Science.gov

Sample records for stone-webster reference pwr

  1. Minority shareholder claims foul at Stone & Webster

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.

    1994-05-09

    An activist minority shareholder is trying to shake up the management of one of the industry`s oldest firms, New York City-based engineering-constructor Stone & Webster Inc., The shareholder has filed a lawsuit against the 105-year-old firm, claiming that it is understanding losses from construction activities and is using the voting rights of employee-owned stock to perpetuate current management to the detriment of all shareholders.

  2. 75 FR 57532 - In the Matter of: Stone & Webster Construction, Inc.; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... to working in the nuclear industry for workers coming in without nuclear experience; New Hire... employees in its Nuclear Services (i.e., construction) and Nuclear Maintenance Divisions working at nuclear... (i.e., construction) and Nuclear Maintenance Divisions working at nuclear facilities addressing: (a...

  3. Physics of hydride fueled PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganda, Francesco

    The first part of the work presents the neutronic results of a detailed and comprehensive study of the feasibility of using hydride fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR). The primary hydride fuel examined is U-ZrH1.6 having 45w/o uranium: two acceptable design approaches were identified: (1) use of erbium as a burnable poison; (2) replacement of a fraction of the ZrH1.6 by thorium hydride along with addition of some IFBA. The replacement of 25 v/o of ZrH 1.6 by ThH2 along with use of IFBA was identified as the preferred design approach as it gives a slight cycle length gain whereas use of erbium burnable poison results in a cycle length penalty. The feasibility of a single recycling plutonium in PWR in the form of U-PuH2-ZrH1.6 has also been assessed. This fuel was found superior to MOX in terms of the TRU fractional transmutation---53% for U-PuH2-ZrH1.6 versus 29% for MOX---and proliferation resistance. A thorough investigation of physics characteristics of hydride fuels has been performed to understand the reasons of the trends in the reactivity coefficients. The second part of this work assessed the feasibility of multi-recycling plutonium in PWR using hydride fuel. It was found that the fertile-free hydride fuel PuH2-ZrH1.6, enables multi-recycling of Pu in PWR an unlimited number of times. This unique feature of hydride fuels is due to the incorporation of a significant fraction of the hydrogen moderator in the fuel, thereby mitigating the effect of spectrum hardening due to coolant voiding accidents. An equivalent oxide fuel PuO2-ZrO2 was investigated as well and found to enable up to 10 recycles. The feasibility of recycling Pu and all the TRU using hydride fuels were investigated as well. It was found that hydride fuels allow recycling of Pu+Np at least 6 times. If it was desired to recycle all the TRU in PWR using hydrides, the number of possible recycles is limited to 3; the limit is imposed by positive large void reactivity feedback.

  4. Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precisionmore » and a high efficiency. (authors)« less

  5. EMERALD REV.1. PWR Accident Activity Release

    SciTech Connect

    Brunot, W.K.; Fray, R.R.; Gillespie, S.G.

    1975-10-01

    The EMERALD program is designed for the calculation of radiation releases and exposures resulting from abnormal operation of a large pressurized water reactor (PWR). The approach used in EMERALD is similar to an analog simulation of a real system. Each component or volume in the plant which contains a radioactive material is represented by a subroutine which keeps track of the production, transfer, decay and absorption of radioactivity in that volume. During the course of the analysis of an accident, activity is transferred from subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred from place to place inmore » the plant. For example, in the calculation of the doses resulting from a loss-of-coolant accident the program first calculates the activity built up in the fuel before the accident, then releases some of this activity to the containment volume. Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere. The rates of transfer, leakage, production, cleanup, decay, and release are read in as input to the program. Subroutines are also included which calculate the on-site and off-site radiation exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of isotopes. The program contains a library of physical data for the twenty-five isotopes of most interest in licensing calculations, and other isotopes can be added or substituted. Because of the flexible nature of the simulation approach, the EMERALD program can be used for most calculations involving the production and release of radioactive materials during abnormal operation of a PWR. These include design, operational, and licensing studies.« less

  6. Soilcrust References

    Science.gov Websites

    Soil Crust Home Crust 101 Advanced Gallery References CCERS Site Links Updated: April 24, 2006 References The complete biological soil crust reference list is available in three formats: HTML Version

  7. Optimization of burnable poison design for Pu incineration in fully fertile free PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.; Galperin, A.

    2006-07-01

    The design challenges of the fertile-free based fuel (FFF) can be addressed by careful and elaborate use of burnable poisons (BP). Practical fully FFF core design for PWR reactor has been reported in the past [1]. However, the burnable poison option used in the design resulted in significant end of cycle reactivity penalty due to incomplete BP depletion. Consequently, excessive Pu loading were required to maintain the target fuel cycle length, which in turn decreased the Pu burning efficiency. A systematic evaluation of commercially available BP materials in all configurations currently used in PWRs is the main objective of thismore » work. The BP materials considered are Boron, Gd, Er, and Hf. The BP geometries were based on Wet Annular Burnable Absorber (WABA), Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA), and Homogeneous poison/fuel mixtures. Several most promising combinations of BP designs were selected for the full core 3D simulation. All major core performance parameters for the analyzed cases are very close to those of a standard PWR with conventional UO{sub 2} fuel including possibility of reactivity control, power peaking factors, and cycle length. The MTC of all FFF cores was found at the full power conditions at all times and very close to that of the UO{sub 2} core. The Doppler coefficient of the FFF cores is also negative but somewhat lower in magnitude compared to UO{sub 2} core. The soluble boron worth of the FFF cores was calculated to be lower than that of the UO{sub 2} core by about a factor of two, which still allows the core reactivity control with acceptable soluble boron concentrations. The main conclusion of this work is that judicial application of burnable poisons for fertile free fuel has a potential to produce a core design with performance characteristics close to those of the reference PWR core with conventional UO{sub 2} fuel. (authors)« less

  8. [Reference citation].

    PubMed

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  9. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  10. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  11. Report on the PWR-radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, representatives from several utilities with operational Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) formed the PWR-Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee. The mission of the Committee is to facilitate open communications between member utilities relative to radiation protection and ALARA issues such that cost effective dose reduction and radiation protection measures may be instituted. While industry deregulation appears inevitable and inter-utility competition is on the rise, Committee members are fully committed to sharing both positive and negative experiences for the benefit of the health and safety of the radiation worker. Committee meetings provide current operational experiences through members providing Plant status reports, and informationmore » relative to programmatic improvements through member presentations and topic specific workshops. The most recent Committee workshop was facilitated to provide members with defined experiences that provide cost effective ALARA performance.« less

  12. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-06

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/kmore » and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.« less

  13. Poroelastic references

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  14. ACHILLES: Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    1. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA LIBRARY ACHILLES -Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase. 2. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAMS N/A 3. CONTRIBUTOR AEA Technology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester DT2 8DH United Kingdom through the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. 4. DESCRIPTION OF TEST FACILITY The most important features of the Achilles rig were the shroud vessel, which contained the test section, and the downcomer. These may be thought of as representing the core barrel and the annular downcomer in the reactor pressure vessel. The test section comprises a cluster of 69more » rods in a square array within a circular shroud vessel. The rod diameter and pitch (9.5 mm and 12.6 mm) were typical of PWR dimensions. The internal diameter of the shroud vessel was 128 mm. Each rod was electrically heated over a length of 3.66 m, which is typical of the nuclear heated length in a PWR fuel rod, and each contained 6 internal thermocouples. These were arranged in one of 8 groupings which concentrated the thermocouples in different axial zones. The spacer grids were at prototypic PWR locations. Each grid had two thermocouples attached to its trailing edge at radial locations. The axial power profile along the rods was an 11 step approximation to a "chopped cosine". The shroud vessel had 5 heating zones whose power could be independently controlled. 5. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS The Achilles experiments investigated the heat transfer in the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor during the re-flood phase of a postulated large break loss of coolant accident. The results provided data to validate codes and to improve modeling. Different types of experiments were carried out which included single phase cooling, re-flood under low flow conditions, level swell and re-flood under high flow conditions. Three series of experiments were performed. The first and the third used the same test section but the second used another test section

  15. VERA Core Simulator Methodology for PWR Cycle Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kochunas, Brendan; Collins, Benjamin S; Jabaay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed and implemented in MPACT for performing high-fidelity pressurized water reactor (PWR) multi-cycle core physics calculations. MPACT is being developed primarily for application within the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) as one of the main components of the VERA Core Simulator, the others being COBRA-TF and ORIGEN. The methods summarized in this paper include a methodology for performing resonance self-shielding and computing macroscopic cross sections, 2-D/1-D transport, nuclide depletion, thermal-hydraulic feedback, and other supporting methods. These methods represent a minimal set needed to simulate high-fidelity models of a realistic nuclearmore » reactor. Results demonstrating this are presented from the simulation of a realistic model of the first cycle of Watts Bar Unit 1. The simulation, which approximates the cycle operation, is observed to be within 50 ppm boron (ppmB) reactivity for all simulated points in the cycle and approximately 15 ppmB for a consistent statepoint. The verification and validation of the PWR cycle depletion capability in MPACT is the focus of two companion papers.« less

  16. Review of PWR fuel rod waterside corrosion behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Garzarolli, F.; Jorde, D.; Manzel, R.

    Waterside corrosion of Zircaloy has generally not been a problem under normal PWR operating conditions, although some instances of accelerated corrosion have been reported. However, an incentive exists to extend the average fuel rod discharge burnups to about 50,000 MWd/MTU. To minimize corrosion at these extended burnups, the factors which influence Zircaloy corrosion need to be better understood. A data base of Zircaloy corrosion behavior under PWR operating conditions has been established. The data are compiled previously published reports as well as from new Kraftwerk Union examinations. A non-destructive eddy-current technique is used to measure the oxide layer thickness onmore » fuel rods. Comparisons of measuremnts made using this eddy-current technique with those made by usual metallographic methods indicate good agreement. The data were evaluated by defining a fitting factor F which describes the increase in corrosion rate observed in-reactor over that observed from measurements of ex-reactor corrosion coupons.« less

  17. Modeling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    Over the past two decades steam generator corrosion damage has been a major cost impact to PWR owners. Crevices and occluded regions create thermal-hydraulic conditions where aggressive impurities can become highly concentrated, promoting localized corrosion of the tubing and support structure materials. The type of corrosion varies depending on the local conditions, with stress corrosion cracking being the phenomenon of most current concern. A major goal of the EPRI research in this area has been to develop models of the concentration process and resulting crevice chemistry conditions. These models may then be used to predict crevice chemistry based on knowledgemore » of bulk chemistry, thereby allowing the operator to control corrosion damage. Rigorous deterministic models have not yet been developed; however, empirical approaches have shown promise and are reflected in current versions of the industry-developed secondary water chemistry guidelines.« less

  18. Estimating probable flaw distributions in PWR steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating the number and size distributions of flaws of various types in PWR steam generator tubes. These estimates are needed when calculating the probable primary to secondary leakage through steam generator tubes under postulated accidents such as severe core accidents and steam line breaks. The paper describes methods for two types of predictions: (1) the numbers of tubes with detectable flaws of various types as a function of time, and (2) the distributions in size of these flaws. Results are provided for hypothetical severely affected, moderately affected and lightly affected units. Discussion is provided regardingmore » uncertainties and assumptions in the data and analyses.« less

  19. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning, Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, S.

    1978-07-01

    United Nuclear Industries (UNI) entered into a subcontract with Consolidated Edison Company of New York (Con Ed) on August 8, 1977, for the purpose of developing methods to chemically clean the secondary side tube to tube support crevices of the steam generators of Indian Point Nos. 1 and 2 PWR plants. This document represents the first reporting on activities performed for Phase I of this effort. Specifically, this report contains the results of a literature search performed by UNI for the purpose of determining state-of-the-art chemical solvents and methods for decontaminating nuclear reactor steam generators. The results of the searchmore » sought to accomplish two objectives: (1) identify solvents beyond those proposed at present by UNI and Con Ed for the test program, and (2) confirm the appropriateness of solvents and methods of decontamination currently in use by UNI.« less

  20. SCC Initiation Behavior of Alloy 182 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Zhai, Ziqing; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    SCC initiation behavior of 15% cold forged specimens cut from four different alloy 182 weldments was investigated in 360°C simulated PWR primary water under constant load at the yield stress using direct current potential drop to perform in-situ monitoring of SCC initiation time. Within each weldment, one or more specimens underwent SCC initiation within 24 hours of reaching full load while some specimens had much longer initiation times, in a few cases exceeding 2500 hours. Detailed examinations were conducted on these specimens with a focus on different microstructural features such as preexisting defects, grain orientation and second phases, highlighting anmore » important role of microstructure in crack initiation of alloy 182.« less

  1. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  2. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; ...

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  3. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  4. Demonstration of optimum fuel-to-moderator ratio in a PWR unit fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Feltus, M.A.; Pozsgai, C.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear engineering students at The Pennsylvania State University develop scaled-down [[approx]350 MW(thermal)] pressurized water reactors (PWRs) using actual plants as references. The design criteria include maintaining the clad temperature below 2200[degree]F, fuel temperature below melting point, sufficient departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) margin, a beginning-of-life boron concentration that yields a negative moderator temperature coefficient, an adequate cycle power production (330 effective full-power days), and a batch loading scheme that is economical. The design project allows for many degrees of freedom (e.g., assembly number, pitch and height and batch enrichments) so that each student's result is unique. The iterative naturemore » of the design process is stressed in the course. The LEOPARD code is used for the unit cell depletion, critical boron, and equilibrium xenon calculations. Radial two-group diffusion equations are solved with the TWIDDLE-DEE code. The steady-state ZEBRA thermal-hydraulics program is used for calculating DNBR. The unit fuel cell pin radius and pitch (fuel-to-moerator ratio) for the scaled-down design, however, was set equal to the already optimized ratio for the reference PWR. This paper describes an honors project that shows how the optimum fuel-to-moderator ratio is found for a unit fuel cell shown in terms of neutron economics. This exercise illustrates the impact of fuel-to-moderator variations on fuel utilization factor and the effect of assuming space and energy separability.« less

  5. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Lutz, R. J.

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure thatmore » critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  6. The increase in fatigue crack growth rates observed for Zircaloy-4 in a PWR environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockeram, B. V.; Kammenzind, B. F.

    2018-02-01

    Cyclic stresses produced during the operation of nuclear reactors can result in the extension of cracks by processes of fatigue. Although fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) data for Zircaloy-4 in air are available, little testing has been performed in a PWR primary water environment. Test programs have been performed by Gee et al., in 1989 and Picker and Pickles in 1984 by the UK Atomic Energy Authority, and by Wisner et al., in 1994, that have shown an enhancement in FCGR for Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 in high-temperature water. In this work, FCGR testing is performed on Zircaloy-4 in a PWR environment in the hydrided and non-hydrided condition over a range of stress-intensity. Measurements of crack extension are performed using a direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The cyclic rate in the PWR primary water environment is varied between 1 cycle per minute to 0.1 cycle per minute. Faster FCGR rates are observed in water in comparison to FCGR testing performed in air for the hydrided material. Hydrided and non-hydrided materials had similar FCGR values in air, but the non-hydrided material exhibited much lower rates of FCGR in a PWR primary water environment than for hydrided material. Hydrides are shown to exhibit an increased tendency for cracking or decohesion in a PWR primary water environment that results in an enhancement in FCGR values. The FCGR in the PWR primary water only increased slightly with decreasing cycle frequency in the range of 1 cycle per minute to 0.1 cycle per minute. Comparisons between the FCGR in water and air show the enhancement from the PWR environment is affected by the applied stress intensity.

  7. Corrosion fatigue characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Sluys, W.A.

    1982-12-01

    During routine operation, light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels are subjected to a variety of transients that result in time-varying stresses. Consequently, fatigue and environmentally-assisted fatigue are mechanisms of growth relevant to flaws in these pressure vessels. To provide a better understanding of the resistance of nuclear pressure vessel steels to these flaw growth processes, fracture mechanics data were generated on the rates of fatigue crack growth for SA508-2 and SA533B-1 steels in both room temperature air and 288/sup 0/C water. Areas investigated were: the relationship of crack growth rate to prior loading history; the effects of loading frequency andmore » R ratio (K/sub min//K/sub max/) on crack growth rate as a function of the stress intensity factor range (..delta..K); transient aspects of the fatigue crack growth behavior; the effect of material chemistry (sulphur content) on fatigue crack; and growth rate; water chemistry effects (high-purity water versus simulated pressurized water reactotr (PWR) primary coolant).« less

  8. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  9. Bias estimates used in lieu of validation of fission products and minor actinides in MCNP K eff calculations for PWR burnup credit casks

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Don E.; Marshall, William J.; Wagner, John C.

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation recently issued Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8, Revision 3. This ISG provides guidance for burnup credit (BUC) analyses supporting transport and storage of PWR pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in casks. Revision 3 includes guidance for addressing validation of criticality (k eff) calculations crediting the presence of a limited set of fission products and minor actinides (FP&MA). Based on previous work documented in NUREG/CR-7109, recommendation 4 of ISG-8, Rev. 3, includes a recommendation to use 1.5 or 3% of the FP&MA worth to conservatively cover the biasmore » due to the specified FP&MAs. This bias is supplementary to the bias and bias uncertainty resulting from validation of k eff calculations for the major actinides in SNF and does not address extension to actinides and fission products beyond those identified herein. The work described in this report involves comparison of FP&MA worths calculated using SCALE and MCNP with ENDF/B-V, -VI, and -VII based nuclear data and supports use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias when either SCALE or MCNP codes are used for criticality calculations, provided the other conditions of the recommendation 4 are met. The method used in this report may also be applied to demonstrate the applicability of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias to other codes using ENDF/B V, VI or VII based nuclear data. The method involves use of the applicant s computational method to generate FP&MA worths for a reference SNF cask model using specified spent fuel compositions. The applicant s FP&MA worths are then compared to reference values provided in this report. The applicants FP&MA worths should not exceed the reference results by more than 1.5% of the reference FP&MA worths.« less

  10. Reflux cooling experiments on the NCSU scaled PWR facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doster, J.M.; Giavedoni, E.

    1993-01-01

    Under loss of forced circulation, coupled with the loss or reduction in primary side coolant inventory, horizontal stratified flows can develop in the hot and cold legs of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Vapor produced in the reactor vessel is transported through the hot leg to the steam generator tubes where it condenses and flows back to the reactor vessel. Within the steam generator tubes, the flow regimes may range from countercurrent annular flow to single-phase convection. As a result, a number of heat transfer mechanisms are possible, depending on the loop configuration, total heat transfer rate, and the steam flowmore » rate within the tubes. These include (but are not limited to) two-phase natural circulation, where the condensate flows concurrent to the vapor stream and is transported to the cold leg so that the entire reactor coolant loop is active, and reflux cooling, where the condensate flows back down the interior of the coolant tubes countercurrent to the vapor stream and is returned to the reactor vessel through the hot leg. While operating in the reflux cooling mode, the cold leg can effectively be inactive. Heat transfer can be further influenced by noncondensables in the vapor stream, which accumulate within the upper regions of the steam generator tube bundle. In addition to reducing the steam generator's effective heat transfer area, under these conditions operation under natural circulation may not be possible, and reflux cooling may be the only viable heat transfer mechanism. The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility in the nuclear engineering department at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU) is being used to study the effectiveness of two-phase natural circulation and reflux cooling under conditions associated with loss of forced circulation, midloop coolant levels, and noncondensables in the primary coolant system.« less

  11. Assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Putney, J.M.; Preece, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 is presented. The assessment is based on a review of code assessment calculations performed in the UK and elsewhere, detailed calculations against a series of commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR and analytical investigations of the phenomena involved in normal and abnormal SG operation. A number of modelling deficiencies are identified and their implications for PWR safety analysis are discussed -- including methods for compensating for the deficiencies through changes to the input deck. Consideration is also given as to whether the deficiencies willmore » still be present in the successor code RELAP5/MOD3.« less

  12. Coupled Neutronics Thermal-Hydraulic Solution of a Full-Core PWR Using VERA-CS

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T; Palmtag, Scott; Davidson, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is developing a core simulator called VERA-CS to model operating PWR reactors with high resolution. This paper describes how the development of VERA-CS is being driven by a set of progression benchmark problems that specify the delivery of useful capability in discrete steps. As part of this development, this paper will describe the current capability of VERA-CS to perform a multiphysics simulation of an operating PWR at Hot Full Power (HFP) conditions using a set of existing computer codes coupled together in a novel method. Results for several single-assembly casesmore » are shown that demonstrate coupling for different boron concentrations and power levels. Finally, high-resolution results are shown for a full-core PWR reactor modeled in quarter-symmetry.« less

  13. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  14. Development of ECT/UT inspection system for bottom mounted instrumentation nozzle of PWR reactor vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Fukui, S.; Iwahashi, Y.

    1994-12-31

    The development of inspection technique and tool for Bottom Mounted Instrument (BMI) nozzle of PWR plant was performed for countermeasure of leakage accident at incore instrument nozzle of Hamaoka-1 (BWR). MHI achieved the following development, of which object was PWR Plant R/V: (1) development of ECT/UT Multi-sensored Probe; (2) development of Inspection System (3) development of Data Processing System. The Inspection System had been functionally tested using full scale mock-up. As the result of the functional test, this system was confirmed to be very effective, and assumed to be hopeful for the actual application on site.

  15. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  16. Putting "Reference" in the Publications Reference File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Steven D.

    1980-01-01

    Argues for more widespread utilization of the U.S. Government Printing Office's Publications Reference File, a reference tool in microfiche format used to answer questions about current U.S. government documents and their availability. Ways to accomplish this task are suggested. (Author/JD)

  17. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  18. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  19. Neutron Collar Evolution and Fresh PWR Assembly Measurements with a New Fast Neutron Passive Collar

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard Olsen; Geist, William H.; Root, Margaret A.

    The passive neutron collar approach removes the effect of poison rods when using a 1mm Gd liner. This project sets out to solve the following challenges: BWR fuel assemblies have less mass and less neutron multiplication than PWR; and effective removal of cosmic ray spallation neutron bursts needed via QC tests.

  20. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with anmore » average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)« less

  1. Guide to listing references.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of listing references. It introduces the reference of printed sources, CD-ROMs, websites, unpublished papers and program manuals, tapes, or other documentation for models. Meanwhile, it describes some examples to use Chicago Manual o...

  2. The Test of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of reference services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library reference services. (RAA)

  3. Plasmid partition system of the P1par family from the pWR100 virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Sergueev, Kirill; Dabrazhynetskaya, Alena; Austin, Stuart

    2005-05-01

    P1par family members promote the active segregation of a variety of plasmids and plasmid prophages in gram-negative bacteria. Each has genes for ParA and ParB proteins, followed by a parS partition site. The large virulence plasmid pWR100 of Shigella flexneri contains a new P1par family member: pWR100par. Although typical parA and parB genes are present, the putative pWR100parS site is atypical in sequence and organization. However, pWR100parS promoted accurate plasmid partition in Escherichia coli when the pWR100 Par proteins were supplied. Unique BoxB hexamer motifs within parS define species specificities among previously described family members. Although substantially different from P1parS from the P1 plasmid prophage of E. coli, pWR100parS has the same BoxB sequence. As predicted, the species specificity of the two types proved identical. They also shared partition-mediated incompatibility, consistent with the proposed mechanistic link between incompatibility and species specificity. Among several informative sequence differences between pWR100parS and P1parS is the presence of a 21-bp insert at the center of the pWR100parS site. Deletion of this insert left much of the parS activity intact. Tolerance of central inserts with integral numbers of helical DNA turns reflects the critical topology of these sites, which are bent by binding the host IHF protein.

  4. Cyclic and SCC Behavior of Alloy 690 HAZ in a PWR Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandreanu, Bogdan; Chen, Yiren; Natesan, Ken; Shack, Bill

    The objective of this work is to determine the cyclic and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack growth rates (CGRs) in a simulated PWR water environment for Alloy 690 heat affected zone (HAZ). In order to meet the objective, an Alloy 152 J-weld was produced on a piece of Alloy 690 tubing, and the test specimens were aligned with the HAZ. The environmental enhancement of cyclic CGRs for Alloy 690 HAZ was comparable to that measured for the same alloy in the as-received condition. The two Alloy 690 HAZ samples tested exhibited maximum SCC CGR rates of 10-11 m/s in the simulated PWR environment at 320°C, however, on average, these rates are similar or only slightly higher than those for the as-received alloy.

  5. MC21 analysis of the MIT PWR benchmark: Hot zero power results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Iii, D. J.; Aviles, B. N.; Herman, B. R.

