Science.gov

Sample records for storage study volume

  1. Electrochemical energy storage subsystems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.; Richardson, P. W.; Graff, C. L.; Jordan, M. V.; Patterson, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs (LCC) of major design and performance technology parameters for multi kW LEO and GEO energy storage subsystems using NiCd and NiH2 batteries and fuel cell/electrolysis cell devices were examined. Design, performance and LCC dynamic models are developed based on mission and system/subsystem requirements and existing or derived physical and cost data relationships. The models define baseline designs and costs. The major design and performance parameters are each varied to determine their influence on LCC around the baseline values.

  2. Electrochemical Energy Storage Subsystems Study, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.; Richardson, P. W.; Graff, C. L.; Jordan, M. V.; Patterson, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs (LCC) of major design and performance technology parameters for multi kW LEO and GEO energy storage subsystems using NiCd and NiH2 batteries and fuel cell/electrolysis cell devices were examined. Design, performance and LCC dynamic models are developed based on mission and system/subsystem requirements and existing or derived physical and cost data relationships. The models are exercised to define baseline designs and costs. Then the major design and performance parameters are each varied to determine their influence on LCC around the baseline values.

  3. Redox Bulk Energy Storage System Study, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciprios, G.; Erskine, W., Jr.; Grimes, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    Opportunities were found for electrochemical energy storage devices in the U.S. electric utility industry. Application requirements for these devices were defined, including techno-economic factors. A new device, the Redox storage battery was analyzed. The Redox battery features a decoupling of energy storage and power conversion functions. General computer methods were developed to simulate Redox system operations. These studies showed that the Redox system is potentially attractive if certain performance goals can be achieved. Pathways for reducing the cost of the Redox system were identified.

  4. East Coast Regional Petroleum Reserve (RPR). Volume 3. Potential Storage Sites Related Engineering Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE CANDIDATE SITES. VOLUME III PROVIDES THREE RELATED ENGINEERING STUDIES: (1) DEVELOPMENT OF CONDUCTIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER...CONCEPTS FOR NO. 6 RESIDUAL OIL. (2) FEASIBILITY OF HEATING RESIDUAL OIL STORAGE FACILITIES WITH SOLAR ENERGY. (3) AN ANALYSIS ON LEASE VS PURCHASE OF...contains three related engineering studies: (1) Development of conductive and convective heat transfer con- cepts for No. 6 residual oil (2) Feasibility

  5. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) study. Volume 1: Feasibility studies. [application of flywheels for power storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notti, J. E.; Cormack, A., III; Schmill, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept consisting of an array of spinning flywheels, with or without gimbals, capable of performing the dual function of power storage and generation, as well as attitude control has been investigated. This system provides attitude control through momentum storage, and replaces the storage batteries onboard the spacecraft. The results of the investigation are presented in two volumes. The trade-off studies performed to establish the feasibility, cost effectiveness, required level of development, and boundaries of application of IPACS to a wide variety of spacecraft are discussed. The conceptual designs for a free-flying research application module (RAM), and for a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) are presented. Results from dynamic analyses and simulations of the IPACS conceptual designs are included.

  6. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project`s scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary.

  7. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  8. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, that can help achieve national energy conservation goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. A study of trends reveals that the need for DSG monitoring and control equipment by 1990 to 2000 will be great, measured in tens of thousands. Criteria for assessing DSG integration have been defined and indicate that economic and institutional as well as technical and other factors must be included. The principal emphasis in this report is on the functional requirements for DSG monitoring and control in six major categories. Twenty-four functional requirements have been prepared under these six categories and serve to indicate how to integrate the DSGs with the distribution and other portions of the electric utility system. The results indicate that there are no fundamental technical obstacles to prevent the connection of dispersed storage and generation to the distribution system. However, a communication system of some sophistication will be required to integrate the distribution system and the dispersed generation sources for effective control. The large-size span of generators from 10 kW to 30 MW means that a variety of remote monitoring and control may be required. The results show that an increased effort is required to develop demonstration equipment to perform the DSG monitoring and control functions and to acquire experience with this equipment in the utility distribution environment.

  9. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four functional requirements were prepared under six categories and serve to indicate how to integrate dispersed storage generation (DSG) systems with the distribution and other portions of the electric utility system. Results indicate that there are no fundamental technical obstacles to prevent the connection of dispersed storage and generation to the distribution system. However, a communication system of some sophistication is required to integrate the distribution system and the dispersed generation sources for effective control. The large-size span of generators from 10 KW to 30 MW means that a variety of remote monitoring and control may be required. Increased effort is required to develop demonstration equipment to perform the DSG monitoring and control functions and to acquire experience with this equipment in the utility distribution environment.

  11. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  14. Review of volume holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, William P.

    1997-07-01

    We present a review of volume holographic memory technology highlighting the most important issues for the development of commercially viable mass data storage systems. To record data using volume holographic storage, data is encoded on a laser beam with a spatial light modulator (SLM). The object beam is directed into an optically sensitive material, typically a photorefractive crystal, and superimposed with a coherent reference beam, forming interference gratings. The material reacts to the interference pattern by spatial modulation of its optical absorption or refractive index. During data retrieval the reference beam alone illuminates the modulated region, causing diffraction of a beam that is modulated as if it were generated by the original object beam incident on the SLM; that is a duplicate of the original object beam. This beam is imaged onto a photodetector array for capture and decoding. Because the data are stored and retrieved as a 2D matrix, a volume holographic storage system is inherently parallel. Consequently, data is read many bits (conceivably in the range of megabits) at a time, so that this approach offers the potential of high data retrieval rates, on the order of tens of gigabits per second and access times of much less than a millisecond. Data recording speeds are very dependent on the choice of storage material and energy of the laser. System capacity and capability are a consequence of three major interrelated factors: (1) the time-energy requirement of the storage material and the permanence of the stored data; (2) the capacity and efficiency of the spatial light modulator; and (3) the laser's power, physical size, and coherence properties. When compared with traditional flat surface magnetic or optical storage, volume holographic data storage has the potential of advantageous capacity, speed, weight, power, and physical size. While these are attractive attributes, they are particularly useful for space applications. This paper presents

  15. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  16. Volume Holographic Storage Using the 90-DEGREE Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Geoffrey W.

    Volume holographic data storage involves the superposition and independent recall of multiple pages of data within the same volume of a storage medium. These pages, stored as separate holograms, can be accessed by changing the angle of the reference laser beam used to store and retrieve them. Because data is read out in parallel, the output data rate can be very large. At the same time, large storage capacity is available through the superposition of many data pages. The topic of this thesis is volume holographic memories using the 90^circ>=ometry. This configuration, where signal and reference beams enter orthogonal crystal faces, is attractive for angle multiplexing because of its high angular selectivity. We study dynamic range in holographic storage and define a concise metric--which we call the M/#--for measuring the dynamic range performance of a holographic storage system. We then discuss the experimental measurement of this M/# as a function of the oxidation state of LiNbO _3:Fe. We find that there exists an optimal oxidation state (for maximum dynamic range performance), and develop a theoretical model which predicts this optimum. The second half of the thesis details the design of a large-scale holographic memory. Our goal is to use angle, fractal, and spatial multiplexing to achieve large capacity--without sacrificing fast access to the stored holograms. We discuss our segmented mirror array, and how it makes such a design possible. We experimentally demonstrate the various features of this memory design. These demonstrations include storage using the mirror array, storage of 1000 holograms using an acousto-optic detector, storage of 10,000 holograms in the same ~ 1cm^3 volume of LiNbO _3, and the demonstration of the 160,000 hologram system with the mirror array and mechanical scanners. In this last part of the thesis, we consider additional aspects of holographic storage, and propose a next-generation system. Here we introduce and demonstrate a new

  17. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 1: executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary design and cost estimate of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Utilities (MSU) system are summarized in this report. The 220 MWe CAES plant which stores air in two solution mined salt caverns, is located at the Carmichael salt dome near Jackson, Mississippi. The facility criteria, site selection and the turbomachinery and auxiliaries, are briefly described together with an outline of the proposed procedure for developing the caverns. Using this information and data, the preliminary CAES plant design was prepared; also the capital cost estimate, cash flow and project schedule were developed. The Environmental Assessment did not reveal any major site impediments to the construction of the plant. However, it is believed that an EIS is required primarily because CAES is a new technology without precedent in the United States. Although a final system planning study was not completed because of lack of funds, from preliminary analysis a CAES plant does not appear to be economic in the MSU system before the mid 1990s. This is due to the unique features of the MSU system. For other systems under more favorable conditions, CAES may be economic at an earlier date. The construction of a CAES plant with salt cavern air storage may by considered ready for use as a commercial electric generating plant. The experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany demonstrates the technical feasibility of the CAES concept. Certain details of the plant defined in this study are different from the Huntorf plant. Design verification by limited testing and analysis would provide added confidence to those considering a CAES plant.

  18. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 4. CAES turbomachinery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaugg, P.

    1982-06-01

    The question of whether it would be possible to build an air storage generating plant capable of operating economically and using leached out salt domes as air reservoirs was investigated. All the previous reports, most of which have been revised to a large extent, are included.

  19. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary design and cost estimate of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Utilities (MSU) system are summarized. The 220 MWe CAES plant stores air in two solution mined salt caverns. The facility criteria, site selection and the turbomachinery and auxiliaries, and an outline of the proposed procedure for developing the caverns are described. The preliminary CAES plant design was prepared and the capital cost estimate, cash low and project schedule were developed. A CAES plant does not appear to be economic in the MSU system before the mid 1990s which is due to the unique features of the MSU system.

  20. Closure plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6: Volume 1, Closure plan. Remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This Closure Plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) a disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous materials, of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) describes how portions of SWSA 6 will be closed under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status per 40 CFR 265 Subpart G [TN Rule 1200-1-11-.05(7)]. An overview is provided of activities necessary for final closure and corrective measures for all of SWSA 6. Results of surface waters and groundwater sampling are provided.

  1. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, 2012 to 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.; Whisnant, Joshua A.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    There was a larger percentage storage-volume increase since 1993 in the central part of the study area than in either the basin storage area or the entire study area. Storage-volume in the central part of the study area during winter 2012, summer 2013, winter 2013, and winter 2014 recovered about 46,300 acre-feet or more compared to the storage volume in 1993. In summer 2012 and winter 2013, the storage-volume increase since 1993 was larger in the central part of the study area than in the entire study area, indicating the storage-volume increases in the central part of the study area offset decreases in storage volume in the rest of the study area. The larger increase in storage volume in the central part of the study area than in the rest of the study area probably was because of the Integrated Local Water Supply Program strategy that reduced city pumpage from the Equus Beds aquifer by about 40 percent. The current (winter 2014) storage volumes in the entire study area and the central part of the study area are about 94 and 96 percent of their respective predevelopment storage volumes or about 3,067,000 and 962,000 acre-feet, respectively.

  2. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 6: CAES plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    The preliminary plant design for a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant is presented. The design is based upon the facility criteria; the specific site; and the systems, subsystems. The compressed air is stored in two solution mined caverns in the salt dome. The details concerning the major equipment and the operation of the mechanical systems are described. The project schedule from start of licensing to commercial operation is estimated to be 70 months, with actual construction (including dewatering of the caverns) estimated for 39 months. Based on the cost estimate developed in this task and the modified financial data and fuel cost projections, the economic introduction of CAES into the MSS system was examined for the No. 2 oil-fired plant. The economic analysis did not extend beyond the year 1988. The economic introduction of CAES in the MSS system before 1990 is unlikely because the older oil fired units in the MSS system may be economically used for cycling and peaking, if required. For a system with a different composition of generating units, CAES may be economical at an earlier data.

  3. Specific storage volumes: A useful tool for CO2 storage capacity assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, S.T.; Burruss, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Subsurface geologic strata have the potential to store billions of tons of anthropogenic CO2; therefore, geologic carbon sequestration can be an effective mitigation tool used to slow the rate at which levels of atmospheric CO2 are increasing. Oil and gas reservoirs, coal beds, and saline reservoirs can be used for CO2 storage; however, it is difficult to assess and compare the relative storage capacities of these different settings. Typically, CO2 emissions are reported in units of mass, which are not directly applicable to comparing the CO2 storage capacities of the various storage targets. However, if the emission values are recalculated to volumes per unit mass (specific volume) then the volumes of geologic reservoirs necessary to store CO2 emissions from large point sources can be estimated. The factors necessary to convert the mass of CO2 emissions to geologic storage volume (referred to here as Specific Storage Volume or 'SSV') can be reported in units of cubic meters, cubic feet, and petroleum barrels. The SSVs can be used to estimate the reservoir volume needed to store CO2 produced over the lifetime of an individual point source, and to identify CO2 storage targets of sufficient size to meet the demand from that given point source. These storage volumes also can then be projected onto the land surface to outline a representative "footprint," which marks the areal extent of storage. This footprint can be compared with the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity of the same land area. The overall utility of this application is that the total storage capacity of any given parcel of land (from surface to basement) can be determined, and may assist in making land management decisions. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006.

  4. Magma volumes and storage in the middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memeti, V.; Barnes, C. G.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying magma volumes in magma plumbing systems is mostly done through geophysical means or based on volcanic eruptions. Detailed studies of plutons, however, are useful in revealing depths and evolving volumes of stored magmas over variable lifetimes of magma systems. Knowledge of the location, volume, and longevity of stored magma is critical for understanding where in the crust magmas attain their chemical signature, how these systems physically behave and how source, storage levels, and volcanoes are connected. Detailed field mapping, combined with single mineral geochemistry and geochronology of plutons, allow estimates of size and longevity of melt-interconnected magma batches that existed during the construction of magma storage sites. The Tuolumne intrusive complex (TIC) recorded a 10 myr magmatic history. Detailed maps of the major units in different parts of the TIC indicate overall smaller scale (cm- to <1 km) compositional variation in the oldest, outer Kuna Crest unit and mainly larger scale (>10 km) changes in the younger Half Dome and Cathedral Peak units. Mineral-scale trace element data from hornblende of granodiorites to gabbros from the Kuna Crest lobe show distinct hornblende compositions and zoning patterns. Mixed hornblende populations occur only at the transition to the main TIC. This compositional heterogeneity in the first 1-2 myr points to low volume magmatism resulting in smaller, discrete and not chemically interacting magma bodies. Trace element and Sr- and Pb-isotope data from growth zones of K-feldspar phenocrysts from the two younger granodiorites indicate complex mineral zoning, but general isotopic overlap, suggesting in-situ, inter-unit mixing and fractionation. This is supported by hybrid zones between units, mixing of zircon, hornblende, and K-feldspar populations and late leucogranites. Thus, magma body sizes increased later resulting in overall more homogeneous, but complexly mixing magma mushes that fractionated locally.

  5. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  6. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 5. System, subsystem, and component design approach. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The approach to system, subsystem, and component design for a compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Services, Inc., is presented in this final report. The design approach is based on the facility design criteria described in Volume 2 and the site conditions at the Carmichael salt dome located near Jackson, Mississippi. For the selected weekly cycle, Brown Boveri Corporation selected a single-casing design of fired-high-power and fired-low-power turbines. The high-power (HP) turbine operates at inlet conditions of 609.2 psia (42 bar) and 1021.4/sup 0/F (550/sup 0/C), while the low-power (LP) turbine operates at 159.5 psia (11 bar) and 1633.4/sup 0/F (890/sup 0/C). A tubular design of exhaust gas recuperator heats the incoming air from the storage cavern from 138.4/sup 0/F (60/sup 0/C) to 692/sup 0/F (367/sup 0/C). The compressor design is a single-shaft, tandem-compound arrangement with a 3600-rpm LP compressor and a 6850-rpm HP compressor. The LP compressor is a combination six-stage axial, three-stage radial compressor with an integral cooler and diffuser built into the casing. The HP compressor is a five-stage radial compressor with external intercooler provided after both the second and fourth stages. Fenix and Scisson, Inc., selected two half-size air storage caverns, each capable of delivering full-turbine air mass flow. A solutioning rate of 1750 gpm will allow completion of both caverns without prolonging construction schedule. Fuel is No. 2 distillate, which is delivered on a weekly basis. Rather than construct a rail siding to the plant, a trade-off study showed it more economical to pump the fuel oil to the CAES plant through a seven-mile buried pipeline from the nearest existing rail line. The exhaust gas recuperator, synchronous clutches, and gear case between the HP and LP compressors are key components which require special attention in design and fabrication to ensure reliable CAES plant operation.

  7. Detention storage volume for combined sewer overflow into a river.

    PubMed

    Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the storage volume needed in a combined sewer system tank in order to preserve the water quality. There are a lot of design criteria which do not take into account the conditions of the receiving water, and as a result are inappropriate. A model was used to simulate the performance of a theoretical combined sewer system where a tank was located downstream. Results were obtained from the overflows produced by the rain recorded in Santander (Spain) for 11 years, with several combinations of storage volume and treatment capacity in the wastewater treatment plant. Quality criteria were also proposed for faecal coliforms, BOD, and total nitrogen to evaluate the effects from the overflows in the river water quality. Equations have been obtained which relate the number of overflows, the storage volume and the treatment plant capacity. The bacteriological pollution, quantified by means of faecal coliforms, was the analytical parameter which produced the most adverse effects in the river, so that more storage volume is needed (45 to 180 m3 ha(-1) net) than with other simulated pollutants (5 to 50 m3 ha(-1) net for BOD, and less than 4 m3 ha(-1) net for the total nitrogen). The increase in the treatment plant's capacity, from two to three times the flow in dry weather, reduces the impact on the river water in a more effective way, allowing a reduction of up to 65% in the number of overflows rather than increasing the storage volume.

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The development of the design approaches used to determine the plant and overall layout for a underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh is discussed. Key factors were the selection of the high head pump-turbine equipment and the geotechnical considerations relevant to the underground cavern designs. The comparison of pump-turbine alternatives is described leading to the selection for detailed study of both a single-step configurations, using multistage reversible pump-turbines, and a two-step configuration, with single-stage reversible pump-turbines.

  10. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  11. Southern company energy storage study :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  12. Interim storage study report

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  13. Preliminary design study of Underground Pumped Hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH, Appendix D: Power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine power plant arrangements for a single stage reversible pump turbine two step underground pumped hydro (UPH) installation and for a multi-stage reversible pump turbine single step (MSRPT) UPH installation. Arrangements consist of: the underground powerhouses; transformer galleries; associated mechanical and electrical equipment; the administration and control building; hoist head frames; the access; draft tube and bus tunnels; and the switchyard. Primary considerations including the number and size of pump turbine and motor generator units, starting methods, transformers, high voltage connections, geotechnical and construction aspects and safety were studied. A feasibility analysis to minimize costs was conducted. The study led to the selection of suitable equipment and layouts for the powerhouses, transformer galleries, and associated facilities. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  14. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume II. Final report, Appendix A: selected DSG technologies and their general control requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. The purpose of this survey and identification of DSG technologies is to present an understanding of the special characteristics of each of these technologies in sufficient detail so that the physical principles of their operation and the internal control of each technology are evident. In this way, a better appreciation can be obtained of the monitoring and control requirements for these DSGs from a remote distribution dispatch center. A consistent approach is being sought for both hardware and software which will handle the monitoring and control necessary to integrate a number of different DSG technologies into a common distribution dispatch network. From this study it appears that the control of each of the DSG technologies is compatible with a supervisory control method of operation that lends itself to remote control from a distribution dispatch center.

  15. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; ...

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In thismore » paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.« less

  16. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; Tumilowicz, Eric

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In this paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.

  17. Storage requirement definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, L. E.; Wesling, G. C.; Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    A dish Stirling solar receiver (DSSR) and a heat pipe solar receiver with TES (HPSR) for a 25 kWe dish Stirling solar power system are described. The thermal performance and cost effectiveness of each are analyzed minute by minute over the equivalent of one year of solar insolation. Existing designs of these two systems were used as a basis for the study; TES concepts for the DSSR and alternative TES concepts for the HPSR are presented. Parametric performance and cost studies were performed to determine the operating and cost characteristics of these systems. Data are reported for systems (1) without TES and with varying amounts of TES, (2) with and without a fossil fuel combustor, (3) with varying solar to fossil power input, and (4) with different system control assumptions. The principal effects of TES duration, collector area, engine efficiency, and fuel cost sensitivity are indicated. Development needs for each of the systems are discussed and the need and nature of possible future TES solar modular experiments are presented and discussed.

  18. Volumetric leak detection in large underground storage tanks. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.W.; Wise, R.F.; Maresca, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems when used to test tanks up to 190,000 L (50,000 gal) in capacity. The experiments, conducted on two partially filled 190,000-L (50,000-gal) USTs at Griffiss Air Force Base in upstate New York during late August 1990, showed that a system's performance in large tanks depends primarily on the accuracy of the temperature compensation, which is inversely proportional to the volume of product in the tank. Errors in temperature compensation that were negligible in tests in small tanks were important in large tanks. The experiments further suggest that a multiple-test strategy is also required.

  19. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and rcontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at LANL TA-54 Area L. This report summarizes the operation. This is Volume 2 of five volumes.

  20. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  1. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System Volume 2: Energy Storage Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2013-12-01

    This volume presents the battery storage evaluation tool developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which is used to evaluate benefits of battery storage for multiple grid applications, including energy arbitrage, balancing service, capacity value, distribution system equipment deferral, and outage mitigation. This tool is based on the optimal control strategies to capture multiple services from a single energy storage device. In this control strategy, at each hour, a look-ahead optimization is first formulated and solved to determine battery base operating point. The minute by minute simulation is then performed to simulate the actual battery operation. This volume provide background and manual for this evaluation tool.

  2. Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. Volume 2: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar thermal and the thermal and thermochemical energy storage programs are described as well as the technology requirements for both external (electrical) and internal (thermal, chemical) modes for energy storage in solar power plants. Specific technical issues addressed include thermal storage criteria for solar power plants interfacing with utility systems; optimal dispatch of storage for solar plants in a conventional electric grid; thermal storage/temperature tradeoffs for solar total energy systems; the value of energy storage for direct-replacement solar thermal power plants; systems analysis of storage in specific solar thermal power applications; the value of seasonal storage of solar energy; criteria for selection of the thermal storage system for a 10 MW(2) solar power plant; and the need for specific requirements by storage system development teams.

  3. DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 3: Original data bank listing. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, L. T.

    1973-01-01

    A number of analyses have been performed using the DORCA program for several NASA-funded Aerospace Corporation studies in the past few years. The data decks containing the input data for these analyses have been compiled and are submitted, under separate cover. A few of the data decks are full (basic) decks containing every data item and are used as reference decks in the data bank. The other data decks were obtained by differencing a full deck with respect to one of the reference decks. Using the DORMAN program, a full deck can be recreated from the modified deck and its reference deck when and if desired. The content and structure of the data bank are described. A description of each of these data decks is presented. Three of the cases that are included in this volume have become so widely recognized and accepted that additional descriptive material has been provided. The three cases are: Case 500 Costs, Case 506 Costs, and Case 403.

  4. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume II. Technical summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume II presents the amplified technical summaries of individual tasks and projects conducted during this reporting period. The activities of the authors reporting herein were actually broader in scope than may be reflected by the mini-reports. Readers wishing additional information on specific topics are invited to contact individual authors. The work described here represents one segment of a continuing effort to encourage development and implementation of advanced energy storage technology. The results and progress reported here rely on earlier studies and will, in turn, provide a basis for continued efforts to develop the STES and CAES technologies.

  5. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 11: Plant design. UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The plant design for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and energy storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal heat of 5000 ft. is presented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single-stage reversible pump-turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. The surface facilities and upper reservoir, shafts and hoists, penstocks and hydraulic tunnels, powerhouses, and intermediate and lower reservoirs are described. Details of the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump-turbine and motor-generator units, are given. The development of the site is outlined together with the construction methods and schedule. The cost estimates and a cost-risk analysis are presented. Plant operation, including unit operation, two-step operation, plant efficiency, and availability, is outlined.

  6. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 3, appendix B: State of the art, trends, and potential growth of selected DSG technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Present and future relatively small (30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration can help achieve national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. Based on current projections, it appears that dispersed storage and generation (DSG) electrical energy will comprise only a small portion, from 4 to 10 percent, of the national total by the end of this century. In general, the growth potential for DSG seems favorable in the long term because of finite fossil energy resources and increasing fuel prices. Recent trends, especially in the institutional and regulatory fields, favor greater use of the DSGs for the future.

  7. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 3, appendix B: State of the art, trends, and potential growth of selected DSG technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Present and future relatively small (30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration can help achieve national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. Based on current projections, it appears that dispersed storage and generation (DSG) electrical energy will comprise only a small portion, from 4 to 10 percent, of the national total by the end of this century. In general, the growth potential for DSG seems favorable in the long term because of finite fossil energy resources and increasing fuel prices. Recent trends, especially in the institutional and regulatory fields, favor greater use of the DSGs for the future.

  8. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume I. Progress summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume I summarizes the activities and notable progress toward program objectives in both Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Major changes in program emphasis and structure are also documented.

  9. Study on Hydrogen Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Complex hydrides have been heavily investigated as a hydrogen storage material, particularly for future vehicular applications. The present major problem of such complex hydrides is their relatively high hydrogen desorption temperature (Td). In order to find a predominant parameter for determining Td, we have investigated internal nuclear magnetic fields in several complex hydrides, such as, lithium and sodium alanates, borohydrides, and magnesium hydrides, with a muon spin rotation and relaxation (μ+SR) technique. At low temperatures, the μ+SR spectrum obtained in a zero external field (ZF) exhibits a clear oscillation due to the formation of a three spin 1/2 system, HμH, besides Mg(BH4)2 and Sc(BH4)2. Such oscillatory signal becomes weaker and weaker with increasing temperature, and finally disappears above around room temperature. However, the volume fraction of the HμH signal to the whole asymmetry at 5 K is found to be a good indicator for Td in borohydrides. At high temperatures, on the contrary, the ZF-spectrum for MgH2 shows a Kubo-Toyabe like relaxation due to a random nuclear magnetic field of 1H. Such nuclear magnetic field becomes dynamic well below Td in the milled MgH2, indicating a significant role on H-diffusion in solids for determining Td.

  10. Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. Volume 1: Plenary Session Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the development of inexpensive and efficient thermal and thermochemical energy storage technology to the solar power program is discussed in a summary of workship discussions held to exchange information and plan for future systems. Topics covered include storage in central power applications such as the 10 MW-e demonstration pilot receiver to be constructed in Barstow, California; storage for small dispersed systems, and problems associated with the development of storage systems for solar power plants interfacing with utility systems.

  11. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 2: Project design criteria: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    The design criteria for an underground pumped hydroelectric (JPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal head of 5000 ft are documented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single stage reversible pump turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. Overall design criteria including operating requirements, civil/structural criteria, geotechnical criteria, mechanical criteria and electrical criteria are detailed. Specific requirements are given for the upper reservoir, intake/outlet structure, penstock and draft tubes, powerhouses, transformer galleries, intermediate reservoir, lower reservoir, shafts and hoists, switchyard and surface buildings. The requirements for the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump turbine and motor generator units, are referred to. Electrical design criteria are given to meet the requirements of two power houses located underground at different depths, but these criteria may not necessarily reflect PEPCO's current engineering practice. The criteria refer to a specific site and take into account the site investigation results. The design criteria given were used as the basis for the plant design.

  12. Computer simulation of reflective volume grating holographic data storage.

    PubMed

    Gombköt, Balázs; Koppa, Pál; Süt, Attila; L Rincz, Em Ke

    2007-07-01

    The shift selectivity of a reflective-type spherical reference wave volume hologram is investigated using a nonparaxial numerical modeling based on a multiple-thin-layer implementation of a volume integral equation. The method can be easily parallelized on multiple computers. According to the results, the falloff of the diffraction efficiency due to the readout shift shows neither Bragg zeros nor oscillation with our parameter set. This agrees with our earlier study of smaller and transmissive holograms. Interhologram cross talk of shift-multiplexed holograms is also modeled using the same method, together with sparse modulation block coding and correlation decoding of data. Signal-to-noise ratio and raw bit error rate values are calculated.

  13. Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume previously lost during August 1940 to January 1993. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2008 ranged from a decline of 23.41 feet to a rise of 3.58 feet. The change in storage volume in the study area from August 1940 to July 2008 was a decrease of about 134,000 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 121,000 acre-feet, or about 47 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2008 in the central part of the study area, where city pumpage occurs, was a decrease of about 71,200 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 82,800 acre-feet, or about 54 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993 in the central part of the study area. The recovery in the central part of the study area probably was greater and more consistently maintained than in the study area as a whole because city pumpage has remained less than pre-1993 levels, whereas agricultural irrigation pumpage has been as much or more than pre-1993 levels in some years.

  14. Volumes of recent floods and potential for storage in upland watershed areas of Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.; Eash, David A.; Harvey, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    During the autumn of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, began a study to determine the volume of water associated with recent flood events in parts of the Midwestern United States and a preliminary evaluation of the potential upland areas for storage of flood-waters in selected watersheds. This analysis, although preliminary, may be useful in determining the feasibility of conducting additional, more detailed studies into the role of upland areas in a watershed management strategy. The methods and results of this preliminary hydrologic study are presented in this report.

  15. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 5, appendix D: Cost-benefit considerations for providing dispersed storage and generation for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Cost benefit considerations are extremely important in obtaining the acceptance of dispersed storage and generation (DSG) by the electric utilities. These considerations involved somewhat different economic analyses depending on whether the generation is utility, customer, or combined ownership. It is necessary to get acceptance of more easily understood methods for evaluating the economics of DSG because much of the benefits of DSG may accrue in the generation and transmission portions of the utility system while the costs tend to be centered in the distribution portion of that system. The influence of factors, such as reliability, capital costs, and other economic measures were also investigated.

  16. Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. Discussion topics include the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, data archiving standards, high-performance storage devices, magnetic and magneto-optic storage systems, magnetic and optical recording technologies, high-performance helical scan recording systems, and low end helical scan tape drives. Additional discussion topics addressed the evolution of the identifiable unit for processing (file, granule, data set, or some similar object) as data ingestion rates increase dramatically, and the present state of the art in mass storage technology.

  17. Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies held in Sep. 1992 are included. The conference served as an informational exchange forum for topics primarily relating to the ingestion and management of massive amounts of data and the attendant problems (data ingestion rates now approach the order of terabytes per day). Discussion topics include the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, data archiving standards, high-performance storage devices, magnetic and magneto-optic storage systems, magnetic and optical recording technologies, high-performance helical scan recording systems, and low end helical scan tape drives. Additional topics addressed the evolution of the identifiable unit for processing purposes as data ingestion rates increase dramatically, and the present state of the art in mass storage technology.

  18. Technology transfer for the US Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneau, C.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1988-10-01

    This document contains the appendices to Technology Transfer Recommendations for the US Department of Energy's Storage Program (PNL-6484, Vol. 1). These appendices are a list of projects, publications, and presentations connected with the Energy Storage (STOR) program. In Volume 1, the technology transfer activities of the STOR program are examined and mechanisms for increasing the effectiveness of those activities are recommended.

  19. Estimating Plume Volume for Geologic Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2008-07-11

    Typically, when a new subsurface flow and transport problem is first being considered, very simple models with a minimal number of parameters are used to get a rough idea of how the system will evolve. For a hydrogeologist considering the spreading of a contaminant plume in an aquifer, the aquifer thickness, porosity, and permeability might be enough to get started. If the plume is buoyant, aquifer dip comes into play. If regional groundwater flow is significant or there are nearby wells pumping, these features need to be included. Generally, the required parameters tend to be known from pre-existing studies, are parameters that people working in the field are familiar with, and represent features that are easy to explain to potential funding agencies, regulators, stakeholders, and the public. The situation for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline aquifers is quite different. It is certainly desirable to do preliminary modeling in advance of any field work since geologic storage of CO{sub 2} is a novel concept that few people have much experience with or intuition about. But the parameters that control CO{sub 2} plume behavior are a little more daunting to assemble and explain than those for a groundwater flow problem. Even the most basic question of how much volume a given mass of injected CO{sub 2} will occupy in the subsurface is non-trivial. However, with a number of simplifying assumptions, some preliminary estimates can be made, as described below. To make efficient use of the subsurface storage volume available, CO{sub 2} density should be large, which means choosing a storage formation at depths below about 800 m, where pressure and temperature conditions are above the critical point of CO{sub 2} (P = 73.8 bars, T = 31 C). Then CO{sub 2} will exist primarily as a free-phase supercritical fluid, while some CO{sub 2} will dissolve into the aqueous phase.

  20. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 12: Plant design, CAES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Detailed designs were developed for the major components and systems of the CAES plant. These designs were based upon the preliminary economic and technical evaluations and alternative designs developed in Task 3C. The detailed project design drawings for the major plant systems and structures are presented. The site development report, updated cost estimate, cost/schedule risk study, reliability/availability, analysis, and recommendations for additional research and development are included.

  1. DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 1: Executive summary. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, L. T.

