Science.gov

Sample records for straight line method

  1. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change from retirement to straight-line method... Valuations § 1.9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In general. The Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1669), which is contained...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change from retirement to straight-line method... Valuations § 1.9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In general. The Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1669), which is contained...

  3. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change from retirement to straight-line method... Valuations § 1.9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In general. The Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1669), which is contained...

  4. Straight Line Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

  5. Straight Line Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

  6. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of computing depreciation. 1.9001-1 Section 1.9001-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In general. The... certain railroads which changed from the retirement to the straight-line method of computing the...

  7. Image Processing Method for Automatic Straight Line Travel of an Agricultural Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Keiji; Hamada, Yasuyuki; Makino, Eiji; Kaneko, Shunich

    This paper describes an image processing method for the detection of the lateral displacement of an agricultural vehicle, such as a tractor. It achieves this by tracking the movement of the ground on images while detecting a lamp placed at a target point in a field by means of a computer vision system mounted on the tractor. The aim of this technology is to enable tractors to automatically travel in a straight line with high accuracy towards the target lamp. Some experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. An effective method to detect straight lines from high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery and its applications for runway extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Xingyue

    2007-06-01

    It has always been an important low-level operation to extract edges from images in the fields of computer vision and image procession, in which straight line extraction is typical and representative. Because most man-made spatial objects, e.g. buildings, roads, etc. often take on near straight-line boundaries, extracting straight lines is often the first step to extract these targets. Straight lines can then be looked as the elementary units for other higher level image interpretations. In this paper, a straight line extraction method combining edge detection and depth-first searching on the vector line layer is proposed and applied to extract runways of airports. The steps include: 1) edges are found with the Canny operator and vectorirzed. The reason to use the Canny operator is because it is designed to be an optimal edge detector, which gives very good results on detecting step or slop like edges. It takes as input a grey scale image, and produces as output an image showing the positions of tracked intensity discontinuities. After this operation, we then vectorize the edge points to be a vector layer with edge tracing.2) With the vector-formatted edge lines, the straight line searching can then be carried out. In order to complete this, topology between arcs should be cleaned and rebuilt, which includes the deletion of repetitive, one-node arcs, and splitting on the intersections, etc. 3) Straight lines are detected with the depth-first searching strategy. With the rebuilt topology, we can easily obtain the begin, end nodes of every line. If the distances of its all vertices to the line connecting the begin, end nodes of an arc are less than some pre-defined threshold, it could be looked as a 'straight line' and extracted. Besides, we are certainly only interested in the straight lines with lengths larger than certain threshold, thus a minimum length threshold should be specified to delete these very short lines. In the searching of straight lines, some arcs

  9. An improved straight-line fitting method for analyzing pumping test recovery data.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Guo, Jian-Qing; Lei, Yuping

    2005-01-01

    Theis (1935) derived an exact solution for the residual drawdown in a well after the cessation of a pumping test by summing two drawdowns: one (s1), caused by imaginary continuation of the original pumping and the other (s2), due to an imaginary injection at the same constant rate. We approximated the Theis solution to obtain a simple linear relation for determining the transmissivity and storage coefficient from recovery data. Unlike other existing straight-line fitting methods, in our method, we applied different approximations to the well functions in the solutions of s1 and s2. We used the well-known Cooper-Jacob approximation for s1, truncating the expansion of the well function in s2 to its first three terms. For the same level of truncation errors, while the Cooper-Jacob approximation requires the argument u1method requires only recovery data from a single observation well and no knowledge of the drawdown at the moment of pumping cessation.

  10. How to Determine the Best Straight Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the least-squares regression line in determining the optimum straight line in an efficient and objective manner and the validity of its underlying assumptions in certain situations. Discusses the treatment of kinetic data, distortion from large errors, and the Guggenheim method. (JRH)

  11. The art and science of straight lines in radiology.

    PubMed

    Day, Cynthia M; Sodickson, Aaron

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the physical basis for straight radiographic lines, identify the possible components that may form a straight line interface in the body, provide illustrative examples across multiple organ systems and modalities, and explore how the detection of these interfaces can support specific diagnoses. Detection of a straight line interface can help the radiologist recognize otherwise difficult or subtle pathologic processes, and identification of its components can provide valuable clues to diagnosis.

  12. Canonical straight field line magnetic flux coordinates for tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Breizman, Boris N.; Zheng, Linjin

    2016-12-01

    New global straight field line coordinates are introduced for a toroidal plasma configuration. The new coordinate system provides a canonical description of particle guiding center motion while maintaining the straight field line feature. These coordinates are convenient for combining MHD calculations with kinetic modeling of energetic particles. We demonstrate how the new coordinate system can be constructed by transforming the poloidal and toroidal angles. Numerical examples show comparison of the new coordinates with various non-canonical coordinates for the same equilibrium configuration.

  13. Comparison of glue-line quality between gang edging and straight-line ripping

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; James R. Olson; James R. Olson

    1986-01-01

    Gang edging with a dip-chain fed gang ripsaw produces gluing surfaces equal to those from a straight-line ripsaw in yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and red oak (Quercus rubra). Special care in gluing red oak was needed to get shear strengths equal to solid wood values. However, the strength comparisons between sawing methods showed no differences between gang...

  14. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  15. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  16. Dung beetles ignore landmarks for straight-line orientation.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Upon locating a suitable dung pile, ball-rolling dung beetles shape a piece of dung into a ball and roll it away in a straight line. This guarantees that they will not return to the dung pile, where they risk having their ball stolen by other beetles. Dung beetles are known to use celestial compass cues such as the sun, the moon and the pattern of polarised light formed around these light sources to roll their balls of dung along straight paths. Here, we investigate whether terrestrial landmarks have any influence on straight-line orientation in dung beetles. We find that the removal or re-arrangement of landmarks has no effect on the beetle's orientation precision. Celestial compass cues dominate straight-line orientation in dung beetles so strongly that, under heavily overcast conditions or when prevented from seeing the sky, the beetles can no longer orient along straight paths. To our knowledge, this is the only animal with a visual compass system that ignores the extra orientation precision that landmarks can offer.

  17. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line... Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. Section 94 of the Technical Amendments Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1669) provides as follows: Sec. 94. Change from retirement to straight...

  18. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line... Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. Section 94 of the Technical Amendments Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1669) provides as follows: Sec. 94. Change from retirement to straight...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line... Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. Section 94 of the Technical Amendments Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1669) provides as follows: Sec. 94. Change from retirement to straight...

  20. Straight line access and coronal flaring: effect on canal length.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Kyle P; Walton, Richard E; Rivera, Eric M

    2002-06-01

    The object of this study was to determine if canal length is altered as a result of straight-line access (SLA) and coronal flaring (CF). Selected were 86 canals of extracted molars and premolars from two groups: straight or severely curved (Schneider curvature <5 degrees and >20 degrees). The reference cusp tip and root-end were flattened to produce reproducible measurements. A #10 file was placed such that the tip extended slightly beyond the apex, with the handle on the referenced cusp. The amount of file protrusion was measured with a stereomicroscope. Then, SLA and CF were performed and the corresponding file replaced to the same coronal reference position. Apical file protrusion was measured again. The change in canal length was determined by the difference in the pre- and post-SLA/CF measurements. A Wilcoxon signed rank test statistically verified that there was a measurable, significant (p < 0.001) change in canal length after SLA and CF. The mean change overall was slight, with a decrease of 0.17 mm. Severe curvature had a slightly greater, significant effect on the amount of change. Tooth type had no significant effect. Changes in working length from SLA and CF, although statistically significant, were very small and clinically unimportant.

  1. Straight-Line Path Following in Windy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezoescu, A.; Castillo, P.; Lozano, R.

    2011-09-01

    A straight-line following controller for a small and light airplane flying in windy conditions is proposed. In a first time, the lateral dynamics of the plane are derived and the error deviation velocity with respect to the desired trajectory is computed. A simple nonlinear control law is developed in order to impose a linear behavior for the airplane position and to track the desired trajectory. Several simulations, taking into account quasi-constant wind disturbances, are performed to analyze the performance of the closed-loop system. Improved results are obtained including the airplane orientation to counter the wind as an input for the flight planning. In order to validate the proposed control scheme an airplane has been developed based on the classic aerodynamic layout. Future work will introduce the experimental results when applying in real-time the proposed control algorithm.

  2. Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

    2014-02-01

    From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

  3. 26 CFR 7.57(d)-1 - Election with respect to straight line recovery of intangibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.57(d)-1 Election with respect to straight line recovery of intangibles. (a) Purpose... Tax Reform Act of 1976. Under this election taxpayers may use cost depletion to compute straight line...

  4. Straight-line drift fences and pitfall traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Straight-line drift fences typically are short barriers (5-15 m) that direct animals traveling on the substrate surface into traps places at the ends of or beside the barriers. Traps (described below) can be pitfalls, funnel traps, or a combination of the two. Drift fences with pitfall or funnel traps and pitfall traps without fences are used commonly to inventory and monitor populations of amphibians and reptiles. For example, 9 of 17 field studies reported for management of terrestrial vertebrates (Sarzo et al. 1988) used these techniques to sample amphibians. Drift fences with pitfall traps can be used to determine species richness at a site and to detect the presence of rare species. They also can yield data on relative abundances and habitat use of selected species. Pitfall traps arrayed in a grid without fences can also be used to study the population ecology and habitat use of selected species. Population density can be estimated with this latter technique if used in conjunction with mark-recapture techniques (see Chapter 8). Drift fence arrays or pitfall grids can be left in place for long-term monitoring. In this section, I discuss the use of this technique to obtain data on amphibians away from breeding ponds. Use of drift fences and traps to monitory amphibian activity at breeding ponds is discussed in the section "Drift Fences Encircling Breeding Sits", below (technique 9). Some materials and procedures are common to both techniques. Investigators contemplating the use of drift fences and traps in any context should read both accounts.

  5. Parallel Hough Transform-based straight line detection and its FPGA implementation in embedded vision.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Song, Li; Shen, Sumin; He, Kang; Yu, Songyu; Ling, Nam

    2013-07-17

    Hough Transform has been widely used for straight line detection in low-definition and still images, but it suffers from execution time and resource requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) provide a competitive alternative for hardware acceleration to reap tremendous computing performance. In this paper, we propose a novel parallel Hough Transform (PHT) and FPGA architecture-associated framework for real-time straight line detection in high-definition videos. A resource-optimized Canny edge detection method with enhanced non-maximum suppression conditions is presented to suppress most possible false edges and obtain more accurate candidate edge pixels for subsequent accelerated computation. Then, a novel PHT algorithm exploiting spatial angle-level parallelism is proposed to upgrade computational accuracy by improving the minimum computational step. Moreover, the FPGA based multi-level pipelined PHT architecture optimized by spatial parallelism ensures real-time computation for 1,024 × 768 resolution videos without any off-chip memory consumption. This framework is evaluated on ALTERA DE2-115 FPGA evaluation platform at a maximum frequency of 200 MHz, and it can calculate straight line parameters in 15.59 ms on the average for one frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results have validated the system performance regarding data throughput, memory bandwidth, resource, speed and robustness.

  6. Parallel Hough Transform-Based Straight Line Detection and Its FPGA Implementation in Embedded Vision

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Song, Li; Shen, Sumin; He, Kang; Yu, Songyu; Ling, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Hough Transform has been widely used for straight line detection in low-definition and still images, but it suffers from execution time and resource requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) provide a competitive alternative for hardware acceleration to reap tremendous computing performance. In this paper, we propose a novel parallel Hough Transform (PHT) and FPGA architecture-associated framework for real-time straight line detection in high-definition videos. A resource-optimized Canny edge detection method with enhanced non-maximum suppression conditions is presented to suppress most possible false edges and obtain more accurate candidate edge pixels for subsequent accelerated computation. Then, a novel PHT algorithm exploiting spatial angle-level parallelism is proposed to upgrade computational accuracy by improving the minimum computational step. Moreover, the FPGA based multi-level pipelined PHT architecture optimized by spatial parallelism ensures real-time computation for 1,024 × 768 resolution videos without any off-chip memory consumption. This framework is evaluated on ALTERA DE2-115 FPGA evaluation platform at a maximum frequency of 200 MHz, and it can calculate straight line parameters in 15.59 ms on the average for one frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results have validated the system performance regarding data throughput, memory bandwidth, resource, speed and robustness. PMID:23867746

  7. Straight lines, 'uncurved lines', and Helmholtz's 'great circles on the celestial sphere'.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Brian; Brecher, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Helmholtz's famous pincushioned chessboard figure has been used to make the point that straight lines in the world are not always perceived as straight and, conversely, that curved lines in the world can sometimes be seen as straight. However, there is little agreement as to the cause of these perceptual errors. Some authors have attributed the errors to the shape of the retina, or the amount of cortex devoted to the processing of images falling on different parts of the retina, while others have taken the effects to indicate that visual space itself is curved. Helmholtz himself claimed that the 'uncurved lines on the visual globe' corresponded to 'direction circles' defined as those arcs described by the line of fixation when the eye moves according to Listing's law. Careful re-reading of Helmholtz together with some additional observations lead us to the conclusion that two other factors are also involved in the effect: (i) a lack of information about the distance of peripherally viewed objects and (ii) the preference of the visual system for seeing the pincushion squares as similar in size.

  8. The long-solved problem of the best-fit straight line: application to isotopic mixing lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, Richard; Saleska, Scott R.

    2017-01-01

    It has been almost 50 years since York published an exact and general solution for the best-fit straight line to independent points with normally distributed errors in both x and y. York's solution is highly cited in the geophysical literature but almost unknown outside of it, so that there has been no ebb in the tide of books and papers wrestling with the problem. Much of the post-1969 literature on straight-line fitting has sown confusion not merely by its content but by its very existence. The optimal least-squares fit is already known; the problem is already solved. Here we introduce the non-specialist reader to York's solution and demonstrate its application in the interesting case of the isotopic mixing line, an analytical tool widely used to determine the isotopic signature of trace gas sources for the study of biogeochemical cycles. The most commonly known linear regression methods - ordinary least-squares regression (OLS), geometric mean regression (GMR), and orthogonal distance regression (ODR) - have each been recommended as the best method for fitting isotopic mixing lines. In fact, OLS, GMR, and ODR are all special cases of York's solution that are valid only under particular measurement conditions, and those conditions do not hold in general for isotopic mixing lines. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the biases in OLS, GMR, and ODR under various conditions and show that York's general - and convenient - solution is always the least biased.

  9. Multidirectional Scanning Model, MUSCLE, to Vectorize Raster Images with Straight Lines.

    PubMed

    Karas, Ismail Rakip; Bayram, Bulent; Batuk, Fatmagul; Akay, Abdullah Emin; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a new model, MUSCLE (Multidirectional Scanning for Line Extraction), for automatic vectorization of raster images with straight lines. The algorithm of the model implements the line thinning and the simple neighborhood methods to perform vectorization. The model allows users to define specified criteria which are crucial for acquiring the vectorization process. In this model, various raster images can be vectorized such as township plans, maps, architectural drawings, and machine plans. The algorithm of the model was developed by implementing an appropriate computer programming and tested on a basic application. Results, verified by using two well known vectorization programs (WinTopo and Scan2CAD), indicated that the model can successfully vectorize the specified raster data quickly and accurately.

  10. The long-solved problem of the best-fit straight line: Application to isotopic mixing lines

    DOE PAGES

    Wehr, Richard; Saleska, Scott R.

    2017-01-03

    It has been almost 50 years since York published an exact and general solution for the best-fit straight line to independent points with normally distributed errors in both x and y. York's solution is highly cited in the geophysical literature but almost unknown outside of it, so that there has been no ebb in the tide of books and papers wrestling with the problem. Much of the post-1969 literature on straight-line fitting has sown confusion not merely by its content but by its very existence. The optimal least-squares fit is already known; the problem is already solved. Here we introducemore » the non-specialist reader to York's solution and demonstrate its application in the interesting case of the isotopic mixing line, an analytical tool widely used to determine the isotopic signature of trace gas sources for the study of biogeochemical cycles. The most commonly known linear regression methods – ordinary least-squares regression (OLS), geometric mean regression (GMR), and orthogonal distance regression (ODR) – have each been recommended as the best method for fitting isotopic mixing lines. In fact, OLS, GMR, and ODR are all special cases of York's solution that are valid only under particular measurement conditions, and those conditions do not hold in general for isotopic mixing lines. Here, using Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the biases in OLS, GMR, and ODR under various conditions and show that York's general – and convenient – solution is always the least biased.« less

  11. On the number of digital straight line segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenstein, Carlos A.; Lavine, David

    1988-01-01

    A closed-form expression has been reported in the literature for L(N), the number of digital line segments of length N that correspond to lines of the form y = (alpha)x + beta, (0 less than or equal to alpha, beta less than 1). An asymptotic estimate for L(N) that might prove useful for many applications is proved; namely, L(N) = (N cubed)/(pi squared) + O(N squared log N). An application to an image registration problem is given.

  12. Visual globes, celestial spheres, and the perception of straight and parallel lines.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Brian; Rogers, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    Helmholtz's famous distorted chessboard pattern has been used to make the point that perception of the straightness of peripherally viewed lines is not always veridical. Helmholtz showed that the curved lines of his chessboard pattern appear to be straight when viewed from a critical distance and he argued that, at this distance, the contours stimulated particular 'direction circles' in the field of fixation. We measured the magnitude of the distortion of peripherally viewed contours, and found that the straightness of elongated contours is indeed misperceived in the direction reported by Helmholtz, but that the magnitude of the effect varies with viewing conditions. On the basis of theoretical considerations, we conclude that there cannot, in principle, be particular retinal loci ('loci' is used here in the sense of an arc or an extended set of points that provide a basis for judging collinearity) to underpin our judgments of the straightness and parallelity of peripheral contours, because such judgments also require information about the 3-D surface upon which the contours are located. Moreover, we show experimentally that the contours in the real world that are judged to be straight and parallel can stimulate quite different retinal loci, depending on the shape of the 3-D surface upon which they are drawn.

  13. Pre-School Students' Informal Acquisitions Regarding the Concepts of Point and Straight Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbay, Keziban; Develi, Mehmet Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the informal cognitive structures regarding "point" and "straight line"--two basic and undefined terms of geometry--in children registered in preschool--the previous step before in-class formal education process. The study was conducted with the participation of 50 children enrolled in nursery,…

  14. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... computing depreciation in certain cases—(a) Short title. This section may be cited as the “Retirement...). (c) Retirement-straight line property defined. For purposes of this section, the term “retirement... predecessor (under the terms and conditions prescribed for him by the Commissioner) for any taxable...

  15. Real-Time Straight-Line Detection for XGA-Size Videos by Hough Transform with Parallelized Voting Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jungang; An, Fengwei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Chen, Lei; Mattausch, Hans Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The Hough Transform (HT) is a method for extracting straight lines from an edge image. The main limitations of the HT for usage in actual applications are computation time and storage requirements. This paper reports a hardware architecture for HT implementation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with parallelized voting procedure. The 2-dimensional accumulator array, namely the Hough space in parametric form (ρ, θ), for computing the strength of each line by a voting mechanism is mapped on a 1-dimensional array with regular increments of θ. Then, this Hough space is divided into a number of parallel parts. The computation of (ρ, θ) for the edge pixels and the voting procedure for straight-line determination are therefore executable in parallel. In addition, a synchronized initialization for the Hough space further increases the speed of straight-line detection, so that XGA video processing becomes possible. The designed prototype system has been synthesized on a DE4 platform with a Stratix-IV FPGA device. In the application of road-lane detection, the average processing speed of this HT implementation is 5.4 ms per XGA-frame at 200 MHz working frequency. PMID:28146101

  16. Gyrokinetic continuum simulation of turbulence in a straight open-field-line plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, E. L.; Hammett, G. W.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; ...

    2017-05-29

    Here, five-dimensional gyrokinetic continuum simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in a straight, open-field-line geometry have been performed using a full- discontinuous-Galerkin approach implemented in the Gkeyll code. While various simplifications have been used for now, such as long-wavelength approximations in the gyrokinetic Poisson equation and the Hamiltonian, these simulations include the basic elements of a fusion-device scrape-off layer: localised sources to model plasma outflow from the core, cross-field turbulent transport, parallel flow along magnetic field lines, and parallel losses at the limiter or divertor with sheath-model boundary conditions. The set of sheath-model boundary conditions used in the model allows currentsmore » to flow through the walls. In addition to details of the numerical approach, results from numerical simulations of turbulence in the Large Plasma Device, a linear device featuring straight magnetic field lines, are presented.« less

  17. Gyrokinetic continuum simulation of turbulence in a straight open-field-line plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, E. L.; Hammett, G. W.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Hakim, A.

    2017-06-01

    Five-dimensional gyrokinetic continuum simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in a straight, open-field-line geometry have been performed using a full- discontinuous-Galerkin approach implemented in the Gkeyll code. While various simplifications have been used for now, such as long-wavelength approximations in the gyrokinetic Poisson equation and the Hamiltonian, these simulations include the basic elements of a fusion-device scrape-off layer: localised sources to model plasma outflow from the core, cross-field turbulent transport, parallel flow along magnetic field lines, and parallel losses at the limiter or divertor with sheath-model boundary conditions. The set of sheath-model boundary conditions used in the model allows currents to flow through the walls. In addition to details of the numerical approach, results from numerical simulations of turbulence in the Large Plasma Device, a linear device featuring straight magnetic field lines, are presented.

  18. Simulations of Unsteady Aquatic Locomotion: From Unsteadiness in Straight-Line Swimming to Fast-Starts.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman

    2015-10-01

    Unsteady aquatic locomotion is not an exception, but rather how animals often swim. It includes fast-starts (C-start or S-start), escape maneuvers, turns, acceleration/deceleration, and even during steady locomotion the swimming speed fluctuates, i.e., there is unsteadiness. Here, a review of the recent work on unsteady aquatic locomotion with emphasis on numerical simulations is presented. The review is started by an overview of different theoretical and numerical methods that have been used for unsteady swimming, and then the insights provided by these methods on (1) unsteadiness in straight-line swimming and (2) unsteady fast-starts and turns are discussed. The swimming speed's unsteady fluctuations during straight-line swimming are typically less than 3% of the average swimming speed, but recent simulations show that body shape affects fluctuations more than does body kinematics, i.e., changing the shape of the body generates larger fluctuations than does changing its kinematics. For fast-starts, recent simulations show that the best motion to maximize the distance traveled from rest are similar to the experimentally observed C-start maneuvers. Furthermore, another set of simulations, which are validated against measurements of flow in experiments with live fish, investigate the role of fins during the C-start. The simulations showed that most of the force is generated by the body of the fish (not by fins) during the first stage of the C-start when the fish bends itself into the C-shape. However, in the second stage, when it rapidly bends out of the C-shape, more than 70% of the instantaneous hydrodynamic force is produced by the tail. The effect of dorsal and anal fins was less than 5% of the instantaneous force in both stages, except for a short period of time (2 ms) just before the second stage. Therefore, the active control and the erection of the anal/dorsal fins might be related to retaining the stability of the sunfish against roll and pitch during the C

  19. Computer-generated integral imaging system based on straight line characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumchykov, Igor; Piao, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Integral imaging (II) - is an autostereoscopic technique, which provides 3D-images that can be viewed in full parallax without special glasses. Obtaining volumetric images consists of pick up part and reconstruction. In this work we study principles of mapping process, using preliminarily generated simple object. On the assumption of mathematical principles of straight line we implemented mapping algorithm and for verification our experiment reconstructed the result.

  20. A Nationwide Comparison of Driving Distance Versus Straight-Line Distance to Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boscoe, Francis P; Henry, Kevin A; Zdeb, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    Many geographic studies use distance as a simple measure of accessibility, risk, or disparity. Straight-line (Euclidean) distance is most often used because of the ease of its calculation. Actual travel distance over a road network is a superior alternative, although historically an expensive and labor-intensive undertaking. This is no longer true, as travel distance and travel time can be calculated directly from commercial Web sites, without the need to own or purchase specialized geographic information system software or street files. Taking advantage of this feature, we compare straight-line and travel distance and travel time to community hospitals from a representative sample of more than 66,000 locations in the fifty states of the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The measures are very highly correlated (r(2) > 0.9), but important local exceptions can be found near shorelines and other physical barriers. We conclude that for nonemergency travel to hospitals, the added precision offered by the substitution of travel distance, travel time, or both for straight-line distance is largely inconsequential.