    2013-07-01

    MC21 Monte Carlo results have been compared with hot zero power measurements from an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR), as specified in a new full core PWR performance benchmark from the MIT Computational Reactor Physics Group. Included in the comparisons are axially integrated full core detector measurements, axial detector profiles, control rod bank worths, and temperature coefficients. Power depressions from grid spacers are seen clearly in the MC21 results. Application of Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration within MC21 has been accomplished, resulting in a significant reduction of inactive batches necessary to converge the fission source. CMFD acceleration has alsomore » been shown to work seamlessly with the Uniform Fission Site (UFS) variance reduction method. (authors)« less

  6. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul, E-mail: nsubkhi@students.itb.ac.id; Physics Dept., Faculty of Science and Technology, State Islamic University of Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung Jalan A.H Nasution 105 Bandung; Suud, Zaki, E-mail: szaki@fi.itb.ac.id

    2015-09-30

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa, 6% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa and 7% {sup 233}U & 6% {supmore » 231}Pa give low excess reactivity.« less

  7. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa, 6% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa and 7% 233U & 6% 231Pa give low excess reactivity.

  8. Design, Construction and Testing of an In-Pile Loop for PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    computer modeling remains at best semiempirical (C-i), this large variation in scaling factor makes extrapolation of data impossible. The DIDO Water...in a full scale PWR are not practical. The reactor plant is not controlled to tolerances necessary for research, and utilities are reluctant to vary...MIT Reactor Safeguards Committee, in revision 1 to the PCCL Safety Evaluation Report (SER), for final approval to begin in-pile testing and

  9. MELCOR model for an experimental 17x17 spent fuel PWR assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoni, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    A MELCOR model has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack cell undergoing severe accident conditions. To the extent possible, the MELCOR model reflects the actual geometry, materials, and masses present in the experimental arrangement for the Sandia Fuel Project (SFP). The report presents an overview of the SFP experimental arrangement, the MELCOR model specifications, demonstration calculation results, and the input model listing.

  10. Development a computer codes to couple PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntjoro, S.; Budi Setiawan, M.; Nursinta Adi, W.; Deswandri; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Radionuclide dispersion analysis is part of an important reactor safety analysis. From the analysis it can be obtained the amount of doses received by radiation workers and communities around nuclear reactor. The radionuclide dispersion analysis under normal operating conditions is carried out using the PC-CREAM code, and it requires input data such as source term and population distribution. Input data is derived from the output of another program that is PWR-GALE and written Population Distribution data in certain format. Compiling inputs for PC-CREAM programs manually requires high accuracy, as it involves large amounts of data in certain formats and often errors in compiling inputs manually. To minimize errors in input generation, than it is make coupling program for PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM programs and a program for writing population distribution according to the PC-CREAM input format. This work was conducted to create the coupling programming between PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input and programming to written population data in the required formats. Programming is done by using Python programming language which has advantages of multiplatform, object-oriented and interactive. The result of this work is software for coupling data of source term and written population distribution data. So that input to PC-CREAM program can be done easily and avoid formatting errors. Programming sourceterm coupling program PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM is completed, so that the creation of PC-CREAM inputs in souceterm and distribution data can be done easily and according to the desired format.

  11. Primary water chemistry improvement for radiation exposure reduction at Japanese PWR Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, Eiichi

    1995-03-01

    Radiation exposure during the refueling outages at Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Plants has been gradually decreased through continuous efforts keeping the radiation dose rates at relatively low level. The improvement of primary water chemistry in respect to reduction of the radiation sources appears as one of the most important contributions to the achieved results and can be classified by the plant operation conditions as follows

  12. Waterside corrosion of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods in a PWR environment

    SciTech Connect

    Garzarolli, F.; Jorde, D.; Manzel, R.

    A data base of Zircaloy corrosion behavior under PWR operating conditions has been established from previously published reports as well as from new Kraftwerk Union (KWU) fuel examinations. The data show that the reactor environment increases the corrosion. ZrO/sub 2/ film thermal conductivity is another major factor that influences corrosion behavior. It was inferred from KWU film thickness data that the oxide film thermal conductivity may decrease once circumferential cracks develop in the layer. 57 refs.

  13. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  14. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  15. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  16. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  17. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  18. Reference Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

    The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

  19. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  20. Multi level optimization of burnable poison utilization for advanced PWR fuel management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Serkan

    The objective of this study was to develop an unique methodology and a practical tool for designing burnable poison (BP) pattern for a given PWR core. Two techniques were studied in developing this tool. First, the deterministic technique called Modified Power Shape Forced Diffusion (MPSFD) method followed by a fine tuning algorithm, based on some heuristic rules, was developed to achieve this goal. Second, an efficient and a practical genetic algorithm (GA) tool was developed and applied successfully to Burnable Poisons (BPs) placement optimization problem for a reference Three Mile Island-1 (TMI-1) core. This thesis presents the step by step progress in developing such a tool. The developed deterministic method appeared to perform as expected. The GA technique produced excellent BP designs. It was discovered that the Beginning of Cycle (BOC) Kinf of a BP fuel assembly (FA) design is a good filter to eliminate invalid BP designs created during the optimization process. By eliminating all BP designs having BOC Kinf above a set limit, the computational time was greatly reduced since the evaluation process with reactor physics calculations for an invalid solution is canceled. Moreover, the GA was applied to develop the BP loading pattern to minimize the total Gadolinium (Gd) amount in the core together with the residual binding at End-of-Cycle (EOC) and to keep the maximum peak pin power during core depletion and Soluble boron concentration at BOC both less than their limit values. The number of UO2/Gd2O3 pins and Gd 2O3 concentrations for each fresh fuel location in the core are the decision variables and the total amount of the Gd in the core and maximum peak pin power during core depletion are in the fitness functions. The use of different fitness function definition and forcing the solution movement towards to desired region in the solution space accelerated the GA runs. Special emphasize is given to minimizing the residual binding to increase core lifetime as

  1. Application of MELCOR Code to a French PWR 900 MWe Severe Accident Sequence and Evaluation of Models Performance Focusing on In-Vessel Thermal Hydraulic Results

    SciTech Connect

    De Rosa, Felice

    2006-07-01

    In the ambit of the Severe Accident Network of Excellence Project (SARNET), funded by the European Union, 6. FISA (Fission Safety) Programme, one of the main tasks is the development and validation of the European Accident Source Term Evaluation Code (ASTEC Code). One of the reference codes used to compare ASTEC results, coming from experimental and Reactor Plant applications, is MELCOR. ENEA is a SARNET member and also an ASTEC and MELCOR user. During the first 18 months of this project, we performed a series of MELCOR and ASTEC calculations referring to a French PWR 900 MWe and to themore » accident sequence of 'Loss of Steam Generator (SG) Feedwater' (known as H2 sequence in the French classification). H2 is an accident sequence substantially equivalent to a Station Blackout scenario, like a TMLB accident, with the only difference that in H2 sequence the scram is forced to occur with a delay of 28 seconds. The main events during the accident sequence are a loss of normal and auxiliary SG feedwater (0 s), followed by a scram when the water level in SG is equal or less than 0.7 m (after 28 seconds). There is also a main coolant pumps trip when {delta}Tsat < 10 deg. C, a total opening of the three relief valves when Tric (core maximal outlet temperature) is above 603 K (330 deg. C) and accumulators isolation when primary pressure goes below 1.5 MPa (15 bar). Among many other points, it is worth noting that this was the first time that a MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck was available for a French PWR 900. The main ENEA effort in this period was devoted to prepare the MELCOR input deck using the code version v.1.8.5 (build QZ Oct 2000 with the latest patch 185003 Oct 2001). The input deck, completely new, was prepared taking into account structure, data and same conditions as those found inside ASTEC input decks. The main goal of the work presented in this paper is to put in evidence where and when MELCOR provides good enough results and why, in some cases mainly referring

  2. Civil engineering reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    The civil engineering reference guide contains the following: Structural theory. Structural steel design. Concrete design and construction. Wood design and construction. Bridge engineering. Geotechnical engineering. Water engineering. Environmental engineering. Surveying.

  3. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  4. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors that impact cholesterol levels include a person's gender, age, and health problems such as diabetes and ... Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA) Turns 10 All Bulletins Features What ...

  6. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  7. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  8. USGS reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of measurements are made on the chemical composition of items that affect us on a daily basis. Determining the accuracy of these measurements is based on the analysis of appropriate reference materials whose composition was previously determined through rigorous testing. Today, reference materials help us evaluate the composition of the food we eat, medicine we use, soil we grow our crops in, and hundreds of other products that affect our everyday lives.

  9. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  10. PWR Facility Dose Modeling Using MCNP5 and the CADIS/ADVANTG Variance-Reduction Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, Edward D; Peplow, Douglas E.; Wagner, John C

    2007-09-01

    The feasibility of modeling a pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) facility and calculating dose rates at all locations within the containment and adjoining structures using MCNP5 with mesh tallies is presented. Calculations of dose rates resulting from neutron and photon sources from the reactor (operating and shut down for various periods) and the spent fuel pool, as well as for the photon source from the primary coolant loop, were all of interest. Identification of the PWR facility, development of the MCNP-based model and automation of the run process, calculation of the various sources, and development of methods for visually examining mesh tally filesmore » and extracting dose rates were all a significant part of the project. Advanced variance reduction, which was required because of the size of the model and the large amount of shielding, was performed via the CADIS/ADVANTG approach. This methodology uses an automatically generated three-dimensional discrete ordinates model to calculate adjoint fluxes from which MCNP weight windows and source bias parameters are generated. Investigative calculations were performed using a simple block model and a simplified full-scale model of the PWR containment, in which the adjoint source was placed in various regions. In general, it was shown that placement of the adjoint source on the periphery of the model provided adequate results for regions reasonably close to the source (e.g., within the containment structure for the reactor source). A modification to the CADIS/ADVANTG methodology was also studied in which a global adjoint source is weighted by the reciprocal of the dose response calculated by an earlier forward discrete ordinates calculation. This method showed improved results over those using the standard CADIS/ADVANTG approach, and its further investigation is recommended for future efforts.« less

  11. Effects of Thermo-Mechanical Treatments on Deformation Behavior and IGSCC Susceptibility of Stainless Steels in Pwr Primary Water Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouraei, S.; Tice, D. R.; Mottershead, K. J.; Wright, D. M.

    Field experience of 300 series stainless steels in the primary circuit of PWR plant has been good. Stress Corrosion Cracking of components has been infrequent and mainly associated with contamination by impurities/oxygen in occluded locations. However, some instances of failures have been observed which cannot necessarily be attributed to deviations in the water chemistry. These failures appear to be associated with the presence of cold-work produced by surface finishing and/or by welding-induced shrinkage. Recent data indicate that some heats of SS show an increased susceptibility to SCC; relatively high crack growth rates were observed even when the crack growth direction is orthogonal to the cold-work direction. SCC of cold-worked SS in PWR coolant is therefore determined by a complex interaction of material composition, microstructure, prior cold-work and heat treatment. This paper will focus on the interactions between these parameters on crack propagation in simulated PWR conditions.

  12. Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperature on the Ductility of High-Burnup PWR Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M. C.; Burtseva, T. A.

    2016-08-30

    The purpose of this research effort is to determine the effects of canister and/or cask drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in, and potential embrittlement of, high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding alloys during cooling for a range of peak drying-storage temperatures (PCT) and hoop stresses. Extensive precipitation of radial hydrides could lower the failure hoop stresses and strains, relative to limits established for as-irradiated cladding from discharged fuel rods stored in pools, at temperatures below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT).

  13. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  14. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  15. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  16. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  17. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  18. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  19. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  20. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  1. Best Reference 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…

  2. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  3. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  4. The Reference Encounter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  5. Radiometric temperature reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Radiometric Temperature Reference uses a thermistor as both a heating and sensing element to maintain its resistance at a preselected level to continuously control the power supplying it. The fixed infrared radiation level must be simple, rugged, and capable of high temperature operation.

  6. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  7. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  8. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  9. NREL: SMARTS - SMARTS References

    Science.gov Websites

    Improve Concentrating Photovoltaic System Design & Performance Evaluation." Proceedings of the 29th Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. New Orleans Irradiance Reference Standards for Photovoltaic Performance." Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (126

  10. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  11. NED-2 reference guide

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery; Peter D. Knopp; Scott A. Thomasma; Donald E. Nute

    2012-01-01

    This is the reference guide for NED-2, which is the latest version of NED, a forest ecosystem management decision support system. This software is part of a family of software products intended to help resource managers develop goals, assess current and future conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties. Designed for stand-alone Windows-...

  12. Volunteeer's Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Julie; And Others

    For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this reference guide provides background information about the common concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…

  13. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  14. Reflections on Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Kerryn A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes programmatic changes in reference services at the Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical library and speculates on the future. Topics include institutional restructuring and consolidation; improvements in technology infrastructure; external economic pressure; and fiscal accountability, including library funding and cost center…

  15. Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Oxygen/Methane Technology Development Between NASA MSFC and PWR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Greene, Christopher B.; Stout, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in concert with industry partner Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) utilized a Space Act Agreement to test an oxygen/methane engine system in the Summer of 2010. PWR provided a 5,500 lbf (24,465 N) LOX/LCH4 regenerative cycle engine to demonstrate advanced thrust chamber assembly hardware and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system. The chamber designs offered alternatives to traditional regenerative engine designs with improvements in cost and/or performance. MSFC provided the test stand, consumables and test personnel. The hot fire testing explored the effective cooling of one of the thrust chamber designs along with determining the combustion efficiency with variations of pressure and mixture ratio. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  16. Validation of the new code package APOLLO2.8 for accurate PWR neutronics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, A.; Bernard, D.; Blaise, P.

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes the Qualification work performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the new APOLLO2.S/SHEM-MOC package based on JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data file for the prediction of PWR neutronics parameters. This experimental validation is based on PWR mock-up critical experiments performed in the EOLE/MINERVE zero-power reactors and on P.I. Es on spent fuel assemblies from the French PWRs. The Calculation-Experiment comparison for the main design parameters is presented: reactivity of UOX and MOX lattices, depletion calculation and fuel inventory, reactivity loss with burnup, pin-by-pin power maps, Doppler coefficient, Moderator Temperature Coefficient, Void coefficient, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} poisoning worth, Efficiency ofmore » Ag-In-Cd and B4C control rods, Reflector Saving for both standard 2-cm baffle and GEN3 advanced thick SS reflector. From this qualification process, calculation biases and associated uncertainties are derived. This code package APOLLO2.8 is already implemented in the ARCADIA new AREVA calculation chain for core physics and is currently under implementation in the future neutronics package of the French utility Electricite de France. (authors)« less

  17. Analysis of the return to power scenario following a LBLOCA in a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Macian, R.; Tyler, T.N.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    The risk of reactivity accidents has been considered an important safety issue since the beginning of the nuclear power industry. In particular, several events leading to such scenarios for PWR`s have been recognized and studied to assess the potential risk of fuel damage. The present paper analyzes one such event: the possible return to power during the reflooding phase following a LBLOCA. TRAC-PF1/MOD2 coupled with a three-dimensional neutronic model of the core based on the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) was used to perform the analysis. The system computer model contains a detailed representation of a complete typical 4-loop PWR. Thus,more » the simulation can follow complex system interactions during reflooding, which may influence the neutronics feedback in the core. Analyses were made with core models bases on cross sections generated by LEOPARD. A standard and a potentially more limiting case, with increased pressurizer and accumulator inventories, were run. In both simulations, the reactor reaches a stable state after the reflooding is completed. The lower core region, filled with cold water, generates enough power to boil part of the incoming liquid, thus preventing the core average liquid fraction from reaching a value high enough to cause a return to power. At the same time, the mass flow rate through the core is adequate to maintain the rod temperature well below the fuel damage limit.« less

  18. Development of a new lattice physics code robin for PWR application

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Chen, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a description of methodologies and preliminary verification results of a new lattice physics code ROBIN, being developed for PWR application at Shanghai NuStar Nuclear Power Technology Co., Ltd. The methods used in ROBIN to fulfill various tasks of lattice physics analysis are an integration of historical methods and new methods that came into being very recently. Not only these methods like equivalence theory for resonance treatment and method of characteristics for neutron transport calculation are adopted, as they are applied in many of today's production-level LWR lattice codes, but also very useful new methods like the enhancedmore » neutron current method for Dancoff correction in large and complicated geometry and the log linear rate constant power depletion method for Gd-bearing fuel are implemented in the code. A small sample of verification results are provided to illustrate the type of accuracy achievable using ROBIN. It is demonstrated that ROBIN is capable of satisfying most of the needs for PWR lattice analysis and has the potential to become a production quality code in the future. (authors)« less

  19. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinentmore » to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.« less

  20. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  1. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  2. Toxicity Reference Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested public to search and download thousands of animal toxicity testing results for hundreds of chemicals that were previously found only in paper documents. Currently, there are 474 chemicals in ToxRefDB, primarily the data rich pesticide active ingredients, but the number will continue to expand.

  3. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, Howard; Curtis, Anthony; Welch, Aaron

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  4. Magnetic heading reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This invention employs a magnetometer as a magnetic heading reference for a vehicle such as a small aircraft. The magnetometer is mounted on a directional dial in the aircraft in the vicinity of the pilot such that it is free to turn with the dial about the yaw axis of the aircraft. The invention includes a circuit for generating a signal proportional to the northerly turning error produced in the magnetometer due to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field. This generated signal is then subtracted from the output of the magnetometer to compensate for the northerly turning error.

  5. Maritime Claims Reference Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-12

    line connecting the following points: Cap de la Morsetta--Pointe des Scoglietti-llot de Gargalo--Cap Rosso --Pointe d’Omignis--Cap de Feno (Golfe de...Tg. Rua. 127. 09 - 45.5 S 119 - 11.6 T Tg. Mambo. 128. 09 - 40.5 S 119 - 02.0 T 129. 08 - 53.6 S 118 - 29.9 T Toro Doro. 2-229 REFERENCE CO-ORDINATES...8217 - 12013.40’) to Capo Linaro (42001.70’ - 11050.20’); From Civitavecchia beacon (42005.75’ - 11046.65’) to Isola Giannutri Punta del Capel Rosso

  6. Antares Reference Telescopes System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-11-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300-1000 pm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m diameter by 9.3-m long vacuum (10-6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: 1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; 2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; 3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates tne target; and 4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  7. Antares reference telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

  8. Posttest analysis of international standard problem 10 using RELAP4/MOD7. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, M.; Davis, C.B.; Peterson, A.C. Jr.

    RELAP4/MOD7, a best estimate computer code for the calculation of thermal and hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor or related system, is the latest version in the RELAP4 code development series. This paper evaluates the capability of RELAP4/MOD7 to calculate refill/reflood phenomena. This evaluation uses the data of International Standard Problem 10, which is based on West Germany's KWU PKL refill/reflood experiment K9A. The PKL test facility represents a typical West German four-loop, 1300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) in reduced scale while maintaining prototypical volume-to-power ratio. The PKL facility was designed to specifically simulate the refill/reflood phase of amore » hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA).« less

  9. A comparison of the CHF between tubes and annuli under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Herer, C.; Souyri, A.; Garnier, J.

    1995-09-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) tests were carried out in three tubes with inside diameters of 8, 13, and 19.2 mm and in two annuli with an inner tube of 9.5 mm and an outer tube of 13 or 19.2 mm. All axial heat flux distributions in the test sections were uniform. The coolant fluid was Refrigerant 12 (Freon-12) under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions (equivalent water conditions - Pressure: 7 to 20 MPa, Mass Velocity: 1000 to 6000 kg/m2/s, Local Quality: -75% to +45%). The effect of tube diameter is correlated for qualities under 15%. The change from the tube to themore » annulus configuration is correctly taken into account by the equivalent hydraulic diameter. Useful information is also provided concerning the effect of a cold wall in an annulus.« less

  10. Monte Carlo characterization of PWR spent fuel assemblies to determine the detectability of pin diversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdo, James S.

    This research is based on the concept that the diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies is feasible by a careful comparison of spontaneous fission neutron and gamma levels in the guide tube locations of the fuel assemblies. The goal is to be able to determine whether some of the assembly fuel pins are either missing or have been replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. It is known that for typical commercial power spent fuel assemblies, the dominant spontaneous neutron emissions come from Cm-242 and Cm-244. Because of the shorter half-life of Cm-242 (0.45 yr) relative to that of Cm-244 (18.1 yr), Cm-244 is practically the only neutron source contributing to the neutron source term after the spent fuel assemblies are more than two years old. Initially, this research focused upon developing MCNP5 models of PWR fuel assemblies, modeling their depletion using the MONTEBURNS code, and by carrying out a preliminary depletion of a ¼ model 17x17 assembly from the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR. Later, the depletion and more accurate isotopic distribution in the pins at discharge was modeled using the TRITON depletion module of the SCALE computer code. Benchmarking comparisons were performed with the MONTEBURNS and TRITON results. Subsequently, the neutron flux in each of the guide tubes of the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR assembly at two years after discharge as calculated by the MCNP5 computer code was determined for various scenarios. Cases were considered for all spent fuel pins present and for replacement of a single pin at a position near the center of the assembly (10,9) and at the corner (17,1). Some scenarios were duplicated with a gamma flux calculation for high energies associated with Cm-244. For each case, the difference between the flux (neutron or gamma) for all spent fuel pins and with a pin removed or replaced is calculated for each guide tube. Different detection criteria were established. The first was whether the relative error of the

  11. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis,more » the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.« less

  12. Grid-to-rod flow-induced impact study for PWR fuel in reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Hao; Qu, Jun; Lu, Roger Y.; ...

    2016-06-10

    The source for grid-to-rod fretting in a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) is the dynamic contact impact from hydraulic flow-induced fuel assembly vibration. In order to support grid-to-rod fretting wear mitigation research, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to evaluate the hydraulic flow-induced impact intensity between the fuel rods and the spacer grids. Three-dimensional FEA models, with detailed geometries of the dimple and spring of the actual spacer grids along with fuel rods, were developed for flow impact simulation. The grid-to-rod dynamic impact simulation provided insights of the contact phenomena at grid-rod interface. Finally, it is an essential and effectivemore » way to evaluate contact forces and provide guidance for simulative bench fretting-impact tests.« less

  13. Pretest analysis of natural circulation on the PWR model PACTEL with horizontal steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, T.; Riikonen, V.; Ritonummi, T.

    A new tests facility - parallel channel tests loop (PACTEL)- has been designed and built to simulate the major components and system behavior of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) during postulated small- and medium-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Pretest calculations have been performed for the first test series, and the results of these calculations are being used for planning experiments, for adjusting the data acquisition system, and for choosing the optimal position and type of instrumentation. PACTEL is a volumetrically scaled (1:305) model of the VVER-440 PWR. In all the calculated cases, the natural circulation was found to be effective in removing themore » heat from the core to the steam generator. The loop mass flow rate peaked at 60% mass inventory. The straightening of the loop seals increased the mass flow rate significantly.« less

  14. PWR design for low doses in the United Kingdom: The present and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Zodiates, A.M.; Willcock, A.

    1995-03-01

    The Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) design chosen for adoption by Nuclear Electric plc was based on the Westinghouse Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS). This design was developed to meet the United Kingdom (UK) requirements and those improvements are embodied in the Sizewell B plant. Nuclear Electric plc is now looking to the design of the future PWRs to be built in the UK. These PWRs will be based as replicas of the Sizewell B design, but attention will be given to reducing operator doses further. This paper details the approach in operator protection improvements incorporated at Sizewall B,more » presents the estimated annual collective dose, and identifies the approach being adopted to reduce further operator doses in future plants.« less

  15. Electrochemical study of pre- and post-transition corrosion of Zr alloys in PWR coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macák, Jan; Novotný, Radek; Sajdl, Petr; Renčiuková, Veronika; Vrtílková, Věra

    Corrosion properties of Zr-Sn and Zr-Nb zirconium alloys were studied under simulated PWR conditions (or, more exactly, VVER conditions — boric acid, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide) at temperatures up to 340°C and 15MPa using in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization measurements. EIS spectra were obtained in a wide range of frequencies (typically 100kHz — 100μHz). It enabled to gain information of both dielectric properties of oxide layers developing on the Zr-alloys surface and of the kinetics of the corrosion process and the associated charge and mass transfer phenomena. Experiments were run for more than 380 days; thus, the study of all the corrosion stages (pre-transition, transition, post-transition) was possible.

