we estimated the effects of short-term exposure of PM2.5–10 on daily mortality in Stockholm, Sweden. Method: We collected data on daily mortality for the years 2000 through 2008. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, ozone, and carbon monoxide were measured simultaneously in central Stockholm. We used additive Poisson regression models to examine the association between daily mortality and PM2.5–10 on the day of death and the day before. Effect estimates were adjusted for other pollutants (two-pollutant models) during different seasons. Results: We estimated a 1.68% increase [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20%, 3.15%] in daily mortality per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5–10 (single-pollutant model). The association with PM2.5–10 was stronger for November through May, when road dust is most important (1.69% increase; 95% CI: 0.21%, 3.17%), compared with the rest of the year (1.31% increase; 95% CI: –2.08%, 4.70%), although the difference was not statistically significant. When adjusted for other pollutants, particularly PM2.5, the effect estimates per 10 μg/m3 for PM2.5–10 decreased slightly but were still higher than corresponding effect estimates for PM2.5. Conclusions: Our analysis shows an increase in daily mortality associated with elevated urban background levels of PM2.5–10. Regulation of PM2.5–10 should be considered, along with actions to specifically reduce PM2.5–10 emissions, especially road dust suspension, in cities. PMID:22182596

  20. A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden, September 2008.

    PubMed

    Insulander, M; de Jong, B; Svenungsson, B

    2008-12-18

    In September 2008, 21 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among guests and staff at a wedding reception in a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden. The most probable source of the outbreak was bearnaise sauce containing chopped fresh parsley. PMID:19094915

  1. Heart failure in North America.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering

  2. Distributions of new Stockholm Convention POPs in soils across South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Yu-Mi; Park, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we monitored the newly added Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POPs) HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, chlordecone, PBDEs, PBBs and PFCs in industrial, urban, and agricultural soils in South Korea, in order to evaluate their distributions and potential sources. These POPs were widely distributed throughout South Korea, and their concentrations and distributions were affected by land use, reflecting their sources. The overall concentrations of HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, PBDEs, and PFCs in soils were in the range of ND (non-detectable)-0.358 ng/g (average±standard deviation: 0.060±0.080 ng/g), ND-0.531 ng/g (0.083±0.133 ng/g), 0.058-8.42 ng/g (2.19±2.43 ng/g), 0.004-4.78 ng/g (0.68±1.06 ng/g), and ND-1.62 ng/g (0.50±0.46 ng/g), respectively. Agricultural soils showed the highest concentration of endosulfan, which was the most recently used pesticide monitored in this study. On the other hand, industrial soils contained the highest concentrations of PeCBz, PBDEs, and PFCs, which were mainly introduced to environment via the industrial activities. PMID:24476973

  3. Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Castenfors, K; Svedin, L

    2001-12-14

    The authors examine current trends in urban risks and resilience in relation to hazardous material transports in general, and crisis communication and the Stockholm liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) near miss in 1998 in particular. The article discusses how current dynamics affecting urban areas, such as the decay in terms of increased condensation and limited expansion alternatives combined with industry site contamination and transports of hazardous materials on old worn-out physical infrastructure, work together to produce high-risk factors and increase urban vulnerability in large parts of the world today. Crisis communication takes a particularly pronounced role in the article as challenges in communication and confidence maintenance under conditions of information uncertainty and limited information control are explored. The LPG near miss case illustrates a Swedish case of urban risk and the tight coupling to hazardous material transports. The case also serves as a current example of Swedish resilience and lack of preparedness in urban crises, with particular observations and lessons learned in regards to crisis communication.

  4. Residential surface soil guidance values applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention POP pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many regulatory jurisdictions attempt to control human exposures with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify a soil's maximum allowable concentration. Pesticides are important soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread surface soil application. Worldwide, at least 174 regulatory jurisdictions from 54 United Nations member states have published more than 19,400 pesticide RGVs for at least 739 chemically unique pesticides. This manuscript examines the variability of the guidance values that are applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POP) pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, and Toxaphene) for which at least 1667 RGVs have been promulgated. Results indicate that the spans of the RGVs applied to each of these pesticides vary from 6.1 orders of magnitude for Toxaphene to 10.0 orders of magnitude for Mirex. The distribution of values across these value spans resembles the distribution of lognormal random variables, but also contain non-random value clusters. Approximately 40% of all the POP RGVs fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) RGV cancer risk model. Another 22% of the values fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the USEPA's non-cancer risk model, but the cancer risk calculations yield the binding (lowest) value for all POP pesticides except Endrin. The results presented emphasize the continued need to rationalize the RGVs applied worldwide to important soil contaminants.

  5. Environmentally reformed travel habits during the 2006 congestion charge trial in Stockholm--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Greger; Hagman, Olle; Andréasson, Håkan

    2011-08-01

    Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic crossing the inner city segment during rush hours by 20%. Emissions of carbon dioxide and particles were also substantially reduced. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 40 inhabitants, analyses how and why new travel habits emerged. The results show that particular, sometimes unexpected, features of everyday life (habits, resources, opportunities, values, etc.) were crucial for adjustment of travel behaviour in relation to the policy instrument. One example was that those accustomed to mixing different modes of transport on a daily basis more easily adapted their travel in the targeted way. On a more general level, the results revealed that the policy measure could actually tip the scales for the individual towards trying out a new behaviour.

  6. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m3 in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83–1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m3 corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68–1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  7. Residential surface soil guidance values applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention POP pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many regulatory jurisdictions attempt to control human exposures with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify a soil's maximum allowable concentration. Pesticides are important soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread surface soil application. Worldwide, at least 174 regulatory jurisdictions from 54 United Nations member states have published more than 19,400 pesticide RGVs for at least 739 chemically unique pesticides. This manuscript examines the variability of the guidance values that are applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POP) pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, and Toxaphene) for which at least 1667 RGVs have been promulgated. Results indicate that the spans of the RGVs applied to each of these pesticides vary from 6.1 orders of magnitude for Toxaphene to 10.0 orders of magnitude for Mirex. The distribution of values across these value spans resembles the distribution of lognormal random variables, but also contain non-random value clusters. Approximately 40% of all the POP RGVs fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) RGV cancer risk model. Another 22% of the values fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the USEPA's non-cancer risk model, but the cancer risk calculations yield the binding (lowest) value for all POP pesticides except Endrin. The results presented emphasize the continued need to rationalize the RGVs applied worldwide to important soil contaminants. PMID:26081305

  8. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution.

  9. First BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing implemented in the health care system of Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Arver, B; Borg, A; Lindblom, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to optimize the criteria for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing and to improve oncogenetic counseling in the Stockholm region. Screening for inherited breast cancer genes is laborious and a majority of tested samples turn out to be negative. The frequencies of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes differ across populations. Between 1997 and 2000, 160 families with breast and/or ovarian cancer were counseled and screened for mutations in the two genes. Twenty-five BRCA1 and two BRCA2 disease-causing mutations were found. Various factors associated with the probability of finding a BRCA1 mutation in the families were estimated. Age of onset in different generations and other malignancies were also studied. Families from our region in which both breast and ovarian cancer occur were likely to carry a BRCA1 mutation (34%). In breast-only cancer families, mutations were found only in those with very early onset. All breast- only cancer families with a mutation had at least one case of onset before 36 years of age and a young median age of onset (<43 years). Other malignancies than breast and ovarian cancers did not segregate in the BRCA1 families and surveillance for other malignancies is not needed, in general. Decreasing age of onset with successive generations was common and must be taken into account when surveillance options are considered. PMID:11336395

  10. The 1999 Stockholm Consensus Conference on quality specifications in laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Callum G

    2015-05-01

    The setting of analytical quality specifications in laboratory medicine has been a topic of discussion and debate for over 50 years: 15 years ago, as the subject matured and a profusion of recommendations appeared, many of them from expert groups, it was realised by a number of leading professionals that there was a need for a global consensus on the setting of such specifications. The Stockholm Conference held in 1999 on "Strategies to set global analytical quality specifications in laboratory medicine" achieved this and advocated the ubiquitous application of a hierarchical structure of approaches. The hierarchy has five levels, namely: 1) evaluation of the effect of analytical performance on clinical outcomes in specific clinical settings; 2) evaluation of the effect of analytical performance on clinical decisions in general using a) data based on components of biological variation, or b) analysis of clinicians' opinions; 3) published professional recommendations from a) national and international expert bodies, or b) expert local groups or individuals; 4) performance goals set by a) regulatory bodies, or b) organisers of external quality assessment (EQA) schemes; and 5) goals based on the current state of the art as a) demonstrated by data from EQA or proficiency testing scheme, or b) found in current publications on methodology. This approach has been much used since its wide promulgation, but there have been ongoing criticisms and new developments. The time seems right for an objective reappraisal of recommended strategies to set analytical performance goals.

  11. A food fair to promote dietary change in the Stockholm cancer prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Kanström, L; Haglund, B J; Holm, L E

    1992-08-01

    Involving organizations is crucial when developing community intervention strategies aimed at dietary change. This case study describes the use of a food fair as a change agent. The aim of the food fair was to obtain commitment and build up a network in the community comprised of professionals in the fields of food production, food distribution and information. The fair was organized in 1989 and intended to disseminate knowledge and information about healthy foods and encourage food industries, test kitchens and also publishing companies to develop and present products in accordance with the dietary objectives of the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Programme (ie a simultaneous reduction of fat and an increase in fibre intake). The food fair consisted of exhibitions and conferences/seminars. Policy makers, journalists, people in the educational and health professions and those working with food were invited to participate. Nearly 60 companies and organizations made presentations at the exhibition and 1,000 professionals attended the conferences and seminars. In all, 6,400 people visited the fair. Seventy-eight trade journals and newspapers and three radio stations reported on the fair. The food fair was so well received that a second fair was arranged in 1991.

  12. Cross sectional study of a workforce exposed to hand-arm vibration: with objective tests and the Stockholm workshop scales

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, K.; Gilmour, W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Medical surveillance of workforces exposed to vibration has been recommended with the Stockholm workshop scales. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate how the results of the objective tests individually and jointly associated with the final Stockholm workshop staging, (b) how this staging related to the history of exposure to vibration, and (c) how different trades were affected by the hazards from vibrating tools.
METHODS—All workers exposed to vibration in a heavy engineering company were examined with a questionnaire and a battery of tests. An assessment of staging by the Stockholm workshop scales was made. Estimates of the daily exposure and lifetime dosage of vibration of the various trades were reached.
RESULTS—The average years of tool use was 23.3 years (range 3-47 years) and the mean lifetime exposure was 11 022 (range 1012-46 125) hours. The individual neurological tests were all strongly associated with the Stockholm neurological staging but the cold provocation test was not associated with the Stockholm vascular staging. Neurological staging was significantly associated with age, years of tool use, and total hours of exposure to vibration, but not with trade or smoking. Vascular staging was significantly associated with age, years of tool use, total hours of exposure to vibration, and trade, but not with smoking. The mean neurological latent period was 19.7 (range 2-40) years and for the vascular component 19.1 (range 2-40) years. These means varied significantly by trade. The overall prevalence of neurological findings of 62% was greater than the overall prevalence of vascular findings, which was 33%.
CONCLUSIONS—(1) The neurological objective tests were found to be of use in neurological staging. The cold provocation test was not associated with the vascular staging and therefore was of little value. (2) Years of tool use was the exposure variable most significantly associated with evidence of damage to neurological

  13. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 per minute or coming in groups of 3 or more). You have risk factors for heart disease, such as high cholesterol, diabetes, or high blood pressure. You have new or different heart palpitations. ...

  14. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with heart disease? What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean? How can I lower my cholesterol? ... weight Know your numbers (blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides) You can reduce your chances of getting heart ...

  15. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 28. Bernstein D. Pediatric heart and heart-lung transplantation. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  16. Heart pacemaker

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 ounce. Most pacemakers have 2 parts: The generator contains the battery and the information to control ... are wires that connect the heart to the generator and carry the electrical messages to the heart. ...

  17. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  18. Traffic pollution at the home address and pregnancy outcomes in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, David; Mogren, Ingrid; Eneroth, Kristina; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background For the past two decades, several studies have reported associations between elevated levels of ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although with varying conclusions. Objectives To examine possible associations between the traffic pollution situation at the home address, for women who did not change address during pregnancy, and three types of pregnancy outcomes: spontaneous preterm delivery, children born small for gestational age (SGA) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. Methods We used data for the Greater Stockholm Area from the Swedish Medical Birth Register to construct a cohort based on all pregnancies conceived between July 1997 and March 2006, n=100 190. The pregnancy average nitrogen oxide, NOx, levels and annual mean daily vehicles at the home address were used as exposure variables. Mixed-model logistic regression was performed to assess any associations between exposure and outcome. Results There was an association between elevated traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the pregnancy average NOx level at the home address resulted in an OR of 1.17 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.26). The 2nd to 4th quartiles of NOx were all associated with an increased risk of SGA, but there was no difference in the risk estimate among the higher quartiles. There was a tendency of a higher risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in relation to higher levels of NOx. There was no evidence of an association between vehicle flow, the cruder indicator of traffic pollution, and the studied outcomes in this study. Conclusions In this large cohort, there was a fairly strong association between vehicle exhaust levels at the home address and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, after adjustment for important risk factors. PMID:26275899

  19. Nutrient loadings from urban catchments under climate change scenarios: case studies in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiechen; Malmström, Maria E

    2015-06-15

    Anthropogenic nutrient emissions and associated eutrophication of urban lakes are a global problem. Future changes in temperature and precipitation may influence nutrient loadings in lake catchments. A coupling method, where the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions method was tested in combination with source quantification in a Substance Flow Analysis structure, was suggested to investigate diffuse nutrient sources and pathways and climate change effects on the loadings to streamflow in urban catchments. This method may, with an acceptable level of uncertainty, be applied to urban catchments for first-hand estimations of nutrient loadings in the projected future and to highlight the need for further study and monitoring. Five lake catchments in Stockholm, Sweden (Råcksta Träsk, Judarn, Trekanten, Långsjön and Laduviken) were employed as case studies and potential climate change effects were explored by comparing loading scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2021-2030). For the selected cases, the dominant diffuse sources of nutrients to urban streamflow were found to be background atmospheric concentration and vehicular traffic. The major pathways of the nitrogen loading were suggested to be from both developed areas and natural areas in the control period, while phosphorus was indicated to be largely transported through surface runoff from natural areas. Furthermore, for nitrogen, a modest redistribution of loadings from surface runoff and stormwater between seasons and an increase in the annual loading were suggested for the projected future climate scenarios as compared to the control period. The model was, due to poor monitoring data availability, only able to set an upper limit to nutrient transport by groundwater both in the control period and the future scenarios. However, for nitrogen, groundwater appeared to be the pathway most sensitive to climate change, with a considerable increase and seasonal redistribution of loadings. For phosphorus

  20. Radiocarbon apportionment of fossil versus biofuel combustion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Stockholm metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Gustafsson, Orjan; Reddy, Christopher M; Xu, Li

    2004-10-15

    Source-diagnostic markers and the isotopic composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in surface sediments from the greater Stockholm waterways to deduce the contribution from biomass sources to the environmental PAH load. The summed concentration of 20 PAHs ranged from 0.8 to 45.1 microg/g (dry weight) and exhibited a steep decline with increasing distance from the city center evidencing that sources within the metropolitan area of Stockholm dominate its PAH burden. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated an overwhelming predominance of pyrogenic sources over the petrogenic ones, while retene and 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene were unable to correctly evaluate the contribution from biomass combustion. The stable carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of individual PAHs ranged from -24.8 to -27.0% but also was proved inefficient to discriminate between different types of fuels due to the overlapping signals in various sources. The delta14C values of PAHs ranged between -550.4 and -934.1%, indicating a clear predominance of fossil fuel sources. By using an isotopic mass balance approach, we estimated that on average 17+/-9% of PAHs derived from biomass combustion. This radiocarbon apportionment, in conjunction with detailed energy statistics for the Stockholm region, revealed that the ambient PAH burden is roughly similar, per unit energy produced, from fossil fuels and biofuels. Societies' shifting energy policies toward a larger reliance on biofuels may thus not lead to further deterioration of air quality and respiratory ailments for the urban population. PMID:15543735

  1. Heart regeneration.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  2. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    HLHS; Congenital heart - hypoplastic left heart; Cyanotic heart disease - hypoplastic left heart ... Hypoplastic left heart is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is more common in males than in females. As ...