  1. Using graphing calculator technology to support learning for straight line topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Zarkasi, Noorul Izzati

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a teaching and learning using graphing calculator technology module for a Straight Line topic, determine the pedagogical usability of the module and identify students' views on the benefits and barriers in using the module. The study is carried out in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of the module and phase 2 is a survey research using questionnaires. A sample of 30 form four students in a secondary school in the district of Sabak Bernam and 30 mathematics teachers from three different schools in district of Sabak Bernam, Hulu selangor and Kuala Selangor participated in this study. The instruments used in this study are students' views on the use of graphing calculator in mathematics teaching and learning process for a Straight Line topic and pedagogical usability questionnaires. The data are analysed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, percentage, and frequency. The results showed that the students have positive opinions about using graphing calculator in teaching and learning the Straight Line topic. The study also showed that the module developed has a high pedagogical usability. Based on the finding of this study, it is recommended that mathematics teachers will be able to make the best use of this graphing calculator technology in teaching and learning process to create a conducive learning environment.

  2. The conformal transformation of an airfoil into a straight line and its application to the inverse problem of airfoil theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutterperl, William

    1944-01-01

    A method of conformal transformation is developed that maps an airfoil into a straight line, the line being chosen as the extended chord line of the airfoil. The mapping is accomplished by operating directly with the airfoil ordinates. The absence of any preliminary transformation is found to shorten the work substantially over that of previous methods. Use is made of the superposition of solutions to obtain a rigorous counterpart of the approximate methods of thin-airfoils theory. The method is applied to the solution of the direct and inverse problems for arbitrary airfoils and pressure distributions. Numerical examples are given. Applications to more general types of regions, in particular to biplanes and to cascades of airfoils, are indicated. (author)

  3. Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

  4. Symplectic tracking using point magnets and a reference orbit made of circular arcs and straight lines

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1993-06-01

    In order to study long term stability, it appears desirable that the particle tracking by symplectic. One way to achieve symplectic tracking is to replace the magnets by a series of point magnets and drift spaces. This approach is modified here by using a reference orbit that is made up of arcs of circles and straight lines which join smoothly with each other. This make sthe symplecticity more evident, and simplifies in some way the particle tracking, as the coordinate system based on this reference orbit is not changing discontinuously between elements. It also allows the use of transfer matrices to find the linear orbit parameters. For this choice of reference orbit, the required ersults are obtained to track particles, which are the transfer functions, the transer matrices and the transfer time, for the different elements present in the accelerator. It is shown that, in the absence of longitudinal magnetic fields these results provide a symplectic, second order itnegrator. Existing tracking programs that use a reference orbit, made up of arcs of circles and straight lines, can be modified, using the results given here to do symplectic tracking with point magnets. The results have been used to modify the ORBIT tracking program. The ORBIT program will now, by changing an indicator, either track using the usual large accelerator approximation for the transfer functions or do symplectic tracking with ponit magnets, and will use the same reference orbit in both cases.

  5. Electrodynamic two-body problem for prescribed initial data on a straight line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert, D.-A.; Hinrichs, G.

    2016-05-01

    Electrodynamic interaction between point charges can be described by a system of ODEs involving advanced and retarded delays - the so-called Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations. In special situations, approximate equations can be derived which are purely retarded. Upon omission of the terms describing radiation friction, these are called Synge equations. In both cases, few mathematical results are available on existence and uniqueness of solutions. We investigate the situation of two like point-charges in 3 + 1 space-time dimensions restricted to motion on a straight line. We give a priori estimates on the asymptotic motion and, using a Leray-Schauder argument, prove: 1) Existence of solutions to the FST equations on the future or past half-line given finite trajectory segments; 2) Global existence of the Synge equations for Cauchy data; 3) Global existence of a FST toy model. Furthermore, we give a sufficient criterion that uniquely distinguishes solutions by means of finite trajectory segments.

  6. A Novel Method for Insertion of the Straight Metallic Tracheal Stent.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kuruswamy Thurai; Ram, Babu; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-10-01

    A straight metallic tracheal stent can be inserted either during flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. However, in patients with significant airway obstruction or those requiring tumor debulking, rigid bronchoscopy is the method of choice. A tracheoscope size 12 or larger is generally required for the introduction of the straight metallic tracheal stent. Herein, we describe a novel method that facilitates the introduction of the straight metallic tracheal stent through a size 8.5 tracheoscope by using the introducer tube of the silicone stent applicator. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On the cost of approximating and recognizing a noise perturbed straight line or a quadratic curve segment in the plane. [central processing units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. B.; Yalabik, N.

    1975-01-01

    Approximation of noisy data in the plane by straight lines or elliptic or single-branch hyperbolic curve segments arises in pattern recognition, data compaction, and other problems. The efficient search for and approximation of data by such curves were examined. Recursive least-squares linear curve-fitting was used, and ellipses and hyperbolas are parameterized as quadratic functions in x and y. The error minimized by the algorithm is interpreted, and central processing unit (CPU) times for estimating parameters for fitting straight lines and quadratic curves were determined and compared. CPU time for data search was also determined for the case of straight line fitting. Quadratic curve fitting is shown to require about six times as much CPU time as does straight line fitting, and curves relating CPU time and fitting error were determined for straight line fitting. Results are derived on early sequential determination of whether or not the underlying curve is a straight line.

  8. On the computational cost of approximating and recognizing noise-perturbed straight lines and quadratic arcs in the plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. B.; Yalabik, N.

    1976-01-01

    Recognition of underlying straight lines and quadratic arcs in line drawings, and approximation of very noisy data by such line/curve segments, is addressed as a subproblem of the more general problem of optimum recognition of complicated line/curve drawings. Some specific algorithms are presented with extensions and interpretations for more complicated applications, and a data generation model is developed for the problem. Data are generated as a perturbation of a single underlying straight line or an elliptic or hyperbolic arc. Recursive estimation techniques, minimization of central processing unit time, decision making with controlled error probabilities, and modeling and recognition of pictures consisting of noisy curves are dealt with. Applications envisaged include: picture data compression, contour line representation in maps, intelligent data searches, and ballistic missile decoy tracking.

  9. Evaluation of three-dimensional kinematics of the distal portion of the forelimb in horses walking in a straight line.

    PubMed

    Chateau, Henry; Degueurce, Christophe; Denoix, Jean-Marie

    2004-04-01

    To develop a method that allows quantification of the 3 anatomic rotations in the digital joints of moving horses and measure these rotations when horses are walking in a straight line on a hard track. 4 healthy French Trotter horses. Triads of ultrasonic kinematic markers were surgically linked to the 4 distal segments of the digits of the left forelimb of each horse. Three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of these markers were recorded in horses walking in a straight line. The three angles of rotation of each digital joint were calculated by use of a joint coordinate system as well as the 3-D orientation of the hoof and third metacarpal bone. A calibration procedure was developed to convert data from measurements within a technical coordinate system to data in relation to an anatomically relevant coordinate system. Precision of the method was 0.5 degrees, and repeatability of the calibrations resulted in variations of 1.4 degrees. Extrasagittal movements of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints were obvious during landing because the impact of the hoof was on the lateral side. Mean +/- SD extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint was 10.0 +/- 2.5 degrees. This study provides a description of the technical background, error analysis, and procedures used to measure the 3-D rotations of the 4 distal segments of the forelimb in walking horses. As a major result substantial involvement of the proximal interphalangeal joint in the sagittal and extrasagittal planes should incline investigators and clinicians to consider the functional importance of this joint.

  10. Global solutions to the electrodynamic two-body problem on a straight line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Deckert, D.-A.; Dürr, D.; Hinrichs, G.

    2017-06-01

    The classical electrodynamic two-body problem has been a long standing open problem in mathematics. For motion constrained to the straight line, the interaction is similar to that of the two-body problem of classical gravitation. The additional complication is the presence of unbounded state-dependent delays in the Coulomb forces due to the finiteness of the speed of light. This circumstance renders the notion of local solutions meaningless, and therefore, straightforward ODE techniques cannot be applied. Here, we study the time-symmetric case, i.e., the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations, comprising both advanced and retarded delays. We extend the technique developed in Deckert and Hinrichs (J Differ Equ 260:6900-6929, 2016), where existence of FST solutions was proven on the half line, to ensure global existence—a result that had been obtained by Bauer (Ein Existenzsatz für die Wheeler-Feynman-Elektrodynamik, Herbert Utz Verlag, München, 1997). Due to the novel technique, the presented proof is shorter and more transparent but also relies on the idea to employ asymptotic data to characterize solutions.

  11. The new moon illusion and the role of perspective in the perception of straight and parallel lines.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Brian; Naumenko, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In the new moon illusion, the sun does not appear to be in a direction perpendicular to the boundary between the lit and dark sides of the moon, and aircraft jet trails appear to follow curved paths across the sky. In both cases, lines that are physically straight and parallel to the horizon appear to be curved. These observations prompted us to investigate the neglected question of how we are able to judge the straightness and parallelism of extended lines. To do this, we asked observers to judge the 2-D alignment of three artificial "stars" projected onto the dome of the Saint Petersburg Planetarium that varied in both their elevation and their separation in horizontal azimuth. The results showed that observers make substantial, systematic errors, biasing their judgments away from the veridical great-circle locations and toward equal-elevation settings. These findings further demonstrate that whenever information about the distance of extended lines or isolated points is insufficient, observers tend to assume equidistance, and as a consequence, their straightness judgments are biased toward the angular separation of straight and parallel lines.

  12. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    PubMed

    Mattern, Thomas; Ellenberg, Ursula; Houston, David M; Lamare, Miles; Davis, Lloyd S; van Heezik, Yolanda; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV) we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts.

  13. Straight Line Foraging in Yellow-Eyed Penguins: New Insights into Cascading Fisheries Effects and Orientation Capabilities of Marine Predators

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, Thomas; Ellenberg, Ursula; Houston, David M.; Lamare, Miles; Davis, Lloyd S.; van Heezik, Yolanda; Seddon, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV) we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries’ impacts. PMID:24367656

  14. Refining a triangulation of a planar straight-line graph to eliminate large angles

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.A.

    1993-05-13

    Triangulations without large angles have a number of applications in numerical analysis and computer graphics. In particular, the convergence of a finite element calculation depends on the largest angle of the triangulation. Also, the running time of a finite element calculation is dependent on the triangulation size, so having a triangulation with few Steiner points is also important. Bern, Dobkin and Eppstein pose as an open problem the existence of an algorithm to triangulate a planar straight-line graph (PSLG) without large angles using a polynomial number of Steiner points. We solve this problem by showing that any PSLG with {upsilon} vertices can be triangulated with no angle larger than 7{pi}/8 by adding O({upsilon}{sup 2}log {upsilon}) Steiner points in O({upsilon}{sup 2} log{sup 2} {upsilon}) time. We first triangulate the PSLG with an arbitrary constrained triangulation and then refine that triangulation by adding additional vertices and edges. Some PSLGs require {Omega}({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points in any triangulation achieving any largest angle bound less than {pi}. Hence the number of Steiner points added by our algorithm is within a log {upsilon} factor of worst case optimal. We note that our refinement algorithm works on arbitrary triangulations: Given any triangulation, we show how to refine it so that no angle is larger than 7{pi}/8. Our construction adds O(nm+nplog m) vertices and runs in time O(nm+nplog m) log(m+ p)), where n is the number of edges, m is one plus the number of obtuse angles, and p is one plus the number of holes and interior vertices in the original triangulation. A previously considered problem is refining a constrained triangulation of a simple polygon, where p = 1. For this problem we add O({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points, which is within a constant factor of worst case optimal.

  15. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... estimated useful life of the property. The allowance for depreciation for the taxable year is determined by dividing the adjusted basis of the property at the beginning of the taxable year, less salvage value, by the remaining useful life of the property at such time. For convenience, the allowance so...

  16. The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Hagnestâl, A.; Källne, J.; Anglart, H.

    2012-06-01

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with "semi-poor" plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Qr = Pfis/Pfus>>1. The upper bound on Qr is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Qr≈150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of keff=0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement Te≈10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q≈0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on

  17. An image overall complexity evaluation method based on LSD line detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianan; Duan, Jin; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    In the artificial world, whether it is the city's traffic roads or engineering buildings contain a lot of linear features. Therefore, the research on the image complexity of linear information has become an important research direction in digital image processing field. This paper, by detecting the straight line information in the image and using the straight line as the parameter index, establishing the quantitative and accurate mathematics relationship. In this paper, we use LSD line detection algorithm which has good straight-line detection effect to detect the straight line, and divide the detected line by the expert consultation strategy. Then we use the neural network to carry on the weight training and get the weight coefficient of the index. The image complexity is calculated by the complexity calculation model. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective. The number of straight lines in the image, the degree of dispersion, uniformity and so on will affect the complexity of the image.

  18. Extraction of Roof Lines from High-Resolution Images by a Grouping Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Poz, A. P.; Fernandes, V. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF)-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°). Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  19. Diffuse photon remission along unique spiral paths on a cylindrical interface is modeled by photon remission along a straight line on a semi-infinite interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Yao, Gang; Bunting, Charles F; Jiang, Yuhao

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate that, for a long cylindrical applicator that interfaces concavely or convexly with a scattering-dominant medium, a unique set of spiral-shaped directions exist on the tissue-applicator interface, along which the diffuse photon remission is essentially modeled by the photon remission along a straight line on a semi-infinite interface. This interesting phenomenon, which is validated in steady state in this work by finite-element and Monte Carlo methods, may be particularly useful for simplifying deeper-tissue sensing in endoscopic imaging geometry.

  20. Straight-run vs. sex separate rearing for two broiler genetic lines Part 2: Economic analysis and processing advantages.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Colson, G; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of raising broilers under sex separate and straight-run conditions for 2 broiler genetic lines. One-day-old Ross 308 and Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,344) were sex separated and placed in 48 pens according to rearing type: sex separate (28 males or 28 females) or straight-run (14 males + 14 females). There were 3 dietary phases: starter (zero to 17 d), grower (17 to 32 d), and finisher (32 to 48 d). Bird individual BW and group feed intakes were measured at 12, 17, 25, 32, 42, and 48 d to evaluate performance. At 33, 43, and 49 d 4 birds per pen (straight-run pens 2 males + 2 females) were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Data were analyzed using linear and non-linear regression in order to estimate feed intake and cut-up weights at 3 separate market weights (1,700, 2,700, and 3,700 g). Returns over feed cost were estimated for a 1.8 million broiler complex for each rearing system and under 9 feed/meat price scenarios. Overall, rearing birds that were sex separated resulted in extra income that ranged from ${\\$}$48,824 to ${\\$}$330,300 per week, depending on the market targeted and feed and meat price scenarios. Sex separation was shown to be especially important in disadvantageous scenarios in which feed prices were high. Gains from sex separation were markedly higher for the Ross 708 than for the Ross 308 broilers. Bird variability also was evaluated at the 3 separate market ages under narrow ranges of BW that were targeted. Straight-run birds decreased the number of birds present in the desired range. Depending on market weight, straight-run rearing resulted in 9.1 to 16.6% fewer birds than sex separate rearing to meet marketing goals. It was concluded that sex separation can result in increased company profitability and have possible beneficial effects at the processing plant due to increased bird uniformity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Seeing a straight line on a curved surface: decoupling of patterns from surfaces by single IT neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ratan Murty, N. Apurva

    2016-01-01

    We have no difficulty seeing a straight line drawn on a paper even when the paper is bent, but this inference is in fact nontrivial. Doing so requires either matching local features or representing the pattern after factoring out the surface shape. Here we show that single neurons in the monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex show invariant responses to patterns across rigid and nonrigid changes of surfaces. We recorded neuronal responses to stimuli in which the pattern and the surrounding surface were varied independently. In a subset of neurons, we found pattern-surface interactions that produced similar responses to stimuli across congruent pattern and surface transformations. These interactions produced systematic shifts in curvature tuning of patterns when overlaid on convex and flat surfaces. Our results show that surfaces are factored out of patterns by single neurons, thereby enabling complex perceptual inferences. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have no difficulty seeing a straight line on a curved piece of paper, but in fact, doing so requires decoupling the shape of the surface from the pattern itself. Here we report a novel form of invariance in the visual cortex: single neurons in monkey inferior temporal cortex respond similarly to congruent transformations of patterns and surfaces, in effect decoupling patterns from the surface on which they are overlaid. PMID:27733595

  2. The interferometric method for measuring the generatrix straightness of high precision cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yanhui; Li, Huailu; Diao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Heng

    2015-10-01

    Cone parts are widely used in advanced manufacturing and precision mechanics, providing air proof, torque transmission and so on. The straightness of generatrix is one of the important parameters, and the required accuracy can be up to submicrometers. In order to realize the rapid and high precision generatrix measurement of smooth surface cone, a laser interferometric method is proposed based on the structure of typical Fizeau interferometer. The high precision optical flat is used for reference standard, and the surface of cone is the measured object. Two cylindrical lenses with different focal lengths realize unidirectional expansion of parallel beam, solving the problem of CCD camera fringe resolution. The interference fringes are curved because of the cone angle, and the peak is the basis for accurate determination of the generatrix. Two fringe processing techniques are described in detail, which are single-frame and phase-shifting methods. Single-frame method includes two steps, i.e. the calculation of integral part and decimal part. The advantage of this method is the simple measurement structure. Phase-shifting method needs piezoelectric transducer (PZT) to generate several steps for phase calculation, with the advantage of high accuracy. The experimental results show that the straightness measurement accuracy can be better than 0.2 μm.

  3. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  4. Comparison of conventional straight and swan-neck straight catheters inserted by percutaneous method for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shivendra; Prakash, Jai; Singh, R G; Dole, P K; Pant, Pragya

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the incidence of mechanical and infectious complications of conventional straight catheter (SC) versus swan-neck straight catheter (SNSC) implanted by percutaneous method. We retrospectively analyzed 45 catheter insertions being done by percutaneous method from January 1, 2011, to May 31, 2014. SC was inserted in 24 patients, and SNSC was inserted in 21 patients. Baseline characteristics for the two groups were similar with respect to age, sex and diabetic nephropathy as the cause for end-stage renal disease. Incidence of mechanical and infectious complications in SNSC group was found to be low as compared to the SC group and was statistically significant (1 in 11.6 patient months vs. 1 in 14.4 patient months, p = 0.02). Catheter migration was found to be the most common mechanical complication (20 %), and peritonitis was found to be the most common infectious complication in conventional SC group (27 episodes in 420 patient months vs. 11 episodes in 333 patient months, p = 0.03). The incidence of exit site and tunnel infection rates revealed no difference between the groups. SNSC insertion by percutaneous method is associated with low mechanical and infectious complications.

  5. A fast line-by-line method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsel, A. A.; Firsov, K. M.

    1995-09-01

    A new spectral line selection algorithm is developed. The algorithm makes it possible to decrease the number of spectral lines with the increase in altitude. In order for the computer code based on a line-by-line method to operate efficiently two line selections must be carried out. The first selection is rough. This enables the most weak lines not contributing to the optical thickness of the layer z1-z2 to be eliminated. The other lines are subjected to the second selection. In this case the maximum height up to which the line should be taken into account is determined. At the same time for each line at each altitude the maximum resonance frequency difference within the limits of which the contribution of the line to absorption should be taken into account is determined. The gain in the time of calculation of the integral transmittance may be of five times or greater. The calculation error of the integral transmittance is not larger than 0.5%.

  6. Analytic solutions for Wheeler-Feynman interaction: Two bodies in straight-line motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephas, Paul

    1992-02-01

    Analytic solutions are obtained for two point particles with any total energy that have charges of like sign and whose motions are confined to one dimension. These solutions are obtained by explicitly deriving the conserved quantities associated with Wheeler-Feynman interactions into forms that do not contain integrals but, rather, contain ``partial contributions'' to the momenta and potentials of particle two. The resulting conserved energy, momentum, and Lorentz momentum equations are separated in time to yield one set of equations with variables t1 and t2- (retarded) and another set with variables t1 and t1+ (advanced). These are solved to obtain auxiliary solutions x1r(t1) and x1a(t1), which are then combined for the case m1 = m2 to give the actual world lines x1(t1) and x2(t2). Comparison is made with a previous computer-generated exact solution for the same interaction and energy; good qualitative agreement is found, although some quantitative differences persist.

  7. Straight Shooting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Patricia A.

    1995-01-01

    In Hollywood movies, straight shooters often expose scoundrels' folly. School-based straight shooters seeking to clarify their positions and hear colleagues' views are hampered by lack of agreement about needed changes, an overly polite work environment, and contrived evaluation sessions. Recent Essential Schools initiatives show that…

  8. A calibrator based on the use of low-coherent light source straightness interferometer and compensation method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shyh-Tsong; Yeh, Sheng-Lih; Chiu, Chi-Shang; Huang, Mou-Shan

    2011-10-24

    A calibrator utilizing a low-coherent light source straightness interferometer and a compensation method is introduced for straightness measurements in this paper. Where the interference pattern, which is modulated by an envelope function, generated by the interferometer undergoes a shifting as the Wolaston prism of the interferometer experiences a lateral displacement, and the compensation method senses the displacement by driving the prism back to the position to restore the pattern. A setup, which is with a measurement sensitivity of 36.6°/μm, constructed for realizing the calibrator is demonstrated. The experimental results from the uses of the setup reveal that the setup is with a measurement resolution and stability of 0.019 and 0.08 μm, respectively, validate the calibrator, and confirm the calibrator's applicability of straightness measurements and advantage of extensible working distance.

  9. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 4: Transition path reconstruction along a straight line path containing a glideslope change waypoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The necessary algorithms to reconstruct the glideslope change waypoint along a straight line in the event the aircraft encounters a valid MLS update and transition in the terminal approach area are presented. Results of a simulation of the Langley B737 aircraft utilizing these algorithms are presented. The method is shown to reconstruct the necessary flight path during MLS transition resulting in zero cross track error, zero track angle error, and zero altitude error, thus requiring minimal aircraft response.

  10. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II.

  11. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  12. Kinematic Structures for Processing of Surfaces with a Circle Directrix and a Straight Line Generatrix (Part IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioară, R.

    2016-11-01

    A body with a given geometry can be obtained by various manufacturing procedures, entailing, however, different surface quality, dimensional precision and (most importantly) productivity. Each body is characterised by one or more surfaces, simple or complex, as the case may be. It is known that a surface is characterised by a directrix and a generatrix, as well as by the modality of its physical achievement by means of the machines and tools uses for manufacturing. The directrix is obtained as a result of a primary motion and possibly one or more secondary motions. The generatrix is obtained as a result of one secondary motion, rarely more. If the generatrix is materialized on a tool, then a secondary motion is not necessary. In addition one or more auxiliary motions are needed. Other generation modalities not excluded, from the theory of surface generation on machine-tools it is known that the directrix, as well as the generatrix can be: materialized; generated by copying; kinematically generated as the trajectory of a point; kinematically generated as the envelope of a family of curves; generated by rolling; or programmed. Typically in literature generation “by copying” and “programmed generation” of the directrix and generatrix are not addressed distinctively, both being assumed as of the same nature. The recent evolution of industrial electronics and implicitly of machine-tools has determined a clear differentiation between the kinematics and construction of machine-tools (still) using generation by copying from a master and the kinematics of NC machine-tools. The paper is one of kinematic synthesis, oriented towards innovation-invention, and presents by means of examples, not necessarily known or typical, all six cases of generation of surfaces characterised by a straight line generatrix and a circle directrix obtained kinematically as the envelope of a family of curves.

  13. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    PubMed Central

    Zahed Zahedani, SM; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, SMM

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. Materials and Method: In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. Results: In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (p< .05). Male patients had higher rate of root resorption,statistically significant (p< .05). Age at onset of treatment, duration of treatment, type of dental occlusion, premolar extractions and the use of intermaxillary elastics had no significant effect on the root resorption in this study. Conclusion: Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method. PMID:24724131

  14. Comparison of W-Plasty vs Traditional Straight-Line Techniques for Primary Paramedian Forehead Flap Donor Site Closure.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel J; Tummala, Neelima; Seth, Rahul; Arron, Sarah; Neuhaus, Isaac; Yu, Siegrid; Grekin, Roy; Knott, P Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The paramedian forehead flap (PMFF) donor site scar is hard to disguise and may be a source of patient dissatisfaction. To evaluate the aesthetic outcome of W-plasty vs traditional straight-line (SL) closure techniques of the PMFF donor site. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center. Clinical history and operative reports were reviewed for 31 patients who underwent a PMFF procedure performed between November 1, 2011, and May 29, 2014. Blinded photographic analysis of postoperative photographs was performed. The pedicled component of the PMFF was raised primarily with either a W-plasty or traditional SL design. Standard photographs of the donor site, obtained at least 90 days after surgery, were reviewed and scored in a blinded fashion by 4 dermatologic surgeons using a 100-point visual analog scale (from 0 [worst possible outcome] to 100 [best possible outcome]) and a 5-point Likert scale (from very poor to excellent). Interrater reliability was assessed via Cronbach α testing. All 31 forehead flaps survived during this study period; 16 PMFFs were raised with the W-plasty technique and 15 were raised with the SL technique. The W-plasty and SL groups were similar in terms of age, sex, and race/ethnicity (mean [SD] age, 68.4 [12.4] vs 61.8 [11.6] years; 13 [84%] vs 9 [60%] men; and 15 [94%] vs 13 [87%] white). Patients undergoing W-plasty closure had significantly higher mean visual analog scale scores compared with those undergoing SL closure (72.8 [18.3] vs 65.6 [18.1]; P = .03). Mean Likert scale scores for W-plasty were higher than those for SL closure, but the difference was not significant (3.77 [1.02] vs 3.43 [0.98]; P = .08). Overall interrater reliability for the visual analog scale and Likert scale scores were 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. Patients undergoing PMFF donor site closure using a primary W-plasty technique demonstrated better mean scar appearance of the forehead donor site

  15. Straight Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainburn, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing gay students remains an emotional, politically charged issue. But Kevin Jennings, the 42-year-old executive director of the Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), is not out to provoke shouting matches. Instead, he is quietly turning students into activists capable of changing schools on their own. Along with advocating…

  16. Automated semen analysis: 'zona pellucida preferred' sperm morphometry and straight-line velocity are related to pregnancy rate in subfertile couples.