    1973-01-01

    The DORCA Applications study has been directed at development of a data bank management computer program identified as DORMAN. Because of the size of the DORCA data files and the manipulations required on that data to support analyses with the DORCA program, automated data techniques to replace time-consuming manual input generation are required. The Dynamic Operations Requirements and Cost Analysis (DORCA) program was developed for use by NASA in planning future space programs. Both programs are designed for implementation on the UNIVAC 1108 computing system. The purpose of this Executive Summary Report is to define for the NASA management the basic functions of the DORMAN program and its capabilities.

  2. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and recontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at Los Alamos TA-54 Area L. A vapor containment structure was erected. A total of 179 cylinders was processed; 39 were repackaged; and 55 were decommissioned. This report summarizes the operation; this is Volume 1 of five volumes.

  3. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, July 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2012-01-01

    The part of the Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. The 165 square-mile study area represents about 12 percent of the 1,400 square-mile Equus Beds aquifer and accounts for about one-third of the withdrawals from the aquifer. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, generally higher water levels and partial storage-volume recoveries have been recorded in the aquifer. Potentiometric maps of the shallow and deep layers of the aquifer show flow in both aquifer layers is generally from west to east. The July 2011 water-level altitudes in the shallow aquifer layer ranged from a high of about 1,470 feet in the northwest corner of the study area to a low of about 1,330 feet in the southeast corner of the study area; water-level altitudes in the deep aquifer layer ranged from a high of about 1,445 feet on the west edge of the study area to a low of about 1,340 feet in the southeast corner of the study area. In the northwest part of the study area, water-levels can be more than 60 feet higher in the shallow layer than in the deep layer of the Equus Beds aquifer. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2011 ranged from a decline of 43.22 feet to a decline of 0.17 feet and averaged 12.45 feet. The largest August 1940 to July 2011 water-level changes of 30 feet or more occurred in the northern part of the study area centered about 2 and 4 miles east of Burrton, Kansas. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2011 in the study area was a decrease of about 209,000 acre-feet. This volume represents a recovery of about 46,000 acre-feet, or only about 18 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The largest post-1993 storage-volume recovery to date in

  4. Shuttle orbiter storage locker system: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. R.; Schowalter, D. T.; Weil, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Study has been made to assure maximum utility of storage space and crew member facilities in planned space shuttle orbiter. Techniques discussed in this study should be of interest to designers of storage facilities in which space is at premium and vibration is severe. Manufacturers of boats, campers, house trailers, and aircraft could benefit from it.

  5. Main Trend Extraction Based on Irregular Sampling Estimation and Its Application in Storage Volume of Internet Data Center.

    PubMed

    Miao, Beibei; Dou, Chao; Jin, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    The storage volume of internet data center is one of the classical time series. It is very valuable to predict the storage volume of a data center for the business value. However, the storage volume series from a data center is always "dirty," which contains the noise, missing data, and outliers, so it is necessary to extract the main trend of storage volume series for the future prediction processing. In this paper, we propose an irregular sampling estimation method to extract the main trend of the time series, in which the Kalman filter is used to remove the "dirty" data; then the cubic spline interpolation and average method are used to reconstruct the main trend. The developed method is applied in the storage volume series of internet data center. The experiment results show that the developed method can estimate the main trend of storage volume series accurately and make great contribution to predict the future volume value. 
.

  6. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems whe...

  7. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  8. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    The development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000 pound class are described. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  9. Type II Forward Storage Site Facilities: POMCUS System. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    suited to fire extinguishment by water, dry- chemical or CO2 system or extinguishers shall be PROVIDED. (2) f) 1.1) All POL storage areas shall be provided...petroleum products or other materials which would not be suited to fire extin- guishment by water, dry-chemical or CO2 system or extinguishers shall be...which readily accessible at each of would not be suited to fire these structures. (2) extinguishment by water, dry- chemical or CO2 system or

  10. Environmental Projects. Volume 9: Construction of hazardous materials storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards. This report is one in a series of reports describing environmental projects at GDSCC. The construction of two hazardous materials and wastes storage facilities and an acid-wash facility is described. An overview of the Goldstone complex is also presented along with a description of the environmental aspects of the GDSCC site.

  11. Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

  12. Type II Forward Storage Site Facilities. POMCUS System. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    CHEMICAL. BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL ELEMENT (TEAM) (JB) N EQUIPMENT DATA -UNIT EQUIPMENT LIST VEHICLES _ _ _ _ _ number despto gc" size area remarks...ED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(When Data Atnte ..d) Block 20 Continued. & 2. The military threats and vulnerabilities/ m 3. The NATO...making process: (1) supplies and equipment data , (2) Army and Congressional literature, and (3) the experience and knowledge of CEGE personnel. I Volume

  13. A volume law for specification of linear channel storage for estimation of large floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shangyou; Cordery, Ian; Sharma, Ashish

    2000-02-01

    A method of estimating large floods using a linear storage-routing approach is presented. The differences between the proposed approach and those traditionally used are (1) that the flood producing properties of basins are represented by a linear system, (2) the storage parameters of the distributed model are determined using a volume law which, unlike other storage-routing models, accounts for the distribution of storage in natural basins, and (3) the basin outflow hydrograph is determined analytically and expressed in a succinct mathematical form. The single model parameter is estimated from observed data without direct fitting, unlike most traditionally used methods. The model was tested by showing it could reproduce observed large floods on a number of basins. This paper compares the proposed approach with a traditionally used storage routing approach using observed flood data from the Hacking River basin in New South Wales, Australia. Results confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach for estimation of large floods.

  14. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, January 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2011-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume. Potentiometric maps of the shallow and deep layers of the map show flow in both aquifer layers is generally from west to east. Water-level altitudes in the shallow aquifer layer ranged from a high of about 1,470 feet in the northwest corner of the study area to low of about 1,330 feet in the southeast corner of the study area; water-level altitudes in the deep aquifer layer ranged from a high of about 1,440 feet on the west edge of the study area to a low of about 1,330 feet in the southeast corner of the study area. In the northwest part of the study area, water-levels can be up to 50 feet higher in the shallow layer than in the deep layer of the Equus Beds aquifer. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to January 2011 ranged from a decline of 16.52 feet to a rise of 2.22 feet. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to January 2011 was a decrease of about 104,000 acre-feet. This volume represents a recovery of about 151,000 acre-feet, or about 59 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. It also represents a recovery of about 63,000 acre-feet, or about 38 percent of the storage volume lost between August 1940 and January 2007. Major factors in these storage-volume recoveries are increased recharge from greater-than-normal precipitation and planned decreases in city pumpage that are part of Wichita's Integrated Local Water Supply Plan; however, part of the recovery may be because city and irrigation pumpage probably decreased in response to greater-than-normal precipitation

  15. Storage of Allogeneic Vascular Grafts: Experience From a High-Volume Liver Transplant Institute

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Ince, Volkan; Otan, Emrah; Akbulut, Sami; Koc, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic vascular grafts are often required for vascular reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation. Such grafts are obtained prior to use, making storage conditions a critical issue for maintaining the integrity of the tissue to ensure a successful transplantation. This study describes an optimized storage protocol currently in use at a high-volume liver transplant center. Twenty-nine allogeneic vascular graft tissues obtained during cardiovascular surgery or from cadaveric donors were stored respectively in sterile 50 mL of Ringer lactate solution, without any preservation solutions or antimicrobials, at −22°C for a maximum of 3 months. Prior to use in vascular reconstruction, grafts were thawed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C, and 1 × 0.5-cm2 tissue samples were collected for microbial culturing and viral serology. ABO compatibility was not performed for any patients receiving vascular grafts. During this prospective study, all 29 allogeneic vascular grafts were used for back-table vascular reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation procedures. A total of 16 grafts were from the saphenous vein, 10 were from the iliac vein, and 3 were from the iliac artery. Bacterial growth was not detected in any tissue samples taken from the stored grafts. No vascular graft-related complications occurred during the 5 months of follow-up. The successful vascular reconstructions achieved with all 29 study grafts demonstrate that the simple, inexpensive storage method described herein is feasible and safe. Randomized, controlled studies should be carried out to further optimize and standardize the technique. PMID:23701155

  16. Storage of allogeneic vascular grafts: experience from a high-volume liver transplant institute.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Ince, Volkan; Otan, Emrah; Akbulut, Sami; Koc, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic vascular grafts are often required for vascular reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation. Such grafts are obtained prior to use, making storage conditions a critical issue for maintaining the integrity of the tissue to ensure a successful transplantation. This study describes an optimized storage protocol currently in use at a high-volume liver transplant center. Twenty-nine allogeneic vascular graft tissues obtained during cardiovascular surgery or from cadaveric donors were stored respectively in sterile 50 mL of Ringer lactate solution, without any preservation solutions or antimicrobials, at -22°C for a maximum of 3 months. Prior to use in vascular reconstruction, grafts were thawed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C, and 1 × 0.5-cm(2) tissue samples were collected for microbial culturing and viral serology. ABO compatibility was not performed for any patients receiving vascular grafts. During this prospective study, all 29 allogeneic vascular grafts were used for back-table vascular reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation procedures. A total of 16 grafts were from the saphenous vein, 10 were from the iliac vein, and 3 were from the iliac artery. Bacterial growth was not detected in any tissue samples taken from the stored grafts. No vascular graft-related complications occurred during the 5 months of follow-up. The successful vascular reconstructions achieved with all 29 study grafts demonstrate that the simple, inexpensive storage method described herein is feasible and safe. Randomized, controlled studies should be carried out to further optimize and standardize the technique.

  17. Statistical analysis of cross-talk noise and storage capacity in volume holographic memory: image plane holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianmin; Campbell, Scott; Yeh, Pochi; Gu, Claire

    1995-04-01

    We investigate the cross-talk noise in optical storage based on angle-multiplexed image plane volume holograms. Simple expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio and the storage density are obtained. The cross-talk noise is found to limit the size of the pixels and the number of recorded holograms. The cross-talk-limited storage density of image plane holographic storage is found to be close to that of Fourier plane holographic storage.

  18. Position feedback system for volume holographic storage media

    DOEpatents

    Hays, Nathan J.; Henson, James A.; Carpenter, Christopher M.; Akin, Jr.. William R.; Ehrlich, Richard M.; Beazley, Lance D.

    1998-07-07

    A method of holographic recording in a photorefractive medium wherein stored holograms may be retrieved with maximum signal-to noise ratio (SNR) is disclosed. A plurality of servo blocks containing position feedback information is recorded in the crystal and made non-erasable by heating the crystal. The servo blocks are recorded at specific increments, either angular or frequency, depending whether wavelength or angular multiplexing is applied, and each servo block is defined by one of five patterns. Data pages are then recorded at positions or wavelengths enabling each data page to be subsequently reconstructed with servo patterns which provide position feedback information. The method of recording data pages and servo blocks is consistent with conventional practices. In addition, the recording system also includes components (e.g. voice coil motor) which respond to position feedback information and adjust the angular position of the reference angle of a reference beam to maximize SNR by reducing crosstalk, thereby improving storage capacity.

  19. Storage of ultracold neutrons in a volume coated with diamondlike carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, F.; Blau, B.; Daum, M.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Kohlik, K.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Fierlinger, P.; Heule, S.; Geltenbort, P.; Plonka, C.; Kasprzak, M.; Kuzniak, M.; Meyer, C.-F.; Schultrich, B.; Stucky, Th.; Weihnacht, V.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zimmer, O.

    2006-11-15

    Ultracold neutrons (UCN) with energy up to the Fermi potential were stored for the first time in a volume coated with diamondlike carbon. As a function of the UCN energy and wall temperature of the storage volume, we measured the wall loss parameter {eta} and obtained {eta}=(3.1{+-}0.9){center_dot}10{sup -4} at T=290 K and {eta}=(1.8{+-}0.2){center_dot}10{sup -4} at T=115 K.

  20. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  1. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  2. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  3. Long term cryogenic storage facility systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study (LTCSFSS) is a Phase A study of a large capacity propellant depot for the space based, cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. The study is being performed for Marshall Space Flight Center by General Dynamics Space Systems Division and has five principal objectives: (1) Definition of preliminary concept designs for four storage facility concepts; (2) Selection of preferred concepts through the application of trade studies to candidate propellant management system components; (3) Preparation of a conceptual design for an orbital storage facility; (4) Development of supporting research and technology requirements; and (5) Development of a test program to demonstrate facility performance. The initial study has been completed, and continuation activities are just getting under way to provide greater detail in key areas and accommodate changes in study guidelines and assumptions.

  4. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike; Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce into

  5. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

  6. Selective infiltration and storage of picoliter volumes of liquids into sealed SU-8 microwells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Christoph; Schmalz, Tobias; Karnutsch, Christian

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the selective infiltration and storage of picoliter volumes of water and IPA in arrays of sealed SU-8 microwells. Microwells, with a volume of approximately 300 picoliters, are fabricated employing photolithography and a polymer onto polymer lamination method to seal the structures with a thin cover of SU-8 and PDMS in order to suppress the evaporation of the infiltrated liquids. A glass capillary is used to punch through the SU-8/PDMS cover and to infiltrate the liquid of interest into the microwells. The influence of the mixing ratio of the PDMS and its curing agent is studied and the results show that a lower ratio of 2:1 suppresses the evaporation more when compared to the standard mixing ratio of 10:1. In regards to water and IPA, the dwell time in the reservoirs was increased by approximately 50 % and 450 % respectively. Depending on the physical properties of the microwells and the liquids, the SU-8/PDMS cover suppresses the evaporation up to 32 mins for water and 463 mins for IPA, respectively, until the microwell is completely empty again. Additionally, multiple infiltrations of the same microwell are demonstrated using two immiscible liquids IPA and paraffin oil. Based on the popular polymers SU-8 and PDMS, the sealed microwell structures are scalable and combinable with different glass capillaries according to the needs of future analytical research and medical diagnostics.

  7. Thermal acoustic oscillations, volume 2. [cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Sims, W. H.; Fan, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of thermal acoustic oscillation phenomena and their effects on cryogenic systems were studied. The conditions which cause or suppress oscillations, the frequency, amplitude and intensity of oscillations when they exist, and the heat loss they induce are discussed. Methods of numerical analysis utilizing the digital computer were developed for use in cryogenic systems design. In addition, an experimental verification program was conducted to study oscillation wave characteristics and boiloff rate. The data were then reduced and compared with the analytical predictions.

  8. Alternative energy sources IV; Proceedings of the Fourth Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, FL, December 14-16, 1981. Volume 1 - Solar Collectors Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    1982-10-01

    Aspects of solar measurements, solar collectors, selective coatings, thermal storage, phase change storage, and heat exchangers are discussed. The analysis and testing of flat-plate solar collectors are addressed. The development and uses of plastic collectors, a solar water heating system, solar energy collecting oil barrels, a glass collector panel, and a two-phase thermosyphon system are considered. Studies of stratification in thermal storage, of packed bed and fluidized bed systems, and of thermal storage in solar towers, in wall passive systems, and in reversible chemical reactions are reported. Phase change storage by direct contact processes and in residential solar space heating and cooling is examined, as are new materials and surface characteristics for solar heat storage. The use of R-11 and Freon-113 in heat exchange is discussed. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  9. The file system research based on the volume holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faling; Xie, Changsheng; Wu, Fei; Han, Dezhi

    2005-09-01

    The Volume Holographic Data Storage (VHDS) is an optical technology that allows one million bits of data to be written and read out in single flashes of light. To accommodate the characteristics of VHDS, this paper presents the following strategies in designing the file system based on VHDS: (1) Construct the virtual storage layer on the Holographic Storage media, which turns the storage-on-pages into the storage-on-blocks. (2) Use the two-layer structure of the directory table and the index node, and the data stored in the immediate area of the index node. This method can access the index node and the content (partial or all) of the file with an accessing operation. (3) Adopt the allocating method of the page priority in storing data--allocate the whole page to a file while the length of the file exceeds the page. In the meantime, a page is partitioned into many zones to enhance the storing utilities of VHDS. (4) To meet the three-dimension storage's need, the two-dimension Logical Block Address (LBA) is to be used, and makes the more continuity between data blocks--allocate the continuous data blocks in vertical and horizontal direction while storing data. The simulation test shows that the file system can be compatible with the existing file system, and has better stability.

  10. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  11. Fifth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Fifth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies held September 17 - 19, 1996, at the University of Maryland, University Conference Center in College Park, Maryland. As one of an ongoing series, this conference continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include storage architecture, database management, data distribution, file system performance and modeling, and optical recording technology. There will also be a paper on Application Programming Interfaces (API) for a Physical Volume Repository (PVR) defined in Version 5 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Reference Model (RM). In addition, there are papers on specific archives and storage products.

  12. Fifth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies.. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Fifth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies. As one of an ongoing series, this conference continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include storage architecture, database management, data distribution, file system performance and modeling, and optical recording technology. There will also be a paper on Application Programming Interfaces (API) for a Physical Volume Repository (PVR) defined in Version 5 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Reference Model (RM). In addition, there are papers on specific archives and storage products.

  13. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  14. Main Trend Extraction Based on Irregular Sampling Estimation and Its Application in Storage Volume of Internet Data Center

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The storage volume of internet data center is one of the classical time series. It is very valuable to predict the storage volume of a data center for the business value. However, the storage volume series from a data center is always “dirty,” which contains the noise, missing data, and outliers, so it is necessary to extract the main trend of storage volume series for the future prediction processing. In this paper, we propose an irregular sampling estimation method to extract the main trend of the time series, in which the Kalman filter is used to remove the “dirty” data; then the cubic spline interpolation and average method are used to reconstruct the main trend. The developed method is applied in the storage volume series of internet data center. The experiment results show that the developed method can estimate the main trend of storage volume series accurately and make great contribution to predict the future volume value. 
 PMID:28090205

  15. Determination of the steam volume fraction in the event of loss of cooling of the spent fuel storage pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledkov, R. M.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, O. E.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    When one solves engineering problems related to the cooling of fuel assemblies (FAs) in a spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) and the assessment of nuclear safety of FA storage in an SFSP in the initial event of loss of SFSP cooling, it is essential to determine the coolant density and, consequently, steam volume fractions φ in bundles of fuel elements at a pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa. Such formulas for calculating φ that remain valid in a wide range of operating parameters and geometric shapes of channels and take the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling into account are currently almost lacking. The results of systematization and analysis of the available formulas for φ are reported in the present study. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained in the process of simulating the conditions of FA cooling in an SFSP in the event of loss of its cooling. Six formulas for calculating the steam volume fraction, which were used in this comparison, were chosen from a total of 11 considered relations. As a result, the formulas producing the most accurate values of φ in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling were selected. In addition, a relation that allows one to perform more accurate calculations of steam volume fractions in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling was derived based on the Fedorov formula in the two-group approximation.

  16. Confined-Volume Effect on the Thermal Properties of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Paula F; Ahmed, Adham; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2016-03-18

    We have encapsulated the heat exchange material, n-docosane, into polyurethane capsules of different sizes. Decreasing the size of the capsules leads to changes of the crystallinity of phase-change material as well as melting/crystallization temperature. The novelty of the paper includes 1) protection of the nanostructured energy-enriched materials against environment during storage and controlled release of the encapsulated energy on demand and 2) study of the structure and surface-to-volume properties of the energy-enriched materials dispersed in capsules of different sizes. The stability of energy nanomaterials, influence of capsule diameter on their energy capacity, homogeneity and operation lifetime are investigated.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen; Mai, Treui; Baldwin, Sam; Brinkman, Greg; Sandor, Debbie; Denholm, Paul; Heath, Garvin; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One. This is part of a series of four volumes describing exploring a high-penetration renewable electricity future for the United States of America. This data set is provides data for the entire volume one document and includes all data for the charts and graphs included in the document.

  18. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  19. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  20. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  1. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  2. Parameter study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale prototype hydrogen storage system as part of a Work For Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed using the complex metal hydride sodium alanate. For the current work, we have continued our evaluation of the GM Demonstration System to provide learning to DOE's hydrogen storage programs, specifically the new Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. Baseline refueling data during testing for GM was taken over a narrow range of optimized parameter values. Further testing was conducted over a broader range. Parameters considered included hydrogen pressure and coolant flow rate. This data confirmed the choice of design pressure of the Demonstration System, but indicated that the system was over-designed for cooling. Baseline hydrogen delivery data was insufficient to map out delivery rate as a function of temperature and capacity for the full-scale system. A more rigorous matrix of tests was performed to better define delivery capabilities. These studies were compared with 1-D and 2-D coupled multi-physics modeling results. The relative merits of these models are discussed along with opportunities for improved efficiency or reduced mass and volume.

  3. Fault damage zone volume and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinisation in subsurface storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Elena; Langer, Maria; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brine. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers and lead to unwanted salinisation of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a potential storage site in the Northeast German Basin using a three-dimensional (3-D) regional-scale model that includes four major fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of a secondary reservoir above the storage formation, as well as model boundary conditions and initial salinity distribution on the potential salinisation of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid. Our simulation results demonstrate that the lateral model boundary settings and the effective fault damage zone volume have the greatest influence on pressure build-up and development within the reservoir, and thus intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults. Higher vertical pressure gradients for short fault segments or a small effective fault damage zone volume result in the highest salinisation potential due to a larger vertical fault height affected by fluid displacement. Consequently, it has a strong impact on the degree of shallow aquifer salinisation, whether a gradient in salinity exists or the saltwater-freshwater interface lies below the fluid displacement depth in the faults. A small effective fault damage zone volume or low fault permeability further extend the duration of fluid flow, which can persist for several tens to hundreds of years, if the reservoir is laterally confined. Laterally open reservoir boundaries, large effective fault damage zone volumes and intermediate reservoirs significantly reduce vertical brine migration and the potential of freshwater salinisation because the origin depth of displaced

  4. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  5. Temporal and storage effects on ultra-low volume droplets of insecticides collected on Teflon-coated slides.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Lloyd, Aaron M; Estep, Alden S; Walker, Todd W; Hughes, Tony

    2013-12-01

    Use of microscope slides is the most commonly used method to field-assess the droplet spectrum of ultra-low volume (ULV) sprays. Due to absence of analysis facilities during military deployments, slides must be stored and shipped, and the impact of delays in processing and storage conditions on droplets is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of storage temperatures and duration on droplets on Teflon-coated slides. Treatments included BVA-13 mineral oil, Kontrol 30-30 (30% permethrin), and Fyfanon (96.5% malathion), 2 slide wrapping techniques (proper and improper), and 2 storage temperatures (23 and 45 degrees C), replicated 6 times. The same areas of a slide were measured at different times for 56-58 days using the DropVision droplet measurement system. Regardless of the wrapping technique, droplets of BVA-13, Fyfanon, and Kontrol 30-30 on slides stored at 45 degrees C reduced significantly after 1, 2, and 1 day, respectively, but droplets on slides stored at 23 degrees C were not significantly affected. The results of this study may assist vector control professionals to accurately interpret the droplet size and help in the effective dispersal of ULV-applied insecticides.

  6. Studies in Interpretation. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Esther M., Ed.; Floyd, Virginia Hastings, Ed.

    The purpose of this second book of 21 self-contained essays is the same as that of the first volume published in 1972: to bring together the scholarly theory and current research regarding oral interpretation. One third of the essays are centered on literature itself: prose fiction, poetry, and the drama. These essays discuss topics such as point…

  7. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  8. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, January 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klager, Brian J.

    2016-12-29

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas, which is part of the High Plains aquifer, serves as a source of water for municipal and agricultural users in the area. The city of Wichita has used the Equus Beds aquifer as one of its primary water sources since the 1940s. The aquifer in and around Wichita’s well field reached historically low water levels in 1993, prompting the city to adopt new water-use and conservation strategies to ensure future water supply needs were met. Part of the plan was to initiate a managed aquifer recharge program called the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. The goal of the managed aquifer recharge program is to artificially recharge the Equus Beds aquifer with treated water from the Little Arkansas River. As part of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project, the city of Wichita and the U.S. Geological Survey have partnered in a long-term cooperative study to monitor and describe the quantity and quality of the water in the Equus Beds aquifer and the Little Arkansas River.The city of Wichita, the Equus Beds Groundwater Management District No. 2, the Kansas Department of Agriculture–Division of Water Resources, and the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater levels in numerous wells screened in the Equus Beds aquifer in the area in and around Wichita’s well field in January 2016. The measurements were used to interpolate potentiometric surfaces for shallow and deep parts of the aquifer in the study area. These potentiometric surfaces were compared with potentiometric surfaces from previous years to estimate changes in water levels and storage volume in the study area.Groundwater levels were generally higher in January 2016 than they were in January 2015. On average, in January 2016, groundwater levels in the shallow part of the aquifer were about 3.4 feet higher and groundwater levels in the deep part of the aquifer were about 3.8 feet higher than in January 2015. The volume of water stored in the

  9. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  10. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 2: (Application of energy storage to IUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of energy storage devices to any energy system depends on the performance and cost characteristics of the larger basic system. A comparative assessment of energy storage alternatives for application to IUS which addresses the systems aspects of the overall installation is described. Factors considered include: (1) descriptions of the two no-storage IUS baselines utilized as yardsticks for comparison throughout the study; (2) discussions of the assessment criteria and the selection framework employed; (3) a summary of the rationale utilized in selecting water storage as the primary energy storage candidate for near term application to IUS; (4) discussion of the integration aspects of water storage systems; and (5) an assessment of IUS with water storage in alternative climates.

  11. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  12. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  13. Groundwater-level and storage-volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, predevelopment through January 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whisnant, Joshua A.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Eslick, Patrick J.

    2015-10-01

    Groundwater levels from January 2014 to January 2015 in the central part of the study area rose about 3 feet in some places, probably because Wichita reduced its withdrawals from the aquifer in 2014 by more than 50 percent. Groundwater levels probably recovered less than anticipated because of decreased recharge and net groundwater flow and increased agricultural pumpage. A volumetric water budget for the central part of the study area between 2013 and 2014 showed that the substantial decrease in total pumping (10,412 acre-feet) did not result in an increase in storage volume because it was more than offset by decreased recharge (6,502 acre-feet; artificial and from precipitation) and an even greater decrease in net groundwater flow (11,710 acre-feet).

  14. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  15. From the surface to volume: concepts for the next generation of optical-holographic data-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Hagen, Rainer; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Fäcke, Thomas

    2011-05-09

    Optical data storage has had a major impact on daily life since its introduction to the market in 1982. Compact discs (CDs), digital versatile discs (DVDs), and Blu-ray discs (BDs) are universal data-storage formats with the advantage that the reading and writing of the digital data does not require contact and is therefore wear-free. These formats allow convenient and fast data access, high transfer rates, and electricity-free data storage with low overall archiving costs. The driving force for development in this area is the constant need for increased data-storage capacity and transfer rate. The use of holographic principles for optical data storage is an elegant way to increase the storage capacity and the transfer rate, because by this technique the data can be stored in the volume of the storage material and, moreover, it can be optically processed in parallel. This Review describes the fundamental requirements for holographic data-storage materials and compares the general concepts for the materials used. An overview of the performance of current read-write devices shows how far holographic data storage has already been developed.

  16. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  17. Feasibility studies of aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Determining the feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for a particular heating or cooling application is an interdisciplinary effort, requiring (at a minimum) expertise in engineering and hydrology. The feasibility study should proceed in two distinct stages. The first stage, which is limited in scope and detail, is intended to show if an ATES system is technically and economically suited to the application. Focus of this preliminary investigation is on revealing the existence of factors that might weigh heavily against the use of ATES methods, and, in the absence of such factors, on choosing a suitable scale for the ATES plant and well field. The results of the preliminary investigation are used to determine if more detailed investigation--including field studies--are justified, and to facilitate comparing the advantages of ATES to those of other means of providing heating or cooling. The second stage of the feasibility study focuses on detailed aquifer characterization, refinement of engineering design and cost estimates, and economic and environmental risk analysis. The results of this investigation, if favorable, will be used to justify the expense of constructing the ATES system.

  18. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume 3: Preconceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  19. Pacific Basin Communication Study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Users' meeting summary report, chronology of visits, economic data for forum countries, techniques used in the study, communication choices, existing resources in the Pacific Basin, and warc 79 region 3 rules and regulations were presented in volume 2.

  20. Optimizing Crystal Volume for Neutron Diffraction Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    For structural studies with neutron diffraction more intense neutron sources, improved sensitivity detector and larger volume crystals are all means by which the science is being advanced to enable studies on a wider range of samples. We have chosen a simplistic approach using a well understood crystallization method, with minimal amounts of sample and using design of experiment techniques to maximize the crystal volume all for minimum effort. Examples of the application are given.

  1. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  2. Design study of the storage ring EUTERPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Boling; Botman, J. I. M.; Timmermans, C. J.; Hagedoorn, H. L.

    1992-05-01

    At present the 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is being constructed at the Eindhoven University of Technology. It is a university project set up for studies of charged particle beam dynamics and applications of synchroton radiation, and for the education of students in these fields. The design of the ring is described in this paper. Considering the requirements of users in different fields, a lattice based on a so-called triple bend achromat structure with a high flexibility has been chosen. With this lattice, different optical options, including the HBSB (high brightness, small beam), the SBL (short bunch length) and the HLF (high light flux) modes can be realized. A small emittance of 7 nm rad and a short bunch length of the order of several mm can be achieved. In the first phase the synchrotron radiation in the UV and XUV region (the critical wavelength is 8.3 nm) will be provided from the regular dipole magnets. Later on, a 10 T wiggler magnet and other special inserters will be added, and other applications and beam dynamics studies will be feasible. Bending magnets are of the parallel faced C configuration. The effective aperture of the vacuum chamber is 2.3 cm (vertical) in the bending magnets and 4.7 cm elsewhere with a working vacuum condition of 10-9 Torr. Collective effects have been studied initially. First calculations indicate that a lifetime of several hours, influenced by the Touschek effect and residual gas scattering will be achievable for a 200 mA beam in the HLF mode for the standard rf parameters. A 70 MeV racetrack microtron will serve as injector for the ring.

  3. Optical storage media data integrity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1994-03-01

    Optical disk-based information systems are being used in private industry and many Federal Government agencies for on-line and long-term storage of large quantities of data. The storage devices that are part of these systems are designed with powerful, but not unlimited, media error correction capacities. The integrity of data stored on optical disks does not only depend on the life expectancy specifications for the medium. Different factors, including handling and storage conditions, may result in an increase of medium errors in size and frequency. Monitoring the potential data degradation is crucial, especially for long term applications. Efforts are being made by the Association for Information and Image Management Technical Committee C21, Storage Devices and Applications, to specify methods for monitoring and reporting to the user medium errors detected by the storage device while writing, reading or verifying the data stored in that medium. The Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) has a leadership role in the development of these standard techniques. In addition, CSL is researching other data integrity issues, including the investigation of error-resilient compression algorithms. NIST has conducted care and handling experiments on optical disk media with the objective of identifying possible causes of degradation. NIST work in data integrity and related standards activities is described.

  4. Optical storage media data integrity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1994-01-01

    Optical disk-based information systems are being used in private industry and many Federal Government agencies for on-line and long-term storage of large quantities of data. The storage devices that are part of these systems are designed with powerful, but not unlimited, media error correction capacities. The integrity of data stored on optical disks does not only depend on the life expectancy specifications for the medium. Different factors, including handling and storage conditions, may result in an increase of medium errors in size and frequency. Monitoring the potential data degradation is crucial, especially for long term applications. Efforts are being made by the Association for Information and Image Management Technical Committee C21, Storage Devices and Applications, to specify methods for monitoring and reporting to the user medium errors detected by the storage device while writing, reading or verifying the data stored in that medium. The Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) has a leadership role in the development of these standard techniques. In addition, CSL is researching other data integrity issues, including the investigation of error-resilient compression algorithms. NIST has conducted care and handling experiments on optical disk media with the objective of identifying possible causes of degradation. NIST work in data integrity and related standards activities is described.

  5. Summary of selected compressed air energy storage studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive summarily of research and development in compressed air energy storage technology is presented. Research funded primarily by the Department of Energy is described. Results of studies by other groups and experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany are included. Feasibility studies performed by General Electric are summarized. The feasibility of air storage in dissolved salt cavities is also demonstrated. (BCS)

  6. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 1, Mathematical models and solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code used to predict temperatures and velocities in a wide variety of systems. The code was refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. The finite-volume equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation are written for an incompressible, single-phase fluid. The flow equations model a wide range of conditions including natural circulation. The energy equations include the effects of solid and fluid conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. The COBRA-SFS code is structured to perform both steady-state and transient calculations: however, the transient capability has not yet been validated. This volume describes the finite-volume equations and the method used to solve these equations. It is directed toward the user who is interested in gaining a more complete understanding of these methods.

  7. Fundamental Studies Connected with Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, E.; Sen, R.

    1974-01-01

    Papers are presented which deal with electrochemical research activities. Emphasis is placed on electrochemical energy storage devices. Topics discussed include: adsorption of dendrite inhibitors on zinc; proton discharge process; electron and protron transfer; quantum mechanical formulation of electron transfer rates; and theory of electrochemical kinetics in terms of two models of activation; thermal and electrostatic.