  3. Heart failure.

    PubMed

    2014-12-15

    Essential facts Heart failure affects about 900,000 people in the UK. The condition can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in older people, with more than half of all patients over the age of 75. It is caused by the heart failing to pump enough blood around the body at the right pressure, usually because the heart muscle has become too weak or stiff to work properly. Acute heart failure, which occurs when symptoms develop quickly, is the leading cause of hospital admission in people over 65. PMID:25492766

  4. Masteŕ s Programme at Stockholm University: Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsjö, J.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Seibert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many environmental risks and societal concerns are directly related to the way we manage our land and water environments. The two-year master's programme "Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources" at Stockholm University, Sweden, is based on a system perspective and provides extended knowledge about water and soil-rock-sediment systems and how these interact with each other and with land use, socio-economic and water resource policy and management systems. This water system perspective includes the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems and associated risks for society. Questions related to water resources are also covered: the management of water resources and conflicts as well as collaborations caused by shared water resources on local, regional and global scales. A common learning objective for the courses in the programme is to be able to identify, extract and combine relevant information from databases and scientific publications, and use the resulting dataset in hydrological, hydrogeological and water resources analyses, on local, regional or global levels. Traditional classroom teaching is to large extent complemented by case study analyses, performed as project assignments. The importance of water resources for both the society and the environment is emphasized through applications to practical water resources management challenges in society. The courses in this program include the following topics: · Hydrological and hydrogeological processes, main components of the water cycle (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, discharge) and the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems. · Water resources and water quality, pollution spreading through surface, ground and coastal water systems, as well as vulnerability and resilience of water resources. · Regional analyses related to global water resource vulnerability and resilience. · Models and information systems as important tools for

  5. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. It is more common in people who are 65 years old or older, African Americans, people who are ... treatments fail. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  6. [Actualities regarding the degenerative valvular heart].

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Simona Daniela; Sandru, V; Burdujan, Alina

    2002-01-01

    The degenerative valvular heart disease became prioritary from the epidemiological point of view by contrast with the rheumatismal one, as a consequence of the increase of the economic standard and of average life expectancy. The calcific aortic stenosis is the most frequently encountered among the valvular heart lesions. Since the history of this disease is not well known, many efforts have been made in order to research all its aspects from the etiology to therapeutical and prophylactic methods.

  7. The Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Elder, Robert W; Baltimore, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) appears to be related to changes in the management of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and the virtual disappearance of rheumatic heart disease. To better understand these changes, we divide the history into: I. The pre-surgical era, II. The early years of CHD surgical intervention, correlated with introduction of antibiotics, III. The modern era of cardiac interventions. Microbiologic changes include an early predominance of viridans streptococci and an overtaking by staphylococci. Additionally, there have been advances in imaging that allow earlier detection of IE and a reduction in IE-related mortality.

  8. Residential surface soil guidance applied worldwide to the pesticides added to the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Due to the widespread use of agricultural and residential pesticides, the potential for pesticide soil contamination is a worldwide concern. In response, regulatory jurisdictions in at least 54 nations have promulgated guidance values to specify the maximum allowable concentration of pesticides in soils. Guidance values may be found for more than 700 pesticides. A previous analysis examined the values applied to the original "dirty dozen" persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides that were addressed in the 2001 Stockholm Convention (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, and Toxaphene). Results are presented here for the "new POP" pesticides that were added to the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and 2011 (isomers of Hexachlorocyclohexane, Chlordecone, and isomers of Endosulfan). The guidance value extremes used worldwide for these pesticides vary by as much as 8.5 orders of magnitude and the randomness in their distributions resembles that of lognormal random variables. However, there are nonrandom value clusters in some distributions that may identify values around which consensuses are forming. The current value distributions imply that a wide range of human health risks are being accepted. Hopefully, the results presented will help regulatory jurisdictions and the regulated communities identify values that should be revised to be adequately protective of human health.

  9. The dynamics of social-ecological systems in urban landscapes: Stockholm and the National Urban Park, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elmqvist, T; Colding, J; Barthel, S; Borgstrom, S; Duit, A; Lundberg, J; Andersson, E; Ahrné, K; Ernstson, H; Folke, C; Bengtsson, J

    2004-06-01

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  10. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrício, João

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy.

  11. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrício, João

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy. PMID:26065831

  12. Social determinants of child and adolescent traffic-related and intentional injuries: a multilevel study in Stockholm County.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Lucie; Hasselberg, Marie; Reimers, Anne-Mari; Cavalini, Luciana Tricai; Ponce de Leon, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Several significant developmental and socialisation processes in the life of children and adolescents take place in the area where they live. The extent to which they can feel and be safe in this environment is an important component of the success of those processes. This study highlights the independent contribution of neighbourhood and individual-level demographic and socioeconomic attributes to child and adolescent injuries. All individuals between the ages of 7 and 16 years living in Stockholm County in January 1998 (n=184 545) were followed up for their injuries during a five-year period considering injuries sustained as a pedestrian/cyclist/motor-vehicle rider and intentional injuries (violence-related and self-inflicted). A series of two-level logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between the occurrence of injuries and individual (compositional) characteristics nested into parish of residence as well as contextual characteristics. For children and adolescents living in Stockholm County, contextual socioeconomic and social attributes of their place of residence were significant for injuries sustained as motor-vehicle riders but not for those sustained as pedestrians/cyclists or those inflicted intentionally. In the latter case, only the highest concentration of social benefit recipients was associated with significantly higher odds ratios. This emphasises that each injury mechanism has its own socioeconomic and social pathway, where contextual and compositional factors come into play to varying degrees.

  13. The Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire: a sociologically based tool for the assessment of indoor environment and health in dwellings.

    PubMed

    Engvall, K; Norrby, C; Sandstedt, E

    2004-02-01

    The aim was to develop and validate a standardized questionnaire - the Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire (SIEQ). The validation procedure was based on sociological principles and test procedures for validation. The indicators of indoor environment are air quality, thermal climate, noise, and illumination. The indicators of health are symptoms comprised in the sick building syndrome (SBS). The questionnaire also contains questions about the apartment, individual behavior, and personal factors. The everyday language describing the building and its function was first obtained by qualitative personal interviews, then by standardized questions. The interview questionnaire was transformed into a postal self-administered questionnaire. The reduction of the questionnaire was based on correlation analysis. It was found that to obtain a good validity, general questions are not sufficient, but specific question on perceptions and observations are needed. Good test-retest agreement was found both on an area level, building level, and individually. For each indicator, a set of questions are constructed and validated. SIEQ has been used in several studies, and the results are presented in graphic problem profiles. Reference data has been calculated for the Stockholm area.

  14. Can I have a beer, please? A study of alcohol service to young adults on licensed premises in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Eva; Andreásson, Sven

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a community alcohol prevention program on the frequency of alcohol service to young adults at licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. We used a pretest (1996)-posttests (1998 and 2001) design with intervention and control areas. The multicomponent intervention combines training of serving staff in responsible beverage service, policy initiatives, and enforcement of existing alcohol regulations. Adolescents 18 years old (the legal drinking age on licensed premises in Sweden), but younger looking according to an expert panel, visited licensed premises in pairs, where each adolescent ordered a beer. At baseline in 1996, the adolescents made 600 attempts to order. At follow-up in 1998, the number of attempts to order was 252, and at the second follow-up in 2001, the adolescents made 238 attempts. We found no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control areas. Overall, the frequency of alcohol service to adolescents on licensed premises in these areas of Stockholm decreased significantly over time, from 45 to 41 and to 32%, in 1996, 1998, and 2001, respectively. The decrease in alcohol service in 2001 was statistically significant compared to the baseline in 1996. One explanation for this improvement could be more effective enforcement of existing alcohol laws in both the intervention and control areas. We also found that licensed premises that used doormen to screen potential customers were less likely to sell to minors.

  15. Asthma, Allergy and Eczema among Adults in Multifamily Houses in Stockholm (3-HE Study) - Associations with Building Characteristics, Home Environment and Energy Use for Heating

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29–0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51–0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness

  16. Asthma, allergy and eczema among adults in multifamily houses in Stockholm (3-HE study)--associations with building characteristics, home environment and energy use for heating.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06-2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More

  17. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  18. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  19. Obesity and heart failure.

    PubMed

    De Pergola, Giovanni; Nardecchia, Adele; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Minischetti, Manuela Castiglione; Silvestris, Franco

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have recently shown that obesity, and abdominal obesity in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Higher cardiac oxidative stress is the early stage of heart dysfunction due to obesity, and it is the result of insulin resistance, altered fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. Extense myocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis are early microscopic changes in patients with HF, whereas circumferential strain during the left ventricular (LV) systole, LV increase in both chamber size and wall thickness (LV hypertrophy), and LV dilatation are the early macroscopic and functional alterations in obese developing heart failure. LV hypertrophy leads to diastolic dysfunction and subendocardial ischemia in obesity, and pericardial fat has been shown to be significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Evolving abnormalities of diastolic dysfunction may include progressive hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction, and various degrees of eccentric and/or concentric LV hypertrophy may be present with time. Once HF is established, overweight and obese have a better prognosis than do their lean counterparts with the same level of cardiovascular disease, and this phenomenon is called "obesity paradox". It is mainly due to lower muscle protein degradation, brain natriuretic peptide circulating levels and cardio-respiratory fitness than normal weight patients with HF.

  20. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  1. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates

  2. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower “bad” cholesterol (also called LDL, or low-density lipoprotein) levels and may help increase “good” cholesterol (also called HDL, or high-density lipoprotein). If you have had a heart attack, ...

  3. Hearts Wish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates characteristics and themes in 102 drawings by sexually abused children. Themes of the drawings included genitalia, the absence of specific body parts, phallic symbols, inappropriate smiles, distorted body images, kinetic activity, prominent hands and fingers, and hearts. (RJC)

  4. Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors remove the patient's heart by transecting the aorta , the main pulmonary artery and the superior and ... sewing together the recipient and donor vena cavae, aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. In patients with ...

  5. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePlus

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and liver. ...

  6. What Is Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...

  7. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  8. Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Fredlund, Peeter; Hallqvist, Johan; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2010-09-01

    Progress towards gender equality involves changes in the traditional parental division - female caring and male breadwinning. One aspect is increased parental leave for fathers, which may benefit the health of mothers, children, and fathers themselves. We examined how social and health characteristics (2002) were associated with paternity leave in excess of the 'father quota' of 60 days (2003-2006) in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Generally, fathers with stable social position, fit lifestyles, and good health had increased chances of paternity leave uptake. Our findings may contribute to identifying target groups for parental leave strategies among fathers; they indicate also that research on gender equality and public health must carefully address the problems of confounding and health-related selection.

  9. "Not ready to throw in the towel": perceptions of physical activity held by older adults in Stockholm and Dublin.

    PubMed

    Leavy, Breiffni; Aberg, Anna Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the perceptions of physical activity held by older urban Swedish and Irish adults. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 30 people age 65 years and older (mean age 74.5), of whom 15 were living in Dublin and 15 were living in Stockholm. The "thematic framework" approach was used to analyze the data. Three central themes were identified regarding people's perceptions of physical activity: physical activity as self-expression, physical activity as interaction, and physical activity as health promotion. Participants' perceptions of physical activity tended to relate to their perceived level of physical activity, regardless of their cultural background. Certain culture-specific motivators and barriers to exercise were also identified. Less active Irish men were more likely to underestimate the health-promoting benefits of exercise.

  10. Do Asian breast cancer patients have poorer survival than their western counterparts? A comparison between Singapore and Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Chia, Kee Seng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The difference in breast cancer incidence and prognosis between ethnic groups seeks an explanation. We have recently shown that Swedish women are two to three times more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer compared with Singaporean women. In the present paper, we compare breast cancer survival in the two countries. Methods We compared the survival of 10,287 Singaporean women and 17,090 Swedish women with breast cancer. Relative survival ratios were used to describe the prognosis in the two populations. A Poisson regression model was used to calculate relative risks for different follow-up periods, age groups, time of diagnosis and disease stages. Results The majority of the Swedish women had local cancer (80%) compared with Singaporean women (51%). The overall 5-year relative survival of the Swedish women appeared better (80%) than that of the Singaporean women (70%). A similar survival pattern was observed, however, between the two countries in a stage-by-stage comparison. Survival improved for all women in Singapore over the two decades, but only in the premenopausal women in Stockholm. In 1980 to 1989, premenopausal Singaporean women had 27% increased risk of death compared with Swedish women, adjusted for stage and year of follow-up, while the postmenopausal women had 48% increased risk. In 1990 to 1999, this risk decreased by 19% and 22% for the premenopausal and postmenopausal Singaporean women compared with the Swedish women. Conclusions The stage-dependent prognosis was similar for Singaporean women and for Swedish women. Singaporean women, both premenopausal and postmenopausal, had pronounced improvement in prognosis over the calendar periods, probably contributed by marked economic improvement, leading to better medical facilities and management with increased awareness of patients to diagnosis and treatment, as well as improved treatment options. Improvement seen only in the premenopausal women in Stockholm was probably due to improved

  11. Global monitoring plan for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention: Triggering, streamlining and catalyzing global POPs monitoring.

    PubMed

    Magulova, Katarina; Priceputu, Ana

    2016-10-01

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) aims to protect human health and the environment from POPs through a range of measures aimed at reducing and ultimately eliminating their releases into the environment and subsequent human exposure. Article 16 of the Convention sets the basis for a mechanism to assess the success of the activities undertaken worldwide to implement the Convention. One of major pillars for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the Convention is monitoring data obtained through the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for POPs. The implementation of the GMP over the last eleven years, since the entry into force of the Convention, shows how a global treaty such as the Stockholm Convention streamlined existing monitoring efforts and triggered harmonization and further development of a global monitoring network. In its initial stages, long term POPs monitoring programmes were available only in some parts of the globe. Over more than a decade of generation of harmonized, comparable monitoring data on 23 chemicals of global concern, a rich and extremely valuable dataset has been generated in the frame of the GMP. Long-term monitoring programmes have enlarged the scope of their activities to cover newly listed chemicals, and new programmes have emerged. Monitoring data are broadly shared through the GMP data warehouse, the Convention's clearing-house mechanism, and through other appropriate global tools. Through its global reach, the GMP contributes to the global chemicals and waste policy agenda, supports and triggers further research initiatives, and provides information to the general public at large. PMID:26794340

  12. Prevalence, Pharmacological Treatment, and Control of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Older People in Central Stockholm: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Fratiglioni, Laura; Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Xu, Weili; Mangialasche, Francesca; Johnell, Kristina; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic risk factors and related cardiovascular diseases represent major threats to healthy aging. Objective We aimed to estimate distribution, pharmacological treatment, and control of main cardiometabolic risk factors among older people. Methods This population-based study included 3363 participants (age≥60 years, 64.9% women) in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, in central Stockholm, Sweden (2001-2004). Data on demographics, cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol), and medication use were collected through face-to-face interviews, clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and the inpatient register. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined following the most commonly used criteria. Prevalence was standardized using local census data. Results The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, and hypertension was 9.5%, 12.8%, 49.7%, and 74.9%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age, whereas the prevalence of obesity and high cholesterol decreased with age. Forty-nine percent of older adults had two or more cardiometabolic risk factors; 9.8% had three or more. Overall, 55.5% of people with hypertension, 50.3% with diabetes, and 25.0% with high cholesterol received pharmacological treatment. Of those treated pharmacologically, 49.4%, 38.1%, and 85.5% reached therapeutic goals for hypertension (blood pressure<150/90 mmHg), diabetes (glycated haemoglobin<7%), and high cholesterol (total cholesterol<6.22 mmol/l), respectively. Conclusions Hypertension, high cholesterol, and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors were common among older people in Stockholm, but pharmacological treatment and control of these major factors can be improved. Appropriate management of cardiometabolic profiles among older people may help improve cardiovascular health and achieve healthy aging. PMID:25799502

  13. 14C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Kruså, Martin; Johansson, Christer; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-01-01

    Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line 14C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 °C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass ( fbiomass) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in 14C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The fbiomass appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent 14C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

  14. Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. )

    1994-11-01

    The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Molecular epidemiology and clinical manifestations of human cryptosporidiosis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Insulander, M; Silverlås, C; Lebbad, M; Karlsson, L; Mattsson, J G; Svenungsson, B

    2013-05-01

    This study describes the epidemiology and symptoms in 271 cryptosporidiosis patients in Stockholm County, Sweden. Species/genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S rRNA genes. Species were C. parvum (n=111), C. hominis (n=65), C. meleagridis (n=11), C. felis (n=2), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype 1 (n=2), and a recently described species, C. viatorum (n=2). Analysis of the Gp60 gene revealed five C. hominis allele families (Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, If), and four C. parvum allele families (IIa, IIc, IId, IIe). Most C. parvum cases (51%) were infected in Sweden, as opposed to C. hominis cases (26%). Clinical manifestations differed slightly by species. Diarrhoea lasted longer in C. parvum cases compared to C. hominis and C. meleagridis cases. At follow-up 25-36 months after disease onset, 15% of the patients still reported intermittent diarrhoea. In four outbreaks and 13 family clusters, a single subtype was identified, indicating a common infection source, which emphasizes the value of genotyping for epidemiological investigations.

  16. Framingham Heart Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-13

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Hypertension; Heart Failure, Congestive; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Heart Failure

  17. [Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease, in particular in Japan, were summarized. There were three aspects of the epidemiology: (1) frequency(descriptive epidemiology), (2) risk factors(e.g. case-control studies), and (3) natural history(follow-up studies). The nationwide surveys, which was established in 1970, revealed the epidemiologic features of the disease. The number of patients and incidence rate have elevated since mid-1990s. Descriptive features indicates the association between disease onset and both infection and the hosts' factors. A follow-up study over 20 years has been conducted, but it should be continued till all the participants pass away.