  16. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2014-09-30

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higher conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of {sup 233}U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWRmore » result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.« less

  17. Development of cement solidification process for sodium borate waste generated from PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hirofumi Okabe; Tatsuaki Sato; Yuichi Shoji

    2013-07-01

    A cement solidification process for treating sodium borate waste produced in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants was studied. To obtain high volume reduction and high mechanical strength of the waste, simulated concentrated borate liquid waste with a sodium / boron (Na/B) mole ratio of 0.27 was dehydrated and powdered by using a wiped film evaporator. To investigate the effect of the Na/B mole ratio on the solidification process, a sodium tetraborate decahydrate reagent with a Na/B mole ratio of 0.5 was also used. Ordinary portland cement (OPC) and some additives were used for the solidification. Solidified cement prepared from powderedmore » waste with a Na/B mole ratio 0.24 and having a high silica sand content (silica sand/cement>2) showed to improved uniaxial compressive strength. (authors)« less

  18. Common cause evaluations in applied risk analysis of nuclear power plants. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, T.; Ligon, D.; Stamatelatos, M.

    1983-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches were developed for the evaluation of common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants and were applied to the analysis of the auxiliary feedwater systems of several pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Key CCF variables were identified through a survey of experts in the field and a review of failure experience in operating PWRs. These variables were classified into categories of high, medium, and low defense against a CCF. Based on the results, a checklist was developed for analyzing CCFs of systems. Several known techniques for quantifying CCFs were also reviewed. The information provided valuable insights inmore » the development of a new model for estimating CCF probabilities, which is an extension of and improvement over the Beta Factor method. As applied to the analysis of the PWR auxiliary feedwater systems, the method yielded much more realistic values than the original Beta Factor method for a one-out-of-three system.« less

  19. EMERALD REVISION 1; PWR accident activity release. [IBM360,370; FORTRAN IV

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.B.; Tobias, M.L.; Fox, J.N.

    The EMERALD program is designed for the calculation of radiation releases and exposures resulting from abnormal operation of a large pressurized water reactor (PWR). The approach used in EMERALD is similar to an analog simulation of a real system. Each component or volume in the plant which contains a radioactive material is represented by a subroutine which keeps track of the production, transfer, decay and absorption of radioactivity in that volume. During the course of the analysis of an accident, activity is transferred from subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred from place to place inmore » the plant. For example, in the calculation of the doses resulting from a loss-of-coolant accident the program first calculates the activity built up in the fuel before the accident, then releases some of this activity to the containment volume. Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere. The rates of transfer, leakage, production, cleanup, decay, and release are read in as input to the program. Subroutines are also included which calculate the on-site and off-site radiation exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of isotopes. The program contains a library of physical data for the twenty-five isotopes of most interest in licensing calculations, and other isotopes can be added or substituted. Because of the flexible nature of the simulation approach, the EMERALD program can be used for most calculations involving the production and release of radioactive materials during abnormal operation of a PWR. These include design, operational, and licensing studies.IBM360,370; FORTRAN IV; OS/360,370 (IBM360,370); 520K bytes of memory are required..« less

  20. Probabilistic analysis on the failure of reactivity control for the PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sony Tjahyani, D. T.; Deswandri; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    The fundamental safety function of the power reactor is to control reactivity, to remove heat from the reactor, and to confine radioactive material. The safety analysis is used to ensure that each parameter is fulfilled during the design and is done by deterministic and probabilistic method. The analysis of reactivity control is important to be done because it will affect the other of fundamental safety functions. The purpose of this research is to determine the failure probability of the reactivity control and its failure contribution on a PWR design. The analysis is carried out by determining intermediate events, which cause the failure of reactivity control. Furthermore, the basic event is determined by deductive method using the fault tree analysis. The AP1000 is used as the object of research. The probability data of component failure or human error, which is used in the analysis, is collected from IAEA, Westinghouse, NRC and other published documents. The results show that there are six intermediate events, which can cause the failure of the reactivity control. These intermediate events are uncontrolled rod bank withdrawal at low power or full power, malfunction of boron dilution, misalignment of control rod withdrawal, malfunction of improper position of fuel assembly and ejection of control rod. The failure probability of reactivity control is 1.49E-03 per year. The causes of failures which are affected by human factor are boron dilution, misalignment of control rod withdrawal and malfunction of improper position for fuel assembly. Based on the assessment, it is concluded that the failure probability of reactivity control on the PWR is still within the IAEA criteria.

  1. Constraints on silicates formation in the Si-Al-Fe system: Application to hard deposits in steam generators of PWR nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Million-Picallion, Lisa; Lefevre, Grégory; Delaunay, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: The hydrothermal crystallization of silicates phases in the Si-Al-Fe system may lead to industrial constraints that can be encountered in the nuclear industry in at least two contexts: the geological repository for nuclear wastes and the formation of hard sludges in the steam generator of the PWR nuclear plants. In the first situation, the chemical reactions between the Fe-canister and the surrounding clays have been extensively studied in laboratory [1-7] and pilot experiments [8]. These studies demonstrated that the high reactivity of metallic iron leads to the formation of Fe-silicates, berthierine like, in a wide range of temperature. By contrast, the formation of deposits in the steam generators of PWR plants, called hard sludges, is a newer and less studied issue which can affect the reactor performance. Experiments: We present here a preliminary set of experiments reproducing the formation of hard sludges under conditions representative of the steam generator of PWR power plant: 275°C, diluted solutions maintained at low potential by hydrazine addition and at alkaline pH by low concentrations of amines and ammoniac. Magnetite, a corrosion by-product of the secondary circuit, is the source of iron while aqueous Si and Al, the major impurities in this system, are supplied either as trace elements in the circulating solution or by addition of amorphous silica and alumina when considering confined zones. The fluid chemistry is monitored by sampling aliquots of the solution. Eh and pH are continuously measured by hydrothermal Cormet© electrodes implanted in a titanium hydrothermal reactor. The transformation, or not, of the solid fraction was examined post-mortem. These experiments evidenced the role of Al colloids as precursor of cements composed of kaolinite and boehmite, and the passivation of amorphous silica (becoming unreactive) likely by sorption of aqueous iron. But no Fe-bearing was formed by contrast to many published studies on the Fe

  2. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  3. International Reference Ionosphere -2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  4. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  5. PASCAL/48 reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

  6. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  7. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  8. Praxis language reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This document is a language reference manual for the programming language Praxis. The document contains the specifications that must be met by any compiler for the language. The Praxis language was designed for systems programming in real-time process applications. Goals for the language and its implementations are: (1) highly efficient code generated by the compiler; (2) program portability; (3) completeness, that is, all programming requirements can be met by the language without needing an assembler; and (4) separate compilation to aid in design and management of large systems. The language does not provide any facilities for input/output, stack and queuemore » handling, string operations, parallel processing, or coroutine processing. These features can be implemented as routines in the language, using machine-dependent code to take advantage of facilities in the control environment on different machines.« less

  9. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B., E-mail: pritychenko@bnl.gov; Běták, E.; Singh, B.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energymore » Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)« less

  10. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systemsmore » through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information« less

  11. Secondary Startup Neutron Sources as a Source of Tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Lanning, Donald D.

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the Zircaloy clad fuel source is minimal and that secondary startup neutron sources are the significant contributors of the tritium in the RCS that was previously assigned to release from fuel. Currently there are large uncertainties in the attribution of tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS). The measured amount of tritium in the coolant cannot be separated out empirically into its individual sources. Therefore, to quantify individual contributors, all sources of tritium in the RCS of a PWR must be understood theoretically and verified by the sum ofmore » the individual components equaling the measured values.« less

  12. Eddy-Current Reference Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, H. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic properties of metallic reference standards duplicated and stabilized for eddy-current coil measurements over long times. Concept uses precisely machined notched samples of known annealed materials as reference standards.

  13. SAS2H Generated Isotopic Concentrations For B&W 15X15 PWR Assembly (SCPB:N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide pressurized water reactor (PWR) isotopic composition data as a function of time for use in criticality analyses. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate burnup and decay dependant isotopic inventories and to provide these inventories in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent criticality calculations.

  14. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  15. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  16. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  17. Development and Application of Laser Peening System for PWR Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Masaki Yoda; Itaru Chida; Satoshi Okada

    2006-07-01

    Laser peening is a process to improve residual stress from tensile to compressive in surface layer of materials by irradiating high-power laser pulses on the material in water. Toshiba has developed a laser peening system composed of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillators, laser delivery equipment and underwater remote handling equipment. We have applied the system for Japanese operating BWR power plants as a preventive maintenance measure for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on reactor internals like core shrouds or control rod drive (CRD) penetrations since 1999. As for PWRs, alloy 600 or 182 can be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion crackingmore » (PWSCC), and some cracks or leakages caused by the PWSCC have been discovered on penetrations of reactor vessel heads (RVHs), reactor bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) nozzles, and others. Taking measures to meet the unconformity of the RVH penetrations, RVHs themselves have been replaced in many PWRs. On the other hand, it's too time-consuming and expensive to replace BMI nozzles, therefore, any other convenient and less expensive measures are required instead of the replacement. In Toshiba, we carried out various tests for laser-peened nickel base alloys and confirmed the effectiveness of laser peening as a preventive maintenance measure for PWSCC. We have developed a laser peening system for PWRs as well after the one for BWRs, and applied it for BMI nozzles, core deluge line nozzles and primary water inlet nozzles of Ikata Unit 1 and 2 of Shikoku Electric Power Company since 2004, which are Japanese operating PWR power plants. In this system, laser oscillators and control devices were packed into two containers placed on the operating floor inside the reactor containment vessel. Laser pulses were delivered through twin optical fibers and irradiated on two portions in parallel to reduce operation time. For BMI nozzles, we developed a tiny irradiation head for small tubes and we peened the inner surface

  18. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Stephen H.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

  19. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, S.H.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

  20. Influence of Localized Plasticity on IASCC Sensitivity of Austenitic Stainless Steels under PWR Primary Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cissé, Sarata; Tanguy, Benoit; Laffont, Lydia; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Guerre, Catherine; Andrieu, Eric

    The sensibility of precipitation-strengthened A286 austenitic stainless steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is studied by means of Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT). First, alloy cold working by Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) is investigated. Fatigue tests under plastic strain control are performed at different strain levels (Δ ɛp/2=0.2%, 0.5% and 0.8%) in order to establish correlation between stress softening and deformation microstructure resulting from LCF tests. Deformed microstructures have been identified through TEM investigations. Three states of cyclic behaviour for precipitation-strengthened A286 have been identified: hardening, cyclic softening and finally saturation of softening. It is shown that the A286 alloy cyclic softening is due to microstructural features such as defects — free deformation bands resulting from dislocations motion along family plans <111>, that swept defects or γ' precipitates and lead to deformation localization. In order to quantify effects of plastic localized deformation on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the A286 alloy in PWR primary water, slow strain rate tests are conducted. For each cycling conditions, two specimens at a similar stress level are tested: the first containing free precipitate deformation bands, the other not significant of a localized deformation state. SSRT tests are still in progress.

  1. Microstructural Effects on SCC Initiation PWR Primary Water Cold-Worked Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    SCC initiation behavior of one mill annealed alloy 600 plate heat was investigated in simulated PWR primary water under constant load at yield stress with in-situ direct current potential drop (DCPD) monitoring for crack initiation. Twelve specimens were tested at similar cold work levels among which three showed much shorter SCC initiation times (<400 hrs) than the others (>1200 hrs). Post-test examinations revealed that these three specimens all feature an inhomogeneous microstructure where the primary crack always nucleated along the boundary of large elongated grains protruding normally into the gauge. In contrast, such microstructure was either not observed or didmore » not extend deep enough into the gauge in the other specimens exhibiting ~3-6X longer initiation times. In order to better understand the role of this microstructural inhomogeneity in SCC initiation, high-resolution microscopy was performed to compare carbide morphology and strain distribution between the long grains and normal grains, and their potential effects on SCC initiation are discussed in this paper.« less

  2. Determination of uncertainties of PWR spent fuel radionuclide inventory based on real operational history data

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Ivan; Bosbach, Dirk; Aksyutina, Yuliya

    A requisite for the official approval of the safe final disposal of SNF is a comprehensive specification and declaration of the nuclear inventory in SNF by the waste supplier. In the verification process both the values of the radionuclide (RN) activities and their uncertainties are required. Burn-up (BU) calculations based on typical and generic reactor operational parameters do not encompass any possible uncertainties observed in real reactor operations. At the same time, the details of the irradiation history are often not well known, which complicates the assessment of declared RN inventories. Here, we have compiled a set of burnup calculationsmore » accounting for the operational history of 339 published or anonymized real PWR fuel assemblies (FA). These histories were used as a basis for a 'SRP analysis', to provide information about the range of the values of the associated secondary reactor parameters (SRP's). Hence, we can calculate the realistic variation or spectrum of RN inventories. SCALE 6.1 has been employed for the burn-up calculations. The results have been validated using experimental data from the online database - SFCOMPO-1 and -2. (authors)« less

  3. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Josephs, J.M.

    1980-12-31

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison ismore » made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors. The storage option is found to be most favorable; however, even this option represents a significant economic impact due to radioactivity of 0.074 mills/kW-h which amounts to $4 x 10/sup 9/ over a 30 year period assuming a 200 gigawatt supply of electrical power.« less

  4. Risk-Informed External Hazards Analysis for Seismic and Flooding Phenomena for a Generic PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, Carlo; Prescott, Steve; Ma, Zhegang

    This report describes the activities performed during the FY2017 for the US-DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (LWRS-RISMC), Industry Application #2. The scope of Industry Application #2 is to deliver a risk-informed external hazards safety analysis for a representative nuclear power plant. Following the advancements occurred during the previous FYs (toolkits identification, models development), FY2017 focused on: increasing the level of realism of the analysis; improving the tools and the coupling methodologies. In particular the following objectives were achieved: calculation of buildings pounding and their effects on components seismic fragility; development of a SAPHIRE code PRA modelsmore » for 3-loops Westinghouse PWR; set-up of a methodology for performing static-dynamic PRA coupling between SAPHIRE and EMRALD codes; coupling RELAP5-3D/RAVEN for performing Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty analysis and automatic limit surface search; and execute sample calculations for demonstrating the capabilities of the toolkit in performing a risk-informed external hazards safety analyses.« less

  5. Neutron-gamma flux and dose calculations in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovchenko, Mariya; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Burn, Kenneth W.; Console Camprini, Patrizio; Duhamel, Isabelle; Peron, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with Monte Carlo simulations, aiming to determine the neutron and gamma responses outside the vessel and in the basemat of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The model is based on the Tihange-I Belgian nuclear reactor. With a large set of information and measurements available, this reactor has the advantage to be easily modelled and allows validation based on the experimental measurements. Power distribution calculations were therefore performed with the MCNP code at IRSN and compared to the available in-core measurements. Results showed a good agreement between calculated and measured values over the whole core. In this paper, the methods and hypotheses used for the particle transport simulation from the fission distribution in the core to the detectors outside the vessel of the reactor are also summarized. The results of the simulations are presented including the neutron and gamma doses and flux energy spectra. MCNP6 computational results comparing JEFF3.1 and ENDF-B/VII.1 nuclear data evaluations and sensitivity of the results to some model parameters are presented.

  6. Evaluation of on-line chelant addition to PWR steam generators. Steam generator cleaning project

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, T.J.; Wallace, S.L.; Griffin, F. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The investigation of chelating agents for continuous water treatment of secondary loops of PWR steam generators were conducted in two general areas: the study of the chemistry of chelating agents and the study of materials compatability with chelating agents. The thermostability of both EDTA and HEDTA metal chelates in All Volatile Treatment (AVT) water chemistry were shown to be greater than or equal to the thermostability of EDTA metal chelates in phosphate-sulfite water chemistry. HEDTA metal chelates were shown to have a much greater stability than EDTA metal chelates. Using samples taken from the EDTA metal chelate thermostability study andmore » from the Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) model steam generators (MSG), EDTA decomposition products were determined. Active metal surfaces were shown to become passivated when exposed to EDTA and HEDTA concentrations as high as 0.1% w/w in AVT. Trace amounts of iron in the water were found to increase the rate of passivation. Material balance and visual inspection data from CRC model steam generators showed that metal was transported through and cleaned from the MSG's. The Inconel 600 tubes of the salt water fouled model steam generators experienced pitting corrosion. Results of this study demonstrates the feasibility of EDTA as an on-line water treatment additive to maintain nuclear steam generators in a clean condition.« less

  7. Probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a KWU PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Zuchuat, O.

    During postulated core meltdown accidents in light water reactors, there is a likelihood for an in-vessel steam explosion when the melt contacts the coolant in the lower plenum. The objective of the work described in this paper is to determine the conditional probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a Kraftwerk Union (KWU) pressurized water reactor (PWR). The energetics of the explosion depends on the mass of the molten fuel that mixes with the coolant and participates in the explosion and on the conversion of fuel thermal energy into mechanical work. The work can result in the generation ofmore » dynamic pressures that affect the lower head (and possibly lead to its failure), and it can cause acceleration of a slug (fuel and coolant material) upward that can affect the upper internal structures and vessel head and ultimately cause the failure of the upper head. If the upper head missile has sufficient energy, it can reach the containment shell and penetrate it. The analysis, must therefore, take into account all possible dissipation mechanisms.« less

  8. Conceptual Core Analysis of Long Life PWR Utilizing Thorium-Uranium Fuel Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouf; Su'ud, Zaki

    2016-08-01

    Conceptual core analysis of long life PWR utilizing thorium-uranium based fuel has conducted. The purpose of this study is to evaluate neutronic behavior of reactor core using combined thorium and enriched uranium fuel. Based on this fuel composition, reactor core have higher conversion ratio rather than conventional fuel which could give longer operation length. This simulation performed using SRAC Code System based on library SRACLIB-JDL32. The calculation carried out for (Th-U)O2 and (Th-U)C fuel with uranium composition 30 - 40% and gadolinium (Gd2O3) as burnable poison 0,0125%. The fuel composition adjusted to obtain burn up length 10 - 15 years under thermal power 600 - 1000 MWt. The key properties such as uranium enrichment, fuel volume fraction, percentage of uranium are evaluated. Core calculation on this study adopted R-Z geometry divided by 3 region, each region have different uranium enrichment. The result show multiplication factor every burn up step for 15 years operation length, power distribution behavior, power peaking factor, and conversion ratio. The optimum core design achieved when thermal power 600 MWt, percentage of uranium 35%, U-235 enrichment 11 - 13%, with 14 years operation length, axial and radial power peaking factor about 1.5 and 1.2 respectively.

  9. Optical probe with reference fiber

    DOEpatents

    Da Silva, Luiz B [Danville, CA; Chase, Charles L [Dublin, CA

    2006-03-14

    A system for characterizing tissue includes the steps of generating an emission signal, generating a reference signal, directing the emission signal to and from the tissue, directing the reference signal in a predetermined manner relative to the emission signal, and using the reference signal to compensate the emission signal. In one embodiment compensation is provided for fluctuations in light delivery to the tip of the probe due to cable motion.

  10. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  11. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

  12. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  13. Queuing Theory and Reference Transactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terbille, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of applying the queuing theory to three different reference situations: (1) random patron arrivals; (2) random durations of transactions; and (3) use of two librarians. Tables and figures represent results from spreadsheet calculations of queues for each reference situation. (JMV)

  14. Are Reference Desks Dying Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how librarians are struggling to redefine, and in some cases eliminate, the venerable institution of reference desk services and it explores the new ways in which reference questions get answered at university libraries. These include fielding questions through e-mail, instant messaging, and other mobile technologies, making…

  15. Reference Services: A Handmaid's Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Clare

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems in library reference services focuses on the influence of gender roles. A historical overview of gender roles in the development of American librarianship is presented that highlights stereotyped views of and attitudes toward women, which the author suggests still have influences on librarianship today. (17 references) (LRW)

  16. Changing Roles for References Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julia; Robbins, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the future outlook for reference librarians, with topics including: "Technology as the Source of Change"; "Impact of the Internet"; "Defining the Virtual Library"; "Rethinking Reference"; "Out of the Library and into the Streets"; "Asking Users About Their Needs"; "Standardization and Artificial Intelligence"; "The Financial Future"; and…

  17. Moving Reference to the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

  18. The Virtual Reference Librarian's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    This book is a practical guide to librarians and their administrators who are thinking about or in the early stages of providing virtual reference service. Part 1, "The Decision to Go Virtual," provides a context for thinking about virtual reference, including the benefits and problems, getting in the virtual frame of mind, and shopping…

  19. Technostress and the Reference Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupersmith, John

    1992-01-01

    Defines "technostress" as the stress experienced by reference librarians who must constantly deal with the demands of new information technology and the changes they produce in the work place. Discussion includes suggested ways in which both organizations and individuals can work to reduce stress. (27 references) (LAE)

  20. "In Your Face" Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1999-01-01

    Discusses changes in library reference service that have occurred with growing Internet use. Topics include the human factor that is still needed; the nature of reference questions; the goal of user self-sufficiency; the invisible nature of much of librarians' work; and providing real-time, interactive point-of-need service to remote users. (LRW)

  1. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  2. Severe accident modeling of a PWR core with different cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S. C.; Henry, R. E.; Paik, C. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The MAAP v.4 software has been used to model two severe accident scenarios in nuclear power reactors with three different materials as fuel cladding. The TMI-2 severe accident was modeled with Zircaloy-2 and SiC as clad material and a SBO accident in a Zion-like, 4-loop, Westinghouse PWR was modeled with Zircaloy-2, SiC, and 304 stainless steel as clad material. TMI-2 modeling results indicate that lower peak core temperatures, less H 2 (g) produced, and a smaller mass of molten material would result if SiC was substituted for Zircaloy-2 as cladding. SBO modeling results indicate that the calculated time to RCSmore » rupture would increase by approximately 20 minutes if SiC was substituted for Zircaloy-2. Additionally, when an extended SBO accident (RCS creep rupture failure disabled) was modeled, significantly lower peak core temperatures, less H 2 (g) produced, and a smaller mass of molten material would be generated by substituting SiC for Zircaloy-2 or stainless steel cladding. Because the rate of SiC oxidation reaction with elevated temperature H{sub 2}O (g) was set to 0 for this work, these results should be considered preliminary. However, the benefits of SiC as a more accident tolerant clad material have been shown and additional investigation of SiC as an LWR core material are warranted, specifically investigations of the oxidation kinetics of SiC in H{sub 2}O (g) over the range of temperatures and pressures relevant to severe accidents in LWR 's. (authors)« less

  3. Analysis of radiation safety for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) on PWR-100 MWe type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udiyani, P. M.; Husnayani, I.; Deswandri; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia as an archipelago country, including big, medium and small islands is suitable to construction of Small Medium/Modular reactors. Preliminary technology assessment on various SMR has been started, indeed the SMR is grouped into Light Water Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactor, and Solid Cooled Reactor and from its site it is group into Land Based reactor and Water Based Reactor. Fukushima accident made people doubt about the safety of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which impact on the public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants. The paper will describe the assessment of safety and radiation consequences on site for normal operation and Design Basis Accident postulation of SMR based on PWR-100 MWe in Bangka Island. Consequences of radiation for normal operation simulated for 3 units SMR. The source term was generated from an inventory by using ORIGEN-2 software and the consequence of routine calculated by PC-Cream and accident by PC Cosyma. The adopted methodology used was based on site-specific meteorological and spatial data. According to calculation by PC-CREAM 08 computer code, the highest individual dose in site area for adults is 5.34E-02 mSv/y in ESE direction within 1 km distance from stack. The result of calculation is that doses on public for normal operation below 1mSv/y. The calculation result from PC Cosyma, the highest individual dose is 1.92.E+00 mSv in ESE direction within 1km distance from stack. The total collective dose (all pathway) is 3.39E-01 manSv, with dominant supporting from cloud pathway. Results show that there are no evacuation countermeasure will be taken based on the regulation of emergency.