  8. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  9. Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  10. Staging and storage facility feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of adapting the design of the HWVP Canister Storage Building (CSB) to meet the needs of the WHC Spent Nuclear Fuel Project for Staging and Storage Facility (SSF), and to develop Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost and schedule estimates.

  11. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  12. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  13. Jail Removal Cost Study. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    This second volume of the jail removal cost study provides a detailed report of the study findings which examine the costs, experiences, and ramifications of removing children from adult jails and lockups. The foreword supplies background information and hypothetical removal cost estimates. The approach used to conduct the jail removal cost study…

  14. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  15. 1978-79 Michigan Social Studies Textbook Study, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John, M., Ed.

    This document represents Volume I of a two volume study to determine the extent to which four elementary level social studies programs reflect the multi-racial, multi-cultural nature of American society. The document is presented in three parts. Part I covers the Michigan Social Studies Textbook Act, an historical overview of previous Michigan…

  16. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disks and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  17. Simulation of groundwater flow, effects of artificial recharge, and storage volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer near the city of Wichita, Kansas well field, 1935–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.; Pickett, Linda L.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    storage area compared to metered recharge of 1,796 acre-ft indicates some loss of metered recharge. Increased storage outside of the basin storage area of 183 acre-ft accounts for all but 6 acre-ft or 0.33 percent of the total. Previously estimated recharge credits for 2007 and 2008 are 1,018 and 600 acre-ft, respectively, and a total estimated recharge credit of 1,618 acre-ft. Storage changes calculated for this study are 4.42 percent less for 2007 and 5.67 percent more for 2008 than previous estimates. Total storage change for 2007 and 2008 is 0.68 percent less than previous estimates. The small difference between the increase in storage from artificial recharge estimated with the groundwater-flow model and metered recharge indicates the groundwater model correctly accounts for the additional water recharged to the Equus Beds aquifer as part of the Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. Small percent differences between inflows and outflows for all stress periods and all index cells in the basin storage area, improved calibration compared to the previous model, and a reasonable match between simulated and measured long-term base flow indicates the groundwater model accurately simulates groundwater flow in the study area. The change in groundwater level through recent years compared to the August 1940 groundwater level map has been documented and used to assess the change of storage volume of the Equus Beds aquifer in and near the Wichita well field for three different areas. Two methods were used to estimate changes in storage from simulation results using simulated change in groundwater levels in layer 1 between stress periods, and using ZONEBUDGET to calculate the change in storage in the same way the effects of artificial recharge were estimated within the basin storage area. The three methods indicate similar trends although the magnitude of storage changes differ. Information about the change in storage in response to hydrologic stresses is important for managing

  18. Satellite voice broadcast. Volume 2: System study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtell, E. E.; Bettadapur, S. S.; Coyner, J. V.; Farrell, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Technical Volume of the Satellite Broadcast System Study is presented. Designs are synthesized for direct sound broadcast satellite systems for HF-, VHF-, L-, and Ku-bands. Methods are developed and used to predict satellite weight, volume, and RF performance for the various concepts considered. Cost and schedule risk assessments are performed to predict time and cost required to implement selected concepts. Technology assessments and tradeoffs are made to identify critical enabling technologies that require development to bring technical risk to acceptable levels for full scale development.

  19. Experimental study of optical storage characteristics of photochromic material: pyrrylfulgide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Chen, Yi; Han, Yong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Yingli; Menke, Neimule; Chen, Guofu; Fan, Meigong

    2003-04-01

    Optical data storage is a frontier in the information science. Currently, there are mainly two kinds of storage materials, i.e., thermal-optic and photonic materials. The storage methods are divided into serial and parallel modes. In the market, the mature technique is CD-RW, which uses the thermal-optic material and serial method. The storage density of the CD-RW is restricted by the size of material particles, the conduction of heat, etc. Besides, the recording speed is seriously limited by the process of heating. Photonic materials and parallel method will be the trend in the optical data storage. Because it is based on the photon reaction on the molecule scale, the storage density and speed will be greatly increased. In this paper, a new kind of organic photochromic material -- pyrrylfulgide was studied. A parallel optical data storage system was established. Using the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film as a recording medium, micro-images and binary digital information could be recorded, readout and erased in this parallel system. The recorded information on the film can be kept for at least 8 months in dark at room temperature. So far, the storage density is 3 x 107 bit/cm2.

  20. Dispersed storage and generation case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K.; Stallkamp, J. A.; Walton, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three installations utilizing separate dispersed storage and generation (DSG) technologies were investigated. Each of the systems is described in costs and control. Selected institutional and environmental issues are discussed, including life cycle costs. No unresolved technical, environmental, or institutional problems were encountered in the installations. The wind and solar photovoltaic DSG were installed for test purposes, and appear to be presently uneconomical. However, a number of factors are decreasing the cost of DSG relative to conventional alternatives, and an increased DSG penetration level may be expected in the future.

  1. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 3, Validation assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, N.J.; Cuta, J.M.; Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents the results of the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code validation effort. COBRA-SFS, while refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses, is a lumped-volume thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code that predicts temperature and velocity distributions in a wide variety of systems. Through comparisons of code predictions with spent fuel storage system test data, the code's mathematical, physical, and mechanistic models are assessed, and empirical relations defined. The six test cases used to validate the code and code models include single-assembly and multiassembly storage systems under a variety of fill media and system orientations and include unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. In its entirety, the test matrix investigates the contributions of convection, conduction, and radiation heat transfer in spent fuel storage systems. To demonstrate the code's performance for a wide variety of storage systems and conditions, comparisons of code predictions with data are made for 14 runs from the experimental data base. The cases selected exercise the important code models and code logic pathways and are representative of the types of simulations required for spent fuel storage system design and licensing safety analyses. For each test, a test description, a summary of the COBRA-SFS computational model, assumptions, and correlations employed are presented. For the cases selected, axial and radial temperature profile comparisons of code predictions with test data are provided, and conclusions drawn concerning the code models and the ability to predict the data and data trends. Comparisons of code predictions with test data demonstrate the ability of COBRA-SFS to successfully predict temperature distributions in unconsolidated or consolidated single and multiassembly spent fuel storage systems.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  3. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code used to predict temperatures and velocities in a wide variety of systems. The code was refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. The finite-volume equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation are written for an incompressible, single-phase fluid. The flow equations model a wide range of conditions including natural circulation. The energy equations include the effects of solid and fluid conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. The COBRA-SFS code is structured to perform both steady-state and transient calculations; however, the transient capability has not yet been validated. This volume contains the input instructions for COBRA-SFS and an auxiliary radiation exchange factor code, RADX-1. It is intended to aid the user in becoming familiar with the capabilities and modeling conventions of the code.

  4. Accelerated Storage Stability and Corrosion Characteristics Study Protocol

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has determined that studies using this protocol will, in certain circumstances, provide the Agency with all the information it needs to make a determination on the storage stability of pesticides.

  5. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  6. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  7. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

  8. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 57, Number 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Studies in Intelligence Journal of the American Intelligence Professional Unclassified articles from Studies in Intelligence Volume 57, Number 3...1908 to 1914 Intelligence Officer’s Bookshelf Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13

  9. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Yehia; Peltola, Esa; Sipila, Kari; Vaatainen, Anne

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were estimated, and this information was used to calculate the economics of CAES. An analysis of the different possible systems is given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with CAES system. In the second system wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straightforward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  10. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 2, Environmental assessment for a monitored retrievable storage facility. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) supports the DOE proposal to Congress to construct and operate a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portion of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first part of this document is an assessment of the value of, need for, and feasibility of an MRS facility as an integral component of the waste management system. The second part is an assessment and comparison of the potential environmental impacts projected for each of six site-design combinations. The MRS facility would be centrally located with respect to existing reactors, and would receive and canister spent fuel in preparation for shipment to and disposal in a geologic repository. 207 refs., 57 figs., 132 tabs.

  11. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

  12. The RAAF Logistics Study. Volume 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    Use of Issue-Based Root Definitions Application of Soft Systems Methodology to 27 Information Systems Analysis Conclusion 30 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 58 k...Management Control Systems’, Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Volume 6, 1979, pages 51 to 67. 5. The soft systems methodology was developed to tackle...the soft systems methodology has many advantages whi-h recmmenrl it to this type of study area, it does not mcklel the timo ev, lut i, n :-f a system

  13. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows: SuperMicro X7

  14. Study for Possible Storage Solutions for Kloe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donno, F.; Pace, E.

    The requirements of KLOE represent a challenge in this field, since we have to deal with data rates (about 1011 events/year) considerably higher than those of typical collider experiments such as LEP or TEV-1, albeit a factor ten smaller then those foreseen at the LHC. It is estimated that the average event size is 5 kbytes, corresponding to a total bandwidth requirement of 50 Mbytes/s. The amount of data collected each year of running is then of the order of 500 Tbytes. The total storage requirements are even greater due to the MonteCarlo data that will be required and could only be managed with special robotics and a good computer organization. In this paper we discuss the characteristics of actual tape drive systems and robotic libraries that could be of interest for KLOE (DLT, IBM 3590, STK Redwood, AMPEX DST 310) and results of test are shown for DLT's (under HP UX and Digital UNIX). The software that will be used for reading/writing data is also described. Home made software will be employed to drive the robotic parts.

  15. Trade-off study of data storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadyszewski, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    The need to store and retrieve large quantities of data at modest cost has generated the need for an economical, compact, archival mass storage system. Very significant improvements in the state-of-the-art of mass storage systems have been accomplished through the development of a number of magnetic, electro-optical, and other related devices. This study was conducted in order to do a trade-off between these data storage devices and the related technologies in order to determine an optimum approach for an archival mass data storage system based upon a comparison of the projected capabilities and characteristics of these devices to yield operational systems in the early 1980's.

  16. Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications. Volume 1: Screening of concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausz, W.; Berkowitz, B. J.; Hare, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Over forty thermal energy storage (TES) concepts gathered from the literature and personal contacts were studied for their suitability for the electric utility application of storing energy off-peak discharge during peak hours. Twelve selections were derived from the concepts for screening; they used as storage media high temperature water (HTW), hot oil, molten salts, and packed beds of solids such as rock. HTW required pressure containment by prestressed cast-iron or concrete vessels, or lined underground cavities. Both steam generation from storage and feedwater heating from storage were studied. Four choices were made for further study during the project. Economic comparison by electric utility standard cost practices, and near-term availability (low technical risk) were principal criteria but suitability for utility use, conservation potential, and environmental hazards were considered.

  17. Status of ground-water levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, January 2000-January 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.; Aucott, Walter R.

    2004-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer northwest of Wichita, Kansas, was developed to supply water to Wichita residents and for irrigation in south-central Kansas beginning on September 1, 1940. Ground-water pumping for city and agricultural use from the aquifer caused water levels to decline in a large part of the area. Irrigation pumpage in the area increased substantially during the 1970s and 1980s and accelerated water-level declines. A period of water-level rises associated with greater-than-average precipitation and decreased city pumpage from the study area began in 1993. An important factor in the decreased city pumpage was increased use of Cheney Reservoir as a water-supply source by the city of Wichita; as a result, city pumpage from the Equus Beds aquifer during 1993-2002 went from being greater than one-half to slightly less than one-third of Wichita's water usage. Since 1995, the city also has been investigating the use of artificial recharge in the study area to meet future water-supply needs and to protect the aquifer from the intrusion of saltwater from natural and human-related sources to the west. During January 2003, the direction of ground-water flow in the Equus Beds aquifer in the area was generally from west to east similar to predevelopment of the aquifer. The maximum water-level decline since 1940 for the period January 2000 to January 2003 was 29.54 feet in July 2002 at well 3 in the northern part of the area. Cumulative water-level changes from January 2000 to January 2003 typically were less than 4 feet with rises of less than 4 feet common in the central part of the area; however, declines of more than 4 feet occurred in the northwestern and southern parts of the area. The recovery of water levels and aquifer storage volumes from record low levels in October 1992 generally continued to April 2000. The recovery of about 182,000 acre-feet of storage volume in the area from October 1992 to April 2000 represents about a 64-percent recovery of the storage

  18. Compressed air energy storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 2: Utility system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The performance of an aquifer compressed air energy storage system was studied. The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network are analyzed. Scenarios of 100 percent coal, 50 percent coal and 50 percent nuclear, and 100 percent nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Favorable economics are indicated when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil fired generation.

  19. Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. Stephen

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code was written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have D shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. Designs are presented for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 T to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils were divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport.

  20. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  1. SIMWEST: A simulation model for wind and photovoltaic energy storage systems (CDC user's manual), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Esinger, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are given for using the SIMWEST program on CDC 6000 series computers. This expanded software package includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic).

  2. A simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Edsinger, R. W.; Chan, Y. K.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy and storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic) was developed. The level of detail of Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage (SIMWEST) is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. The first program is a precompiler which generates computer models (in FORTRAN) of complex wind source storage application systems, from user specifications using the respective library components. The second program provides the techno-economic system analysis with the respective I/O, the integration of systems dynamics, and the iteration for conveyance of variables. SIMWEST program, as described, runs on the UNIVAC 1100 series computers.

  3. Storage management in Ada. Three reports. Volume 1: Storage management in Ada as a risk to the development of reliable software. Volume 2: Relevant aspects of language. Volume 3: Requirements of the language versus manifestations of current implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The risk to the development of program reliability is derived from the use of a new language and from the potential use of new storage management techniques. With Ada and associated support software, there is a lack of established guidelines and procedures, drawn from experience and common usage, which assume reliable behavior. The risk is identified and clarified. In order to provide a framework for future consideration of dynamic storage management on Ada, a description of the relevant aspects of the language is presented in two sections: Program data sources, and declaration and allocation in Ada. Storage-management characteristics of the Ada language and storage-management characteristics of Ada implementations are differentiated. Terms that are used are defined in a narrow and precise sense. The storage-management implications of the Ada language are described. The storage-management options available to the Ada implementor and the implications of the implementor's choice for the Ada programmer are also described.

  4. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  5. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  6. East Coast Regional Petroleum Reserve (RPR). Volume 2. Potential Storage Sites Concept Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    WHERE THEY WERE POINT-SCORED ON THE BASIS OF AN EVALUATION OF SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS. THE SCORING SYSTEM, AS ESTABLISHED DD I F 3 147 EDITION OF INOV ...CONDUCTIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER CONCEPTS FOR NO. 6 RESIDUAL OIL. (2) FEASIBILITY OF HEATING RESIDUAL OIL STORAGE FACILITIES WITH SOLAR ENERGY...of conductive and convective heat transfer con- cepts for No. 6 residual oil (2) Feasibility of heating residual oil storage facilities with solar

  7. Study for promotion of introducing advanced battery energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    An advanced battery energy storage system is examined, with studies focused mainly on its technical development, but also its commercialization, cost, reliability, simplification and compactness. The purpose of this project is to study the parameters which are needed in order to promote introduction of the advanced battery energy storage system. Systems which are expected to be commercialized in the near future are a customer peak-cut system, an isolated island peak-cut system, and emergency electric power sources. When technology reaches maturity, a load-leveling system to be installed at substations of electric utilities are expected to be commercially used. With the study on commercial application as one of the purposes, small scale (50 to 100 kW) advanced battery energy storage systems are expected to be trially employed to peak cut use at customers (prime) end. To promote introduction of the system, it is necessary to make environmental improvement in the institutional aspect.

  8. Commencement Bay Study. Volume III. Fish Wetlands.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    shiner perch, starry flounders, English sole, and snake pricklebacks. -24- Table 4 Non-Salmonid Fish Sampled at Beach Seine and Purse Seine Stations in...tions. Other marine fish commonly taken in beach seines were sculpins, snake pricklebacks, shiner perch, and pile perch. On June 12, 32 pile perch...AD-A1lZ 554 DAMES AND MOORE SEATTLE WA- / / COMMENCEMENT SAY STUDY. VOLUME 111. FISH WETLANDS.(U) DEC Al D E WEITCAMP, T H SCHADT DACW67-8O-C-0101

  9. A Crew Exposure Study. Volume I. Offshore.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-15

    AD-Alil 178 A CREW EXPOSURE STUDY VOLUME I OFFSNORE(U) SOUTHWEST- 1/4 RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ENGINEERING SCIENCES DIV U J ASTLEFORD ET AL. 5...Research Institute Division of Engineering Sciences 11. Contract or Grant No. P. 0. Drawer 28510 DOT-CG23-80-C-20015 San Antonio, Texas 78284 13. Type of...accumulated gas in gas compressor rooms as a result of fugitive emissions from the compressor and fuel gas engine . The accumulated information from this

  10. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  11. An expanded system simulation model for solar energy storage (technical report), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The simulation model for wind energy storage (SIMWEST) program now includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic) and is available for the UNIVAC 1100 series and the CDC 6000 series computers. The level of detail is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind and/or photovoltaic energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. The first program is a precompiler which generates computer models (in FORTRAN) of complex wind and/or photovoltaic source/storage/application systems, from user specifications using the respective library components. The second program provides the techno-economic system analysis with the respective I/0, the integration of system dynamics, and the iteration for conveyance of variables.

  12. A simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume 2: Operation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Edsinger, R. W.; Burroughs, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive computer program (SIMWEST) developed for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic) is described. Features of the program include: a precompiler which generates computer models (in FORTRAN) of complex wind source/storage/application systems, from user specifications using the respective library components; a program which provides the techno-economic system analysis with the respective I/O the integration of system dynamics, and the iteration for conveyance of variables; and capability to evaluate economic feasibility as well as general performance of wind energy systems. The SIMWEST operation manual is presented and the usage of the SIMWEST program and the design of the library components are described. A number of example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation is given along with a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  13. Technology transfer for the US Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program: Volume 1, Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneau, C.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1988-10-01

    Technologies developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Storage (STOR) Program must be converted into products, processes, or services that benefit the private sector. The process of technology transfer is the primary means of accomplishing this. The purpose of this report is to examine the technology transfer activities of the STOR Program and suggest mechanisms that might make the transfer of technologies from national laboratories and universities to the private sector more effective. A brief summary of recommendations that would improve the effectiveness of the transfer of energy storage technologies from the national laboratories to the private sector is discussed. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Storage Study of Individual Servings of Subsistence at Various Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    nmemaamry and lae itify by block number) STORAGE PACKAGING MATERIALS TEMPERATURE ACCEPTANCE MATERIALS COLOR FOOD STORAGE PACKAGING WEIGHT FOOD TESTS LOW...subsistence were received 1n unsatisfactory condition at the user level , a study was conducted to dstermlne what packaging materials and what... Color Changes 5 4. Conclusions 8 ^HHaJki^aat atoi «„jitiJ^uM *?■ i.a Wrifr tt^ifr-^#"ffi#V ’^’.vArtlH Hfa^^ritS^ftiri ■•■■■-■■ ■ ■ ■ iM

  15. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  16. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie; Fioravanti, Richard; Gordon, Paul; Markel, Larry; Agrawal, Poonum; Nourai, Ali

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  17. Floated pallet definition study. Volume 4: Summary volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design of a suspension system for the Floated Pallet and a retention system to support the pallet during launch, maneuvering and descent are described. In addition, a control moment gyroscope support equipment configuration study including installation and an experiment mount and erection study was performed. The impact of these separate hardware studies on the existing pallet configuration was assessed and a modified pallet common module defined.

  18. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  19. Revised shallow and deep water-level and storage-volume changes in the Equus Beds Aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, predevelopment to 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    6 percent (-202,000 acre-feet) of the overall storage volume within the newly defined study area.

  20. Hierarchical storage of large volume of multidector CT data using distributed servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Heuberger, Joris; Bandon, David

    2006-03-01

    Multidector scanners and hybrid multimodality scanners have the ability to generate large number of high-resolution images resulting in very large data sets. In most cases, these datasets are generated for the sole purpose of generating secondary processed images and 3D rendered images as well as oblique and curved multiplanar reformatted images. It is therefore not essential to archive the original images after they have been processed. We have developed an architecture of distributed archive servers for temporary storage of large image datasets for 3D rendering and image processing without the need for long term storage in PACS archive. With the relatively low cost of storage devices it is possible to configure these servers to hold several months or even years of data, long enough for allowing subsequent re-processing if required by specific clinical situations. We tested the latest generation of RAID servers provided by Apple computers with a capacity of 5 TBytes. We implemented a peer-to-peer data access software based on our Open-Source image management software called OsiriX, allowing remote workstations to directly access DICOM image files located on the server through a new technology called "bonjour". This architecture offers a seamless integration of multiple servers and workstations without the need for central database or complex workflow management tools. It allows efficient access to image data from multiple workstation for image analysis and visualization without the need for image data transfer. It provides a convenient alternative to centralized PACS architecture while avoiding complex and time-consuming data transfer and storage.

  1. Volumetric leak detection in large underground storage tanks. Volume 2. Appendices a through e

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.W.; Wise, R.F.; Maresca, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the larger underground storage tanks for leaks. First, can the EPA regulatory standards be met when volumetric methods are used to test tanks up to 190,000 L (50,000 gal) in capacity. Second, what is the precision required of the temperature and level sensors and what is the minimum duration of the data collection period in order for a volumetric system to accurately test larger tanks, particularly those that are partially filled. Third, what are the important features of a volumetric system that meets or exceeds the regulatory performance standards. The document presents the results of experiments conducted on 190,000-L (50,000-gal) underground storage tanks (USTs) to determine how to test large tanks for leaks with volumetric leak detection systems. The work reported in the document has applications to the UST release detection technical standards in CFR 280 Subpart D.

  2. Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

  3. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains two appendices to the main report. The first lists the aquifers in the 12 geographic regions of the USA and characterizes each as containing sands and gravels or limestones or volcanic rock. The second appendix tabulates the hydrologic characteristics of each aquifer. (LCL)

  4. General Revenue Sharing Data Study: Executive Summary. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reese C.; Bowditch, E. Francis, Jr.

    The results of the General Revenue Sharing Data Study carried out by Stanford Research Institute for the Office of Revenue Sharing are reported in four volumes. This volume, Executive Summary, presents highlights excerpted from Volumes II, III, and IV. Emphasis is placed on those findings, conclusions, and recommendations that deserve special…

  5. Optical memory development. Volume 2: Gain-assisted holographic storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Mezrich, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin deformable films were investigated for use as the storage medium in a holographic optical memory. The research was directed toward solving the problems of material fatigue, selective heat addressing, electrical charging of the film surface and charge patterning by light. A number of solutions to these problems were found but the main conclusion to be drawn from the work is that deformable media which employ heat in the recording process are not satisfactory for use in a high-speed random-access read/write holographic memory. They are, however, a viable approach in applications where either high speed or random-access is not required.

  6. Soil weight (lbf/ft{sup 3}) at Hanford waste storage locations (2 volumes)

    SciTech Connect

    Pianka, E.W.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford Reservation waste storage tanks are fabricated in accordance with approved construction specifications. After an underground tank has been constructed in the excavation prepared for it, soil is place around the tank and compacted by an approved compaction procedure. To ensure compliance with the construction specifications, measurements of the soil compaction are taken by QA inspectors using test methods based on American Society for the Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Soil compaction tests data taken for the 241AP, 241AN, and 241AW tank farms constructed between 1978 and 1986 are included. The individual data values have been numerically processed to obtain average soil density values for each of these tank farms.

  7. Closure plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6: Volume 1, Closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This Closure Plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) a disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous materials, of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) describes how portions of SWSA 6 will be closed under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status per 40 CFR 265 Subpart G (TN Rule 1200-1-11-.05(7)). An overview is provided of activities necessary for final closure and corrective measures for all of SWSA 6. Results of surface waters and groundwater sampling are provided.

  8. Multivariate Analysis, Retrieval, and Storage System (MARS). Volume 1: MARS System and Analysis Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Vanderberg, J. D.; Woodbury, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    A method for rapidly examining the probable applicability of weight estimating formulae to a specific aerospace vehicle design is presented. The Multivariate Analysis Retrieval and Storage System (MARS) is comprised of three computer programs which sequentially operate on the weight and geometry characteristics of past aerospace vehicles designs. Weight and geometric characteristics are stored in a set of data bases which are fully computerized. Additional data bases are readily added to the MARS system and/or the existing data bases may be easily expanded to include additional vehicles or vehicle characteristics.

  9. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  10. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 3: Trade studies, DR-5, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Results of a Space Station Data System Analysis/Architecture Study for the Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. This study, which emphasized a system engineering design for a complete, end-to-end data system, was divided into six tasks: (1); Functional requirements definition; (2) Options development; (3) Trade studies; (4) System definitions; (5) Program plan; and (6) Study maintenance. The Task inter-relationship and documentation flow are described. Information in volume 2 is devoted to Task 3: trade Studies. Trade Studies have been carried out in the following areas: (1) software development test and integration capability; (2) fault tolerant computing; (3) space qualified computers; (4) distributed data base management system; (5) system integration test and verification; (6) crew workstations; (7) mass storage; (8) command and resource management; and (9) space communications. Results are presented for each task.

  11. Studies on drying and storage of chilgoza (Pinus gerardiana) nuts.

    PubMed

    Thakur, N S; Sharma, Somesh; Gupta, Rakesh; Gupta, Atul

    2014-09-01

    Present studies were undertaken with the aim of screening a suitable mode of drying and packaging material for storage of chilgoza nuts. A temperature of 55 °C was found most suitable for the drying of nuts in cabinet drier. Cabinet drier was found the best drying mode among four for drying of chilgoza nuts on the basis of quality characteristics such as moisture, water activity and sensory attributes. Further, out of five packaging materials selected in the study, glass jar followed by aluminium laminate pouch was found to be suitable for the packing and storage of dried nuts in ambient conditions for 6 months on the basis of retention of better physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

  12. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 2. Pre- and post-test decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, L.E.; Lombardo, N.J.; Heeb, C.M.; Jenquin, U.P.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Creer, J.M.; McCann, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses conducted in support of performance testing of a Ridhihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2033 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The cask testing program was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and by General Electric at the latters' Morris Operation (GE-MO) as reported in Volume I. The analyses effort consisted of performing pretest calculations to (1) select spent fuel for the test; (2) symmetrically load the spent fuel assemblies in the cask to ensure lateral symmetry of decay heat generation rates; (3) optimally locate temperature and dose rate instrumentation in the cask and spent fuel assemblies; and (4) evaluate the ORIGEN2 (decay heat), HYDRA and COBRA-SFS (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) computer codes. The emphasis of this second volume is on the comparison of code predictions to experimental test data in support of the code evaluation process. Code evaluations were accomplished by comparing pretest (actually pre-look, since some predictions were not completed until testing was in progress) predictions with experimental cask testing data reported in Volume I. No attempt was made in this study to compare the two heat transfer codes because results of other evaluations have not been completed, and a comparison based on one data set may lead to erroneous conclusions.

  13. B-70 Aircraft Study. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Volume 2 of the final report on the B-70 aircraft study is presented here. The B-70 Program, at the onset, was a full weapon system capable of sustained Mach 3 flight for the major portion of its design missions. The weapon system was to enter the SAC inventory as an RS-70 with the first intercontinental resonnaissance/bomber wing scheduled to go operational in July, 1964. After several redirections, a two XB-70 air vehicle program emerged with its prime objective being to demonstrate the technical feasibility of sustained Mach 3 flight. This section describes the original Weapon System 110A concepts, the evolution of the RS-70 design, and the XB-70 air vehicles which demonstrated the design, fabrication, and technical feasibility of long range Mach 3 flights at high altitude. The data presented shows that a very large step forward in the state-of-the-art of manned aircraft design was achieved during the B-70 development program and that advances were made and incorporated in every area, including design, materials application, and manufacturing techniques.

  14. Status of Groundwater Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, January 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in the 1940s, the Wichita well field was developed in the Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County to supply water to the city of Wichita (Williams and Lohman, 1949). In addition to supplying drinking water to the largest city in Kansas, the other primary use of water from the Equus Beds aquifer is to irrigate crops in this agriculture-dominated part of south-central Kansas (Rich Eubank, Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, oral commun., 2008). The decline of water levels in the aquifer were noted soon after the development of the Wichita well field began (Williams and Lohman, 1949). As water levels in the aquifer decline, the volume of water stored in the aquifer decreases and less water is available to supply future needs. For many years the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has monitored these changes in water levels and the resulting changes in storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer as part of Wichita's effort to effectively manage this resource. In 2007, the city of Wichita began using Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project for large-scale artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer. The ASR project uses water from the Little Arkansas River - either pumped from the river directly or from wells in the riverbank that obtain their water from the river by induced infiltration - as the source of artificial recharge to the Equus Beds aquifer (City of Wichita, 2009).

  15. Lattice study for the HLS-II storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zheng-He; Wang, Lin; Jia, Qi-Ka; Li, Wei-Min

    2013-04-01

    The Hefei Light Source (HLS) is undergoing a major upgrade project, named HLS- II, in order to obtain lower emittance and more insertion device straight sections. Undulators are the main insertion devices in the HLS- II storage ring. In this paper, based on the database of lattice parameters built for the HLS- II storage ring obtained by the global scan method, we use the quantity related to the undulator radiation brightness to more directly search for high brightness lattices. Lattice solutions for achromatic and non-achromatic modes are easily found with lower emittance, smaller beta functions at the center of the insertion device straight sections and lower dispersion in nonzero dispersion straight sections compared with the previous lattice solutions. In this paper, the superperiod lattice with alternating high and low horizontal beta functions in long straight sections for the achromatic mode is studied using the multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  16. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  17. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-12-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  18. Numerical study of finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang; Mahdavi, Mahboobe

    2014-11-01

    In the present study the thermal characteristics of a finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system are investigated numerically. A transient two dimensional finite volume based model employing enthalpy-porosity technique is implemented to analyze the performance of a thermal energy storage unit with square container and high melting temperature phase change material. The effects of heat pipe spacing, fin length and numbers as well as the influence of natural convection on the thermal response of the thermal energy storage unit have been studied. The obtained results reveal that the natural convection has considerable effect on the melting process of the phase change material. Increasing the number of heat pipes leads to the increase of melting rate and the decrease of base wall temperature. Also, the increase of fin length results in the decrease of temperature difference within the phase change material in the container, providing more uniform temperature distribution. Furthermore, it is showed that the number of fins does not affect the performance of the system considerably.

  19. Plumbing the depths: extracellular water storage in specialized leaf structures and its functional expression in a three-domain pressure -volume relationship.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa T; Meir, Patrick; Wolfe, Joe; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Ball, Marilyn C

    2016-06-30

    A three-domain pressure-volume relationship (PV curve) was studied in relation to leaf anatomical structure during dehydration in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina. In domain 1, relative water content (RWC) declined 13% with 0.85 MPa decrease in leaf water potential, reflecting a decrease in extracellular water stored primarily in trichomes and petiolar cisternae. In domain 2, RWC decreased by another 12% with a further reduction in leaf water potential to -5.1 MPa, the turgor loss point. Given the osmotic potential at full turgor (-4.2 MPa) and the effective modulus of elasticity (~40 MPa), domain 2 emphasized the role of cell wall elasticity in conserving cellular hydration during leaf water loss. Domain 3 was dominated by osmotic effects and characterized by plasmolysis in most tissues and cell types without cell wall collapse. Extracellular and cellular water storage could support an evaporation rate of 1 mmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 54 and 50 min, respectively, before turgor loss was reached. This study emphasized the importance of leaf anatomy for the interpretation of PV curves, and identified extracellular water storage sites that enable transient water use without substantive turgor loss when other factors, such as high soil salinity, constrain rates of water transport.

  20. Exceptional Infant: Studies in Abnormalities, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    Designed as a complement to Volume 1 on the normal infant (available as EC 003 414), the text examines the following areas: neurological examination of the newborn, neurobehavioral organization of the newborn, neuropsychology examinations in young children, learning of motor skills on the basis of self-induced movements, factors in vulnerability…

  1. B-70 Aircraft Study. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taube, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    This volume contains cost, schedule, and technical information on the following B-70 aircraft subsystems: air induction system, flight control, personnel accommodation and escape, alighting and arresting, mission and traffic control, flight indication, test instrumentation, and installation, checkout, and pre-flight.

  2. Studies in Mathematics, Volume IV. Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutuzov, B. V.

    This book is a translation of a Russian text. The translation is exact, and the language used by the author has not been brought up to date. The volume is probably most useful as a source of supplementary materials for high school mathematics. It is also useful for teachers to broaden their mathematical background. Chapters included in the text…

  3. Literature review of market studies of thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents the results of a review of market studies of thermal energy storage (TES). This project was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). PNL staff reviewed and consolidated the findings of existing TES market studies conducted in the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. The purpose of this project was to review and assess previous work and to use the information obtained to help provide direction for future technology transfer planning activities and to identify additional economic research needed within those three sectors. 37 refs.