  18. [Molecular epidemiology in the epidemiological transition].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the health profile of populations where infectious diseases are substituted by chronic or non-communicable diseases. Even in industrialized countries, infectious diseases emerge as important public health problems and with a very important association with several type of neoplasm. Molecular epidemiology brings in new tools for the study of the epidemiological transition by discovering infectious agents as etiology of diseases, neither of both new. Much has been advanced in the understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanism of different strains, or improving the knowledge on transmission dynamics and dissemination pathways of infectious diseases. As to the non-communicable diseases, molecular epidemiology has enhanced the identification of endogenous risk factors link to alterations, molecular changes in genetic material, that will allow a more detail definition of risk and the identification of individual and groups at risk of several diseases. The potential impact of molecular epidemiology in other areas as environmental, lifestyles and nutritional areas are illustrated with several examples. PMID:9504120

  19. Heart Truth

    MedlinePlus

    ... about women’s risk for heart disease―the #1 killer of women in the United States―and share ... t Care What You Wear—It's the #1 Killer of Women ® are registered trademarks of U.S. ...

  20. In-hospital worsening heart failure.

    PubMed

    Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Kelkar, Anita; Fonarow, Gregg C; Anker, Stefan; Greene, Stephen J; Papadimitriou, Lampros; Collins, Sean; Ruschitzka, Frank; Yancy, Clyde W; Teerlink, John R; Adams, Kirkwood; Cotter, Gadi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Felker, G Michael; Metra, Marco; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-11-01

    Acute worsening heart failure (WHF) is seen in a sizable portion of patients hospitalized for heart failure, and is increasingly being recognized as an entity that is associated with an adverse in-hospital course. WHF is generally defined as worsening heart failure symptoms and signs requiring an intensification of therapy, and is reported to be seen in anywhere from 5% to 42% of heart failure admissions. It is difficult to ascertain the exact epidemiology of WHF due to varying definitions used in the literature. Studies indicate that WHF cannot be precisely predicted on the basis of baseline variables assessed at the time of admission. Recent data suggest that some experimental therapies may reduce the risk of development of WHF among hospitalized heart failure patients, and this is associated with a reduction in risk of subsequent post-discharge cardiovascular mortality. In this respect, WHF holds promise as a endpoint for acute heart failure clinical trials to better elucidate the benefit of targeted novel therapies. Better understanding of the pathophysiology and a consensus on the definition of WHF will further improve our epidemiological and clinical understanding of this entity.

  1. About Heart Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ...

  2. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... after the baby is born. For others, your child may be able to safely wait for months ...

  3. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... down or stop. A risk factor for heart disease is something that increases your chance of getting ...

  4. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  5. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  6. The future of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease). PMID:19858828

  7. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  8. Heart Failure in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreccio, Catterina; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) living in rural areas face an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Even in countries with universal access to health care, rural areas are characteristically underserved, with reduced health care providers supply, greater distance to health care centers, decreased physician density with higher reliance on generalists, and high health care staff turnover. On the other hand, patient-related characteristics vary widely among published data. This review describes the epidemiology of CHF in rural or remote settings, organizational and patient-related factors involved in cardiovascular outcomes, and the role of interventions to improve rural health care.

  9. Epidemiology: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Kesteloot, H

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiology in the past was concerned essentially by the study of infectious diseases which were the cause of huge mortalities especially since urbanisation was initiated. Epidemics of pest, typhus, cholera, influenza a.o. were common. The epidemics were halted by better hygiene, vaccination and antibiotics. Since the second world war epidemiology was dominated by an "epidemic" of new chronic diseases, especially heart disease and cancer. This was due to an increase in life span and to an increase in smoking habits and in the intake of saturated fat and a too small intake of fruit and vegetables combined with a too high intake of salt (NaCl). Gradually epidemiology evolved as the study of the causes, the distribution, the risk factors and the prevention of chronic diseases, but also including accidents, suicide, depression a.o., diseases with a mass occurrence at the population level. The importance of nutrition as a determinant of health gradually became recognized, but remains undervalued by the medical profession. Mortality at the population level follows some simple mathematical laws and can be represented accurately (r2>0.99) between the ages of 35 and 84 year by either Gompertz equations (ln mortality versus age) or by a polynomial equation (ln mortality versus age, age2). This is valid for all populations and both sexes and remains valid at times of great and rapid changes in mortality. This shows that measures for prevention should be directed towards the total population. The future of epidemiology should be directed towards the slowing of the ageing process at the population level by a healthy life style consisting of: not smoking, avoiding obesity, a fair amount of physical activity and a healthy nutrition i.e little salt, little saturated fat, an adequate amount of omega-3 fatty acids and a large amount of fruit and vegetables, with an occasional glass of red wine. This contains the secret of a long and healthy life. Conceptually it will be important

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis among Youth - Testing Behaviour and Incidence of Repeat Testing in Stockholm County, Sweden 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Gaetano; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Background Widespread testing and screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis is often advocated as an important method to halt the epidemic. Sweden has long tradition of opportunistic screening services. Nevertheless infections rates have continued to rise over the past two decades, despite increased access to testing and treatment services. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we describe the testing behavior for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among youth in Stockholm County, with a focus on repeated testing. Specifically we (a) study positivity rates among single and repeat testers, we (b) estimate the incidence of repeat testing and the rates of infection in repeat testing episodes, and we (c) estimate time to repeat testing and factors associated with repeat testing. All youth (aged ≥12 and <26) that tested for Chlamydia trachomatis in one of 33 Youth Health Clinics in Stockholm County between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Results The cohort comprised a total of 65,951 individuals who did 119,699 tests during the study period. 42% of youth were repeat testers, the incidence of repeat testing was 35.0/100 person years. The overall baseline prevalence was 7.9%. Positivity rates of baseline tests among repeat testers were nearly twice as high among single testers of either sex. These were 17.1% and 9.8% among male repeat and single testers respectively. The corresponding rates for women were 9.4% and 4.3%. Positivity rates among repeat tests did not decline compared to the overall baseline positivity. Baseline test result and sex significantly influenced the occurrence of repeat testing. Conclusion Among repeat testers we found high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis both at baseline and at repeat tests which suggests the possibility that this group might be continuing to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Given the extent of repeat testing and the high positivity rates on repeat testing, further research among this group is

  11. Radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden and some medical aspects on public exposure to RF fields

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Lennart; Koppel, Tarmo; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko; Hedendahl, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden was investigated for public radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure. The exposimeter EME Spy 200 was used to collect the RF exposure data across the railway station. The exposimeter covers 20 different radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5,850 MHz. In total 1,669 data points were recorded. The median value for total exposure was 921 μW/m2 (or 0.092 μW/cm2; 1 μW/m2=0.0001 μW/cm2) with some outliers over 95,544 μW/m2 (6 V/m, upper detection limit). The mean total RF radiation level varied between 2,817 to 4,891 μW/m2 for each walking round. High mean measurements were obtained for GSM + UMTS 900 downlink varying between 1,165 and 2,075 μW/m2. High levels were also obtained for UMTS 2100 downlink; 442 to 1,632 μW/m2. Also LTE 800 downlink, GSM 1800 downlink, and LTE 2600 downlink were in the higher range of measurements. Hot spots were identified, for example close to a wall mounted base station yielding over 95,544 μW/m2 and thus exceeding the exposimeter's detection limit. Almost all of the total measured levels were above the precautionary target level of 3–6 μW/m2 as proposed by the BioInitiative Working Group in 2012. That target level was one-tenth of the scientific benchmark providing a safety margin either for children, or chronic exposure conditions. We compare the levels of RF radiation exposures identified in the present study to published scientific results reporting adverse biological effects and health harm at levels equivalent to, or below those measured in this Stockholm Central Railway Station project. It should be noted that these RF radiation levels give transient exposure, since people are generally passing through the areas tested, except for subsets of people who are there for hours each day of work. PMID:27633090

  12. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  13. Chronic heart failure: a review for the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Escudero, José A; Zayas-Torres, Carlos; Banchs-Pieretti, Hector

    2003-01-01

    Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome. The pharmacological therapy for chronic heart failure has been changing in the past decade with acquired knowledge of the pathophysiology of this medical condition. Primary care physicians currently treat a significant number of patients. This article summarizes core topics of heart failure including epidemiological information, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features and diagnostic tools. Also, we review some of the most relevant research studies that have led to the current recommendations for the pharmacological therapeutic strategies in the management of chronic heart failure. We make reference to the latest guidelines in the management of chronic heart failure submitted by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA). New technological advances, such as the biventricular-pacing devices, are an important adjuvant to the established pharmacological therapies for chronic heart failure.

  14. Heart Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

  15. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  16. To keep the catch – that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12–15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

  17. Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rådbo, Helena; Andersson, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    Each year, approximately 80–100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41) where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005–2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas. PMID:22690162

  18. Epidemiology of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sandler, R S; Golden, A L

    1986-04-01

    Although our current understanding is limited, epidemiologic investigation of Crohn's disease holds great promise. Certain aspects of the epidemiology are clear. The incidence of Crohn's disease, which has increased over the past few decades, may have reached a plateau. The disease has its peak onset in early life, with a second peak among the elderly. It is more common in the developed countries and among Jews. Whether the disease is related to occupation, social class, marital status, stress, infection, diet, smoking, and oral contraceptives is less certain. This paper reviews the epidemiology of Crohn's disease and proposes areas in which further research is needed.

  19. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  20. Genetic research in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-01-01

    Coronary heart disease research along genetic lines is difficult. Studies in molecular genetics of apolipoprotein and receptor variability appear most promising in the near future. However, unexpected discoveries and methodology may turn up that may completely change the field. Exclusive concentration on lipid research therefore should be avoided. It is likely that most advances will come from carefully designed studies that ask specific questions. Such research design is appropriate not only for laboratory studies but also for clinical and epidemiological investigations. The collaboration of clinicians, biochemists, geneticists, epidemiologists, and statisticians is likely to lead to better understanding of coronary heart disease.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  2. Epidemiology of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  3. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  4. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  5. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  6. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change

  7. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not

  8. [Molecular and genetic epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Kang, D H

    2001-04-21

    Molecular epidemiology is defined as "the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research" and genetic epidemiology is defined as "the study of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in epidemiologic research". Traditional epidemiologic approaches defined as "the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human population" could not address the importance of genetic susceptibility of humans in disease occurrence. However, the use of biological or genetic markers identified and characterized by the help of advance in molecular biology and human genetics now can provide us better understanding of multi-factorial or multistep disease occurrence in humans. Biological markers used in molecular epidemiology are classified into three groups: biomarkers of exposure (i.e., carcinogen metabolites in human urine, DNA-adducts, etc.), biomarkers of effects (i.e., oncoproteins, tumor markers, etc.), and biomarkers of susceptibility (i.e., genetic polymorphisms of carcinogen metabolism enzymes, DNA repair, etc.). Susceptibility genes involved in disease pathogenesis are categorized into two groups: high penetrance genes (i.e., BRAC1, RB, etc.) and low penetrance genes (i.e., GSTs, XRCC1, etc.). This paper will address the usefulnesses of bomarkers in edpidemiologic research and will show the examples of the use of selected low penetrance genes involved in human carcinogenesis. The importance of multidisciplinary approaches among epidemiologists, molecular biologists, and human geneticists will also be discussed.

  9. How the Heart Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public » Health Topics » How the Heart Works Explore How the Heart Works What Is... Anatomy Contraction Circulation Electrical System Heart ... Heart Disease Heart Valve Disease How the Lungs Work Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ...

  10. Heart Health for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs of a heart attack. 1. Eat a heart healthy diet. The nutrition facts on the food label can help you make ... heart health for women . (PDF 190KB) Get the facts about heart attacks in women . Learn More About Heart Disease: ...

  11. Socio-economic analysis of the risk management of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in China in the context of the Stockholm Convention.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hu, Jian-xin; Yi, Shan

    2016-05-01

    Socio-economic analysis (SEA) plays an important role in decision-making on risk management actions for certain chemicals under Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in developing countries. This paper showed the first holistic and quantitative SEA case study on that by developing a country-specific SEA framwork and methodologies and applying the case of HBCD phase-out in China under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The study indicates that, under the possible scenarios of 10 years and 5 years , the economic costs of HBCD phase-out in China would be between 9.032 and 19.021 billion RMB. Although the total economic costs seems to be significant, it would only have a marginal impact on the house building industry with a likely cost increase by about 0.07‰-0.14‰. Meanwhile, the HBCD phase-out may render significant environmental and health benefits, including about 23-29 tons of HBCD release prevented to the environment, 1.142-1.469 million tons of potentially HBCD contained hazardous wastes avoided, along with significant reduction from 58% up to almost 100% in local environmental concentrations of HBCD, and about 0.0996-0.128 million workers at risk avoided and at least 3.067-4.033 billion RMB of the health care savings. While the scenario of phasing out HBCD over 10 years would be less costly than the scenario of that over 5 years, the later scenario suggested much greater environmental and health benefits for China. PMID:26615892

  12. Heart and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

  13. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart bypass surgery begins with an incision made in the chest, with the breastbone cut exposing the heart. Next, ... of this great vein will be used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous ...

  14. Honolulu Heart Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-13

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Heart Failure, Congestive; Myocardial Infarction; Asthma; Emphysema; Lung Diseases, Obstructive; Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Bronchitis; Dementia; Hypertension; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Heart Failure

  15. What Causes Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart, leading to heart failure. High Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the ... weaken your heart and lead to plaque buildup. Blood pressure is considered high if it stays at or ...

  16. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  17. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  18. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  19. Heart Murmurs (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... than normal. You also might get an electrocardiogram (EKG), which measures electrical activity of the heart. None ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC The Heart Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Mitral Valve Prolapse ...

  20. Cyanotic heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart) may be absent or unable to open wide enough. Pulmonary valve (the valve between the heart ... lungs) may be absent or unable to open wide enough . Aortic valve (the valve between the heart ...

  1. Left heart ventricular angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the left side of the heart. Blood volumes and pressures are also normal. ... of the catheter Heart failure due to the volume of the dye Infection Kidney failure from the dye Low blood pressure Heart attack Hemorrhage Stroke

  2. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... or stomach. Diagnosis Key heart tests include: Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) —This records the electrical activity of the heart as it contracts and relaxes. The ECG can detect abnormal heartbeats, some areas of damage, ...

  3. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

  4. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  5. Shifting epidemiology of Flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lyle R; Marfin, Anthony A

    2005-04-01

    The dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses are important mosquito-borne viruses whose epidemiology is shifting in response to changing societal factors, such as increasing commerce, urbanization of rural areas, and population growth. All four viruses are expanding geographically, as exemplified by the emergence of West Nile virus in the Americas and Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. The large, recent global outbreaks of severe neurological disease caused by West Nile virus, the increasing frequency of dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Americas, and the emergence of yellow fever virus vaccination-associated viscerotropic disease, are new clinical epidemiologic trends. These worrisome epidemiologic trends will probably continue in coming decades, as a reversal of their societal and biological drivers is not in sight. Nevertheless, the substantial reductions in Japanese encephalitis virus incidence resulting from vaccination programs and economic development in some Asian countries provide some encouragement within this overall guarded outlook.

  6. Whose epidemiology, whose health?

    PubMed

    Wing, S

    1998-01-01

    Simplistic claims about the objectivity of science have been challenged from a variety of perspectives. Evaluation of the external context of production of knowledge and the methodological approaches to posing questions and assembling evidence shows that there is no pure "science"; rather, all scientific knowledge is shaped by the social history of its production. Examples are given of how quantitative concepts in modern epidemiology influence the recognition of the causes of disease. The author uses the phenomenon of intensive swine production by vertically integrated agribusiness to illustrate how broad problems such as environmental racism, agricultural determinants of nutrition, loss of natural resources, and conditions conducive to emergence of new diseases are hidden by epidemiological approaches that fit into corporate policy perspectives. It is critically important to ask who produces epidemiological knowledge, and whose health is promoted by that knowledge.

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  8. Heart failure patient adherence: epidemiology, cause, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Corotto, Paul S; McCarey, Melissa M; Adams, Suzanne; Khazanie, Prateeti; Whellan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Poor adherence to therapeutic regimens is a significant impediment to improving clinical outcomes in the HF population. Typical rates of adherence to prescribed medications, low-sodium diets, and aerobic exercise programs remain lower than that needed to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with HF. Factors contributing to poor adherence include multiple comorbidities, clinical depression, and decreased cognitive functioning. HF education and programs to enhance self-management skills have improved patient quality of life but have yet to decrease mortality or rehospitalization rates significantly. Telemonitoring to improve adherence behaviors and self-management interventions within broader HF management programs have demonstrated significant clinical improvements in this population.

  9. Heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer′s disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  10. Heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takeshi

    2009-06-01

    A total of 59 heart transplantations (HTx) have been performed in Japan as of September, 2008, since the Organ Transplantation Law was settled in October 1997. The majority of recipients were suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy and waiting condition of all recipients were status 1. The mean waiting time was 777 day; 50 patients (85%) were supported by several types of left ventricular assist systems (LVAS) and the mean duration of support was 780 days. The majority of patients underwent operation by modified bicaval method with Celsior solution for cardiac preservation, and 64% of recipients were administered triple therapy with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid as the initial immunosuppressive regimen. The 9-year survival rate was 94%, which was superior to that of the international registry. HTx in Japan has been very limited by a severe shortage of donors, but the results have been excellent even though the majority of recipients were waiting for long-term with a LVAS as a bridge to HTx.

  11. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart condition that occurs during the development of the heart in the ... womb. During the heart's development, parts of the left side of the heart (mitral valve, left ventricle ...