  4. Integral Full Core Multi-Physics PWR Benchmark with Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord; Kumar, Shikhar

    In recent years, the importance of modeling and simulation has been highlighted extensively in the DOE research portfolio with concrete examples in nuclear engineering with the CASL and NEAMS programs. These research efforts and similar efforts worldwide aim at the development of high-fidelity multi-physics analysis tools for the simulation of current and next-generation nuclear power reactors. Like all analysis tools, verification and validation is essential to guarantee proper functioning of the software and methods employed. The current approach relies mainly on the validation of single physic phenomena (e.g. critical experiment, flow loops, etc.) and there is a lack of relevantmore » multiphysics benchmark measurements that are necessary to validate high-fidelity methods being developed today. This work introduces a new multi-cycle full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) depletion benchmark based on two operational cycles of a commercial nuclear power plant that provides a detailed description of fuel assemblies, burnable absorbers, in-core fission detectors, core loading and re-loading patterns. This benchmark enables analysts to develop extremely detailed reactor core models that can be used for testing and validation of coupled neutron transport, thermal-hydraulics, and fuel isotopic depletion. The benchmark also provides measured reactor data for Hot Zero Power (HZP) physics tests, boron letdown curves, and three-dimensional in-core flux maps from 58 instrumented assemblies. The benchmark description is now available online and has been used by many groups. However, much work remains to be done on the quantification of uncertainties and modeling sensitivities. This work aims to address these deficiencies and make this benchmark a true non-proprietary international benchmark for the validation of high-fidelity tools. This report details the BEAVRS uncertainty quantification for the first two cycle of operations and serves as the final report of the

  5. Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summarizes the review and deliberations of the Risk Assessment Forum’s RfD/RfC Technical Panel and its recommendations for improvements in oral referencedose/inhalation reference concentration (RfD/RfC) process.

  6. Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: WAGR syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs and symptoms of WAGR syndrome can include childhood-onset obesity, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), and kidney failure. When WAGR syndrome includes childhood-onset obesity, it is often referred to as WAGRO syndrome. ...

  8. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: isolated hyperchlorhidrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of salt (sodium chloride or NaCl) in sweat. In particular, "hyperchlorhidrosis" refers to the high levels of chloride found in sweat, although both sodium and chloride are released. Because ...

  10. Selected Reference Books of 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    Presents annotated bibliographies of a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of publishing, periodical indexes, philosophy and religion, literature, music, art, photography, social sciences, business, history, and new editions. (LRW)

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Klinefelter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... AS, Gillam L. Thinking outside the square: considering gender in Klinefelter syndrome and 47, XXY. Int J ... Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA) Turns 10 All Bulletins Features What ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: schizoaffective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder such as bipolar disorder ... prefix "schizo-" refers to the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia that affect a person's thinking, sense of self, ...

  13. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  14. Factors for Generating Initial Construction Schedules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    2.2.8 Approach at Stone & Webster Co. 15 2.2.9 Approach at Bechtel Co. 16 2.2.10 SIPEC 16 2.2.11 OARPLAN 16 2.2.12 Other Research Efforts 17 2.2.13...PEC’s (Primitive Elements of Construction). PEC’s are tasks associated with a single activity and performed by a single crew. 2.2.8 Approach at Stone ...Webster Co. Stone & Webster has invested substantial efforts to integrate the informational needs of different project participants. Their current

  15. Electron Microscopy Characterizations and Atom Probe Tomography of Intergranular Attack in Alloy 600 Exposed to PWR Primary Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszta, Matthew J.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    Detailed examinations of intergranular attack (IGA) in alloy 600 were performed after exposure to simulated PWR primary water at 325°C for 500 h. High-resolution analyses of IGA characteristics were conducted on specimens with either a 1 µm diamond or 1200-grit SiC surface finish using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography techniques. The diamond-polish finish with very little preexisting subsurface damage revealed attack of high-energy grain boundaries that intersected the exposed surface to depths approaching 2 µm. In all cases, IGA from the surface is localized oxidation consisting of porous, nanocrystalline MO-structure and spinel particles along with regions of faceted wall oxidation. Surprisingly, this continuous IG oxidation transitions to discontinuous, discrete Cr-rich sulfide particles up to 50 nm in diameter. In the vicinity of the sulfides, the grain boundaries were severely Cr depleted (to <1 at%) and enriched in S. The 1200 grit SiC finish surface exhibited a preexisting highly strained recrystallized layer of elongated nanocrystalline matrix grains. Similar IG oxidation and leading sulfide particles were found, but the IGA depth was typically confined to the near-surface ( 400 nm) recrystallized region. Difference in IGA for the two surface finishes indicates that the formation of grain boundary sulfides occurs during the exposure to PWR primary water. The source of S remains unclear, however it is not present as sulfides in the bulk alloy nor is it segregated to bulk grain boundaries.

  16. Reference and Reference Failures. Technical Report No. 398.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Bradley A.

    In order to build robust natural language processing systems that can detect and recover from miscommunication, the investigation of how people communicate and how they recover from problems in communication described in this artificial intelligence report focused on reference problems which a listener may have in determining what or whom a…

  17. Reference-based phasing using the Haplotype Reference Consortium panel.

    PubMed

    Loh, Po-Ru; Danecek, Petr; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Fuchsberger, Christian; A Reshef, Yakir; K Finucane, Hilary; Schoenherr, Sebastian; Forer, Lukas; McCarthy, Shane; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Durbin, Richard; L Price, Alkes

    2016-11-01

    Haplotype phasing is a fundamental problem in medical and population genetics. Phasing is generally performed via statistical phasing in a genotyped cohort, an approach that can yield high accuracy in very large cohorts but attains lower accuracy in smaller cohorts. Here we instead explore the paradigm of reference-based phasing. We introduce a new phasing algorithm, Eagle2, that attains high accuracy across a broad range of cohort sizes by efficiently leveraging information from large external reference panels (such as the Haplotype Reference Consortium; HRC) using a new data structure based on the positional Burrows-Wheeler transform. We demonstrate that Eagle2 attains a ∼20× speedup and ∼10% increase in accuracy compared to reference-based phasing using SHAPEIT2. On European-ancestry samples, Eagle2 with the HRC panel achieves >2× the accuracy of 1000 Genomes-based phasing. Eagle2 is open source and freely available for HRC-based phasing via the Sanger Imputation Service and the Michigan Imputation Server.

  18. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  19. Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

    This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

  20. National Nutrition Education Clearing House Reference List, General Teacher References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.

    References applicable to both elementary and secondary levels, as well as background information of importance to teachers in the field of nutrition and nutrition education, are included in this bibliography. Although not a comprehensive list, resources include books, pamphlets, curriculum guides, bibliographies, newsletters, article reprints, and…

  1. Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life. Specific…

  2. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    revised the taxonomy of Bunyaviridae, Orbivirus, Rhabdoviridae , Arenaviridae, and Togaviridae. Outbreaks were diagnosed such as Rift Valley fever in...Flavivirus), Rhabdoviridae , Reoviridae (genus Orbivirus), and Bunyaviridae (genera Bunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus, and Uukuvirus). Reference sera and...family Rhabdoviridae was done by complement fixation, immunofluorescence, and plaque reduction neutralization involving 51 viruses. A similar revision

  3. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

  4. Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

  5. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  6. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  7. Collective Management of Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library reference department. The planning process, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…

  8. Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

  9. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Yao syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... in more than half of affected individuals. Dry eyes and dry mouth (described as "sicca-like" symptoms, which refers to dryness) are reported in about half of people with this disease. Other potential signs and symptoms of Yao syndrome include mouth sores, chest pain, and enlargement of ...

  11. Selected Reference Books of 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography, a semiannual series, presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works, published in 2000. Works are in the following areas: dictionaries; religion; literature; film; music; political science; history; archaeology; and science and technology. New editions of standard works are highlighted at the end.…

  12. A Quick Reference on Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Shane W

    2017-03-01

    This article serves as a quick reference on the distribution, handling, and supplementation of magnesium. It also lists the manifestations and causes of magnesium deficit and provides criteria for the diagnosis of a magnesium deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

  14. Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

  15. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  16. Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics…

  17. Biological Soil Crust Technical Reference

    Science.gov Websites

    Technical Reference Our understanding of the biology, ecology and physiology of biological soil crusts has published studies on soil crusts. The attached PDF file is a 90-page report that summarizes our current state of knowledge about biological soil crusts, with emphasis on crusts found in the western United

  18. Genetics Home Reference: lactose intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Järvelä IE. Molecular genetics of adult-type hypolactasia. Ann Med. 2005;37( ... Citation on PubMed Robayo-Torres CC, Nichols BL. Molecular differentiation of congenital lactase ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tiranti V, Zeviani M. Altered sulfide (H(2)S) metabolism in ethylmalonic encephalopathy. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Jan 1;5(1):a011437. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a011437. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference ...

  20. Referent Communication in Chronic Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantorowitz, David A.; Cohen, Bertram D.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty chronic schizophrenics (15 process and 15 reactive) and 15 normal control speakers described colors displayed in three-chip sets containing a referent and two nonreferent colors. Concludes that poor communication accuracy in long-term schizophrenics results from failure to include a self-editing stage as a part of the communication process.…

  1. Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

    1993-01-01

    This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual…

  2. The Calibration Reference Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a software architecture and implementation for using rules to determine which calibration files are appropriate for calibrating a given observation. This new system, the Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS), replaces what had been previously used for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) calibration pipelines, the Calibration Database System (CDBS). CRDS will be used for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) calibration pipelines, and is currently being used for HST calibration pipelines. CRDS can be easily generalized for use in similar applications that need a rules-based system for selecting the appropriate item for a given dataset; we give some examples of such generalizations that will likely be used for JWST. The core functionality of the Calibration Reference Data System is available under an Open Source license. CRDS is briefly contrasted with a sampling of other similar systems used at other observatories.

  3. Thermocouple, multiple junction reference oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of reference thermocouples at a common and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of reference thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.

  4. Development code for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input on the MCNPX for neutronic calculation in PWR core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartini, Entin; Andiwijayakusuma, Dinan

    2014-09-01

    This research was carried out on the development of code for uncertainty analysis is based on a statistical approach for assessing the uncertainty input parameters. In the butn-up calculation of fuel, uncertainty analysis performed for input parameters fuel density, coolant density and fuel temperature. This calculation is performed during irradiation using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport. The Uncertainty method based on the probabilities density function. Development code is made in python script to do coupling with MCNPX for criticality and burn-up calculations. Simulation is done by modeling the geometry of PWR terrace, with MCNPX on the power 54 MW with fuel type UO2 pellets. The calculation is done by using the data library continuous energy cross-sections ENDF / B-VI. MCNPX requires nuclear data in ACE format. Development of interfaces for obtaining nuclear data in the form of ACE format of ENDF through special process NJOY calculation to temperature changes in a certain range.

  5. Grain boundary damage evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Kruska, Karen

    Long-term grain boundary (GB) damage evolution and stress corrosion crack initiation in alloy 690 are being investigated by constant load tensile testing in high-temperature, simulated PWR primary water. Six commercial alloy 690 heats are being tested in various cold work conditions loaded at their yield stress. This paper reviews the basic test approach and detailed characterizations performed on selected specimens after an exposure time of ~1 year. Intergranular crack nucleation was observed under constant stress in certain highly cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 heats and was found to be associated with the formation of GB cavities. Somewhat surprisingly, the heats mostmore » susceptible to cavity formation and crack nucleation were thermally treated materials with most uniform coverage of small GB carbides. Microstructure, % cold work and applied stress comparisons are made among the alloy 690 heats to better understand the factors influencing GB cavity formation and crack initiation.« less

  6. Simulation of German PKL refill/reflood experiment K9A using RELAP4/MOD7. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, M.T.; Davis, C.B.; Behling, S.R.

    This paper describes a RELAP4/MOD7 simulation of West Germany's Kraftwerk Union (KWU) Primary Coolant Loop (PKL) refill/reflood experiment K9A. RELAP4/MOD7, a best-estimate computer program for the calculation of thermal and hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor or related system, is the latest version in the RELAP4 code development series. This study was the first major simulation using RELAP4/MOD7 since its release by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The PKL facility is a reduced scale (1:134) representation of a typical West German four-loop 1300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR). A prototypical scale of the total volume to power ratio wasmore » maintained. The test facility was designed specifically for an experiment simulating the refill/reflood phase of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA).« less

  7. Reference dosimetry using radiochromic film

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Frédéric; Bouchard, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify factors that influence radiochromic film dose response and to determine whether such films are suitable for reference dosimetry. The influence of several parameters that may introduce systematic dose errors when performing reference dose measurements were investigated. The effect of the film storage temperature was determined by comparing the performance of three lots of GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films stored at either 4°C or room temperature. The effect of high (>80%) or low (<20%) relative humidity was also determined. Doses measured in optimal conditions with EBT and EBT2 films were then compared with an A12 ionization chamber measurement. Intensity‐modulated radiation therapy quality controls using EBT2 films were also performed in reference dose. The results obtained using reference dose measurements were compared with those obtained using relative dose measurements. Storing the film at 4°C improves the stability of the film over time, but does not eliminate the noncatalytic film development, seen as a rise in optical density over time in the absence of radiation. Relative humidity variations ranging from 80% to 20% have a strong impact on the optical density and could introduce dose errors of up to 15% if the humidity were not controlled during the film storage period. During the scanning procedure, the film temperature influences the optical density that is measured. When controlling for these three parameters, the dose differences between EBT or EBT2 and the A12 chamber are found to be within ±4% (2σ level) over a dose range of 20–350 cGy. Our results also demonstrate the limitation of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm for dose calculation of highly modulated treatment plans. PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr; 87.56.Fc PMID:23149793

  8. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  9. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  10. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  11. A stellar tracking reference system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klestadt, B.

    1971-01-01

    A stellar attitude reference system concept for satellites was studied which promises to permit continuous precision pointing of payloads with accuracies of 0.001 degree without the use of gyroscopes. It is accomplished with the use of a single, clustered star tracker assembly mounted on a non-orthogonal, two gimbal mechanism, driven so as to unwind satellite orbital and orbit precession rates. A set of eight stars was found which assures the presence of an adequate inertial reference on a continuous basis in an arbitrary orbit. Acquisition and operational considerations were investigated and inherent reference redundancy/reliability was established. Preliminary designs for the gimbal mechanism, its servo drive, and the star tracker cluster with its associated signal processing were developed for a baseline sun-synchronous, noon-midnight orbit. The functions required of the onboard computer were determined and the equations to be solved were found. In addition detailed error analyses were carried out, based on structural, thermal and other operational considerations.

  12. PWR-related integral safety experiments in the PKL 111 test facility SBLOCA under beyond-design-basis accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.; Umminger, K.J.; Schoen, B.

    1995-09-01

    The thermal hydraulic behavior of a PWR during beyond-design-basis accident scenarios is of vital interest for the verification and optimization of accident management procedures. Within the scope of the German reactor safety research program experiments were performed in the volumetrically scaled PKL 111 test facility by Siemens/KWU. This highly instrumented test rig simulates a KWU-design PWR (1300 MWe). In particular, the latest tests performed related to a SBLOCA with additional system failures, e.g. nitrogen entering the primary system. In the case of a SBLOCA, it is the goal of the operator to put the plant in a condition where themore » decay heat can be removed first using the low pressure emergency core cooling system and then the residual heat removal system. The experimental investigation presented assumed the following beyond-design-basis accident conditions: 0.5% break in a cold leg, 2 of 4 steam generators (SGs) isolated on the secondary side (feedwater- and steam line-valves closed), filled with steam on the primary side, cooldown of the primary system using the remaining two steam generators, high pressure injection system only in the two loops with intact steam generators, if possible no operator actions to reach the conditions for residual heat removal system activation. Furthermore, it was postulated that 2 of the 4 hot leg accumulators had a reduced initial water inventory (increased nitrogen inventory), allowing nitrogen to enter the primary system at a pressure of 15 bar and nearly preventing the heat transfer in the SGs ({open_quotes}passivating{close_quotes} U-tubes). Due to this the heat transfer regime in the intact steam generators changed remarkably. The primary system showed self-regulating system effects and heat transfer improved again (reflux-condenser mode in the U-tube inlet region).« less

  13. Benefits to Minnesotans of communications infrastructure public-private partnership

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of the benefits of a communications infrastructure public-private partnership between the Minnesota Department of Transportation and the team of International Communications Systems (ICS) and Stone & Webster.

  14. Sentinel 2 global reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechoz, C.; Poulain, V.; Massera, S.; Languille, F.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Gaudel, A.; L'Helguen, C.; Picard, C.; Trémas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is a multispectral, high-resolution, optical imaging mission, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. In cooperation with ESA, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is responsible for the image quality of the project, and will ensure the CAL/VAL commissioning phase. Sentinel-2 mission is devoted the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas, and will provide a continuity of SPOT- and Landsat-type data. Sentinel-2 will also deliver information for emergency services. Launched in 2015 and 2016, there will be a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit, imaging systematically terrestrial surfaces with a revisit time of 5 days, in 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red. Therefore, multi-temporal series of images, taken under the same viewing conditions, will be available. So as to ensure for the multi-temporal registration of the products, specified to be better than 0.3 pixels at 2σ, a Global Reference Image (GRI) will be produced during the CAL/VAL period. This GRI is composed of a set of Sentinel-2 acquisitions, which geometry has been corrected by bundle block adjustment. During L1B processing, Ground Control Points will be taken between this reference image and the sentinel-2 acquisition processed and the geometric model of the image corrected, so as to ensure the good multi-temporal registration. This paper first details the production of the reference during the CALVAL period, and then details the qualification and geolocation performance assessment of the GRI. It finally presents its use in the Level-1 processing chain and gives a first assessment of the multi-temporal registration.

  15. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  16. Electrolytic cell with reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  17. Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.

    2017-01-01

    Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Venus-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model developed by MSFC that is widely used for diverse mission applications including: Systems design; Performance analysis; Operations planning for aerobraking, Entry, Descent and Landing, and aerocapture; Is not a forecast model; Outputs include density, temperature, pressure, wind components, and chemical composition; Provides dispersions of thermodynamic parameters, winds, and density; Optional trajectory and auxiliary profile input files Has been used in multiple studies and proposals including NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Autonomous Aerobraking and various Discovery proposals; Released in 2005; Available at: https://software.nasa.gov/software/MFS-32314-1.

  18. Hydrogen slush density reference system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzel, D. H.; Lowe, L. T.; Ellerbruch, D. A.; Cruz, J. E.; Sindt, C. F.

    1971-01-01

    A hydrogen slush density reference system was designed for calibration of field-type instruments and/or transfer standards. The device is based on the buoyancy principle of Archimedes. The solids are weighed in a low-mass container so arranged that solids and container are buoyed by triple-point liquid hydrogen during the weighing process. Several types of hydrogen slush density transducers were developed and tested for possible use as transfer standards. The most successful transducers found were those which depend on change in dielectric constant, after which the Clausius-Mossotti function is used to relate dielectric constant and density.

  19. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  20. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  1. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  2. Multipass Steering: A Reference Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessey, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a reference implementation of a protocol to compute corrections that bring all beams in one of the CEBAF linear accelerators (linac) to axis, including, with a larger tolerance, the lowest energy pass using measured beam trajectory data. This method relies on linear optics as representation of the system; we treat beamline perturbations as magnetic field errors localized to regions between cryomodules, providing the same transverse momentum kick to each beam. We produce a vector of measured beam position data with which we left-multiply the pseudo-inverse of a coefficient array, A, that describes the transport of the beam through the linac using parameters that include the magnetic offsets of the quadrupole magnets, the instrumental offsets of the BPMs, and the beam initial conditions. This process is repeated using a reduced array to produce values that can be applied to the available correcting magnets and beam initial conditions. We show that this method is effective in steering the beam to a straight axis along the linac by using our values in elegant, the accelerator simulation program, on a model of the linac in question. The algorithms in this reference implementation provide a tool for systematic diagnosis and cataloging of perturbations in the beam line. Supported by Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University, NSF, DOE.

  3. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

    1994-05-03

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

  4. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, Mark; Mockler, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

  5. 33 CFR 241.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Information Services, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. References (a), (b) and (c) may be reviewed... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 241.3 Section 241.3... CONTROL COST-SHARING REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE ABILITY TO PAY PROVISION § 241.3 References. References cited...

  6. PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) PROJECT TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 24, 1959 TO FEBRUARY 23, 1960

    SciTech Connect

    None

    -pressure-bonding appears to be a suitable means of incorporating void volume in fuel compartments of oxide plates. High density (99% T.D.) and improved microstructure of B/sub 4/C-SiC burnable poisons are achieved when small (2 micron) B/sub 4/C particle size powder is used ia hot pressing compacts. Measurements of the self-diffusion coefficients of uranium in UO/sub 2/ by the method of surface activity decrease were completed. Experiments on the diffusion of Xe/sup 133/ in Core 2--type UO/sup 2/ fuel platelets were completed. Diffusion anaeals carried out at 1000 deg C on samples from the X-3-1 and the 14-28 irradiation tests show that the apparent diffusion coefficient for Kr/sup 85/ incresses considerably with burnup. An average activation energy for thoron emanation in UO/sub 2/ was estimated to be 44 kcal/mole. An initial experiment on the release of helium from slightly irradiated B/sub 4/C at 900 deg C resulted in a diffusion coefficient for helium of 3.5 x 10/sup -8/ Physics: Calculatad values for seed-blanket power sharing as a function of PWR-1 Seed 1 life were compared with measured data obtained from thermal instrumentation at Shippingport. Two-dimensional depletion studies in the PWR-2 "composite cell" geometry were completed for seed assembly configurations having different radial fuel zoning. An eighth core representation is being employed for a two- dimensional depletion calculation of PWR-2. An analysis of the effect on the axial power distribution of the nonuniform temperature distribution in an 8 ft PWR-2 core loaded with 295 kg of U/sup 235/ indicated that local variations in power density of as much as 15% may occur, relative to the distribution that would exist if the axial temperature distribution were uniform. A technique was developed which makes possible an approximately correct description of the neutron capture rate within small rectangular boron wafers in diffusion theory calculations. Seed peaking factors measured in a five-cluster slab of PWR-2 mock- up

  7. Benchmarking reference services: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J G; Buchanan, H S

    1995-01-01

    Benchmarking is based on the common sense idea that someone else, either inside or outside of libraries, has found a better way of doing certain things and that your own library's performance can be improved by finding out how others do things and adopting the best practices you find. Benchmarking is one of the tools used for achieving continuous improvement in Total Quality Management (TQM) programs. Although benchmarking can be done on an informal basis, TQM puts considerable emphasis on formal data collection and performance measurement. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to evaluate process performance. This article introduces the general concept of benchmarking, linking it whenever possible to reference services in health sciences libraries. Data collection instruments that have potential application in benchmarking studies are discussed and the need to develop common measurement tools to facilitate benchmarking is emphasized.

  8. Potential of pin-by-pin SPN calculations as an industrial reference

    SciTech Connect

    Fliscounakis, M.; Girardi, E.; Courau, T.

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims at analysing the potential of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations to compute the neutronic flux in PWR cores as an alternative to the diffusion approximation. As far as pin-by-pin calculations are concerned, a SPH equivalence is used to preserve the reactions rates. The use of SPH equivalence is a common practice in core diffusion calculations. In this paper, a methodology to generalize the equivalence procedure in the SP{sub n} equations context is presented. In order to verify and validate the equivalence procedure, SP{sub n} calculations are compared to 2D transport reference results obtained with the APOLL02 code. Themore » validation cases consist in 3x3 analytical assembly color sets involving burn-up heterogeneities, UOX/MOX interfaces, and control rods. Considering various energy discretizations (up to 26 groups) and flux development orders (up to 7) for the SP{sub n} equations, results show that 26-group SP{sub 3} calculations are very close to the transport reference (with pin production rates discrepancies < 1%). This proves the high interest of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations as an industrial reference when relying on 26 energy groups combined with SP{sub 3} flux development order. Additionally, the SP{sub n} results are compared to diffusion pin-by-pin calculations, in order to evaluate the potential benefit of using a SP{sub n} solver as an alternative to diffusion. Discrepancies on pin-production rates are less than 1.6% for 6-group SP{sub 3} calculations against 3.2% for 2-group diffusion calculations. This shows that SP{sub n} solvers may be considered as an alternative to multigroup diffusion. (authors)« less

  9. A reference aerosol for a radon reference chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Annette; Keyser, Uwe

    1996-02-01

    The measurement of radon and radon progenies and the calibration of their detection systems require the production and measurement of aerosols well-defined in size and concentration. In the German radon reference chamber, because of its unique chemical and physical properties, carnauba wax is used to produce standard aerosols. The aerosol size spectra are measured on-line by an aerosol measurement system in the range of 10 nm to 1 μm aerodynamic diameter. The experimental set-ups for the study of adsorption of radioactive ions on aerosols as function of their size and concentration will be described, the results presented and further adaptations for an aerosol jet introduced (for example, for the measurement of short-lived neutron-rich isotopes). Data on the dependence of aerosol radius, ion concentration and element selectivity is collected by using a 252Cf-sf source. The fission products of this source range widely in elements, isotopes and charges. Adsorption and the transport of radioactive ions on aerosols have therefore been studied for various ions for the first time, simultaneously with the aerosol size on-line spectrometry.

  10. [The National Reference Centres and Reference Laboratories. Importance and tasks].