  4. The Internet Brain Volume Database: A Public Resource for Storage and Retrieval of Volumetric Data

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Steven M.; Gao, Yong; Frazier, Jean A.; Haselgrove, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Every month, numerous publications appear that include neuroanatomic volumetric observations. The current and past literature that includes volumetric measurements is vast, but variable with respect to specific species, structures, and subject characteristics (such as gender, age, pathology, etc.). In this report we introduce the Internet Brain Volume Database (IBVD), www.nitrc.org/projects/ibvd, a site devoted to facilitating access to and utilization of neuroanatomic volumetric observations as published in the literature. We review the design and functionality of the site. The IBVD is the first database dedicated to integrating, exposing and sharing brain volumetric observations across species and disease. It offers valuable functionality for quality assurance assessment of results as well as support for meta-analysis across large segments of the published literature that are obscured from traditional text-based search engines. PMID:21931990

  5. A study of practical proxy reencryption with a keyword search scheme considering cloud storage structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  6. A Study of Practical Proxy Reencryption with a Keyword Search Scheme considering Cloud Storage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search. PMID:24693240

  7. Storage and eruption of large volumes of rhyolite lava: Example from Solfatara Plateau, Yellowstone Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K.; Gardner, J. E.; Zinke, R.

    2010-12-01

    The cataclysmic volcanic history of Yellowstone caldera has been extensively documented in both popular media and scholarly journals. High-silica magmas should erupt explosively because of their high viscosity and volatile content; however, numerous passively-erupted, large-volume rhyolite lava flows have also erupted from Yellowstone caldera. We use petrologic observations of one such flow, the Solfatara Plateau obsidian lava, to provide insights into the eruptive dynamics and pre-eruptive magmatic conditions of large-volume rhyolite lava. Solfatara Plateau, a 7 km3 high-silica rhyolite lava that extends 4-15 km from vent, erupted 103±8 ka within the Yellowstone caldera1. Quartz and sanidine are the dominant phenocrysts, with crystal contents of 5-10% throughout. FTIR analyses of glass inclusions in quartz and sanidine phenocrysts indicate that pre-eruptive dissolved volatile contents were up to 3.0 wt. % H2O and 250 ppm CO2. Myrmekite blebs partially envelop quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in all samples from along the margins of the flow (up to 3 km from flow front). Sanidines in samples from near vent are unzoned at Or49±2. Those at the flow front have similar cores, but rims are more sodic (Or44±6). Alkali feldspars in myrmekite range from Or27 to Or50. Petrologic observations, such as heavily embayed quartz phenocrysts and dissolution of myrmekite indicate disequilibrium within the system, likely as a result of significant heating that caused portions of the magma body to go from near-solidus to near-liquidus conditions prior to erupting. When it did erupt, volatile loss during eruptive ascent led to undercooling and significant microlite crystallization of Fe-Ti oxide and clinopyroxene microlites. Fe-Ti microlites occur as roughly equidimensional crystals, 1-10 µm across, as well as high-aspect-ratio needles, 3-60 µm long. Clinopyroxene microlites occur primarily as individual prismatic crystals, but also occur as linked, curved chains or as overgrowths

  8. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 2, Productivity Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 contains 15 productivity case studies which illustrate and expand on the causal factors mentioned in volume 1. The cases illustrate many different approaches to productivity measurement improvement. The case studies are: Development of an Output-Productivity Measure for the Air Force Medical Service; Measuring Effectiveness and Efficiency…

  9. Study on propane-butane gas storage by hydrate technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Nurkholis; Wijayanti, Widya; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2016-03-01

    Different technology has been applied to store and transport gas fuel. In this work the storage of gas mixture of propane-butane by hydrate technology was studied. The investigation was done on the effect of crystallizer rotation speed on the formation of propane-butane hydrate. The hydrates were formed using crystallizer with rotation speed of 100, 200, and 300 rpm. The formation of gas hydrates was done at initial pressure of 3 bar and temperature of 274K. The results indicated that the higher rotation speed was found to increase the formation rate of propane-butane hydrate and improve the hydrates stability.

  10. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  11. Durability study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale demonstration hydrogen storage system as part of a Work for Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed based on the properties and characteristics of sodium alanates which are complex metal hydrides. The technology resulting from this program was developed to enable heat and mass management during refueling and hydrogen delivery to an automotive system. During this program the Demonstration System was subjected to repeated hydriding and dehydriding cycles to enable comparison of the vehicle-scale system performance to small-scale sample data. This paper describes the experimental results of life-cycle studies of the Demonstration System. Two of the four hydrogen storage modules of the Demonstration System were used for this study. A well-controlled and repeatable sorption cycle was defined for the repeated cycling, which began after the system had already been cycled forty-one times. After the first nine repeated cycles, a significant hydrogen storage capacity loss was observed. It was suspected that the sodium alanates had been affected either morphologically or by contamination. The mechanisms leading to this initial degradation were investigated and results indicated that water and/or air contamination of the hydrogen supply may have lead to oxidation of the hydride and possibly kinetic deactivation. Subsequent cycles showed continued capacity loss indicating that the mechanism of degradation was gradual and transport or kinetically limited. A materials analysis was then conducted using established methods including treatment with carbon dioxide to react with sodium oxides that may have formed. The module tubes were sectioned to examine chemical composition and morphology as a function of axial position. The results will be discussed.

  12. WIS Implementation Study Report. Volume 2. Resumes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    and Software Engineering Division technical staff. Thomas H. Probert Project Leader ~iii CONTENTS -- Volume II Anderson, Mr. John W. 1 Bail, Dr...Mr. Richard J. 40 Hogan, Mr. Thomas J. 41 Joseph, Dr. Robert E. 43 Kaczmarek, Dr. Thomas S. 45 Klein, Dr. Stanely A. 47 Kramer, Dr. John F. 49 Larsen...Dr. Robert E. 55 Luenberger, Prof. David G. 58 Magliato, Mr. Frank J. 61 McQuillan, Dr. John M. 62 Miller, Mr. Richard H. 63 Power, Dr. Daniel J. 64

  13. Computational study of sodium magnesium hydride for hydrogen storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto Valle, Fernando Antonio

    Hydrogen offers considerable potential benefits as an energy carrier. However, safe and convenient storage of hydrogen is one of the biggest challenges to be resolved in the near future. Sodium magnesium hydride (NaMgH 3) has attracted attention as a hydrogen storage material due to its light weight and high volumetric hydrogen density of 88 kg/m3. Despite the advantages, hydrogen release in this material occurs at approximately 670 K, which is well above the operable range for on-board hydrogen storage applications. In this regard, hydrogen release may be facilitated by substitution doping of transition-metals. This dissertation describes first-principles computational methods that enable an examination of the hydrogen storage properties of NaMgH3. The novel contribution of this dissertation includes a combination of crystal, supercell, and surface slab calculations that provides new and relevant insights about the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of NaMgH3. First-principles calculations on the pristine crystal structure provide a starting reference point for the study of this material as a hydrogen storage material. To the best of our knowledge, it is reported for the first time that a 25% mol doping concentration of Ti, V, Cu, and Zn dopants reduce the reaction enthalpy of hydrogen release for NaMgH3. The largest decrease in the DeltaH(298 K) value corresponds to the Zn-doped model (67.97 kJ/(mol H2)). Based on cohesive energy calculations, it is reported that at the 6.25% mol doping concentration, Ti and Zn dopants are the only transition metals that destabilize the NaMgH3 hydride. In terms of hydrogen removal energy, it is quantified that the energy cost to remove a single H from the Ti-doped supercell model is 0.76 eV, which is lower with respect to the pristine model and other prototypical hydrogen storage materials. From the calculation of electronic properties such as density of states, electron density difference, and charge population analysis

  14. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively.

  15. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  16. Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, January 2003-January 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2007-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer northwest of Wichita, Kansas, was developed to supply water to Wichita residents and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Ground-water pumping for city and agricultural use from the aquifer caused water levels to decline in a large part of the aquifer northwest of Wichita. Irrigation pumpage in the area increased substantially during the 1970s and 1980s and accelerated water-level declines. A period of water-level rises associated with greater-than-average precipitation and decreased city pumpage from the area began in 1993. An important factor in the decreased city pumpage was increased use of Cheney Reservoir as a water-supply source by the city of Wichita; as a result, city pumpage from the Equus Beds aquifer during 1993-2005 decreased to quantities similar to those pumped in the 1940s and went from being about 60 percent to about 40 percent of Wichita's water usage. Since 1995, the city also has been investigating the use of artificial recharge in the study area to meet future water-supply needs and to protect the aquifer from the intrusion of saltwater from sources to the west. During January 2006, the direction of ground-water flow in the Equus Beds aquifer in the area was generally from west to east, similar to the direction prior to development of the aquifer. Water-level changes since 1940 for the period January 2003-January 2006 ranged from a decline of more than 36 feet to a rise of more than 2 feet. Almost all wells in the area had small cumulative water-level rises from January 2003 to January 2006 and larger rises from October 1992 (period of maximum storage loss) to January 2006. The water-level rises from October 1992 to January 2006 probably are due principally to decreases in city pumpage, with increases in recharge due to increased precipitation during the period also a contributing factor. Irrigation pumpage increased during the period, so irrigation did not contribute to the rises in water levels between the beginning

  17. Study of Early Transition Metal Carbides for Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Agnese, Yohan

    An increase in energy and power density is needed to match the growing energy storage demands linked with the development of renewable energy production, and portable electronics. Several energy storage technologies exist including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. These systems are mutually complementary. For example, supercapacitors can deliver high power densities whereas batteries can be used for high energy density applications. The first objective of this work was to investigate the electrochemical performances of a new family of 2-D materials called MXenes by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements and to propose new solutions to tackle the energy storage concern. To achieve this goal, several directions have been explored. The first part of the research focused on Ti3C 2-based MXenes behavior as electrode materials for supercapacitors in aqueous electrolytes. The charge storage mechanisms in basic and neutral aqueous electrolytes, investigated by X-ray diffraction, were demonstrated to be attributed to cations intercalation between Ti3C2 layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy highlighted the contribution of oxygenated functional groups on surface redox reactions in sulfuric acid. High capacitances were achieved, up to 520 F/cm3 and 325 F/g. Then the electrochemical behaviors of MXenes in sodium-based organic electrolytes were explored. A new hybrid system of sodium-ion capacitor was proposed. It was demonstrated that V2C-based MXene electrodes were suitable to be used as positive electrodes with an operating potential from 1 V to 3.5 V vs. Na+/Na. Continuous intercalation and de-intercalation of sodium ions between the V2C layers during sodiation and desodiation were showed by X-ray diffraction. An asymmetric sodium-ion capacitor full cell was assembled using hard carbon as negative electrode and showed promising results, with a capacity of 50 mAh/g. The last part was focused on the

  18. Study of groundwater-quarry interactions in the context of energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Angélique; goderniaux, Pascal; de dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2016-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been discussed. However, these flooded quarries are generally in relation with an unconfined aquifer. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent water table. The objectives of this study is to understand the consequences of pumping/injection of large water volumes in a quarry on the adjacent unconfined aquifer. Numerical tools are used to understand the impact of oscillatory pumping in a quarry on the aquifer. Sinusoidal pumping are imposed on a generic quarry modelled with a 3D finite difference simulator. The period of the sinusoidal pumping is maximum 12 hours. We observe and study the propagation of this stress in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level variations in the quarry, as a function of the hydraulic parameters. Two different configurations have been considered: homogeneous hydraulic parameters in the porous media and the presence of a fractured zone in the vicinity of the quarry. Results show that the influence of the quarry - aquifer interactions on the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry remains low whatever the hydraulic parameters. The attenuation of the groundwater head fluctuations in the porous media logically increases with the distance of the quarry. In the homogeneous case, we have an equal propagation of the stress in all point of the environment. The maximal distance of propagation increases with the hydraulic conductivity and the porosity values. The presence of a fractured zone induces preferential flow paths, which distort significantly the zone impacted by the sinusoidal pumping. In the fracture, the

  19. Aquifer thermal energy storage - A feasibility study for large scale demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, W. V.; Supkow, D. J.

    Engineering procedures necessary for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), based on studies of the Magothy Aquifer on Long Island, NY, are presented, with chilled winter water pumped into the aquifer and reclaimed in summer months for air conditioning. The choice of aquifer involves necessary volume, flow rate, efficiency of thermal recovery, and avoidance of conflict with other users; utilization depends on choice of appropriate piping, heat exchangers, and well construction to prevent degradation of the aquifer. The methods employed to probe the Magothy for suitability are described, including drilling an asymmetric well cluster for observation, and 48 hr pumping and 8 hr recovery. Transmissivity was found to vary from 8,000 to 29,000 sq ft/day. A doublet well was then drilled and water withdrawn, chilled, and returned. Later withdrawal indicated a 46% thermal recovery, with computer models projecting 80% with additional cycling. The study verified the feasibility of ATES, which can be expanded with additional demand.

  20. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, January 2006 to January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.; Aucott, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable yield for the Equus Beds aquifer in the study area was estimated to be about 57,000 acre-feet per year using two different methods. The sum of permitted annual irrigation (about 45,600 acre-feet) and city (about 31,400 acre-feet) pumpage of 77,000 acre-feet per year greatly exceeds the estimated sustainable yield. Effective water management, including additions to the water budget such as those from the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project, can help produce the most water for beneficial use in a more sustainable way.

  1. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    PubMed

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and hydrogen storage studies on porous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Ruz, Priyanka Banerjee, Seemita; Sudarsan, V.; Pandey, M.

    2015-06-24

    Porous carbon sample has been prepared, using zeolite-Y as template followed by annealing at 800°C, with view to estimate the extent of hydrogen storage by the sample. Based on XRD, {sup 13}C MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopic studies it is confirmed that the porous Carbon sample contains only sp{sup 2} hybridized carbon. The hydrogen sorption isotherms have been recorded for the sample at 273, 223K and 123K and the maximum hydrogen absorption capacity is found to be 1.47wt% at 123K. The interaction energy of hydrogen with the carbon framework was determined to be ∼ 10 kJ mol{sup −1}at lower hydrogen uptake and gradually decreases with increase in hydrogen loading.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and hydrogen storage studies on porous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Priyanka; Banerjee, Seemita; Pandey, M.; Sudarsan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Porous carbon sample has been prepared, using zeolite-Y as template followed by annealing at 800°C, with view to estimate the extent of hydrogen storage by the sample. Based on XRD, 13C MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopic studies it is confirmed that the porous Carbon sample contains only sp2 hybridized carbon. The hydrogen sorption isotherms have been recorded for the sample at 273, 223K and 123K and the maximum hydrogen absorption capacity is found to be 1.47wt% at 123K. The interaction energy of hydrogen with the carbon framework was determined to be ˜ 10 kJ mol-1at lower hydrogen uptake and gradually decreases with increase in hydrogen loading.

  4. Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D

    1992-05-01

    All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work

  5. PETRO-SAFE '92 conference papers: Volume 7 (Processing and Refining 2), Volume 8 (Transportation and storage), Volume 9 (Spill control, disposal and remedial treatment 1) and Volume 10 (Spill control, disposal and remedial treatment 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This conference presents papers on a wide range of petroleum and petrochemical industry issues which pertain to waste disposal, waste processing, and safety issues. It presents specific papers on waste reduction and processing;fire prevention and suppression of oil and gas fires in storage and processing facilities; safety engineering and monitoring and plants and facilities;transportation and storage issues as they relate to safety and leak detection; and oil spill remediation and disposal. Spill topics include sorption techniques, bioremediation, dispersions, and air stripping. The remediation papers include both on and offshore sites and approach the topic from both safety and environmental aspects.

  6. Vaccine storage in the community: a study in central Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, M.; Ripabelli, G.; Sammarco, M. L.; Manfredi Selvaggi, T. M.; Quaranta, A.

    1999-01-01

    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunization programme, but in developed countries faulty procedures may occur more commonly than is generally believed. A survey was conducted in a health district in central Italy to assess the methods of vaccine transportation and storage. Of 52 primary vaccination offices inspected, 39 (76.5%) had a refrigerator for vaccine storage but only 17 (33.3%) kept records of received and stored doses. None of the seven main offices selected for monitoring had a maximum and minimum thermometer and none monitored the internal temperature of the refrigerator. Moreover, other faulty procedures, such as the storage of food and laboratory specimens in vaccine refrigerators and the storage of vaccines on refrigerator door shelves, indicated that the knowledge and practice of vaccine storage and handling were often inadequate. PMID:10327715

  7. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  8. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  9. A Collection of Studies. Research on Syntactic Typology Volume III of III Volumes. Final Substantive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Arlene; And Others

    This final volume of a three-part report on various language research projects contains ten studies on a wide variety of language issues. The topics include "Some Aspects of Language Interference,""Contrastive Analysis of Case Marking in Polynesian Languages,""Notes on the Formation of Complex Sentences in Tunisian Arabic with Emphasis on the…

  10. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  11. Spatial dynamics of carbon storage: a case study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sivrikaya, Fatih; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Bozali, Nuri

    2013-11-01

    Forest ecosystems have an important role in carbon cycle at both regional and global scales as an important carbon sink. Forest degradation and land cover changes, caused by deforestation and conversion to non-forest area, have a strong impact on carbon storage. The carbon storage of forest biomass and its changes over time in the Hartlap planning unit of the southeastern part of Turkey have been estimated using the biomass expansion factor method based on field measurements of forests plots with forest inventory data between 1991 and 2002. The amount of carbon storage associated with land use and land cover changes were also analyzed. The results showed that the total forested area of the Hartlap planning unit slightly increased by 2.1%, from 27,978.7 ha to 28,282.6 ha during the 11-year period, and carbon storage increased by 9.6%, from 390,367.6 to 427,826.9 tons. Carbon storage of conifer and mixed forests accounted for about 70.6% of carbon storage in 1991, and 67.8% in 2002 which increased by 14,274.6 tons. Land use change and increasing forest area have a strong influence on increasing biomass and carbon storage.

  12. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 1: (Executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Integrated Utility Systems (IUS) have been suggested as a means of reducing the cost and conserving the nonrenewable energy resources required to supply utility services (energy, water, and waste disposal) to developments of limited size. The potential for further improving the performance and reducing the cost of IUS installations through the use of energy storage devices is examined and the results are summarized. Candidate energy storage concepts in the general areas of thermal, inertial, superconducting magnetic, electrochemical, chemical, and compressed air energy storage are assessed and the storage of thermal energy as the sensible heat of water is selected as the primary candidate for near term application to IUS.

  13. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  14. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  15. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  16. B-70 Aircraft Study. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, V. T.

    1972-01-01

    This Phase 2 final report for the B-70 aircraft study contains the data location matrix, which provides a summary of the major cost, schedule, and technical items provided in the report; work breakdown structure; cost definitions; and B-70 program level summary data. The Phase 2 objective was to provide the B-70 aircraft data in accordance with the approved study plan. Several minor modifications to the original plan have been made as the result of the Phase 2 effort.

  17. Space station human productivity study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary goal was to develop design and operations requirements for direct support of intra-vehicular activity (IVA) crew performance and productivity. It was recognized that much work had already been accomplished which provided sufficient data for the definition of the desired requirements. It was necessary, therefore, to assess the status of such data to extract definable requirements, and then to define the remaining study needs. The explicit objectives of the study were to: review existing data to identify potential problems of space station crew productivity and to define requirements for support of productivity insofar as they could be justified by current information; identify those areas that lack adequate data; and prepare plans for managing studies to develop the lacking data, so that results can be input to the space station program in a timely manner.

  18. Space Biology Initiative. Trade Studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The six studies which are addressed are entitled: Design Modularity and Commonality; Modification of Existing Hardware (COTS) vs. New Hardware Build Cost Analysis; Automation Cost vs. Crew Utilization; Hardware Miniaturization versus Cost; Space Station Freedom/Spacelab Modules Compatibility vs. Cost; and Prototype Utilization in the Development of Space Hardware. The product of these six studies was intended to provide a knowledge base and methodology that enables equipment produced for the Space Biology Initiative program to meet specific design and functional requirements in the most efficient and cost effective form consistent with overall mission integration parameters. Each study promulgates rules of thumb, formulas, and matrices that serves has a handbook for the use and guidance of designers and engineers in design, development, and procurement of Space Biology Initiative (SBI) hardware and software.

  19. Space Biology Initiative. Trade Studies, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The six studies which are the subjects of this report are entitled: Design Modularity and Commonality; Modification of Existing Hardware (COTS) vs. New Hardware Build Cost Analysis; Automation Cost vs. Crew Utilization; Hardware Miniaturization versus Cost; Space Station Freedom/Spacelab Modules Compatibility vs. Cost; and Prototype Utilization in the Development of Space Hardware. The product of these six studies was intended to provide a knowledge base and methodology that enables equipment produced for the Space Biology Initiative program to meet specific design and functional requirements in the most efficient and cost effective form consistent with overall mission integration parameters. Each study promulgates rules of thumb, formulas, and matrices that serves as a handbook for the use and guidance of designers and engineers in design, development, and procurement of Space Biology Initiative (SBI) hardware and software.

  20. Pacific Basin Communications Study, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Communications Study describes and assesses extent telecommunications systems in the Pacific Islands region. The study examines user needs in terms of the development of social services and commercial activities. Alternative technological solutions to communications problems are proposed and described. Recommendations include the augmentation and improvement of existing systems allowing for increased communications capacity. Regional cooperation will be required to accommodate the specific, unique requirements of individual nations. Questions of financing, implementation, management, costs and benefits of a regional telecommunications system are discussed.

  1. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  2. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  3. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  4. Man and Environment, Study Guide, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    Subject information, course instructions, and resource materials for a television course, "Man and Environment," are compiled in this student study guide. The interdisciplinary, modular course emphasizes the importance of such concerns as destruction of the environment and the declining quality of life while educating the public about…

  5. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed under the Human Transportation System Study. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems (e.g., Shuttle, Titan, etc. ) as well as proposed systems (e.g., PLS, Single-Stage-to-Orbit, etc.) to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  6. Simulated weightlessness in fish and neurophysiological studies on memory storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbaumgarten, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Simulated weightlessness was used to study the different types of gravity responses in blind fish. It was found that a shift in the direction of low magnitude acceleration in weightlessness causes a rapid 180 deg turn in the blind fish, while a shift in the direction of the applied acceleration in the earth's gravitational field is not significant because of a higher acceleration magnitude threshold than during the zero g condition. This increased responsiveness seems to be explained by a combination of directional sensitivity with a Weber-Fechner relationship of increased receptor sensitivity at diminished levels of background stimulation. Neurophysical studies of the statocyst nerve of the gastropod Mollusc Pleurobranchaea Californica were undertaken in order to understand how complex otolith systems operate. Information storage was investigated on relatively simple neuronal networks in the mollusc Aplysia. Intracellular electrical stimulation of isolated neurons show that a manipulation of autoditonous rhymicity is possible. It was also found that glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are involved in inherent rhymicity of Aplysis neurons.

  7. Advanced composites wing study program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, S. T.; Michaelson, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures was conducted as a part of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program to establish, by the mid-1980s, the technology for the design of a subsonic commercial transport aircraft leading to a 40% fuel savings. The study objective was to develop a plan to define the effort needed to support a production commitment for the extensive use of composite materials in wings of new generation aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Identification and analysis of what was needed to meet the above plan requirements resulted in a program plan consisting of three key development areas: (1) technology development; (2) production capability development; and (3) integration and validation by designing, building, and testing major development hardware.

  8. Rotating Stall Investigations. Volume 2. Experimental Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    clear rotating stall once it has started. Separate tests were performed to study the response of the rotating stall control system when a simulated ...days. Each data set was fitted with two curves using the method of least squares. One curve assumed a 9/5 power law for the aerodynamic losses and...these curves which are shown in Fig. 2 fitted to the total torque data. The linear portions of the least square fits to the three sets of data are

  9. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 56, Number 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    successful. Ultimately, the most intrusive and powerful constraints on public intel- ligence history in China relate to cur- Chinese Intelligence...Historiography Studies in Intelligence Vol. 56, No. 3 (September 2012) 43 Ultimately, the most intrusive and powerful constraints on pub- lic intelligence...Security. When Beijing created the MSS, it fused the rem - nants of the CCP’s Investigation Department with the intelligence- and

  10. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Leukoreduction and Pre-storage Leukodepletion on Red Blood Cells during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Casali, Emanuela; Baroni, Fabio; Berni, Pamela; Baricchi, Roberto; Spisni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion is a fundamental therapy in numerous pathological conditions. Regrettably, many clinical reports describe adverse transfusion's drawbacks due to red blood cells alterations during storage. Thus, the possibility for a blood bank to ameliorate the quality of the erythrocyte concentrates units is crucial to improve clinical results and reduce transfusion adverse occurrences. Leukodepletion is a pre-storage treatment recognized to better preserve the quality of red blood cells with respect to leukoreduction. Aim of this work is to unravel the biochemical and biophysical basis that sustain the good clinical outcomes associated to the use of leukodepleted erythrocytes units. Erythrocytes concentrates were prepared as leukoreduced (n = 8) and pre-storage leukodepleted (n = 8) and then studied during 6 weeks in blood bank conditions. Overall, the data indicate that leukodepletion not only provide red blood cells with an appropriate amount of nutrients for a longer time but also selects red blood cells characterized by a more resilient plasma membrane fit to prolong their viability. We believe these results will stimulate new ideas to further optimize the current storage protocols. PMID:27148539

  11. Hydrogen storage studies of palladium decorated nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Vinayan, B P; Sethupathi, K; Ramaprabhu, S

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen storage in materials is of significant importance in the present scenario of depleting conventional energy sources. Porous solids such as activated carbon or nanostructured carbon materials have promising future as hydrogen storage media. The hydrogen storage capacity in nanostructured carbon materials can be further enhanced by atomic hydrogen spillover from a supported catalyst. In the present work, the hydrogen storage properties of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets (N-GNP) and palladium decorated nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets (Pd/N-GNP) have been investigated. The results show that hydrogen uptake capacity of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets and palladium decorated nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets at pressure 32 bar and temperature 25 degrees C is 0.42 wt% and 1.25 wt% respectively. The dispersion of palladium nanoparticles increases the hydrogen storage capacity of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets by 0.83 wt%. This may be due to high dispersion of palladium nanoparticles and strong adhesion between metal and graphene nanoplatelets over the surface of N-GNP, which enhances the spillover mechanism. Thus, an increase in the hydrogen spillover effect and the binding energy between metal nanoparticles and supporting material achieved by nitrogen doping has been observed to result in a higher hydrogen storage capacity of pristine GNP.

  12. Advanced Weapon System (AWS) Sensor Prediction Techniques Study. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of the study. The material that was researched generally fell within the following topics or categories: 0 Perceptual psychology in visual training...the first stage of the process. Bp appears to offer a reasonable summary of the statistics of the second stage. S3. 1. 2.2.4 Bombing Mod’als lRandom...INTRODUCTION The principal object of this research was to study effiLient methods of representation. storage, and display of sensor scene simulation

  13. Space station final study report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Final Study Report provides an Executive Summary of the Phase B study effort conducted under contract NAS8-36526. Space station Phase B implementation resulted in the timely establishment of preliminary design tasks, including trades and analyses. A comprehensive summary of project activities in conducting this study effort is included.

  14. Reusable Agena study. Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. K.; Piper, J. E.; Douglass, D. A.; Waller, E. W.; Hopkins, C. V.; Fitzgerald, E. T.; Sagawa, S. S.; Carter, S. A.; Jensen, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    The application of the existing Agena vehicle as a reusable upper stage for the space shuttle is discussed. The primary objective of the study is to define those changes to the Agena required for it to function in the reusable mode in the 100 percent capture of the NASA-DOD mission model. This 100 percent capture is achieved without use of kick motors or stages by simply increasing the Agena propellant load by using optional strap-on-tanks. The required shuttle support equipment, launch and flight operations techniques, development program, and cost package are also defined.

  15. The Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Study: Executive volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy.

  16. Counterobstacle Vehicle (COV) Utility Study. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    COUNTEROBSTACLE VEHICLE (COY) UTILITY STUDY (’V) FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT CD NRC Report Number 136 ’Va- , . 6 00 McLEAN rESEARCH CENTER, INC...- 1483 Chain...BELVOIR RESEARCH , DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTER I " 4 . p N) By .........- -- R. Carpenter, N. Romstedt, et al. " -McLean Research Center 1483 Chain...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable)McLean Research Center, Inc. N/A 6C. ADDRESS (Cty. State, and ZIP

  17. NASA's Lunar Robotic Architecture Study. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulville, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the findings and analysis of a 60-day agency-wide Lunar Robotic Architecture Study (LRAS) conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Work on this study began in January 2006. Its purpose was to: Define a lunar robotics architecture by addressing the following issues: 1) Do we need robotic missions at all? If so, why and under what conditions? 2) How would they be accomplished and at what cost? Are they within budget? 3) What are the minimum requirements? What is the minimum mission set? 4) Integrate these elements together to show a viable robotic architecture. 5) Establish a strategic framework for a lunar robotics program. The LRAS Final Report presents analysis and recommendations concerning potential approaches related to NASA s implementation of the President's Vision for Space Exploration. Project and contract requirements will likely be derived in part from the LRAS analysis and recommendations contained herein, but these do not represent a set of project or contract requirements and are not binding on the U.S. Government unless and until they are formally and expressly adopted as such. Details of any recommendations offered by the LRAS Final Report will be translated into implementation requirements. Moreover, the report represents the assessments and projects of the report s authors at the time it was prepared; it is anticipated that the concepts in this report will be analyzed further and refined. By the time some of the activities addressed in this report are implemented, certain assumptions on which the report s conclusions are based will likely evolve as a result of this analysis. Accordingly, NASA, and any entity under contract with NASA, should not use the information in this report for final project direction. Since the conclusion of this study, there have been various changes to the Agency's current portfolio of lunar robotic precursor activities. First, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP

  18. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 1, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Balance to the Influence of Clausewitz Philip jS lt.ilin tzr’ 20070905614 Chief of Staff, US Air Force GeniT Miclich ( Mtos ele Com~mander, Air...International Studies. STRKT[GI STUD [ Q1,& ,v * F.,.i 2007 [79 ] .Jefiy Record force? Is the war laying the foundations for an "Iraq syndrome ...34 analogous to the "Vietnam syndrome "? Does the Iraq War vindicate the "realist" for- eign policy’s rejection of using force to promote the expansion of Ameri

  19. Generic aerocapture atmospheric entry study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An atmospheric entry study to fine a generic aerocapture vehicle capable of missions to Mars, Saturn, and Uranus is reported. A single external geometry was developed through atmospheric entry simulations. Aerocapture is a system design concept which uses an aerodynamically controlled atmospheric entry to provide the necessary velocity depletion to capture payloads into planetary orbit. Design concepts are presented which provide the control accuracy required while giving thermal protection for the mission payload. The system design concepts consist of the following elements: (1) an extendable biconic aerodynamic configuration with lift to drag ratio between 1.0 and 2.0; (2) roll control system concepts to control aerodynamic lift and disturbance torques; (3) aeroshell design concepts capable of meeting dynamic pressure loads during aerocapture; and (4) entry thermal protection system design concepts to meet thermodynamic loads during aerocapture.

  20. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the subsystem studies are presented. Initial identification and evaluation of candidate subsystem concepts in the area of thermal control, humidity control, CO2 control/O2 supply, contaminant control and power supply are discussed. The candidate concepts that were judged to be obviously noncompetitive were deleted from further consideration and the remaining candidate concepts were carried into the go/no go evaluation. A detailed parametric analysis of each of the thermal/humidity control and CO2 control/O2 supply subsystem concepts which passed the go/no go evaluation is described. Based upon the results of the parametric analyses, primary and secondary evaluations of the remaining candidate concepts were conducted. These results and the subsystem recommendations emanating from these results are discussed. In addition, the parametric analyses of the recommended subsystem concepts were updated to reflect the final AEPS specification requirements. A detailed discussion regarding the selection of the AEPS operating pressure level is presented.

  1. Space Tug Aerobraking Study. Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corso, C. J.; Eyer, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility and practicality of employing an aerobraking trajectory for return of the reusable Space Tug from geosynchronous and other high energy missions was investigated. The aerobraking return trajectory modes from high orbits employ transfer ellipses which have low perigee altitudes wherein the earth's sensible atmosphere provides drag to reduce the Tug descent delta velocity requirements and thus decrease the required return trip propulsive energy. An aerobraked Space Tug, sized to the Space Shuttle payload capability and dimensional constraints, can accomplish 95 percent of the geosynchronous missions with a single Shuttle/Tug launch per mission. Aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, trajectory, quidance and control, configuration concepts, materials, weights and performance parameters were identified. Sensitivities to trajectory uncertainties, atmospheric anomalies and re-entry environments were determined. New technology requirements and future studies required to further enhance the aerobraking potential were identified.