    PubMed

    Garrett, C; Liu, D Y; Clarke, G N; Rushford, D D; Baker, H W G

    2003-08-01

    Standard semen analysis has low objectivity and reproducibility and is not closely related to fertility. We assess the prognostic value of automated measurements of sperm motility and morphology. During 1997-1999, 1191 infertile couples with no known absolute barrier to conception were assessed by conventional semen analysis, and automated measurements of average straight-line velocity (VSL) and the percentage of sperm with characteristics that conform to those of sperm which bind to the zona pellucida of the human oocyte (%Z). During follow-up to 2001, there were 336 natural pregnancies. Only %Z, VSL and female age were independently significantly related to pregnancy rate by Cox regression analysis. Pregnancy rate was higher with above average %Z and VSL, indicating a continuous rather than a threshold relationship. The likelihood of pregnancy within 12 cycles can be evaluated for specific values of %Z, VSL and female age using the Cox regression model. The automated semen measures of sperm morphometry (%Z) and velocity (VSL) are related to pregnancy rates in subfertile couples and should assist clinicians in counselling subfertile patients about their prognosis for a natural pregnancy. Objective automated methods should replace the traditional manual assessments of semen quality.

  17. Calibration of the straightness and orthogonality error of a laser feedback high-precision stage using self-calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Kihyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Sangdon

    2014-12-01

    An ultra high-precision 3-DOF air-bearing stage is developed and calibrated in this study. The stage was developed for the transportation of a glass or wafer with x and y following errors in the nanometer regime. To apply the proposed stage to display or semiconductor fabrication equipment, x and y straightness errors should be at the sub-micron level and the x-y orthogonality error should be in the region of several arcseconds with strokes of several hundreds of mm. Our system was designed to move a 400 mm stroke on the x axis and a 700 mm stroke on the y axis. To do this, 1000 mm and 550 mm bar-type mirrors were adopted for real time Δx and Δy laser measurements and feedback control. In this system, with the laser wavelength variation and instability being kept to a minimum through environmental control, the straightness and orthogonality become purely dependent upon the surface shape of the bar mirrors. Compensation for the distortion of the bar mirrors is accomplished using a self-calibration method. The successful application of the method nearly eliminated the straightness and orthogonality errors of the stage, allowing their specifications to be fully satisfied. As a result, the straightness and orthogonality errors of the stage were successfully decreased from 4.4 μm to 0.8 μm and from 0.04° to 2.48 arcsec, respectively.

  18. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work.

  19. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  20. The Efficacy of FlexMaster’s IntroFile, PreRaCe and Gates Glidden Drills in Straight-Line Access: A CBCT Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Narges; Sohrabi, Mahdi; Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An overlooked but important part of successful root canal treatment is a straight-line access (SLA). The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of IntroFile and PreRaCe rotary instruments with Gates Glidden (GG) drills in gaining SLA by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of forty five extracted mandibular first molars were selected and mounted in dental like arches. Subsequently, they were randomly classified into three groups (n=15). After preparation of a standard access cavity, orifices of the mesiobuccal canal was reached and a #10 file was inserted to explore the canals until the file tip was visible at the apex. Then, preoperative CBCT images were taken. SLA was gained in three groups; group 1, FlexMaster’s IntroFile (FM); group 2, PreRaCe (RC) and group 3, GG. Again, the first binding file at the working length (WL) was placed in the canal and postoperative CBCT images in similar positions were taken. The pre/post operative morphology of the canal was evaluated for changes. Data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results: The average amount of reduction in coronal canal curvature in FM, RC and GG groups was 2.43±1.79, 3.17±2.05 and 8.7±3.45, respectively. This descending trend was statistically significant. The difference between pre/post SLA changes in FM and RC groups was significant compared to GG group, while there were no significant differences between RC and FM. Conclusion: GG drills produced extraordinary results in reducing coronal curvature of the canal and achieving SLA. They are also more effective than nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in canals with coronal curvature. PMID:25031594

  1. Monte carlo method for the uncertainty evaluation of spatial straightness error based on new generation geometrical product specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiulan; Xu, Youxiong; Li, Hongsheng; Wang, Fenglin; Sheng, Danghong

    2012-09-01

    Straightness error is an important parameter in measuring high-precision shafts. New generation geometrical product specification(GPS) requires the measurement uncertainty characterizing the reliability of the results should be given together when the measurement result is given. Nowadays most researches on straightness focus on error calculation and only several research projects evaluate the measurement uncertainty based on "The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement(GUM)". In order to compute spatial straightness error(SSE) accurately and rapidly and overcome the limitations of GUM, a quasi particle swarm optimization(QPSO) is proposed to solve the minimum zone SSE and Monte Carlo Method(MCM) is developed to estimate the measurement uncertainty. The mathematical model of minimum zone SSE is formulated. In QPSO quasi-random sequences are applied to the generation of the initial position and velocity of particles and their velocities are modified by the constriction factor approach. The flow of measurement uncertainty evaluation based on MCM is proposed, where the heart is repeatedly sampling from the probability density function(PDF) for every input quantity and evaluating the model in each case. The minimum zone SSE of a shaft measured on a Coordinate Measuring Machine(CMM) is calculated by QPSO and the measurement uncertainty is evaluated by MCM on the basis of analyzing the uncertainty contributors. The results show that the uncertainty directly influences the product judgment result. Therefore it is scientific and reasonable to consider the influence of the uncertainty in judging whether the parts are accepted or rejected, especially for those located in the uncertainty zone. The proposed method is especially suitable when the PDF of the measurand cannot adequately be approximated by a Gaussian distribution or a scaled and shifted t-distribution and the measurement model is non-linear.

  2. Growth in the Lower Limb Following Chemotherapy for a Malignant Primary Bone Tumour: A Straight-Line Graph

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mark; Grimer, Rob J.; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this paper was to assess the growth in the unaffected lower limb of children who had received chemotherapy for a malignant primary bone tumour around the knee. Subjects/methods. Following diagnosis, all children (45, of which 32 were boys and 13 were girls) were staged. If limb-salvage surgery was thought appropriate, measured radiographs of both legs was performed, the bone age was estimated and the expected growth in the femur and tibia was calculated according to Tupman. These procedures were repeated at follow-up and the data plotted. Regression and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Results. The observed regression line in boys was almost identical to Tupman's curve. However, the observed growth in girls was larger than the expected growth. Discussion. It is recommended that the regression lines presented here are used in the calculation of the expected growth in the lower limb of children who have received chemotherapy for a malignant primary bone tumour, especially in girls. PMID:18521205

  3. The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeff C; Russel, Kory C; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.

  4. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Dewart, Jean Marie; Deola, Regina

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (1990–2014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  5. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, D.; , A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    Recent data sets for three meteorological phenomena with the potential to inflict damage on SRS facilities - tornadoes, straight winds, and heavy precipitation - are analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate occurrence probabilities for these events in the future. Summaries of the results for DOE-mandated return periods and comparisons to similar calculations performed in 1998 by Weber, et al., are given. Using tornado statistics for the states of Georgia and South Carolina, we calculated the probability per year of any location within a 2⁰ square area surrounding SRS being struck by a tornado (the ‘strike’ probability) and the probability that any point will experience winds above set thresholds. The strike probability was calculated to be 1.15E-3 (1 chance in 870) per year and wind speeds for DOE mandated return periods of 50,000 years, 125,000 years, and 1E+7 years (USDOE, 2012) were estimated to be 136 mph, 151 mph and 221 mph, respectively. In 1998 the strike probability for SRS was estimated to be 3.53 E-4 and the return period wind speeds were 148 mph every 50,000 years and 180 mph every 125,000 years. A 1E+7 year tornado wind speed was not calculated in 1998; however a 3E+6 year wind speed was 260 mph. The lower wind speeds resulting from this most recent analysis are largely due to new data since 1998, and to a lesser degree differences in the models used. By contrast, default tornado wind speeds taken from ANSI/ANS-2.3-2011 are somewhat higher: 161 mph for return periods of 50,000 years, 173 mph every 125,000 years, and 230 mph every 1E+7 years (ANS, 2011). Although the ANS model and the SRS models are very similar, the region defined in ANS 2.3 that encompasses the SRS also includes areas of the Great Plains and lower Midwest, regions with much higher occurrence frequencies of strong tornadoes. The SRS straight wind values associated with various return periods were calculated by fitting existing wind data to a Gumbel

  6. Apparatus and method for routing a transmission line through a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Reynolds, Jay

    2006-07-04

    A method for routing a transmission line through a tool joint having a primary and secondary shoulder, a central bore, and a longitudinal axis, includes drilling a straight channel, at a positive, nominal angle with respect to the longitudinal axis, through the tool joint from the secondary shoulder to a point proximate the inside wall of the centtral bore. The method further includes milling back, from within the central bore, a second channel to merge with the straight channel, thereby forming a continuous channel from the secondary shoulder to the central bore. In selected embodiments, drilling is accomplished by gun-drilling the straight channel. In other embodiments, the method includes tilting the tool joint before drilling to produce the positive, nominal angle. In selected embodiments, the positive, nominal angle is less than or equal to 15 degrees.

  7. Effects of Structural Flexibility on Motorcycle Straight Running Stability by using Energy Flow Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Yoshitaka; Katayama, Tsuyoshi

    This study uses the energy flow method to analyze how structural flexibility affects the motorcycle wobble and weave modes. Lateral bending of the front fork and torsion of the main frame affect the wobble mode stability. These are based on the gyroscopic effect of the front wheel in the steering motion by considering structural flexibility. At high speeds, lateral bending of the front fork and torsion of the rear swing arm more significantly affect the weave mode stability. These are primarily due to the phase changes of the external force generated by the yaw rate in the lateral motion. The phase change of the yaw rate force in the lateral motion originates from the phase change of the tire side forces.

  8. Straight line fitting and predictions: On a marginal likelihood approach to linear regression and errors-in-variables models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Linear regression methods are without doubt the most used approaches to describe and predict data in the physical sciences. They are often good first order approximations and they are in general easier to apply and interpret than more advanced methods. However, even the properties of univariate regression can lead to debate over the appropriateness of various models as witnessed by the recent discussion about climate reconstruction methods. Before linear regression is applied important choices have to be made regarding the origins of the noise terms and regarding which of the two variables under consideration that should be treated as the independent variable. These decisions are often not easy to make but they may have a considerable impact on the results. We seek to give a unified probabilistic - Bayesian with flat priors - treatment of univariate linear regression and prediction by taking, as starting point, the general errors-in-variables model (Christiansen, J. Clim., 27, 2014-2031, 2014). Other versions of linear regression can be obtained as limits of this model. We derive the likelihood of the model parameters and predictands of the general errors-in-variables model by marginalizing over the nuisance parameters. The resulting likelihood is relatively simple and easy to analyze and calculate. The well known unidentifiability of the errors-in-variables model is manifested as the absence of a well-defined maximum in the likelihood. However, this does not mean that probabilistic inference can not be made; the marginal likelihoods of model parameters and the predictands have, in general, well-defined maxima. We also include a probabilistic version of classical calibration and show how it is related to the errors-in-variables model. The results are illustrated by an example from the coupling between the lower stratosphere and the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere winter.

  9. Unilateral cleft lip/nose repair using an equal bows /straight line advancement technique - A preliminary report and postoperative symmetry-based anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Samer George; Aschoff, Horst Heinrich; Jacobsen, Hans-Christian; Sieg, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In the evolution of cleft lip repair there has been continuous attempt to minimize local trauma, improve lip and nasal appearance and, especially, prevent conspicuous scars. The surgical technique presented meets these criteria, resulting in an appropriate scar course in children with a specific philtral ridge shape. Postoperative digital anthropometry was performed in 18 patients who underwent unilateral cleft lip repair using the equal bows/straight line advancement technique and in matched healthy control individuals. Symmetry values were assessed for lip length, philtral ridge length, vermilion height, width of the alar base, nasocanthal length, circumference of the nostrils, nostril width and height in both cleft and control groups. Evaluation revealed no significant differences in the symmetry values between cleft patients and control group (lip length: p = 0.71, philtral ridge length: p = 0.52, vermilion height: p = 0.23, alar base width: p = 0.69, nasocanthal length: p = 0.25, nostril circumference: p = 0.17, nostril width: p = 0.34, nostril height: p = 0.33). Principles of cleft lip repair can be achieved using the described technique which provides adequate lip length and natural nasal appearance in patients with a parallel-shaped philtral ridge.

  10. Is the Graph of y=kx Straight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Alex; Dreyfus, Tommy

    1991-01-01

    Presented are activities concerning the method of graphing the equation y=kx in the Cartesian and other coordinate systems. Students progress from the graph of a straight line to the investigation of conceptually related geometric loci in non-Cartesian coordinate systems. (MDH)

  11. A few remarks on microscopes and telescopes for theoretical physics: How rich locally and large globally is the geometric straight line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosinger, Elemér E.

    2012-03-01

    One is reminded in this paper of the often overlooked fact that the geometric straight line, or GSL, of Euclidean geometry is not necessarily identical with its usual Cartesian coordinatisation given by the real numbers in R. Indeed, the GSL is an abstract idea, while the Cartesian, or for that matter, any other specific coordinatisation of it is but a mathematical model chosen upon certain reasons. And as is known, there are a a variety of mathematical models of GSL, among them given by nonstandard analysis, reduced power algebras, the topological long line, or the surreal numbers. As shown in this paper, the GSL can allow coordinatisations which are arbitrarily more rich locally and also more large globally, being given by corresponding linearly ordered sets of no matter how large cardinal. Thus one can obtain in relatively simple ways structures which are more rich locally and large globally than in nonstandard analysis, or in various reduced power algebras. Furthermore, vector space structures can be defined in such coordinatisations. This fact can have a major importance in physics, since such locally more rich and globally more large coordinatisations of the GSL do allow new physical insights, just as the introduction of various microscopes and telescopes have done. Among others, it can reassess special relativity with respect to its independence of the mathematical models used for the GSL. Also, it can allow the more appropriate modelling of certain physical phenomena. One of the long vexing issue of so called ``infinities in physics'' can obtain a clarifying reconsideration. It indeed all comes down to looking at the GSL with suitably constructed microscopes and telescopes, and apply the resulted new modelling possibilities in theoretical physics. One may as well consider that in string theory, for instance, where several dimensions are supposed to be compact to the extent of not being observable on classical scales, their mathematical modelling may benefit

  12. Straight-run vs. sex separate rearing for 2 broiler genetic lines Part 1: Live production parameters, carcass yield, and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Zaragoza-Santacruz, S; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-03-04

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of raising broilers under sex separate and straight-run conditions for 2 broiler strains. Day-old Ross 308 and Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,344) were separated by sex and placed in 48 pens according to the rearing type: sex separate (28 males or 28 females) or straight-run (14 males + 14 females). There were 3 dietary phases: starter (zero to 17 d), grower (17 to 32 d), and finisher (32 to 48 d). Birds' individual BW and feed intakes were measured at 12, 17, 25, 32, 42, and 48 d to evaluate performance. At 33, 43, and 49 d, 4 birds per pen were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Additionally, from 06:00 to 06:30, 13:00 to 13:30, and 22:00 to 22:30, video records were taken to assess behavior at 45 days. Data were analyzed as CRD with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments over time. Throughout the experiment Ross 308 were heavier than the 708, and after 17 d, male pens had the heavier birds, followed by straight-run and then females. Straight-run pens had higher BW CV in comparison with sex separate pens. Sex separate male BW was negatively impacted from 17 to 32 days. On the other hand, females raised sex separate were heavier than females raised straight-run with lower CV from 25 to 41 days. Post 25 d, FCR was the lowest in male pens whereas feed intake was the highest for these pens after 17 days. Overall, males had total carcass cut-up weights higher than straight-run and females at the 3 processing times. The Ross 708 had higher white meat yields, whereas 308 had higher yields for dark meat. Feeding behavior results were not consistent over time. However, from 13:00 to 13:30, birds in female pens spent more time eating, followed by straight-run and then males. In conclusion, raising females in a straight-run system negatively impacted performance and CV, whereas males benefited from straight-run rearing, with the differences being possibly related to feeder space competition. © 2017

  13. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The subjective straight-ahead direction is a very basic perceptual reference for spatial orientation and locomotion. The perceived straight-ahead along the horizontal and vertical meridian is largely determined by both otolith and somatosensory inputs which are altered in microgravity. The Straight Ahead in Microgravity (SAM) experiment will be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how this spatial processing changes as a function of spaceflight. METHODS Data will be collected before the flight, at one-month intervals during long-duration stay (180 days) on board ISS, and after return to Earth. Control studies will also be performed during parabolic flights. Three different protocols will be used in each test session: (1) Fixation: The subject will be asked to look at actual targets (normal vision) and then to imagine these same targets (occluded vision) in the straight-ahead direction. Targets will be located at near distance (arm s length, 0.5m), medium distance (1 m), and far distance (beyond 2 m). This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted forward and backward by an operator. (2) Saccades: The subject will be asked to make horizontal and vertical saccades, first relative to the spacecraft interior reference system, and then relative to the subject s head reference system. This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted in roll or in pitch by an operator. (3) Linear Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR): The subject will be asked to stare at actual visual targets (normal vision) at various distances (near, medium, far) in the straight-ahead direction. Vision will then be occluded, and the subject will be asked to continue staring at the same imagined targets while he/she is passively translated forward-backward, up-down, or side-to-side. The subject's body motion will

  14. Analysis of the sweeped actuator line method

    DOE PAGES

    Nathan, Jörn; Masson, Christian; Dufresne, Louis; ...

    2015-10-16

    The actuator line method made it possible to describe the near wake of a wind turbine more accurately than with the actuator disk method. Whereas the actuator line generates the helicoidal vortex system shed from the tip blades, the actuator disk method sheds a vortex sheet from the edge of the rotor plane. But with the actuator line come also temporal and spatial constraints, such as the need for a much smaller time step than with actuator disk. While the latter one only has to obey the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition, the former one is also restricted by the grid resolution andmore » the rotor tip-speed. Additionally the spatial resolution has to be finer for the actuator line than with the actuator disk, for well resolving the tip vortices. Therefore this work is dedicated to examining a method in between of actuator line and actuator disk, which is able to model the transient behavior, such as the rotating blades, but which also relaxes the temporal constraint. Therefore a larger time-step is used and the blade forces are swept over a certain area. As a result, the main focus of this article is on the aspect of the blade tip vortex generation in comparison with the standard actuator line and actuator disk.« less

  15. Analysis of the sweeped actuator line method

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, Jörn; Masson, Christian; Dufresne, Louis; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-10-16

    The actuator line method made it possible to describe the near wake of a wind turbine more accurately than with the actuator disk method. Whereas the actuator line generates the helicoidal vortex system shed from the tip blades, the actuator disk method sheds a vortex sheet from the edge of the rotor plane. But with the actuator line come also temporal and spatial constraints, such as the need for a much smaller time step than with actuator disk. While the latter one only has to obey the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition, the former one is also restricted by the grid resolution and the rotor tip-speed. Additionally the spatial resolution has to be finer for the actuator line than with the actuator disk, for well resolving the tip vortices. Therefore this work is dedicated to examining a method in between of actuator line and actuator disk, which is able to model the transient behavior, such as the rotating blades, but which also relaxes the temporal constraint. Therefore a larger time-step is used and the blade forces are swept over a certain area. As a result, the main focus of this article is on the aspect of the blade tip vortex generation in comparison with the standard actuator line and actuator disk.

  16. A line integration method for the treatment of 3D domain integrals and accelerated by the fast multipole method in the BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiao; Zhou, Wei; Cheng, Yonggang; Ma, Gang; Chang, Xiaolin

    2017-04-01

    A line integration method (LIM) is proposed to calculate the domain integrals for 3D problems. In the proposed method, the domain integrals are transformed into boundary integrals and only line integrals on straight lines are needed to be computed. A background cell structure is applied to further simplify the line integrals and improve the accuracy. The method creates elements only on the boundary, and the integral lines are created from the boundary elements. The procedure is quite suitable for the boundary element method, and we have applied it to 3D situations. Directly applying the method is time-consuming since the complexity of the computational time is O( NM), where N and M are the numbers of nodes and lines, respectively. To overcome this problem, the fast multipole method is used with the LIM for large-scale computation. The numerical results show that the proposed method is efficient and accurate.

  17. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  18. Utility straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.; Peggs, S.; Peterson, J.

    1985-10-01

    Utility straight sections are insertions in the SSC lattice to provide relatively free space to facilitate various beam manipulations. These uses include beam-abort, injection (and conceivably ejection), space for the rf system, and collimation. A typical utility straight section is 1500 meters in overall length (ranging from 500 to 1200 meters). It has zero dispersion and high values of the beta functions. The betatron phase shift across the insertion is about 90{degrees} in each plane.

  19. Transmission line icing measurement on photogrammetry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijin; Du, Hao; Luo, Hong; Mao, Xianyin; Tang, Min; Liu, Yawen

    2015-12-01

    Icing thickness parameter is the basic data for power sector to make decision for icing accident prevention. In this paper, a transmission line icing measurement method is proposed. It used the photogrammetry method to realize icing parameters measurement through the integration of high resolution camera, laser range finder and inertial measurement unit. Compared with traditional icing measurement method, this method is flexible and is the effective supplement of the fixed icing detection terminal. And its high accuracy measurement guarantees the reliability of the icing thickness parameters.

  20. Combinatorial optimization methods for disassembly line balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Seamus M.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    Disassembly takes place in remanufacturing, recycling, and disposal with a line being the best choice for automation. The disassembly line balancing problem seeks a sequence which: minimizes workstations, ensures similar idle times, and is feasible. Finding the optimal balance is computationally intensive due to factorial growth. Combinatorial optimization methods hold promise for providing solutions to the disassembly line balancing problem, which is proven to belong to the class of NP-complete problems. Ant colony optimization, genetic algorithm, and H-K metaheuristics are presented and compared along with a greedy/hill-climbing heuristic hybrid. A numerical study is performed to illustrate the implementation and compare performance. Conclusions drawn include the consistent generation of optimal or near-optimal solutions, the ability to preserve precedence, the speed of the techniques, and their practicality due to ease of implementation.

  1. Analysis of coupling efficiency on hemispherical fiber lens by method of lines.

    PubMed

    Lambak, Zainuddin; Abdul Rahman, Faidz; Mokhtar, Mohd Ridzuan; Tengku, Imran A

    2009-02-16

    The method of lines (MoL) has been developed to study coupling efficiency on hemispherical lens. In this paper, the physical shape of the lens is approximated by cascading a number of straight waveguide segments. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is applied as an absorber for the MoL to reduce numerical reflection in the simulation region. Analysis is done by calculating coupling efficiency at the plane of integration where the coupling efficiency is an overlap integral between laser diode field and fiber field. The result of coupling efficiency in this analysis is compared to the experiment and ABCD matrix. It is found that MoL gives good result accuracy.

  2. Line-of-sight deposition method

    DOEpatents

    Patten, J.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Bayne, M.A.