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Conway, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Malaria persists as an undiminished global problem, but the resources available to address it have increased. Many tools for understanding its biology and epidemiology are well developed, with a particular richness of comparative genome sequences. Targeted genetic manipulation is now effectively combined with in vitro culture assays on the most important human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and with in vivo analysis of rodent and monkey malaria parasites in their laboratory hosts. Studies of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of human malaria have already been influenced by the availability of molecular methods, and analyses of parasite polymorphisms have long had useful and highly informative applications. However, the molecular epidemiology of malaria is currently undergoing its most substantial revolution as a result of the genomic information and technologies that are available in well-resourced centers. It is a challenge for research agendas to face the real needs presented by a disease that largely exists in extremely resource-poor settings, but it is one that there appears to be an increased willingness to undertake. To this end, developments in the molecular epidemiology of malaria are reviewed here, emphasizing aspects that may be current and future priorities. PMID:17223628

  13. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  14. Causality in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Farin

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to the meaning of causality in epidemiology and methods that epidemiologists use to distinguish causal associations from non-causal ones. Alternatives to causal association are discussed in detail. Hill's guidelines, set forth approximately 50 years ago, and more recent developments are reviewed. The role of religious and philosophic views in our understanding of causality is briefly discussed.

  15. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  16. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  17. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  18. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  19. Analysis of Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopes, and Metals in Sediments outside a Waste Plant in Stockholm Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, H. S.; Mörth, C.-M.; Holm, N. G.

    2003-04-01

    Sediment samples were taken in the water upstream, near and downstream of the outflow of a purification plant near Stockholm, Sweden. The waste plant receives, treats and deposits domestic and industry refuse and have earlier received latrine. An Otto Gravity Corer was used for sampling and the sediment was cut into centimetres slices, freeze-dried and analysed for the total content and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen using a CF-IRMS (Finnigan Delta plus). Freeze-dried sediment subsamples were digested in a microwave oven in the presence of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and analysed for metals with ICP-OES (Varian Vista AX). This study shows that the sediments from the outflow of the waste plant have d15N values indicating denitrification and reworking by bacteria (δ15N values ranging from +16 to +19 ppm). Upstream of the outflow and 600 metres downstream, the δ15N are in a more natural range (+2 to +3 ppm respective +7 to +9 ppm). The δ13C values show that the material is of terrigenous origin. δ13C values in the outflow samples (-25 to -21 ppm), differ from the samples collected upstream (-25 to -23 ppm) and downstream the outflow (-27 to -25 ppm). Plotting δ13C against total carbon indicate that the downstream samples do not have the same main source as the other samples, which also can be seen in the 1/CTOT vs. δ13C. There is a general interest to find out more about the metal releases to the environment from this point source. In this investigation the sediment have been analysed for metals, as for example Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Cd content is low <0.4 ppb. At a sediment depth of 5 cm the Cu concentrations were 19 μg/g upstream the outflow, 23 μg/g at the outflow and 60 μg/g downstream the outflow, Pb; 6 μg/g, 8 μg/g, respective 50 μg/g and Zn; 58 μg/g, 93 μg/g and 175 μg/g respectively.

  20. Factors affecting non-tailpipe aerosol particle emissions from paved roads: On-road measurements in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Tareq; Johansson, Christer; Karlsson, Hans; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    A large fraction of urban PM 10 concentrations is due to non-exhaust traffic emissions. In this paper, a mobile measurement system has been used to quantify the relative importance of road particle emission and suspension of accumulated dust versus direct pavement wear, tire type (studded, friction, and summer), pavement type, and vehicle speed. Measurements were performed during May-September on selected roads with different pavements and traffic conditions in the Stockholm region. The highest particle mass concentrations were always observed behind the studded tire and the lowest were behind the summer tire; studded-to-summer ratios were 4.4-17.3 and studded-to-friction ratios were 2.0-6.4. This indicates that studded tires lead to higher emissions than friction and summer tires regardless to the asphalt type. By comparing with measurements in a road simulator, it could be estimated that the pavement wear due to the friction tires was 0.018-0.068 of the suspension of accumulated road dust. Likewise for studded tires road-wear was estimated to be 1.2-4.8 the suspension of accumulated dust. This indicates that wear due to friction tires is very small compared to the suspension of accumulated dust and that suspension due to studded tires may sometimes be as large as the wear of the road. But this will vary depending on, e.g. the amount of dust accumulated on the roads. An important dependence on vehicle speed was also observed. During May, the particle mass concentrations behind the studded tire at vehicle speed 100 km h -1 were about 10 times higher than that at 20 km h -1. The speed dependence was not so pronounced in September, which could be due to less accumulated dust on the roads. The particle number size distribution of the emissions due to road wear by studded tire was characterized by a clear increase in number concentrations of the coarse fraction of aerosol particles, with a geometric mean diameter between 3 and 5 μm. The size distribution of the

  1. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  2. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (CHD) Fix heart valves that don't work well Control abnormal heart rhythms Place medical devices Replace a damaged heart with a healthy one If other treatments—such as lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical ... surgeon will work with you to decide whether you need heart ...

  3. Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B

    1995-12-01

    The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure

  4. Heart rate variability in isolated rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Frey, B; Heger, G; Mayer, C; Kiegler, B; Stöhr, H; Steurer, G

    1996-11-01

    The presence of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cardiac denervation after heart transplantation raised our interest in HRV of isolated, denervated hearts. Hearts from seven adult white ELCO rabbits were transferred to a perfusion apparatus. All hearts were perfused in the working mode and in the Langendorff mode for 20 minutes each. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain. A computer simulated test ECG at a constant rate of 2 Hz was used for error estimation of the system. In the isolated, denervated heart, HRV was of random, broadband fluctuations, different from the well-characterized oscillations at specific frequencies in intact animals. Mean NN was 423 +/- 51 ms in the Langendorff mode, 406 +/- 33 ms in the working heart mode, and 500 ms in the test ECG. Total power was 663 +/- 207 ms2, 817 +/- 318 ms2, and 3.7 ms2, respectively. There was no significant difference in any measure of HRV between Langendorff and working heart modes. The data provide evidence for the presence of HRV in isolated, denervated rabbit hearts. Left atrial and ventricular filling, i.e., the working heart mode, did not alter HRV, indicating that left atrial or ventricular stretch did not influence the sinus nodal discharge rate.

  5. High diagnostic yield by CSF-PCR for entero- and herpes simplex viruses and TBEV serology in adults with acute aseptic meningitis in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Franzen-Rohl, Elisabeth; Larsson, Kenny; Skoog, Eva; Tiveljung-Lindell, Annika; Grillner, Lena; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Glimåker, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Acute aseptic meningitis (AAM) affects 10-20/100,000 inhabitants per years in Sweden. Up to the beginning of the 1980s the diagnoses were made by virus isolation and/or determination of viral antibodies in serum. The development of PCR for detection of viruses in CSF samples has increased the sensitivity and diagnostic efficiency considerably. We investigated the aetiology of AAM and the diagnostic efficiency in an adult population in Stockholm, using a limited first-line combination of microbiological assays. CSF and serum samples, consecutively collected in 419 patients with clinical symptoms of AAM in northern Stockholm during 1999-2004, were included. PCR assays for herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA and enterovirus (EV) RNA in the CSF as well as ELISA for IgM in serum to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were performed routinely. A viral diagnosis was obtained in 255 of the 419 cases (62%) with these routinely performed assays. Clinical findings in combination with additional diagnostic tests resulted in an overall aetiological yield of 72%. EV was the major causative agent (27%) followed by TBEV (21%) and HSV-2 (19%). We conclude that consistent use of CSF-PCR for EV and HSV and TBEV serology established a diagnosis in the majority of AAM patients.

  6. The history of Radiumhemmet in Stockholm in the period 1895-1950. The transformation of an outpatient clinic to an academic department,.

    PubMed

    Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Gustavson-Kadaka, Evi; Spiliopoulou, Ekaterini; Nilsson, Sten

    2010-12-01

    Radiation therapy has been in use as a cancer treatment for more than 100 years, with its earliest roots traced from the discovery of X rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Rontgen. The field of radiation therapy began to grow in the early 1900s, largely due to the groundbreaking work of Nobel Prize-winning scientist Marie Curie, who discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium.This began a new era in medical treatment and research. Radium was used in various forms until the mid-1900s, when cobalt and caesium units came into use. Medical cobalt units and linear accelerators have been used to as sources of radiation since the late 1940s. Swedish doctors showed a great interest in this medical specialty from the beginning, making major contributions in the fields of radiobiology, radiophysics and radiotherapy are contributed to doctors of Swedish origin, working mainly those early days in Stockholm. Immediately after the discovery of X rays, the first treatment of patients with these'mysterious rays' took place, with two patients with skin carcinomas being treated by Stenbeck and Sjogren in Stockholm. This article makes a detailed reference to historical data regarding the gradual transformation of a small private outpatient clinic into an academic department with a world-wide recognition.

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers and exposure to occupational risks likely to be associated with acquisition of hepatitis B virus among health care workers in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Struve, J; Aronsson, B; Frenning, B; Forsgren, M; Weiland, O

    1992-03-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers and exposure to risks possibly associated with HBV transmission were investigated in 797 health care workers (HCW) from Stockholm. Altogether, 31/797 (3.9%) persons were positive for at least one HBV marker, 8.0, 7.9 and 6.4% respectively of children's nurses, laboratory assistants and psychiatric assistant nurses. A history of exposure to needle-stick injuries from any patient, was more often obtained from HCW with HBV markers than from HCW without such markers. The prevalence of HBV markers increased with age and duration of occupation in health care. Most HCW had been exposed to at least one occupational risk for HBV transmission early in their professional careers. Although the risk of acquiring HBV at present is low, the virus constitutes a potential occupational hazard for non-vaccinated HCW in Stockholm, a risk which may increase in the future since the number of chronic HBsAg carriers is increasing in Sweden. PMID:1569305

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  9. [Heart arrest].

    PubMed

    Chiarella, F; Giovannini, E; Bozzano, A; Caristo, G; Delise, P; Fedele, F; Fera, M S; Lavalle, C; Roghi, A; Valagussa, F

    2001-03-01

    Cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of mortality in industrialized countries and is mainly due to ischemic heart disease. According to ISTAT estimates, approximately 45,000 sudden deaths occur annually in Italy whereas according to the World Health Organization, its incidence is 1 per 1000 persons. The most common cause of cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation due to an acute ischemic episode. During acute ischemia the onset of a ventricular tachyarrhythmia is sudden, unpredictable and often irreversible and lethal. Each minute that passes, the probability that the patient survives decreases by 10%. For this reason, the first 10 min are considered to be priceless for an efficacious first aid. The possibility of survival depends on the presence of witnesses, on the heart rhythm and on the resolution of the arrhythmia. In the majority of cases, the latter is possible by means of electrical defibrillation followed by the reestablishment of systolic function. An increase in equipment alone does not suffice for efficacious handling of cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital premises. Above all, an adequate intervention strategy is required. Ambulance personnel must be well trained and capable of intervening rapidly, possibly within the first 5 min. The key to success lies in the diffusion and proper use of defibrillators. The availability of new generation instruments, the external automatic defibrillators, encourages their widespread use. On the territory, these emergencies are the responsibility of the 118 organization based, according to the characteristics specific to each country, on the regulated coordination between the operative command, the crews and the first-aid means. Strategies for the handling of these emergencies within hospitals have been proposed by the Conference of Bethesda and tend to guarantee an efficacious resuscitation with a maximum latency of 2 min between cardiac arrest and the first electric shock. The diffusion of external

  10. [Epidemiological situation of Chad].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-10-01

    Chad, the land located in Central Africa nowadays is one of the poorest countries in the world, what is connected with catastrophic demographic indicators and numerous cases of infectious diseases among local population as well as external and internal refugees. Epidemiologic profile is dominated by vector-, water-, food-borne, respiratory, and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental factors, such as an effect of high temperature, sand and dust storms also pose essential threat. This is related to location of majority of Chad territory in the area of Sahara and Sahel. The article presents information concerning current epidemiological hazards encountered by visitors in this country. This knowledge is essential for Polish health service and armed forces in the context of forming of EUFOR mission in Chad with participation of our soldiers.

  11. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    PubMed Central

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research. PMID:1460647

  12. Dengue: update on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact.

  13. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  14. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  15. Epidemiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, S; Bagić, A

    2016-01-01

    Modern epidemiology of epilepsy maximizes the benefits of advanced diagnostic methods and sophisticated techniques for case ascertainment in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy and representativeness of the cases and cohorts studied, resulting in better comparability of similarly performed studies. Overall, these advanced epidemiologic methods are expected to yield a better understanding of diverse risk factors, high-risk populations, seizure triggers, multiple and poorly understood causes of epilepsy, including the increasing and complex role of genetics, and establish the natural course of treated and untreated epilepsy and syndromes - all of which form the foundation of an attempt to prevent epileptogenesis as the primary prophylaxis of epilepsy. Although data collection continues to improve, epidemiologists still need to overcome definition and coding variability, insufficient documentation, as well as the interplay of socioeconomic factors and stigma. As most of the 65-70 million people with epilepsy live outside of resource-rich countries, extensive underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis, and undertreatment are likely. Epidemiology will continue to provide the necessary information to the medical community, public, and regulators as the foundation for improved health policies, targeted education, and advanced measures of prevention and prognostication of the most common severe brain disorder. PMID:27637958

  16. Current Epidemiology and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Patricia; Kestler, Martha; De Alarcon, Arístides; Miro, José María; Bermejo, Javier; Rodríguez-Abella, Hugo; Fariñas, Maria Carmen; Cobo Belaustegui, Manuel; Mestres, Carlos; Llinares, Pedro; Goenaga, Miguel; Navas, Enrique; Oteo, José Antonio; Tarabini, Paola; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics and identify the risk factors of short-term and 1-year mortality in a recent cohort of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). From January 2008, multidisciplinary teams have prospectively collected all consecutive cases of IE, diagnosed according to the Duke criteria, in 25 Spanish hospitals. Overall, 1804 patients were diagnosed. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range, 55–77), 68.0% were men, and 37.1% of the cases were nosocomial or health care-related IE. Gram-positive microorganisms accounted for 79.3% of the episodes, followed by Gram-negative (5.2%), fungi (2.4%), anaerobes (0.9%), polymicrobial infections (1.9%), and unknown etiology (9.1%). Heart surgery was performed in 44.2%, and in-hospital mortality was 28.8%. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were age, previous heart surgery, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, Staphylococcus or Candida etiology, intracardiac complications, heart failure, and septic shock. The 1-year independent risk factors for mortality were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02), neoplasia (OR, 2.46), renal insufficiency (OR, 1.59), and heart failure (OR, 4.42). Surgery was an independent protective factor for 1-year mortality (OR, 0.44). IE remains a severe disease with a high rate of in-hospital (28.9%) and 1-year mortality (11.2%). Surgery was the only intervention that significantly reduced 1-year mortality. PMID:26512582

  17. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841

  18. Dementia in western Europe: epidemiological evidence and implications for policy making.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Fratiglioni, Laura; Matthews, Fiona E; Lobo, Antonio; Breteler, Monique M B; Skoog, Ingmar; Brayne, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is receiving increasing attention from governments and politicians. Epidemiological research based on western European populations done 20 years ago provided key initial evidence for dementia policy making, but these estimates are now out of date because of changes in life expectancy, living conditions, and health profiles. To assess whether dementia occurrence has changed during the past 20-30 years, investigators of five different studies done in western Europe (Sweden [Stockholm and Gothenburg], the Netherlands [Rotterdam], the UK [England], and Spain [Zaragoza]) have compared dementia occurrence using consistent research methods between two timepoints in well-defined geographical areas. Findings from four of the five studies showed non-significant changes in overall dementia occurrence. The only significant reduction in overall prevalence was found in the study done in the UK, powered and designed explicitly from its outset to detect change across generations (decrease in prevalence of 22%; p=0.003). Findings from the study done in Zaragoza (Spain) showed a significant reduction in dementia prevalence in men (43%; p=0.0002). The studies estimating incidence done in Stockholm and Rotterdam reported non-significant reductions. Such reductions could be the outcomes from earlier population-level investments such as improved education and living conditions, and better prevention and treatment of vascular and chronic conditions. This evidence suggests that attention to optimum health early in life might benefit cognitive health late in life. Policy planning and future research should be balanced across primary (policies reducing risk and increasing cognitive reserve), secondary (early detection and screening), and tertiary (once dementia is present) prevention. Each has their place, but upstream primary prevention has the largest effect on reduction of later dementia occurrence and disability.

  19. Significance, prognostic value and management of heart rate in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that resting heart rate is a risk marker but also a risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure. In hypertensive subjects free from overt cardiac disease, the question has been less frequently addressed. A few cohort studies have shown that hypertensive patients with a high resting heart rate have an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death. However, intervention trials have not demonstrated that lowering the heart rate is beneficial in hypertensive subjects. Studies with an assessment of ambulatory heart rate tend to demonstrate a better association between cardiovascular outcomes and variables, including nighttime heart rate. Clinical trials comparing beta-blockers with non-slowing antihypertensive drugs have not demonstrated the superiority of the former. Finally, an elevated resting heart rate in hypertensive subjects free from overt cardiac disease seems to be more a risk marker than a risk factor. Although these patients are at high risk, no scientific data exist to support targeting heart rate. In this review, we describe the pathophysiological effects of heart rate, including vascular cell signalling, link with sympathetic activity and influence on central blood pressure, and the prognostic value and management of HR in hypertensive patients free from overt cardiac diseases.