  2. Commencement Bay Study. Volume VI. Physical Oceanography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    x C4 N miAnA a)Naaaa a ON .41 0 -N n NCa4aa a U - - 0 MO ~ S M -Mis a a If Ni ŕ 3 iin 0 09 CaI l 1 1 1 ?1 0 ’-NMM.eC% rN waa 0a%0 ; N N inN 0;C inW M ...Birds I.KEY WORDS (Cmnimman m reverse Bdse If .toreewy and Ident’ by Nock number) SloisWetlands Noise Aesthetics Marine Fish Sediments Land and Water...Use Washington Phsialoeaogapy Air Quality and City of Tacoma Baseline WtrQaiyClimate Commencement Bay Studies 2& AISTRCT’ Coniaw M "W SMN R04Aeeee 1011

  3. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    An appraisal was made of advanced portable and emergency life support systems concepts for space station, space shuttle, lunar base, and Mars EVA missions. Specifications are given, and the methodology is described. Subsystem studies and systems integration efforts are summarized. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) For long duration missions, a configuration incorporating a regenerable CO2 control subsystem and a thermal control subsystem utilizing a minimum of expendables decreases the vehicle penalty of present configurations. (2) For shorter duration missions, a configuration incorporating an expendable water thermal control subsystem is the most competitive subsystem; regenerable CO2 control subsystems if properly developed are competitive with nonregenerable counterparts. (3) The CO2 reduction and oxygen reclamation withing the parent vehicle is only competitive when there are three or more parent vehicle resupply periods. (4) For long duration emergency systems of one hour or more, inherent redundancy within the primary configuration to provide emergency thermal control is the most competitive approach.

  4. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development DR-5. Volume 1: Technology options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The second task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This volume identifies the preferred options in the technology category and characterizes these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost, and risk. The technology category includes advanced materials, processes, and techniques that can be used to enhance the implementation of SSDS design structures. The specific areas discussed are mass storage, including space and round on-line storage and off-line storage; man/machine interface; data processing hardware, including flight computers and advanced/fault tolerant computer architectures; and software, including data compression algorithms, on-board high level languages, and software tools. Also discussed are artificial intelligence applications and hard-wire communications.

  5. Feasibility study of porous media compressed air energy storage in South Carolina, United States of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Alexandra-Selene

    Renewable Energy Systems (RES) such as solar and wind, are expected to play a progressively significant role in electricity production as the world begins to move away from an almost total reliance on nonrenewable sources of power. In the US there is increasing investment in RES as the Department of Energy (DOE) expands its wind power network to encompass the use of offshore wind resources in places such as the South Carolina (SC) Atlantic Coastal Plain. Because of their unstable nature, RES cannot be used as reliable grid-scale power sources unless power is somehow stored during excess production and recovered at times of insufficiency. Only two technologies have been cited as capable of storing renewable energy at this scale: Pumped Hydro Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Both CAES power plants in existence today use solution-mined caverns as their storage spaces. This project focuses on exploring the feasibility of employing the CAES method to store excess wind energy in sand aquifers. The numerical multiphase flow code, TOUGH2, was used to build models that approximate subsurface sand formations similar to those found in SC. Although the aquifers of SC have very low dips, less than 10, the aquifers in this study were modeled as flat, or having dips of 00. Cycle efficiency is defined here as the amount of energy recovered compared to the amount of energy injected. Both 2D and 3D simulations have shown that the greatest control on cycle efficiency is the volume of air that can be recovered from the aquifer after injection. Results from 2D simulations showed that using a dual daily peak load schedule instead of a single daily peak load schedule increased cycle efficiency as do the following parameters: increased anisotropy, screening the well in the upper portions of the aquifer, reduced aquifer thickness, and an initial water displacement by the continuous injection of air for at least 60 days. Aquifer permeability of 1x10-12 m2 produced a cycle

  6. Satellite voice broadcast system study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay, rather than via terrestrial relay stations. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF (26 MHz), VHF (68 MHz), and L-band (1.5 GHz). The geographical areas of interest at HF and L-band include all major land masses worldwide with the exception of the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. In addition, a system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours is developed for the HF band. VHF broadcasts, which are confined to the Soviet Union, are provied by a system of Molniya satellites. Satellites intended for HF or VHF broadcastinbg are extremely large and heavy. Satellite designs presented here are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. Even so, at HF it would take 47 geostationary satellites or 20 satellites in 8-hour orbits to fully satisfy the voice-channel requirements of the broadcast schedule provided by VOA. On the other hand, three Molniya satellites suffice for the geographically restricted schedule at VHF. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. Moreover, these satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for direct broadcast of video program material.

  7. Underground Ammunition Storage. Blast Propagation in the Tunnel System. Report 3 A. Single Chamber Storage. Variable Tunnel Diameter and Variable Chamber Volume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    5 3. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS 6 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 7 4.1 Peak Pressure Close to Storage Chamber 7 4.2 Peak Pressure Scaling... Analysis of the blast wave data produoed simple scaling relationships which contain a wide range of important geometrical parameters. Comparisons...than approximately - 20$. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS A total of approximately 700 blast wave parameter values (peak pressure, impulse and

  8. Solid State NMR Studies of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankuru Hennadige, Sohan Roshel De Silva

    NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy is utilized to study energy conversion and storage materials. Different types of NMR techniques including Magic Angle Spinning, Cross-polarization and relaxation measurement experiments were employed. Four different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, three types of CFx battery materials were investigated. Electrochemical studies have demonstrated different electrochemical performances by one type, delivering superior performance over the other two. 13C and 19F MAS NMR techniques are employed to identify the atomic/molecular structural factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among different types. Next as the second project, layered polymer dielectrics were investigated by NMR. Previous studies have shown that thin film capacitors are improved by using alternate layers of two polymers with complementary properties: one with a high breakdown strength and one with high dielectric constant as opposed to monolithic layers. 13C to 1H cross-polarization techniques were used to investigate any inter-layer properties that may cause the increase in the dielectric strength. The third project was to study two types of thermoelectric materials. These samples were made of heavily doped phosphorous and boron in silicon by two different methods: ball-milled and annealed. These samples were investigated by NMR to determine the degree of disorder and obtain insight into the doping efficiency. The last ongoing project is on a lithium-ion battery system. The nature of passivating layers or the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the electrodes surface is important because of the direct correlation between the SEI and the battery life time/durability. Multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) techniques are employed to identify the composition of the SEI formation of both positive and negative electrodes.

  9. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-04-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  10. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  11. A numerical study of bank storage and its contribution to streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Peter J.; Pomeranets, Mikhail

    1997-12-01

    Floodplains mitigate against extreme annual hydrologic phenomena by storing substantial volumes of water which would otherwise increase flood volumes. Later floodplains gradually release this water which serves to maintain baseflows. This phenomenon, called bank storage, has important physical and ecological ramifications which in addition to reducing flood peaks, include sustaining riparian vegetation and improving water quality. We developed a model of bank storage based upon the earlier work of Neuman and Witherspoon (Wat. Resour. Res., 6 (1990) 889, 1376; 7 (1971) 611). This model (WaTab2D) treats the flow of water through floodplain soils for a general two-dimensional case: non-symmetrical valleys, non-symmetrical channel banks, non-uniform hydraulic geometry and non-zero boundary fluxes. The total volume that can potentially be released from bank storage is nearly proportional to the width of the floodplain, the height of the bank, and the specific yield; the duration over which water is released from bank storage increases with increasing floodplain width and decreases with hydraulic conductivity. Drainage of water from the floodplain with a drop in channel water level occurs over a period of days in gravel, weeks to a few years in sand, years in silt, and decades in clay. The rate of drainage decreases in an exponential-like manner.

  12. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  13. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  14. Methodological aspects of flow-volume studies in infants.

    PubMed

    Turner, D J; Morgan, S E; Landau, L I; LeSouëf, P N

    1990-01-01

    Although valuable information is being obtained using new techniques to assess infant respiratory mechanics, there have been several concerns about the methodology. These relate to the possibility that chloral hydrate may affect flow-volume measurements by altering upper airway caliber. There is also the possibility that physiological changes may be induced by inhalation of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic nebulized solutions. The aim of this study was to investigate these phenomena in a group of normal infants. Thoracic gas volume was determined and respiratory mechanics measured using the passive and forced expiratory flow-volume techniques. Respiratory function was assessed in infants before and after 1) sleep was induced by administration of chloral hydrate (n = 10, mean age, 21 weeks); 2) inhalation of nebulized saline (n = 10, mean age, 19 weeks); 3) inhalation of nebulized salbutamol (n = 7, mean age, 22 weeks). A fall in tidal volume was found following administration of chloral hydrate but no significant change was seen in any other respiratory parameter. In addition, no change was seen in any parameter post-saline or salbutamol nebulization. This study provides data which support several basic assumptions made about the infant flow-volume techniques and should provide useful background information for future studies using these techniques.

  15. Youth Advocacy Training Resource. Volume III. Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This volume presents three case studies of Teacher Corps Youth Advocacy Projects. The three projects selected represent the diversity inherent in Teacher Corps in setting, population, local education agency sites, and theoretical approach to the education of troubled youth. The focus of the study of the Arizona State University Project, which is…

  16. Texas Education Product Study, Volume 2. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    The second volume of a study of former Texas high school students who left as graduates or dropouts during the school years 1963-64 and 1968-69 contains the study respondents' comments on school counselors, extracurricular activities, and dropouts, career goals, and employment experiences. Respondents who had contact with counselors questioned the…

  17. Preschool and Primary Education. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this volume explore a number of issues in education today. One paper reveals what actually motivates teachers to develop their career, another, how to teach primary teachers to talk about visual art. Children's artworks were explored in one article to see how they relate to their adjustment to school. In another, a case study was…

  18. Graduate Studies in Education, Volume 1, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, William F., Comp.; Courtney, E. Wayne, Comp.

    As one part of a volume of abstracts of studies of the last decade primarily in the vocational and technical field, this report includes 194 abstracts in the categories of guidance and instruction. Abstracts in guidance treat anecdotal and autobiographical data, career days, case studies, counselor's self-concept, dropouts, duration of counseling,…

  19. Studies on liquefaction and storage of ejaculated dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) semen.

    PubMed

    Wani, N A; Billah, M; Skidmore, J A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate seminal liquefaction and quality of ejaculated camel semen during storage in different extenders at room (23 degrees C) and refrigeration (4 degrees C) temperature. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina and diluted immediately (1:1), using a split-sample technique, in five extenders [(1) Tris-tes egg yolk, (2) Tris-lactose egg yolk, (3) citrate egg yolk, (4) sucrose egg yolk and (5) Tris-fructose egg yolk], while one fraction was kept without an extender to act as control. The semen was transported to the lab at 37 degrees C, in a portable incubator within half an hour, and thereafter liquefaction of semen was monitored every 15 min. After complete liquefaction of the semen it was evaluated for sperm concentration and morphology and then was extended to a final ratio of 1:3. Aliquots of each semen sample were then stored at refrigeration and room temperature. The average volume of an ejaculate was 4.3+/-0.4 mL and it had a very viscous consistency. The average concentration of spermatozoa was 230.4+/-10.7 x 10(6)mL(-1) and the proportion of spermatozoa with protoplasmic droplets averaged 1.02+/-0.2, while 2.7+/-0.6 and 9.7+/-2.9% had mid-piece and tail abnormalities, respectively. All extended semen samples liquefied within 1.5h at 37 degrees C, however, there was slow liquefaction in the sample without an added extender (control). Best liquefaction was observed in Tris-lactose extender followed by Tris-fructose and citrate egg yolk diluents whereas in the other two extenders there was head-to-head agglutination of the spermatozoa. There was no difference in the initial motility of the spermatozoa in extenders 1-5 after its liquefaction, however, after 24 and 48 h of storage a higher proportion of spermatozoa were motile in extenders 1, 2 and 4 (P<0.05) at both the temperatures. There was a gradual decline in viability of the spermatozoa in all extenders at both the temperatures, although, a high portion of the

  20. Loss of entorhinal cortex and hippocampal volumes compared to whole brain volume in normal aging: the SMART-Medea study.

    PubMed

    Knoops, Arnoud J G; Gerritsen, Lotte; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2012-07-30

    In non-demented elderly age-related decline in hippocampal volume has often been observed, but it is not clear if this loss is disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Few studies examined age-related volume loss of the entorhinal cortex. We investigated the association of age with hippocampal and entorhinal cortex (ERC) volumes in a large sample of middle-aged and older persons without dementia. Within the SMART-Medea study, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 453 non-demented subjects (mean age 62±9 years, 81% male) with a history of arterial disease. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were assessed by manual segmentation on three-dimensional fast field-echo sequence T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Automated segmentation was used to quantify volumes of BV and ICV. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were divided by intracranial volume (ICV) as well as total brain volume (BV) to determine whether age-related differences were disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Total crude hippocampal volume was 5.96±0.7 ml and total crude ERC volume was 0.34±0.06 ml. Linear regression analyses adjusted for sex showed that with increasing age, hippocampal volume divided by ICV decreased (B per year older=-0.01 ml; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.004). However, no age-related decline in hippocampal volume relative to BV was observed (B per year older=0.005 ml; 95% CI -0.002 to 0.01). No age-related decline in ERC volume relative to ICV or BV was observed. In this population of nondemented patients with a history of vascular disease no age-related decline in entorhinal cortex volume was observed and although hippocampal volume decreased with age, it was not disproportionate relative to total brain volume.

  1. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  2. Comparative study of deterioration procedure in chemical-leavened steamed bread dough under frozen storage and freeze/thaw condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-08-15

    Successive freeze/thaw (FT) cycle was a widely used empirical approach to shorten the experimental period since it could accelerate frozen dough deterioration compared with frozen storage (FS). In order to compare the effect of FS and FT cycle on deterioration procedure of chemical-leavened steamed bread dough, kinetic studies of bread quality indices were performed and the relationships between bread quality and dough components were further established. Results showed that degradation of steamed bread loaf volume and firmness followed first-order kinetics during FS and zero-order kinetics during FT, respectively. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization and dough weight loss occurred steadily throughout FS and FT. Significant enhancement of damaged starch and crystallinity were observed at the later FS period and FT cycle. Multiple regression study led to the conclusion that dough weight loss contributed the most to the reduced bread loaf volume under FS whereas GMP depolymerization dominated under FT condition.

  3. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  4. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system for electric utility peak load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak load power plant dependence on petroleum based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal fired fluidized bed combustor/compressed air energy storage systems was performed and is described.

  5. Benefit/cost framework for evaluating modular energy storage : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2008-02-01

    The work documented in this report represents another step in the ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study uses updated cost and performance information for modular energy storage (MES) developed for this study to evaluate four prospective value propositions for MES. The four potentially attractive value propositions are defined by a combination of well-known benefits that are associated with electricity generation, delivery, and use. The value propositions evaluated are: (1) transportable MES for electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment upgrade deferral and for improving local power quality, each in alternating years, (2) improving local power quality only, in all years, (3) electric utility T&D deferral in year 1, followed by electricity price arbitrage in following years; plus a generation capacity credit in all years, and (4) electric utility end-user cost management during times when peak and critical peak pricing prevail.

  6. Hardness Changes of Tissue Conditioners in Various Storage Media: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Kamposiora, Phophi; Papavasiliou, George; Divaris, Kimon; Zinelis, Spiros

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of storage media on the longitudinal hardness changes of tissue conditioning materials. Four tissue-conditioning materials were used for fabrication of 80 disc-shaped specimens and divided in four groups, stored in four storage media. The specimens underwent artificial ageing corresponding to 30 nights of extra-oral storage. Hardness measurements were obtained at nine intervals between 8 and 240 hours after specimen fabrication. To test the effects of storage media on hardness we employed multivariate modelling (Bonferroni correction; α = 0.05). The materials exhibited varying hardness changes, most pronounced when stored in ambient air.

  7. A STUDY OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: The problem of information storage and retrieval - data banking ; The nature of information and communication between minds; The five steps...of data banking ; A classification system for data banking processes; A partial analysis of the problem of retrieval; A retrieval solution; and Implementation of the solution.

  8. Study on Tetradecane Nanoemulsion for Thermal Energy Transportation and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a novel fluid used for heat storage and transfer. It has the following characteristics: higher apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer ability in the phase-change temperature range as compared to the conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids. In particular, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are latent heat storage materials that have low melting points, thus offering attractive opportunities for heat transfer enhancement and thermal energy transportation and storage. In this paper, milky white oil-in-water emulsions have been formed using water, Tween 80, Span 80, and tetradecane by low-energy emulsification methods (e.g., the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method). The relations between the component ratios of the emulsions and both the particle diameters and the stability of the resulting emulsions have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibration viscometry. The results show that the apparent viscosity of the nanoemulsion is lower than that of an emulsion, which was prepared with the same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. Moreover, the surfactant concentration is found to contribute to the stability of the phase change nanoemulsion. Results indicate that the phase change nanoemulsion is a promising material for thermal storage applications.

  9. Morphological study of transpterional-insula approach using volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linpei; Su, Lue; Sun, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yao, Jihang; Li, Youqiong; Luo, Qi

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the measurements of inferior circular insular sulcus (ICIS) and the shortest distance from ICIS to the temporal horn and determines the position of the incision, which does less harm to the temporal stem in the transpterional-insula approach using volume-rendering technique. Results of the research showed that one-third point over the anterior side of ICIS may be the ideal penetration point during operation. And there is no difference between 2 hemispheres (P < 0.05). The comparison with the results of ICIS from other Chinese researches demonstrated that volume rendering is a reliable method in insular research that enables mass measurements.

  10. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 1: Technical volume, oven study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The baseline space shuttle galley was designed to utilize lightweight rehydratable foods, to be prepared for consumption by rehydration with chilled or hot water. The impact is examined of an extension of food types to include thermostabilized food, at ambient temperature, and frozen foods on the baseline design of the shuttle galley. Weight, volume, and power penalities associated with heating thermostabilized and frozen foods by means of a hot air convection heating system and a conduction heating system are determined along with the impact on crew/galley interface and meal preparation.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Graduate Studies in Education. Volume 1, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, E. Wayne, Comp.; Heineke, William F., Comp.

    As one part of a volume of abstracts of studies of the last decade primarily in the vocational and technical field, this report includes 213 abstracts in the categories of administration, curriculum, and evaluation. Abstracts in administration treat building programs, certification and qualification requirements, cooperative programs, cost…

  13. Sexual dimorphism of canine volume: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gibelli, Daniele; Gaudio, Daniel; Cipriani Noce, Filippo; Guercini, Nicola; Varvara, Giuseppe; Sguazza, Emanuela; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Sex assessment is a crucial part of the biological profile in forensic and archaeological context, but it can be hardly performed in cases of commingled and charred human remains where DNA tests often are not applicable. With time literature have analyzed the sexual dimorphism of teeth (and especially canines), but very few articles take into consideration the teeth volume, although with time several technologies have been introduced in order to assess 3D volume (CT-scan, laser scanner, etc.). This study aims at assessing the sexual dimorphism of dental and pulp chamber volumes of a sample of canines. Cone beam computed tomography analyses were performed by 87 patients (41 males and 46 females, aged between 15 and 83 years) for clinical purposes, and were acquired in order to measure canine volumes. Results show that the dental volume amounted to 0.745 cm(3) (SD 0.126 cm(3)) in males, 0.551 cm(3) (SD 0.130 cm(3)) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). A diagnostic threshold of 0.619 cm(3) was stated, which provides a percentage of correct answer of 80.5% in the chosen sample. The novel method was then applied with success to 7 archaeological: where in all the cases the results were concordant with those provided by the assessment of the cranium and pelvis. The study adds a contribution to the wide analysis of dental sexual dimorphism confirming the statistically significant differences of volume between males and females and providing a method for the diagnosis of sex applicable to forensic cases.

  14. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góes, E. G.; Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I. C.; Pelá, C. A.; Bruço, J. L.; Borges, J. C.; Covas, D. T.

    2010-06-01

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  15. A numerical and experimental study of stratified thermal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, F.J.; Ghajar, A.J.; Moretti, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, implicit, finite-difference model of a single stratified thermal storage tank has been developed. The model covers variable flow rates for charging or discharging the thermal storage tank and conduction and turbulent mixing within the water for two different inlet configurations. In order to handle variable flow rates, a ''conceptual buffer tank'' algorithm was developed. Turbulent mixing occurring in the tank was simulated through thermal eddy conductivity factors, which were determined from experimental data. A decreasing hyperbolic function predicted the best variation of the eddy conductivity factor inside the tank. A general relationship between the inlet eddy conductivity factor and the ratio of Reynolds number over Richardson number was established for the inlets investigated. The simulation model adequately predicted the experimental data. In addition, the model reproduced hydraulic test data better than a recent one-dimensional model found in the literature.

  16. Space platform expendables resupply concept definition study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    NASA has recognized that the capability for remote resupply of space platform expendable fluids will help transition space utilization into a new era of operational efficiency and cost/effectiveness. The emerging Orbital Maneuvering System (OMV) in conjunction with an expendables resupply module will introduce the capability for fluid resupply enabling satellite lifetime extension at locations beyond the range of the Orbiter. This report summarizes a Phase A study of a remote resupply module for the OMV. Volume 2 represents study results.

  17. Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches should be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JSC. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 2, containing Appendices K through U.

  18. Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JCS. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 1, containing the main body and Appendices A through J.

  19. Atypical iron storage in marine brown algae: a multidisciplinary study of iron transport and storage in Ectocarpus siliculosus

    PubMed Central

    Matzanke, Berthold F.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for all living organisms due to its ubiquitous role in redox and other enzymes, especially in the context of respiration and photosynthesis. The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood, with two basic strategies for iron uptake being distinguished: strategy I plants use a mechanism involving induction of Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) and Fe(II) transporter proteins, while strategy II plants utilize high-affinity, iron-specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, little is known about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages, particularly those of multicellular algae (seaweeds). Herein the first study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is reported. Genomic data suggest that Ectocarpus may use a strategy I approach. Short-term radio-iron uptake studies verified that iron is taken up by Ectocarpus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Upon long-term exposure to 57Fe, two metabolites have been identified using a combination of Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These include an iron–sulphur cluster accounting for ~26% of the total intracellular iron pool and a second component with spectra typical of a polymeric (Fe3+O6) system with parameters similar to the amorphous phosphorus-rich mineral core of bacterial and plant ferritins. This iron metabolite accounts for ~74% of the cellular iron pool and suggests that Ectocarpus contains a non-ferritin but mineral-based iron storage pool. PMID:22945940

  20. Study on sterilization and storage of enzymatic preparations by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengyi, Xu; Guangzheng, Liu; Yunsen, Long; Xiaoping, Liu; Fengxin, Yi; Xiaqdong, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    Effects of irradiation with cobalt-60 γ-rays on sterilization, storage and enzymes activity of four kinds of biological enzymatic preparations, namely trypsin, pepsin, amylase and liquid carbohydrase, were investigated. The results showed that these enzymes have different sensitivity to irradiation, amylase being the most sensitive. The enzyme activity and enzyme effect of amylase were lowered with irradiation dose higher than 7 KGY. With irradiation doses between 7-10 KGY, enzyme activity of trypsin and pepsin were stable. Liquid carbohydrase can be stored more than half a year under a natural temperature with a stable enzyme activity without molding.

  1. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Volume 1. Spring 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    JobICharacteristics 11 Active Duty Positive Propensity Respondents Target Market Profile 13 Advertising Awareness 14 ’LIAttitudes Toward Enlistment Incentives...service advertising awareness. The fact that target market men value job characteristics that pertain to improving oneself suggests that this change in copy...W,0-R143 ii4 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY VOLUME i SPRING i988(U) 1/3 MARKET FACTS INC CHICAGO IL PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH CORP J T HEISLER AUG 80

  2. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    amd Identify by block number) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickness Rotor Camber Distribution Aerodesign Throat Margin Aerodynamics 20...COMPRESSOR ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume IV D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson General Electric Company Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced Technology...Compressor Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. IVAN BUS Director, Turbine Engine Division If your address has changed, if you

  3. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Identity by block number) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickness Rotor Camber Distribution Aerodesign Throat Margin Aerodynamics 20. 1ABSRACT...COMPRESSOR ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume II D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson General Electric Company / Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced Technology...Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. IVAN BUSH Director, Turbine Engine Division . If your address has changed, if you wish to be

  4. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    KEY WORDS (Continue on revere. old. $1 nocoeoary and identify by block nuvb.,) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickne)s Rotor Camber...COMPRESSOR ’Q ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume III D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson CZ) General Electric Company Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced...Compressor Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. WAN BI Director, Turbine Engine Division ŕ *If your address has changed, if you wish

  5. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, H.N.

    1998-12-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

  6. Theoretical study of hydrogen storage in a truncated tetrahedron hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Shigeru; Yamabe, Tokio

    2017-02-01

    A hydrocarbon molecule, having a truncated tetrahedron shape with a suitable size for the storage of a hydrogen molecule, is designed using quantum chemical methods. The molecule consists of four benzene rings bridged by six vinylene groups at the 1, 3, and 5 carbon positions of each ring, and has a stoichiometry of C36H24. The molecular geometry optimized under T d symmetry by the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method shows no imaginary frequencies. The size of the molecular cavity, measured by the distance between opposite vinylene groups, is 8.0 Å. The cavity has four openings along each tetrahedron face. The radius of the opening is approximately 2 Å. The system interacting with a hydrogen molecule is optimized by the MP2/cc-pVTZ method. The interaction energy is evaluated by an extrapolation method through increasing the basis set size of the hydrogen molecule from the cc-pVTZ to the cc-pV6Z with counterpoise corrections. The hydrogen molecule enters the opening by overcoming an energy barrier of +730 meV and locates at the center of the cavity with a binding energy of -140 meV. The high barrier arises from the small size of the opening. The binding energy is three times larger than that of a graphite surface and may allow hydrogen storage at milder temperatures and pressures than those required with graphite.

  7. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-02-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  8. Study report on laser storage and retrieval of image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical foundation is presented for a system of real-time nonphotographic and nonmagnetic digital laser storage and retrieval of image data. The system utilizes diffraction-limited laser focusing upon thin metal films, melting elementary holes in the metal films in laser focus. The metal films are encapsulated in rotating flexible mylar discs which act as the permanent storage carries. Equal sized holes encompass two dimensional digital ensembles of information bits which are time-sequentially (bit by bit) stored and retrieved. The bits possess the smallest possible size, defined by the Rayleigh criterion of coherent physical optics. Space and time invariant reflective read-out of laser discs with a small laser, provides access to the stored digital information. By eliminating photographic and magnetic data processing, which characterize the previous state of the art, photographic grain, diffusion, and gamma-distortion do not exist. Similarly, magnetic domain structures, magnetic gaps, and magnetic read-out are absent with a digital laser disc system.

  9. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  10. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K.

    2005-03-01

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  11. Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur; Murray, Frank; Howarth, Roy; Fusaro, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of satellites have been launched to date. Some have operated extremely well and others have not. In order to learn from past operating experiences, a study was conducted to determine the conditions under which space mechanisms (mechanically moving components) have previously worked or failed. The study consisted of: (1) an extensive literature review that included both government contractor reports and technical journals; (2) communication and visits (when necessary) to the various NASA and DOD centers and their designated contractors (this included contact with project managers of current and prior NASA satellite programs as well as their industry counterparts); (3) requests for unpublished information to NASA and industry; and (4) a mail survey designed to acquire specific mechanism experience. The information obtained has been organized into two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of the lessons learned, the results of a needs analysis, responses to the mail survey, a listing of experts, a description of some available facilities and a compilation of references. Volume 2 contains a compilation of the literature review synopsis.

  12. Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study. Volume 2: Literature Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur; Murray, Frank; Howarth, Roy; Fusaro, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of satellites have been launched to date. Some have operated extremely well and others have not. In order to learn from past operating experiences, a study was conducted to determine the conditions under which space mechanisms (mechanically moving components) have previously worked or failed. The study consisted of an extensive literature review that included both government contractor reports and technical journals, communication and visits (when necessary) to the various NASA and DOD centers and their designated contractors (this included contact with project managers of current and prior NASA satellite programs as well as their industry counterparts), requests for unpublished information to NASA and industry, and a mail survey designed to acquire specific mechanism experience. The information obtained has been organized into two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of the lesson learned, the results of a needs analysis, responses to the mail survey, a listing of experts, a description of some available facilities, and a compilation of references. Volume 2 contains a compilation of the literature review synopsis.

  13. Space station human productivity study. Volume 5: Management plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 67 Management Plans represent recommended study approaches for resolving 108 of the 305 Issues which were identified. Each study Management Plan is prepared in three formats: Management Plan Overview (lists the subsumed Issues, study background, and related overview information); Study Plan (details the study approach by tasks, lists special needs, and describes expected study products); Schedule-Task Flow (provides a time-lined schedule for the study tasks and resource requirements). The Management Relationships Matrix, included in this volume, shows the data input-output relationships among all recommended studies. A listing is also included which cross-references the unresolved requirements to Issues to management plans. A glossary of all abbreviations utilized is provided.

  14. Study of thermal energy storage using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weast, T. E.; Shannon, L. J.; Ananth, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of fluid bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in waste heat recovery applications is assessed by analysis of two selected conceptual systems, the rotary cement kiln and the electric arc furnace. It is shown that the inclusion of TES in the energy recovery system requires that the difference in off-peak and on-peak energy rates be large enough so that the value of the recovered energy exceeds the value of the stored energy by a wide enough margin to offset parasitic power and thermal losses. Escalation of on-peak energy rates due to fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  15. Compressed-air energy storage preliminary design and site-development program in an aquifer. Volume 2: Utility-system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network were analyzed. The analysis was based on three study scenarios each having a target generation mix of 65% base, 25% intermediate, and 10% peaking capacity. Scenarios of 100% coal, 50% coal and 50% nuclear, and 100% nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Final results of the analyses indicate favorable economics when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil-fired generation.

  16. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 2 (Technical Report) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  17. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 3: Addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 3 (Addendum) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study Program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  18. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Executive Summary) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  19. Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 7: Environmental, safety, and licensing considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The behavior and suitability of aquifers as compressed-air energy storage (CAFS) sites was studied. The probability, severity, and recommended control measures for the environmental and safety impacts that could result from the construction and operation of a CAES facility are described. The permits and approvals that would be required and the time estimated for their acquisition are also described.

  20. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the ..beta..-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and ..beta..-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations.

  1. Studies on solar heating systems with long-term heat storage for northern high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P.

    The feasibility of liquid-based solar heating systems with seasonal heat storage for cold climates is addressed using thermal performance studies. The thermal analyses are based on several new computer models comprising three different types of seasonal storage: duct storage, rock caverns, and solar ponds. These are employed in a community solar heating system and are mainly charged by solar energy. Simulation models are used to investigate the effects of the system dimensioning on the thermal performance. Different methods used to study the feasibility of a district solar heating system for the Finnish climate are presented. Finally, the computer models are used to determine the expected performance of the first Finnish community solar heating system with seasonal heat storage, the Kerava solar village. Preliminary measurement results from the village are given.

  2. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  3. Studies of a thermal energy storage tank with ice on spiral tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, S.; Miura, N.

    1998-07-01

    The demand for electric power in Japan becomes highest around 15:00 p.m. in a hot day in summer. The peak demand increases every years. One of the effective methods to depress the increase of the peak demand is to use electric power at night to make ice, which is used in the daytime in the next day for air conditioning. Introduction of ice storage systems in buildings is being promoted for effective use of power plants. In this study, a small sized ice storage tank which contained a heat exchanger made of 19 spiral tubes and 230 L of water in the inside was made. It was intended that more than one storage tanks arranged in parallel could be used in a heat storage system depending on the necessary capacity of the storage system. Then, the performance of the storage unit in charging and discharging processes were studied experimentally to know whether this type of storage unit could be adapted effectively in actual systems. In order to be able to predict the performance of a storage system with storage tanks together with a refrigerator, it is necessary to be able to predict the performance of a storage unit in the charging process for various conditions. In this paper, an analysis was also made on the performance of a storage tank in discharging processes. The height and the inside and the outside diameters of the storage tank, which was transparent cylinder made from polyvinyl chloride were 1200 mm, 564 mm and 580 mm respectively. The end of 19 spiral tubes made of copper was connected to the upper and lower headers. The inside and the outside diameters and the extended length of the spiral tube were 9.52 mm, 10.52 mm and 3.71 m respectively. As the results, the temperature of the extracted water from the tank was between 2--4 C until close to the end of the discharging process. Cooling power of 9 kW was obtained for about 2 hours when the temperature and the flow rate of the water which returned to the tank were 11 C and 6 /min respectively. The temperature at the

  4. Numerical and experimental studies of liquid storage tank thermal stratification for a solar energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S T; Han, S M

    1980-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of thermal stratification in liquid energy storage tanks for the performance of solar energy systems are presented. The investigation was divided into three areas: (1) Justification of the Importance of Thermal Stratification Inside the Energy Storage Tanks, (II) Development of a Simple Mathematical Model which is Compatible with Existing Solar Energy System Simulation Code, and (III) Validation of Mathematical Models by Experimental Data Obtained from Realistic Solar Energy System Operations.