    1980-04-16

    A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  3. Line-of-sight deposition method

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.; Bayne, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45.degree. to 90.degree. even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  4. Calibration of a New Type of Wind Tunnel (PI-SWERL) With Dust Emission Data From a Conventional Straight-Line Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, M.; Etyemezian, V.; Gillies, J.; MacPherson, T.; McDonald, E.; Nikolich, G.; Nickling, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Portable In Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was developed by the Desert Research Institute to measure dust emissions from soil surfaces. This small, portable unit can test the emissivity of soils in areas that are difficult to access with a straight field wind tunnel, and can complete a larger number of tests in less time. The PI-SWERL, embodied in a cylindrical enclosure (0.6 m diameter, 0.3 m height), contains an annular flat blade that is controlled to rotate at varying speed, which generates a shear stress upon the surface. Laboratory measurements using skin friction meters (Irwin sensors) were used to estimate the relation between rotation speed and shear stress imparted onto the test surface. The shear stress generated by PI-SWERL results in the entrainment of particles on the surface that dislodge dust, the concentration of which is measured using real-time instrumentation (TSI Model 8520 DustTrak). The straight portable wind tunnel is currently the best instrument available to characterize dust emission fluxes from soils in lieu of measurements taken during actual wind erosion events. PI-SWERL does not simulate the atmospheric boundary layer in the same manner as the field wind tunnel, but was developed to provide a comparable index of dust emission potential. This paper will present results of the calibration of PI-SWERL with the 11 m long by 1 m wide University of Guelph portable field wind tunnel that was conducted at 15 relatively flat, non-vegetated sites at the Ft. Irwin National Training Center, CA and the Mojave National Preserve. A wide spectrum of soils with different propensities to emit dust was tested including sand- to clay-rich soils on eolian, lacustrine (playa), and alluvial landforms. Soil surfaces displayed a range of crusting, some with gravel cover, and were either undisturbed or artificially disturbed for testing. At each site, seven to ten wind tunnel tests were conducted and ten to eighteen PI-SWERL tests were run adjacent to

  5. Stability in straight stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Yoshikawa, S.

    1981-07-01

    The stability of the straight stellarator against localized interchange modes is investigated employing the Mercier-Greene-Johnson criterion. Critical values of ..beta.. are obtained both numerically and analytically. The conclusion is that for classical helical stellarators the average limiting ..beta..'s are quite low of order three to four percent.

  6. Line-of-sight deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, M.A.; Mcclanahan, E.D.; Patten, J.W.

    1981-12-15

    A line-of-sight method is disclosed of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  7. Method of lines solution of Richards` equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, C.T.; Miller, C.T.; Tocci, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the method of lines solution of Richard`s equation, which models flow through porous media, as an example of a situation in which the method can give incorrect results because of premature termination of the nonlinear corrector iteration. This premature termination arises when the solution has a sharp moving front and the Jacobian is ill-conditioned. While this problem can be solved by tightening the tolerances provided to the ODE or DAE solver used for the temporal integration, it is more efficient to modify the termination criteria of the nonlinear solver and/or recompute the Jacobian more frequently. In this paper we continue previous work on this topic by analyzing the modifications in more detail and giving a strategy on how the modifications can be turned on and off in response to changes in the character of the solution.

  8. A study of prediction methods for the high angle-of-attack aerodynamics of straight wings and fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, O. J.; Mendenhall, M. R.; Perkins, S. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Work is described dealing with two areas which are dominated by the nonlinear effects of vortex flows. The first area concerns the stall/spin characteristics of a general aviation wing with a modified leading edge. The second area concerns the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of high performance military aircraft. For each area, the governing phenomena are described as identified with the aid of existing experimental data. Existing analytical methods are reviewed, and the most promising method for each area used to perform some preliminary calculations. Based on these results, the strengths and weaknesses of the methods are defined, and research programs recommended to improve the methods as a result of better understanding of the flow mechanisms involved.

  9. Setting the Record Straight. The Truth About Fad Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat Foods Council, Parker, CO.

    The Setting the Record Straight information packet presents facts to set the record straight about nutrition and debunk fad diets. The kit features materials designed to communicate the importance of balanced eating. Materials include: a time line of fad diets; four reproducible fad diet book review handouts that show the misleading claims rampant…

  10. Determination of Geometrical Parameters for Semi-Rolling Bevel Precessional Gears With Straight Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syzrantsev, V.; Syzrantseva, K.; Milanovic, M.; Pazyak, A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the semi-rolling bevel precessional gear with straight teeth. The given method of cutting pinion and gear teeth significantly simplifies its manufacture technology. Authors have given a system of equations to study the analysis of generating pinion tooth surfaces and geometry of meshing for semi-rolling bevel precessional gear with straight teeth. A computer program was developed to enable implement formulas provided in the paper. By using this program authors obtained contact lines on the pinion tooth surface and number of tooth pairs in gears mesh.

  11. Centaur feedline dynamics study using power spectral methods. [fundamental mode resonant frequencies of RL-10 oxygen and hydrogen feed lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the dynamic characteristics of the Centaur/RL-10 oxygen and hydrogen feedlines. The fundamental-mode resonant frequencies were determined by applying power spectral methods to noise-generated data from hot firings of the RL-10 engine. The effect of net positive suction pressure of the main feed pumps on resonant frequency characteristics was determined to be a straight-line relation. Power spectral methods were also used to determine the dynamic characteristics of the boost pumps.

  12. Analysis of microstrip dipoles and slots transversely coupled to a microstrip line using the FDTD method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulintseff, A. N.

    1993-01-01

    Printed dipole elements and their complement, linear slots, are elementary radiators that have found use in low-profile antenna arrays. Low-profile antenna arrays, in addition to their small size and low weight characteristics, offer the potential advantage of low-cost, high-volume production with easy integration with active integrated circuit components. The design of such arrays requires that the radiation and impedance characteristics of the radiating elements be known. The FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method is a general, straight-forward implementation of Maxwell's equations and offers a relatively simple way of analyzing both printed dipole and slot elements. Investigated in this work is the application of the FDTD method to the analysis of printed dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite transmission line in a multilayered configuration. Such dipole and slot elements may be used in dipole and slot series-fed-type linear arrays, where element offsets and interelement line lengths are used to obtain the desired amplitude distribution and beam direction, respectively. The design of such arrays is achieved using transmission line theory with equivalent circuit models for the radiating elements. In an equivalent circuit model, the dipole represents a shunt impedance to the transmission line, where the impedance is a function of dipole offset, length, and width. Similarly, the slot represents a series impedance to the transmission line. The FDTD method is applied to single dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite microstrip line using a fixed rectangular grid with Mur's second order absorbing boundary conditions. Frequency-dependent circuit and scattering parameters are obtained by saving desired time-domain quantities and using the Fourier transform. A Gaussian pulse excitation is applied to the microstrip transmission line, where the resulting reflected signal due to the presence of the radiating element is used

  13. A new mathematical formulation of the line-by-line method in case of weak line overlapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.; Krymova, Natalie V.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical proof is presented for multiline representation on the equivalent width of a molecular band which consists in the general case of n overlapping spectral lines. The multiline representation includes a principal term and terms of minor significance. The principal term is the equivalent width of the molecular band consisting of the same n nonoverlapping spectral lines. The terms of minor significance take into consideration the overlapping of two, three and more spectral lines. They are small in case of the weak overlapping of spectral lines in the molecular band. The multiline representation can be easily generalized for optically inhomogeneous gas media and holds true for combinations of molecular bands. If the band lines overlap weakly the standard formulation of line-by-line method becomes too labor-consuming. In this case the multiline representation permits line-by-line calculations to be performed more effectively. Other useful properties of the multiline representation are pointed out.

  14. Straight SU-8 pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, R.; Pla Roca, M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Mirzaei, M.; Juncker, D.

    2010-05-01

    SU-8 can be patterned with high resolution, is flexible and tough. These characteristics qualify SU-8 as a material for making spotting pins for printing DNA and protein microarrays, and it can potentially replace the commonly used silicon and steel pins that are expensive, brittle in the case of silicon and can damage the substrate during the printing process. SU-8, however, accumulates large internal stress during fabrication and, as a consequence, thin and long SU-8 structures bend and coil up, which precludes using it for long, freestanding structures such as pins. Here we introduce (i) a novel fabrication process that allows the making of 30 mm long, straight spotting pins that feature (ii) a new design and surface chemistry treatments for better capillary flow control and more homogeneous spotting. A key innovation for the fabrication is a post-processing annealing step with slow temperature ramping and mechanical clamping between two identical substrates to minimize stress buildup and render it symmetric, respectively, which together yield a straight SU-8 structure. SU-8 pins fabricated using this process are compliant and resilient and can buckle without damage during printing. The pins comprise a novel flow stop valve for accurate metering of fluids, and their surface was chemically patterned to render the outside of the pin hydrophobic while the inside of the slit is hydrophilic, and the slit thus spontaneously fills when dipped into a solution while preventing droplet attachment on the outside. A single SU-8 pin was used to print 1392 protein spots in one run. SU-8 pins are inexpensive, straightforward to fabricate, robust and may be used as disposable pins for microarray fabrication. These pins serve as an illustration of the potential application of ultralow stress SU-8 for making freestanding microfabricated polymer microstructures.

  15. Standing "Straight" up to Homophobia: Straight Allies' Involvement in GSAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Alicia Anne

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study captures the experiences of four straight allies' and one gay youth involvement in gay--straight alliances (GSAs) at their Ontario, Canada, high schools. Participants' motivations for becoming GSA members and their roles as allies are examined. Queer theoretical perspectives, as espoused by Britzman (1995, 1998) and Linville…

  16. Straight Talk about Prejudice. The Straight Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranz, Rachel

    The Straight Talk series is designed for teenagers today. It presents the most factual, up-to-date information available. "Straight Talk about Prejudice" provides readers with clear, factual information about prejudice and explores how unjust and destructive prejudice and discrimination really are. Prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination are…

  17. Standing "Straight" up to Homophobia: Straight Allies' Involvement in GSAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Alicia Anne

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study captures the experiences of four straight allies' and one gay youth involvement in gay--straight alliances (GSAs) at their Ontario, Canada, high schools. Participants' motivations for becoming GSA members and their roles as allies are examined. Queer theoretical perspectives, as espoused by Britzman (1995, 1998) and Linville…

  18. A Scheduling Method for Painting Line under Pull Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jae Kyu; Shinbo, Kojiro; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    This paper concerns with a scheduling method for painting (preceding) line with much longer production lead-time than assembly (subsequent) line. In general, production schedule of the painting line is made independently based on the forecasted job requirement at the assembly line. When the job requirement changes at the assembly line by virtue of the change of customer order, therefore, production balance is destroyed between the both lines. To avoid the tardiness caused by such unbalance, we need to have many inventories for the painting line. Such countermeasure is taken place in many companies actually. Thus, to avoid the tardiness while keeping small inventory, we propose a scheduling method that makes a Pseudo-Pull production possible for the painting line. We have evaluated the proposed method through computer simulations.

  19. Comparison of ordinary, weighted, and generalized least-squares straight-line calibrations for LC-MS-MS, GC-MS, HPLC, GC, and enzymatic assay.

    PubMed

    Duer, Wayne C; Ogren, Paul J; Meetze, Alison; Kitchen, Chester J; Von Lindern, Ryan; Yaworsky, Dustin C; Boden, Christopher; Gayer, Jeffery A

    2008-06-01

    The impact of experimental errors in one or both variables on the use of linear least-squares was investigated for method calibrations (response = intercept plus slope times concentration, or equivalently, Y = a(1) + a(2)X ) frequently used in analytical toxicology. In principle, the most reliable calibrations should consider errors from all sources, but consideration of concentration (X) uncertainties has not been common due to complex fitting algorithm requirements. Data were obtained for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and enzymatic assay. The required experimental uncertainties in response were obtained from replicate measurements. The required experimental uncertainties in concentration were determined from manufacturers' furnished uncertainties in stock solutions coupled with uncertainties imparted by dilution techniques. The mathematical fitting techniques used in the investigation were ordinary least-squares, weighted least-squares (WOLS), and generalized least-squares (GLS). GLS best-fit results, obtained with an efficient iteration algorithm implemented in a spreadsheet format, are used with a modified WOLS-based formula to derive reliable uncertainties in calculated concentrations. It was found that while the values of the intercepts and slopes were not markedly different for the different techniques, the derived uncertainties in parameters were different. Such differences can significantly affect the predicted uncertainties in concentrations derived from the use of the different linear least-squares equations.

  20. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, Lawrence C., III (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  1. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, III, Lawrence C. (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  2. Gas flow with straight transition line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovsiannikov, L V

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the limiting case of a gas flow when the constant pressure in the surrounding medium is exactly equal to the critical pressure for the given initial state of the gas.

  3. The straight-line information security architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.

    1995-08-01

    Comprehensive monitoring can provide a wealth of sensor data useful in enhancing the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. However, care must be taken to distribute this type of data on a need to know basis to the various types of users. The following paper describes an exploratory effort on behalf of Sandia National Labs to integrate commercially available systems to securely disseminate (on a need to know basis) both classified and unclassified sensor information to a variety of users on the interact.

  4. Thermal expansion method for lining tantalum alloy tubing with tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Mattson, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A differential-thermal expansion method was developed to line T-111 (tantalum - 8 percent tungsten - 2 percent hafnium) tubing with a tungsten diffusion barrier as part of a fuel element fabrication study for a space power nuclear reactor concept. This method uses a steel mandrel, which has a larger thermal expansion than T-111, to force the tungsten against the inside of the T-111 tube. Variables investigated include lining temperature, initial assembly gas size, and tube length. Linear integrity increased with increasing lining temperature and decreasing gap size. The method should have more general applicability where cylinders must be lined with a thin layer of a second material.

  5. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Vanya, R. D.; Clement, G.

    2014-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead, and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This project specifically addresses the sensorimotor research gap "What are the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission?" Six ISS crewmembers will be requested to participate in three preflight sessions (between 120 and 60 days prior to launch) and then three postflight sessions on R+0/1 day, R+4 +/-2 days, and R+8 +/-2 days. The three specific aims include: (a) fixation of actual and imagined target locations at different distances; (b) directed eye and arm movements along different spatial reference frames; and (c) the vestibulo-ocular reflex during translation motion with fixation targets at different distances. These measures will be compared between upright and tilted conditions. Measures will then be compared with and without a vibrotactile sensory aid that indicates how far one has tilted relative to the straight-ahead direction. The flight study was been approved by the medical review boards and will be implemented in the upcoming Informed Crew Briefings to solicit flight subject participation. Preliminary data has been recorded on 6 subjects during parabolic flight to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. During some parabolas, a vibrotactile sensory aid provided

  6. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  7. Interference method for measuring central moments of spectral lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevatov, I.E.; Kulikova, E.Kh.; Cheragin, N.P.

    1995-04-01

    A method of unconventional spectral analysis, which was developed for simultaneous measurements of integral parameters of spectral lines such as an area under the line, and its shift, half-width, asymmetry, etc., is substantiated. The basic concepts of the method are described and examples of its use with two- and multibeam interferometers are given.

  8. A method to predict electromigration failure of metal lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagawa, Kazuhiko; Naito, Kazushi; Saka, Masumi; Abé, Hiroyuki

    1999-12-01

    A new calculation method of atomic flux divergence (AFDgen) due to electromigration has recently been proposed by considering all the factors on void formation, and AFDgen has been identified as a parameter governing void formation by observing agreement of the numerical prediction of the void with experiment. In this article, a method to predict the electromigration failure of metal lines was proposed by using AFDgen. Lifetime and failure site in a polycrystalline line were predicted by numerical simulation of the processes of void initiation, its growth to line failure, where the change in distributions of current density and temperature with void growth was taken into account. The usefulness of this prediction method was verified by the experiment where the angled aluminum line was treated. The failure location was determined by the line shape and the operating condition. The present simulation accurately predicted the lifetime as well as the failure location of the metal line.

  9. Efficacy of LA Axxess burs, Gates Glidden drills and Protaper Sx in obtaining straight line access in mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars: A cone-beam computed tomography assessment

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Promila; Bains, Rhythm; Tikku, A. P.; Chandra, Anil; Mehta, Shibha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation of the ability of Gates Glidden (GG) drills, Protaper Sx, and LA Axxess burs to produce a straight line access (SLA) in mesiobuccal canals of mandibular first molars. Methodology: Forty-five freshly extracted mandibular teeth with a canal curvature of 10-20° were taken for the study and divided into three groups according to the instruments used for cervical preflaring: Group I (LA Axxess burs), Group II (GG drills), and Group III (Protaper Sx). Pre- and post-instrumentation CBCT images were evaluated for comparing the ability of GG drills, Protaper Sx and LA Axxess burs to produce an SLA in mesiobuccal canals of mandibular first molars. Results: There was no significant change (P = 0.06) in the angle in the preSLA images of LA Axxess Group I (12.37 ± 1.01), GG Group II (13.39 ± 1.74), and Protaper Sx Group III (13.90 ± 1.74). The mean decrease in the angle from preSLA to postSLA was significant for all the three groups (P = 0.0001). However, the mean change was highest in Group I (4.25 ± 1.14), followed by Group II (3.28 ± 1.22) and Group III (2.89 ± 1.53). Conclusion: LA Axxess burs were the most effective in reducing the coronal curvature and produced a straighter access to apical third compared to GG Drills and Protaper Sx. PMID:28042263

  10. Perception of straightness and parallelism with minimal distance information.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Brian; Naumenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The ability of human observers to judge the straightness and parallelism of extended lines has been a neglected topic of study since von Helmholtz's initial observations 150 years ago. He showed that there were significant misperceptions of the straightness of extended lines seen in the peripheral visual field. The present study focused on the perception of extended lines (spanning 90° visual angle) that were directly fixated in the visual environment of a planetarium where there was only minimal information about the distance to the lines. Observers were asked to vary the curvature of 1 or more lines until they appeared to be straight and/or parallel, ignoring any perceived curvature in depth. When the horizon between the ground and the sky was visible, the results showed that observers' judgements of the straightness of a single line were significantly biased away from the veridical, great circle locations, and towards equal elevation settings. Similar biases can be seen in the jet trails of aircraft flying across the sky and in Rogers and Anstis's new moon illusion (Perception, 42(Abstract supplement) 18, 2013, 2016). The biasing effect of the horizon was much smaller when observers were asked to judge the straightness and parallelism of 2 or more extended lines. We interpret the results as showing that, in the absence of adequate distance information, observers tend to perceive the projected lines as lying on an approximately equidistant, hemispherical surface and that their judgements of straightness and parallelism are based on the perceived separation of the lines superimposed on that surface.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  12. Straight thinking about groundwater recession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.

    2014-03-01

    While in catchment and hillslope hydrology a more nuanced approach is now taken to streamflow recession analysis, in the context of major aquifers it is commonly still assumed that the groundwater head recession rate will take exponential form, an idea originally proposed in the 19th Century. However it is shown here that, in early times, the groundwater head recession in a major aquifer should take an almost straight line form with a rate approximately equal to the long-term recharge rate divided by the aquifer storage coefficient. The length of this phase can be estimated from an analytical expression derived in the paper which depends on the aquifer diffusivity, length scale, and the position of the monitoring point. A transitional phase then leads to an exponential phase after some critical time which is independent of the position of the monitoring point. Major aquifers in a state of periodic quasi-steady state are expected to have rates of groundwater flux recession which deviate little from the average rate of groundwater recharge. Where quasi-exponential groundwater declines are observed in nature, their form may be diagnostic of particular types of aquifer properties and/or boundary effects, such as proximity to drainage boundaries, variations in transmissivity with hydraulic head, storage changes due to pumping, nonequilibrium flow at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and variations in specific yield with depth. Recession analysis has applicability to a range of groundwater problems and is powerful way of gaining insight into the hydrologic functioning of an aquifer.

  13. Sensor, method and system of monitoring transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Syracuse, Steven J.; Clark, Roy; Halverson, Peter G.; Tesche, Frederick M.; Barlow, Charles V.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus, method, and system for measuring the magnetic field produced by phase conductors in multi-phase power lines. The magnetic field measurements are used to determine the current load on the conductors. The magnetic fields are sensed by coils placed sufficiently proximate the lines to measure the voltage induced in the coils by the field without touching the lines. The x and y components of the magnetic fields are used to calculate the conductor sag, and then the sag data, along with the field strength data, can be used to calculate the current load on the line and the phase of the current. The sag calculations of this invention are independent of line voltage and line current measurements. The system applies a computerized fitter routine to measured and sampled voltages on the coils to accurately determine the values of parameters associated with the overhead phase conductors.

  14. Correction Method for Line Extraction in Vision Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Mingwei; Wei, Zhenzhong; Hu, Mengjie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-01-01

    Over-exposure and perspective distortion are two of the main factors underlying inaccurate feature extraction. First, based on Steger’s method, we propose a method for correcting curvilinear structures (lines) extracted from over-exposed images. A new line model based on the Gaussian line profile is developed, and its description in the scale space is provided. The line position is analytically determined by the zero crossing of its first-order derivative, and the bias due to convolution with the normal Gaussian kernel function is eliminated on the basis of the related description. The model considers over-exposure features and is capable of detecting the line position in an over-exposed image. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method is not significantly affected by the exposure level and is suitable for correcting lines extracted from an over-exposed image. In our experiments, the corrected result is found to be more precise than the uncorrected result by around 45.5%. Second, we analyze perspective distortion, which is inevitable during line extraction owing to the projective camera model. The perspective distortion can be rectified on the basis of the bias introduced as a function of related parameters. The properties of the proposed model and its application to vision measurement are discussed. In practice, the proposed model can be adopted to correct line extraction according to specific requirements by employing suitable parameters. PMID:25984762

  15. Correction method for line extraction in vision measurement.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingwei; Wei, Zhenzhong; Hu, Mengjie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-01-01

    Over-exposure and perspective distortion are two of the main factors underlying inaccurate feature extraction. First, based on Steger's method, we propose a method for correcting curvilinear structures (lines) extracted from over-exposed images. A new line model based on the Gaussian line profile is developed, and its description in the scale space is provided. The line position is analytically determined by the zero crossing of its first-order derivative, and the bias due to convolution with the normal Gaussian kernel function is eliminated on the basis of the related description. The model considers over-exposure features and is capable of detecting the line position in an over-exposed image. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method is not significantly affected by the exposure level and is suitable for correcting lines extracted from an over-exposed image. In our experiments, the corrected result is found to be more precise than the uncorrected result by around 45.5%. Second, we analyze perspective distortion, which is inevitable during line extraction owing to the projective camera model. The perspective distortion can be rectified on the basis of the bias introduced as a function of related parameters. The properties of the proposed model and its application to vision measurement are discussed. In practice, the proposed model can be adopted to correct line extraction according to specific requirements by employing suitable parameters.

  16. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Tarao, Hiroo; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Elovaara, Jarmo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements.

  17. A Best-Fit Line Using the Method of Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for calculating lines of best fit that is easy to understand and apply. Presents an example using the Arrhenius plot of a first-order reaction from which the energy of activation is calculated. (MM)

  18. A Best-Fit Line Using the Method of Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for calculating lines of best fit that is easy to understand and apply. Presents an example using the Arrhenius plot of a first-order reaction from which the energy of activation is calculated. (MM)

  19. Angle illusion in a straight road.

    PubMed

    Osa, Atsushi; Nagata, Kazumi; Honda, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Makoto; Matsuda, Ken; Miike, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    We report a new angle illusion observed when viewing a real scene involving a straight road. The scene portrays two white lines which outline a traffic lane on a road and converge to a vanishing point. In experiment 1, observers estimated the angle created by these converging lines in this scene or in its image projected onto a screen. Results showed strong underestimation of the angle, ie over 50% for observations of both the real scene and its projected image. Experiment 2 assessed how depth cues in projected images influence the angle illusion. Results showed that this angle illusion disappeared when scene information surrounding convergent lines was removed. In addition, the illusion was attenuated with projection of an inverted scene image. These findings are interpreted in terms of a misadoption of depth information in the processing of angle perception in a flat image; in turn, this induces a massive angle illusion.

  20. Simple method of measuring delay time in manufacturing delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yukio; Mikoda, Masanari

    1982-07-01

    A simple method for measuring delay time in an operational frequency range is required in manufacturing delay lines used for video tape recorders and television receiver sets. This paper describes a simple method of measuring and adjusting the delay time of such delay lines. The delay time is obtained by measuring a phase difference ϑ between the signals at the input and output transducers of the delay line with frequencies under test. The delay time is more precisely obtained by measuring the ϑ at a constant frequency within the bandwidth of the delay line. A delay-time tolerance of a polished glass medium at 3.58 MHz was found to be within 100 ns. The delay time was found to be shortened by 30 ns by attaching the medium on polishing powder and oil. Also shown is a simple method for adjusting the delay time by polishing a delay medium while measuring the phase difference.