  20. [Epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Minodier, Ph; Laporte, R; Miramont, S

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections are frequent in developing countries but the epidemiology is incompletely known. In 2005, 90 % of symptomatic pharyngitis, 96 % of invasive diseases and 97 % of deaths due to GAS were observed in these countries. Clinical features of GAS invasive infections are identical to those reported in developed countries, but frequency and mortality are higher, as is the number of the different emm types involved. In the world, from 15.6 to 19.6 millions of persons are affected by rheumatic heart disease (282,000 new cases and 233,000-468,000 deaths per year). Incidence of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis varies with time and location: in 2005, 472,000 new cases have been reported in the world (83 % in a developing country). World Heart Federation recently aimed at reducing the burden of rheumatic heart diseases by 25 % among < 25 years persons in 2025.

  1. Find a Heart Rhythm Specialist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace IBHRE Heart Rhythm Journal Heart Rhythm Case Reports EP Buyer's Guide Connect With Us ... Heart Rhythm Society 2016 Privacy Policy | Linking Policy | Patient Education Disclaimer You ...

  2. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - open ... lung machine is used in most cases during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the ... with these procedures, the surgeon may have to open the chest to do the surgery.

  3. Structure of the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  4. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  5. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  6. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  7. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Balance › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...

  8. Heart failure - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... NOT smoke . Stay active. Walk or ride a stationary bicycle. Your provider can provide a safe and ... with or without stenting may help improve blood flow to the damaged or weakened heart muscle. Heart ...

  9. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass; OPCAB; Beating heart surgery; Bypass surgery - heart; CABG; Coronary artery bypass graft; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Coronary bypass surgery; Coronary artery disease - CABG; CAD - CABG; Angina - ...

  10. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how severe it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  11. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (Echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...

  12. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  13. Aspirin and heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology ... NE, et al. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic ... of coronary heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, et ...

  14. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... about genetic counseling and screening if you have a family history of cogenital heart disease. ... Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Sleep Troubles, Heart Troubles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161037.html Sleep Troubles, Heart Troubles? American Heart Association says it's ... 19, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders -- including too little or too much sleep -- ...

  16. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... the P and the R waves on the EKG (electrocardiogram). First-degree heart block may not cause ...

  17. Target Heart Rate Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...

  18. Getting a New Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in place, the donor's main arteries—the aorta and pulmonary arteries—are sewn to yours. o ... heart and cause strokes and heart attacks. 4. Diabetes Mellitus Anti-rejection medications can cause diabetes. If ...

  19. Right-heart infective endocarditis: a propos of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Simon Antoine; Jobe, Modou; Bodian, Malick; Sy, Mbaye; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Bamba; Kane, Adama; Mbaye, Alassane; Diao, Maboury; Sarr, Moustapha; Ba, Serigne Abdou

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of right heart endocarditis in Africa are not well known. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with right-heart infective endocarditis. This was a 10-year retrospective study conducted in 2 cardiology departments in Dakar, Senegal. All patients who met the diagnosis of right heart infective endocarditis according to the Duke's criteria were included. We studied the epidemiological, clinical as well as their laboratory profiles. There were 10 cases of right-heart infective endocarditis representing 3.04% of cases of infective endocarditis. There was a valvulopathy in 3 patients, an atrial septal defect in 1 patient, parturiency in 2 patients and the presence of a pacemaker in one patient. Anaemia was present in 9 patients whilst leukocytosis in 6 patients. The port of entry was found to be oral in three cases, ENT in one case and urogenital in two cases. Apart from one patient with vegetations in the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, the rest had localized vegetation only at the tricuspid valve. However, blood culture was positive in only three patients. There was a favorable outcome after antibiotic treatment in 4 patients with others having complications; three cases of renal impairment, two cases of heart failure and one case of pulmonary embolism. There was one mortality. Right heart infective endocarditis is rare but associated with potentially fatal complications. PMID:26958143

  20. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  1. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Philasri, Chutikan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Maneenin, Chanvit; Sirilaph, Samaporn; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas. PMID:17072975

  2. Heart Valve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  3. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the ...

  4. The Heart of Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

  5. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  6. Working Model Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

  7. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... signal to your heart. The signal makes your heart beat at the correct pace. Pacemakers may be used: To correct abnormal heart rhythms. The heart may beat too slowly, too fast, or in an irregular ...

  8. How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a pocket, or hung around your neck. Nuclear Heart Scan A nuclear heart scan shows how well blood is flowing ... blood is reaching your heart muscle. During a nuclear heart scan, a safe, radioactive substance called a ...

  9. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  10. Migraine headache: epidemiologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Linet, M S; Stewart, W F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that a number of factors are associated with the risk of migraine and precipitation of an attack. However, the degree to which causal associations can be inferred from reported studies is very limited and is a result of the methodological problems discussed throughout this review. The study of migraine in many ways parallels the pattern seen in early investigations of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, because a number of methodological problems had to be resolved in the study of these conditions before significant progress could be made. To achieve significant advances in the improvement of our understanding of the causes of migraine, a number of related issues must be addressed and resolved in future studies. Most noteworthy among these are Recognition of the probable heterogeneity of migraine, not merely in the manifestation of symptoms but, more importantly, in the existence of distinct etiologic subtypes. A number of findings suggest that some migraine subtypes are sensitive to certain precipitants, some appear to be a part of a more generalized constitutional disorder, and some are accompanied by a higher prevalence of migraine among family members. Efforts should be made in understanding the relationship between specific biochemical markers and traits (such as monoamine oxidase deficiency and tyramine sensitivity); precipitants related to the migraine attack; and epidemiologic characteristics such as age at onset and sex. Creation of a more precise, reliable, and practically useful definition of migraine. Without such a definition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to compare results between studies, to understand the relationship between risk factors and migraine subtypes, to understand properly associations identified in selected clinic populations, and, in general, to understand the epidemiology of migraine. More accurate characterization of the case group under

  11. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.
DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.
MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.
CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.


Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  12. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology.

  13. Methylphenidate: pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Several amphetamine-like appetite suppressants are known to have cardiovascular adverse effects, in particular pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac valve disease. Is this also the case with methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like psychostimulant used in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (especially in children) and also in narcolepsy? Cases of pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease have been reported with methylphenidate, including in children. The risk appears to be low, but epidemiological studies are needed to estimate the incidence. This risk should be minimised by only using methylphenidate to treat serious disorders, at the lowest effective dose. Attention should be paid to warning signs such as dyspnoea. PMID:26436168

  14. [Chronic heart failure in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Chivite, David; Franco, Jhonatan; Formiga, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing, especially in the elderly population, and is becoming a major geriatric problem. Elderly patients with HF usually show etiopathogenic, epidemiological, and even clinical characteristics significantly different from those present in younger patients. Their treatment, however, derives from clinical trials performed with only a few elderly subjects. Moreover, beyond the cardiovascular disease itself, it is essential to evaluate the patient as a whole, given the interrelationship between HF and the characteristic geriatric syndromes of the elderly patient. This review examines the peculiarities in the most prevalent "real world" HF patient.

  15. Income inequality and self-rated health in Stockholm, Sweden: a test of the 'income inequality hypothesis' on two levels of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael; Kölegård, Maria L; Fritzell, Johan

    2012-04-01

    The number of studies analysing income inequality and health are voluminous. However, when empirically testing the income inequality hypothesis, the level of aggregation could be crucial for whether we find an association or not and for the mechanisms we believe are active. This study hence investigates: (1) the two-year lagged effect by income inequality on health at two levels of aggregation; municipalities and neighbourhoods in Sweden; (2) whether spending on social goods accounts for the association between income inequality and health; (3) the effect by income inequality among the affluent and the disadvantaged in municipalities and neighbourhoods, respectively. The empirical data is based on a Swedish public health survey in 2002 and includes residents of Stockholm aged 18-84 years. The sample consists of 28,092 individuals nested within 22 municipalities and 709 neighbourhoods in the county of Stockholm with a non-response rate of 37 percent. A total population register (HSIA) is further used for the construction of contextual-level indicators. Primary method used is multi-level logistic regression. The findings indicate a moderate effect by high and very high income inequality on self-rated poor health at the municipality-level. The association, however, ceases after adjustment for spending on social goods. No detrimental effect by income inequality on self-rated health at the neighbourhood-level is found. The results further suggest that poor individuals residing in high inequality neighbourhoods do not have poorer health than those residing in low inequality contexts while high inequality is most deleterious for poor individuals at the municipality-level. In sum, the findings suggest that reduced spending on social goods could account for the association between income inequality and health at the municipality-level. The contrasting findings at the neighbourhood- and municipality-level indicate that it is important to consider the level of aggregation

  16. Substance flow analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic from EEE/WEEE in Nigeria in the frame of Stockholm Convention as a basis for policy advice.

    PubMed

    Babayemi, Joshua; Sindiku, Omotayo; Osibanjo, Oladele; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the material/substance flow of polybrominated diphenyl ethers listed in the Stockholm Convention (SC) as persistent organic pollutant (POP-PBDEs) in the most relevant plastic fractions in Nigeria. Considering the prohibition of production and the use of POP-PBDEs and knowing that these pollutants are still contained in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and associated wastes (WEEE), it is necessary to determine their flows, especially in developing countries with limited end-of-life management. Following the inventory approach of the SC Guidance and utilizing the existing national e-waste inventory together with monitoring data, a material/substance flow analysis was conducted using the STAN tool. Within the period of 2000 to 2010, the total import for EEE/WEEE in Category 3 and 4 was approximately 8 million tonnes (Mt) containing approximately 2.4 Mt of polymers. For the inventory year 2010, it was estimated that from these polymers, about 0.8 Mt was still in stock and 1.6 Mt has reached the end-of-life. It was also estimated that approximately 1.1 Mt has ended in dumpsites, 0.3 Mt was burned in the open, and 0.2 Mt was recycled. In the plastic fractions, 1,270 t of POP-PBDEs was contained with about 370 t still in use/stock and approximately 900 t has entered the end-of-life phase. All three major end-of-life treatments result in environmental pollution with associated exposure risk. The implementation of the Stockholm Convention represents an important opportunity to improve this management situation in Nigeria and other developing countries.

  17. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease » Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Explore Diabetic Heart Disease What Is... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiomyopathy Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Failure Send ...

  18. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  19. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  1. Epidemiology, austerity, and innovation.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M; Ness, Roberta B

    2012-05-15

    In considering the state of epidemiologic research, these are the "best" and the "worst" of times-the "best" from the perspective of scientific opportunities and the "worst" from the perspective of funding. In this commentary, the authors address this time of funding austerity from the points of view of individual researchers and research institutions. For researchers, the new tools of "-omics," large databases, communication by means of the World Wide Web, and global access offer ever-expanding scientific opportunities. The authors comment on research directions for which there is an enhanced likelihood of funding success: clinical and translational research, outcomes and effectiveness research, and global health research. The authors emphasize the need to be innovative and not bound by the conventional. For institutions, the authors suggest attention to innovation and impact, social networking, and finding the "right size" for training programs. Academic institutions also need to invest, supporting researchers and their ideas. Epidemiologists need to be true to their mission and prove that they can use innovation to advance health and welfare in a measurable way. Doing so will ensure that over the long term, epidemiologic research will remain a cornerstone for advancing population health.

  2. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  3. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma.

  4. Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Merav; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Valk, Gerlof D

    2015-01-01

    Formerly named carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumors originate from diffuse endocrine cells, can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and bronchopulmonary (BP) tree, and have a wide range of malignant potential. This chapter summarizes the data available on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) from around the world, including the relative frequency according to organ of origin, annual incidence rates (IR) and trends in IR at the various anatomic sites, age and stage at presentation, racial and gender differences in IR and 5-year survival rates. Over time, changes have been made in the classification and registration of NEN, both in the same registry and across the globe, thus confounding the possibility to draw conclusions as to the true rise in IR of NEN that is observed all over the world. BP NEN has become the most common site in many western countries, while NEN of the rectum is more common in the Far East. In some countries, appendiceal NEN is the most common site in females. When compared to adenocarcinoma of the same location, the prognosis of NEN patients is better. Five-year survival rates are highest for NEN originating in the rectum and appendix, but lower in small intestinal and pancreatic NEN. Future research is needed to understand the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to NEN epidemiology. PMID:26303701

  5. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  6. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field. PMID:26088071

  7. Ethical issues in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Hessel, P A; Fourie, P B

    1987-12-19

    Ethical concerns pervade all aspects of epidemiological investigations. Ethical issues, including planning, carrying out, analysing and presenting the results of a study, are discussed. In southern Africa, where many community-based epidemiological surveys are undertaken, issues relating specifically to the conduct of such studies are especially relevant. These include informed consent, confidentiality and privacy.

  8. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  9. The spectrum of epidemiology underlying sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15%-20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who experience a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly because of inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. During the past 3 decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of coronary heart disease deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to coronary heart disease and ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition before death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low-risk and known high-risk populations, will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies.

  10. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  11. Heart transplantation for congenital heart disease in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Chinnock, Richard E; Bailey, Leonard L

    2011-05-01

    Successful infant heart transplantation has now been performed for over 25 years. Assessment of long term outcomes is now possible. We report clinical outcomes for322 patients who received their heart transplant during infancy. Actuarial graft survival for newborn recipients is 59% at 25 years. Survival has improved in the most recent era. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the most important late cause of death with an actuarial incidence at 25 years of 35%. Post-transplant lymphoma is estimated to occur in 20% of infant recipients by25 years. Chronic kidney disease grade 3 or worse is present in 31% of survivors. The epidemiology of infant heart transplantation has changed through the years as the results for staged repair improved and donor resources remained stagnant. Most centers now employ staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and similar extreme forms of congenital heart disease. Techniques for staged repair, including the hybrid procedure, are described. The lack of donors is described with particular note regarding decreased donors due to newer programs for appropriate infant sleep positioning and infant car seats. ABO incompatible donors are a newer resource for maximizing donor resources, as is donation after circulatory determination of death and techniques to properly utilize more donors by expanding the criteria for what is an acceptable donor. An immunological advantage for the youngest recipients has long been postulated, and evaluation of this phenomenon may provide clues to the development of accommodation and/or tolerance. PMID:22548030

  12. [Epidemiological problems of obesity].

    PubMed

    Beiul, E A; Oleneva, V A; Mühr, M; Heller, G M; Popova, Iu P

    1980-01-01

    The results of epidemiological survey of the population living in the middle zone of the Soviet Union and in the GDR are considered. Comparison of the data obtained shows that overweight is a very prevalent abnormal condition among the test population groups in both countries and amounts to 26% (USSR) and 30% (GDR). Excess animal fat consumption in the presence of a decreased quota of vegetable oil has been established and a significant increase in monosaccharides intake noted. Attention is attracted by insufficient quota of fresh vegetables and fruit in the diets of the population of both countries. Qualitative and quantitative nutritional pitfalls were shown to be aggravated in obese people. Violation of dietetic regimens and decreased physical activity play a definite role in the development of overweight. A program on primary and secondary prevention of overweight has been established. It includes a number of measures both common and specific to the GDR and the USSR.

  13. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  14. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    PubMed

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  16. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.

  17. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  18. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  19. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  20. The role of coronary artery disease in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; Desai, Akshay S

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced survival following acute myocardial infarction and the declining prevalence of hypertension and valvular heart disease as contributors to incident heart failure (HF) have fueled the emergence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as the primary risk factor for HF development. Despite the acknowledged role of CAD in the development of HF, the role of coronary revascularization in reducing HF-associated morbidity and mortality remains controversial. The authors review key features of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CAD in patients with HF as well as the emerging data from recent clinical trials that inform the modern approach to management.

  1. Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Valentina; Mentz, Robert J.; Fiuzat, Mona; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age. While clinical trials suggest that contemporary evidence-based HF therapies have reduced morbidity and mortality, these trials largely excluded the elderly. Questions remain regarding the clinical characteristics of elderly HF patients and the impact of contemporary therapies on their outcomes. This review presents the epidemiology of HF in the elderly and summarizes the data on the pathophysiology of the ageing heart. The clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of elderly HF patients are explored. Finally, the main gaps regarding HF therapies in the elderly and the opportunities for future trials are highlighted. PMID:23429975

  2. Heart transplantation: review

    PubMed Central

    Mangini, Sandrigo; Alves, Bárbara Rubim; Silvestre, Odílson Marcos; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Pires, Lucas José Tachotti; Curiati, Milena Novaes Cardoso; Bacal, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heart transplantation is currently the definitive gold standard surgical approach in the treatment of refractory heart failure. However, the shortage of donors limits the achievement of a greater number of heart transplants, in which the use of mechanical circulatory support devices is increasing. With well-established indications and contraindications, as well as diagnosis and treatment of rejection through defined protocols of immunosuppression, the outcomes of heart transplantation are very favorable. Among early complications that can impact survival are primary graft failure, right ventricular dysfunction, rejection, and infections, whereas late complications include cardiac allograft vasculopathy and neoplasms. Despite the difficulties for heart transplantation, in particular, the shortage of donors and high mortality while on the waiting list, in Brazil, there is a great potential for both increasing effective donors and using circulatory assist devices, which can positively impact the number and outcomes of heart transplants. PMID:26154552

  3. Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Uremia-Related Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Marcello; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are at 5- to 10-fold higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than age-matched controls. Clinically, CVD in this population manifests as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, stroke, or congestive heart failure. Beyond the traditional risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus and hypertension), uremia-specific factors that arise from accumulating toxins also contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD. In this review, we summarize the literature on the epidemiology of both traditional and uremia-related CVD and focus on postulated mechanisms of the latter. In the context of current and emerging diagnostics and therapies for CVD, we highlight what we interpret as major gaps in the medical management of this growing population that need to be addressed with targeted epidemiological and translational research. Finally, we describe the global challenges associated with the recognition and management of uremia-related CVD in developed and developing nations. PMID:26831434

  4. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Resources Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources Resources for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School of Perfusion Technology Please contact our Webmaster with ...