  5. First-principles studies of complex hydrides for lithium-ion battery and hydrogen storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Timothy Hudson

    We employ density functional theory in a computational study of two energy storage systems. In the first, we explore the thermodynamic viability of light metal hydrides as a high capacity Li-ion battery negative electrode. Given a set of solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble as a function of lithium electrochemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with predicted capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAhg-1 that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li4BN3H10 and compare with our theoretical prediction. The maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si, whose 400% expansion hinders its cyclability. In the second study, we attempt to gain understanding of recent experimental results of lithium borohydride nanoconfined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon. The carbon environment is modeled as a single sheet of graphene, and adsorption energies are calculated for nanoparticles of the constituent phases of LiBH 4 desorption processes (LiBH4, LiH, lithium and boron). We find good agreement with previous studies of a single lithium atom adsorbed onto graphene. We predict that infiltrated LiBH4 will decompose such that boron is trapped in carbon vacancies, and that the resulting boron doping is required to achieve negative wetting energies for the remaining LiBH4. Desorption enthalpies are found to increase with shrinking cluster sizes, suggesting that the observed lowering of desorption temperatures is a kinetic effect although interactions with the carbon surface itself are predicted to have an overall effect of decreasing the desorption enthalpy .

  6. Compressed-air energy storage preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 5, Part 1: Turbomachinery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, P. A.; Bonk, J. S.; Kobett, W. F.; Kosanovich, N. S.; Long, L. J.; Marinacci, D. J.

    1982-11-01

    The development of the design approach for a combustion turbine heat cycle and the major mechanical equipment for use by an electric utility at a selected aquifer air storage site is documented. A compressed air energy storage (CAES) system utilizes off peak electric power, available from base load power plants, to store compressed air underground in an aquifer. During subsequent periods, the stored air is extracted from the aquifer and used as an air supply for a generating combustion turbine expander. The aquifer has an initial discovery pressure of 840 psia. An initial air injection temperature of 1500 F was selected. The major mechanical equipment considered includes: the turbine motor/generator compressor train, intercooler and aftercooler system, and the exhaust gas regenerator. The cycle and machinery configuration and the specific mechanical equipment were selected for their Media site characteristics. These characteristics and the effect of component interdependency are considered when a conservative component design approach is established which satisfies the Media site CAES system requirements.

  7. Initial study of thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. [UCATES

    SciTech Connect

    Haitjema, H.M.; Strack, O.D.L.

    1986-04-01

    Convective heat transport in unconfined aquifers is modeled in a semi-analytic way. The transient groundwater flow is modeled by superposition of analytic functions, whereby changes in the aquifer storage are represented by a network of triangles, each with a linearly varying sink distribution. This analytic formulation incorporates the nonlinearity of the differential equation for unconfined flow and eliminates numerical dispersion in modeling heat convection. The thermal losses through the aquifer base and vadose zone are modeled rather crudely. Only vertical heat conduction is considered in these boundaries, whereby a linearly varying temperature is assumed at all times. The latter assumption appears reasonable for thin aquifer boundaries. However, assuming such thin aquifer boundaries may lead to an overestimation of the thermal losses when the aquifer base is regarded as infinitely thick in reality. The approach is implemented in the computer program UCATES, which serves as a first step toward the development of a comprehensive screening tool for ATES systems in unconfined aquifers. In its present form, the program is capable of predicting the relative effects of regional flow on the efficiency of ATES systems. However, only after a more realistic heatloss mechanism is incorporated in UCATES will reliable predictions of absolute ATES efficiencies be possible.

  8. Repetitively Pulsed Electric Laser Acoustic Studies. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    INGARD ET AL. SEP 83 UNCLASSIFIED APHAL-IR-83-2858-VOL-1 F336i5 86-C 2848 F/ 0/ 8, EEEmohEEEomhiE EohEEmhohEEEEE mhhhmmomhhlm...TR-83-2058, Vol 9, 0 REPETITIVELY PULSED ELECTRIC LASER ACOUSTIC STUDIES Volume I K. U. INGARD , CHARLES F. MCMILLAN uDEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICS AND...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) K.U. Ingard and Charles F. McMillan F33615.80-C-2040 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT

  9. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Volume 2. Fall 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    RD-R143 1t5 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY VOLUME 2 FALLii988(U) 1/4 MARKET FACTS INC CHICAGO IL PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH CORP J T HEISLER RUG 89 6406...Grip of Market Facts, Inc. 1750 K Street, N. W. Washington, D.C. 20006 March, 1981 17 L r’~:~! r IMpLy, Job No. 640640 OMB #22-R-0339J DITRIDUTION...NUMBER(S) 6406 DMDC/MRB/TR-80/ 1 - VOL 2 6a NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 16b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION * Market Facts, Inc

  10. Guidance/Navigation Requirements Study Final Report. Volume III. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-30

    AUTHORITY USAF notice, 17 Oct 1978 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED THIS REPORT HAS BEEN DELIMITED AMD CLEARED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNDER DOD DIRECTIVE 5200.20 AND NO...BEST AVAILABLE COPY SAt4SO-TR-78-92 fai GuiDANcE/NAvioATIoN flEQUIVIEMIENTS STUDY FINAL REPORT , ’VOLUME III: APPIWI’UOOE, Prepve~d by: 1~6MCO#4 INC...255 West fifth Street San Pedro, California 90731 April 1978 IFinal Report Under Contract F047-1-5-C-0112 Period of Performance: May 1975 to April 1978

  11. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  12. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  13. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  14. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  15. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

  16. Shuttle filter study. Volume 2: Contaminant generation and sensitivity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Contaminant generation studies were conducted at the component level using two different methods, radioactive tracer technique and gravimetric analysis test procedure. Both of these were reduced to practice during this program. In the first of these methods, radioactively tagged components typical of those used in spacecraft were studied to determine their contaminant generation characteristics under simulated operating conditions. Because the purpose of the work was: (1) to determine the types and quantities of contaminants generated; and (2) to evaluate improved monitoring and detection schemes, no attempt was made to evaluate or qualify specific components. The components used in this test program were therefore not flight hardware items. Some of them had been used in previous tests; some were obsolete; one was an experimental device. In addition to the component tests, various materials of interest to contaminant and filtration studies were irradiated and evaluated for use as autotracer materials. These included test dusts, plastics, valve seat materials, and bearing cage materials.

  17. Combined statistical analyses for long-term stability data with multiple storage conditions: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Almalik, Osama; Nijhuis, Michiel B; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-01-01

    Shelf-life estimation usually requires that at least three registration batches are tested for stability at multiple storage conditions. The shelf-life estimates are often obtained by linear regression analysis per storage condition, an approach implicitly suggested by ICH guideline Q1E. A linear regression analysis combining all data from multiple storage conditions was recently proposed in the literature when variances are homogeneous across storage conditions. The combined analysis is expected to perform better than the separate analysis per storage condition, since pooling data would lead to an improved estimate of the variation and higher numbers of degrees of freedom, but this is not evident for shelf-life estimation. Indeed, the two approaches treat the observed initial batch results, the intercepts in the model, and poolability of batches differently, which may eliminate or reduce the expected advantage of the combined approach with respect to the separate approach. Therefore, a simulation study was performed to compare the distribution of simulated shelf-life estimates on several characteristics between the two approaches and to quantify the difference in shelf-life estimates. In general, the combined statistical analysis does estimate the true shelf life more consistently and precisely than the analysis per storage condition, but it did not outperform the separate analysis in all circumstances.

  18. Comparative study of two table grape varieties with contrasting texture during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Balic, Iván; Sanhueza, Dayan; Barria, Romina; Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel; Prieto, Humberto; Defilippi, Bruno G; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2015-02-23

    Postharvest softening of grape berries is one of the main problems affecting grape quality during export. Cell wall disassembly, especially of pectin polysaccharides, has been commonly related to fruit softening, but its influence has been poorly studied in grapes during postharvest life. In order to better understand this process, the Thompson seedless (TS) variety, which has significantly decreased berry texture after prolonged cold storage, was compared to NN107, a new table grape variety with higher berry firmness. Biochemical analysis revealed a greater amount of calcium in the cell wall of the NN107 variety and less reduction of uronic acids than TS during cold storage. In addition, the activity of polygalacturonase was higher in TS than NN107 berries; meanwhile pectin methylesterase activity was similar in both varieties. Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) suggests a differential pectin metabolism during prolonged cold storage. Results revealed lower pectin fragments in TS after 60 days of cold storage and shelf life (SL) compared to 30 days of cold storage and 30 + SL, while NN107 maintained the same fragment profile across all time points evaluated. Our results suggest that these important differences in cell wall metabolism during cold storage could be related to the differential berry firmness observed between these contrasting table grape varieties.

  19. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  20. Effect of storage thermal behavior in seasonal storage solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.

    1986-12-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed to investigate the effects of storage operational strategies (or, equivalently, stratification) on the performance of a seasonal storage solar heating system with a constructed water volume. The method is based on a relative comparison between a thermally stratified and well-mixed storage system representing probable extreme outcomes of the subsystem-to-storage loop control strategies. The effects are described in the form of performance reduction factors that describe maximum changes in the solar collector yield, storage losses, and solar fraction due to storage operational mode. The study indicates that the storage thermal behavior could in the worst case affect the yearly solar fraction by a factor of 1.8, but most likely a maximum value from 1.1 to 1.5 could be expected.

  1. Time-variable magma pressure at Kīlauea Volcano yields constraint on the volume and volatile content of shallow magma storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Patrick, M. R.; Poland, M. P.; Miklius, A.

    2015-12-01

    Episodic depressurization-pressurization cycles of Kīlauea Volcano's shallow magma system cause variations in ground deformation, eruption rate, and surface height of the active summit lava lake. The mechanism responsible for these pressure-change cycles remains enigmatic, but associated monitoring signals often show a quasi-exponential temporal history that is consistent with a temporary reduction (or blockage) of supply to Kīlauea's shallow magma storage area. Regardless of their cause, the diverse signals produced by these deflation-inflation (DI) cycles offer an unrivaled opportunity to constrain properties of an active volcano's shallow magma reservoir and relation to its eruptive vents. We model transient behavior at Kīlauea Volcano using a simple mathematical model of an elastic reservoir that is coupled to magma flux through Kīlauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) at a rate proportional to the difference in pressure between the summit reservoir and the ERZ eruptive vent (Newtonian flow). In this model, summit deflations and ERZ flux reductions are caused by a blockage in supply to the reservoir, while re-inflations occur as the system returns to a steady-state flux condition. The model naturally produces exponential variations in pressure and eruption rate which reasonably, albeit imperfectly, match observations during many of the transient events at Kīlauea. We constrain the model using a diverse range of observations including time-varying summit lava lake surface height and volume change, the temporal evolution of summit ground tilt, time-averaged eruption rate derived from TanDEM-X radar data, and height difference between the summit lava lake and the ERZ eruptive vent during brief eruptive pauses (Patrick et al., 2015). Formulating a Bayesian inverse and including independent prior constraint on magma density, host rock strength, and other properties of the system, we are able to place probabilistic constraints on the volume and volatile content of shallow

  2. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF.

  3. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts. Volume 2, Part 2: Concept Analysis and Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final report of a Phase A Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts by the Lockheed Missiles & Space Company (LMSC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The eleven-month study, which began on 30 June 1970, is to examine the stage-and-one-half and other Space Shuttle configurations and to establish feasibility, performance, cost, and schedules for the selected concepts. This final report consists of four volumes as follows: Volume I - Executive Summary, Volume II - Concept Analysis and Definition, Volume III - Program Planning, and Volume IV - Data Cost Data. This document is Volume II, Concept Analysis and Definition.

  4. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 13. Evaluation of Storage and Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels Derived from Coal Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP ) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the Department of Energy. (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy...Petroleum and Energy Research-(NIPER)>of the lIT Research Institute to study the storage and thermal stability of a JP-8 fuel produced from the GPGP liquid by...fuel produced from the GPGP liquid by-product streams. DOE/PETC was funded through Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request (MIPR) FY1455-86- N0657

  5. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume IV: Sections 10--Security Storage and Control; 11--Organisation and Management; 12--Networks and External Sources of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The last of four volumes in a series describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. In "Security Storage and Control," Michael…

  6. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  7. A Climatological Study of the AFGL Mesonetwork. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-11

    AFGL-TR- 82 -001 1 (11) SENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PAPERS, NO. 764 -~ A Climatological Study of the < e AFGL Mesonetwork cl Volume II H. ALBERT BROWN rzz...MASSACHUSETTS 01731 -- AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND, USAF 82 07 16_ 0O& --. .. Best Available Copy ’I 7 7 7 This report has been reviewed by the ESD Public...34 .3- -• 3.,6 3.8 2.30 2.4E . 82 .04 24307 C, Ic c 2- .. C" 8.2: 4. 3.27 2.76 2.28 2.C6 1.22 2253t 00 :-. -. 2’ 2. .:5 . .07 .- 5 .03 .G2 .0, 15761 *tC

  8. A Comparative Study on the Alterations of Endocytic Pathways in Multiple Lysosomal Storage Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Jeff; Manthe, Rachel L; Solomon, Melani; Garnacho, Carmen; Muro, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Many cellular activities and pharmaceutical interventions involve endocytosis and delivery to lysosomes for processing. Hence, lysosomal processing defects can cause cell and tissue damage, as in lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) characterized by lysosomal accumulation of undegraded materials. This storage causes endocytic and trafficking alterations, which exacerbate disease and hinder treatment. However, there have been no systematic studies comparing different endocytic routes in LSDs. Here, we used genetic and pharmacological models of four LSDs (type A Niemann-Pick, type C Niemann-Pick, Fabry, and Gaucher diseases) and evaluated the pinocytic and receptor-mediated activity of the clathrin-, caveolae-, and macropinocytic routes. Bulk pinocytosis was diminished in all diseases, suggesting a generic endocytic alteration linked to lysosomal storage. Fluid-phase (dextran) and ligand (transferrin) uptake via the clathrin route were lower for all LSDs. Fluid-phase and ligand (cholera toxin B) uptake via the caveolar route were both affected but less acutely in Fabry or Gaucher diseases. Epidermal growth factor-induced macropinocytosis was altered in Niemann-Pick cells but not other LSDs. Intracellular trafficking of ligands was also distorted in LSD versus wild-type cells. The extent of these endocytic alterations paralleled the level of cholesterol storage in disease cell lines. Confirming this, pharmacological induction of cholesterol storage in wild-type cells disrupted endocytosis, and model therapeutics restored uptake in proportion to their efficacy in attenuating storage. This suggests a proportional and reversible relationship between endocytosis and lipid (cholesterol) storage. By analogy, the accumulation of biological material in other diseases, or foreign material from drugs or their carriers, may cause similar deficits, warranting further investigation.

  9. A Study of NetCDF as an Approach for High Performance Medical Image Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus, Marcone; Coelho Prado, Thiago; von Wangenhein, Aldo; de Macedo, Douglas D. J.; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2012-02-01

    The spread of telemedicine systems increases every day. The systems and PACS based on DICOM images has become common. This rise reflects the need to develop new storage systems, more efficient and with lower computational costs. With this in mind, this article discusses a study for application in NetCDF data format as the basic platform for storage of DICOM images. The study case comparison adopts an ordinary database, the HDF5 and the NetCDF to storage the medical images. Empirical results, using a real set of images, indicate that the time to retrieve images from the NetCDF for large scale images has a higher latency compared to the other two methods. In addition, the latency is proportional to the file size, which represents a drawback to a telemedicine system that is characterized by a large amount of large image files.

  10. Design Concepts Studied for the Hydrogen On-Orbit Storage and Supply Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, in conjunction with the Utah State University Space Dynamics Laboratory, studied concepts for the Hydrogen On-Orbit Storage and Supply Experiment (HOSS). HOSS is a space flight experiment whose objectives are (1) to show stable gas supply for solar-thermal thruster designs by using both storage and direct-gain approaches and (2) to evaluate and compare the low-gravity performance of active and passive pressure control via a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) suitable for solar-thermal upper stages. This study showed that the necessary experimental equipment for HOSS can be accommodated in a small hydrogen Dewar (36 to 80 liter). Thermal designs can be achieved that meet the on-orbit storage requirements for these Dewars. Furthermore, ground hold insulation concepts are easily achieved that can store liquid hydrogen in these small Dewars for more than 144 hr without venting.

  11. Experimental investigation of solid by-product as sensible heat storage material: Characterization and corrosion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Faik, Abdessamad; Mani, Karthik; Rodriguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of water cooled electrical arc furnace (EAF) slag used as filler material in the storage tank for sensible heat storage application was demonstrated in this study. The physicochemical and thermal properties of the tested slags were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and laser flash analysis, respectively. In addition, the chemical compatibility between slags and molten nitrate salt (60 wt. % NaNO3 and 40 wt. % KNO3) was investigated at 565 °C for 500 hrs. The obtained results were clearly demonstrated that the slags showed a good corrosion resistance in direct contact with molten salt at elevated temperature. The present study was clearly indicated that a low-cost filler material used in the storage tank can significantly reduce the overall required quantities of the relatively higher cost molten salt and consequently reduce the overall cost of the electricity production.

  12. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MATERIALS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Steven G.

    2014-03-01

    Several battery materials research projects were undertaken, suing NMR spectroscopy as a primary analytical tool. These include transport proerties of liquid and solid electrolytes and structural studies of Li ion electrodes.

  14. Site characterization plan: Conceptual design report: Volume 4, Appendices F-O: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, H R; Scully, L W; Tillerson, J R

    1987-09-01

    The site for the prospective repository is located at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, and the waste emplacement area will be constructed in the underlying volcanic tuffs. The target horizon for waste emplacement is a sloping bed of densely welded tuff more than 650 ft below the surface and typically more than 600 ft above the water table. The conceptual design described in this report is unique among repository designs in that it uses ramps in addition to shafts to gain access to the underground facility, the emplacement horizon is located above the water table, and it is possible that 300- to 400-ft-long horizontal waste emplacement boreholes will be used. This report summarizes the design bases, design and performance criteria, and the design analyses performed. The current status of meeting the preclosure performance objectives for licensing and of resolving the repository design and preclosure issues is presented. The repository design presented in this report will be expanded and refined during the advanced conceptual design, the license application design, and the final procurement and construction design phases. Volume 4 contains Appendices F to O.

  15. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 8, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG&G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  16. Studies in Mathematics Education: The Teaching of Statistics, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert, Ed.

    This volume examines the teaching of statistics in the whole range of education, but concentrates on primary and secondary schools. It is based upon selected topics from the Second International Congress on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS 2), convened in Canada in August 1986. The contents of this volume divide broadly into four parts: statistics in…

  17. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  18. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost.

  19. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  20. Parametric study of rock pile thermal storage for solar heating and cooling phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, H.

    1977-01-01

    The test data and an analysis were presented, of heat transfer characteristics of a solar thermal energy storage bed utilizing water filled cans as the energy storage medium. An attempt was made to optimize can size, can arrangement, and bed flow rates by experimental and analytical means. Liquid filled cans, as storage media, utilize benefits of both solids like rocks, and liquids like water. It was found that this combination of solid and liquid media shows unique heat transfer and heat content characteristics and is well suited for use with solar air systems for space and hot water heating. An extensive parametric study was made of heat transfer characteristics of rocks, of other solids, and of solid containers filled with liquids.

  1. Study on Formation of High Performance Ice Slurry by Emulsion in Ice Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Oikawa, Ken; Okada, Masashi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Kawagoe, Tetsuo

    This study is focused on an emulsion as a new thermal storage material for ice storage. Two types of emulsions are made of oil-water mixture with a little additive. Oils used are silicone, light and lump oils. Water contents of emulsions are 70,80 and 90 %. The additive is amino group modified silicone oil, and there is no depression of freezing point for the emulsions because of its hydrophobic property. In order to know structures of emulsions, those electric resistances were measured. And components of liquids separating from emulsions were investigated. From above results, it was found that one was W/O type and the other was O/W type. And then, adaptability of two emulsions to the ice storage was discussed, and then, it was found that a high performance ice slurry could be formed by the W/O type emulsion.

  2. STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF PARTICLE MOTION IN STORAGE RINGS. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jack J. Shi

    2012-09-07

    During this period, our research was concentrated on the study of beam-beam effects in large storage-ring colliders and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect in light sources. Our group was involved in and made significant contribution to several international accelerator projects such as the US-LHC project for the design of the LHC interaction regions, the luminosity upgrade of Tevatron and HERA, the design of eRHIC, and the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) for the future LHC luminosity upgrade.

  3. Electromagnetic studies of redox systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1981-01-01

    Both chromium and iron couples were studied on various electrode surfaces in acidic perchlorate solution by using rotating ring-disk techniques. It was found that chloride which forms inner sphere coordination complexes with the redox species enhances the electrode kinetics dramatically. The effects of lead underpotential deposition and surface alloy formation on the kinetics of the chromium couple on gold were studied using both linear sweep voltammetry and potential step techniques. The lad underpotential deposition was found to slow down the kinetics of the reduction of the Cr species on gold surfaces although increase the hydrogen overvoltage. The effect on the chromium kinetics can be explained in terms of principally a double layer effect. The underpotential deposition lead species with its positive charge results in a decrease in the concentration of the Cr species at the electrode surface. Similar phenomena were also observed with bismuth underpotential deposition on gold for the iron couple.

  4. [Digital radiology with storage phosphors in cephalometric study in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Calderazzi, A; Palla, L; Battolla, L; Caramella, D; Barbieri, L

    1992-09-01

    Conventional radiology is continually modified with the development of digital systems which can be used for several types of radiologic examinations. Our study was aimed at evaluating the advantages of these new technologies in the orthodontic field, where the problems associated with image quality and radiation protection are major especially in young patients; the latter goal is achievable by dramatically reducing radiation dose and by avoiding repeating the exam. In our study, we compared lateral teleradiographs of the skull for cephalometric analysis obtained using conventional and digital diagnostic methods. The preliminary results demonstrated that the two imaging techniques did not differ relative to bone structure representation, even though the digital system provided better visualization of soft tissue structures. Computed radiography also allowed a marked reduction in the number of repeats and reduced radiation dose. The current disadvantages of this imaging method are the high initial cost of the equipment, reduced work rate, and the need of frequent technical assistance.

  5. Systems for the Storage of Molecular Oxygen - A Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-25

    perfluorinated sulfonic acid groups ) which is saturated with water. Power is fed to electrodes in contact with either side of the electrolyte sheet and hydrogen is...displacement and partial pressure stripping. The most common adsorbents used are members of a group of crystalline alumi- nosilicates called zeolites...porphyrin systems some are related to biological complexes (39) or use biomolecules as lig- ands (40-43). Other studies have involved phthalocyanines

  6. Electrochemical Studies of Redox Systems for Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. D.; Calvo, E. J.; Yeager, E.

    1983-01-01

    Particular attention was paid to the Cr(II)/Cr(III) redox couple in aqueous solutions in the presence of Cl(-) ions. The aim of this research has been to unravel the electrode kinetics of this redox couple and the effect of Cl(1) and electrode substrate. Gold and silver were studied as electrodes and the results show distinctive differences; this is probably due to the role Cl(-) ion may play as a mediator in the reaction and the difference in state of electrical charge on these two metals (difference in the potential of zero charge, pzc). The competition of hydrogen evolution with CrCl3 reduction on these surfaces was studied by means of the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE). The ring downstream measures the flux of chromous ions from the disk and therefore separation of both Cr(III) and H2 generation can be achieved by analyzing ring and disk currents. The conditions for the quantitative detection of Cr(2+) at the ring electrode were established. Underpotential deposition of Pb on Ag and its effect on the electrokinetics of Cr(II)/Cr(III) reaction was studied.

  7. Ergonomic analysis in cold storage rooms: a study of case.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hebert Roberto; Araújo, Cleudmar Amaral

    2012-01-01

    The human work possess a history and, in this dimension, the man is submitted to the conditions that confer it physical and psychological consequences. The activity of work in the present time imposes adverse labor conditions. The ergonomics is a science that it aims at to study the real activity of the work with sights its transformation. This study it was carried through in a sector of processing of meats in a Agroindustry, with the objective to analyze ergonomically the conditions of work and the possible risks it greets it of the workers. It was verified that in the accomplishment of the activities it had an overload of the musculature of superior members, where if it verified the requirement of repetitive movements during four working hours. Also observed the organization of the work, the position of the employees and way to carry through the activities. With the study we conclude that the ergonomic risks in the sector are related to the position during the accomplishment of the activities, requirement of repetitive movements, e the cold that affects the muscular control, reducing some motor abilities as the dexterity and the force.

  8. Education Reform and Students At Risk. Volume II: Case Study Descriptions. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert J.; Stringfield, Samuel C.

    The United States must find ways to improve the quality of education for all its citizens, particularly those young people who are most at risk of failure. This document, the second of three volumes, contains detailed case-study data from 18 schools located across the United States. The case studies were conducted as part of a study that…

  9. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 3: (Assessment of technical and cost characteristics of candidate IUS energy storage devices)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Six energy storage technologies (inertial, superconducting magnetic, electrochemical, chemical, compressed air, and thermal) were assessed and evaluated for specific applicability to the IUS. To provide a perspective for the individual storage technologies, a brief outline of the general nature of energy storage and its significance to the user is presented.

  10. Aquifer thermal energy storage - a feasibility study for large scale demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, W.V.; Supkow, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a portion of the Magothy Aquifer underlying the Stony Brook University Campus on Long Island, New York, for storing water that is chilled during the winter and then recovering this water during the following summer months for air conditioning purposes.

  11. Accuracy and Precision of Partial-Volume Correction in Oncological PET/CT Studies.

    PubMed

    Cysouw, Matthijs C F; Kramer, Gerbrand Maria; Hoekstra, Otto S; Frings, Virginie; de Langen, Adrianus Johannes; Smit, Egbert F; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Oprea-Lager, Daniela E; Boellaard, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Accurate quantification of tracer uptake in small tumors using PET is hampered by the partial-volume effect as well as by the method of volume-of-interest (VOI) delineation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of partial-volume correction (PVC) combined with several VOI methods on the accuracy and precision of quantitative PET.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  13. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) systems study Task G report: The role and functions of surface storage of radioactive material in the federal waste management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Woodruff, M.G.; Altenhofen, M.K.; MacKay, C.A.

    1989-04-01

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study investigates the functions that could be performed by surface storage of radioactive material within the federal radioactive waste management system, including enabling acceptance of spent fuel from utility owners, scheduling of waste-preparation processes within the system, enhancement of system operating reliability, and conditioning the thermal (decay heat) characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in a repository. The analysis focuses particularly on the effects of storage capacity and DOE acceptance schedule on power reactors. Figures of merit developed include the storage capacity (in metric tons of uranium (MTU)) required to be added beyond currently estimated maximum spent fuel storage capacities and its associated cost, and the number of years that spent fuel pools would remain open after last discharge (in pool-years) and the cost of this period of operation. 27 refs., 36 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  15. USAF advanced terrestrial energy study. Volume 1: Project summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, E. J.; Yudow, B. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a data base of technical and economic performance parameters of selected energy conversion and energy storage devices. The data base includes not only the state-of-the-art (1980) values of performance parameters, but also the expected values of performance parameters in 1985, 1990, and 2000. For energy conversion technologies, performance parameters were developed over a power output from 1.5 to 5000.0 kW. For energy storage technologies, performance parameters were developed over an energy output range equivalent to the power output at continuous annual operation. The following energy conversion technologies were characterized in this data base: Gas turbines -- Closed cycle and Open cycle, (recuperative and nonrecuperative); Diesels -- Turbocompounded, Turbocharged and Adiabatic; Stirlings -- Free piston and Kinematic; Organic Rankine Cycles; Fuel cells -Phosphoric acid, Solid polymer electrolyte and Molten carbonate; Photovoltaics -- Flat plate, Actively cooled and Photochemical; and Wind turbines -- Vertical and horizontal axes. The following energy storage technologies were characterized: Batteries -- Zn/Cl2, Zn/Br2, Ni/Fe, Li-Al/FeS2, Na/S, Advanced sealed lead/acids and Redox Cr-Fe; and Thermal energy storage devices -- CaCl26H2O, Na2SO410H2O, Na2S2O35H2O, Olivine and Magnesite ceramic brick, and Form-stable polyethylene.

  16. Satellite services system analysis study. Volume 3: Service equipment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Service equipment mission requirements are discussed. On-orbit operations, satellite classes, and reference missions are included. Service equipment usage and requirements are considered. Equipment identification methodology is discussed. Service equipment usage is analyzed, including initial launch, revisit, Earth return, and orbital storage. A summary of service requirements and equipment is presented, including service equipment status, even interaction, satellite features, and observations.

  17. Study on spectrometer based upon volume holographic transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Guodong; Ren, Zhong; Zeng, Lvming

    2010-10-01

    In this present paper, a spectrometer based upon axial transmissive optical structure with the volume-phase holographic (VPH) transmission grating technology is introduced. We give a physical insight for the structure and mechanism of photorefractive volume holographic gratings and theoretically analyze some important performance parameters of the spectrometer device using the coupled wave theory, which should be considered in the process of the following design for the device with volume phase holographic transmission gratings. The experimental results show, owing to its axial transmissive optical geometry and the perfect performance of the VPH transmission grating, the spectrometer based on the volume-phase holographic transmission grating has satisfactory high resolution and wavelength accuracy. It has great promise to be widely used in the future.

  18. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  19. Kinetic study on unsaponifiable fraction changes and lactose hydrolysis during storage of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO cheese.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol, vitamin E and vitamin A isomers, components of the unsaponifiable fraction, and lactose contents in Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO cheese have been studied during storage in different conditions: at 6-8 degrees C, and at room temperature (traditional habits). During cold storage there were no significant differences in the unsaponifiable compounds, while during storage at room temperature an increase of the 13-cis isomer and a decrease of all-trans-retinol were observed. Trans/cis-retinol isomerization, expressed as the Degree of Retinol Isomerization (13-cis/all-trans%) showed an increase in all samples during storage at room temperature following a linear correlation. The decrease of lactose content during storage was studied by a first-order differential relaxation equation. Apart from the traditional habits, consumers should be aware that, during storage at room temperature, the most important changes in the considered nutrients occur. These changes can be negative (vitamin A reduction) but also positive (lactose reduction).

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Man: A Course of Study. Volume IV: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, H. Russell, Jr.; Peskowitz, Nancy

    The fourth volume of the summative evaluation of "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS) contains all appended materials developed by the project staff to analyze the MACOS program. MACOS, one of the more elaborate and controversial developments of the New Social Studies, was designed in 1970 as a one year course based upon social science…

  1. Processing Satellite Images on Tertiary Storage: A Study of the Impact of Tile Size on Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, JieBing; DeWitt, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Before raw data from a satellite can be used by an Earth scientist, it must first undergo a number of processing steps including basic processing, cleansing, and geo-registration. Processing actually expands the volume of data collected by a factor of 2 or 3 and the original data is never deleted. Thus processing and storage requirements can exceed 2 terrabytes/day. Once processed data is ready for analysis, a series of algorithms (typically developed by the Earth scientists) is applied to a large number of images in a data set. The focus of this paper is how best to handle such images stored on tape using the following assumptions: (1) all images of interest to a scientist are stored on a single tape, (2) images are accessed and processed in the order that they are stored on tape, and (3) the analysis requires access to only a portion of each image and not the entire image.

  2. Induced seismicity from fracking and carbon storage is focus of study and hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events, as the method is currently implemented, according to a 15 June report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC). However, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to induce larger seismic events because of the large net volume of injected fluids involved in that process, according to the report. Scientists testifying at a 19 June hearing held by the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources said they largely agreed with the report's findings. Neither the report nor the hearing focused on potential environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing, which is commonly known as fracking.

  3. An analytical study of a lead-acid flow battery as an energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alex; Mukerjee, Santanu; Lee, Sang C.; Lee, Dong-Ha; Park, Sam

    2014-03-01

    The most important issue with our current clean energy technology is the dependence on environmental conditions to produce power. To solve this problem a wide range of energy storage devices are being explored for grid-scale energy storage including soluble lead-acid flow batteries. Flow batteries offer a unique solution to grid-scale energy storage because of their electrolyte tanks which allow easy scaling of storage capacity. This study seeks to further understand the mechanisms of a soluble lead acid flow battery using simulations. The effects of varies changes to operating conditions and the system configuration can be explored through simulations. The simulations preformed are 2D and include the positive electrode, negative electrode, and the flow space between them. Simulations presented in this study show Pb(II) surface concentration, external electric potential, and PbO/PbO2 surface concentration on the positive electrode. Simulations have shown increasing cell temperature can increase external electric potential by as much as 0.2 V during charge. Simulations have also shown electrolyte velocity is an important aspect when investigating lead deposition onto the electrodes. Experimental work was performed to validate simulation results of current density and voltage. Good correlation was found between experimental work and simulation results.