  1. A Hybrid On-line Verification Method of Relay Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wangyuan; Chen, Qing; Si, Ji; Huang, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Along with the rapid development of the power industry, grid structure gets more sophisticated. The validity and rationality of protective relaying are vital to the security of power systems. To increase the security of power systems, it is essential to verify the setting values of relays online. Traditional verification methods mainly include the comparison of protection range and the comparison of calculated setting value. To realize on-line verification, the verifying speed is the key. The verifying result of comparing protection range is accurate, but the computation burden is heavy, and the verifying speed is slow. Comparing calculated setting value is much faster, but the verifying result is conservative and inaccurate. Taking the overcurrent protection as example, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the two traditional methods above, and proposes a hybrid method of on-line verification which synthesizes the advantages of the two traditional methods. This hybrid method can meet the requirements of accurate on-line verification.

  2. Optical device for straightness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vekteris, Vladas; Jurevicius, Mindaugas; Turla, Vytautas

    2015-11-01

    The present paper describes the research of the optical device for two-dimensional straightness measurement of technological machines. Mathematical study of an optical device, operating on the phase principle and measuring transversal displacements of machine parts in two directions ( X and Y) during their linear longitudinal motion in a machine (alongside the Z axis), is presented. How to estimate the range of travel along the Z axis is analytically shown. At this range, the measurer gives correct measurements of transverse displacement. The necessary distance from the objective focus to the image plane was defined mathematically. The sample results of measuring the displacement of the table of a technological machine by using the optical device are presented in the paper. This optical device for non-contact straightness measurement can be used for measurement straightness in turning, milling, drilling, grinding machines and other technological machines, also in geodesy and cartography, and for moving accuracy testing of mechatronic devices, robotics and others.

  3. Improved metrology of implant lines on static images of textured silicon wafers using line integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kuldeep; Saber, Eli; Verrier, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    In solar wafer manufacturing processes, the measurement of implant mask wearing over time is important to maintain the quality of wafers and the overall yield. Mask wearing can be estimated by measuring the width of lines implanted by it on the substrate. Previous methods, which propose image analysis methods to detect and measure these lines, have been shown to perform well on polished wafers. Although it is easier to capture images of textured wafers, the contrast between the foreground and background is extremely low. In this paper, an improved technique to detect and measure implant line widths on textured solar wafers is proposed. As a pre-processing step, a fast non-local means method is used to denoise the image due to the presence of repeated patterns of textured lines in the image. Following image enhancement, the previously proposed line integral method is used to extract the position of each line in the image. Full- Width One-Third maximum approximation is then used to estimate the line widths in pixel units. The conversion of these widths into real-world metric units is done using a photogrammetric approach involving the Sampling Distance. The proposed technique is evaluated using real images of textured wafers and compared with the state-of-the-art using identical synthetic images, to which varying amounts of noise was added. Precision, recall and F-measure values are calculated to benchmark the proposed technique. The proposed method is found to be more robust to noise, with critical SNR value reduced by 10dB in comparison to the existing method.

  4. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. New protection method for HVDC lines including cables

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, H.; Ayakawa, H.; Tsumenaga, N.; Sanpei, M.

    1995-10-01

    For the third project of the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link in Japan, called the HVDC Link III project (rated at 250 kVdc-1,200 A-300 MW), the authors developed an HVDC transmission line protection method based on a new working principle that allows high-speed and highly sensitive detection of faults, enhancing reliability in the supply of electric power. In general, increasing the sensitivity of relays will lead to an increased likelihood of undesired operation whereas lowering the sensitivity will impair the responsiveness of the relays. The proposed method meets these apparently incompatible requirements very well. Basically classified as a differential scheme, the HVDC transmission line protection method compensates for a charging and discharging current that flows through the line-to-ground capacitance at times of voltage variations caused by a line fault or by the operation of dc power systems. The developed protection method is also characterized in that it uses current changes induced by voltage variations to restrain the operation of a relay. This configuration has made the proposed method far superior in responsiveness and sensitivity to the conventional protection method. A simulation using an EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) was conducted on this method. Developed relay equipment embodying the new protection method was subjected to various verification tests, where this equipment was connected to a power system simulator, before being delivered to the HVDC Link III facility.

  7. [Physical meaning of temperature measured by spectral line intensity method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Hua; Tang, Huang-Zai; Shen, Yan; Shi, Yong; Hou, Ling-Yun

    2007-11-01

    The difference between electron temperature and excitation temperature is analyzed in the aspect of statistics thermodynamics. It is presented clearly that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature, but internal electronic excitation temperature of heavy particle. Under thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is equal to the electron temperature, while under non-thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is not equal to the electron temperature. In the study of arc jet plume in vacuum chamber, spectral line intensity method was employed to measure the apparent excitation temperature of arc jet plume, and Langmuir probe was employed to measure the electron temperature of arcjet plume. The big difference between the excitation temperature and the electron temperature proved that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature.

  8. Radial line method for rear-view mirror distortion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Hatta, Agus M.; Irwansyah, .

    2015-01-01

    An image of the object can be distorted due to a defect in a mirror. A rear-view mirror is an important component for the vehicle safety. One of standard parameters of the rear-view mirror is a distortion factor. This paper presents a radial line method for distortion detection of the rear-view mirror. The rear-view mirror was tested for the distortion detection by using a system consisting of a webcam sensor and an image-processing unit. In the image-processing unit, the captured image from the webcam were pre-processed by using smoothing and sharpening techniques and then a radial line method was used to define the distortion factor. It was demonstrated successfully that the radial line method could be used to define the distortion factor. This detection system is useful to be implemented such as in Indonesian's automotive component industry while the manual inspection still be used.

  9. Methods and apparatus for reducing corrosion in refractory linings

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Greenberg, Sherman; Diercks, Dwight R.

    1987-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for reducing corrosion in a refractory lining of a liquid-containing vessel used in direct steelmaking processes. The vessel operates at between about 1600.degree. C. and about 1800.degree. C. and an oxygen partial pressure of about 10.sup.-12 atmospheres, creating slag which is rich in FeO. The refractory lining includes a significant level of chromium oxide (Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3), and has small interconnected pores which may be filled with a gas mixture having a higher total pressure and oxygen partial pressure than the total pressure and oxygen partial pressure associted with the liquid against the lining of the vessel. The gas mixture is forced through the pores of the lining so that the pores are continuously filled with the mixture. In this manner, the gas mixture creates a blanket which increases the oxygen partial pressure at the lining enough to maintain the chromium in the lining in a selected valence state in which the chromium has decreased solubility in the FeO slag, thereby reducing corrosion by the FeO and increasing the useful life of the refractory lining.

  10. Optimal approaches for inline sampling of organisms in ballast water: L-shaped vs. Straight sample probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wier, Timothy P.; Moser, Cameron S.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Riley, Scott C.; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H.; First, Matthew R.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2017-10-01

    Both L-shaped (;L;) and straight (;Straight;) sample probes have been used to collect water samples from a main ballast line in land-based or shipboard verification testing of ballast water management systems (BWMS). A series of experiments was conducted to quantify and compare the sampling efficiencies of L and Straight sample probes. The findings from this research-that both L and Straight probes sample organisms with similar efficiencies-permit increased flexibility for positioning sample probes aboard ships.

  11. Technical background of the FireLine Assessment MEthod (FLAME)

    Treesearch

    Jim Bishop

    2007-01-01

    The FireLine Assessment MEthod (FLAME) provides a fireline-practical tool for predicting significant changes in fire rate-of-spread (ROS). FLAME addresses the dominant drivers of large, short-term change: effective windspeed, fuel type, and fine-fuel moisture. Primary output is the ROS-ratio, expressing the degree of change in ROS. The application process guides and...

  12. Baited lines: An active nondestructive collection method for burrowing crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Foltz, David A.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A new method (baited lines) is described for the collection of burrowing crayfishes, where fishing hooks baited with earthworms and tied to monofilament leaders are used to lure crayfishes from their burrow entrances. We estimated capture rates using baited lines at four locations across West Virginia for a total of four crayfish taxa; the taxa studied were orange, blue, and blue/orange morphs of Cambarus dubius (Upland Burrowing Catfish), and C. thomai (Little Brown Mudbug). Baited-line capture rates were lowest for C. thomai (81%; n = 21 attempts) and highest for the orange morph ofC. dubius (99%; n = 13 attempts). The pooled capture rate across all taxa was 91.5% (n = 50 attempts). Baited lines represent an environmentally nondestructive method to capture burrowing crayfishes without harm to individuals, and without disturbing burrows or the surrounding area. This novel method allows for repeat captures and long-term studies, providing a useful sampling method for ecological studies of burrowing crayfishes.

  13. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  14. The method of lines in three dimensional fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J.; Berke, L.

    1980-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the calculation of design parameters for fracture mechanics by the method of lines (MOL) is presented. Three dimensional elastic and elasto-plastic formulations are examined and results from previous and current research activities are reported. The application of MOL to the appropriate partial differential equations of equilibrium leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations. Solutions of these equations are obtained by the Peano-Baker and by the recurrance relations methods. The advantages and limitations of both solution methods from the computational standpoint are summarized.

  15. A New Method for Line Width Roughness Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, K. Subramanya; Yool, Kang; Kim, Hochul; Cho, Han-Ku

    2011-06-01

    Demands of the continuous downscaling of device size impose stringent requirements on the RLS trade-off (R: resolution, L: line width roughness and S: sensitivity). Among the above, line width roughness (LWR) has to be controlled below 10% of critical dimensions (CD). While significant improvement in R&S was achieved, LWR has been relatively high for extreme ultra-violet lithography resists. Herein, we provide a new method for LWR mitigation that overcomes several shortcomings of previously known methods. Our new method is based on a double development method wherein, a polymeric solution in developer is coated on to the patterned surface. The wafer is then subjected to the standard development step during which LWR improvement is affected. In this paper we discuss the hypothesis of our method and provide relevant data to understand the conditions under which LWR improvement is observed. Effect of polymer/developer concentration ratio, solid content and bake temperatures will be discussed. Also, our method will be compared with currently available methods for LWR improvement on pattern transfer.

  16. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  17. Recursive graphical construction of feynman diagrams and their multiplicities in straight phi(4) and straight phi2A theory

    PubMed

    Kleinert; Pelster; Kastening; Bachmann

    2000-08-01

    The free energy of a field theory can be considered as a functional of the free correlation function. As such it obeys a nonlinear functional differential equation that can be turned into a recursion relation. This is solved order by order in the coupling constant to find all connected vacuum diagrams with their proper multiplicities. The procedure is applied to a multicomponent scalar field theory with a straight phi(4) self-interaction and then to a theory of two scalar fields straight phi and A with an interaction straight phi2A. All Feynman diagrams with external lines are obtained from functional derivatives of the connected vacuum diagrams with respect to the free correlation function. Finally, the recursive graphical construction is automatized by computer algebra with the help of a unique matrix notation for the Feynman diagrams.

  18. The method of lines in analyzing solids containing cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1990-01-01

    A semi-numerical method is reviewed for solving a set of coupled partial differential equations subject to mixed and possibly coupled boundary conditions. The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic and elastoplastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement distributions in various, simple geometry bodies containing cracks. The application of this method to the appropriate field equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. When decoupling of the equations and their boundary conditions is not possible, the use of a successive approximation procedure permits the analytical solution of the resulting ordinary differential equations. The use of this method is illustrated by reviewing and presenting selected solutions of mixed boundary value problems in three dimensional fracture mechanics. These solutions are of great importance in fracture toughness testing, where accurate stress and displacement distributions are required for the calculation of certain fracture parameters. Computations obtained for typical flawed specimens include that for elastic as well as elastoplastic response. Problems in both Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems are included. Results are summarized for a finite geometry rectangular bar with a central through-the-thickness or rectangular surface crack under remote uniaxial tension. In addition, stress and displacement distributions are reviewed for finite circular bars with embedded penny-shaped cracks, and rods with external annular or ring cracks under opening mode tension. The results obtained show that the method of lines presents a systematic approach to the solution of some three-dimensional mechanics problems with arbitrary boundary conditions. The advantage of this method over other numerical solutions is that good results are obtained even from the use of a relatively coarse grid.

  19. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  20. Nodal line-scanning method for maskless optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth C

    2014-12-01

    Maskless optical lithography can improve the economics and performance of multi-patterning by eliminating photomasks and by simplifying the lithography exposure technology. It could also potentially eliminate the need for multi-patterning by enabling dual-wavelength, nonlinear optical recording methods. High-resolution, maskless patterning can be achieved with a scanned-spot-array system in which modulated, diffraction-limited focus spots write the exposure pattern. Each spot has a central zero-intensity interference null along a line parallel to the scan direction for printing sub-resolution line patterns. High throughput can be achieved at the comparatively low repetition rate of excimer lasers (e.g., 6 kHz). The low repetition rate simplifies the optical modulation technology, enabling the use of supplemental modulation controls including dynamic gray-level and beam-centration controls for resolution enhancement.

  1. Nonlinear Krylov and moving nodes in the method of lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Keith

    2005-11-01

    We report on some successes and problem areas in the Method of Lines from our work with moving node finite element methods. First, we report on our "nonlinear Krylov accelerator" for the modified Newton's method on the nonlinear equations of our stiff ODE solver. Since 1990 it has been robust, simple, cheap, and automatic on all our moving node computations. We publicize further trials with it here because it should be of great general usefulness to all those solving evolutionary equations. Second, we discuss the need for reliable automatic choice of spatially variable time steps. Third, we discuss the need for robust and efficient iterative solvers for the difficult linearized equations (Jx=b) of our stiff ODE solver. Here, the 1997 thesis of Zulu Xaba has made significant progress.

  2. An on-line method in studying music parsing.

    PubMed

    Berent, I; Perfetti, C A

    1993-03-01

    Listening to music entails the construction of a mental representation based on partial and ambiguous information. This study examines an experimental method that reflects such parsing decisions on-line by detecting the cognitive load resulting from temporary parsing failures. The method investigated was a divided attention paradigm in which listening to music was the primary task and click detection was a concurrent secondary task. It was hypothesized that increasing the complexity of the primary task by introducing an unprepared chromatic modulation results in an increase in response latencies to a click presented immediately after the modulatory shift. The support of this prediction by musicians' data provides evidence for the sensitivity of the paradigm. The failure of non-musicians to reflect the expected load is attributed to their attention-allocation strategy. These results are discussed in terms of their implications on the view of the musical parser as deterministic.

  3. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-05-21

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress. 16 figures.

  4. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress.

  5. Terahertz in-line digital holographic multiplane imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yunxin

    2017-05-01

    Terahertz waves of which frequency spans from 0.1 to 10 THz bridge the gap between the infrared spectrum and microwaves. Owing to the special features of terahertz wave, such as penetrability and non-ionizing, terahertz imaging technique is a very significant and important method for inspections and detections. Digital holography can reconstruct the amplitude and phase distributions of a sample without scanning and it already has many successful applications in the area of visible and infrared light. The terahertz in-line digital holographic multi-plane imaging system which is presented in this paper is the combination of a continuous-wave terahertz source and the in-line scheme of digital holography. In order to observe a three dimensional (3D) shape sample only a portion of which appears in good focus, the autofocusing algorithm is brought to the data process. The synthetic aperture method is also applied to provide the high resolution imaging effect in the terahertz waveband. Both intrinsic twin images and defocused objective images confuse the quality of the image in an individual reconstructed plane. In order to solve this issue, phase retrieval iteration algorithm is used for the reconstruction. In addition, the reconstructed amplitude image in each plane multiplies the mask of which the threshold depends on the values of the autofocusing curve. A sample with simple artificial structure is observed which verifies that the present method is an authentic tool to acquire the multi-plane information of a target in terahertz waves. It can expect a wide application in terahertz defect detecting, terahertz medical inspection and other important areas in the future.

  6. Straight ray tomography: Synthetic and real data examples

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkurt, G.; Liner, C.L.

    1994-12-31

    Crosswell tomography is a viable tool for determining detailed P-wave velocity structure in the vertical plane between two wells. Seismic data from a West Texas oil field are processed for this purpose. Several geologically significant models are created for testing the accuracy of the method. Synthetic traveltimes corresponding to these models are generated and then inverted for the best image. An iterative straight-ray imaging algorithm is employed for establishing the subsurface velocity distribution. A curved-ray solution provided a basis for comparison. The assumption of straight-ray propagation in a medium with low velocity contrasts and horizontally oriented target zones provided satisfactory results. However, in the presence of strong velocity anomalies or abrupt lateral velocity variations, the reconstructed image was distorted due to severe ray bending. When applied to field data with high velocity contrasts, straight-ray and curved-ray tomograms displayed similar subsurface features, although the latter had better resolution and image quality.

  7. Facile one-step forming of NiO and yttrium-stabilized zirconia composite anodes with straight open pores for planar solid oxide fuel cell using phase-inversion tape casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hua; Lin, Jie; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Shaorong; Xia, Changrong; Chen, Chusheng

    2015-01-01

    The anode of NiO and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with straight open pores is prepared by phase-inversion tape casting method. In the as-prepared green tape, its top and middle layers are derived from a slurry of NiO and YSZ, while the bottom layer from a slurry of graphite. The graphite layer is eliminated by calcination at elevated temperatures, leaving the finger-like porous layer exposed to the gas phase. A cell supported on the as-prepared anode substrate exhibits satisfactory electrochemical performances with a maximum power density of 780 mW cm-2 at 800 °C. The cell dose not show a convex-up curvature in I-V plots at high current density as often observed for most anode-supported cells, indicating the absence of concentration polarization which is in turn attributed to the open pore structure of the phase-inversion derived anode. The phase inversion tape casting technique explored in the present study involves almost the same equipments as and similar procedures to the conventional tape casting, and after further optimization it may become a simple and effective technique for mass production of anodes for SOFCs.

  8. Preparing well-oriented sols of straight bacterial flagellar filaments for X-ray fiber diffraction.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, I; Vonderviszt, F; Noguchi, T; Namba, K

    1991-01-20

    Well-oriented sols of straight bacterial flagellar filaments have been obtained by preparing reconstituted flagellar filaments with an appropriate length distribution and choosing appropriate solvent conditions. An average filament length of 300 to 500 nm and the use of solvents with very low concentrations of salt has allowed us to prepare highly fluid sols that make flow orientation possible. X-ray fiber diffraction from these sols has shown distinct layer-line reflections to 3.5 A resolution in the meridional direction. Layer-line intensities have been collected by the angular deconvolution method up to 5 A resolution. The possibility of using a magnetic field to further improve the orientation has been explored and a solvent condition that makes flagellar sols sensitive to the magnetic field has been found. General applicability of the method to other systems is also discussed.

  9. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  10. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane.

    PubMed

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights.

  11. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane☆

    PubMed Central

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights. PMID:25648398

  12. International Boundary Study. Series A. Limits in the Seas. Number 42, Straight Baselines: Ecuador.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-05-23

    DTIC reproduct- ions will be 132 black[ and whit’ IDISTRIBUTION STATZ 7*Nl---T A Approved for public releoasel Distribution Unlimited--] 0(j- STRAIGHT...Galera (Ecuador); (b) From this point a straight line passing through Punta Galera and meeting the northernmost point of Isla de la Plata ; (c) From this...nautical miles. The longest setment, 136 nautical miles, connects Punta Galera (Point 2) and Isla de la Plata (Point 3). The shortest baseline, 37

  13. Off-line compatible electronic cash method and system

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, D.W.; Gemmell, P.S.; Brickell, E.F.

    1998-11-03

    An off-line electronic cash system having an electronic coin, a bank B, a payee S, and a user U with an account at the bank B as well as a user password z{sub u,i}, has a method for performing an electronic cash transfer. An electronic coin is withdrawn from the bank B by the user U and an electronic record of the electronic coin is stored by the bank B. The coin is paid to the payee S by the user U. The payee S deposits the coin with the bank B. A determination is made that the coin is spent and the record of the coin is deleted by the bank B. A further deposit of the same coin after the record is deleted is determined. Additionally, a determination is made which user U originally withdrew the coin after deleting the record. To perform these operations a key pair is generated by the user, including public and secret signature keys. The public signature key along with a user password z{sub u,i} and a withdrawal amount are sent to the bank B by the user U. In response, the bank B sends a coin to the user U signed by the secret key of the bank indicating the value of the coin and the public key of the user U. The payee S transmits a challenge counter to the user U prior to receiving the coin. 16 figs.

  14. Off-line compatible electronic cash method and system

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, David W.; Gemmell, Peter S.; Brickell, Ernest F.

    1998-01-01

    An off-line electronic cash system having an electronic coin, a bank B, a payee S, and a user U with an account at the bank B as well as a user password z.sub.u,i, has a method for performing an electronic cash transfer. An electronic coin is withdrawn from the bank B by the user U and an electronic record of the electronic coin is stored by the bank B. The coin is paid to the payee S by the user U. The payee S deposits the coin with the bank B. A determination is made that the coin is spent and the record of the coin is deleted by the bank B. A further deposit of the same coin after the record is deleted is determined. Additionally, a determination is made which user U originally withdrew the coin after deleting the record. To perform these operations a key pair is generated by the user, including public and secret signature keys. The public signature key along with a user password z.sub.u,i and a withdrawal amount are sent to the bank B by the user U. In response, the bank B sends a coin to the user U signed by the secret key of the bankindicating the value of the coin and the public key of the user U. The payee S transmits a challenge counter to the user U prior to receiving the coin.

  15. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

  16. Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René

    2009-05-01

    Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.

  17. River channel patterns: Braided, meandering, and straight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Wolman, M. Gordon

    1957-01-01

    Channel pattern is used to describe the plan view of a reach of river as seen from an airplane, and includes meandering, braiding, or relatively straight channels.Natural channels characteristically exhibit alternating pools or deep reaches and riffles or shallow reaches, regardless of the type of pattern. The length of the pool or distance between riffles in a straight channel equals the straight line distance between successive points of inflection in the wave pattern of a meandering river of the same width. The points of inflection are also shallow points and correspond to riffles in the straight channel. This distance, which is half the wavelength of the meander, varies approximately as a linear function of channel width. In the data we analysed the meander wavelength, or twice the distance between successive riffles, is from 7 to 12 times the channel width. It is concluded that the mechanics which may lead to meandering operate in straight channels.River braiding is characterized by channel division around alluvial islands. The growth of an island begins as the deposition of a central bar which results from sorting and deposition of the coarser fractions of the load which locally cannot be transported. The bar grows downstream and in height by continued deposition on its surface, forcing the water into the flanking channels, which, to carry the flow, deepen and cut laterally into the original banks. Such deepening locally lowers the water surface and the central bar emerges as an island which becomes stabilized by vegetation. Braiding was observed in a small river in a laboratory. Measurements of the adjustments of velocity, depth, width, and slope associated with island development lead to the conclusion that braiding is one of the many patterns which can maintain quasi-equilibrium among discharge, load, and transporting ability. Braiding does not necessarily indicate an excess of total load.Channel cross section and pattern are ultimately controlled by the

  18. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.

    1989-01-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

  19. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1985-07-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo(a)pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors. 2 tabs.

  20. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1989-02-28

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors. No Drawings

  1. Exploring a simple method to estimate spot temperatures in weak-lined T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2016-12-01

    The astronomy literature contains a wealth of photometric measurements of the brightness variations of weak-lined T Tauri stars. Comparing observations through two different filters, the brightness changes of the vast majority of these stars trace straight lines in magnitude-magnitude plots. It is plausible that the slope of the line is determined by a fixed mean starspot temperature, and that changing filling factors cause the linear magnitude-magnitude relations to be described. This is exploited to derive an estimator for the starspot temperature in terms of a linear regression slope, valid for modest starspot filling factors. Simulations are used to demonstrate that such regression slopes first need to be corrected for measurement errors, in order to avoid biased results. The theory is applied to a collection of 45 extensive sets of BVR (and in some cases UBVR) observations of weak-lined T Tauri stars taken from the literature. The results are examined critically, and it is pointed out that there are systematic differences between spot temperatures determined respectively from BV and VR data pairs. The reason for this is not known; possible causes are briefly speculated about. There is generally poor agreement with published spot temperatures, which also vary considerably. The simplest explanation is that the mean temperature of starspots is variable.

  2. Straight quantum layer with impurities inducing resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondej, Sylwia

    2017-08-01

    We consider a straight three dimensional quantum layer with singular potential, supported on a straight wire which is localized perpendicularly to the walls and connects them. We prove that an infinite number of embedded eigenvalues appear in this system. Furthermore, we show that after introducing a small surface impurity to the layer, the embedded eigenvalues turn to the second sheet resolvent poles, which state resonances. We discuss the asymptotics of the imaginary component of the resolvent pole with respect to the surface area.