  5. Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention & Treatment of High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources ... signals in the heart's upper chambers fire abnormally, which interferes with electrical signals coming from ...

  6. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  7. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  8. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population. PMID:9460067

  9. [Shift work and risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch

    2014-01-20

    Shift and night work are among the most frequent occupational exposures. Such work schedules involve exposure to light-at-night, which may reduce normal nocturnal melatonin production, create circadian rhythm disruption, sleep deprivation and unhealthy lifestyle. There is strong experimental evidence that light-at-night and circadian disruption may increase the risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases. There is emerging, but limited epidemiologic evidence that night shift work may increase breast cancer and certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24629681

  10. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  11. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  12. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  13. The epidemiology of favism.

    PubMed

    Belsey, M A

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism.

  14. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  15. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  16. The epidemiology of favism

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

  17. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  18. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  19. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  20. Epidemiology of clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Franco; Gumina, Stefano; De Santis, Pierfrancesco; Albo, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all fractures and 44% of those in the shoulder girdle. Most patients were men (68%), and the left side was involved in 61% of cases. Fractures of the middle third of the clavicle, which were the most common (81%), were displaced in 48% of cases and comminuted in 19%. Fractures of the medial third were the least common (2%). The prevalence of midclavicular fractures was found to decrease progressively with age, starting from the first decade of life when they represented 88.2% of all clavicle fractures and were undisplaced in 55.5% of cases. In adults, the incidence of displaced fractures, independent of location, was higher than that of undisplaced fractures. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of the injury. In the period under study, the incidence of fractures showed no significant change over time and no seasonal variation. PMID:12378163

  1. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  2. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  3. [Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in the Spanish elderly population].

    PubMed

    Sáez, T; Suárez, C; Blanco, F; Gabriel, R

    1998-11-01

    This paper is a comprehensive and critical review of the updated information available in Spain for the elderly population on the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cerebrovascular disease) and subclinical (left ventricular hypertrophy, carotid stenosis) cardiovascular diseases are reviewed. Prevalence and distribution of major classical cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking and information on new risk factors such as microalbuminuria or abdominal obesity are also presented. The article is also focused on the high rates of morbidity, mortality and the burden of handicap in this age group in comparison with middle-aged people. Finally we call attention to the few and inconsistent population data available for some of the mentioned topics in our country, particularly the lack of specific figures of incidence and risk rates from cohort studies of elderly people in Spain. PMID:9859708

  4. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  5. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  6. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  7. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  8. [Epidemiology between ethics and politics].

    PubMed

    Saracci, R

    1999-01-01

    Over the last two decades ethics in epidemiology has been the subject of a substantial number of conferences, books, articles, guidelines as well as training courses. The relevance of ethics for epidemiology does not make the ethical approach sufficient to exhaust the analysis of the relationship between epidemiology and society: on one side the ethical assessment of an epidemiological investigation is not self-sufficient but depends on the evaluation of the scientific worth of the study (a planned study involving humans is automatically unethical if scientifically unsound) and, on the other side, to be of practical value it needs expanding as to its policy implications. A few remarks on two issues, ethics committees and human reproductive cloning, support the general contention that translating knowledge into effective public health actions may be grounded in ethical considerations but necessitates a substantial development at political level.

  9. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

  10. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings.

  11. Heart imaging method

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  12. Mapping the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  13. Human heart by art.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Abraham

    2012-11-01

    Heart is of great importance in maintaining the life of the body. Enough to stop working for a few minutes to cause death, and hence the great importance in physiology, medicine, and research. This fact was already emphasized in the Bible in the Book of Proverbs, chapter 4 verse 23: "Keep your heart with all diligence, for out of it is the wellspring of life." Art was able to demonstrate the heart from various aspects; realistically, as done by Leonardo de Vinci who demonstrated the halves of the heart and its blood vessels. Symbolically, as a source of life, the heart was demonstrated by the artist Mrs. Erlondeiel, as a caricature by Salvador Dali, as an open heart by Sawaya, etc. Finally, it should be emphasized that different demonstrations of the human heart by many artworks make this most important organ of our body (that cannot be seen from outside) more familiar and clearer to us. And this is the purpose of this article-to demonstrate the heart through a large number of artworks of different kinds.

  14. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  15. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Answers by Heart Fact Sheets Learn and live with our downloadable patient information sheets . Dozens of topics in a question-and-answer format that's brief, easy to follow and easy to read. ... Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 4 What are the Symptoms of ...

  16. [Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential aproach].

    PubMed

    Hersch-Martínez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  17. Cardiac transplants. Heart and heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Holmquist, T; Gamberg, P L

    1992-02-01

    OR nurses play an important role in organ procurement. They are responsible for gathering the necessary equipment, which includes cardioplegia supplies, normal saline, a sterile container for transplantation of the heart, a sterile retractor, vascular clamps, and dissection instruments. Orthotopic heart transplantation involves excision of the recipient heart with placement of the donor heart in a normal anatomic position. Heterotopic transplant, which consists of placing the donor heart in the right side of the chest parallel to the native heart, is rarely used. In heart-lung transplantation procedures, attention is given to the removal of the heart and each lung separately to prevent injury to the vagus, phrenic, and laryngeal nerves.

  18. Theory of heart

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, L. . Dept. of Physiology); Hunter, P. . Dept. of Engineering Science); McCulloch, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growth in interest in studying the heart from the perspective of the physical sciences: mechanics, fluid flow, electromechanics. This volume is the result of a workshop held in July 1989 at the Institute for Nonlinear Sciences at the University of California at San Diego that brought together scientists and clinicians with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who share an interest in the heart. The chapters were prepared by the invited speakers as didactic reviews of their subjects but also include up-to-date results in their fields. Topics covered include the structure, mechanical properties, and function of the heart and the myocardium, electrical activity of the heart and myocardium, and mathematical models of heart function. Individual chapters are abstracted separately.

  19. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  20. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Cardiology; American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. State of the science: promoting self-care in persons with heart failure: ...

  1. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review Course in Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology is now available OnDemand! Monday, August 29, 2016! ... than expected, and the FDA... European Society of Cardiology – Heart Failure 2017 October 11, 2016 ESC: Heart ...

  2. Data and Statistics: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

  3. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  4. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... about Alcohol and Heart Disease . Avoiding or limiting caffeine Consume only a moderate amount of caffeine per day, no more than a cup or two of coffee. Learn more about Caffeine and Heart Disease . Eating a heart-healthy diet ...

  5. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  6. Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region

    SciTech Connect

    Gontier, Mikael . E-mail: gontier@kth.se

    2007-07-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

  7. Heart disease in workers exposed to dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Andjelkovich, D.A.; Kersteter, S.L.; Arp, E.W. Jr.; Balogh, S.A.; Blunden, P.B.; Stanley, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    To determine whether the carcinogenicity of dinitrotoluene (DNT) in rodent bioassays was predictive for humans, we examined the mortality experience of exposed workers at two ammunition plants. Cohorts of 156 and 301 men who had worked a month or more during the 1940s and 1950s at jobs with opportunity for substantial DNT exposure were followed through the end of 1980. Numbers of expected deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed, using mortality rates of US white males as the standard. No evidence of a carcinogenic effect was found, but unsuspected excesses of mortality from ischemic heart disease were noted at both plants (SMRs) 131 and 143; 95% confidence limits 65 to 234 and 107 to 187, respectively). Deaths from ischemic heart disease remained high even when compared with expected numbers derived using mortality rates of the counties in which the plants were located. Additional analyses revealed evidence of a 15-year latent period and suggested a relationship with duration and intensity of exposure. Epidemiologic investigations of other heavily exposed populations are needed to confirm the etiologic significance of the association between DNT and heart disease described here.

  8. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death.

  9. The second heart field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, a population of cardiac progenitor cells was identified in pharyngeal mesoderm that gives rise to a major part of the amniote heart. These multipotent progenitor cells, termed the second heart field (SHF), contribute progressively to the poles of the elongating heart tube during looping morphogenesis, giving rise to myocardium, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. Research into the mechanisms of SHF development has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of cardiac progenitor cells and the origins of congenital heart defects. Here recent data concerning the regulation, clinically relevant subpopulations, evolution and lineage relationships of the SHF are reviewed. Proliferation and differentiation of SHF cells are controlled by multiple intercellular signaling pathways and a transcriptional regulatory network that is beginning to be elucidated. Perturbation of SHF development results in common forms of congenital heart defects and particular progenitor cell subpopulations are highly relevant clinically, including cells giving rise to myocardium at the base of the pulmonary trunk and the interatrial septum. A SHF has recently been identified in amphibian, fish, and agnathan embryos, highlighting the important contribution of these cells to the evolution of the vertebrate heart. Finally, SHF-derived parts of the heart share a lineage relationship with craniofacial skeletal muscles revealing that these progenitor cells belong to a broad cardiocraniofacial field of pharyngeal mesoderm. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the dynamic process of SHF deployment is likely to yield further insights into cardiac development and pathology.

  10. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  11. Epidemiology of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, I M; Rajasoorya, C

    1999-06-01

    Acromegaly is a consequence of chronic growth hormone (GH) excess, due in the majority of cases to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, and occurring with a population prevalence of 60 per million and an incidence of 3-4 per million per year. Males and females appear to be equally affected with an average age of presentation of 44 years. Younger patients may have more aggressive tumours and higher GH concentrations. There is co-existent hyperprolactinaemia in about one third of cases, and a variable proportion of [figure: see text] tumours appear to have activating mutations of the gsp gene or other genetic abnormalities. Acute complications such as carpal tunnel syndrome, sweating and obstructive sleep apnoea are usually readily reversible with treatment of the condition, but chronic complications such as hypertension, diabetes and heart disease are less readily corrected and post-treatment GH levels of < 2.5 ug/L (5 mU/L) are needed to achieve the prevalence found in the general community. Such 'curative' levels of GH are achieved in only about 50% of patients with current therapies, and as a result there is an ongoing excess of patients with chronic complications of acromegaly leading to increased morbidity and mortality from the disorder, with observed-to-expected mortality ratios ranging from 1.6-3.3 and only approaching unity in those with growth hormone levels < 2.5 ug/L following treatment. Prognostic factors include in some studies the presence of diabetes and [table: see text] hypertension prior to diagnosis as well as measures of exposure to excessive growth hormone derived from the product of preoperative serum GH and the time from first symptoms to treatment. Overall, however, the most important prognostic variable appears to be the serum GH concentration achieved by treatment, with an increasing consensus that this needs to be < 2.5 ug/L (5 mU/L) to achieve cure of the condition.

  12. Smoking Thickens Heart Wall, Leading to Heart Failure: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160932.html Smoking Thickens Heart Wall, Leading to Heart Failure: Study The more you smoke and the ... Sept. 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking leads to heart failure by causing thickened heart walls and reducing ...

  13. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  14. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  15. Measuring heart beats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Frank

    2014-03-01

    A simple instrument has been constructed to measure heart beats via an earlobe sensor. The pulse rate is determined from a Picoscope trace and pupils may wish to see how this rate changes after modest exertion.

  16. Heart and vascular services

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan of the heart Stress tests (many different types of stress tests exist) Vascular ultrasound, such as carotid ultrasound Venous ultrasound of the arms and legs SURGERIES AND INTERVENTIONS ... these types of procedures, a catheter is inserted through the ...

  17. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  18. Keeping Hearts Pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

  19. Target Heart Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  20. Alcohol and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  1. Protein and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. Meditation and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  4. Stress and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  5. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Valve replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves, Prosthetic valves ... place. The main types of new valves are: Mechanical -- made of man-made materials, such as metal ( ...

  6. Types of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be made. Here we delve into the importance of shared decision making. This content was last ... heart failure. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure ...

  7. Classes of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be made. Here we delve into the importance of shared decision making. HF Resources For Life ... heart failure. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure ...

  8. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  9. Sarcoid heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Dubrey, Simon W; Bell, Alex; Mittal, Tarun K

    2007-01-01

    To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and has a predilection for the conduction system of the heart. Heart involvement can also cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with consequent progressive heart failure. The most common presentation of this systemic disease is with pulmonary infiltration, but many cases will be asymptomatic and are detected on routine chest radiography revealing lymphadenopathy. Current advances lie in the newer methods of imaging and diagnosing this unusual heart disease. This review describes the pathology and diagnosis of this condition and the newer imaging techniques that have developed for determining cardiac involvement. PMID:17916869

  10. Anatomy of the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper chambers, the right and left atria (AY-tree-uh), are shown in purple. The heart's lower chambers, the right and left ventricles (VEN-trih-kuls), are shown in red. Some of the main blood vessels (arteries and ...

  11. Heart, front view (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

  12. Picturing the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information You are here Home » SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Links for Students Glossary Picturing the Heart SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  13. Stress and your heart

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  14. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation . 2013 Oct 15;128(16):e240-327. Epub 2013 Jun 5. PMID: 23741058 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ ...

  15. Heart failure - home monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation . 2013 Oct 15;128(16):e240-327. Epub 2013 Jun 5. PMID: 23741058 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ ...

  16. Heart Truth for Latinas

    MedlinePlus

    ... for about a fifth. Latinas also have high rates of some factors that increase the risk of developing heart disease, such as diabetes, overweight and obesity, and physical inactivity. But there’s good news too: ...

  17. Heart Murmurs and Your Child (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Heart Murmurs and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Heart ... to know how the heart works. How the Heart Works The normal heart has four chambers and ...

  18. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  19. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings. PMID:26354957

  20. Congenital Heart Defects and CCHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart. Heart valves. These open and close to control blood flow to and from the heart. Arteries and veins. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the body. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood from ...

  1. [Obesity and heart].

    PubMed

    Svačina, Štěpán

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular complications of obesity are traditionally considered an important complication of obesity. Obesity itself is probably not direct cause of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. This may occur indirectly in metabolic complications of obesity, especially diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, thrombogenicity potential of obesity contributes to embolism and atherosclerosis development. In cardiology is well-known a phenomenon of obesity paradox when obese patients have better prognosis than thin. This is the case of heart failure and some other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new concept has emerged of myokines - hormones from muscle tissue that have extensive protective effects on organism and probably on heart. Whether heart is a source of myokines is uncertain. However, undoubted importance has epicardial and pericardial fatty tissue. The epicardial fatty tissue has mainly protective effects on myocardium. This fatty tissue may produce factors of inflammation affecting the myocardium. Relationship between amount of epicardial fatty tissue and coronary heart disease is rather pathogenic. Currently, it is certain that obesity brings more metabolic and cancer complications than cardiovascular and accurate contribution to pathogenic or protective character of fatty tissue in cardiology requires further research. Nevertheless, the conclusion is that adipose tissue of organism and around the heart may be in some circumstances beneficial.

  2. Decompensated heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Mangini, Sandrigo; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Braga, Fabiana Goulart Marcondes; Bacal, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heart failure is a disease with high incidence and prevalence in the population. The costs with hospitalization for decompensated heart failure reach approximately 60% of the total cost with heart failure treatment, and mortality during hospitalization varies according to the studied population, and could achieve values of 10%. In patients with decompensated heart failure, history and physical examination are of great value for the diagnosis of the syndrome, and also can help the physician to identify the beginning of symptoms, and give information about etiology, causes and prognosis of the disease. The initial objective of decompensated heart failure treatment is the hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement preservation and/or improvement of renal function, prevention of myocardial damage, modulation of the neurohormonal and/or inflammatory activation and control of comorbidities that can cause or contribute to progression of the syndrome. According to the clinical-hemodynamic profile, it is possible to establish a rational for the treatment of decompensated heart failure, individualizing the proceedings to be held, leading to reduction in the period of hospitalization and consequently reducing overall mortality. PMID:24136770

  3. Troponins in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Omland, T; Røsjø, H; Giannitsis, E; Agewall, S

    2015-03-30

    The signs and symptoms of heart failure are frequently unspecific and correlate poorly with objective indices of cardiac function. Objective assessment of cardiac function by echocardiography or other imaging modalities also correlate poorly with symptomatic status and functional capacity. Accordingly, there is a need for circulating biomarkers that can provide incremental diagnostic and prognostic information to the existing armamentarium of tests. The introduction of more sensitive assays that allow determination of very low circulating concentrations of the myofibrillar proteins cardiac troponin I and T has not only resulted in improved diagnostic accuracy in the setting of acute coronary syndromes. The high sensitivity assays have also shown that cardiac troponins are frequently found chronically circulating in a variety of acute and chronic, cardiac and non-cardiac disease conditions, including acute heart failure and chronic symptomatic and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiac troponin I and T provide may provide clinically useful prognostic information both concerning the future risk of developing heart failure in asymptomatic subjects and the risk of fatal events and hospital admissions in those with already established heart failure This review summarizes current literature on the clinical performance and utility of cardiac troponin measurements as diagnostic and prognostic tools in patients with symptomatic heart failure, as well as in those with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction, and clinical phenotypes at high risk for developing heart failure, including stable coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, and aortic stenosis.