  4. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Erdman, Bill; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  5. Assessment of the Study of Army Logistics 1981. Volume I. Executive Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Assessment Methodology , and Assessment Matrix). b. Volume II (Unclassified Assessments). c. Volume III (Classified Assessments). RICARDH. THOMPSO...STUDY BACKGROUND 1 STUDY OVERVIEW 1 STUDY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY 1 STATISTICAL RESULTS OF ASSESSMENT 2 APPENDIX A ASSESSMENT MATRIX A-i THRU A-49 B...SEPARATELY) Uniaounce /or Dist Special STUDY BACKGROUND, ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND ASSESSMENT RESULTS 1. Study Background: -w&> The Commnander

  6. Synthesis & Studies of New Non-Destructive Read-Out Materials for Optical Storage and Optical Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-31

    studied This organic storage system, consists of two different molecular components chemically bonded to each other, a polar photochromic fulgimide...and an oxazine dye, to form a composite molecule that retains the photochromic and spectroscopic properties of each individual molecular component yet...15. NUMBER OF PAGES Optical Storage media, Non-destructive readout materials, 20 3D optical storage, Photochromic composite molecule, Optical 16

  7. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  8. Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base, Columbus, Ohio. Pre-Closure Sampling Report. Hazardous Waste Storage Area. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Prepared br IU UUUI ENGINEERING-SCIENCE 19101 Viliaview Road - Suite 301 Cleveland, Ohio 44119 For the: U.S. Department of Enery Under Contract No. DE...Ohio 6-10 6.3 Standards for Metal Concentrations in Soil and Drinking Water - RANGB, OH 6-12 6.4 Detected Compounds in Soils (0-2’) at HWSA - RANGB...F degrees Fahrenheit FS Feasibility Study FFS Focused Feasibility Study GC Gas Chromatograph GC/MS Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry HAL Health

  9. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  10. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Volume III. Nevada - Utah Verification Studies, FY 79. Geotechnical Data Snake East CDP, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-24

    INVESTIGATION GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION VOLUME III, NEVADA-UTAH VERIFICATION STUDIES, FY 79 GEOTECHNICAL DATA SNAKE EAST CDP , UTAH Prepared for: U. S. Department...Beach Boulevard Long Beach, California 90807 24 August 1979 - NO= NATIONAL, INO. FN-TR-27-III I VOLUME III GEOTECHNICAL DATA, SNAKE EAST CDP - , TABLE...Railroad and Big Smoky CDP’s. Geotechnical Data Volumes Volume II - Whirlwind CDP * Volume III - Snake East CDP Volume IV - Hamlin CDP Volume V - White River

  11. National facilities study. Volume 3: Mission and requirements model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 by Daniel S. Goldin, Administrator of NASA as an initiative to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future facilities. The resulting, multi-agency NFS consisted of three Task Groups: Aeronautics, Space Operations, and Space Research and Development (R&D) Task Groups. A fourth group, the Engineering and Cost Analysis Task Group, was subsequently added to provide cross-cutting functions, such as assuring consistency in developing an inventory of space facilities. Space facilities decisions require an assessment of current and future needs. Therefore, the two task groups dealing with space developed a consistent model of future space mission programs, operations and R&D. The model is a middle ground baseline constructed for NFS analytical purposes with excursions to cover potential space program strategies. The model includes three major sectors: DOD, civilian government, and commercial space. The model spans the next 30 years because of the long lead times associated with facilities development and usage. This document, Volume 3 of the final NFS report, is organized along the following lines: Executive Summary -- provides a summary view of the 30-year mission forecast and requirements baseline, an overview of excursions from that baseline that were studied, and organization of the report; Introduction -- provides discussions of the methodology used in this analysis; Baseline Model -- provides the mission and requirements model baseline developed for Space Operations and Space R&D analyses; Excursions from the baseline -- reviews the details of variations or 'excursions' that were developed to test the future program projections captured in the baseline; and a Glossary of Acronyms.

  12. Market feasibility study of utility battery applications: Penetration of battery energy storage into regulated electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Kraft, S.; Symons, P.C.

    1997-12-01

    Although recent studies indicate there could be significant opportunities for battery systems in electric utility applications, markets for this and other dispersed energy storage technologies have been slow to develop. Prior analyses had suggested that the slow market development has resulted from reluctance to make the necessary investments on the part of both suppliers and customers. In order to confirm this and other concerns over the utility energy storage market, an assessment has been performed to estimate the potential penetration of batteries into regulated electric utilities. The estimates thus obtained confirm that the possible market for batteries on the utility side of the meter, approximately $280 million annually in 2010, is indeed smaller than indicated by the assessment of potential opportunities had suggested it might be. On the other hand, the estimates for possible market penetration on the customer side of the meter are greater than on the utility-side, particularly in the nearer-term. Of more importance than the numeric results, however, are the comments given by potential customers of utility battery energy storage, and the conclusions regarding ways to increase the attractiveness of utility battery energy storage that result from analyses of these comments.

  13. A conceptual study on the use of a regenerator in a hybrid energy storage unit (LIQHYSMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brighenti, F.; Ramalingam, R.; Neumann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Wind and photovoltaic parks raise the issue of a discontinuous electrical generation. As an energy carrier with high volumetric energy density, liquid hydrogen is an inevitable choice for large-scale energy storage. But, since balancing loads or rapidly evolving fluctuations on the grid with just hydrogen is unrealistic due to its slow response, it is necessary to integrate it with an electrical energy storage device that enables rapid response. This approach combines the use of a liquefaction plant for hydrogen, and a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). Besides, in this case, conventional liquefaction methods are not a viable solution, meaning that a substantial simplification of the process is possible where a regenerator/recuperator is employed and only if temporary/intermediate storage is required. A study is conducted to develop a regenerator (among other parts) for a proof of concept small scale LIQHYSMES system. A 1D model of differential equations is implemented to investigate the regenerator performances, addressing parameters such as regenerator configuration, material and fluid properties, temperature profiles, etc. Results are then analysed and discussed.

  14. Forensic Investigation of Cooperative Storage Cloud Service: Symform as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Teing, Yee-Yang; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Dargahi, Tooska; Conti, Mauro

    2016-11-25

    Researchers envisioned Storage as a Service (StaaS) as an effective solution to the distributed management of digital data. Cooperative storage cloud forensic is relatively new and is an under-explored area of research. Using Symform as a case study, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of cooperative cloud storage services. In particular, we consider both mobile devices and personal computers running various popular operating systems, namely Windows 8.1, Mac OS X Mavericks 10.9.5, Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS, iOS 7.1.2, and Android KitKat 4.4.4. Potential artefacts recovered during the research include data relating to the installation and uninstallation of the cloud applications, log-in to and log-out from Symform account using the client application, file synchronization as well as their time stamp information. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artifacts that are likely to remain after the use of cooperative storage cloud on client devices.

  15. A study of mass data storage technology for rocket engine data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, John F.; Benser, Earl T.; Fritz, Bernard S.; Nelson, Scott A.; Stauffer, Donald R.; Volna, William M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a nine month study program on mass data storage technology for rocket engine (especially the Space Shuttle Main Engine) health monitoring and control are summarized. The program had the objective of recommending a candidate mass data storage technology development for rocket engine health monitoring and control and of formulating a project plan and specification for that technology development. The work was divided into three major technical tasks: (1) development of requirements; (2) survey of mass data storage technologies; and (3) definition of a project plan and specification for technology development. The first of these tasks reviewed current data storage technology and developed a prioritized set of requirements for the health monitoring and control applications. The second task included a survey of state-of-the-art and newly developing technologies and a matrix-based ranking of the technologies. It culminated in a recommendation of optical disk technology as the best candidate for technology development. The final task defined a proof-of-concept demonstration, including tasks required to develop, test, analyze, and demonstrate the technology advancement, plus an estimate of the level of effort required. The recommended demonstration emphasizes development of an optical disk system which incorporates an order-of-magnitude increase in writing speed above the current state of the art.

  16. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex spectrum of neurophysiological disorders involving perturbation of the intracranial contents; primarily increased intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and intracranial pressure are observed. CSF dynamics are highly coupled to the cerebral blood flows and pressures as well as the mechanical properties of the brain. Hydrocephalus, as such, is a very complex biological problem. We propose integral control volume analysis as a method of tracking these important interactions using mass and momentum conservation principles. As a first step in applying this methodology in humans, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the intracranial space. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. Within the gel a hollow spherical cavity represents the ventricular system and a cylindrical passage represents the spinal canal. A computer controlled piston pump supplies sinusoidal volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and momentum flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients and normal individuals. Flow and pressure measurements on the flow phantom will be presented through the control volume framework.

  17. Advanced Weapon System (AWS) Sensor Prediction Techniques Study. Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    e solution of dara base storage and processing problems characteristIc of low altitude flight sensor Image simulation. The tasks carried out to...UNCLASSIFIED SECuRI’V CLASSIIPICATI’IN OF TNI AEe~* aA I UNCLSSIFIED_ raphics and image processing technology, and evaluation of experimental image... processing and pattern reeognition, and discusses geometric concepts related to projection. New approaches based on projective geometry and neurophysical

  18. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum.

    PubMed

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-06-25

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance.

  19. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum

    PubMed Central

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance. PMID:26109456

  20. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

  1. Wisconsin Elementary Teacher Education Project. Volume VI, Feasibility Study: Pricing and Economic Analysis Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison.

    This document is the second volume of the feasibility study report for the Wisconsin Elementary Teacher Education Project. It provides in part 1 data on program, planning and budgeting, including cost figures for preparing students in the present and new programs, marginal expenses, and costs for implementing the program on other campuses. Part 2…

  2. Miami-Dade Community College 1984 Institutional Self-Study. Volume VIII: Medical Center Campus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

    Part of a systematic, in-depth assessment of Miami-Dade Community College's (MDCC's) educational programs, student support systems, and selected campus-level activities, this volume of the college's institutional self-study report examines the impact and effectiveness of the Medical Center Campus. The report contains the results of a campus study…

  3. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  4. Modern Czech Studies. Brown Slavic Contributions, Volume XI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Alexander, Ed.; Ueda, Masako, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains the following papers: "Texas Czech of Texas Czechs: An Ethnolinguistic Perspective on Language Use in a Dying Language Community" (Lida Dutkova); "Language Variation in an Immigrant Community: Language and Community Maintenance" (Eva Eckert); "Some Special Problems of Imperfective Derivation in…

  5. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics. Volume Twenty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    Papers on contrastive linguistics in this volume include: "Contrastive Discourse Analysis in Language Usage" (Juliane House); "Typology and Contrastive Analysis" (Vlasta Strakova); "On the Tenability of the Notion 'Pragmatic Equivalence' in Contrastive Analysis" (Karol Janicki); "On the Relevance of Phonetic,…

  6. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Volume 1. Spring 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    AD-A143 108 YOUTH AITTIIUE TRACKING SIUDY VOLUME I S1PRING tS??IUI I/% MAKET FACTS INC CHICAGO IL PUBLIC SECTO IESEARCH CORP d T HEISLEI AUG 7? HSO...backgrounds than negative propensity individuals. MAKET FACTS Page 124 TABLE 4. 9 ESTIMATE OF STARTING PAY BY POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PROPENSITY GROUPS

  7. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detail design information concerning payloads for biomedical research projects conducted during space missions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) equipment modules and equipment item lists, (2) weight and volume breakdown by payload and equipment units, (3) longitudinal floor arrangement configuration, and (4) nonbaseline second generation layouts.

  8. A feasibility study of limb volume measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafferty, J. F.; Carter, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the various techniques by which limb volume can be measured indicates that the odometric (electromechanical) method and the reflective scanner (optical) have a high probability of meeting the specifications of the LBNP experiments. Both of these methods provide segmental measurements from which the cross sectional area of the limb can be determined.

  9. Fuel quality-processing study. Volume 1: Overview and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The methods whereby the intermediate results were obtained are outlined, and the evaluation of the feasible paths from liquid fossil fuel sources to generated electricity is presented. The segments from which these paths were built are the results from the fuel upgrading schemes, on-site treatments, and exhaust gas treatments detailed in the subsequent volumes. The salient cost and quality parameters are included.

  10. Neighborhood Poverty. Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Aber, J. Lawrence, Ed.

    Volume 2 of the "Neighborhood Poverty" series incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The chapters are: (1) "Ecological Perspectives on the Neighborhood Context of Urban Poverty: Past and Present" (Robert J. Sampson and Jeffrey D. Morenoff); (2) "The Influence of Neighborhoods on…

  11. [Ca(BH4)2] n clusters as hydrogen storage material: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cuiling; Dong, Yanyun; Wang, Bingqiang; Zhang, Caiyun

    2016-10-01

    Calcium borohydride is widely studied as a hydrogen storage material. However, investigations on calcium borohydride from a cluster perspective are seldom found. The geometric structures and binding energies of [Ca(BH4)2] n ( n = 1-4) clusters are determined using density function theory (DFT). For the most stable structures, vibration frequency, natural bond orbital (NBO) are calculated and discussed. The charge transfer from (BH4) to Ca was observed. Meanwhile, we also study the LUMO-HOMO gap ( E g) and the B-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs). [Ca(BH4)2]3 owns higher E g, revealing that trimer is more stable than the other forms. Structures don't change during optimization after hydrogen radical removal, showing that calcium borohydride could possibly be used as a reversible hydrogen storage material. [Ca(BH4)2]4 has the smallest dissociation energy suggesting it releases hydrogen more easily than others.

  12. Progression of renal damage in glycogen storage disease type I is associated to hyperlipidemia: a multicenter prospective Italian study.

    PubMed

    Melis, Daniela; Cozzolino, Mariarosaria; Minopoli, Giorgia; Balivo, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Rigoldi, Miriam; Paci, Sabrina; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Burlina, Alberto; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors decrease glomerular hyperfiltration but not microalbuminuria and proteinuria in glycogen storage disease type I. In the current study, we demonstrated that severe hyperlipidemia is associated with ACE-inhibitor ineffectiveness. We underline the importance of adequate metabolic control in glycogen storage disease type I. A combination therapy with ACE-inhibitors and lipid lowering drugs might be considered.

  13. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  14. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  15. Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media

    DOE PAGES

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-05

    Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the chargedmore » wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.« less

  16. Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-05

    Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.

  17. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials.

  18. Study of Thermodynamic Vent and Screen Baffle Integration for Orbital Storage and Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to determine the feasibility of integrating an internal thermodynamic vent system and a full wall-screen liner for the orbital storage and transfer of liquid hydrogen (LH2). Ten screens were selected from a comprehensive screen survey. The experimental study determined the screen bubble point, flow-through pressure loss, and pressure loss along rectangular channels lined with screen on one side, for the 10 screens using LH2 saturated at 34.5 N/cm2 (50 psia). The correlated experimental data were used in an analysis to determine the optimum system characteristics in terms of minimum weight for 6 tanks ranging from 141.6 m3 (5,000 ft3) to 1.416 m3 (50 ft3) for orbital storage times of 30 and 300 days.

  19. Intrabeam scattering studies at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlichman, M. P.; Hartung, W.; Heltsley, B.; Peterson, D. P.; Rider, N.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Shanks, J.; Wang, S. T.; Campbell, R.; Holtzapple, R.

    2013-10-01

    Intrabeam scattering (IBS) limits the emittance and single-bunch current that can be achieved in electron or positron storage ring colliders, damping rings, and light sources. Much theoretical work on IBS exists, and while the theories have been validated in hadron and ion machines, the presence of strong damping makes IBS in lepton machines a different phenomenon. We present the results of measurements at CesrTA of IBS-dominated beams, and compare the data with theory. The beams we study have parameters typical of those specified for the next generation of wiggler-dominated storage rings: low emittance, small bunch length, and an energy of a few GeV. Our measurements are in good agreement with IBS theory, provided a tail-cut procedure is applied.

  20. Study of ageing and fading in CR-39 detectors for different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso; Cardellini, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ageing and fading on PADC detector response, as a function of the storage time and temperature. Several groups of CR-39 detectors provided by Radosys, Ltd. were exposed at the reference radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, at the ENEA centre in Casaccia. The results indicate that low-temperature storage inhibits the effect of both ageing and fading. Finally, the overall reduction in CR-39 sensitivity due to the combined ageing/fading effect was estimated. In particular, the sensitivity of the detectors continuously exposed in air at room temperature over 6 and 3 months was reduced, respectively, by 7.5 and 4 %.

  1. Study of inducer load and stress, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication and testing has been conducted to develop computer programs for predicting rocket engine turbopump inducer hydrodynamic loading, stress magnitude and distribution, and vibration characteristics. Methods of predicting blade loading, stress, and vibration characteristics were selected from a literature search and used as a basis for the computer programs. An inducer, representative of typical rocket engine inducers, was designed, fabricated, and tested with special instrumentation selected to provide measurements of blade surface pressures and stresses. Data from the tests were compared with predicted values and the computer programs were revised as required to improve correlation. For Volume 1 see N71-20403. For Volume 2 see N71-20404.

  2. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay; Reddy, Y. G.; Mittal, Rakesh; Agarwal, Vishal; Singh, Chanchal; Singh, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control); Group II: aloe vera (experimental); Group III: egg white (experimental)]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated. Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0), followed by egg white (100.9±6.3) and milk (101.1±7.3). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk. PMID:26877742

  3. IP storage : a performance and security study, LDRD 04-1021.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Bielecki, Frank T.

    2005-02-01

    Effective, high-performance, networked file systems and storage is needed to solve I/O bottlenecks between large compute platforms. Frequently, parallel techniques such as PFTP, are employed to overcome the adverse effect of TCP's congestion avoidance algorithm in order to achieve reasonable aggregate throughput. These techniques can suffer from end-system bottlenecks due to the protocol processing overhead and memory copies involved in moving large amounts of data during I/O. Moreover, transferring data using PFTP requires manual operation, lacking the transparency to allow for interactive visualization and computational steering of large-scale simulations from distributed locations. This paper evaluates the emerging Internet SCSI (iSCSI) protocol [2] as the file/data transport in order that remote clients can transparently access data through a distributed global file system available to local clients. We started our work characterizing the performance behavior of iSCSI in Local Area Networks (LANs). We then proceeded to study the effect of propagation delay on throughput using remote iSCSI storage and explored optimization techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of long delay in high-bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WANs). Lastly, we evaluated iSCSI in a Storage Area Network (SAN) for a Global Parallel Filesystem. We conducted our benchmark based on typical usage model of large-scale scientific applications at Sandia. We demonstrated the benefit of high-performance parallel VO to scientific applications at the IEEE 2004 Supercomputing Conference, using experiences and knowledge gained from this study.

  4. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  5. Structured Programming Series. Volume 15. Validation and Verification Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-22

    hOTE : Copies of these and subsequent volumes of the Structured Programming Series «ay be obtained from the National Technical Infonation Service...ness (i.e., satisfying the functional requirements) and may be a manual or a computer based process (i.e., testing software by executing it on s...by proving mathematical theorems, that the output assertions will be satisfied whenever the input data meets the conditions specified by the input

  6. WIS Implementation Study Report. Volume 3. Background Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    entailed the analysis of all the cluster workshop reports in a meeting of the cluster chairpersons. This was conducted to eliminate areas of redundancy and...can be found in the Executive Summary , Volume I of this report . Finally, this Record Document has been prepared by the IDA project management, cluster...INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to support an effort by the Institute for Defense Analysis that is developing estimates of the cost and scope of

  7. CALORSTOCK 1994: Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, M. T.; Lund, P. D.

    This publication is the second volume of the Proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the Sixth International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage held in Espoo, Finland on 22-25 Aug. 1994. This volume contains 51 presentations from the following six sessions: Chemical storage; Heat storage and environment; Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage; Water storage pits and tanks; Cooling; and National activities.

  8. Parallel runway requirement analysis study. Volume 2: Simulation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Yaghoob S.; Chun, Ken S.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a user manual for operating the PLAND_BLUNDER (PLB) simulation program. This simulation is based on two aircraft approaching parallel runways independently and using parallel Instrument Landing System (ILS) equipment during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). If an aircraft should deviate from its assigned localizer course toward the opposite runway, this constitutes a blunder which could endanger the aircraft on the adjacent path. The worst case scenario would be if the blundering aircraft were unable to recover and continue toward the adjacent runway. PLAND_BLUNDER is a Monte Carlo-type simulation which employs the events and aircraft positioning during such a blunder situation. The model simulates two aircraft performing parallel ILS approaches using Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) or visual procedures. PLB uses a simple movement model and control law in three dimensions (X, Y, Z). The parameters of the simulation inputs and outputs are defined in this document along with a sample of the statistical analysis. This document is the second volume of a two volume set. Volume 1 is a description of the application of the PLB to the analysis of close parallel runway operations.

  9. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  10. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  11. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes, Volume III

    EPA Science Inventory

    This booklet, ETV Program Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes, Volume III contains two case studies, addressing verified environmental technologies for decentalized wastewater treatment and converting animal waste to energy. Each case study contains a brief description ...

  12. Using large Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Sites as Analogs to Study the Mechanical Behavior of Large CO2 Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Sullivan, E. C.; Heggy, E.; Dermond, J.; Sweeney, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main issues in the sequestration of large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 in the deep subsurface is to determine the field-scale induced displacements of fluids (mainly saline water) and their consequences on the mechanical behavior of the reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of that displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost effective and repeatable geophysical techniques of microgravity and INSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar INterferometry). The determination of the density distribution of materials in the subsurface and its evolution with time potentially provides a cost effective monitoring technique to determine field-scale displacements of reservoir fluids induced by injection of liquid or gas. At the same time, the accurate measurement of temporal ground deformation reflects geomechanical responses and spatial changes. With micro-gravimeters and DGPS, very small gravity anomalies can now be mapped as well as their evolution with time. Displacements of the ground surface can also be measured very precisely through satellite radar interferometry (INSAR). Each of these methods has been implemented on a few occasions on active storage fields (natural gas storage or CO2 pilot sites) and recently with success for INSAR Techniques at the commercial CO2 sequestration site at In Salah, Algeria. However, these technologies are largely uncalibrated for diverse environmental settings like vegetated or urban areas for example. We propose to field test and evaluate these techniques in an active large volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project where sufficient geological data and documented time series exist to create realistic models of mass distribution and surface motion displacement for comparison with gravity and radar interferometry observations. The results will be used as analogs to CO2 storage sites with the appropriate scaling in volume and physical properties for CO2 injection, as well as direct examples of sites where CO

  13. Research and Development in the Computer and Information Sciences. Volume 2, Processing, Storage, and Output Requirements in Information Processing Systems: A Selective Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary Elizabeth

    Areas of concern with respect to processing, storage, and output requirements of a generalized information processing system are considered. Special emphasis is placed on multiple-access systems. Problems of system management and control are discussed, including hierarchies of storage levels. Facsimile, digital, and mass random access storage…

  14. Positron age-momentum correlation studies of free volumes in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Murakami, H.; Ito, K.; Hirata, K.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Positron age-momentum correlation (AMOC) spectroscopy, which can sensitively probe momentum distributions of positrons and positronium (Ps), was conducted for studying the pick-off process of the triplet bound state ortho-Ps ( o-Ps) with electrons at the walls of the free volumes in polymers. Influences of different chemical elements forming free volume were investigated. It was found that the momentum distribution of o-Ps pick-off annihilation sensitively depends on the electronic state in the free volumes. The feasibility of the chemical analysis relevant to the free volume in polymers is discussed.

  15. Estimating the rock volume bias in paleobiodiversity studies.

    PubMed

    Crampton, James S; Beu, Alan G; Cooper, Roger A; Jones, Craig M; Marshall, Bruce; Maxwell, Phillip A

    2003-07-18

    To interpret changes in biodiversity through geological time, it is necessary first to correct for biases in sampling effort related to variations in the exposure of rocks and recovery of fossils with age. Data from New Zealand indicate that outcrop area is likely to be a reliable proxy of rock volume in both stable cratonic regions, where the paleobiodiversity record is strongly correlated with relative sea level, and on tectonically active margins. In contrast, another potential proxy, the number of rock formations, is a poor predictor of outcrop area or sampling effort in the New Zealand case.

  16. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 6, Number 1, Spring 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the emer­ gence of new entrants, such as SpaceX and Orbital Systems, to the medium-launch market. Both have contracts for 10–12 launches to supply the...International Space Station. SpaceX is also under contract with a variety of commercial satellite vendors to support their pay­ loads.34 This volume...Resources/Whitepapers/Satellite_Manufacturing _Production_Cycles_0504.pdf. 34. SpaceX has a launch manifest of over 40 launches, including the

  17. Standardized strapdown inertial component modularity study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, J.

    1974-01-01

    To obtain cost effective strapdown navigation, guidance and stabilization systems to meet anticipated future needs a standardized modularized strapdown system concept is proposed. Three performance classes, high, medium and low, are suggested to meet the range of applications. Candidate inertial instruments are selected and analyzed for interface compatibility. Electronic packaging and processing, materials and thermal considerations applying to the three classes are discussed and recommendations advanced. Opportunities for automatic fault detection and redundancy are presented. The smallest gyro and accelerometer modules are projected as requiring a volume of 26 cubic inches and 23.6 cubic inches, respectively. Corresponding power dissipation is projected as 5 watts, and 2.6 watts respectively.

  18. WIS Implementation Study Report. Volume 1. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Attendees 23 List of IDA Attendees 29 iv CONTENTS -- Volume II Anderson, Mr. John W. 1 Bail, Dr. William G. 2 Bailey, Ms. Susan J. 5 Brown, Mr. Ralph 0., Jr...Robert E. 43 Kaczmarek, Dr. Thomas S. 45 Klein, Dr. Stanely A. 47 Kramer, Dr. John F. 49 Larsen, Dr. Robert E. 55 Luenberger, Prof. David G. 58...Magliato, Mr. Frank J. 61 McQuillan, Dr. John M. 62 Miller, Mr. Richard H. 63 Power, Dr. Daniel J. 64 Priven, Mr. Lewis D. 70 v Probert, Dr. Thomas H. 71

  19. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; Baysinger, M. F.; Maples, C. D.; Capizzo, P. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Hornsby, L. S.; Percy, T. K.; Thomas, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

  20. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study, part 1. Volume 1: Summary volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Study efforts directed at defining all TDRS system elements are summarized. Emphasis was placed on synthesis of a space segment design optimized to support low and medium data rate user spacecraft and launched with Delta 2914. A preliminary design of the satellite was developed and conceptual designs of the user spacecraft terminal and TDRS ground station were defined. As a result of the analyses and design effort it was determined that (1) a 3-axis-stabilized tracking and data relay satellite launched on a Delta 2914 provides telecommunications services considerably in excess of that required by the study statement; and (2) the design concept supports the needs of the space shuttle and has sufficient growth potential and flexibility to provide telecommunications services to high data rate users. Recommendations for further study are included.

  1. Study of New Youth Initiatives in Apprenticeship. Interim Report. Volume 1: Summary and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This first volume of the interim report on the Study of New Youth Initiatives in Apprenticeship presents a discussion of site visit findings and implementation issues related to the United States Department of Labor's Apprenticeship-School Linkage Demonstrations. (Volume 2, site visit reports, is available separately as CE 032 792.) Chapter 1…

  2. Individual Demand for Education: General Report and Case Studies. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Designed to respond to the changing requirements of educational policy formation, Volume II on "Educational Demand for Education" offers a general report based on the findings of its case studies of four countries--France, Germany, Greece and the United Kingdom--together with the results of Volume I, which presented the theoretical…

  3. Evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Local Course Improvement Program, Volume III: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; And Others

    This report is the third of three volumes describing the results of the evaluation of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Local Course Improvement (LOCI) program. This volume describes 12 project case studies undertaken as part of that evaluation. Three projects were designed to increase individualization of college science teaching; two…

  4. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume I - Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume I of a two volume set, consists of many tested water pollution study activities. The activities are grouped into four headings: (1) Hydrologic Cycle, (2) Human Activities, (3) Ecological Perspectives, and (4) Social and Political Factors. Three levels of activities are provided: (1) those which increase awareness, (2)…

  5. Environmental Studies in the Physical Sciences. Project Reports, Volume 3, The Rachel Carson Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, R. Thomas

    This document is the third of seven accompanying volumes included in the Rachel Carson Project. The project attempts to introduce environmental education lessons and units into existing courses of study within a high school rather than to implement environmental education through the introduction of new courses. This volume reports the…

  6. Computer Chips and Paper Clips. Technology and Women's Employment. Volume II. Case Studies and Policy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Heidi I., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains 12 papers commissioned by the Panel on Technology and Women's Employment. "Technology, Women, and Work: Policy Perspectives" (Eli Ginzberg) is an overview that provides a context for the volume. The four case studies in Part II describe the impact of information technology in the insurance industry, among bookkeepers, among…

  7. Environmental Studies in Several Science Courses. Project Reports, Volume 4, The Rachel Carson Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, R. Thomas

    This document is the fourth of seven accompanying volumes included in the Rachel Carson Project. The project attempts to introduce environmental education lessons and units into existing courses of study within a high school curriculum rather than to implement environmental education through the introduction of new courses. This volume reports the…

  8. Guidelines for Planning in Colleges and Universities. Volume 5: Physical Plant Planning, Utilities Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnell, Charles; Wacholder, Michael

    The fifth and final volume of a series concerned with higher educational facilities planning expands the discussion of the utilities planning process initiated in the overview of volume one. Three major classes of utilities--energy utilities, service utilities, and communications utilities are studied. Their influences on the overall physical…

  9. Environmental Studies: Five Miscellaneous Reports. Project Reports, Volume 7, The Rachel Carson Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, R. Thomas

    This document is the last of seven volumes included in the Rachel Carson Project. The project attempts to introduce environmental education lessons and units into existing courses of study within a high school curriculum rather than to implement environmental education through the introduction of new courses. Included in this volume is a report…

  10. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

  11. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

  12. Commoditization of High Performance Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Studham, Scott S.

    2004-04-01

    The commoditization of high performance computers started in the late 80s with the attack of the killer micros. Previously, high performance computers were exotic vector systems that could only be afforded by an illustrious few. Now everyone has a supercomputer composed of clusters of commodity processors. A similar commoditization of high performance storage has begun. Commodity disks are being used for high performance storage, enabling a paradigm change in storage and significantly changing the price point of high volume storage.

  13. Left ventricular volumes and function during atrial pacing in coronary artery disease: a radionuclide angiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenman, Y.; Weiss, A.T.; Atlan, H.; Gotsman, M.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study set out to determine the pathophysiologic changes in the left ventricle during atrial pacing in 22 patients with coronary artery disease. Graduated right atrial pacing to a rate of 160 beats/min, or the induction of angina pectoris or significant ST depression was undertaken. Ventricular volumes were measured at rest and at rates of 100, 120, 140 and 160 beats/min using radionuclide angiography. The volumes at a pacing rate of 100 beats/min were used as a reference standard (100%). In the 22 patients with coronary artery disease, left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased from 118 +/- 3% at rest to 80 +/- 5% at a rate of 160 beats/min; stroke volume from 121 +/- 3% to 54 +/- 5%; and ejection fraction (EF) from 49 +/- 3% to 37 +/- 5%. End-systolic volume decreased from 118 +/- 4% at rest, reached its minimal value of 94 +/- 5% at a rate of 120 beats/min and then increased slightly to 106 +/- 9% at 160 beats/min. Cardiac output and blood pressure did not change significantly. Compared to the control group of 10 normal subjects, the patients had a significantly smaller decrease in end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume than in normal control subjects. EF in the normal subjects did not change. Blood pressure, cardiac output and stroke volume were similar in both groups. Atrial pacing tachycardia induced reversible ventricular dysfunction with a decrease in EF. Stroke volume was maintained because of relative ventricular dilatation.

  14. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Missions for future orbit transfer vehicles (1995-2010) are identified and the technology, operations and vehicle concepts that satisfy the transportation requirements are defined. Comparison of reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's was made. Both vehicles used advanced space engines and aero assist capability. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. Comparison of an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet with a fleet of LO2/LH2 OTVs and electric OTV's was also made. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. This provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. The impact of accelerated technology was considered in terms of improvements in performance and cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on-orbit propellant storage and transfer and on-orbit maintenance capability.

  15. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's, both advanced space engines and aero assist capability were compared. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. An all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet was also compared with a fleet of LO2/.H2 OTV's and electric OTV's. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. In this case, the LO2/LH2 OTV fleet provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. An accelerated technology LF2/LH2 OTV provided improvements in performance relative to LO2/.H2 OTV but has higher DDT&E cost which negated its cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but still did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on orbit propellant storage and transfer and on orbit maintenance capability.