  3. A Comparison of Best Fit Lines for Data with Outliers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2005-01-01

    Three techniques for determining a straight line fit to data are compared. The methods are applied to a range of datasets containing one or more outliers, and to a specific example from the field of chemistry. For the method which is the most resistant to the presence of outliers, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, as well as two Matlab routines, are…

  4. A Comparison of Best Fit Lines for Data with Outliers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2005-01-01

    Three techniques for determining a straight line fit to data are compared. The methods are applied to a range of datasets containing one or more outliers, and to a specific example from the field of chemistry. For the method which is the most resistant to the presence of outliers, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, as well as two Matlab routines, are…

  5. Experimental verification of prediction method for electromigration failure of polycrystalline lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagawa, Kazuhiko; Naito, Kazushi; Kimura, Hiroki; Saka, Masumi; Abé, Hiroyuki

    2000-03-01

    A prediction method for electromigration failure in polycrystalline lines has been proposed using the governing parameter of electromigration damage, the atomic flux divergence (AFDgen), and the usefulness has been verified by experiment where various line shapes were treated under various operating conditions. In the prediction method, lifetime and failure site in a metal line have been predicted by numerical simulation of the processes of void initiation, its growth, to line failure. The simulation has predicted accurately the lifetime as well as the failure site of the metal line. In the verification, however, the metal lines treated had the same grain size, that is, the same microstructure. In this article, the prediction method for the electromigration failure of polycrystalline lines was verified in more detail, by comparing the prediction results of lifetime and failure site with the results of experiments using not only various shaped lines but also lines whose microstructures were different.

  6. Efficient Genetic Method for Establishing Drosophila Cell Lines Unlocks the Potential to Create Lines of Specific Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Truesdell, Sharon; Paul, Litty; Chen, Ting; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Justiniano, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of cells in culture has made substantial contributions to biological research. The versatility and scale of in vitro manipulation and new applications such as high-throughput gene silencing screens ensure the continued importance of cell-culture studies. In comparison to mammalian systems, Drosophila cell culture is underdeveloped, primarily because there is no general genetic method for deriving new cell lines. Here we found expression of the conserved oncogene RasV12 (a constitutively activated form of Ras) profoundly influences the development of primary cultures derived from embryos. The cultures become confluent in about three weeks and can be passaged with great success. The lines have undergone more than 90 population doublings and therefore constitute continuous cell lines. Most lines are composed of spindle-shaped cells of mesodermal type. We tested the use of the method for deriving Drosophila cell lines of a specific genotype by establishing cultures from embryos in which the warts (wts) tumor suppressor gene was targeted. We successfully created several cell lines and found that these differ from controls because they are primarily polyploid. This phenotype likely reflects the known role for the mammalian wts counterparts in the tetraploidy checkpoint. We conclude that expression of RasV12 is a powerful genetic mechanism to promote proliferation in Drosophila primary culture cells and serves as an efficient means to generate continuous cell lines of a given genotype. PMID:18670627

  7. Quantitative methods to characterize morphological properties of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Elliott, John T; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Tona, Alessandro; Spurlin, Tighe A; Middlebrooks, Bobby L; Baatz, John E; Warr, Gregory W; Plant, Anne L

    2012-07-01

    Descriptive terms are often used to characterize cells in culture, but the use of nonquantitative and poorly defined terms can lead to ambiguities when comparing data from different laboratories. Although recently there has been a good deal of interest in unambiguous identification of cell lines via their genetic markers, it is also critical to have definitive, quantitative metrics to describe cell phenotypic characteristics. Quantitative metrics of cell phenotype will aid the comparison of data from experiments performed at different times and in different laboratories where influences such as the age of the population and differences in culture conditions or protocols can potentially affect cellular metabolic state and gene expression in the absence of changes in the genetic profile. Here, we present examples of robust methodologies for quantitatively assessing characteristics of cell morphology and cell-cell interactions, and of growth rates of cells within the population. We performed these analyses with endothelial cell lines derived from dolphin, bovine and human, and with a mouse fibroblast cell line. These metrics quantify some characteristics of these cells lines that clearly distinguish them from one another, and provide quantitative information on phenotypic changes in one of the cell lines over large number of passages.

  8. Fast and robust-vanishing point detection system using fast M-estimation method and regional division for in-vehicle camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Numada, M.; Koshimizu, H.

    2017-03-01

    The vanishing point detection technology helps automatic driving. In this study, the straight lines on a road for the clue of the vanishing point are extracted efficiently by using the regional division and angle limitation. And, the vanishing point is detected robustly by using the fast M-estimation method. Proposed method could detect straight line ingredient tied to the vanishing point detection efficient on the road. And the vanishing point was detected exactly by the effect of the fast M-estimation method when the straight line ingredient which was not tied to the vanishing point detection was detected.

  9. On the neutrons streaming in straight duct

    PubMed

    Jehouani; Boulkheir; Ichaoui

    2000-10-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal neutron streaming through a straight cylindrical duct by using the Monte Carlo method and evaluating the neutron reflection by the duct wall to the total flux at the exit of the duct. The duct walls are made separately of iron and aluminum. We have considered 10 groups of energy between 10(-5) and 10 eV. For a point source at the mouth of the duct, we have determined the direct and the reflected part of the total thermal neutron flux at the exit of the duct for different lengths and different radii of the duct. For a punctual source, we have found that the major contribution to the total flux of neutrons at the exit is due to the neutron reflection by walls, and the reflection contribution decreases when the neutron energy decreases. For a constant length of the duct, the reflected part decreases when the duct radius increases, while for the disk shaped source, we have found the opposite phenomenon. The transmitted neutron flux distribution at the exit of the duct is determined for a disk shaped source for different neutron energies and different distances from the exit center.

  10. The triangle compare method of hidden-line elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    An original algorithm which solves the classical computer graphics problem of eliminating those lines that should not be visible in a wire-frame model representation of a solid figure is presented. The basis of this Triangle Compare algorithm is that any polygon, regardless of its complexity, can be constructed from a set of triangles. In the Triangle Compare algorithm, once the triangles defining the figure are defined, they are ordered based on the nearness of each triangle to the viewer and stored in a linked list. The nearest triangle are compared to all succeeding triangles. The remaining parts of triangles are synthesized into other triangles and are added in order to the linked list. Subsequent reference triangles are provided by a traversal of the linked list. After the entire list is traversed and each triangle used as a reference, the resulting list is used for a final rendering with hidden lines removed via calligraphic MOVE and DRAW commands.

  11. The triangle compare method of hidden-line elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    An original algorithm which solves the classical computer graphics problem of eliminating those lines that should not be visible in a wire-frame model representation of a solid figure is presented. The basis of this Triangle Compare algorithm is that any polygon, regardless of its complexity, can be constructed from a set of triangles. In the Triangle Compare algorithm, once the triangles defining the figure are defined, they are ordered based on the nearness of each triangle to the viewer and stored in a linked list. The nearest triangle are compared to all succeeding triangles. The remaining parts of triangles are synthesized into other triangles and are added in order to the linked list. Subsequent reference triangles are provided by a traversal of the linked list. After the entire list is traversed and each triangle used as a reference, the resulting list is used for a final rendering with hidden lines removed via calligraphic MOVE and DRAW commands.

  12. Salt Processing Project: Off-Line Analysis Methods to Meet Process Cycle Time

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A.

    2002-10-18

    The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) requires analyses to verify that strontium and total alpha content of treated wastes meet Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The SWPF will require that results are available in time to meet process cycle requirements. SWPF personnel sought on-line and at-line monitors to follow trends in strontium-90 and alpha concentrations in order to track process performance. While an on-line method is under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), it has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes off-line methods that will not be subject to some of the concerns about and limitations of on-line/at-line methods. Presently, less-rapid off-line technologies are the baseline methods. Also, this report compares advantages and disadvantages of a variety of approaches including rapid radiochemical separations, automated analytical-scale processing systems, and radiation measurement tools.

  13. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  14. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  15. Fiber optic transmission line stabilization apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F., Jr.; Lau, K. Y. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A reference signal of RF frequency modulates a 0.85 micrometer wavelength optical transmitter. The output of which passes through a first optical filter and a voltage-controller phase shifter. The output of the phase shifter is provided to the fiber optic transmission line. At the receiving end of the transmission line, the signal is demodulated and used to modulate a 1.06 micrometer optical transmitter. The signal from the transmitter is provided to the fiber optic transmission line and passes through the voltage-controlled phase shifter to a phase error detector. The phase of the modulation of the 1.06 micrometer wavelength signal is compared to the phase of the reference signal by the phase error detector. A phase control signal related to the phase difference is provided to the voltage controlled phase shifter which alters the phase of both optical signals until a predetermined phase relationship between modulation on the 1.06 micrometer signal and the reference signal is obtained.

  16. Efficient algorithm for generating spectra using line-by-lne methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnad, V; iglesias, C A

    2010-11-01

    A method is presented for efficient generation of spectra using line-by-line approaches. The only approximation is replacing the line shape function with an interpolation procedure, which makes the method independent of the line profile functional form. The resulting computational savings for large number of lines is proportional to the number of frequency points in the spectral range. Therefore, for large-scale problems the method can provide speedups of two orders of magnitude or more. A method was presented to generate line-by-line spectra efficiently. The first step was to replace the explicit calculation of the profile by the Newton divided-differences interpolating polynomial. The second step is to accumulate the lines effectively reducing their number to the number of frequency points. The final step is recognizing the resulting expression as a convolution and amenable to FFT methods. The reduction in computational effort for a configuration-to-configuration transition array with large number of lines is proportional to the number of frequency points. The method involves no approximations except for replacing the explicit profile evaluation by interpolation. Specifically, the line accumulation and convolution are exact given the interpolation procedure. Furthermore, the interpolation makes the method independent of the line profile functional form contrary to other schemes using FFT methods to generate line-by-line spectra but relying on the analytic form of the profile Fourier transform. Finally, the method relies on a uniform frequency mesh. For non-uniform frequency meshes, however, the method can be applied by using a suitable temporary uniform mesh and the results interpolated onto the final mesh with little additional cost.

  17. A method for determining the median line of measured cylindrical and conical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, Dariusz; Zwierzchowski, Jarosław

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a novel method for the determination of the median line of the cylindrical and conical surfaces. This method can be incorporated into virtually any cylindricity measurement strategy, including the bird-cage strategy and the helical line strategy. In the study, a median line was determined by minimizing the functional made up of two components. The form of the first component results from the classic definition of the median line provided in the corresponding standard. The other, termed the bending energy, is responsible for ensuring appropriate smoothness of the median line. In order to solve this variational problem, the median line was approximated by means of linear combination of cubic B-spline functions. A simulation and experiments were conducted to establish the suitability of the algorithm developed for the determination of the median line using the helical-line and the cross-section measurement strategy.

  18. A new conjugate gradient method and its global convergence under the exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Osman; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Abdalla, Awad

    2014-12-01

    The conjugate gradient methods are numerously used for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, especially of large scale. Their wide applications are due to their simplicity and low memory requirement. To analyze conjugate gradient methods, two types of line searches are used; exact and inexact. In this paper, we present a new method of nonlinear conjugate gradient methods under the exact line search. The theoretical analysis shows that the new method generates a descent direction in each iteration and globally convergent under the exact line search. Moreover, numerical experiments based on comparing the new method with other well known conjugate gradient methods show that the new is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.

  19. The model of the power lines fault location method using time domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagiev, R. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Kalabanov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes a simulation model of the method, locating power lines fault, using time domain reflectometry. This diagnostic method is a one-side method that can work on both enabled and disabled transmission lines and allows defining the main types of faults, including the high-impedance faults. The developed model consists of two modules: a generation unit implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC and a processing unit implemented in MATLAB. The model is successfully verified and is intended for a comprehensive study of the time domain reflectometry method for power lines diagnostics including analysis for various line topologies using different probing signals and various signal to noise ratio.

  20. Unilateral straight hair and congenital horner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Frederick M; Wertenbaker, Christian; Cho, Hyung; Marmor, Maury A; Ahn-Lee, Sandra S; Bernard, Bruno A

    2012-06-01

    Congenital Horner syndrome is a rare disorder that accounts for less than 5% of all cases of Horner syndrome. Like Horner syndrome in general, it consists primarily of ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis. Congenital Horner syndrome may manifest some special features such as iris heterochromia since the sympathetic nervous system is an essential component for the development and maintenance of eye color. We present 3 cases of unilateral straight hair in association with congenital Horner syndrome in which the patients had straight hair ipsilateral to the Horner syndrome, whereas on the contralateral side, it was curly, and we discuss possible mechanisms for this phenomenon.

  1. Straight Thinking and Ethics in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2014-07-01

    A desired outcome for members of healthcare disciplines is to have straight thinking regarding human health and quality of life issues. Difficult situations, embedded with a demand for quick, value-laden healthcare decisions, abound in an ever-changing, complex healthcare arena. The author begins a discussion about potential implications for future disciplinary nurse practice as nurse leaders contemplate what it means to have a straight thinking ethos as providers of vital human health services. Reflections and recommendations for future dialogue with interdisciplinary professionals on the topic of nursing ethics is offered.

  2. Pressure-testing method permits line-segment isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowes, J.M. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports that pressure or leak testing a segment of a pipeline is now possible by use of a pressure-testing tool that isolates a locally disturbed area of the line. The system avoids the potentially expensive alternative of decommissioning an entire length of line for pressure testing. High-pressure pipes and pipelines are essential for hydrocarbon production, processing, and transportation. For safety reasons, procedures need to be established and implemented during construction and maintenance which ensure the continued operation of a plant or pipeline. These procedures often call for high-pressure hydrostatic or leak testing. Although only small elements of a pressure system may be disturbed, it has been necessary on occasion to carry out extensive pressure testing for an entire system. This can, for example, involve the testing of many miles of pipe in a pipeline system or the total flooding of pipework which has previously been maintained dry. The new system can be used to test only a locally disturbed area and provides an efficient and cost-effective means of either hydrostatic or leak testing welds, spurs, flanges, and valves. The pressure-test media can include any of the following: water, glycol, nitrogen, or nitrogen/helium mix.

  3. Line Segments Matching ALGORITHMl C0MBINING Msld Description and Corresponding P0INTS Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at stability of line descriptor in the process of line segment matching, MSLD mean-standard deviation descriptor with corresponding points constraint method is proposed.The method is based on close-range images corresponding points matching and line extraction, in the beginning, determined the points which have the closest distance between the both sides of the target lines on the reference images, virtual line is composed by connecting corresponding points on the search image, and the line which intersects virtual line on the search image is defined as the candidate line segment. Then calculating the MSLD description of the straight lines and the candidate lines respectively, the specific construction steps are as followed: (1) gradient direction and normal direction of the straight line should be determined firstly; (2) for each pixel on the straight line, a rectangular area which is defined as Pixel Support Region (PSR) is established along the gradient direction and the normal direction, and the PSR is decomposed into several same size sub-regions in the normal direction; (3) recording each sub-region the gradient vectors of four directions to obtain a four-dimensional feature vector, and the gradient description matrix of straight line L is composed of all sub-regions feature vectors; (4) mean and standard deviation of the description matrix should be calculated by the row vector, then mean and standard deviation vectors should be normalized to obtain the normalized mean-standard deviation description. Finally, the similarity between the target lines and each candidate lines descriptor is calculated based on the Euclidean distance, using the nearest neighbor distance ratio to determine the corresponding line. Typical region image is selected to perform line matching experiment in this paper, results show that the proposed method has great stability and matching accuracy.

  4. Benoit Mandelbrot: nor does lightning travel in a straight line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Benoit and I had one discussion about mortality (well, two, but the first, soon after we met, was humorous), though we never discussed religion. So why do I start my chapter with a Genesis quote? I want to try to sketch a picture of the brilliant, complex, and in an important way, very playful person who, for reasons I'll never understand, included me in his world, and who was for twenty years -- a long time, but not nearly long enough -- a dear friend. But about the Genesis quote I'll say this: the reference is to Rölvaag's novel Giants in the Earth, about pioneers in the Dakotas. I believe Benoit is better described as "pioneer" than as "explorer." Yes, he explored many new ideas, clearly saw vistas of whole worlds unnoticed by others. But he did not simply mark the territory and move on. In each new area he stayed a while, looked carefully all over the place. He built things, surveyed the land for hordes of others, including the contributors to this volume. So pioneer it is...

  5. A method for 3D detection of symmetry line in asymmetric postures.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, Luca; Di Stefano, Paolo; Spezzaneve, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The methods for symmetry line detection presented in the literature are typically suited to analyse symmetric upright postures, both standing and seated. The proposed method focuses on the symmetry line detection in subjects assuming asymmetric postures in which this line falls far outside the sagittal plane. The proposed approach evaluates the symmetry line by means of an autoregressive process in order to determine the set of planes suited to slice the back coherently with its geometric spatial configuration. The method is analysed assuming the cutaneous marking as reference and it is compared with a previous one, also developed by these authors. Results are analysed and critically discussed.

  6. An agarose-gel based method for transporting cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingzhi; Li, Chufang; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhiyuan

    2009-12-16

    Cryopreserved cells stored in dry ice or liquid nitrogen is the classical method for transporting cells between research laboratories in different cities around the world in order to maintain cell viability. An alternative method is to ship the live cells in flasks filled with cell culture medium. Both methods have limitations of either a requirement on special shipping container or short times for the cells to survive on the shipping process. We have recently developed an agarose gel based method for directly transporting the live adherent cells in cell culture plates or dishes in ambient temperature. This convenient method simplifies the transportation of live cells in long distance that can maintain cells in good viability for several days.

  7. Forces and torques between nonintersecting straight currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Cross, Felicity; Silva, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    We analyse two very long current-carrying straight wires that point in arbitrary directions without touching. We find general expressions for the forces and torques for arbitrary points on one wire due to the other. This allows us to make calculations for the overall forces and torques and statements about the stability of parallel and anti-parallel current arrangements.

  8. Straight Privilege: Unpacking the (Still) Invisible Knapsack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Kaia

    2010-01-01

    Several unearned benefits attending straight privilege are listed, prefaced by two main arguments. First, it is argued that the rampant heterosexism in the U.S. is largely attributable to many Americans' framing of heterosexism as a matter of religious freedom rather than as a form of bigotry. It is further argued that educators' elimination of…

  9. Zero-Chromatic Ffag Straight Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, J.-B.; Planche, T.; Mori, Y.

    Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) elements are usually designed in a circular shape, but straight sections can also be imagined. A demonstration using the scaling condition is first shown. Combining different scaling FFAG sections is then discussed and opens new possibilities for scaling FFAGs. As an example, an application with a new lattice proposal for the PRISM project is finally presented in this paper.

  10. Childhood Vaccines: Tough Questions, Straight Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... their job. Still, you might wonder about the benefits and risks of childhood vaccines. Here are straight answers to common questions about childhood vaccines. A natural infection might provide better immunity than vaccination — but there are serious risks. For example, a ...

  11. A line segment based registration method for Terrestrial Laser Scanning point cloud data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Ming; Lin, Yangbin; Wang, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposed a 3d line segment based registration method for terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. The 3D line segment is adopted to describe the point cloud data and reduce geometric complexity. After that, we introduce a framework for registration. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method for rigid transformations in the presence of terrestrial laser scanning point cloud.

  12. On-line nondestructive methods for examining fuel particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, A.F.; Bond, L.J.; Good, M.S.; Bunch, K.J.; Sandness, G.A.; Hockey, R.L.; Saurwein, J.J.; Gray, J.N.

    2007-07-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuels are being considered for use in various advanced nuclear power reactors and about 15 billion of these small ({approx} 1 mm diameter) spheres are needed for a single fuel load. Current quality control methods are manual, often destructive of test specimens, and they are economically impractical for automated application at commercial scale. Replacing these methods with new nondestructive evaluation techniques, automated for higher speed, will make fuel production and reactor operation economically more attractive. This paper reports aspects of a project to develop and demonstrate nondestructive examination methods to detect and reject defective particles. The work explored adapting, developing, and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to cost-effectively assure the quality of large percentages of the fuel particles. (authors)

  13. On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Examining Fuel Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Bond, Leonard J.; Good, Morris S.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Saurwein, John J.; Gray, Joseph N.

    2007-09-15

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuels, being considered for use in various advanced nuclear power reactors, consist of sub-millimeter diameter uranium oxide spheres uniformly coated to prevent the release of fission products into the reactor. About 15 billion of these spheres are needed to fuel a single reactor. Current quality control (QC) methods are manual, can destroy test specimens, and are not economically feasible. Replacing these methods with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, automated for higher speed, will make fuel production and reactor operation economically feasible, considering the requirement for extremely large fuel particle throughput rates. This paper reports a project to develop and demonstrate nondestructive examination methods to detect and reject defective particles, and in particular progress made in the final year of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project . The work explored adapting, developing, and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to cost-effectively assure the quality of large percentages of the fuel particles.

  14. Fabrication of SnO2 nanoparticles straight waveguide with isopropanol solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, R. Lucky; Pramono, Yono H.; Asnawi, Asnawi; Gatut, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The straight waveguide SnO2 nanoparticles was fabricated with isopropanol solvent. SnO2 nanoparticles straight films were deposited on acrylic substrate at 100 °C using sol-gel method and cover PMMA were deposited by spin coating method. The wide of the film obtained 0.35 mm. The channel of straight used graphir acrylic with different lengths: 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm. This research was intended to determine loss of the films and examination absorbance and transmittance. From the research results of absorbance and transmittance using UV-Vis known that highest absorption is 295 nm and average transmittance is 84.074%. The loss of the straight waveguide with different lengths: 10 mm: 2.784 %, 15 mm: 7.927 % and 20 mm: 18.352 %.

  15. A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Franx, Marijn

    1993-01-01

    A new parameterization for the line profiles of elliptical galaxies, the Gauss-Hermite series, is proposed. This approach expands the line profile as a sum of orthogonal functions which minimizes the correlations between the errors in the parameters of the fit. This method also make use of the fact that Gaussians provide good low-order fits to observed line profiles. The method yields measurements of the line strength, mean radial velocity, and the velocity dispersion as well as two extra parameters, h3 and h4, that measure asymmetric and symmetric deviations of the line profiles from a Gaussian, respectively. The new method was used to derive profiles for three elliptical galaxies which all have asymmetric line profiles on the major axis with symmetric deviations from a Gaussian. Results confirm that elliptical galaxies have complex structures due to their complex formation history.

  16. A robust line matching method based on local appearance descriptor and neighboring geometric attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jing; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports an efficient method for line matching, which utilizes local intensity gradient information and neighboring geometric attributes. Lines are detected in a multi-scale way to make the method robust to scale changes. A descriptor based on local appearance is built to generate candidate matching pairs. The key idea is to accumulate intensity gradient information into histograms based on their intensity orders to overcome the fragmentation problem of lines. Besides, local coordinate system is built for each line to achieve rotation invariance. For each line segment in candidate matching pairs, a histogram is built by aggregating geometric attributes of neighboring line segments. The final matching measure derives from the distance between normalized geometric attributes histograms. Experiments show that the proposed method is robust to large illumination changes and is rotation invariant.

  17. New hybrid conjugate gradient methods with the generalized Wolfe line search.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Kong, Fan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method was an efficient technique for solving the unconstrained optimization problem. In this paper, we made a linear combination with parameters β k of the DY method and the HS method, and putted forward the hybrid method of DY and HS. We also proposed the hybrid of FR and PRP by the same mean. Additionally, to present the two hybrid methods, we promoted the Wolfe line search respectively to compute the step size α k of the two hybrid methods. With the new Wolfe line search, the two hybrid methods had descent property and global convergence property of the two hybrid methods that can also be proved.

  18. Using a straightness reference in obtaining more accurate surface profiles from a Long Trace Profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Irick, S.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Lunt, D.L.J.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1991-07-15

    The Long Trace Profiler has found significant applications in measuring the surfaces of synchrotron optics. However, requirements of small slope errors at all spatial wavelengths of the synchrotron optics mandate more accurate slope measurements. A straightness reference for the Long Trace Profiler greatly increases the accuracy of the instrument. Methods of using the straightness reference by interpreting the sequential interference patterns are discussed and results of measurements are presented.

  19. Using a straightness reference in obtaining more accurate surface profiles from a Long Trace Profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Irick, S.C.; McKinney, W.R. ); Lunt, D.L.J. ); Takacs, P.Z. . Instrumentation Div.)

    1991-07-15

    The Long Trace Profiler has found significant applications in measuring the surfaces of synchrotron optics. However, requirements of small slope errors at all spatial wavelengths of the synchrotron optics mandate more accurate slope measurements. A straightness reference for the Long Trace Profiler greatly increases the accuracy of the instrument. Methods of using the straightness reference by interpreting the sequential interference patterns are discussed and results of measurements are presented.