    PubMed

    Laude, G; Ammon, A

    2005-09-01

    Since 1995, the German Federal Ministry for Health and Social Security funds National Reference Centres (NRC) for the laboratory surveillance of important pathogens and syndromes. Which pathogens or syndromes are selected to be covered by a NRC depends on their epidemiological relevance, the special diagnostic tools, problems with antimicrobial resistance and necessary infection control measures. Currently, there are 15 NRC, which are appointed for a period of 3 years (currently from January 2005 through December 2007). Towards the end of their appointment all NRC are evaluated by a group of specialists. The assessment of their achievements is guided by a catalogue of tasks for the NRC. In addition to the NRC, a total of 50 laboratories are appointed which provide specialist expertise for additional pathogens in order to have a broad range of pathogens for which specialist laboratories are available. Their predominant task is to give advice and support for special diagnostic problems. Both NRC and the specialist laboratories are important parts of the network for infectious disease epidemiology.

  11. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  12. Development of a Korean reference HLW disposal system under the Korean representative geologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jongwon

    2007-07-01

    The development of a Korean Reference disposal System for the spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors is outlined in this paper. Around 36,000 tU of spent fuels are being projected based on the lifetimes of 28 nuclear power reactors in Korea. Since the site for the geological disposal has not yet been decided, a hypothetical site with representative Korean geologic conditions is proposed for the conceptual design of the repository. The disposal rates of the spent fuels are determined according to the total operation time of 55 years. The canisters are optimized by considering natural Korean conditions, and themore » buffer is designed with domestic Ca-bentonite. The depth of the repository is determined to be 500 m below the ground's surface. The canister separation distances are determined through a thermal analysis. The main features of the repository are presented from the layout to the closure. A computer program has been developed to calculate and analyze the volume and the area of the disposal system to help in the cost analysis. The final output of the design is presented as a unit disposal cost, US $315 /kgU. (authors)« less

  13. A reference architecture for telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The Telecare Interactive Continuous Monitoring System exploits GPRS to provide an ambulatory device that monitors selected vital signs on a continuous basis. Alarms are sent when parameters fall outside preset limits, and accompanying physiological data may also be transmitted. The always-connected property of GPRS allows continuous interactive control of the device and its sensors, permitting changes to monitoring parameters or even enabling continuous monitoring of a sensor in emergency. A new personal area network (PAN) has been developed to support short-range wireless connection to sensors worn on the body including ECG and finger worn SpO2. Most notable is use of ultra low radio frequency to reduce power to minimum. The system has been designed to use a hierarchical architecture for sensors and "derived" signals, such as HR from ECG, so that each can be independently controlled and managed. Sensors are treated as objects, and functions are defined to control aspects of behaviour. These are refined in order to define a generic set of abstract functions to handle the majority of functions, leaving a minimum of sensor specific commands. The intention is to define a reference architecture in order to research the functionality and system architecture of a telemonitoring system. The Telecare project is funded through a grant from the European Commission (IST programme).

  14. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.

  15. The Reference Forward Model (RFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudhia, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The Reference Forward Model (RFM) is a general purpose line-by-line radiative transfer model, currently supported by the UK National Centre for Earth Observation. This paper outlines the algorithms used by the RFM, focusing on standard calculations of terrestrial atmospheric infrared spectra followed by a brief summary of some additional capabilities and extensions to microwave wavelengths and extraterrestrial atmospheres. At its most basic level - the 'line-by-line' component - it calculates molecular absorption cross-sections by applying the Voigt lineshape to all transitions up to ±25 cm-1 from line-centre. Alternatively, absorptions can be directly interpolated from various forms of tabulated data. These cross-sections are then used to construct infrared radiance or transmittance spectra for ray paths through homogeneous cells, plane-parallel or circular atmospheres. At a higher level, the RFM can apply instrumental convolutions to simulate measurements from Fourier transform spectrometers. It can also calculate Jacobian spectra and so act as a stand-alone forward model within a retrieval scheme. The RFM is designed for robustness, flexibility and ease-of-use (particularly by the non-expert), and no claims are made for superior accuracy, or indeed novelty, compared to other line-by-line codes. Its main limitations at present are a lack of scattering and simplified modelling of surface reflectance and line-mixing.

  16. [Errors in Peruvian medical journals references].

    PubMed

    Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2009-01-01

    References are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of references found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers references selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated reference information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the references, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). References error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of references in the editorial process as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. references, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.

  17. Microcomputer Scheduling of Reference Desk Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Donna; Owen, Willy

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model that can accommodate staff preferences when determining a reference desk schedule using a microcomputer, the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet software, and the linear programing software LP83. (eight references) (MES)

  18. Selected Reference Books of 1970-71

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1971-01-01

    A continuation of the semiannual series, this list presents a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. It is not intended to be well balanced or comprehensive. (34 references) (Author/NH)

  19. Reference Structures: Stagnation, Progress, and Future Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the current state of reference structures in online public access catalogs (OPACs) in a framework defined by stagnation, progress, and future challenges. Outlines six areas for reference structure development. Twenty figures provide illustrations. (AEF)

  20. Development code for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input on the MCNPX for neutronic calculation in PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Hartini, Entin, E-mail: entin@batan.go.id; Andiwijayakusuma, Dinan, E-mail: entin@batan.go.id

    2014-09-30

    This research was carried out on the development of code for uncertainty analysis is based on a statistical approach for assessing the uncertainty input parameters. In the butn-up calculation of fuel, uncertainty analysis performed for input parameters fuel density, coolant density and fuel temperature. This calculation is performed during irradiation using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport. The Uncertainty method based on the probabilities density function. Development code is made in python script to do coupling with MCNPX for criticality and burn-up calculations. Simulation is done by modeling the geometry of PWR terrace, with MCNPX on the power 54 MW with fuelmore » type UO2 pellets. The calculation is done by using the data library continuous energy cross-sections ENDF / B-VI. MCNPX requires nuclear data in ACE format. Development of interfaces for obtaining nuclear data in the form of ACE format of ENDF through special process NJOY calculation to temperature changes in a certain range.« less

  1. Characterization of interfacial reactions and oxide films on 316L stainless steel in various simulated PWR primary water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjie; Xiao, Qian; Lu, Zhanpeng; Ru, Xiangkun; Peng, Hao; Xiong, Qi; Li, Hongjuan

    2017-06-01

    The effect of water chemistry on the electrochemical and oxidizing behaviors of 316L SS was investigated in hydrogenated, deaerated and oxygenated PWR primary water at 310 °C. Water chemistry significantly influenced the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy parameters. The highest charge-transfer resistance and oxide-film resistance occurred in oxygenated water. The highest electric double-layer capacitance and constant phase element of the oxide film were in hydrogenated water. The oxide films formed in deaerated and hydrogenated environments were similar in composition but different in morphology. An oxide film with spinel outer particles and a compact and Cr-rich inner layer was formed in both hydrogenated and deaerated water. Larger and more loosely distributed outer oxide particles were formed in deaerated water. In oxygenated water, an oxide film with hematite outer particles and a porous and Ni-rich inner layer was formed. The reaction kinetics parameters obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and oxidation film properties relating to the steady or quasi-steady state conditions in the time-period of measurements could provide fundamental information for understanding stress corrosion cracking processes and controlling parameters.

  2. Penetrative Internal Oxidation from Alloy 690 Surfaces and Stress Corrosion Crack Walls during Exposure to PWR Primary Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszta, Matthew J.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    Analytical electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe tomography (ATP) examinations of surface and near-surface oxidation have been performed on Ni-30%Cr alloy 690 materials after exposure to high-temperature, simulated PWR primary water. The oxidation nanostructures have been characterized at crack walls after stress-corrosion crack growth tests and at polished surfaces of unstressed specimens for the same alloys. Localized oxidation was discovered for both crack walls and surfaces as continuous filaments (typically <10 nm in diameter) extending from the water interface into the alloy 690 matrix reaching depths of 500 nm. These filaments consisted of discrete, plate-shaped Cr2O3 particles surrounded by a distribution of nanocrystalline, rock-salt (Ni-Cr-Fe) oxide. The oxide-containing filament depth was found to increase with exposure time and, at longer times, the filaments became very dense at the surface leaving only isolated islands of metal. Individual dislocations were oxidized in non-deformed materials, while the oxidation path appeared to be along more complex dislocation substructures in heavily deformed materials. This paper will highlight the use of high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy in combination with APT to better elucidate the microstructure and microchemistry of the filamentary oxidation.

  3. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. Formore » the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.« less

  4. Influence of localized deformation on A-286 austenitic stainless steel stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, L.; Savoie, M.; Delafosse, D.

    2007-06-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of precipitation-strengthened A-286 austenitic stainless steel was first investigated at room temperature under 0.2% plastic strain control. LCF led to hardening for the first 20 cycles and then to significant softening. LCF-induced dislocation microstructure was characterized using both bright and dark-field imaging techniques in transmission electron microscopy. Cycling softening was correlated with the formation of precipitate-free localized deformation bands. The effect of these precipitate-free localized deformation bands on A-286 stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour in PWR primary water was then examined by means of constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests at 320 °C and 360 °C. Comparative CERT tests were performed on companion specimens with similar yield stress but pre-fatigued to a few cycles (4-8) or between 125 and 200 cycles. Specimens pre-fatigued to a few cycles with no precipitate-free localized deformation bands exhibited little susceptibility to intergranular SCC (IGSCC). In contrast, the presence of precipitate-free localized deformation bands formed by pre-fatigue to between 125 and 200 cycles strongly promoted IGSCC. The interest of the approach used in this study is to provide insight into the role of localized deformation in irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  5. Effect of surface state on the oxidation behavior of welded 308L in simulated nominal primary water of PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jiazhen; Zhu, Ruolin; Ding, Jie; Wang, Jianqiu; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The oxidation behavior of 308L weld metal (WM) with different surface state in the simulated nominal primary water of pressurized water reactor (PWR) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyzer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After 480 h immersion, a duplex oxide film composed of a Fe-rich outer layer (Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and a small amount of NiFe2O4, Ni(OH)2, Cr(OH)3 and (Ni, Fe)Cr2O4) and a Cr-rich inner layer (FeCr2O4 and NiCr2O4) can be formed on the 308L WM samples with different surface state. The surface state has no influence on the phase composition of the oxide films but obviously affects the thickness of the oxide films and the morphology of the oxides (number & size). With increasing the density of dislocations and subgrain boundaries in the cold-worked superficial layer, the thickness of the oxide film, the number and size of the oxides decrease.

  6. Management of thermal peaking factors in CONFU-B PWR assemblies using neutron poisons and tailored enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Visosky, M.; Hejzlar, P.; Kazimi, M.

    2006-07-01

    CONFU-B assemblies are PWR assemblies containing standard Uranium fuel rods and TRU bearing inert material fuel rods and are designed to achieve net TRU destruction over a 4.5-year irradiation. These highly heterogeneous assemblies tend to exhibit large intra-assembly power peaking factors (IAPPF). Neutronic strategies to reduce IAPPF are developed. The IAPPF are calculated at the assembly level using CASMO4, and these are used to calculate the most restrictive thermal margin (the Minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio, MDNBR) using a whole-core VIPRE-01 model. This paper examines two strategies to manage the thermal margin of a CONFU-B assembly while retaining themore » TRU destruction performance: use of neutron poisons and tailored enrichment schemes. Burnable poisons can be used to suppress BOL reactivity of fresh CONFU-B assemblies with only minor impact on MDNBR and TRU destruction performance. Tailored enrichment, along with the use of soluble boron, can achieve significant improvements in MDNBR, but at some cost to TRU destruction performance. (authors)« less

  7. Development of modified MDA (M-MDA), PWR fuel cladding tube for high duty operation in future

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Seiichi; Kido, Toshiya; Arakawa, Yasushi

    2007-07-01

    A new cladding material of M-MDA has been developed in order to prepare for a strong growing demand for advanced fuel which can maintain its integrity even under high duties due to more efficient operation such as higher burnup, higher LHR, and longer operation cycle which will contribute the suppression of environmental burdens like CO{sub 2} emission. The main aim of M-MDA is to have excellent corrosion resistance while the other properties are inherited from MDA, which has been adopted to the step 2 fuel, instead of Zry-4, of Japanese PWR plant whose upper limit of assembly discharged burnup ismore » 55 MWd/kgU. And we could confirm that the main aim of M-MDA was achieved by means of out-of-pile tests. In order to confirm improvement of corrosion resistance of M-MDA in the actual operation, irradiation test of M-MDA in the commercial reactor of Vandellos II is ongoing. The latest results of on-site examination after every end of cycle showed that oxide thickness of M-MDA-SR was much smaller than that of MDA at rod discharged burnup of approximately 60 MWd/kgU. The final irradiation cycle was completed on April 2007 and then we will obtain corrosion data of M-MDA over 70 MWd/kgU. M-MDA is a candidate alloy for advanced fuel under higher duty usage. (authors)« less

  8. Measurement and Analysis of Structural Integrity of Reactor Core Support Structure in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Saleem A.; Haroon, Muhammad; Rashid, Atif; Kazmi, Zafar

    2017-02-01

    Extensive calculation and measurements of flow-induced vibrations (FIV) of reactor internals were made in a PWR plant to assess the structural integrity of reactor core support structure against coolant flow. The work was done to meet the requirements of the Fukushima Response Action Plan (FRAP) for enhancement of reactor safety, and the regulatory guide RG-1.20. For the core surveillance measurements the Reactor Internals Vibration Monitoring System (IVMS) has been developed based on detailed neutron noise analysis of the flux signals from the four ex-core neutron detectors. The natural frequencies, displacement and mode shapes of the reactor core barrel (CB) motion were determined with the help of IVMS. The random pressure fluctuations in reactor coolant flow due to turbulence force have been identified as the predominant cause of beam-mode deflection of CB. The dynamic FIV calculations were also made to supplement the core surveillance measurements. The calculational package employed the computational fluid dynamics, mode shape analysis, calculation of power spectral densities of flow & pressure fields and the structural response to random flow excitation forces. The dynamic loads and stiffness of the Hold-Down Spring that keeps the core structure in position against upward coolant thrust were also determined by noise measurements. Also, the boron concentration in primary coolant at any time of the core cycle has been determined with the IVMS.

  9. Reference surfaces for bridge scour depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Depth of scour is measured as the vertical distance between scoured channel geometry and a measurement reference surface. A scour depth measurement can have a wide range depending on the method used to establish the reference surface. A consistent method to establish reference surfaces for bridge scour measurements is needed to facilitate transferability of scour data an scour analyses. This paper describes and evaluates techniques for establishing reference surfaces from which local and contraction scour are measured.

  10. Reference materials for cellular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bravery, Christopher A; French, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The development of cellular therapeutics (CTP) takes place over many years, and, where successful, the developer will anticipate the product to be in clinical use for decades. Successful demonstration of manufacturing and quality consistency is dependent on the use of complex analytical methods; thus, the risk of process and method drift over time is high. The use of reference materials (RM) is an established scientific principle and as such also a regulatory requirement. The various uses of RM in the context of CTP manufacturing and quality are discussed, along with why they are needed for living cell products and the analytical methods applied to them. Relatively few consensus RM exist that are suitable for even common methods used by CTP developers, such as flow cytometry. Others have also identified this need and made proposals; however, great care will be needed to ensure any consensus RM that result are fit for purpose. Such consensus RM probably will need to be applied to specific standardized methods, and the idea that a single RM can have wide applicability is challenged. Written standards, including standardized methods, together with appropriate measurement RM are probably the most appropriate way to define specific starting cell types. The characteristics of a specific CTP will to some degree deviate from those of the starting cells; consequently, a product RM remains the best solution where feasible. Each CTP developer must consider how and what types of RM should be used to ensure the reliability of their own analytical measurements. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 5 CFR 294.401 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 294.401 Section 294.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION Cross References § 294.401 References. The table below provides assistance in locating other OPM...

  12. 33 CFR 242.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 242.3 Section 242.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References. The references in...

  13. 32 CFR 634.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 634.2 Section 634.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.2 References. Required and related publications along with prescribed and reference...

  14. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  15. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  17. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference into... the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  18. 33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat...) The aft reference area of a boat is the aft most two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck, as...

  19. Testing the causal theory of reference.

    PubMed

    Domaneschi, Filippo; Vignolo, Massimiliano; Di Paola, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names. A secondary but interesting result is that the semantic domain affects reference assignment: while with people proper names speakers tend to assign the semantic reference, with geographical proper names they are prompted to assign the speaker's reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  1. TMI-2 - A Case Study for PWR Instrumentation Performance during a Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson

    2013-03-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor provided a unique opportunity to evaluate sensors exposed to severe accident conditions. Conditions associated with the release of coolant and the hydrogen burn that occurred during this accident exposed instrumentation to harsh conditions, including direct radiation, radioactive contamination, and high humidity with elevated temperatures and pressures. As part of a program initiated in 2012 by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a review was completed to gain insights from prior TMI-2 sensor survivability and data qualification efforts. This new effort focussed upon a set of sensorsmore » that provided critical data to TMI-2 operators for assessing the condition of the plant and the effects of mitigating actions taken by these operators. In addition, the effort considered sensors providing data required for subsequent accident simulations. Over 100 references related to instrumentation performance and post-accident evaluations of TMI-2 sensors and measurements were reviewed. Insights gained from this review are summarized within this report. For each sensor, a description is provided with the measured data and conclusions related to the sensor’s survivability, and the basis for conclusions about its survivability. As noted within this document, several techniques were invoked in the TMI-2 post-accident evaluation program to assess sensor status, including comparisons with data from other sensors, analytical calculations, laboratory testing, and comparisons with sensors subjected to similar conditions in large-scale integral tests and with sensors that were similar in design but more easily removed from the TMI-2 plant for evaluations. Conclusions from this review provide important insights related to sensor survivability and enhancement options for improving sensor performance. In addition, this document provides recommendations related to the sensor survivability and data

  2. TMI-2 - A Case Study for PWR Instrumentation Performance during a Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson

    2014-05-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor provided a unique opportunity to evaluate sensors exposed to severe accident conditions. Conditions associated with the release of coolant and the hydrogen burn that occurred during this accident exposed instrumentation to harsh conditions, including direct radiation, radioactive contamination, and high humidity with elevated temperatures and pressures. As part of a program initiated in 2012 by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a review was completed to gain insights from prior TMI-2 sensor survivability and data qualification efforts. This new effort focussed upon a set of sensorsmore » that provided critical data to TMI-2 operators for assessing the condition of the plant and the effects of mitigating actions taken by these operators. In addition, the effort considered sensors providing data required for subsequent accident simulations. Over 100 references related to instrumentation performance and post-accident evaluations of TMI-2 sensors and measurements were reviewed. Insights gained from this review are summarized within this report. For each sensor, a description is provided with the measured data and conclusions related to the sensor’s survivability, and the basis for conclusions about its survivability. As noted within this document, several techniques were invoked in the TMI-2 post-accident evaluation program to assess sensor status, including comparisons with data from other sensors, analytical calculations, laboratory testing, and comparisons with sensors subjected to similar conditions in large-scale integral tests and with sensors that were similar in design but more easily removed from the TMI-2 plant for evaluations. Conclusions from this review provide important insights related to sensor survivability and enhancement options for improving sensor performance. In addition, this document provides recommendations related to the sensor survivability and data

  3. RELAP-7 Level 2 Milestone Report: Demonstration of a Steady State Single Phase PWR Simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect

    David Andrs; Ray Berry; Derek Gaston

    The document contains the simulation results of a steady state model PWR problem with the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on INL's modern scientific software development framework - MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). This report summarizes the initial results of simulating a model steady-state single phase PWR problem using the current version of the RELAP-7 code. The major purpose of this demonstration simulation is to show that RELAP-7 code can be rapidly developed to simulate single-phase reactor problems. RELAP-7more » is a new project started on October 1st, 2011. It will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series (the replacement for RELAP5). The key to the success of RELAP-7 is the simultaneous advancement of physical models, numerical methods, and software design while maintaining a solid user perspective. Physical models include both PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) and experimental based closure models. RELAP-7 will eventually utilize well posed governing equations for multiphase flow, which can be strictly verified. Closure models used in RELAP5 and newly developed models will be reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past three decades. RELAP-7 uses modern numerical methods, which allow implicit time integration, higher order schemes in both time and space, and strongly coupled multi-physics simulations. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. Its development follows modern software design paradigms. The code is easy to read, develop, maintain, and couple with other codes. Most importantly, the modern software design allows the RELAP-7 code

  4. Reactivity loss validation of high burn-up PWR fuels with pile-oscillation experiments in MINERVE

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, P.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Eschbach, R.

    2012-07-01

    The ALIX experimental program relies on the experimental validation of the spent fuel inventory, by chemical analysis of samples irradiated in a PWR between 5 and 7 cycles, and also on the experimental validation of the spent fuel reactivity loss with bum-up, obtained by pile-oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor. These latter experiments provide an overall validation of both the fuel inventory and of the nuclear data responsible for the reactivity loss. This program offers also unique experimental data for fuels with a burn-up reaching 85 GWd/t, as spent fuels in French PWRs never exceeds 70 GWd/t up to now.more » The analysis of these experiments is done in two steps with the APOLLO2/SHEM-MOC/CEA2005v4 package. In the first one, the fuel inventory of each sample is obtained by assembly calculations. The calculation route consists in the self-shielding of cross sections on the 281 energy group SHEM mesh, followed by the flux calculation by the Method Of Characteristics in a 2D-exact heterogeneous geometry of the assembly, and finally a depletion calculation by an iterative resolution of the Bateman equations. In the second step, the fuel inventory is used in the analysis of pile-oscillation experiments in which the reactivity of the ALIX spent fuel samples is compared to the reactivity of fresh fuel samples. The comparison between Experiment and Calculation shows satisfactory results with the JEFF3.1.1 library which predicts the reactivity loss within 2% for burn-up of {approx}75 GWd/t and within 4% for burn-up of {approx}85 GWd/t. (authors)« less

  5. [Scientific writing: the choice of references].

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, H

    1994-01-01

    Only "acceptable" references can be cited, i.e. references that the reader can find easily. Only published work must be referenced, and the author must only cite those papers he or she has actually read. These should be avoided, as they are always difficult to obtain. Conference abstracts are published either in the conference report handed to participants alone, or in special issues of journals. Only the latter should be cited, when necessary. References to oral presentations are not accepted. References to personal communications should not be included in the list of references. The author cited must have given express permission. "Secondhand" references, i.e. those the author has not taken time to read yet quotes nonetheless, are prohibited. Manuscripts submitted for publication should not be cited. Articles accepted for publications can be referenced as "In press; "name of journal".

  6. Writing more informative letters of reference.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-05-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess "intangibles" that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference.

  7. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess “intangibles” that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference. PMID:15109330

  8. ["Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa].

    PubMed

    Siefert, Linda

    2017-02-01

    "Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa The internet-based phenomenon "Pro Ana" refers to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa in a positive way. To understand what the phenomenon "Pro Ana" represents, the websites are used as a starting point of the current analysis. Based on these results, similarities and differences between "Pro Ana" and the eating disorder anorexia nervosa are discussed. Furthermore psychodynamic references for anorexia nervosa are derived and finally their importance for treatment motivation will be considered.

  9. Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

  10. A standard satellite control reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Constance

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

  11. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  12. PWR FLECHT SEASET 163-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task data report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse report No. 13, August-October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, M J; Hochreiter, L E; McGuire, M F

    This report presents data from the 163-Rod Bundle Blow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Systems Effects and Separate Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The task consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. These tests were designed to determine effects of flow blockage and flow bypass on reflooding behavior and to aid in the assessment of computational models in predicting the reflooding behavior of flow blockage in rod bundle arrays.

  13. THE CONCEPT OF REFERENCE CONDITION, REVISITED ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘reference condition’’ is often used to describe the standard or benchmark against which current condition is compared. If assessments are to be conducted consistently, then a common understanding of the definitions and complications of reference condition is necessary. A 2006 paper (Stoddard et al., 2006, Ecological Applications 16:1267-1276) made an early attempt at codifying the reference condition concept; in this presentation we will revisit the points raised in that paper (and others) and examine how our thinking has changed in a little over 10 years.Among the issues to be discussed: (1) the “moving target” created when reference site data are used to set thresholds in large scale assessments; (2) natural vs. human disturbance and their effects on reference site distributions; (3) circularity and the use of biological data to assist in reference site identification; (4) using site-scale (in-stream or in-lake) measurements vs. landscape-level human activity to identify reference conditions. Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘reference condition’’ is often use

  14. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  15. Successful Reference Training on a Shoestring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalvee, Debbie

    1996-01-01

    The Anchorage Library Information Network created the STAR (State of the Art Reference) group to deliver reference training to Alaskan librarians and information providers. Librarians were trained to run workshops that focused on acquiring communications skills through practice, coaching, and reinforcement on the job. Due to budget constraints,…

  16. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...