  16. Bivariate Heritability of Total and Regional Brain Volumes: the Framingham Study

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, Anita L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Beiser, Alexa; Atwood, Larry D.; Massaro, Joe M.; Au, Rhoda; Wolf, Philip A.; DeCarli, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Heritability and genetic and environmental correlations of total and regional brain volumes were estimated from a large, generally healthy, community-based sample, to determine if there are common elements to the genetic influence of brain volumes and white matter hyperintensity volume. There were 1538 Framingham Heart Study participants with brain volume measures from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) who were free of stroke and other neurological disorders that might influence brain volumes and who were members of families with at least two Framingham Heart Study participants. Heritability was estimated using variance component methodology and adjusting for the components of the Framingham stroke risk profile. Genetic and environmental correlations between traits were obtained from bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates ranging from 0.46 to 0.60, were observed for total brain, white matter hyperintensity, hippocampal, temporal lobe, and lateral ventricular volumes. Moderate, yet significant, heritability was observed for the other measures. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that relationships between brain volume measures, except for white matter hyperintensity, reflected both moderate to strong shared genetic and shared environmental influences. This study confirms strong genetic effects on brain and white matter hyperintensity volumes. These data extend current knowledge by showing that these two different types of MRI measures do not share underlying genetic or environmental influences. PMID:19812462

  17. Chemosynthetic ecosystems study. Final report. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, I.R.; Sager, W.W.; Lee, C.; Schroeder, W.W.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1995-06-01

    Volume III presents ancillary materials from the findings of a three year investigation of the geology, chemistry and biology of chemosynthetic ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. These dense assemblages of tube worms, mussels and/or clams are primarily dependent upon chemical conditions generated by natural oil and gas seeps. Hydrocarbon seeps produce a variety of distinctive geological features including carbonate rock, mud volcanoes and hydrate mounds, which tend to be localized to areas less than 1 km. The interaction of the sediment bacteria with the hydrocarbons in the seafloor yields a highly specialized chemical environment featuring high levels of hydrogen sulfide and degraded oils. The biological community is supported by chemoautotrophic bacteria that live symbiotically with tube worms, mussels and clams.

  18. Chemosynthetic ecosystems study. Final report. Volume 2. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, I.R.; Sager, W.W.; Lee, C.; Schroeder, W.W.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1995-06-01

    Volume II presents detailed findings of a three year investigation of the geology, chemistry and biology of chemosynthetic ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. These dense assemblages of tube worms, mussels and/or clams are primarly dependent upon chemical conditions generated by natural oil and gas seeps. Hydrocarbon seeps produce a variety of distinctive geological features including carbonate rock, mud volcanoes and hydrate mounds, which tend to be localized to areas less than 1 km. The interaction of the sediment bacteria with the hydrocarbons in the seafloor yields a highly specialized chemical environment featuring high levels of hydrogen sulfide and degraded oils. The biological community is supported by chemoautotrophic bacteria that live symbiotically with tube worms, mussels and clams. The bacteria derive energy for fixing new carbon by oxidizing sulfides or methane.

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study. Volume II; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This document contains the Appendices to the Volume I report.

  20. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  1. A Numerical Study of a Double Pipe Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Tonny

    Solar energy is an intermittent supply source of energy. To efficiently utilize this free renewable energy source some form of thermal energy storage devices are necessary. Phase change materials (PCMs), because of their high energy density storage capacity and near isothermal phase change characteristics, have proven to be promising candidates for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) devices. Among the various LHTES devices for low temperature residential heating and cooling applications, the shell-and-tube type heat exchanging devices are the most simple to operate and can be easily fabricated. This work numerically investigates the buoyancy driven heat transfer process during melting (charging) of a commercial paraffin wax as PCM filling the annulus of a horizontal double pipe heat exchanger. The heated working fluid (water) is passing through the central tube of the annulus at a sufficiently high flow-rate and thereby maintaining an almost isothermal wall temperature at the inner pipe which is higher than the melting temperature of the PCM. The transient, two-dimensional coupled laminar momentum and energy equations for the model are suitably non-dimensionalized and are solved numerically using the enthalpy-porosity approach. Time-wise evolutions of the flow patterns and temperature distributions are presented through velocity vector fields and isotherm plots. In this study, two types of PCM filled annuli, a plain annulus and a strategically placed longitudinal finned annulus, are studied. The total energy stored, the total liquid fraction and the energy efficiency at different melting times are evaluated for three different operating conditions and the results are compared between the plain and finned annuli. The present study will provide guidelines for system thermal performance and design optimization of the shell-and-tube LHTES devices. .

  2. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  3. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  4. Experimental Studies on a Compact Storage Scheme for Wavelet-based Multiresolution Subregion Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulakidas, A.; Srinivasan, A.; Egecioglu, O.; Ibarra, O.; Yang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet transforms, when combined with quantization and a suitable encoding, can be used to compress images effectively. In order to use them for image library systems, a compact storage scheme for quantized coefficient wavelet data must be developed with a support for fast subregion retrieval. We have designed such a scheme and in this paper we provide experimental studies to demonstrate that it achieves good image compression ratios, while providing a natural indexing mechanism that facilitates fast retrieval of portions of the image at various resolutions.

  5. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Analysis Asphalt Storage Area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    STORAGE AREA, ELMENDORF AFB, AK This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska . The...ASPHALT STORAGE AREA, ELMENDORF AFB, AK This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska . The... Anchorage , Alaska (Figure 1) (adapted from EA Engineering, Inc., 1993). Currently, EAFB, in its entirety, is included in a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA

  6. NMR Study of Ion Dynamics and Charge Storage in Ionic Liquid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Forse, Alexander C; Griffin, John M; Merlet, Céline; Bayley, Paul M; Wang, Hao; Simon, Patrice; Grey, Clare P

    2015-06-10

    Ionic liquids are emerging as promising new electrolytes for supercapacitors. While their higher operating voltages allow the storage of more energy than organic electrolytes, they cannot currently compete in terms of power performance. More fundamental studies of the mechanism and dynamics of charge storage are required to facilitate the development and application of these materials. Here we demonstrate the application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids confined in porous carbon electrodes. The measurements reveal that ionic liquids spontaneously wet the carbon micropores in the absence of any applied potential and that on application of a potential supercapacitor charging takes place by adsorption of counterions and desorption of co-ions from the pores. We find that adsorption and desorption of anions surprisingly plays a more dominant role than that of the cations. Having elucidated the charging mechanism, we go on to study the factors that affect the rate of ionic diffusion in the carbon micropores in an effort to understand supercapacitor charging dynamics. We show that the line shape of the resonance arising from adsorbed ions is a sensitive probe of their effective diffusion rate, which is found to depend on the ionic liquid studied, as well as the presence of any solvent additives. Taken as whole, our NMR measurements allow us to rationalize the power performances of different electrolytes in supercapacitors.

  7. NMR Study of Ion Dynamics and Charge Storage in Ionic Liquid Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids are emerging as promising new electrolytes for supercapacitors. While their higher operating voltages allow the storage of more energy than organic electrolytes, they cannot currently compete in terms of power performance. More fundamental studies of the mechanism and dynamics of charge storage are required to facilitate the development and application of these materials. Here we demonstrate the application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids confined in porous carbon electrodes. The measurements reveal that ionic liquids spontaneously wet the carbon micropores in the absence of any applied potential and that on application of a potential supercapacitor charging takes place by adsorption of counterions and desorption of co-ions from the pores. We find that adsorption and desorption of anions surprisingly plays a more dominant role than that of the cations. Having elucidated the charging mechanism, we go on to study the factors that affect the rate of ionic diffusion in the carbon micropores in an effort to understand supercapacitor charging dynamics. We show that the line shape of the resonance arising from adsorbed ions is a sensitive probe of their effective diffusion rate, which is found to depend on the ionic liquid studied, as well as the presence of any solvent additives. Taken as whole, our NMR measurements allow us to rationalize the power performances of different electrolytes in supercapacitors. PMID:25973552

  8. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  9. MLS Multipath Studies. Phase 3. Volume I. Overview and Propagation Model Validation/Refinement Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-25

    ROST 7 27 MqASSACHUDSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/B 17/7 MLS MULTIPATH STUDIES. PHASE 3 . VOLUME 1. OVERVIEW AND PROPABAT--EYC(UI APR 79...Government Accession No 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. Q FAA-R 79-21-’/&L m -- ArL! L ooit nd Subtitle-25Ar7 M _LMultipath Studie s Phase 3 . 9&,,,, .4...Institute of Technology under Air Force Contract F19628-78-C-0002. 16. Abstract This report presents work done during phase 3 of the US national Microwave

  10. Comparative Ab-Initio Study of Substituted Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane Compounds for Solar Thermal Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Molecular photoswitches that are capable of storing solar energy, so-called molecular solar thermal storage systems, are interesting candidates for future renewable energy applications. In this context, substituted norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems have received renewed interest due to recent advances in their synthesis. The optical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of these systems can vary dramatically depending on the chosen substituents. The molecular design of optimal compounds therefore requires a detailed understanding of the effect of individual substituents as well as their interplay. Here, we model absorption spectra, potential energy storage, and thermal barriers for back-conversion of several substituted systems using both single-reference (density functional theory using PBE, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, M06, M06-2x, and M06-L functionals as well as MP2 calculations) and multireference methods (complete active space techniques). Already the diaryl substituted compound displays a strong red-shift compared to the unsubstituted system, which is shown to result from the extension of the conjugated π-system upon substitution. Using specific donor/acceptor groups gives rise to a further albeit relatively smaller red-shift. The calculated storage energy is found to be rather insensitive to the specific substituents, although solvent effects are likely to be important and require further study. The barrier for thermal back-conversion exhibits strong multireference character and as a result is noticeably correlated with the red-shift. Two possible reaction paths for the thermal back-conversion of diaryl substituted quadricyclane are identified and it is shown that among the compounds considered the path via the acceptor side is systematically favored. Finally, the present study establishes the basis for high-throughput screening of norbornadiene-quadricyclane compounds as it provides guidelines for the level of accuracy that can be expected for key properties from

  11. Comparative Ab-Initio Study of Substituted Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane Compounds for Solar Thermal Storage.

    PubMed

    Kuisma, Mikael J; Lundin, Angelica M; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Hyldgaard, Per; Erhart, Paul

    2016-02-25

    Molecular photoswitches that are capable of storing solar energy, so-called molecular solar thermal storage systems, are interesting candidates for future renewable energy applications. In this context, substituted norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems have received renewed interest due to recent advances in their synthesis. The optical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of these systems can vary dramatically depending on the chosen substituents. The molecular design of optimal compounds therefore requires a detailed understanding of the effect of individual substituents as well as their interplay. Here, we model absorption spectra, potential energy storage, and thermal barriers for back-conversion of several substituted systems using both single-reference (density functional theory using PBE, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, M06, M06-2x, and M06-L functionals as well as MP2 calculations) and multireference methods (complete active space techniques). Already the diaryl substituted compound displays a strong red-shift compared to the unsubstituted system, which is shown to result from the extension of the conjugated π-system upon substitution. Using specific donor/acceptor groups gives rise to a further albeit relatively smaller red-shift. The calculated storage energy is found to be rather insensitive to the specific substituents, although solvent effects are likely to be important and require further study. The barrier for thermal back-conversion exhibits strong multireference character and as a result is noticeably correlated with the red-shift. Two possible reaction paths for the thermal back-conversion of diaryl substituted quadricyclane are identified and it is shown that among the compounds considered the path via the acceptor side is systematically favored. Finally, the present study establishes the basis for high-throughput screening of norbornadiene-quadricyclane compounds as it provides guidelines for the level of accuracy that can be expected for key properties from

  12. Semiautomatic regional segmentation to measure orbital fat volumes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A validation study.

    PubMed

    Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.

  13. The effects of dutasteride, tamsulosin, and the combination on storage and voiding in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic enlargement: 2-year results from the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin study.

    PubMed

    Becher, E; Roehrborn, C G; Siami, P; Gagnier, R P; Wilson, T H; Montorsi, F

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a post hoc analysis of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAT) study, which aimed to investigate the effects of dutasteride (0.5 mg), tamsulosin (0.4 mg), and their combination on storage and voiding symptoms in 4844 men aged > or =50 years with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score > or =12), prostate volume (PV) > or =30 cm(3) and PSA 1.5-10 ng ml(-1). After 24 months, combination treatment achieved significantly greater mean reductions in both voiding and storage symptoms than either monotherapy, in each of the three baseline PV tertiles (30 to <42, 42 to <58, > or =58 cm(3)). Dutasteride was as effective as tamsulosin for control of storage symptoms, but provided significantly greater relief of voiding symptoms than tamsulosin.

  14. Study of magnetic hysteresis effects in a storage ring using precision tune measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Hao, Hao; Mikhailov, Stepan F.; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying. K.

    2016-12-01

    With the advances in accelerator science and technology in recent decades, the accelerator community has focused on the development of next-generation light sources, for example diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), which require precision control of the electron beam energy and betatron tunes. This work is aimed at understanding magnet hysteresis effects on the electron beam energy and lattice focusing in circular accelerators, and developing new methods to gain better control of these effects. In this paper, we will report our recent experimental study of the magnetic hysteresis effects and their impacts on the Duke storage ring lattice using the transverse feedback based precision tune measurement system. The major magnet hysteresis effects associated with magnet normalization and lattice ramping are carefully studied to determine an effective procedure for lattice preparation while maintaining a high degree of reproducibility of lattice focusing. The local hysteresis effects are also studied by measuring the betatron tune shifts which result from adjusting the setting of a quadrupole. A new technique has been developed to precisely recover the focusing strength of the quadrupole by returning it to a proper setting to overcome the local hysteresis effect. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175180, 11475167) and US DOE (DE-FG02-97ER41033)

  15. Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging is an Effective Tool for Measuring Breast Volume: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Yeon; Kim, Min Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate breast volume assessment is a prerequisite to preoperative planning, as well as intraoperative decision making in breast reconstruction surgery. The use of three-dimensional surface imaging (3D scanning) to assess breast volume has many advantages. However, before employing 3D scanning in the field, the tool's validity should be demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of 3D-scanning technology for evaluating breast volume. Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent breast reconstruction surgery immediately after total mastectomy. Breast volumes using the Axis Three 3D scanner, water-displacement technique, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained bilaterally in the preoperative period. During the operation, the tissue removed during total mastectomy was weighed and the specimen volume was calculated from the weight. Then, we compared the volume obtained from 3D scanning with those obtained using the water-displacement technique, MRI, and the calculated volume of the tissue removed. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of breast volumes obtained from 3D scanning, as compared to the volumes obtained using the water-displacement technique and specimen weight, demonstrated excellent reliability. The ICC of breast volumes obtained using 3D scanning, as compared to those obtained by MRI, demonstrated substantial reliability. Passing-Bablok regression showed agreement between 3D scanning and the water-displacement technique, and showed a linear association of 3D scanning with MRI and specimen volume, respectively. Conclusions When compared with the classical water-displacement technique and MRI-based volumetry, 3D scanning showed significant reliability and a linear association with the other two methods. PMID:27689050

  16. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 4, Leach resistant/high integrity structure concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  17. Fluid dynamic studies for a simulated Melton Valley Storage Tank slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), are used for the collection and storage of remote-handled radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes, which were typically acidic when generated, were neutralized with the addition of sodium hydroxide to protect the storage tanks from corrosion, but this caused the transuranic and heavy metals to precipitate. These wastes will eventually need to be removed from the tanks for ultimate disposal. The objective of the research activities discussed in this report is to support the design of a pipeline transport system between the MVSTs and a treatment facility. Since the wastes in the MVSTs are highly radioactive, a surrogate slurry was developed for this study. Rheological properties of the simulated slurry were determined in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers of different diameters. Pressure drop data at varying flow rates were used to obtain shear stress and shear rate data. The data were analyzed, and the slurry rheological properties were analyzed by the Power Law model and the Bingham plastic model. The plastic viscosity and yield stress data obtained from the rheological tests were used as inputs for a piping design software package, and the pressure drops predicted by the software compared well with the pressure drop data obtained from the test loop. The minimum transport velocity was determine for the slurry by adding known nominal sizes of glass spheres to the slurry. However, it was shown that the surrogate slurry exhibited hindered settling, which may substantially decrease the minimum transport velocity. Therefore, it may be desired to perform additional tests with a surrogate with a lower concentration of suspended solids to determine the minimum transport velocity.

  18. Gas bremsstrahlung studies for medium energy electron storage rings using FLUKA Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahani, Prasanta Kumar; Haridas, G.; Sinha, Anil K.; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    Gas bremsstrahlung is generated due to the interaction of the stored electron beam with residual gas molecules of the vacuum chamber in a storage ring. As the opening angle of the bremsstrahlung is very small, the scoring area used in Monte Carlo simulation plays a dominant role in evaluating the absorbed dose. In the present work gas bremsstrahlung angular distribution and absorbed dose for the energies ranging from 1 to 5 GeV electron storage rings are studied using the Monte Carlo code, FLUKA. From the study, an empirical formula for gas bremsstrahlung dose estimation was deduced. The results were compared with the data obtained from reported experimental values. The results obtained from simulations are found to be in very good agreement with the reported experimental data. The results obtained are applied in estimating the gas bremsstrahlung dose for 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source, Indus-2 at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, India. The paper discusses the details of the simulation and the results obtained.

  19. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas injection].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The liquid phase of different units of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas injection was studied with respect to its hydrochemical composition and characterized microbiologically. The presence of viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was revealed in the UGS stratal and associated waters. An important source of microorganisms and biogenic elements in the ecosystem studied is water and various technogenic admixtures contained in trace amounts in the gas entering from the gas main in the period of gas injection into the storage. Owing to this fact, the bacterial functional diversity, number, and activity are maximal in the system of gas treatment and purification and considerably lower in the observation well zone. At the terminal stages, the anaerobic transformation of organic matter in the UGS aqueous media occurs via sulfate reduction and methanogenesis; exceptionally high rates of these processes (up to 4.9 x 10(5) ng S(2-)l(-1) day(-1) and 2.8 x 10(6) nl CH4 l(-1) day(-1), respectively) were recorded for above-ground technological equipment.

  20. Brain tissue volumes in the general population of the elderly: the AGES-Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Forsberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Jesper; Kjartansson, Olafur; Oskarsdottir, Bryndis; Jonsson, Palmi V; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Zijdenbos, Alex; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-02-15

    Imaging studies have reported conflicting findings on how brain structure differs with age and sex. This may be explained by discrepancies and limitations in study population and study design. We report a study on brain tissue volumes in one of the largest cohorts of individuals studied to date of subjects with high mean age (mean ± standard deviation (SD) 76 ± 6 years). These analyses are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired at baseline on 4303 non-demented elderly, and 367 who had a second MRI, on average 2.5 ± 0.2 years later. Tissue segmentation was performed with an automatic image analysis pipeline. Total brain parenchymal (TBP) volume decreased with increasing age while there was an increase in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in both sexes. A reduction in both normal white matter (NWM)- and gray matter (GM) volume contributed to the brain shrinkage. After adjusting for intra-cranial volume, women had larger brain volumes compared to men (3.32%, p < 0.001) for TBP volume in the cross-sectional analysis. The longitudinal analysis showed a significant age-sex interaction in TBP volume with a greater rate of annual change in men (-0.70%, 95%CI: -0.78% to -0.63%) than women (-0.55%, 95%CI: -0.61% to -0.49%). The annual change in the cross-sectional data was approximately 40% less than the annual change in the longitudinal data and did not show significant age-sex interaction. The findings indicate that the cross-sectional data underestimate the rate of change in tissue volumes with age as the longitudinal data show greater rate of change in tissue volumes with age for all tissues.

  1. Outlook and Challenges for Hydrogen Storage in Nanoporous Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Broom, D. P.; Webb, C. J.; Hurst, Katherine E.; ...

    2016-02-16

    Considerable progress has been made recently in the use of nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. In our article, the current status of the field and future challenges are discussed, ranging from important open fundamental questions, such as the density and volume of the adsorbed phase and its relationship to overall storage capacity, to the development of new functional materials and complete storage system design. With regard to fundamentals, the use of neutron scattering to study adsorbed H2, suitable adsorption isotherm equations, and the accurate computational modelling and simulation of H2 adsorption are discussed. We cover new materials and they includemore » flexible metal–organic frameworks, core–shell materials, and porous organic cage compounds. The article concludes with a discussion of the experimental investigation of real adsorptive hydrogen storage tanks, the improvement in the thermal conductivity of storage beds, and new storage system concepts and designs.« less

  2. Outlook and Challenges for Hydrogen Storage in Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Broom, D. P.; Webb, C. J.; Hurst, Katherine E.; Parilla, Philip A.; Gennett, Thomas; Brown, C. M.; Zacharia, R.; Tylianakis, E.; Klontzas, E.; Froudakis, G. E.; Steriotis, T. A.; Trikalitis, P. N.; Anton, D. L.; Hardy, B.; Tamburello, D.; Corgnale, C.; van Hassel, B. A.; Cossement, D.; Chahine, R.; Hirscher, M.

    2016-02-16

    Considerable progress has been made recently in the use of nanoporous materials for hydrogen storage. In our article, the current status of the field and future challenges are discussed, ranging from important open fundamental questions, such as the density and volume of the adsorbed phase and its relationship to overall storage capacity, to the development of new functional materials and complete storage system design. With regard to fundamentals, the use of neutron scattering to study adsorbed H2, suitable adsorption isotherm equations, and the accurate computational modelling and simulation of H2 adsorption are discussed. We cover new materials and they include flexible metal–organic frameworks, core–shell materials, and porous organic cage compounds. The article concludes with a discussion of the experimental investigation of real adsorptive hydrogen storage tanks, the improvement in the thermal conductivity of storage beds, and new storage system concepts and designs.

  3. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 20: The SeaWiFS bio-optical archive and storage system (SeaBASS), part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Mcclain, Charles R.; Firestone, James K.; Westphal, Todd L.; Yeh, Eueng-Nan; Ge, Yuntao; Firestone, Elaine R.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), which will serve as a repository for numerous data sets of interest to the SeaWiFS Science Team and other approved investigators in the oceanographic community. The data collected will be those data sets suitable for the development and evaluation of bio-optical algorithms which include results from SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiments (SIRREXs), prelaunch characterization of the SeaWiFS instrument by its manufacturer -- Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), Marine Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE) cruises, Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) deployments and refurbishments, and field studies of other scientists outside of NASA. The primary goal of the data system is to provide a simple mechanism for querying the available archive and requesting specific items, while assuring that the data is made available only to authorized users. The design, construction, and maintenance of SeaBASS is the responsibility of the SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Team (CVT). This report is concerned with documenting the execution of this task by the CVT and consists of a series of chapters detailing the various data sets involved. The topics presented are as follows: 1) overview of the SeaBASS file architecture, 2) the bio-optical data system, 3) the historical pigment database, 4) the SIRREX database, and 5) the SBRC database.

  4. Cerebral cortex: an MRI-based study of volume and variance with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Carne, Ross P; Vogrin, Simon; Litewka, Lucas; Cook, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine quantitative differences in lobar cerebral cortical volumes in a healthy adult population. Quantitative volumetric MRI of whole brain, cerebral and cerebellar volumes was performed in a cross-sectional analysis of 97 normal volunteers, with segmented frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical volumes measured in a subgroup of 60 subjects, 30 male and 30 female, matched for age and sex. The right cerebral hemisphere was larger than the left across the study group with a small (<1%) but significant difference in symmetry (P<0.001). No difference was found between volumes of right and left cerebellar hemispheres. Rightward cerebral cortical asymmetry (right larger than left) was found to be significant across all lobes except parietal. Males had greater cerebral, cerebellar and cerebral cortical lobar volumes than females. Larger male cerebral cortical volumes were seen in all lobes except for left parietal. Females had greater left parietal to left cerebral hemisphere and smaller left temporal to left cerebral hemisphere ratios. There was a mild reduction in cerebral volumes with age, more marked in males. This study confirms and augments past work indicating underlying structural asymmetries in the human brain, and provides further evidence that brain structures in humans are differentially sensitive to the effects of both age and sex.

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation.

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason

    2016-01-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation. PMID:28066526

  7. Modeling the spatiotemporal organization of velocity storage in the vestibuloocular reflex by optokinetic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphan, T.; Sturm, D.; Cohen, B. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    upright. It also predicted the cross-coupling in the side down position. The trajectories in velocity space were also accurately simulated. 5. One of the predictions of the model is that when the stimulus direction is along an eigenvector, the trajectory in velocity space is a straight line. Using the "spectral width" of the residuals from a straight line sequence during OKAN, we developed a methodology to estimate how close the OKAN decay was to an eigenvector trajectory. 6. Thus we have developed a model-based approach for studying and interpreting the response characteristics of velocity storage in three dimensions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  8. Techno-economic performance evaluation of solar tower plants with integrated multi-layered PCM thermocline thermal energy storage - A comparative study to conventional two-tank storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedéz, Rafael; Ferruzza, Davide; Arnaudo, Monica; Rodríguez, Ivette; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Hassar, Zhor; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Solar Tower Power Plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology for dispatchable renewable energy in the near future. Storage integration makes possible to shift the electricity production to more profitable peak hours. Usually two tanks are used to store cold and hot fluids, but this means both higher investment costs and difficulties during the operation of the variable volume tanks. Instead, another solution can be a single tank thermocline storage in a multi-layered configuration. In such tank both latent and sensible fillers are employed to decrease the related cost up to 30% and maintain high efficiencies. This paper analyses a multi-layered solid PCM storage tank concept for solar tower applications, and describes a comprehensive methodology to determine under which market structures such devices can outperform the more conventional two tank storage systems. A detail model of the tank has been developed and introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results show that under current cost estimates and technical limitations the multi-layered solid PCM storage concept is a better solution when peaking operating strategies are desired, as it is the case for the two-tier South African tariff scheme.

  9. Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  10. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  11. Causes and consequences of reduced blood volume in space flight - A multi-discipline modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    A group of mathematical models of various physiological systems have been developed and applied to studying problems associated with adaptation to weightlessness. One biomedical issue which could be addressed by at least three of these models from varying perspectives was the reduction in blood volume that universally occurs in astronauts. Accordingly, models of fluid-electrolyte, erythropoiesis, and cardiovascular regulation were employed to study the causes and consequences of blood volume loss during space flight. This analysis confirms the notion that alterations of blood volume are central to an understanding of adaptation to prolonged space flight. More importantly, the modeling studies resulted in specific hypotheses accounting for plasma volume and red cell mass losses and testable predictions concerning the behavior of the circulatory system.

  12. Dynamics of magma supply, storage and migration at basaltic volcanoes: Geophysical studies of the Galapagos and Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnardi, Marco

    Basaltic shields forming ocean island volcanoes, in particular those of Hawai'i and of the Galapagos Islands, constitute some of the largest volcanic features on Earth. Understanding subsurface processes such as those controlling magma supply, storage and migration at these volcanoes, is essential to any attempt to anticipate their future behavior. This dissertation presents a series of studies carried out at Hawaiian and Galapagos volcanoes. InSAR measurements acquired between 2003 and 2010 at Fernandina Volcano, Galapagos, are used to study the structure and the dynamics of the shallow magmatic system of the volcano (Chapter 3). Spatial and temporal variations in the measured displacements reveal the presence of two hydraulically connected areas of magma storage, and the modeling of the deformation data provides an estimate of their location and geometry. The same dataset also provides the first geodetic evidence for two subvolcanic sill intrusions (in 2006 and 2007) deep beneath the volcano's flank. The lateral migration of magma from the reservoirs during these intrusions could provide an explanation for enigmatic volcanic events at Fernandina such as the 1968 caldera collapse without significant eruption. Space-geodetic measurements of the surface deformation produced by the most recent eruptions at Fernandina, reveal that all have initiated with the intrusion of subhorizontal sills from the shallow magma reservoir (Chapter 4). A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired 1-2 h before the start of a radial fissure eruption in 2009 captures one of these sills in the midst of its propagation toward the surface. Galapagos eruptive fissures of all orientations have previously been presumed to be fed by vertical dikes, but these new findings allow a reinterpretation of the internal structure and evolution of Galapagos volcanoes and of similar basaltic shields elsewhere on Earth and on other planets. A joint analysis of InSAR and groud-based microgravity data

  13. Development and storage study of reduced sugar soy containing compound chocolate.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Alka; Singh, Gurmukh

    2011-02-01

    Possibility of using full fat soy flour (FFSF) for replacer for whole milk powder (WMP), stevia-mannitol blend as replacer for sugar and soybean oil (SBO) as replacer for cocoa butter in chocolate manufacture without impairing the sensory quality characteristics of chocolate was explored. Data on the sensory evaluation of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter substituted chocolates revealed that 40% (w/w) of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter can be successfully substituted by FFSF, stevia-mannitol blend and SBO, respectively in the preparation of high protein and low sugar chocolate without impairing the sensory attributes. Lecithin was found to be optimum at 0.32% (w/w) level of chocolate mix. Protein content of optimized formulation increased by 21.8% over control. Storage study of the product indicated an increase in hardness, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, total plate count, yeast and mold count, whereas a decrease in moisture content, pH value and sensory scores. The optimized chocolate was found acceptable (score ≥7.0) after 90 days of storage at 16 ± 1°C and ~65% RH.

  14. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  15. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  16. A comparative study for Hydrogen storage in metal decorated graphyne nanotubes and graphyne monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jinlian; Guo, Yanhua; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Yingru; Cao, Juexian

    2015-11-15

    A comparative study for hydrogen storage in metal decorated graphyne nanotubes and graphyne monolayers has been investigated within the framework of first-principle calculations. Our results show that the binding energies of Li, Ca, Sc, Ti on graphyne nanotubes are stronger than that on graphyne monolayers. Such strong binding would prevent the formation of metal clusters on graphyne nanotubes. From the charge transfer and partial density of states, it is found that the curvature effect of nanotubes plays an important role for the strong binding strength of metal on graphyne nanotubes. And the hydrogen storage capacity is 4.82 wt%, 5.08 wt%, 4.88 wt%, 4.76 wt% for Li, Ca, Sc, Ti decorated graphyne nanotubes that promise a potential material for storing hydrogen. - Graphical abstract: Metal atoms (Li, Ca, Sc and Ti) can strongly bind to graphyne nanotubes to avoid the formation of metal clusters, and a capacity of Ca@graphyne nanotube is 5.08 wt% which is close to the requirement of DOE in 2015. Twenty-four hydrogen molecules absorb to Ti-decorated graphyne nanotube. - Highlights: • The binding strength for metal on graphyne nanotubes is much stronger than that on γ-graphyne monolayer. • Metal atoms can strongly bind to the curving triangle acetylenes rings to avoid the formation of metal clusters. • A capacity of Ca@graphyne nanotube is 5.08 wt% which is close to the requirement of DOE in 2015.

  17. Common methods for fecal sample storage in field studies yield consistent signatures of individual identity in microbiome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Blekhman, Ran; Tang, Karen; Archie, Elizabeth A; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Wilson, Mark E; Kohn, Jordan; Yuan, Michael L; Gesquiere, Laurence; Grieneisen, Laura E; Tung, Jenny

    2016-08-16

    Field studies of wild vertebrates are frequently associated with extensive collections of banked fecal samples-unique resources for understanding ecological, behavioral, and phylogenetic effects on the gut microbiome. However, we do not understand whether sample storage methods confound the ability to investigate interindividual variation in gut microbiome profiles. Here, we extend previous work on storage methods for gut microbiome samples by comparing immediate freezing, the gold standard of preservation, to three methods commonly used in vertebrate field studies: lyophilization, storage in ethanol, and storage in RNAlater. We found that the signature of individual identity consistently outweighed storage effects: alpha diversity and beta diversity measures were significantly correlated across methods, and while samples often clustered by donor, they never clustered by storage method. Provided that all analyzed samples are stored the same way, banked fecal samples therefore appear highly suitable for investigating variation in gut microbiota. Our results open the door to a much-expanded perspective on variation in the gut microbiome across species and ecological contexts.

  18. Common methods for fecal sample storage in field studies yield consistent signatures of individual identity in microbiome sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Blekhman, Ran; Tang, Karen; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Barreiro, Luis B.; Johnson, Zachary P.; Wilson, Mark E.; Kohn, Jordan; Yuan, Michael L.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Grieneisen, Laura E.; Tung, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Field studies of wild vertebrates are frequently associated with extensive collections of banked fecal samples—unique resources for understanding ecological, behavioral, and phylogenetic effects on the gut microbiome. However, we do not understand whether sample storage methods confound the ability to investigate interindividual variation in gut microbiome profiles. Here, we extend previous work on storage methods for gut microbiome samples by comparing immediate freezing, the gold standard of preservation, to three methods commonly used in vertebrate field studies: lyophilization, storage in ethanol, and storage in RNAlater. We found that the signature of individual identity consistently outweighed storage effects: alpha diversity and beta diversity measures were significantly correlated across methods, and while samples often clustered by donor, they never clustered by storage method. Provided that all analyzed samples are stored the same way, banked fecal samples therefore appear highly suitable for investigating variation in gut microbiota. Our results open the door to a much-expanded perspective on variation in the gut microbiome across species and ecological contexts. PMID:27528013

  19. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) in patients (48.9 ± 26.6 mm(3) ) than in controls (79 ± 30.2 mm(3) ). In patients PGV correlated negatively with age (r = -0.532; P = 0.026). Adjusting for the effect of age, PGV and rapid eye movement (REM) latency showed a significant positive correlation (rS  = 0.711, P < 0.001) in patients. Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia.

  20. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 4: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 4 of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) is presented. This volume is divided into the following sections: (1) transportation systems elements; (2) transportation systems requirements; (3) heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV); (4) LEO-GEO transportation; (5) on-orbit mobility systems; (6) personnel transfer systems; and (7) cost and programmatics. Three appendixes are also provided and they include: horizontal takeoff (single stage to orbit technical summary); HLLV reference vehicle trajectory and trade study data; and electric orbital transfer vehicle sizing.