  20. Calculation of large ion densities under HVdc transmission lines by the finite difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, Tomotaka; Sunaga, Yoshitaka

    1995-10-01

    A calculation method for large ion densities (charged aerosols) under HVdc transmission lines was developed considering both the charging mechanism of aerosols by small ions and the drifting process by wind. Large ion densities calculated by this method agreed well with the ones measured under the Shiobara HVdc test line on the lateral profiles at ground level up to about 70m downwind from the line. Measured values decreased more quickly than calculated ones farther downwind from the line. Considering the effect of point discharge from ground cover (earth corona) improved the agreement in the farther downwind region.

  1. Application of a line implicit method to fully coupled system of equations for turbulent flow problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    For unstructured finite volume methods, we present a line implicit Runge-Kutta method applied as smoother in an agglomerated multigrid algorithm to significantly improve the reliability and convergence rate to approximate steady-state solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. To describe turbulence, we consider a one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The line implicit Runge-Kutta method extends a basic explicit Runge-Kutta method by a preconditioner given by an approximate derivative of the residual function. The approximate derivative is only constructed along predetermined lines which resolve anisotropies in the given grid. Therefore, the method is a canonical generalisation of point implicit methods. Numerical examples demonstrate the improvements of the line implicit Runge-Kutta when compared with explicit Runge-Kutta methods accelerated with local time stepping.

  2. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy.

  3. A Multiple Sensors Platform Method for Power Line Inspection Based on a Large Unmanned Helicopter.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhengjun; Xu, Caijun; Zhang, Yongzhen

    2017-05-26

    Many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out in order to improve the efficiency and reduce labor for power line inspection, but problems related to stability, efficiency, and comprehensiveness still exist. This paper presents a multiple sensors platform method for overhead power line inspection based on the use of a large unmanned helicopter. Compared with the existing methods, multiple sensors can realize synchronized inspection on all power line components and surrounding objects within one sortie. Flight safety of unmanned helicopter, scheduling of sensors and exact tracking on power line components are very important aspects when using the proposed multiple sensors platform, therefore this paper introduces in detail the planning method for the flight path of the unmanned helicopter and tasks of the sensors before inspecting power lines, and the method used for tracking power lines and insulators automatically during the inspection process. To validate the method, experiments on a transmission line at Qingyuan in Guangdong Province were carried out, the results show that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection.

  4. A Multiple Sensors Platform Method for Power Line Inspection Based on a Large Unmanned Helicopter

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhengjun; Xu, Caijun; Zhang, Yongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out in order to improve the efficiency and reduce labor for power line inspection, but problems related to stability, efficiency, and comprehensiveness still exist. This paper presents a multiple sensors platform method for overhead power line inspection based on the use of a large unmanned helicopter. Compared with the existing methods, multiple sensors can realize synchronized inspection on all power line components and surrounding objects within one sortie. Flight safety of unmanned helicopter, scheduling of sensors and exact tracking on power line components are very important aspects when using the proposed multiple sensors platform, therefore this paper introduces in detail the planning method for the flight path of the unmanned helicopter and tasks of the sensors before inspecting power lines, and the method used for tracking power lines and insulators automatically during the inspection process. To validate the method, experiments on a transmission line at Qingyuan in Guangdong Province were carried out, the results show that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection. PMID:28587114

  5. Heat exchanger and method of making. [rocket lining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchange of increased effectiveness is disclosed. A porous metal matrix is disposed in a metal chamber or between walls through which a heat-transfer fluid is directed. The porous metal matrix has internal bonds and is bonded to the chamber in order to remove all thermal contact resistance within the composite structure. Utilization of the invention in a rocket chamber is disclosed as a specific use. Also disclosed is a method of constructing the heat exchanger.

  6. Calculation method for line loss in 10kV distribution grid planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ming-hui; Lin, Ling-xue; Liu, Si-yuan

    2017-01-01

    Distribution grid line loss index is an important indicator of running and managing a distribution grid. A general feature in distribution network is its difficulty in gathering data about structure and operation. Based on its feature, this paper proposed a method for calculating line loss in 10kV distribution grid from the perspective of planning. According to the characteristics of power consumption on different location of the feeder, line loss can be divided into three parts, including the main line loss, the loss of branch line and the loss of distribution transformer. The proposed method achieved quick calculation and component analysis. Distributed coefficient was calculated by analyzing different distributed situation of load on feeder and the equivalent loss power on main line was calculated. Branch line and distribution transformer were equivalent to a resistance located at the head of the line to match the real power consumption. With the data acquirement, accuracy can be improved. Finally, the example of different power supply zone was calculated based on the method. The comparison between the calculated results and technical guidelines of southern power grid indicated the components of the line loss and put forward solutions for loss reduction. The method proposed overcame disadvantage of strong dependence on complete and precise data, which fits for planning work.

  7. X-ray Emission Line Anisotropy Effects on the Isoelectronic Temperature Measurement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedahl, Duane; Barrios, Maria; Brown, Greg; Foord, Mark; Gray, William; Hansen, Stephanie; Heeter, Robert; Jarrott, Leonard; Mauche, Christopher; Moody, John; Schneider, Marilyn; Widmann, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the ratio of analogous emission lines from isoelectronic ions of two elements form the basis of the isoelectronic method of inferring electron temperatures in laser-produced plasmas, with the expectation that atomic modeling errors cancel to first order. Helium-like ions are a common choice in many experiments. Obtaining sufficiently bright signals often requires sample sizes with non-trivial line optical depths. For lines with small destruction probabilities per scatter, such as the 1s2p-1s2 He-like resonance line, repeated scattering can cause a marked angular dependence in the escaping radiation. Isoelectronic lines from near-Z equimolar dopants have similar optical depths and similar angular variations, which leads to a near angular-invariance for their line ratios. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that possible ambiguities associated with anisotropy in deriving electron temperatures from X-ray line ratios are minimized by exploiting this isoelectronic invariance.

  8. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House Committee Passes Education Reform Legislation: On Party-Line Votes, Committee Passes Accountability and Teacher…

  9. Feature Line Based Building Detection and Reconstruction from Oblique Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Jiang, W.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a feature line based method for building detection and reconstruction from oblique airborne imagery is presented. With the development of Multi-View Stereo technology, increasing photogrammetric softwares are provided to generate textured meshes from oblique airborne imagery. However, errors in image matching and mesh segmentation lead to the low geometrical accuracy of building models, especially at building boundaries. To simplify massive meshes and construct accurate 3D building models, we integrate multi-view images and meshes by using feature lines, in which contour lines are used for building detection and straight skeleton for building reconstruction. Firstly, through the contour clustering method, buildings can be quickly and robustly detected from meshes. Then, a feature preserving mesh segmentation method is applied to accurately extract 3D straight skeleton from meshes. Finally, straight feature lines derived from multi-view images are used to rectify inaccurate parts of 3D straight skeleton of buildings. Therefore, low quality model can be refined by the accuracy improvement of mesh feature lines and rectification with feature lines of multi-view images. The test dataset in Zürich is provided by ISPRS/EuroSDR initiative Benchmark on High Density Image Matching for DSM Computation. The experiments reveal that the proposed method can obtain convincing and high quality 3D building models from oblique airborne imagery.

  10. A spectral KRMI conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a modification of spectral conjugate gradient (CG) method is proposed which combines the advantages of the spectral CG method and the RMIL method namely as spectral Khadijah-Rivaie-Mustafa-Ibrahim (SKRMI) to solve unconstrained optimization problems. Based on inexact line searches, the objective function generates a sufficient descent direction and the global convergence property for the proposed method has been proved. Moreover, the method reduces to the standard RMIL method if exact line search is applied. Numerical results are also presented to examine the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Systems, methods and apparatus for developing and maintaining evolving systems with software product lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Pena, Joaquin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which an evolutionary system is managed and viewed as a software product line. In some embodiments, the core architecture is a relatively unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system is viewed as a product from the product line. Each software product is generated from the core architecture with some agent-based additions. The result may be a multi-agent system software product line.

  12. A method to calibrate a camera using perpendicularity of 2D lines in the target observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Zheng, Anqi; Li, Xiaotao; Su, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Camera calibration based on point features leads the main trends in vision-based measurement systems for both fundamental researches and potential applications. However, the calibration results tend to be affected by the precision of the feature point extraction in the camera images. As the point features are noise sensitive, line features are more appropriate to provide a stable calibration due to the noise immunity of line features. We propose a calibration method using the perpendicularity of the lines on a 2D target. The objective function of the camera internal parameters is theoretically constructed by the reverse projections of the image lines on a 2D target in the world coordinate system. We experimentally explore the performances of the perpendicularity method and compare them with the point feature methods at different distances. By the perpendicularity and the noise immunity of the lines, our work achieves a relatively higher calibration precision.

  13. A method to calibrate a camera using perpendicularity of 2D lines in the target observations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guan; Zheng, Anqi; Li, Xiaotao; Su, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Camera calibration based on point features leads the main trends in vision-based measurement systems for both fundamental researches and potential applications. However, the calibration results tend to be affected by the precision of the feature point extraction in the camera images. As the point features are noise sensitive, line features are more appropriate to provide a stable calibration due to the noise immunity of line features. We propose a calibration method using the perpendicularity of the lines on a 2D target. The objective function of the camera internal parameters is theoretically constructed by the reverse projections of the image lines on a 2D target in the world coordinate system. We experimentally explore the performances of the perpendicularity method and compare them with the point feature methods at different distances. By the perpendicularity and the noise immunity of the lines, our work achieves a relatively higher calibration precision. PMID:27713566

  14. Straight Talk about Migraines, Cindy McCain Speaks Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... Migraine Headaches Straight Talk About Migraines, Cindy McCain Speaks Out Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents Photo: ... Headaches" Articles Straight Talk About Migraines, Cindy McCain Speaks Out / What is Migraine? / Treatment & Research Fall 2015 Issue: ...

  15. Straight, white teeth as a social prerogative.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Abeer; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    A distinguishing feature of North American society is preoccupation with self-image, as seen in the ritualistic nature of bodily practices aimed at constantly improving the body. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the prevailing fixation with straight, white teeth. While there is an ever-expanding literature on the sociology of body, very little has been written on teeth in this context. Using literature from anthropology, biology, dentistry, sociology and social psychology, this study attempts to answer: (1) Why have straight, white teeth become a beauty ideal in North American society? (2) What is the basis for this ideal? (3) How is this ideal propagated? It demonstrates that dental aesthetic tendencies are biologically, culturally and socially patterned. Concepts from the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault are used to illustrate how straight, white teeth contribute towards reinforcing class differences and how society exercises a disciplinary power on individuals through this ideal. It is concluded that modified teeth are linked to self and identity that are rooted in social structure. Moreover, teeth demonstrate the ways in which class differences are embodied and projected as symbols of social advantage or disadvantage. Implications on professional, public health, sociological and political levels are considered.

  16. A Method for Telluric Line Removal from Supernova and Nova Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, D.

    2017-04-01

    We present a new method for removing telluric lines from high resolution supernova and nova spectra. This simple and quick method has the advantage of also eliminating any interstellar and intergalactic absorption features, and it smoothens the spectra removing noise and any possible cosmic-ray hits. The method identifies narrow lines in the very broad features of supernova and nova spectra and removes all of them. We applied the method to observed high resolution (R≍20,000) spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2014J and performed a study of the effects of telluric lines in low resolution spectra of this supernova. The differences in flux can be around 25% in some wavelength ranges with broad telluric bands. In addition, we demonstrate that this method can also be applied to high resolution spectra of novae and present as an example the telluric line removal in the spectra of Nova V5668 Sgr.

  17. Circuit and Method for Communication Over DC Power Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit and method for transmitting and receiving on-off-keyed (OOK) signals with fractional signal-to-noise ratios uses available high-temperature silicon- on-insulator (SOI) components to move computational, sensing, and actuation abilities closer to high-temperature or high-ionizing radiation environments such as vehicle engine compartments, deep-hole drilling environments, industrial control and monitoring of processes like smelting, and operations near nuclear reactors and in space. This device allows for the networking of multiple, like nodes to each other and to a central processor. It can do this with nothing more than the already in-situ power wiring of the system. The device s microprocessor allows it to make intelligent decisions within the vehicle operational loop and to effect control outputs to its associated actuators. The figure illustrates how each node converts digital serial data to OOK 18-kHz in transmit mode and vice-versa in receive mode; though operations at lower frequencies or up to a megahertz are within reason using this method and these parts. This innovation s technique modulates a DC power bus with millivolt-level signals through a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) and resistor by OOK. It receives and demodulates this signal from the DC power bus through capacitive coupling at high temperature and in high ionizing radiation environments. The demodulation of the OOK signal is accomplished by using an asynchronous quadrature detection technique realized by a quasi-discrete Fourier transform through use of the quadrature components (0 and 90 phases) of the carrier frequency as generated by the microcontroller and as a function of the selected crystal frequency driving its oscillator. The detected signal is rectified using an absolute-value circuit containing no diodes (diodes being non-operational at high temperatures), and only operational amplifiers. The absolute values of the two phases of the received signal

  18. Suitability of the line intersect method for sampling hardwood logging residues

    Treesearch

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    The line intersect method of sampling logging residues was tested in Appalachian hardwoods and was found to provide unbiased estimates of the volume of residue in cubic feet per acre. Thirty-two chains of sample line were established on each of sixteen 1-acre plots on cutover areas in a variety of conditions. Estimates from these samples were then compared to actual...

  19. Head and pelvic movement asymmetry during lungeing in horses with symmetrical movement on the straight.

    PubMed

    Rhodin, M; Roepstorff, L; French, A; Keegan, K G; Pfau, T; Egenvall, A

    2016-05-01

    Lungeing is commonly used as part of standard lameness examinations in horses. Knowledge of how lungeing influences motion symmetry in sound horses is needed. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the symmetry of vertical head and pelvic motion during lungeing in a large number of horses with symmetric motion during straight line evaluation. Cross-sectional prospective study. A pool of 201 riding horses, all functioning well and considered sound by their owners, were evaluated in trot on a straight line and during lungeing to the left and right. From this pool, horses with symmetric vertical head and pelvic movement during the straight line trot (n = 94) were retained for analysis. Vertical head and pelvic movements were measured with body mounted uniaxial accelerometers. Differences between vertical maximum and minimum head (HDmax, HDmin) and pelvic (PDmax, PDmin) heights between left and right forelimb and hindlimb stances were compared between straight line trot and lungeing in either direction. Vertical head and pelvic movements during lungeing were more asymmetric than during trot on a straight line. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the head were more upward movement during push-off of the outside forelimb and less downward movement during impact of the inside limb. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the pelvis were less upward movement during push-off of the outside hindlimb and less downward movement of the pelvis during impact of the inside hindlimb. Asymmetric patterns in one lunge direction were frequently not the same as in the opposite direction. Lungeing induces systematic asymmetries in vertical head and pelvic motion patterns in horses that may not be the same in both directions. These asymmetries may mask or mimic fore- or hindlimb lameness. © 2015 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  20. Contesting 'straights': 'lesbians', 'queer heterosexuals' and the critique of heteronormativity.

    PubMed

    Schlichter, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The essay explores interrelations between Lesbian Theory and Queer Straight Theory. It provides a brief genealogy and an interrogation of the "discourse of queer heterosexuality." I argue that Queer Straight Theory is certainly indebted to lesbian (and) feminist critiques of institutional heterosexuality and their denaturalizations of straight and lesbian sexualities. Lesbian and Queer Straight Theories remain in disagreement, however, about notions of power and identity that shape their theoretical and political stances.

  1. Straight and White: Talking with My Mouth Full

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, W. Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    By using straight and white teeth as a metaphor for a straight and White identity, the author reflects on how this identity is performed, maintained, and often problematic. Using literature about identity performance, three different voices speak to and from straight and White identity. Using irony by blending arrogance and ignorance in the voice…

  2. Evaluation of Bole Straightness in Cottonwood Using Visual Scores

    Treesearch

    D.T. Cooper; R.B. Ferguson

    1981-01-01

    Selection for straightness in natural stands of cottonwood can be effective in improving straightness of open-pollinated progeny. Straightness appears to be highly heritable, but it is subject to imprecise evaluation. This can be largely overcome by repeated application of an imprecise scoring system using a minimum of two views per tree separated by 90 degrees.

  3. Straight and White: Talking with My Mouth Full

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, W. Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    By using straight and white teeth as a metaphor for a straight and White identity, the author reflects on how this identity is performed, maintained, and often problematic. Using literature about identity performance, three different voices speak to and from straight and White identity. Using irony by blending arrogance and ignorance in the voice…

  4. Security warning method and system for worker safety during live-line working

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chilong; Zou, Dehua; Long, Chenhai; Yang, Miao; Zhang, Zhanlong; Mei, Daojun

    2017-09-01

    Live-line working is an essential part in the operations in an electric power system. Live-line workers are required to wear shielding clothing. Shielding clothing, however, acts as a closed environment for the human body. Working in a closed environment for a long time can change the physiological responses of the body and even endanger personal safety. According to the typical conditions of live-line working, this study synthesizes environmental factors related to shielding clothing and the physiological factors of the body to establish the heart rate variability index RMSSD and the comprehensive security warning index SWI. On the basis of both indices, this paper proposes a security warning method and system for the safety live-line workers. The system can monitor the real-time status of workers during live-line working to provide security warning and facilitate the effective safety supervision by the live operation center during actual live-line working.

  5. A Method for Checking Genomic Integrity in Cultured Cell Lines from SNP Genotyping Data.

    PubMed

    Danecek, Petr; McCarthy, Shane A; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genomic screening for chromosomal abnormalities is an important part of quality control when establishing and maintaining stem cell lines. We present a new method for sensitive detection of copy number alterations, aneuploidy, and contamination in cell lines using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. In contrast to other methods designed for identifying copy number variations in a single sample or in a sample composed of a mixture of normal and tumor cells, this new method is tailored for determining differences between cell lines and the starting material from which they were derived, which allows us to distinguish between normal and novel copy number variation. We implemented the method in the freely available BCFtools package and present results based on induced pluripotent stem cell lines obtained in the HipSci project.

  6. A Method for Checking Genomic Integrity in Cultured Cell Lines from SNP Genotyping Data

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Shane A.; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genomic screening for chromosomal abnormalities is an important part of quality control when establishing and maintaining stem cell lines. We present a new method for sensitive detection of copy number alterations, aneuploidy, and contamination in cell lines using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. In contrast to other methods designed for identifying copy number variations in a single sample or in a sample composed of a mixture of normal and tumor cells, this new method is tailored for determining differences between cell lines and the starting material from which they were derived, which allows us to distinguish between normal and novel copy number variation. We implemented the method in the freely available BCFtools package and present results based on induced pluripotent stem cell lines obtained in the HipSci project. PMID:27176002

  7. A marching method for calculating line and continuum radiation in high energy flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, C. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating nongrey radiative fluxes and intensities in a highly ionized, low temperature plasma with extreme line broadening. The method was developed to study radiative heating phenomena in the mass-injected hypersonic shock-layer environments characteristic of outer planet atmospheric entry, although it is not limited to such studies. The radiative properties model assumed local thermodynamic equilibrium and used standard continuum and molecular band models. The atomic line model, however, used a frequency-marching method for the frequency integration, which not only accounted completely for line overlapping (reabsorption) effects, but compared favorably in economy with the best equivalent-width methods. An assessment of hydrogen line-far-wing treatments, with recommendations for engineering models, is also presented.

  8. A Novel Line Space Voting Method for Vanishing-Point Detection of General Road Images

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zongsheng; Fu, Weiping; Xue, Ru; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Vanishing-point detection is an important component for the visual navigation system of an autonomous mobile robot. In this paper, we present a novel line space voting method for fast vanishing-point detection. First, the line segments are detected from the road image by the line segment detector (LSD) method according to the pixel’s gradient and texture orientation computed by the Sobel operator. Then, the vanishing-point of the road is voted on by considering the points of the lines and their neighborhood spaces with weighting methods. Our algorithm is simple, fast, and easy to implement with high accuracy. It has been experimentally tested with over hundreds of structured and unstructured road images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation for autonomous mobile robots and unmanned ground vehicles. PMID:27347947

  9. A Novel Line Space Voting Method for Vanishing-Point Detection of General Road Images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zongsheng; Fu, Weiping; Xue, Ru; Wang, Wen

    2016-06-23

    Vanishing-point detection is an important component for the visual navigation system of an autonomous mobile robot. In this paper, we present a novel line space voting method for fast vanishing-point detection. First, the line segments are detected from the road image by the line segment detector (LSD) method according to the pixel's gradient and texture orientation computed by the Sobel operator. Then, the vanishing-point of the road is voted on by considering the points of the lines and their neighborhood spaces with weighting methods. Our algorithm is simple, fast, and easy to implement with high accuracy. It has been experimentally tested with over hundreds of structured and unstructured road images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation for autonomous mobile robots and unmanned ground vehicles.

  10. A new type of descent conjugate gradient method with exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, Nurul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd.; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, conjugate gradient (CG) methods are impressive for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, a new CG method is proposed and analyzed. This new CG method satisfies descent condition and its global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results show that this new CG method substantially outperforms the previous CG methods. This new CG method is considered robust, efficient and provided faster and stable convergence.

  11. Probability Density Function for Waves Propagating in a Straight PEC Rough Wall Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, H

    2004-11-08

    The probability density function for wave propagating in a straight perfect electrical conductor (PEC) rough wall tunnel is deduced from the mathematical models of the random electromagnetic fields. The field propagating in caves or tunnels is a complex-valued Gaussian random processing by the Central Limit Theorem. The probability density function for single modal field amplitude in such structure is Ricean. Since both expected value and standard deviation of this field depend only on radial position, the probability density function, which gives what is the power distribution, is a radially dependent function. The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. In this contribution, we present the most important statistic property, the field probability density function, of wave propagating in a straight PEC rough wall tunnel. This work only studies the simplest case--PEC boundary which is not the real world but the methods and conclusions developed herein are applicable to real world problems which the boundary is dielectric. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic wave propagation in caves or tunnels are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic waves travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these waves cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the waves decrease as the distance

  12. Laser straightness interferometer system with rotational error compensation and simultaneous measurement of six degrees of freedom error parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Benyong; Xu, Bin; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Enzheng; Liu, Yanna

    2015-04-06

    A laser straightness interferometer system with rotational error compensation and simultaneous measurement of six degrees of freedom error parameters is proposed. The optical configuration of the proposed system is designed and the mathematic model for simultaneously measuring six degrees of freedom parameters of the measured object including three rotational parameters of the yaw, pitch and roll errors and three linear parameters of the horizontal straightness error, vertical straightness error and straightness error's position is established. To address the influence of the rotational errors produced by the measuring reflector in laser straightness interferometer, the compensation method of the straightness error and its position is presented. An experimental setup was constructed and a series of experiments including separate comparison measurement of every parameter, compensation of straightness error and its position and simultaneous measurement of six degrees of freedom parameters of a precision linear stage were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system. Experimental results show that the measurement data of the multiple degrees of freedom parameters obtained from the proposed system are in accordance with those obtained from the compared instruments and the presented compensation method can achieve good effect in eliminating the influence of rotational errors on the measurement of straightness error and its position.

  13. On the quantitative method for measurement and analysis of the fine structure of Fraunhofer line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuli-Zade, D. M.

    The methods of measurement and analysis of the fine structure of weak and moderate Fraunhofer line profiles are considered. The digital spectral materials were obtained using rapid scanning high dispersion and high resolution double monochromators. The methods of asymmetry coefficient, bisector method and new quantitative method pro- posed by the author are discussed. The new physical values of differential, integral, residual and relative asymmetries are first introduced. These quantitative values permit us to investigate the dependence of asymmetry on microscopic (atomic) and macro- scopic (photospheric) values. It is shown that the integral profile asymmetries grow appreciably with increase in line equivalent width. The average effective depths of the formation of used Fraunhofer lines in the photosphere of the Sun are determined. It is shown that with the increasing of the effective formation depths of the lines integral and residual asymmetries of the lines profiles noticeably decrease. It is in fine agree- ment with the results of intensity dependence of asymmetry. The above-mentioned methods are critically compared and the advantages of author's method are shown. The computer program of calculation of the line-profile asymmetry parameters has been worked out.