  4. Pathophysiology of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Tanai, Edit; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-12-15

    Heart failure is considered an epidemic disease in the modern world affecting approximately 1% to 2% of adult population. It presents a multifactorial, systemic disease, in which--after cardiac injury--structural, neurohumoral, cellular, and molecular mechanisms are activated and act as a network to maintain physiological functioning. These coordinated, complex processes lead to excessive volume overload, increased sympathetic activity, circulation redistribution, and result in different, parallel developing clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms sum up to an unspecific clinical picture; thus invasive and noninvasive diagnostic tools are used to get an accurate diagnosis and to specify the underlying cause. The most important, outcome determining factor in heart failure is its constant progression. Constant optimizing of pharmatherapeutical regimes, novel targets, and fine regulation of these processes try to keep these compensatory mechanisms in a physiological range. Beside pharmacological therapy, interventional and surgical therapy options give new chances in the management of heart failure. For the optimization and establishment of these and novel therapeutical approaches, complete and comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms is essentially needed. Besides diagnosis and treatment, efforts should be made for better prevention in heart failure by treatment of risk factors, or identifying and following risk groups. This summary of the pathophysiology of heart failure tries to give a compact overview of basic mechanisms and of the novel unfolding, progressive theory of heart failure to contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge of the disease.

  5. Pathophysiology of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Tanai, Edit; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is considered an epidemic disease in the modern world affecting approximately 1% to 2% of adult population. It presents a multifactorial, systemic disease, in which--after cardiac injury--structural, neurohumoral, cellular, and molecular mechanisms are activated and act as a network to maintain physiological functioning. These coordinated, complex processes lead to excessive volume overload, increased sympathetic activity, circulation redistribution, and result in different, parallel developing clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms sum up to an unspecific clinical picture; thus invasive and noninvasive diagnostic tools are used to get an accurate diagnosis and to specify the underlying cause. The most important, outcome determining factor in heart failure is its constant progression. Constant optimizing of pharmatherapeutical regimes, novel targets, and fine regulation of these processes try to keep these compensatory mechanisms in a physiological range. Beside pharmacological therapy, interventional and surgical therapy options give new chances in the management of heart failure. For the optimization and establishment of these and novel therapeutical approaches, complete and comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms is essentially needed. Besides diagnosis and treatment, efforts should be made for better prevention in heart failure by treatment of risk factors, or identifying and following risk groups. This summary of the pathophysiology of heart failure tries to give a compact overview of basic mechanisms and of the novel unfolding, progressive theory of heart failure to contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge of the disease. PMID:26756631

  6. Prevalence of heart disease demonstrated in 60 years of the Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia.

    PubMed

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Nather, Julio Cesar; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2014-01-01

    Considering the historical and academic relevance of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology (ABC), as its MEDLINE indexing began in 1950, it was assumed as a hypothesis that the analysis of the publications over the last 60 years could reflect the changing trends of heart disease in Brazil. The study data were collected using a program developed for this purpose, allowing the automatic extraction of information from the MEDLINE database. The study information were collected by searching "Brazilian Archives of Cardiology AND selected parameter in English". Four observational groups were determined: (1) major groups of heart diseases (coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies); (2) relevant diseases in clinical practice (cardiac arrhythmias, cor pulmonale, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure); (3) cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis); and (4) group determined due to the growing trend of publications on congestive heart failure seen in previous groups (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, rheumatic heart disease and Chagasic heart disease) All publications within the established groups were described, highlighting the increasing importance of heart failure and diabetes as risk factors. A relatively easy search was carried out, using the computer program developed for literature search covering six decades. Emphasizing the limitations of the study, we suggest the existence of an epidemiological link between cardiac diseases that are prevalent in Brazil and the publications of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology.

  7. Sarcopenia: definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2013-05-01

    The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This paper addressed the definition and epidemiology of sarcopenia and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, we summarized the abundant information available in the literature related to sarcopenia, together with results from Korean sarcopenic obesity study (KSOS) that we performed.

  8. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Nakamura-Lopez, Yuko; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission. PMID:23202546

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers listed as Stockholm Convention POPs, other brominated flame retardants and heavy metals in e-waste polymers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, Omotayo; Babayemi, Joshua; Osibanjo, Oladele; Schlummer, Martin; Schluep, Mathias; Watson, Alan; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the first brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Parties to the convention are currently establishing inventories for developing action plans for the environmentally sound management of PBDE-containing materials. The major use of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether (c-OctaBDE) has been in casings from cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and computer monitors. Large quantities of used e-waste and electronic equipment have been exported to developing countries with Nigeria being a major importer in Africa. The casings from 382 TVs and computers imported from major world regions to Nigeria were sampled in backyards and waste dumps. The samples were screened with X-ray flourescence (XRF) for bromine and analysed by gas chromatography/ electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). A high proportion of the CRT casings (61 %) contained more than 10,000 ppm bromine from BFRs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) was the major flame retardant used in TV sets and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) for computer CRTs.The screening suggests that average PBDE levels (of c-OctaBDE + DecaBDE) in Nigerian-stockpiled CRT casings were 1.1 % for TV and 0.13 % for PC CRTs. These are above the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) limit and should be separated for RoHS compliant recycling. The Nigerian e-waste inventory of 237,000 t of CRT plastic would therefore contain approx. 594 t c-OctaBDE and 1,880 t of DecaBDE. In Nigeria, as for most developing countries, there is currently no adequate e-waste management, plastic separation or destruction capacity. The data highlight the urgent need to develop environmentally sound management for this large material flow.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers listed as Stockholm Convention POPs, other brominated flame retardants and heavy metals in e-waste polymers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, Omotayo; Babayemi, Joshua; Osibanjo, Oladele; Schlummer, Martin; Schluep, Mathias; Watson, Alan; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the first brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Parties to the convention are currently establishing inventories for developing action plans for the environmentally sound management of PBDE-containing materials. The major use of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether (c-OctaBDE) has been in casings from cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and computer monitors. Large quantities of used e-waste and electronic equipment have been exported to developing countries with Nigeria being a major importer in Africa. The casings from 382 TVs and computers imported from major world regions to Nigeria were sampled in backyards and waste dumps. The samples were screened with X-ray flourescence (XRF) for bromine and analysed by gas chromatography/ electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). A high proportion of the CRT casings (61 %) contained more than 10,000 ppm bromine from BFRs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) was the major flame retardant used in TV sets and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) for computer CRTs.The screening suggests that average PBDE levels (of c-OctaBDE + DecaBDE) in Nigerian-stockpiled CRT casings were 1.1 % for TV and 0.13 % for PC CRTs. These are above the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) limit and should be separated for RoHS compliant recycling. The Nigerian e-waste inventory of 237,000 t of CRT plastic would therefore contain approx. 594 t c-OctaBDE and 1,880 t of DecaBDE. In Nigeria, as for most developing countries, there is currently no adequate e-waste management, plastic separation or destruction capacity. The data highlight the urgent need to develop environmentally sound management for this large material flow. PMID:25062546

  11. The 'wise list'- a comprehensive concept to select, communicate and achieve adherence to recommendations of essential drugs in ambulatory care in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lars L; Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersén-Karlsson, Eva; Bergman, Ulf; Hasselström, Jan; Hensjö, Lars-Olof; Hjemdahl, Paul; Jägre, Ingrid; Julander, Margaretha; Ringertz, Bo; Schmidt, Daniel; Sjöberg, Susan; Sjöqvist, Folke; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Tryselius, Rolf; Vitols, Sigurd; von Bahr, Christer

    2011-04-01

    The aim was to present and evaluate the impact of a comprehensive strategy over 10 years to select, communicate and achieve adherence to essential drug recommendations (EDR) in ambulatory care in a metropolitan healthcare region. EDRs were issued and launched as a 'Wise List' by the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee in Stockholm. This study presents the concept by: (i) documenting the process for selecting, communicating and monitoring the impact of the 'Wise List'; (ii) analysing the variation in the number of drug substances recommended between 2000 and 2010; (iii) assessing the attitudes to the 'Wise List' among prescribers and the public; (iv) evaluating the adherence to recommendations between 2003 and 2009. The 'Wise List' consistently contained 200 drug substances for treating common diseases. The drugs were selected based on their efficacy, safety, suitability and cost-effectiveness. The 'Wise List' was known among one-third of a surveyed sample of the public in 2002 after initial marketing campaigns. All surveyed prescribers knew about the concept and 81% found the recommendations trustworthy in 2005. Adherence to recommendations increased from 69% in 1999 to 77% in 2009. In primary care, adherence increased from 83% to 87% from 2003 to 2009. The coefficient of variation (CV%) decreased from 6.1% to 3.8% for 156 healthcare centres between these years. The acceptance of the 'Wise List' in terms of trust among physicians and among the public and increased adherence may be explained by clear criteria for drug recommendations, a comprehensive communication strategy, electronic access to recommendations, continuous medical education and involvement of professional networks and patients. PMID:21414143

  12. The 'wise list'- a comprehensive concept to select, communicate and achieve adherence to recommendations of essential drugs in ambulatory care in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lars L; Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersén-Karlsson, Eva; Bergman, Ulf; Hasselström, Jan; Hensjö, Lars-Olof; Hjemdahl, Paul; Jägre, Ingrid; Julander, Margaretha; Ringertz, Bo; Schmidt, Daniel; Sjöberg, Susan; Sjöqvist, Folke; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Tryselius, Rolf; Vitols, Sigurd; von Bahr, Christer

    2011-04-01

    The aim was to present and evaluate the impact of a comprehensive strategy over 10 years to select, communicate and achieve adherence to essential drug recommendations (EDR) in ambulatory care in a metropolitan healthcare region. EDRs were issued and launched as a 'Wise List' by the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee in Stockholm. This study presents the concept by: (i) documenting the process for selecting, communicating and monitoring the impact of the 'Wise List'; (ii) analysing the variation in the number of drug substances recommended between 2000 and 2010; (iii) assessing the attitudes to the 'Wise List' among prescribers and the public; (iv) evaluating the adherence to recommendations between 2003 and 2009. The 'Wise List' consistently contained 200 drug substances for treating common diseases. The drugs were selected based on their efficacy, safety, suitability and cost-effectiveness. The 'Wise List' was known among one-third of a surveyed sample of the public in 2002 after initial marketing campaigns. All surveyed prescribers knew about the concept and 81% found the recommendations trustworthy in 2005. Adherence to recommendations increased from 69% in 1999 to 77% in 2009. In primary care, adherence increased from 83% to 87% from 2003 to 2009. The coefficient of variation (CV%) decreased from 6.1% to 3.8% for 156 healthcare centres between these years. The acceptance of the 'Wise List' in terms of trust among physicians and among the public and increased adherence may be explained by clear criteria for drug recommendations, a comprehensive communication strategy, electronic access to recommendations, continuous medical education and involvement of professional networks and patients.

  13. Anabolic androgenic steroids--use and correlates among gym users--an assessment study using questionnaires and observations at gyms in the Stockholm region.

    PubMed

    Leifman, Håkan; Rehnman, Charlotta; Sjöblom, Erika; Holgersson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to the questionnaire, 3.9% of men reported life time use of AAS, 1.4% use during the past 12 months and 0.4% AAS use during past 30 days. Not only were there similar patterns found in the two methods, i.e., similar age and gender distributions for AAS use, but analyses of concordance showed that gyms with a higher prevalence of self-reported AAS-use and supplement use (questionnaire) showed a significantly higher proportion of observer-assessed AAS users. Analyses of individual predictors showed that AAS users were almost always young men, regular weight trainers and more often users of drugs and nutritional supplements. The higher prevalence of AAS use among gym users than in the general population makes the former an appropriate target group for AAS prevention. The connection between supplements, drugs and AAS use suggests that effective AAS prevention need to focus on several risk factors for AAS use. The clear resemblance in estimates between the observation and questionnaire data strengthen the credibility of the two methods.

  14. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  16. Applied field epidemiology programme in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez Navarro, J F; Herrera, D; Sanchez Barco, C

    2001-03-01

    In 1994, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII; Carlos III Health Institute) of the Spanish Ministry of Health and the Consumer (MSC) created the Programa de Epidemiología Aplicada de Campo (PEAC; Applied Field Epidemiology Programme). The programme is managed by the Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (National Epidemiological Centre) in collaboration with the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad (National School of Health), and supported by General Direction for Health and Consumer of MSC and the Health Councils (Consejerías de Sanidad) of the autonomous regions. The PEAC runs a masters degree programme in applied field epidemiology, in which degrees are conferred by the National School of Health. As PEAC is a national programme, it forms a part of the European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) and is a member of the Network Training for Epidemiology Public Health Intervention (TEPHINET), the association of 27 regional and national programmes of the acting Intervention Epidemiology Training Programs.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  18. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  19. Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (2007–2011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/μL CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.45–0.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

  20. Epidemiology for the clinical neurologist.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M E; Ganguli, M

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is a foundation of all clinical and public health research and practice. Epidemiology serves seven important uses for the advancement of medicine and public health. It enables community diagnosis by quantifying risk factors and diseases in the community; completes the clinical picture of disease by revealing the entire distribution of disease and presenting meaningful population averages from representative samples; identifies risk factors for disease by detecting and quantifying associations between exposures and disease and evaluating causal hypotheses; computes individual risk to identify high-risk groups to whom preventive interventions can be targeted; evaluates historic trends that monitor disease over time and provide clues to etiology; delineates new syndromes and disease subtypes not previously apparent in clinical settings, helping to streamline effective disease management; and investigates the effects of health services on population health to identify effective public health interventions. The clinician with a grasp of epidemiologic principles is in a position to critically evaluate the research literature, to apply it to clinical practice, and to undertake valid clinical epidemiology research with patients in clinical settings. PMID:27637949

  1. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Jha, Sumit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  2. [Mechanobiology and the Heart].

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yoshiki

    2016-05-01

    Mechanobiology has been focusing on biological research regarding mechanisms of muscle force generation, or recently sensing and response to the force applied to the tissue or each cell. Therefore, the heart has been one of the target organs and studied extensively for a long time since late 19th century. Its force-length relationship was demonstrated as the Starling's law of the heart, which is one of the most important findings in mechanobiology. In late 20th century, excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle was demonstrated and then, molecular mechanisms are gradually elucidated including calcium homeostasis and signal transductions in various situations: under the effects of catecholamines, other vasoactive agents, or ischemia. Among them, recent findings suggest possible involvement of titin, the giant elastic protein connected with both actin and myosin, with basic mechanism of the Starling's law of the heart Pathological proliferation of the heart as hypertrophic remodeling has also been extensively studied in recent years, and its signal transduction from pressure overload and volume overload to respective morphological changes of the heart chamber are partially clarified.

  3. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  4. The Spectrum of Epidemiology Underlying Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15–20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly due to inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. Over the past three decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of CHD deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to CHD and/or ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition prior to death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low risk and known high-risk populations will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246

  5. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  6. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  7. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  8. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  9. The Emerging Epidemic of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, A. Afşin; Rich, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which currently represents approximately 50 % of heart failure (HF) cases, is common and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding the epidemiology of HFpEF has been difficult due to the challenges in HFpEF diagnosis and the heterogeneous etiologies and pathophysiologies that underlie HFpEF. Nevertheless, several high-quality epidemiology and observational registry studies of HFpEF demonstrate that an increasing prevalence of HFpEF in both the outpatient and inpatient settings, coupled with a lack of evidence-based effective treatments for HFpEF, is resulting in an emerging epidemic of HFpEF. In this review, we discuss the emerging HFpEF epidemic, focusing on: (1) reasons for the rising prevalence of HFpEF; (2) the abnormalities in cardiac structure and function that dictate the transition from risk factors to HFpEF; (3) novel HFpEF mechanisms that may underlie the increase in HFpEF prevalence; (4) prognosis of HFpEF; and (5) risk prediction in HFpEF. We conclude with 10 unanswered questions on HFpEF epidemiology that will be important areas for future investigation. PMID:24078336

  10. Robotic heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Zenati, M A

    2001-01-01

    Advances in computer and robotic technology are transforming cardiac surgery, overcoming the limitations of conventional endoscopic tools. Using minimal access through 5 millimeter ports, computer-enhanced instruments provide superhuman dexterity through tremor filtration and motion scaling, and are capable of precise manipulation in confined body cavities. Using these technologies, endoscopic beating heart coronary bypass surgery as well as complex mitral valve repairs have been performed in the last few years. However, the current world experience with robotic heart surgery is mostly anecdotal, retrospective, and noncontrolled. Results of rigorous prospective randomized studies in the United States under Food and Drug Administration approved protocols, are awaited. The use of robotic telemanipulation technology for heart surgery is restricted in the United States to patients enrolled in clinical studies in a few elite centers. Further refinement in robotic and image-guided technology for cardiac surgery may further expand the use of computer enhanced instrumentation in the near future.