  17. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code. [45 FR 68375, Oct. 15, 1980, as...

  18. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code. [45 FR 68375, Oct. 15, 1980, as...

  19. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code. [45 FR 68375, Oct. 15, 1980, as...

  20. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code. [45 FR 68375, Oct. 15, 1980, as...

  1. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code. [45 FR 68375, Oct. 15, 1980, as...

  2. The Shorewood Collection Art Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    This reference guide contains a descriptive critique of each of more than 900 images of paintings and drawings presented in "The Shorewood Collection." This guide is intended to be used as a reference tool in conjunction with Shorewood's art educational programs, which range from grade levels K through 12. Master works from major epochs in the…

  3. 32 CFR 651.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 651.2 Section 651.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.2 References. Required and related publications and...

  4. 21 CFR 660.52 - Reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reference preparations. 660.52 Section 660.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.52 Reference...

  5. Virtual Reference Transcript Analysis: A Few Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the introduction of virtual, or digital, reference service at the University of New Brunswick libraries. Highlights include analyzing transcripts from LIVE (Library Information in a Virtual Environment); reference question types; ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) information literacy competency standards; and the Big 6…

  6. Writing references and using citation management software.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  7. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... set forth the material that has been incorporated by reference in this part. (1) ASTM material. The... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure” Appendix A to Subpart D. ASTM D93-97: “Standard...

  8. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen...

  9. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen...

  10. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center for... used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

  11. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen...

  12. Automation and Job Satisfaction among Reference Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of job satisfaction and the level of job performance focuses on the effect of automation on job satisfaction among reference librarians. The influence of stress is discussed, a job strain model is explained, and examples of how to design a job to reduce the stress caused by automation are given. (12 references) (LRW)

  13. Flexible Educational Facilities. An Annotated Reference List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Howard E.

    These references on flexible educational facilities are abstracted by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities. College material includes an experimental learning center, a college health center, a fine arts center, and university library design. References on schools include secondary school design, flexible high school design, standard…

  14. Patron Preference in Reference Service Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Linda

    1980-01-01

    Behavior of patrons choosing between a person sitting at a counter and one sitting at a desk at each of two reference points was observed at the reference department during remodeling at the M. D. Anderson Library of the University of Houston. Results showed a statistically relevant preference for the counter. (Author/JD)

  15. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...

  16. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...

  17. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...

  18. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...

  19. Going Prime Time with Live Chat Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoag, Tara J.; Cichanowicz, Edana McCaffrey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of the Suffolk Cooperative Library System's live, online chat reference service, a pilot project for public libraries in Suffolk County (New York). Topics include chat software selection; a virtual reference collection; marketing; funding; staffing; evaluation; expanded hours of service; email; and extracting data from…

  20. Comparing Theories of Reference-Dependent Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-01-01

    Preferences are influenced by the presence or absence of salient choice options, known as reference points. This behavioral tendency is traditionally attributed to the loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity assumptions of prospect theory. In contrast, some psychological research suggests that reference dependence is caused by attentional biases…

  1. Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the design and analysis of a predictor-based model reference adaptive control. Stable adaptive laws are derived using Lyapunov framework. The proposed architecture is compared with the now classical model reference adaptive control. A simulation example is presented in which numerical evidence indicates that the proposed controller yields improved transient characteristics.

  2. Russian History; A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This guide identifies reference sources for the study of Russian and Soviet history available in the McGill University (Montreal) McLennan Library. Russian, English, French, and German language works covering Russian history from its origins to World War II are included. The guide is arranged in two parts: general reference sources and…

  3. 32 CFR 516.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 516.2 Section 516.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.2 References. Applicable publications and forms are listed in appendix A to this...

  4. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  5. Writing references and using citation management software

    PubMed Central

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized. PMID:26328132

  6. On Learning to Write Those **** References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how difficult it is for psychology college students to learn to write multiple disciplines of references. It is hard for students to understand why all details have to be written in the right order and the right type-style--depending upon which reference system is used. In this article, the author proposes…

  7. Archaeology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desautels, Almuth, Comp.

    This bibliography lists reference sources for research in archaeology. It is arranged in sections by type of reference source with subsections for general works and works covering specific areas. Categorized are handbooks; directories, biographies, and museums; encyclopedias; dictionaries; atlases; guides, manuals, and surveys; bibliographies; and…

  8. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES General § 91.6 Reference materials. (a) Incorporation by... the Research Method Appendix A to Subpart D. ASTM D2700-92: Standard Test Method for Knock... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and...

  9. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES General § 91.6 Reference materials. (a) Incorporation by... the Research Method Appendix A to Subpart D. ASTM D2700-92: Standard Test Method for Knock... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and...

  10. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES General § 91.6 Reference materials. (a) Incorporation by... the Research Method Appendix A to Subpart D. ASTM D2700-92: Standard Test Method for Knock... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and...

  11. Economics: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    Approximately 84 reference materials on economics located in the McLennan Library, McGill University (Montreal), are cited in this annotated bibliography. The bibliography serves to provide an overview of the printed bibliographic and reference sources useful for the study of economics. Financial and business sources and statistical compendia and…

  12. Jewish Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography to the reference sources for Jewish Studies in the McLennan Library of McGill University (Canada) is presented. Any titles in Hebrew characters are listed by their transliterated equivalents. There is also a list of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings. General reference sources listed are: encyclopedias,…

  13. 32 CFR 516.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true References. 516.2 Section 516.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.2 References. Applicable publications and forms are listed in appendix A to this...

  14. World Reference Center for Arboviruses and Retroviruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Reference Center for Arboviruses and Retroviruses identified viruses from Thailand, Nepal, Egypt, Colombia, and Panama. Cache Valley virus from a recruit...ARBOVIRUSES . . 13 A. Study of viruses from Thailand and Nepal . . . . 13 B. Isolation of Sicilian sandfly fever virus from Egyptian phlebotomines...dengue viruses ..... . 30 VII. LOW PASSAGE VIRUS COLLECTION .... ............. 32 VIII. ARBOVIRUS BULLETIN BOARD, REFERENCE, AND DATA ACCESS . 32 IX

  15. 33 CFR 236.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 236.3 Section 236.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.3 References. (a) PL 89-72 (b) ER 1105-2-10 (c) ER 1105-2-200 ...

  16. CD-ROM + Fax = Shared Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, Diana; Fradkin, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Reference by GammaFax Project, which joined nine area libraries to provide cooperative reference access to optical disk databases. The configuration of disk players, microcomputers, and facsimile equipment used by the libraries is explained, and the improvements in cost effectiveness, provision of service, and librarian expertise are…

  17. 33 CFR 242.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References. The references in... Engineers Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Planning Guidance Notebook. (c) Corps of Engineers Engineering Pamphlet 37-1-4, Cost of Doing Business. ...

  18. 33 CFR 242.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References. The references in... Engineers Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Planning Guidance Notebook. (c) Corps of Engineers Engineering Pamphlet 37-1-4, Cost of Doing Business. ...

  19. 33 CFR 242.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References. The references in... Engineers Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Planning Guidance Notebook. (c) Corps of Engineers Engineering Pamphlet 37-1-4, Cost of Doing Business. ...

  20. 33 CFR 242.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References. The references in... Engineers Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Planning Guidance Notebook. (c) Corps of Engineers Engineering Pamphlet 37-1-4, Cost of Doing Business. ...

  1. 47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reference points. 76.53 Section 76.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53 Reference points. The...

  2. 47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reference points. 76.53 Section 76.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53 Reference points. The...

  3. 47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reference points. 76.53 Section 76.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53 Reference points. The...

  4. 47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reference points. 76.53 Section 76.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53 Reference points. The...

  5. Technology: Trigger for Change in Reference Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, Clark N.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the influence of technological developments on social change focuses on the effects of information technology on academic reference librarianship. Highlights include reference skills; electronic resources; microcomputer technology; online catalogs; interaction and communication with users; the need to teach information skills; and…

  6. Uncertainty in Reference and Information Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanScoy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Uncertainty is understood as an important component of the information seeking process, but it has not been explored as a component of reference and information service. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the practitioner perspective of reference and information service for eight academic research…

  7. Reference. Advisory List of Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    The reference books featured in this annotated bibliography were selected from those titles that publishers submitted to the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction for review. As such, it is not a comprehensive list of all reference titles in print. This guide organizes the 33 titles into major subject categories: (1) Arts…

  8. S. R. Ranganathan's Theory of Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Manoj M.

    A study of S. R. Ranganathan's theory of reference service is undertaken by using an historical methodology. It was evident from the literature review that Ranganathan had established that reference service was the most important work and served as the hub of all library practices. There were six factors that were repeatedly considered by…

  9. Color, Reference, and Expertise in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eve V.

    2006-01-01

    In learning the meaning of a new term, children need to fix its reference, learn its conventional meaning, and discover the meanings with which it contrasts. To do this, children must attend to adult speakers--the experts--and to their patterns of use. In the domain of color, children need to identify color terms as such, fix the reference of each…

  10. Preceiving Patterns of Reference Service: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Florence

    1971-01-01

    Reference librarians must, if they hope to survive, retool in preparation for becoming the interface between the patron and computer-based information systems. This involves sharpening the interview technique and understanding where to plug into the information flow process. (4 references) (Author)

  11. 33 CFR 273.12 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 273.12 Section 273.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.12 References. (a) Section 302, Pub. L. 89-298, (79 Stat. 1092), Rivers and Harbors...

  12. 33 CFR 273.12 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false References. 273.12 Section 273.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.12 References. (a) Section 302, Pub. L. 89-298, (79 Stat. 1092), Rivers and Harbors...

  13. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen...

  14. Selected Reference Books of 1971-72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1972-01-01

    Since the purpose of the list is to present a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries, it does not pretend to be either well balanced or comprehensive. (2 references) (Author/SJ)

  15. 33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forward most 2 feet of the top surface of the hull or deck, as illustrated in Figure 9. (b...

  16. Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

  17. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional radiators...

  18. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  19. Hematological reference values of healthy Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Roshan, T M; Rosline, H; Ahmed, S A; Rapiaah, M; Wan Zaidah, A; Khattak, M N

    2009-10-01

    Health and disease can only be distinguished by accurate and reliable reference values of a particular laboratory test. It is now a proven fact that there is considerable variation in hematology reference intervals depending on the demographic and preanalytical variables. There are evidences that values provided by manufacturers do not have appropriate application for all populations. Moreover, reference ranges provided by different laboratory manuals and books also do not solve this problem. We are presenting here normal reference ranges of Malaysian population. These values were determined by using Sysmex XE-2100 and ACL 9000 hematology and coagulation analyzers. Results from this study showed that there were considerable differences in the reference values from manufacturers, western population or laboratory manuals compared with those from the local population.

  20. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  1. Fuel cycle cost, reactor physics and fuel manufacturing considerations for Erbia-bearing PWR fuel with > 5 wt% U-235 content

    SciTech Connect

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E. J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N.

    2012-07-01

    The efforts to reduce fuel cycle cost have driven LWR fuel close to the licensed limit in fuel fissile content, 5.0 wt% U-235 enrichment, and the acceptable duty on current Zr-based cladding. An increase in the fuel enrichment beyond the 5 wt% limit, while certainly possible, entails costly investment in infrastructure and licensing. As a possible way to offset some of these costs, the addition of small amounts of Erbia to the UO{sub 2} powder with >5 wt% U-235 has been proposed, so that its initial reactivity is reduced to that of licensed fuel and most modifications to the existingmore » facilities and equipment could be avoided. This paper discusses the potentialities of such a fuel on the US market from a vendor's perspective. An analysis of the in-core behavior and fuel cycle performance of a typical 4-loop PWR with 18 and 24-month operating cycles has been conducted, with the aim of quantifying the potential economic advantage and other operational benefits of this concept. Subsequently, the implications on fuel manufacturing and storage are discussed. While this concept has certainly good potential, a compelling case for its short-term introduction as PWR fuel for the US market could not be determined. (authors)« less

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of Ni 2FeBO 5 in near-supercritical PWR coolant and possible effects of neutron-induced 10B fission in fuel crud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Jerzy A.

    2011-08-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of a nickel-iron oxyborate, Ni 2FeBO 5, known as bonaccordite, was investigated at pressures and temperatures that might occur at the surface of high-power fuel rods in PWR cores and in supercritical water reactors, especially during localized departures from nucleate boiling and dry-outs. The tests were performed using aqueous mixtures of nickel and iron oxides with boric acid or boron oxide, and as a function of lithium hydroxide addition, temperature and time of heating. At subcritical temperatures nickel ferrite NiFe 2O 4 was always the primary reaction product. High yield of Ni 2FeBO 5 synthesis started near critical water temperature and was strongly promoted by additions of LiOH up to Li/Fe and Li/B molar ratios in a range 0.1-1. The synthesis of bonaccordite was also promoted by other alkalis such as NaOH and KOH. The bonaccordite particles were likely formed by dissolution and re-crystallization by means of an intermediate nickel ferrite phase. It is postulated that the formation of Ni 2FeBO 5 in deposits of borated nickel and iron oxides on PWR fuel cladding can be accelerated by lithium produced in thermal neutron capture 10B(n,α) 7Li reactions. The process may also be aided in the reactor core by kinetic energy of α-particles and 7Li ions dissipated in the crud layer.

  3. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Cameron S.; Zhang, Hongbin; Kucukboyaci, Vefa; ...

    2016-09-07

    VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was used to simulate a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) full core response with 17x17 fuel assemblies for a main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenario with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The accident scenario was initiated at the hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with return to power state points that were determined by amore » system analysis code and the most limiting state point was chosen for core analysis. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this way, 59 full core simulations were performed to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. The results show that this typical PWR core remains within MDNBR safety limits for the MSLB accident.« less

  4. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Cameron S.; Zhang, Hongbin; Kucukboyaci, Vefa

    VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was used to simulate a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) full core response with 17x17 fuel assemblies for a main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenario with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The accident scenario was initiated at the hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with return to power state points that were determined by amore » system analysis code and the most limiting state point was chosen for core analysis. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this way, 59 full core simulations were performed to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. The results show that this typical PWR core remains within MDNBR safety limits for the MSLB accident.« less

  5. Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Kurt R; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune

    2016-12-01

    Reference pricing intends to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures by increasing demand elasticity and stimulating generic competition. We develop a novel model where a brand-name producer competes in prices with several generics producers in a market with brand-biased and brand-neutral consumers. Comparing with coinsurance, we show that reference pricing, contrary to policy makers' intentions, discourages generic entry, as it induces the brand-name producer to price more aggressively. Thus, the net effect of reference pricing on drug prices is ambiguous, implying that reference pricing can be counterproductive in reducing expenditures. However, under price regulation, we show that reference pricing may stimulate generic entry, since a binding price cap weakens the aggressive price response by the brand-name producer. This may explain mixed empirical results on the competitive effects of reference pricing. Finally, we show that reference pricing may be welfare improving when accounting for brand preferences despite its adverse effects on entry and prices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemistry in ethanol. I. Reference electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zara, A.J.; de S. Bulhoes, L.O.

    1982-01-01

    The silver/silver nitrate electrode was found to be a suitable reference electrode in ethanolic solutions (2% v/v in water). The concentration of Ag/sup +/ inside the reference electrode is satisfactory in teh 0.1 to 10 mM concentration range. The liquid junction potential is minimized with sufficient supporting electrolyte (e.g., 0.1 to 0.5 M sodium perchlorate). The electrode is suitable for use as reference electrode in potentiometry and in polarography. Preparation is uncomplicated and the product is stable. 4 figures.

  7. A new thorium-229 reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Essex, Richard M.; Mann, Jaqueline L.; Williams, Ross W.

    A new reference material was characterized for 229Th molality and thorium isotope amount ratios. This reference material is intended for use in nuclear forensic analyses as an isotope dilution mass spectrometry spike. The reference material value and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for the 229Th molality is (1.1498 ± 0.0016)×10 -10 mol g -1 solution. The value and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for the n( 230Th)/n( 229Th) ratio is (5.18 ± 0.26)×10 -5 and the n( 232Th)/n( 229Th) ratio is (3.815 ± 0.092)×10 -4.

  8. Toward a computational psycholinguistics of reference production.

    PubMed

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van Gompel, Roger P G; Krahmer, Emiel

    2012-04-01

    This article introduces the topic ''Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference'' of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at odds with psycholinguistic results, discussing how future algorithms might include non-determinism, and how new psycholinguistic experiments could inform the development of such algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. A new thorium-229 reference material

    DOE PAGES

    Essex, Richard M.; Mann, Jaqueline L.; Williams, Ross W.; ...

    2017-07-27

    A new reference material was characterized for 229Th molality and thorium isotope amount ratios. This reference material is intended for use in nuclear forensic analyses as an isotope dilution mass spectrometry spike. The reference material value and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for the 229Th molality is (1.1498 ± 0.0016)×10 -10 mol g -1 solution. The value and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for the n( 230Th)/n( 229Th) ratio is (5.18 ± 0.26)×10 -5 and the n( 232Th)/n( 229Th) ratio is (3.815 ± 0.092)×10 -4.

  10. Reference Books in Special Media. Reference Circular No. 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    Based on information contained in producers' catalogs and on responses to a survey conducted by the Reference Section of the Library of Congress National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, this publication lists reference materials produced in braille or in large type, and sound recordings of reference works available…

  11. The Complex Nature of Opening Reference Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Thomas Lee

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review communication theory models and some of the literature from philosophy and linguistics in an attempt to supply a rational explanation for the generality of opening reference questions. (Author)

  12. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  13. 16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... parentheses for convenience and information only. ...

  14. Reference Materials: Significance, General Requirements, and Demand.

    PubMed

    Kiełbasa, Anna; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-05-03

    Reference materials play an important part in the quality control of measurements. Rapid development of such new scientific disciplines as proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics also necessitates development of new reference materials. This is a great challenge due to the complexity of the production of new reference materials and difficulties associated with achieving their homogeneity and stability. CRMs of tissue are of particular importance. They can be counted among the matrices that are most complex and time consuming in preparation. Tissue is the place of transformation and accumulation of many substances (e.g., metabolites, which are intermediate or end products resulting from metabolic processes). Trace amounts of many substances in tissues must be determined with adequate precision and accuracy. To meet the needs stemming from research and from problems and challenges faced by chemists, analysts, and toxicologists, the number of certified reference materials should be continuously increased.

  15. 40 CFR 270.6 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporations by reference were approved by the Director of the Federal Register pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) The following materials are available...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... other disorders: X-linked thrombocytopenia and severe congenital neutropenia . These conditions have overlapping signs and symptoms and ... Aldrich syndrome , X-linked thrombocytopenia , and severe congenital neutropenia are sometimes collectively referred to as WAS-related ...

  17. 40 CFR 50.3 - Reference conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.3 Reference conditions. All measurements of air quality that... reported based on actual ambient air volume measured at the actual ambient temperature and pressure at the...

  18. Mercury's Reference Frames After the MESSENGER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, A.; Oberst, J.; Preusker, F.; Burmeister, S.; Steinbrügge, G.; Hussmann, H.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an overview of Mercury's reference frames based on MESSENGER observations. We discuss the dynamical, the principal-axes, the ellipsoid, as well as the cartographic frame, which was adopted for MESSENGER data products.

  19. SUPPORT FOR REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal Reference Methods (FRMs) and Federal Equivalent Methods (FEMs) form the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. They are the measurement methodologies that define attainment of a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). As knowledge and technology adva...

  20. Nonparametric spirometry reference values for Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nancy L; Brown, Vanessa M

    2011-02-01

    Recent literature sites ethnic origin as a major factor in developing pulmonary function reference values. Extensive studies established reference values for European and African Americans, but not for Hispanic Americans. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey defines Hispanic as individuals of Spanish speaking cultures. While no group was excluded from the target population, sample size requirements only allowed inclusion of individuals who identified themselves as Mexican Americans. This research constructs nonparametric reference value confidence intervals for Hispanic American pulmonary function. The method is applicable to all ethnicities. We use empirical likelihood confidence intervals to establish normal ranges for reference values. Its major advantage: it is model free, but shares asymptotic properties of model based methods. Statistical comparisons indicate that empirical likelihood interval lengths are comparable to normal theory intervals. Power and efficiency studies agree with previously published theoretical results.

  1. Evaluation of reference markers : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this research evaluation was to evaluate the reference markers which were installed on sections of interstates and freeways in the Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky area, the Lexington-Fayette Urban County area, the Louisville-southern In...

  2. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS General § 90.7 Reference materials... Fuels by the Research Method Appendix A to subpart D, Table 3. ASTM D2700-92: Standard Test Method for...

  3. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS General § 90.7 Reference materials... Fuels by the Research Method Appendix A to subpart D, Table 3. ASTM D2700-92: Standard Test Method for...

  4. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS General § 90.7 Reference materials... Fuels by the Research Method Appendix A to subpart D, Table 3. ASTM D2700-92: Standard Test Method for...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This condition is much more common in the French-Canadian population of the Canadian province of Quebec, ... A, Perie S, Pouget J, Eymard B; Neurologists of French Neuromuscular Reference Centers CORNEMUS and FILNEMUS. Correlation between ...

  6. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  7. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements are provided for the ozone reference model which is to be incorporated in the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide considerable information on the global ozone distribution, including ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from approximately 25 to 90 km, combining data from five recent satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 SAGE, Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UVS, and SME IR). The improved models are described and use reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extend the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the period 1981-1983. Comparisons are shown between the ozone reference model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  8. 32 CFR 507.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM Introduction § 507.2 References. Related publications are listed in paragraphs (a..., Tabards and Automobile Plates. (f) AFR 900-3, Department of the Air Force Seal, Organizational Emblems...

  9. Selected Reference Books of 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of selected reference books published between 1998 and 1999 under subject headings for biography, journalism, mythology, languages and literature, architecture and city planning, political science, economics, history, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  10. Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

  11. Selected Reference Books of 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1981-01-01

    Presents book reviews of recently published scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. The listing includes a brief roundup of new editions of standard works, continuations, and supplements. (RAA)

  12. Genetics Home Reference: carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zierz S. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: clinical and molecular genetic features and diagnostic aspects. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan; ... K, Hermann T, Zierz S. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: molecular and biochemical analysis of 32 ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its ...

  13. Selected Reference Books of 1969-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this list is to present a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. It is neither well balanced nor comprehensive. (Author/NH)

  14. Selected Reference Books of 2000/2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject categories of archives; literature; music; psychology; sociology; black studies; women's studies; history and area studies; and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  15. Desktop reference for crash reduction factors

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-09-01

    This Desktop Reference documents the estimates of the crash reduction that might be expected if a specific countermeasure or group of countermeasures is implemented with respect to intersections, roadway departure and other non-intersection crashes, ...

  16. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  17. A structural SVM approach for reference parsing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X; Thoma, George R

    2011-06-09

    Automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references is essential to the affordable creation of large citation databases. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can also provide valuable information for extracting other bibliographic data. Therefore, parsing individual reference to extract author, title, journal, year, etc. is sometimes a necessary preprocessing step in building citation-indexing systems. The regular structure in references enables us to consider reference parsing a sequence learning problem and to study structural Support Vector Machine (structural SVM), a newly developed structured learning algorithm on parsing references. In this study, we implemented structural SVM and used two types of contextual features to compare structural SVM with conventional SVM. Both methods achieve above 98% token classification accuracy and above 95% overall chunk-level accuracy for reference parsing. We also compared SVM and structural SVM to Conditional Random Field (CRF). The experimental results show that structural SVM and CRF achieve similar accuracies at token- and chunk-levels. When only basic observation features are used for each token, structural SVM achieves higher performance compared to SVM since it utilizes the contextual label features. However, when the contextual observation features from neighboring tokens are combined, SVM performance improves greatly, and is close to that of structural SVM after adding the second order contextual observation features. The comparison of these two methods with CRF using the same set of binary features show that both structural SVM and CRF perform better than SVM, indicating their stronger sequence learning ability in reference parsing.