  11. Syndecans in heart fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ida G; Herum, Kate M; Carlson, Cathrine C; Christensen, Geir

    2016-09-01

    Heart disease is a deadly syndrome affecting millions worldwide. It reflects an unmet clinical need, and the disease mechanisms are poorly understood. Cardiac fibrosis is central to heart disease. The four-membered family of transmembrane proteoglycans, syndecan-1 to -4, is believed to regulate fibrosis. We review the current literature concerning syndecans in cardiac fibrosis. Syndecan expression is up-regulated in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli in various forms of heart disease with fibrosis. Mice lacking syndecan-1 and -4 show reduced activation of pro-fibrotic signaling and increased cardiac rupture upon infarction indicating an important role for these molecules. Whereas the short cytoplasmic tail of syndecans regulates signaling, their extracellular part, substituted with heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, binds a plethora of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules involved in fibrosis, e.g., collagens, growth factors, cytokines, and immune cell adhesion proteins. Full-length syndecans induce pro-fibrotic signaling, increasing the expression of collagens, myofibroblast differentiation factors, ECM enzymes, growth factors, and immune cell adhesion molecules, thereby also increasing cardiac stiffness and preventing cardiac rupture. Upon pro-inflammatory stimuli, syndecan ectodomains are enzymatically released from heart cells (syndecan shedding). Shed ectodomains affect the expression of ECM molecules, promoting ECM degradation and cardiac rupture upon myocardial infarction. Blood levels of shed syndecan-1 and -4 ectodomains are associated with hospitalization, mortality, and heart remodeling in patients with heart failure. Improved understanding of syndecans and their modifying enzymes in cardiac fibrosis might contribute to the development of compounds with therapeutic potential, and enzymatically shed syndecan ectodomains might constitute a future prognostic tool for heart diseases with fibrosis. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract summarizing

  12. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Ziaei Kajbaf, Tahereh; Razavi, Maryam; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute multisystem vascular syndrome of unknown etiology that is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children of developed counties. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of KD in children residing in the southwest of Iran. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of all children with KD who had been admitted to the main children’s hospital of Ahvaz, southwest Iran, from March 2000 to March 2010. Data regarding clinical and epidemiological characteristics, management, and the outcome of disease for each patient were obtained. The patients were divided into cardiac and non-cardiac groups based on echocardiographic results. Results: In total, 104 patients with KD (66 boys and 38 girls) were enrolled in this study. The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 33.6 ± 24.2 months. Most (87.2%) cases were from urban areas. The disease occurred more frequently during winter and spring. Furthermore, 61.5% of the children had the criteria of classic KD, and 38.5% were labeled as incomplete KD. The mean ± SD of the duration of hospital stay was 6.9 ± 2.4 days. The mean time between illness and admission to the hospital was 6.47 ± 2.6 days. The most common sign was fever, followed by conjunctivitis and oral changes. In total, 20% of the patients had cardiac abnormalities. There was no significant statistical difference between the cardiac and non-cardiac groups according to age, sex, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and cessation of fever. The duration of hospital stay and the time between onset of illness and diagnosis were longer in the cardiac group. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin. Only one patient continued to have cardiac abnormalities after 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Kawasaki disease is not rare in southwest of Iran. The age, gender

  13. Changing Role of Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kittleson, Michelle M

    2016-07-01

    Heart transplantation has become standard of care for end-stage heart failure. Challenges include the limited supply of donor organs and the increased complexity of heart transplant candidates who are at higher risk for poor outcomes. Recent advances may address these challenges, including proposed changes in heart transplant allocation policy, a better understanding of the definition and management of primary graft dysfunction, and advances in the management of sensitized heart transplant candidates. Developments in these areas may result in more equitable distribution and expansion of the donor pool and improved quality of life and survival for heart transplant recipients. PMID:27371517

  14. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  15. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  16. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  17. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  18. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  19. Living with Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be. This includes advice on daily activities, work, leisure time, sex, and exercise. Your level of activity will depend on the stage of your heart failure (how severe it is). Keep all of your ... to get tests and lab work. Your doctor needs the results of these tests ...

  20. Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a…

  1. Heart Ed 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lynne E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. Risk factors and health behaviors combine over time to contribute to the disease process. College communities provide a unique environment for health promotion, risk reduction, and primary intervention. Heart health should be an integral part of college…

  2. Feedback on heart attack.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-04-13

    The Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust in London is the largest heart and lung centre in the UK. This article explores a project carried out by nurses at the trust looking at the experiences of having an acute myocardial infarction, and how patients felt about taking part in a research study. PMID:27532071

  3. Educating the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Japan's elementary and junior high schools have a formal, nationally mandated moral curriculum called Kokoro-no-kyoiku--education of the heart. Japanese educators include moral growth as an integral part of one's intellectual growth and believe that democratic societies must promote virtuous decision making. Moral education in Japan nurtures the…

  4. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Barmash and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright ©1996 - 2016 C.H.I.N. All rights reserved TX4-390-685 Original site design and HTML by Panoptic Communications

  5. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity and metabolic syndrome —interact to cause harmful physical changes to the heart. Third, diabetes raises the risk ... outlook. The good news is that many lifestyle changes help control multiple risk factors. For example, physical activity can lower your blood pressure, help control ...

  6. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  7. Feedback on heart attack.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-04-13

    The Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust in London is the largest heart and lung centre in the UK. This article explores a project carried out by nurses at the trust looking at the experiences of having an acute myocardial infarction, and how patients felt about taking part in a research study.

  8. Pete Maravich's incredible heart.

    PubMed

    Choi, J H; Kornblum, R N

    1990-07-01

    Postmortem examination of a former professional basketball player revealed an abnormal heart, most notably a single coronary artery. The literature on single coronary arteries is briefly reviewed, and the possible mechanism which caused the patient's condition is considered. This case is particularly unusual because of the patient's profession, which is so physically demanding.

  9. Be Still My Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda

    This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

  10. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    PubMed

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  11. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  12. Epidemiology of psoriasis: clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Krueger, G G; Duvic, M

    1994-06-01

    Psoriasis is a genetically inherited spectrum of skin diseases characterized by epidermal proliferation and inflammation, which are reversible. Although many have reported that psoriasis is triggered by trauma, infections, stress, drugs, etc., the epidemiology of psoriasis remains poorly understood. Linkage to human leukocyte antigen-(HLA)-Cw6 and DR7 is strong in people with early onset disease, but concordance in monozygotic twins is only 67%, emphasizing the importance of a triggering event. Other factors that have been reported to affect the course of psoriasis include upper respiratory infections, smoking, obesity, alcohol ingestion, regional enteritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. This manuscript reviews the clinical epidemiology of psoriasis and highlights some of the needs for further investigation into specific areas of the disease.

  13. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  14. Landscape epidemiology of plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Plantegenest, Manuel; Le May, Christophe; Fabre, Frédéric

    2007-10-22

    Many agricultural landscapes are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity and fragmentation. Landscape ecology focuses on the influence of habitat heterogeneity in space and time on ecological processes. Landscape epidemiology aims at applying concepts and approaches originating from landscape ecology to the study of pathogen dynamics at the landscape scale. However, despite the strong influence that the landscape properties may have on the spread of plant diseases, landscape epidemiology has still received little attention from plant pathologists. Some recent methodological and technological progress provides new and powerful tools to describe and analyse the spatial patterns of host-pathogen interactions. Here, we review some important topics in plant pathology that may benefit from a landscape perspective. These include the influence of: landscape composition on the global inoculum pressure; landscape heterogeneity on pathogen dynamics; landscape structure on pathogen dispersal; and landscape properties on the emergence of pathogens and on their evolution.

  15. Give your heart a workout

    MedlinePlus

    ... JM, Ard JD, et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. ... risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. ...

  16. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition (PDF) Obesity (PDF) Peripheral Artery Disease (PDF) ... statistics, please contact the American Heart Association National Center, Office of Science & Medicine at statistics@heart.org . Please direct all ...

  17. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  18. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  19. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Apr 19,2016 ... Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure 4 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 5 How to Eat ...

  20. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  1. About the Operation: Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Short gut syndrome Living with Devices Artificial hearts LVADS ICDs Pacemakers Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis About Organ Allocation ... because the new heart can act as an assist device if complications occur. Your physician can explain ...

  2. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with echocardiography. It is a good first-line test for a woman with symptoms and risk factors for heart disease. Echocardiography uses sound waves technology to give detailed information about the heart muscle, ...

  3. PM 2.5, soot and NO 2 indoor-outdoor relationships at homes, pre-schools and schools in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, J.; Lind, T.; Nilsson, M. A.-M.; Bellander, T.

    2010-11-01

    In developed nations people spend about 90% of their time indoors. The relationship between indoor and outdoor air pollution levels is important for the understanding of the health effects of outdoor air pollution. Although other studies describe both the outdoor and indoor atmospheric environment, few excluded a priori major indoor sources, measured the air exchange rate, included more than one micro-environment and included the presence of human activity. PM 2.5, soot, NO 2 and the air exchange rate were measured during winter and summer indoors and outdoors at 18 homes (mostly apartments) of 18 children (6-11-years-old) and also at the six schools and 10 pre-schools that the children attended. The three types of indoor environments were free of environmental tobacco smoke and gas appliances, as the aim was to asses to what extent PM 2.5, soot and NO 2 infiltrate from outdoors to indoors. The median indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 levels were 8.4 μg m -3 and 9.3 μg m -3, respectively. The median indoor levels for soot and NO 2 were 0.66 m -1 × 10 -5 and 10.0 μg m -3, respectively. The respective outdoor levels were 0.96 m -1 × 10 -5 and 12.4 μg m -3. The median indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were 0.93, 0.76 and 0.92 for PM 2.5, soot and NO 2, respectively. Their infiltration factors were influenced by the micro-environment, ventilation type and air exchange rate, with aggregated values of 0.25, 0.55 and 0.64, respectively. Indoor and outdoor NO 2 levels were strongly associated ( R2 = 0.71), followed by soot ( R2 = 0.50) and PM 2.5 ( R2 = 0.16). In Stockholm, the three major indoor environments occupied by children offer little protection against combustion-related particles and gases in the outdoor air. Outdoor PM 2.5 seems to infiltrate less, but indoor sources compensate.

  4. The "Clubs against Drugs" program in Stockholm, Sweden: two cross-sectional surveys examining drug use among staff at licensed premises

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to examine self-reported drug use among staff at licensed premises, types of drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among guests. Results are presented from two measurement points (in 2001 and 2007/08). This study was carried out within the framework of the "Clubs against Drugs" program, which is a community-based multi-component intervention targeting licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the first in 2001 and the second in 2007/08. Staff at licensed premises attending server training were asked to participate in the anonymous survey. A survey was administered in a classroom setting and consisted of four sections: 1) demographics, 2) respondents' own drug use experience, 3) respondents' attitudes towards drug use, and 4) observed drug use among guests at licensed premises. Results Data were collected from 446 staff in 2001 and 677 staff in 2007/08. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, and ecstasy. The highest rates of drug use were reported by staff in the two youngest age groups, i.e., those younger than 25 and those between the ages of 25 and 29. In 2007/08 staff reported significantly lower rates of drug use than staff in 2001. Last year drug use for the sample in 2007/08 was 19% compared to 27% for the 2001 sample. While drug-using staff compared to non drug-using staff reported more observations of drug use among guests, they were less inclined to intervene. Overall, staff reported restrictive attitudes towards drugs. Conclusions The prevalence of life-time and last year drug use among staff at licensed premises is high compared to the general population in Sweden. Lower rates of self-reported drug use among staff were reported in 2007/08. The results of this study highlight that staff at licensed premises represent an important target population in club drug prevention programs. PMID:21299852

  5. Determination of semi-volatile and particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Stockholm air with emphasis on the highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masala, Silvia; Lim, Hwanmi; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined in the gaseous phase and in various particulate matter (PM) size fractions at different locations in and outside of Stockholm, Sweden, representative of street level, urban and rural background. The focus has been on the seldom determined but highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers (DBPs) dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. PAHs with 3 rings were found to be mainly associated with the vapor phase (>90%) whereas PAHs with 5-6 rings were mostly associated with particulate matter (>92%) and the 4-ringed PAHs partitioned between the two phases. PAH abundance was determined to be in the order street level > urban background > rural background with the PM10 street level 2010 mean of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) reaching 0.24 ng/m3, well below the EU annual limit value of 1 ng/m3. In addition, higher PAH concentrations were found in the sub-micron particle fraction (PM1) as compared to the super-micron fraction (PM1-10) with the abundance in PM1 varying between 57 and 86% of the total PAHs. The B[a]P equivalent concentrations derived for DB[a,l]P and total DBPs exceeded 1-2 and 2-4 times, respectively, that of B[a]P at the four sampling sites; therefore underestimation of the cancer risk posed by PAHs in air could be made if the DBPs were not considered in risk assessment using the toxic equivalency approach, whilst the high correlation (p < 0.001) found in the relative concentrations supports the use of B[a]P as a marker substance for assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated to PAHs. However, the big difference in concentration ratios of B[a]P and the DBPs between the present study and some literature data calls for further research to evaluate the temporal and spatial invariance of the B[a]P/DBP ratios.

  6. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  7. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  8. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, C; Bejan, I; Ceck, C D

    2011-11-14

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information.

  9. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women).

  10. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  11. The role of metabolic syndrome in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Paolillo, Stefania; Costanzo, Pierluigi; Savarese, Gianluigi; Trimarco, Bruno; Bonow, Robert O

    2015-10-14

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a highly prevalent condition in patients affected by heart failure (HF); however, it is still unclear whether, in the setting of cardiac dysfunction, it represents an adverse risk factor for the occurrence of cardiac events. The epidemiologic implications of MS in HF have been studied intensely, as many of its components contribute to the incidence and severity of HF. In particular, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities represent the main components that negatively influence disease progression and evolution. Yet, other components of the MS, i.e. overweight/obesity and high blood pressure, are favourably associated with outcome in HF patients. The aim of this review was to report epidemiology and prognostic role of MS in HF and to investigate current clinical implications and future research needs. PMID:26242711

  12. Systematics and epidemiology of trichinella.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo; Darwin Murrell, K

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the systematics, ecology and epidemiology of Trichinella and trichinellosis, and the impact of recent research discoveries on the understanding of this zoonosis. The epidemiology of this zoonosis has experienced important changes over the past two decades, especially with regard to the importance of the sylvatic cycle and the sylvatic species. Outbreaks of trichinellosis due to Trichinella spiralis from domestic swine, while still frequent, increasingly are caused by other Trichinella spp. infecting hosts such as horses, dogs, wild boars, bears and walruses. The latter revelations have occurred as a result of a series of discoveries on the systematics of Trichinella spp., facilitated by new molecular tools. As a consequence, the genus is now composed of two clades, an encapsulated group (five species and three genotypes) and a non-encapsulated one (three species). This has sparked renewed investigations on the host range of these parasites and their epidemiological features. Most dramatic, perhaps, is the recognition that reptiles may also serve as hosts for certain species. This new knowledge base, in addition to having an important relevance for food safety policies and protection measures, is raising important questions on the phylogeny of Trichinella spp., the ecological characteristics of the species and their geographic histories. Answers to these questions may have great value for the understanding of the evolutionary biology for other parasitic helminths, and may increase the value of this genus as models for research on parasitism in general. PMID:17134656

  13. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  14. Epidemiological studies in psychosomatic medicine.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, M R

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiological triad of host, agent and environment used conceptually in infectious disease may serve as a model for psychosomatic disorders, despite the involvement of many more variables. There are major problems with diagnosis and measurement, however, and the term "psychosomatic" has several meanings. The two main senses are "specific" psychosomatic disorders and an ecological view of illness. The association between psychiatric and physical disorder has been examined in a variety of settings and the findings have suggested that there is a positive relationship. Despite considerable methodological and sampling difficulties in epidemiological research into psychosomatic illness, recent efforts have been made to overcome these. The results of ecological studies appear to be more consistent that those dealing with "specific" psychosomatic disorders and suggest that man has a general psychophysical propensity to disease. Although physical and mental illness do seem to be intimately linked, the reasons for "vulnerability" to illness and "clustering" of illness are obscure. The clarification of these areas appears to be the main task ahead for epidemiology in the field of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:773850

  15. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  16. Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Hector, Susanne . E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof.

    2007-01-01

    The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

  17. HEART OF MYTH – HEART OF SCIENCE Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history and meanings of the heart and its diseases as aspects of the histories of science and emotion. Analyzing the twofold meanings of the heart as both bodily object and cultural symbol, it explores the reasons for the apparent conflict in meanings of the heart of science and the heart of emotion in Western medical culture since the 19th century. In Part I, a case study of the writer, economist, and philosopher Harriet Martineau is used to demonstrate and trace that conflict, while Part II highlights the manifold meanings of the heart both in the past and in the present. PMID:26167117

  18. Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Aug 24,2016 An important part of ... content was last reviewed on 04/16/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  19. Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Mar 25,2016 Patients with ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  20. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...