  18. Reliability of reference distances used in photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Muge; Kaya, Demet; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2010-07-01

    To determine the reliability of the reference distances used for photogrammetric assessment. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with mean ages of 22.97 +/- 2.98 years. Five lateral and four frontal parameters were measured directly on the subjects' faces. For photogrammetric assessment, two reference distances for the profile view and three reference distances for the frontal view were established. Standardized photographs were taken and all the parameters that had been measured directly on the face were measured on the photographs. The reliability of the reference distances was checked by comparing direct and indirect values of the parameters obtained from the subjects' faces and photographs. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bland-Altman analyses were used for statistical assessment. For profile measurements, the indirect values measured were statistically different from the direct values except for Sn-Sto in male subjects and Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in female subjects. The indirect values of Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto were reliable in both sexes. The poorest results were obtained in the indirect values of the N-Sn parameter for female subjects and the Sn-Me parameter for male subjects according to the Sa-Sba reference distance. For frontal measurements, the indirect values were statistically different from the direct values in both sexes except for one in male subjects. The indirect values measured were not statistically different from the direct values for Go-Go. The indirect values of Ch-Ch were reliable in male subjects. The poorest results were obtained according to the P-P reference distance. For profile assessment, the T-Ex reference distance was reliable for Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in both sexes. For frontal assessment, Ex-Ex and En-En reference distances were reliable for Ch-Ch in male subjects.

  19. Development of an extended straightness measurement reference

    SciTech Connect

    Schenz, R.F.; Griffith, L.V.; Sommargren, G.E.

    1988-09-06

    The most accurate diamond turning machines have used physical straightness references. These references commonly are made of optical materials, such as Zerodur, and are flat enough to permit straightness measurements with an accuracy of 100--150 nm (4--6 microinches) p-v. In most cases, the flatness error is stable and can be accommodated by using a calibration table. The straightedges for the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are 1.1 meters in length and allow a straightness reference accuracy of 25--50 nm (1--2 microinches) p-v after calibration. Fabrication problems become insurmountable when a straightness reference formore » a length of up to 4 meters is desired. Moreover, the method of calibration by straightedge reversal does not account for gravitational sag when the sensing direction is vertical. Vertical sensing would be required in a four meter system and sag would become unacceptably large. Recent developments published in the literature suggest that the use of a laser beam for a reference may be feasible. Workers at Osaka University have reported a laser beam straightness reference that has a resolution of 3.5 nm, although tests were done only over a 200 mm length. LLNL has begun an investigation on the use of a directionally stabilized laser beam as a straightness measurement reference. The goal of the investigation is to provide a reference that is accurate to 25 nm (1 microinch) over a four meter distance. 3 refs., 2 figs.« less

  20. References to contemporary papers on acoustics.

    PubMed

    White, F E; Teas, D C

    1983-01-01

    In most of the following references, the author's name is followed by the title of the paper or book in boldface, the journal, the volume number in boldface, the issue number in parentheses, the page reference, and lastly, in parentheses, the year. Where reference is made to abstract journals that number their abstracts, the abstract number is given instead of a page reference. Abstracts in Annales des Tèlècommunications are in French and those for Referativnyi Zhurnal, Fizika (three series, E, I, Zh) are in Russian [where, e.g., Ref. Zh. Fiz. 7 E425 (1979) means: July issue, E, abstract no. 425, year 1979.] When possible, the abbreviations for the names of the journals follow those in Bibliographic Guide for Editors & Authors (1974). A number preceded by the letters AD, DE, PB, or N refers to the accession/report number of the Government Reports Announcements & Index. The numbers to the left of the sections and sub-sections in this volume correspond to those that appear in the Classification of Subjects preceding the index in the June 1983 issue of JASA. Compiled from various sources. For many of the journals referred to here, those interested will find their addresses in either the semi-annual Author Index of Physics Abstracts or the annual Physics Briefs: List of Abstracted Periodical and Serial Publications.

  1. An ethnically relevant consensus Korean reference genome is a step towards personal reference genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Jun, JeHoon; Lee, Yong Joo; Chae, Kyun Shik; Kim, Chang Geun; Kim, Sangsoo; Eriksson, Anders; Edwards, Jeremy S.; Lee, Semin; Kim, Byung Chul; Manica, Andrea; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Church, George M.; Bhak, Jong

    2016-01-01

    Human genomes are routinely compared against a universal reference. However, this strategy could miss population-specific and personal genomic variations, which may be detected more efficiently using an ethnically relevant or personal reference. Here we report a hybrid assembly of a Korean reference genome (KOREF) for constructing personal and ethnic references by combining sequencing and mapping methods. We also build its consensus variome reference, providing information on millions of variants from 40 additional ethnically homogeneous genomes from the Korean Personal Genome Project. We find that the ethnically relevant consensus reference can be beneficial for efficient variant detection. Systematic comparison of human assemblies shows the importance of assembly quality, suggesting the necessity of new technologies to comprehensively map ethnic and personal genomic structure variations. In the era of large-scale population genome projects, the leveraging of ethnicity-specific genome assemblies as well as the human reference genome will accelerate mapping all human genome diversity. PMID:27882922

  2. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ∼100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  3. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  6. Delusions of reference: a new theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Startup, Mike; Bucci, Sandra; Langdon, Robyn

    2009-03-01

    Although delusions of reference are one of the most common psychotic symptoms, they have been the focus of little research, possibly because they have been considered to be integral to persecutory delusions. Evidence has now emerged that there are two kinds of delusion of reference. One of these, referential delusions of communication, which involves beliefs that others are communicating in subtle, nonverbal ways, is the focus of this paper. We present a new model designed to account for the four crucial aspects of the phenomenology of these delusions: (1) that neutral stimuli are experienced as having personal significance; (2) that the neutral stimuli are experienced as communicating a message nonverbally; (3) that the content of the message concerns the self; (4) that the experience of a self-referent communication is believed rather than being dismissed as implausible. We used PsycINFO and Scopus, using the term "delusion* of reference", to search for publications with a bearing on our model. The amount of research we found that was designed to test aspects of this model is small but other published research appears to provide some support for its various steps. Much of this research was not explicitly intended to provide an account of delusions of reference but its relevance nevertheless seems clear. There is preliminary support for the plausibility of our model but much additional research is needed. We conclude by summarising what we consider to be the main desiderata.

  7. Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males’ Facebook Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Katie G.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students’ alcohol use. PMID:21406490

  8. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate ofmore » its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.« less

  9. Comparing theories of reference-dependent choice.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-09-01

    Preferences are influenced by the presence or absence of salient choice options, known as reference points. This behavioral tendency is traditionally attributed to the loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity assumptions of prospect theory. In contrast, some psychological research suggests that reference dependence is caused by attentional biases that increase the subjective weighting of the reference point's primary attributes. Although both theories are able to successfully account for behavioral findings involving reference dependence, this article shows that these theories make diverging choice predictions when available options are inferior to the reference point. It presents the results of 2 studies that use settings with inferior choice options to compare these 2 theories. The analysis involves quantitative fits to participant-level choice data, and the results indicate that most participants are better described by models with attentional bias than they are by models with loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity. These differences appear to be caused by violations of loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity in losses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Modernizing the National Spatial Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) is that system of datums, reference frames, shorelines, software and standards which serve the entire federal civilian geospatial community. It is the mission of the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) to define, maintain and provide access to the NSRS. Currently the NSRS contains three geometric reference frames (NAD 83(2011), NAD 83(PA11) and NAD 83(MA11)), one dynamic height datum (IGLD 85) and 6 vertical datums (NAVD 88, PRVD02, ASVD02, NMVD03, GUVD04, VIVD09). All of these datums are built on aging technology and contain systematic errors that grow more noticeable as access to accurate positioning becomes more widespread. It was determined by NGS in 2007 that this was not sustainable and as such, all datums and reference frames are scheduled to be replaced in 2022. [At the time of this abstract, the exact names of the replacements are being finalized and are expected to be announced by the AGU fall meeting.] Replacing the official datums and reference frames requires a carefully coordinated effort of dozens of interrelated technical projects spanning years (over a decade in some cases) and involving a majority of NGS employees. This talk will cover the plans thus far, projects completed, projects underway and will summarize the NSRS as it is expected to look and be accessed in 2022 and beyond.

  11. Genotype Imputation with Millions of Reference Samples.

    PubMed

    Browning, Brian L; Browning, Sharon R

    2016-01-07

    We present a genotype imputation method that scales to millions of reference samples. The imputation method, based on the Li and Stephens model and implemented in Beagle v.4.1, is parallelized and memory efficient, making it well suited to multi-core computer processors. It achieves fast, accurate, and memory-efficient genotype imputation by restricting the probability model to markers that are genotyped in the target samples and by performing linear interpolation to impute ungenotyped variants. We compare Beagle v.4.1 with Impute2 and Minimac3 by using 1000 Genomes Project data, UK10K Project data, and simulated data. All three methods have similar accuracy but different memory requirements and different computation times. When imputing 10 Mb of sequence data from 50,000 reference samples, Beagle's throughput was more than 100× greater than Impute2's throughput on our computer servers. When imputing 10 Mb of sequence data from 200,000 reference samples in VCF format, Minimac3 consumed 26× more memory per computational thread and 15× more CPU time than Beagle. We demonstrate that Beagle v.4.1 scales to much larger reference panels by performing imputation from a simulated reference panel having 5 million samples and a mean marker density of one marker per four base pairs. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genotype Imputation with Millions of Reference Samples

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Brian L.; Browning, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a genotype imputation method that scales to millions of reference samples. The imputation method, based on the Li and Stephens model and implemented in Beagle v.4.1, is parallelized and memory efficient, making it well suited to multi-core computer processors. It achieves fast, accurate, and memory-efficient genotype imputation by restricting the probability model to markers that are genotyped in the target samples and by performing linear interpolation to impute ungenotyped variants. We compare Beagle v.4.1 with Impute2 and Minimac3 by using 1000 Genomes Project data, UK10K Project data, and simulated data. All three methods have similar accuracy but different memory requirements and different computation times. When imputing 10 Mb of sequence data from 50,000 reference samples, Beagle’s throughput was more than 100× greater than Impute2’s throughput on our computer servers. When imputing 10 Mb of sequence data from 200,000 reference samples in VCF format, Minimac3 consumed 26× more memory per computational thread and 15× more CPU time than Beagle. We demonstrate that Beagle v.4.1 scales to much larger reference panels by performing imputation from a simulated reference panel having 5 million samples and a mean marker density of one marker per four base pairs. PMID:26748515

  13. A 'Global Reference' Comparator for Biosimilar Development.

    PubMed

    Webster, Christopher J; Woollett, Gillian R

    2017-08-01

    Major drug regulators have indicated in guidance their flexibility to accept some development data for biosimilars generated with reference product versions licensed outside their own jurisdictions, but most authorities require new bridging studies between these versions and the versions of them licensed locally. The costs of these studies are not trivial in absolute terms and, due to the multiplier effect of required repetition by each biosimilar sponsor, their collective costs are substantial. Yet versions of biologics licensed in different jurisdictions usually share the same development data, and any manufacturing changes between versions have been justified by a rigorous comparability process. The fact that a biosimilar is usually expected to be licensed in multiple jurisdictions, in each case as similar to the local reference product, confirms that minor analytical differences between versions of reference biologics are typically inconsequential for clinical outcomes and licensing. A greatly simplified basis for selecting a reference comparator, that does not require conducting new bridging studies, is proposed and justified based on the shared data of the reference product versions as well as the proof offered where biosimilars have already been approved. The relevance of this proposal to the interchangeability designation available in the US is discussed.

  14. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the third generation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    In August 1981 the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy revised the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). It is the second revision since the inception of the IGRF in 1968. The revision extends the earlier series of IGRF models from 1980 to 1985, introduces a new series of definitive models for 1965-1976, and defines a provisional reference field for 1975- 1980. The revision consists of: 1) a model of the main geomagnetic field at 1980.0, not continuous with the earlier series of IGRF models together with a forecast model of the secular variation of the main field during 1980-1985; 2) definitive models of the main field at 1965.0, 1970.0, and 1975.0, with linear interpolation of the model coefficients specified for intervening dates; and 3) a provisional reference field for 1975-1980, defined as the linear interpolation of the 1975 and 1980 main-field models.-from Author

  15. Frequency References for Gravitational Wave Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Alix; Thrope, J. I.; Donelan, D.; Miner, L.

    2012-01-01

    The mitigation of laser frequency noise is an important aspect of interferometry for LISA-like missions. One portion of the baseline mitigation strategy in LISA is active stabilization utilizing opto-mechanical frequency references. The LISA optical bench is an attractive place to implement such frequency references due to its environmental stability and its access to primary and redundant laser systems. We have made an initial investigation of frequency references constructed using the techniques developed for the LISA and LISA Pathfinder optical benches. Both a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and triangular Fabry-Perot cavity have been successfully bonded to a Zerodur baseplate using the hydroxide bonding method. We will describe the construction of the bench along with preliminary stability results.

  16. Integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kundaje, Anshul; Meuleman, Wouter; Ernst, Jason; Bilenky, Misha; Yen, Angela; Kheradpour, Pouya; Zhang, Zhizhuo; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Liu, Yaping; Amin, Viren; Ziller, Michael J; Whitaker, John W; Schultz, Matthew D; Sandstrom, Richard S; Eaton, Matthew L; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Wang, Jianrong; Ward, Lucas D; Sarkar, Abhishek; Quon, Gerald; Pfenning, Andreas; Wang, Xinchen; Claussnitzer, Melina; Coarfa, Cristian; Harris, R Alan; Shoresh, Noam; Epstein, Charles B; Gjoneska, Elizabeta; Leung, Danny; Xie, Wei; Hawkins, R David; Lister, Ryan; Hong, Chibo; Gascard, Philippe; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard; Chuah, Eric; Tam, Angela; Canfield, Theresa K; Hansen, R Scott; Kaul, Rajinder; Sabo, Peter J; Bansal, Mukul S; Carles, Annaick; Dixon, Jesse R; Farh, Kai-How; Feizi, Soheil; Karlic, Rosa; Kim, Ah-Ram; Kulkarni, Ashwinikumar; Li, Daofeng; Lowdon, Rebecca; Mercer, Tim R; Neph, Shane J; Onuchic, Vitor; Polak, Paz; Rajagopal, Nisha; Ray, Pradipta; Sallari, Richard C; Siebenthall, Kyle T; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas; Stevens, Michael; Thurman, Robert E; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Beaudet, Arthur E; Boyer, Laurie A; De Jager, Philip; Farnham, Peggy J; Fisher, Susan J; Haussler, David; Jones, Steven; Li, Wei; Marra, Marco; McManus, Michael T; Sunyaev, Shamil; Thomson, James A; Tlsty, Thea D; Tsai, Li-Huei; Wang, Wei; Waterland, Robert A; Zhang, Michael; Chadwick, Lisa H; Bernstein, Bradley E; Costello, Joseph F; Ecker, Joseph R; Hirst, Martin; Meissner, Alexander; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Ren, Bing; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Wang, Ting; Kellis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but a similar reference has lacked for epigenomic studies. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection to-date of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here, we describe the integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes generated as part of the program, profiled for histone modification patterns, DNA accessibility, DNA methylation, and RNA expression. We establish global maps of regulatory elements, define regulatory modules of coordinated activity, and their likely activators and repressors. We show that disease and trait-associated genetic variants are enriched in tissue-specific epigenomic marks, revealing biologically-relevant cell types for diverse human traits, and providing a resource for interpreting the molecular basis of human disease. Our results demonstrate the central role of epigenomic information for understanding gene regulation, cellular differentiation, and human disease. PMID:25693563

  17. Explicit reference governor for linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garone, Emanuele; Nicotra, Marco; Ntogramatzidis, Lorenzo

    2018-06-01

    The explicit reference governor is a constrained control scheme that was originally introduced for generic nonlinear systems. This paper presents two explicit reference governor strategies that are specifically tailored for the constrained control of linear time-invariant systems subject to linear constraints. Both strategies are based on the idea of maintaining the system states within an invariant set which is entirely contained in the constraints. This invariant set can be constructed by exploiting either the Lyapunov inequality or modal decomposition. To improve the performance, we show that the two strategies can be combined by choosing at each time instant the least restrictive set. Numerical simulations illustrate that the proposed scheme achieves performances that are comparable to optimisation-based reference governors.

  18. Integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes.

    PubMed

    Kundaje, Anshul; Meuleman, Wouter; Ernst, Jason; Bilenky, Misha; Yen, Angela; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Kheradpour, Pouya; Zhang, Zhizhuo; Wang, Jianrong; Ziller, Michael J; Amin, Viren; Whitaker, John W; Schultz, Matthew D; Ward, Lucas D; Sarkar, Abhishek; Quon, Gerald; Sandstrom, Richard S; Eaton, Matthew L; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Pfenning, Andreas R; Wang, Xinchen; Claussnitzer, Melina; Liu, Yaping; Coarfa, Cristian; Harris, R Alan; Shoresh, Noam; Epstein, Charles B; Gjoneska, Elizabeta; Leung, Danny; Xie, Wei; Hawkins, R David; Lister, Ryan; Hong, Chibo; Gascard, Philippe; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard; Chuah, Eric; Tam, Angela; Canfield, Theresa K; Hansen, R Scott; Kaul, Rajinder; Sabo, Peter J; Bansal, Mukul S; Carles, Annaick; Dixon, Jesse R; Farh, Kai-How; Feizi, Soheil; Karlic, Rosa; Kim, Ah-Ram; Kulkarni, Ashwinikumar; Li, Daofeng; Lowdon, Rebecca; Elliott, GiNell; Mercer, Tim R; Neph, Shane J; Onuchic, Vitor; Polak, Paz; Rajagopal, Nisha; Ray, Pradipta; Sallari, Richard C; Siebenthall, Kyle T; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Stevens, Michael; Thurman, Robert E; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Beaudet, Arthur E; Boyer, Laurie A; De Jager, Philip L; Farnham, Peggy J; Fisher, Susan J; Haussler, David; Jones, Steven J M; Li, Wei; Marra, Marco A; McManus, Michael T; Sunyaev, Shamil; Thomson, James A; Tlsty, Thea D; Tsai, Li-Huei; Wang, Wei; Waterland, Robert A; Zhang, Michael Q; Chadwick, Lisa H; Bernstein, Bradley E; Costello, Joseph F; Ecker, Joseph R; Hirst, Martin; Meissner, Alexander; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Ren, Bing; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Wang, Ting; Kellis, Manolis

    2015-02-19

    The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes generated as part of the programme, profiled for histone modification patterns, DNA accessibility, DNA methylation and RNA expression. We establish global maps of regulatory elements, define regulatory modules of coordinated activity, and their likely activators and repressors. We show that disease- and trait-associated genetic variants are enriched in tissue-specific epigenomic marks, revealing biologically relevant cell types for diverse human traits, and providing a resource for interpreting the molecular basis of human disease. Our results demonstrate the central role of epigenomic information for understanding gene regulation, cellular differentiation and human disease.

  19. Reference Frames in Earth Rotation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrándiz, José M.; Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Getino, Juan; Schuh, Harald; Escapa, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the determination of the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and the different Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRF) are not independent. The available theories of Earth rotation aims at providing the orientation of a certain reference system linked somehow to the Earth with respect to a given celestial system, considered as inertial. In the past years a considerable effort has been dedicated to the improvement of the TRF realizations, following the lines set up in the 1980's. However, the reference systems used in the derivation of the theories have been rather considered as something fully established, not deserving a special attention. In this contribution we review the definitions of the frames used in the main theoretical approaches, focusing on those used in the construction of IAU2000, and the extent to which their underlying hypotheses hold. The results are useful to determine the level of consistency of the predicted and determined EOP.

  20. The Influence of the In-Situ Clad Staining on the Corrosion of Zircaloy in PWR Water Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kammenzind, B.F., Eklund, K.L. and Bajaj, R.

    Zircaloy cladding tubes strain in-situ during service life in the corrosive environment of a Pressurized Water Reactor for a variety of reasons. First, the tube undergoes stress free growth due to the preferential alignment of irradiation induced vacancy loops on basal planes. Positive strains develop in the textured tubes along prism orientations while negative strains develop along basal orientations (Reference (a)). Second, early in life, free standing tubes will often shrink by creep in the diametrical direction under the external pressure of the water environment, but potentially grow later in life in the diametrical direction once the expanding fuel pelletmore » contacts the cladding inner wall (Reference (b)). Finally, the Zircaloy cladding absorbs hydrogen as a by product of the corrosion reaction (Reference (c)). Once above the solubility limit in Zircaloy, the hydride precipitates as zirconium hydride (References (c) through (j)). Both hydrogen in solid solution and precipitated as Zirconium hydride cause a volume expansion of the Zircaloy metal (Reference (k)). Few studies are reported on that have investigated the influence that in-situ clad straining has on corrosion of Zircaloy. If Zircaloy corrosion rates are governed by diffusion of anions through a thin passivating boundary layer at the oxide-to-metal interface (References (l) through (n)), in-situ straining of the cladding could accelerate the corrosion process by prematurely breaking that passivating oxide boundary layer. References (o) through (q) investigated the influence that an applied tensile stress has on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy. Knights and Perkins, Reference (o), reported that the applied tensile stress increased corrosion rates above a critical stress level in 400 C and 475 C steam, but not at lower temperatures nor in dry oxygen environments. This latter observation suggested that hydrogen either in the oxide or at the oxide-to-metal interface is involved in the observed

  1. On the condition of UO2 nuclear fuel irradiated in a PWR to a burn-up in excess of 110 MWd/kgHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restani, R.; Horvath, M.; Goll, W.; Bertsch, J.; Gavillet, D.; Hermann, A.; Martin, M.; Walker, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Post-irradiation examination results are presented for UO2 fuel from a PWR fuel rod that had been irradiated to an average burn-up of 105 MWd/kgHM and showed high fission gas release of 42%. The radial distribution of xenon and the partitioning of fission gas between bubbles and the fuel matrix was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe microanalysis. It is concluded that release from the fuel at intermediate radial positions was mainly responsible for the high fission gas release. In this region thermal release had occurred from the high burn-up structure (HBS) at some point after the sixth irradiation cycle. The LA-ICP-MS results indicate that gas release had also occurred from the HBS in the vicinity of the pellet periphery. It is shown that the gas pressure in the HBS pores is well below the pressure that the fuel can sustain.

  2. Effects of iron content in Ni-Cr-xFe alloys and immersion time on the oxide films formed in a simulated PWR water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Xiangkun; Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Han, Guangdong; Zhang, Jinlong; Hu, Pengfei; Liang, Xue

    2017-12-01

    The iron content in Ni-Cr-xFe (x = 0-9 at.%) alloys strongly affected the properties of oxide films after 978 h of immersion in the simulated PWR primary water environment at 310 °C. Increasing the iron content in the alloys increased the amount of iron-bearing polyhedral spinel oxide particles in the outer oxide layer and increased the local oxidation penetrations into the alloy matrix from the chromium-rich inner oxide layer. The effects of iron content in the alloys on the oxide film properties after 500 h of immersion were less significant than those after 978 h. Iron content increased, and chromium content decreased, in the outer oxide layer with increasing iron content in the alloys. Increasing the immersion time facilitated the formation of the local oxidation penetrations along the matrix/film interface and the nickel-bearing spinel oxides in the outer oxide layer.

  3. Development of an extended-burnup Mark B design. First semi-annual progress report, July-December 1978. Report BAW-1532-1. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1979-10-01

    The primary objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an improved PWR fuel assembly design capable of batch average burnups of 45,000-50,000 MWd/mtU. To accomplish this, a number of technical areas must be investigated to verify acceptable extended-burnup fuel performance. This report is the first semi-annual progress report for the program, and it describes work performed during the July-December 1978 time period. Efforts during this period included the definition of a preliminary design for a high-burnup fuel rod, physics analyses of extended-burnup fuel cycles, studies of the physics characteristics of changes in fuel assembly metal-to-water ratios, and developmentmore » of a design concept for post-irradiation examination equipment to be utilized in examining high-burnup lead-test assemblies.« less

  4. STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR THE POLYMERS INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Walter G; Orski, Sara V; Guttman, Charles M; Migler, Kalman D; Beers, Kathryn L

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides science, industry, and government with a central source of well-characterized materials certified for chemical composition or for some chemical or physical property. These materials are designated Standard Reference Materials ® (SRMs) and are used to calibrate measuring instruments, to evaluate methods and systems, or to produce scientific data that can be referred readily to a common base. In this paper, we discuss the history of polymer based SRMs, their current status, and challenges and opportunities to develop new standards to address industrial measurement challenges.

  5. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE PAGES

    Tencer, John

    2016-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  6. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil

    PubMed Central

    Poster, Dianne L.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil. PMID:27308183

  7. The Region 4 collaborative virtual reference project.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sandi K; Johnson, E Diane

    2003-01-01

    In May 2002, the Denison Memorial Library at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and the J. Otto Lottes Health Sciences Library at the University of Missouri-Columbia, with funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine-Midcontinental Region, embarked on a collaborative, real-time reference project using the 24/7 Reference, Inc., software package. This paper describes how the project was conceived, and includes details on the service hours, staffing, training, marketing, lessons learned, and future plans for the service.

  8. Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to robust, Predictor-based Model Reference Adaptive Control (PMRAC) design. The proposed adaptive system is compared with the now-classical Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) architecture. Simulation examples are presented. Numerical evidence indicates that the proposed PMRAC tracking architecture has better than MRAC transient characteristics. In this paper, we presented a state-predictor based direct adaptive tracking design methodology for multi-input dynamical systems, with partially known dynamics. Efficiency of the design was demonstrated using short period dynamics of an aircraft. Formal proof of the reported PMRAC benefits constitute future research and will be reported elsewhere.

  9. Reference Frames in Relativistic Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, M.; Herold, H.; Ruder, H.; Schneider, M.

    Three fundamental concepts of reference frames in relativistic space-time are confronted: 1. the gravitation compass, 2. the stellar compass and 3. the inertial compass. It is argued that under certain conditions asymptotically fixed (stellar) reference frames can be introduced with the same rigour as local Fermi frames, thereby eliminating one possible psychological reason why the importance of Fermi frames frequently has been overestimated in the past. As applications of these three concepts the authors discuss: 1. a relativistic definition of the geoid, 2. a relativistic astrometric problem and 3. the post-Newtonian theory of a laser gyroscope fixed to the Earth's surface.

  10. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed Central

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology. PMID:3779167

  11. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  12. Reference in human and non-human primate communication: What does it take to refer?

    PubMed

    Sievers, Christine; Gruber, Thibaud

    2016-07-01

    The concept of functional reference has been used to isolate potentially referential vocal signals in animal communication. However, its relatedness to the phenomenon of reference in human language has recently been brought into question. While some researchers have suggested abandoning the concept of functional reference altogether, others advocate a revision of its definition to include contextual cues that play a role in signal production and perception. Empirical and theoretical work on functional reference has also put much emphasis on how the receiver understands the referential signal. However, reference, as defined in the linguistic literature, is an action of the producer, and therefore, any definition describing reference in non-human animals must also focus on the producer. To successfully determine whether a signal is used to refer, we suggest an approach from the field of pragmatics, taking a closer look at specific situations of signal production, specifically at the factors that influence the production of a signal by an individual. We define the concept of signaller's reference to identify intentional acts of reference produced by a signaller independently of the communicative modality, and illustrate it with a case study of the hoo vocalizations produced by wild chimpanzees during travel. This novel framework introduces an intentional approach to referentiality. It may therefore permit a closer comparison of human and non-human animal referential behaviour and underlying cognitive processes, allowing us to identify what may have emerged solely in the human lineage.

  13. Multiple reference frames in haptic spatial processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volčič, R.

    2008-08-01

    The present thesis focused on haptic spatial processing. In particular, our interest was directed to the perception of spatial relations with the main focus on the perception of orientation. To this end, we studied haptic perception in different tasks, either in isolation or in combination with vision. The parallelity task, where participants have to match the orientations of two spatially separated bars, was used in its two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, respectively. The influence of non-informative vision and visual interference on performance in the parallelity task was studied in Chapter 4. A different task, the mental rotation task, was introduced in a purely haptic study in Chapter 5 and in a visuo-haptic cross-modal study in Chapter 6. The interaction of multiple reference frames and their influence on haptic spatial processing were the common denominators of these studies. In this thesis we approached the problems of which reference frames play the major role in haptic spatial processing and how the relative roles of distinct reference frames change depending on the available information and the constraints imposed by different tasks. We found that the influence of a reference frame centered on the hand was the major cause of the deviations from veridicality observed in both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional studies. The results were described by a weighted average model, in which the hand-centered egocentric reference frame is supposed to have a biasing influence on the allocentric reference frame. Performance in haptic spatial processing has been shown to depend also on sources of information or processing that are not strictly connected to the task at hand. When non-informative vision was provided, a beneficial effect was observed in the haptic performance. This improvement was interpreted as a shift from the egocentric to the allocentric reference frame. Moreover, interfering visual information presented

  14. Reference Value Advisor: a new freeware set of macroinstructions to calculate reference intervals with Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    International recommendations for determination of reference intervals have been recently updated, especially for small reference sample groups, and use of the robust method and Box-Cox transformation is now recommended. Unfortunately, these methods are not included in most software programs used for data analysis by clinical laboratories. We have created a set of macroinstructions, named Reference Value Advisor, for use in Microsoft Excel to calculate reference limits applying different methods. For any series of data, Reference Value Advisor calculates reference limits (with 90% confidence intervals [CI]) using a nonparametric method when n≥40 and by parametric and robust methods from native and Box-Cox transformed values; tests normality of distributions using the Anderson-Darling test and outliers using Tukey and Dixon-Reed tests; displays the distribution of values in dot plots and histograms and constructs Q-Q plots for visual inspection of normality; and provides minimal guidelines in the form of comments based on international recommendations. The critical steps in determination of reference intervals are correct selection of as many reference individuals as possible and analysis of specimens in controlled preanalytical and analytical conditions. Computing tools cannot compensate for flaws in selection and size of the reference sample group and handling and analysis of samples. However, if those steps are performed properly, Reference Value Advisor, available as freeware at http://www.biostat.envt.fr/spip/spip.php?article63, permits rapid assessment and comparison of results calculated using different methods, including currently unavailable methods. This allows for selection of the most appropriate method, especially as the program provides the CI of limits. It should be useful in veterinary clinical pathology when only small reference sample groups are available. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Sociology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waiser, Joni, Comp.

    This guide lists selective reference sources which are useful for research in sociology. The guide is arranged by document type: guides, dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories and biographical sources, statistics, book reviews, theses and dissertations, general social science bibliographies, sociology bibliographies, special subject…

  16. Sociology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffin, Meredith

    Sociology, the study of the organization and activities of human societies, encompasses many fields of inquiry and consequently the literature of the discipline is vast. In providing access to some of this literature, this guide concentrates on reference sources which may be found in McLennan Library of McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Areas…

  17. Doing Virtual Reference along with Everything Else

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlish, Betsy Harper

    2009-01-01

    Virtual reference is a service that makes particular sense in a state like Montana. The fourth-largest state by geographic area but 44th by population in the U.S., it has about one library per 11,392 residents. Montana's libraries, including the libraries of Montana Tech of the University of Montana, where the author currently serves as a…

  18. Electronic Reference Library: Silverplatter's Database Networking Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millea, Megan

    Silverplatter's Electronic Reference Library (ERL) provides wide area network access to its databases using TCP/IP communications and client-server architecture. ERL has two main components: The ERL clients (retrieval interface) and the ERL server (search engines). ERL clients provide patrons with seamless access to multiple databases on multiple…

  19. Xyce parallel electronic simulator : reference guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Ting; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Thornquist, Heidi K.

    2011-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. It is targeted specifically to runmore » on large-scale parallel computing platforms but also runs well on a variety of architectures including single processor workstations. It also aims to support a variety of devices and models specific to Sandia needs. This document is intended to complement the Xyce Users Guide. It contains comprehensive, detailed information about a number of topics pertinent to the usage of Xyce. Included in this document is a netlist reference for the input-file commands and elements supported within Xyce; a command line reference, which describes the available command line arguments for Xyce; and quick-references for users of other circuit codes, such as Orcad's PSpice and Sandia's ChileSPICE.« less

  20. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  1. A Reference Guide to Audiovisual Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbacher, James L.

    A one-volume source of information on feature films, filmstrips, theater, radio, television, and recordings lists some 400 reference books, including filmographies, encyclopedias, biographies, and catalogs. Entries are arranged alphabetically by title and provide the following data: full title, author, editor, publisher, date of publication,…

  2. 30 CFR 301.1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... within the jurisdiction of administrative law judges and the Interior Board of Surface Mining and... Resources BOARD OF SURFACE MINING AND RECLAMATION APPEALS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES UNDER SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT OF 1977 § 301.1 Cross reference. For special rules applicable...

  3. 32 CFR 552.107 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... References. (a) AR 190-5 (Motor Vehicle Traffic Supervision) (b) AR 190-52 (Countering Terrorism and Other Major Disruptions on Military Reservations) (c) AR 210-7 (Commercial Solicitation on Army Installations) (d) AR 210-10 (Administration) (e) Fort Lewis Supplement 1 to AR 190-5 (Motor Vehicle Traffic...

  4. Psychology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography lists reference sources which are useful for research in psychology. Contents are selected, emphasizing clinical psychology. Two major sections of the guide, general and specific topics, supplement each other. The general section, arranged by form--dictionaries, handbooks, and encyclopedias--includes works which treat all facets…

  5. Canadian Reference Sources 1980--A Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Dorothy E.

    1981-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of 52 reference sources and 24 new editions and supplements, excluding annuals. Topics include science and technology, art, history, university courses, regional information, native languages, museums, law, geography, Canadian culture, dissertations, sports, antiques, botany, and a variety of directories. (CHC)

  6. Handbook of Reference Sources. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Margaret Irby

    This third edition of popular and useful reference works, which emphasizes the needs of small libraries, contains 975 annotated entries and lists 201 additional titles (most with bibliographic and order information) in the annotations, representing an expansion of 30 percent over the second edition. The appendix lists 116 basic or core reference…

  7. Using Instant Messaging for Online Reference Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries are using co-browsing chat products to provide reference services to their patrons, whilst their patrons are online and using the internet. The concept of such an online service is highly desirable, but many libraries are concerned that they will never be able to afford such a system. This may have changed: Instant Messaging (IM)…

  8. Evaluation of Reference Services--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruppu, Pali U.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the inherent deficiencies in reference service as provided is critical to providing effective, high quality service. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, as well as a combination of both, are being used to evaluate these services. The identification of appropriate research methodology is critical to an effective…

  9. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  10. Recommended Reference Books in Paperback. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Jovian P.; O'Gorman, Jack

    Completely revised and updated from the last edition (1992), this annotated, evaluative bibliography presents more than 1,000 outstanding titles chosen for their quality, economy, and availability. Thirty-six chapters describe and judge these affordable paperbacks for libraries with limited budgets. Subject matter includes: general reference, area…

  11. 32 CFR 2700.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Introduction § 2700.1 References. (a) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information,” June 28, 1978, (hereinafter E.O. 12065). (b) Information Security Oversight Office, Directive No. 1, “National Security Information,” October 2, 1978, (hereinafter ISOO Directive No. 1). ...

  12. Women in Management; Selected Recent References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, JoAnne, Comp.

    This bibliography contains a selection of recent references on women in management, primarily books and articles published from 1975 to the present, though some older items are also included. The bibliography is divided into four areas. General bibliographies, books, pamphlets, articles, papers, and information bank abstracts about women in…

  13. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference into this part. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by... and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Room B102, EPA West Building.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph (a...

  14. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this part. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed... Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Room B102, EPA West Building, Washington, DC.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph (a...

  15. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this part. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed... Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Room B102, EPA West Building, Washington, DC.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph (a...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference into this part. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by... and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Room B102, EPA West Building.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph (a...

  17. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) ASTM material. The following table sets forth material from the American Society for Testing and...., Philadelphia, PA 19103. The table follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference ASTM D 86-95, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products § 92.113 ASTM D 93-94, Standard Test Methods...

  18. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) ASTM material. Table 1 of § 94.5 lists material... of § 94.5—ASTM Materials Document No. and name Part 94 reference ASTM D 86-01, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure 94.108 ASTM D 93-02, Standard Test...

  19. Handbook of Reference Sources. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Margaret Irby

    Designed to serve as a selection aid for small public libraries and to list important sources available through the major resource centers of the Texas Library System, this bibliography lists 804 annotated reference sources with 126 additional works named within the annotations. The books are grouped into 18 major areas, each of which is broken…

  20. Reference Lists for HECE Occupational Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The annotated bibliography contains citations to appropriate reference books, pamphlets and audiovisual materials for the following 17 occupations: art and craft aide, bridal consultant, child care aide, clothing assistant, companion to the elderly, consumer aide, dietetic aide, fabric coordinator, fashion coordinator, floral designer, food…

  1. A Reference Unit on Home Vegetable Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, James S., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to provide practical, up-to-date, basic information on home gardening for vocational agriculture students with only a limited knowledge of vegetable gardening, this reference unit includes step-by-step procedures for planning, planting, cultivating, harvesting, and processing vegetables in a small plot. Topics covered include plot…

  2. Comparative Elections: Building a Basic Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalen, James E.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography focuses on resources for the study of international elections and electoral systems and outcomes that will be useful for collection development and for answering reference questions about foreign elections. Discusses comparative politics, comparative elections, and possible electoral reform. (LRW)

  3. A Reference Genome for US Rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of reference genomes for rice has served as means for understanding the allelic diversity and genetic structure of a cereal grain that feeds half of the world. It has long been understood that Oryza sativa diverged into two major sub-populations Indica and Japonica, over 400 K years ...

  4. Food Science & Technology. Instructor Guide. Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Phillip

    This packet contains an instructor curriculum guide and a student reference book for a course in food science and technology. The 4-unit curriculum contains 23 lessons. The instructor's guide contains the following components of a unit of instruction: objectives, competencies, motivational techniques, teaching procedures, other activities,…

  5. Nova Scotia. Reference Series No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Nova Scotia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the geography and climate, history, economic development, fishing, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing, energy, education, arts and culture, and…

  6. Meeting Reference Responsibilities through Library Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses library Web sites and explains some of the benefits when libraries make their sites into reference portals, linking them to other useful Web sites. Topics include print versus Web information sources; limitations of search engines; what Web sites to include, including criteria for inclusions; and organizing the sites. (LRW)

  7. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false References. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...

  8. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false References. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...

  9. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false References. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...

  10. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...

  11. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false References. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...

  12. The Referent of Children's Early Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Musical creativity during early childhood is readily exemplified in vocal behaviours. This paper is a discussion of observations on children's performance of learned songs and self-generated songs. Longitudinal observations suggest that self-generated songs may be seen as referent-guided improvisation using source materials derived from learned…

  13. The Evolution of the Reference Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2011-01-01

    The job of the contemporary reference librarian has a virtual component unimaginable a generation ago. Today's library professional can obtain an MLS (or equivalent) online with a minimal residency requirement. Not only the degree, but also library sources, and indeed patrons, have become virtual. Both books and periodicals can be consulted by…

  14. The Northwest Territories. Reference Series No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Northwest Territories and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, history and people, land claims, the economy, the government, and recreation and the arts. Specific topics include the expansive size and…

  15. THE CONCEPT OF REFERENCE CONDITION, REVISITED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘reference condition’’ is often used to descri...

  16. New Brunswick. Reference Series No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of New Brunswick and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss cities and population, geography, history, politics, economy, manufacturing, forestry, agriculture, fisheries, mining, electricity, transportation, government…

  17. Electronic Journal Publishers: A Reference Librarian's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses problems that the lack of standardization in electronic journal publishing creates for reference or bibliographic instruction librarians and describes a study that examined science, technology, and medicine journals publishers' Web sites, focusing on those features most relevant to end users. (Author/LRW)

  18. Internet Reference Sources in the Performing Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AmRhein, Richard

    1997-01-01

    There are a number of Web-based Internet resources available in the performance arts, created by hobbyists, amateurs, professionals, and corporations for commercial and recreational purposes. Collected here are Internet sites in the areas of music, dance, film/cinema, and theater/drama that are useful when answering typical reference questions in…

  19. Reference breast temperature: proposal of an equation.

    PubMed

    Souza, Gladis Aparecida Galindo Reisemberger de; Brioschi, Marcos Leal; Vargas, José Viriato Coelho; Morais, Keli Cristiane Correia; Dalmaso Neto, Carlos; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2015-01-01

    To develop an equation to estimate the breast reference temperature according to the variation of room and core body temperatures. Four asymptomatic women were evaluated for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Using thermography, the temperature of breasts and eyes was measured as indirect reference of core body and room temperatures. To analyze the thermal behavior of the breasts during the cycle, the core body and room temperatures were normalized by means of a mathematical equation. We performed 180 observations and the core temperature had the highest correlation with the breast temperature, followed by room temperature. The proposed prediction model could explain 45.3% of the breast temperature variation, with variable room temperature variable; it can be accepted as a way to estimate the reference breast temperature at different room temperatures. The average breast temperature in healthy women had a direct relation with the core and room temperature and can be estimated mathematically. It is suggested that an equation could be used in clinical practice to estimate the normal breast reference temperature in young women, regardless of the day of the cycle, therefore assisting in evaluation of anatomical studies.

  20. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of Major...

  1. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of Major...

  2. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of Major...

  3. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of Major...

  4. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of Major...

  5. Management & Supervision Personnel Administration Training; General Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Training and Career Development Div.

    This report lists 329 books in the library of the Training and Career Development Division of the Personnel Service. The books are listed under six categories. They are: personnel administration (46), management and supervision (60), general reference (57), training (20), American Management Association (AMA) publications (118), and United States…

  6. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  7. Values for Human-to-Human Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines "values" and lists the eight values (stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, rationalism, literacy and learning, equity of access, privacy, democracy) derived by the author in an earlier work. Gives a brief history of the evolution of human-to-human reference service and discusses its future. Relates each of the author's eight values…

  8. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...). (e) FL Reg 350-30 (I Corps and Fort Lewis Range Regulations). (f) DA Form 1594 (Daily Staff Journal...

  9. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...). (e) FL Reg 350-30 (I Corps and Fort Lewis Range Regulations). (f) DA Form 1594 (Daily Staff Journal...

  10. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...). (e) FL Reg 350-30 (I Corps and Fort Lewis Range Regulations). (f) DA Form 1594 (Daily Staff Journal...

  11. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...). (e) FL Reg 350-30 (I Corps and Fort Lewis Range Regulations). (f) DA Form 1594 (Daily Staff Journal...

  12. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...). (e) FL Reg 350-30 (I Corps and Fort Lewis Range Regulations). (f) DA Form 1594 (Daily Staff Journal...

  13. Chamorro Reference Grammar. Pali Language Texts: Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Donald M.; Dungca, Bernadita C.

    This detailed reference grammar of Chamorro, the native Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Guam and the other Mariana Islands (Saipan, Rota, Tinian), differs from earlier grammars of the language in that: (1) it includes new data; (2) it offers a different interpretation of some of the data based on more recent linguistic concepts; and (3) it is…

  14. Automated Coastal Engineering System: Technical Reference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    of Contents ACES Technical Reference Wave Transmission Through Permeable Structures ..................................... 5-4 Littoral Processes...A-2 Table A-4: Grain-Size Scales ( Soil Classification) ..................................... A-3 Table A-5: Major Tidal Constituents... Permeable Structures Lonphore Sediment Tranaport Littoral Numerical Si~ulation of Time-Dependent Beach and Dune Erosion Processes Calculation of Composite

  15. Effluent Monitoring Procedures: Nutrients. Student Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This is one of several short-term courses developed to assist in the training of waste water treatment plant operational personnel in the tests, measurements, and report preparation required for compliance with their NPDES Permits. The Student Reference Manual provides step-by-step procedures for laboratory application of equipment operating…

  16. "See" References for Authors' Names Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Nadine L.; Johnson, Karl E.

    The study reported in this paper was conducted to determine the need for "see" references for authors' names in library catalogs. Nine-item patron questionnaires were placed in the University of Rhode Island's main library. Over the course of six years, 160 questionnaires were completed, 47 by undergraduate students, 76 by graduate…

  17. 36 CFR 330.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 330.3 Section 330.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT SERVICES CONTRACTS AT CIVIL WORKS WATER RESOURCE PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS...

  18. 36 CFR 328.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATION OF SEAPLANE OPERATIONS AT CIVIL WORKS WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 328.3 References. (a) Title 36 CFR, part 327, Rules and Regulations Governing Public Use of...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1065.1010—Institute of Petroleum Materials Document No. and name Part 1065 reference IP-470... atomic absorption spectrometry 1065.705 IP-500, Determination of the phosphorus content of residual fuels by ultra-violet spectrometry 1065.705 IP-501, Determination of aluminum, silicon, vanadium, nickel...

  20. Prince Edward Island. Reference Series No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Prince Edward Island and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, early trade, development, agriculture, the potato industry, forests, fisheries, aquaculture, industry, tourism, energy,…

  1. Selected reference aids for small medical libraries.

    PubMed

    Duncan, H F

    1970-04-01

    This annotated list of 178 items is compiled as a guide to the development of the reference collection in a small medical library.Arrangement, following the pattern of the previous revision, is by broad subject groups. Titles are chiefly in English. Textbooks in subject fields have been omitted since these are covered adequately in several comprehensive guides to the literature.

  2. Classics: A Guide to Reference Sources. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    The emphasis of this bibliographical guide is on Greek and Roman culture, history, language, literature, and archaeology. It largely omits philosophy, numismatics, and theology, and does not include the Middle Ages. The organization of the guide is by type of reference source. Specific subjects, therefore, may be covered in more than one section.…

  3. Electronic Reference Service. SPEC Kit 251.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, Lori, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this SPEC Kit were to report on the extent to which ARL (Association of Research Libraries) libraries provide electronic reference services and to offer a snapshot of the types of users reached, questions received, policies established, data-gathering techniques utilized, and innovations implemented. The first section of the kit…

  4. Electronic Reference Service: A Teen's Eye View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses electronic reference service from a teen's point of view and from the school library media specialist's view. Considers traits that attract teens, including anonymity, speed, and convenience; and explains concerns of media specialists, including quality of electronic resources, how to provide access, library instruction options, and…

  5. 40 CFR 761.19 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference, and is available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration...://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. These incorporations... Products (General Bomb Method) § 761.71(b)(2)(vi) ASTM D 240-87 Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Disease InfoSearch: Deafness Harvard Medical School Center for Hereditary Deafness Hereditary Hearing ... Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1434/ Citation on ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  7. Anthropology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Suzy M., Comp.

    The guide identifies approximately 100 anthropology source materials in the reference department of McLennan Library at McGill University. It was designd to help students doing anthropological research and to illustrate the variety of materials on social and cultural anthropology in the McLennan Library. Physical anthropolgy, linguistics, and…

  8. Collections Care: A Basic Reference Shelflist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Torres, Amparo R., Ed.

    This is an extensive bibliography of reference sources--i.e., books and articles--that relate to the care and conservation of library, archival, and museum collections. Bibliographies are presented under the following headings: (1) General Information; (2) Basic Collections Care; (3) Architectural Conservation; (4) Collections Management: Law,…

  9. Veterinary Accreditation. A Reference Guide for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This reference manual was designed as a guide for veterinarians who have been accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services. The guide provides instructions on the following topics: identifying animals, reportable diseases and conditions, brucellosis, tuberculosis, pseudorabies, miscellaneous…

  10. A Guide to Minority Aging References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Jose B.; Stanford, E. Percil

    The approximately l500 references in this document comprise a comprehensive list of the published and unpublished material on aging minorities in the United States and its territories. The bibliography is divided into six major parts. The first four are ethnic-specific, dealing with American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, Black and Pacific/Asian…

  11. A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

  12. 33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines... between the uppermost surface of the submerged reference area of a boat and the surface of the water measured at the centerline of the boat, as illustrated in Figure 10. If there is no deck surface at the...

  13. Selected Reference Books of 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1994-01-01

    Offers brief, critical reviews of recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Titles covered include dictionaries, databases, religion, literature, music, dance, art and architecture, business, political science, social issues, and history. Brief descriptions of new editions and supplements for…

  14. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  15. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  16. Russian Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography of general and specialized reference works for Russian and Soviet literature is intended for both students and researchers. English language and Russian language sources in the McGill University (Canada) libraries are included. Subject headings include guides (to the literature and to archival resources), encyclopedias,…

  17. The Computerized Reference Department: Buying the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriz, Harry M.; Kok, Victoria T.

    1985-01-01

    Basis for systematic computerization of academic research library's reference, collection development, and collection management functions emphasizes productivity enhancement for librarians and support staff. Use of microcomputer and university's mainframe computer to develop applications of database management systems, electronic spreadsheets,…

  18. Genetics Home Reference: congenital dyserythropoietic anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... E. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I (CDA I): molecular genetics, clinical appearance, and prognosis based on long-term ... Konen O, Yaniv I, Delaunay J. Clinical and molecular variability in congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I. ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: ornithine translocase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis of Japanese patients with HHH syndrome by molecular genetic analysis: a common mutation, R179X. J Hum Genet. ... M, Fariello G, Dionisi-Vici C. Clinical and molecular findings in hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its ...

  20. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jones B.; Burleson, Robert R.; Pardue, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.