  14. a Meteorological Risk Assessment Method for Power Lines Based on GIS and Multi-Sensor Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-01

    Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  15. Efficient DNA fingerprinting method for the identification of cross-culture contamination of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Y; Nishizaki, C; Drexler, H G

    1999-09-01

    In order to identify cross-culture contamination of cell lines, we applied DNA fingerprinting using variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and short tandem repeat (STR) loci amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instead of a radioisotope labeled multilocus probe. Eleven cell lines were used for the Apo B and D1S80 loci detection, and twelve cell lines were examined in the Y-chromosome analysis. The data obtained from the sister cell lines NALM-6 and B85, two MOLM-1 cultures from two cryopreserved tubes, and four subclones of BALM-9 and its sister cell line BALM-10, displayed clear and distinct bands of each PCR product for both Apo B and D1S80. Detection of a Y-chromosome DNA sequence is another very informative marker for the identification of cell lines, if the Y-chromosome is present. We examined eight cell lines for the expression of four STR loci; the data thus generated were compared with the results previously reported from other laboratories. The resulting electrophoretic banding patterns showed that our "home-made" STR detection system is a useful and efficient tool for the authentication of cell lines. PCR detection of VNTR and STR loci represents a simple, rapid and powerful DNA fingerprinting technique to authenticate human cell lines and to detect cross-culture contamination. This PCR technique may be used in lieu of the more time-consuming, labor-intensive and radioactive Southern blot multilocus method.

  16. Comparison of different methods for measuring water holding capacity and juiciness of pork versus on-line screening methods.

    PubMed

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-04-01

    The extent to which water holding capacity (WHC) techniques: filter paper press method, drip loss and filter paper method, are related to the sensory juiciness appreciation of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict WHC and juiciness scores. One-hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were involved in this study. Only WHC results, determined by the filter paper press method, were significantly correlated with juiciness scores (r=-0.24). The results of the filter paper method, either by weighing or visual judging, could not be predicted by the on-line methods. The results of the filter paper press method (F.p.p.-RZ) and drip loss were slightly better correlated with DDLT (respectively, r=0.56 and 0.45) than with PQM1 (r=0.51 and 0.36), FOP1 (r=0.48 and 0.34) and pH1 (r=0.41 and 0.34), although the standard error of estimate of the linear regressions was similar for the four on-line methods. Unfortunately, the on-line techniques incorrectly predicted several WHCs. Juiciness was slightly or not related to the on-line methods. The DDLT technique, which is analogous to the CGM (Capteur Gras/Maigre), an officially accepted carcass grading apparatus in France and Belgium, is as good or better than the classical on-line instruments: pH, FOP and PQM, in predicting WHC.

  17. [A new automated method to identify emission line star from massive spectra].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing-Chang; Zhang, Cai-Ming; Wei, Peng; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2012-06-01

    Stellar spectra are characterized by obvious absorption lines or absorption bands, while those with emission lines are usually special stars such as cataclysmic variable stars (CVs), HerbigAe/Be etc. The further study of this kind of spectra is meaningful. The present paper proposed a new method to identify emission line stars (ELS) spectra automatically. After the continuum normalization is done for the original spectral flux, line detection is made by comparing the normalized flux with the mean and standard deviation of the flux in its neighbor region The results of the experiment on massive spectra from SDSS DR8 indicate that the method can identify ELS spectra completely and accurately. Since no complex transformation and computation are involved in this method, the identifying process is fast and it is ideal for the ELS detection in large sky survey projects like LAMOST and SDSS.

  18. Numerical test of the open void method of slide line with unstructured polygon grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenzhou; Lin, Zhong; Liu, Quan

    2017-07-01

    An open void method of slide line is developed based on unstructured arbitrary polygon grids. An method of distinguishing open or closed void state of node and grid, and calculation method of velocity of node in slide line is given with open or closed state. Many conditions including different kinds of grids, different velocity and multi-medium are simulated in a test of a metallic flyer impacting another flyer and then separating. A test of Detonation driving metallic flyer are is simulated, which prove the rationality and adaptability of method.

  19. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  20. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  1. Extension of the weak-line approximation and application to correlated-k methods

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, A.J.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-03-15

    Global climate models require accurate and rapid computation of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. Correlated-k methods are often used. One of the approximations used in correlated-k models is the weakline approximation. We introduce an approximation T/sub g/ which reduces to the weak-line limit when optical depths are small, and captures the deviation from the weak-line limit as the extinction deviates from the weak-line limit. This approximation is constructed to match the first two moments of the gamma distribution to the k-distribution of the transmission. We compare the errors of the weak-line approximation with T/sub g/ in the context of a water vapor spectrum. The extension T/sub g/ is more accurate and converges more rapidly than the weak-line approximation.

  2. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  3. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE DETECTION OF LEAKS IN PIPE LINES

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, S.; Cameron, J.F.

    1961-11-28

    A method is described for detecting leaks in pipe lines carrying fluid. The steps include the following: injecting a radioactive solution into a fluid flowing in the line; flushing the line clear of the radioactive solution; introducing a detector-recorder unit, comprising a radioactivity radiation detector and a recorder which records the detector signal over a time period at a substantially constant speed, into the line in association with a go-devil capable of propelling the detector-recorder unit through the line in the direction of the fluid flow at a substantia1ly constant velocity; placing a series of sources of radioactivity at predetermined distances along the downstream part of the line to make a characteristic signal on the recorder record at intervals corresponding to the location of said sources; recovering the detector-recorder unit at a downstream point along the line; transcribing the recorder record of any radioactivity detected during the travel of the detector- recorder unit in terms of distance along the line. (AEC)

  4. A three-term conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Recently, numerous studies have been concerned in conjugate gradient methods for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization method. In this paper, a three-term conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization which always satisfies sufficient descent direction and namely as Three-Term Rivaie-Mustafa-Ismail-Leong (TTRMIL). Under standard conditions, TTRMIL method is proved to be globally convergent under strong-Wolfe line search. Finally, numerical results are provided for the purpose of comparison.

  5. A rapid and efficient method for assessing pathogenicity of ustilago maydis on maize and teosinte lines.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Suchitra; Smith, Shavannor M

    2014-01-03

    Maize is a major cereal crop worldwide. However, susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens is the primary constraint to increasing productivity. U. maydis is a biotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of corn smut on maize. This disease is responsible for significant yield losses of approximately $1.0 billion annually in the U.S.(1) Several methods including crop rotation, fungicide application and seed treatments are currently used to control corn smut(2). However, host resistance is the only practical method for managing corn smut. Identification of crop plants including maize, wheat, and rice that are resistant to various biotrophic pathogens has significantly decreased yield losses annually(3-5). Therefore, the use of a pathogen inoculation method that efficiently and reproducibly delivers the pathogen in between the plant leaves, would facilitate the rapid identification of maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis. As, a first step toward indentifying maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis, a needle injection inoculation method and a resistance reaction screening method was utilized to inoculate maize, teosinte, and maize x teosinte introgression lines with a U. maydis strain and to select resistant plants. Maize, teosinte and maize x teosinte introgression lines, consisting of about 700 plants, were planted, inoculated with a strain of U. maydis, and screened for resistance. The inoculation and screening methods successfully identified three teosinte lines resistant to U. maydis. Here a detailed needle injection inoculation and resistance reaction screening protocol for maize, teosinte, and maize x teosinte introgression lines is presented. This study demonstrates that needle injection inoculation is an invaluable tool in agriculture that can efficiently deliver U. maydis in between the plant leaves and has provided plant lines that are resistant to U. maydis that can now be combined and tested in breeding programs for improved disease resistance.

  6. A distributed vortex method for computing the vortex field of a missile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Vortex sheet development in the flow field of a missile was investigated by approximating the sheets in the cross-flow plane with short straight-line segments having distributed vorticity. In contrast with the method that represents the sheets as lines of discrete vortices, this distributed vortex method produced calculations with a high degree of computational stability.

  7. Combustion-engine Temperatures by the Sodium Line-reversal Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, Maurice J

    1936-01-01

    The sodium line-reversal method has been used in some preliminary measurements of flame temperature. Improvements in the method involving a photographic recorder and a means of correcting for the dirtiness of the windows are described. The temperatures so obtained are compared with those calculated from pressure diagrams.

  8. A Method For Modeling Discontinuities In A Microwave Coaxial Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, Tom Y.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for modeling discountinuities in a coaxial transmission line is presented. The method uses a none-linear least squares fit program to optimize the fit between a theoretical model and experimental data. When the method was applied for modeling discontinuites in a damaged S-band antenna cable, excellent agreement was obtained.

  9. A Method For Modeling Discontinuities In A Microwave Coaxial Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, Tom Y.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for modeling discountinuities in a coaxial transmission line is presented. The method uses a none-linear least squares fit program to optimize the fit between a theoretical model and experimental data. When the method was applied for modeling discontinuites in a damaged S-band antenna cable, excellent agreement was obtained.

  10. Trimming Line Design using New Development Method and One Step FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wan-Jin; Park, Choon-Dal; Yang, Dong-yol

    2005-08-01

    In most of automobile panel manufacturing, trimming is generally performed prior to flanging. To find feasible trimming line is crucial in obtaining accurate edge profile after flanging. Section-based method develops blank along section planes and find trimming line by generating loop of end points. This method suffers from inaccurate results for regions with out-of-section motion. On the other hand, simulation-based method can produce more accurate trimming line by iterative strategy. However, due to limitation of time and lack of information in initial die design, it is still not widely accepted in the industry. In this study, new fast method to find feasible trimming line is proposed. One step FEM is used to analyze the flanging process because we can define the desired final shape after flanging and most of strain paths are simple in flanging. When we use one step FEM, the main obstacle is the generation of initial guess. Robust initial guess generation method is developed to handle bad-shaped mesh, very different mesh size and undercut part. The new method develops 3D triangular mesh in propagational way from final mesh onto the drawing tool surface. Also in order to remedy mesh distortion during development, energy minimization technique is utilized. Trimming line is extracted from the outer boundary after one step FEM simulation. This method shows many benefits since trimming line can be obtained in the early design stage. The developed method is successfully applied to the complex industrial applications such as flanging of fender and door outer.

  11. A novel RNA sequencing data analysis method for cell line authentication.

    PubMed

    Fasterius, Erik; Raso, Cinzia; Kennedy, Susan; Rauch, Nora; Lundin, Pär; Kolch, Walter; Uhlén, Mathias; Al-Khalili Szigyarto, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a novel analysis method that can interrogate the authenticity of biological samples used for generation of transcriptome profiles in public data repositories. The method uses RNA sequencing information to reveal mutations in expressed transcripts and subsequently confirms the identity of analysed cells by comparison with publicly available cell-specific mutational profiles. Cell lines constitute key model systems widely used within cancer research, but their identity needs to be confirmed in order to minimise the influence of cell contaminations and genetic drift on the analysis. Using both public and novel data, we demonstrate the use of RNA-sequencing data analysis for cell line authentication by examining the validity of COLO205, DLD1, HCT15, HCT116, HKE3, HT29 and RKO colorectal cancer cell lines. We successfully authenticate the studied cell lines and validate previous reports indicating that DLD1 and HCT15 are synonymous. We also show that the analysed HKE3 cells harbour an unexpected KRAS-G13D mutation and confirm that this cell line is a genuine KRAS dosage mutant, rather than a true isogenic derivative of HCT116 expressing only the wild type KRAS. This authentication method could be used to revisit the numerous cell line based RNA sequencing experiments available in public data repositories, analyse new experiments where whole genome sequencing is not available, as well as facilitate comparisons of data from different experiments, platforms and laboratories.

  12. A novel RNA sequencing data analysis method for cell line authentication

    PubMed Central

    Fasterius, Erik; Rauch, Nora; Lundin, Pär; Kolch, Walter; Uhlén, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a novel analysis method that can interrogate the authenticity of biological samples used for generation of transcriptome profiles in public data repositories. The method uses RNA sequencing information to reveal mutations in expressed transcripts and subsequently confirms the identity of analysed cells by comparison with publicly available cell-specific mutational profiles. Cell lines constitute key model systems widely used within cancer research, but their identity needs to be confirmed in order to minimise the influence of cell contaminations and genetic drift on the analysis. Using both public and novel data, we demonstrate the use of RNA-sequencing data analysis for cell line authentication by examining the validity of COLO205, DLD1, HCT15, HCT116, HKE3, HT29 and RKO colorectal cancer cell lines. We successfully authenticate the studied cell lines and validate previous reports indicating that DLD1 and HCT15 are synonymous. We also show that the analysed HKE3 cells harbour an unexpected KRAS-G13D mutation and confirm that this cell line is a genuine KRAS dosage mutant, rather than a true isogenic derivative of HCT116 expressing only the wild type KRAS. This authentication method could be used to revisit the numerous cell line based RNA sequencing experiments available in public data repositories, analyse new experiments where whole genome sequencing is not available, as well as facilitate comparisons of data from different experiments, platforms and laboratories. PMID:28192450

  13. Detection of the power lines in UAV remote sensed images using spectral-spatial methods.

    PubMed

    Bhola, Rishav; Krishna, Nandigam Hari; Ramesh, K N; Senthilnath, J; Anand, Gautham

    2017-09-17

    In this paper, detection of the power lines on images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing is carried out using spectral-spatial methods. Spectral clustering was performed using Kmeans and Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to classify the pixels into the power lines and non-power lines. The spectral clustering methods used in this study are parametric in nature, to automate the number of clusters Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) is used. The UAV remote sensed image is clustered into the number of clusters determined by DBI. The k clustered image is merged into 2 clusters (power lines and non-power lines). Further, spatial segmentation was performed using morphological and geometric operations, to eliminate the non-power line regions. In this study, UAV images acquired at different altitudes and angles were analyzed to validate the robustness of the proposed method. It was observed that the EM with spatial segmentation (EM-Seg) performed better than the Kmeans with spatial segmentation (Kmeans-Seg) on most of the UAV images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D scan line method for identifying void fabric of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharis, Alexandros I.; Vairaktaris, Emmanouil; Dafalias, Yannis F.

    2017-06-01

    Among other processes measuring the void phase of porous or fractured media, scan line approach is a simplified "graphical" method, mainly used in image processing related procedures. In soil mechanics, the application of scan line method is related to the soil fabric, which is important in characterizing the anisotropic mechanical response of soils. Void fabric is of particular interest, since graphical approaches are well defined experimentally and most of them can also be easily used in numerical experiments, like the scan line method. This is in contrast to the definition of fabric based on contact normal vectors that are extremely difficult to determine, especially considering physical experiments. The scan line method has been proposed by Oda et al [1] and implemented again by Ghedia and O'Sullivan [2]. A modified method based on DEM analysis instead of image measurements of fabric has been previously proposed and implemented by the authors in a 2D scheme [3-4]. In this work, a 3D extension of the modified scan line definition is presented using PFC 3D®. The results show clearly similar trends with the 2D case and the same behaviour of fabric anisotropy is presented.

  15. A conjugate gradient method with descent properties under strong Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zull, N.; ‘Aini, N.; Shoid, S.; Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of the optimization methods that are often used in practical applications. The continuous and numerous studies conducted on the CG method have led to vast improvements in its convergence properties and efficiency. In this paper, a new CG method possessing the sufficient descent and global convergence properties is proposed. The efficiency of the new CG algorithm relative to the existing CG methods is evaluated by testing them all on a set of test functions using MATLAB. The tests are measured in terms of iteration numbers and CPU time under strong Wolfe line search. Overall, this new method performs efficiently and comparable to the other famous methods.

  16. A line-source method for aligning on-board and other pinhole SPECT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: In order to achieve functional and molecular imaging as patients are in position for radiation therapy, a robotic multipinhole SPECT system is being developed. Alignment of the SPECT system—to the linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate frame and to the coordinate frames of other on-board imaging systems such as cone-beam CT (CBCT)—is essential for target localization and image reconstruction. An alignment method that utilizes line sources and one pinhole projection is proposed and investigated to achieve this goal. Potentially, this method could also be applied to the calibration of the other pinhole SPECT systems.Methods: An alignment model consisting of multiple alignment parameters was developed which maps line sources in three-dimensional (3D) space to their two-dimensional (2D) projections on the SPECT detector. In a computer-simulation study, 3D coordinates of line-sources were defined in a reference room coordinate frame, such as the LINAC coordinate frame. Corresponding 2D line-source projections were generated by computer simulation that included SPECT blurring and noise effects. The Radon transform was utilized to detect angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the line-source projections. Alignment parameters were then estimated by a nonlinear least squares method, based on the α and ρ values and the alignment model. Alignment performance was evaluated as a function of number of line sources, Radon transform accuracy, finite line-source width, intrinsic camera resolution, Poisson noise, and acquisition geometry. Experimental evaluations were performed using a physical line-source phantom and a pinhole-collimated gamma camera attached to a robot.Results: In computer-simulation studies, when there was no error in determining angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the measured projections, six alignment parameters (three translational and three rotational) were estimated perfectly using three line sources. When angles (α) and offsets (ρ) were provided by

  17. Coloplasty Neorectum versus Straight Anastomosis in Low Rectal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Magray, Javaid A; Dar, Manzoor Ahmad; Chowdri, Nisar A; Wani, Rauf A; Thakur, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with the diagnosis of carcinoma rectum after random allocation were assigned to 2 groups. One group was subjected to total mesorectal excision with coloplasty neorectum reconstruction and another group to total mesorectal excision with straight anastomosis. This randomization was done by odds and even method by the sister in charge of the ward to avoid bias in randomization. The study included 42 patients with diagnosis of carcinoma rectum from 4 to 12 centimeters from anal verge. Composite incontinence score, bladder function, and sexual function were considered as the main outcome measures. Results. All patients of transverse coloplasty group had mild or moderate composite incontinence score while 7 (36.8%) patients of straight anastomosis group had a severe score at 7th POD (P < 0.05). At 6 months, 100% patients in transverse coloplasty group had a nil score which was not achieved by any of the patients in the other group. An intragroup comparison showed an improvement in score with time in both groups more marked in transverse coloplasty group. Conclusion. Transverse coloplasty group showed a better QOL so far as anal incontinence is considered. However, no statistically significant difference was achieved when comparing bladder and sexual dysfunction between the two groups.

  18. Coloplasty Neorectum versus Straight Anastomosis in Low Rectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Fazl Q.; Magray, Javaid A.; Chowdri, Nisar A.; Wani, Rauf A.; Thakur, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with the diagnosis of carcinoma rectum after random allocation were assigned to 2 groups. One group was subjected to total mesorectal excision with coloplasty neorectum reconstruction and another group to total mesorectal excision with straight anastomosis. This randomization was done by odds and even method by the sister in charge of the ward to avoid bias in randomization. The study included 42 patients with diagnosis of carcinoma rectum from 4 to 12 centimeters from anal verge. Composite incontinence score, bladder function, and sexual function were considered as the main outcome measures. Results. All patients of transverse coloplasty group had mild or moderate composite incontinence score while 7 (36.8%) patients of straight anastomosis group had a severe score at 7th POD (P < 0.05). At 6 months, 100% patients in transverse coloplasty group had a nil score which was not achieved by any of the patients in the other group. An intragroup comparison showed an improvement in score with time in both groups more marked in transverse coloplasty group. Conclusion. Transverse coloplasty group showed a better QOL so far as anal incontinence is considered. However, no statistically significant difference was achieved when comparing bladder and sexual dysfunction between the two groups. PMID:24624304

  19. Viscoelastic focusing and separation of bioparticles in straight microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelasticity-induced particle migration has recently received increasing attention due to its ability to obtain high-quality focusing over a wide range of flow rates. However, its application is limited to low throughput regime since the particles can defocus as flow rate increases. Using an engineered carrier medium with constant and low viscosity and strong elasticity, the sample flow rates are improved to be one order of magnitude higher than those in existing studies. Utilizing differential focusing of particles of different sizes, here we present sheathless particle/cell separation in simple straight microchannels that possess excellent parallelizability for further throughput enhancement. The present method can be implemented over a wide range of particle/cell sizes and flow rates. We successfully separate small particles from larger particles, MCF-7 cells from red blood cells (RBCs), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria from RBCs in different straight microchannels. We recommend further study on engineering rheological properties of carrier media for improving the separation performance of viscoelasticity-based microfluidic devices. We thank MOST2011CB707604 and NSFC11272321 for financial support. Done...processed 3188 records...13:39:19

  20. Improved method for calculating the respiratory line length in the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro

    2011-08-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) assesses an examinee's knowledge about a crime based on response differences between crime-relevant and crime-irrelevant items. One effective measure in the CIT is the respiration line length, which is the average of the moving distances of the respiration curve in a specified time interval after the item onset. However, the moving distance differs between parts of a respiratory cycle. As a result, the calculated respiration line length is biased by how the parts of the respiratory cycles are included in the time interval. To resolve this problem, we propose a weighted average method, which calculates the respiration line length per cycle and weights it with the proportion that the cycle occupies in the time interval. Simulation results indicated that the weighted average method removes the bias of respiration line lengths compared to the original method. The results of experimental CIT data demonstrated that the weighted average method significantly increased the discrimination performance as compared with the original method. The weighted average method is a promising method for assessing respiration changes in response to question items more accurately, which improves the respiration-based discrimination performance of the CIT.

  1. Preferred Methods of Learning for Nursing Students in an On-Line Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Debra; Pearce, Patricia F; Moser, Debra K

    Investigators have demonstrated that on-line courses result in effective learning outcomes, but limited information has been published related to preferred teaching strategies. Delivery of on-line courses requires various teaching methods to facilitate interaction between students, content, and technology. The purposes of this study were to understand student teaching/learning preferences in on-line courses to include (a) differences in preferred teaching/learning methods for on-line nursing students across generations and (b) which teaching strategies students found to be most engaging and effective. Participants were recruited from 2 accredited, private school nursing programs (N=944) that admit students from across the United States and deliver courses on-line. Participants provided implied consent, and 217 (23%) students completed the on-line survey. Thirty-two percent of the students were from the Baby Boomer generation (1946-1964), 48% from Generation X (1965-1980), and 20% from the Millennial Generation (born after 1980). The preferred teaching/learning methods for students were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations, followed by synchronous Adobe Connect educations sessions, assigned journal article reading, and e-mail dialog with the instructor. The top 2 methods identified by participants as the most energizing/engaging and most effective for learning were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations and case studies. The teaching/learning method least preferred by participants and that was the least energizing/engaging was group collaborative projects with other students; the method that was the least effective for learning was wikis. Baby Boomers and Generation X participants had a significantly greater preference for discussion board (P<.0167) than millennial students. Millennial students also had a greater preference for simulation than did Baby Boomer and Generation X students and rated on-line games as significantly more energizing/engaging and

  2. Colonoscope navigation system using colonoscope tracking method based on line registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kondo, Hiroaki; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Ryoji; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Navab, Nassir; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new colonoscope navigation system. CT colonography is utilized for colon diagnosis based on CT images. If polyps are found while CT colonography, colonoscopic polypectomy can be performed to remove them. While performing a colonoscopic examination, a physician controls colonoscope based on his/her experience. Inexperienced physicians may occur complications such as colon perforation while colonoscopic examinations. To reduce complications, a navigation system of colonoscope while performing the colonoscopic examinations is necessary. We propose a colonoscope navigation system. This system has a new colonoscope tracking method. This method obtains a colon centerline from a CT volume of a patient. A curved line (colonoscope line) representing the shape of colonoscope inserted to the colon is obtained by using electromagnetic sensors. A coordinate system registration process that employs the ICP algorithm is performed to register the CT and sensor coordinate systems. The colon centerline and colonoscope line are registered by using a line registration method. The position of the colonoscope tip in the colon is obtained from the line registration result. Our colonoscope navigation system displays virtual colonoscopic views generated from the CT volumes. A viewpoint of the virtual colonoscopic view is a point on the centerline that corresponds to the colonoscope tip. Experimental results using a colon phantom showed that the proposed colonoscope tracking method can track the colonoscope tip with small tracking errors.

  3. A robust real-time laser measurement method based on noncoding parallel multi-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenbo; Cui, Haihua; Yin, Wei; Yang, Liu

    2016-11-01

    Single line scanning is the main method in traditional 3D hand-held laser scanning, however its reconstruction speed is very slow and cumulative error is very large. Therefore, we propose a method to reconstruct the 3D profile by parallel multi-line 3D hand-held laser scanning. Firstly, we process the two images that contain multi-line laser stripes shot by the binocular cameras, and then the laser stripe centers will be extracted accurately. Then we use the approach of stereo vision principle, polar constraint and laser plane constraint to match the laser stripes of the left image and the right image correctly and reconstruct them quickly. Our experimental results prove the feasibility of this method, which improves the scanning speed and increases the scanning area greatly.

  4. Tools and Methods of Low-Frequency Radio Recombination Lines Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Stepkin, S. V.; Mukha, D. V.; Vasilkovskiy, E. V.

    In the report the tools and methods of observations of radio recombination lines which are carried out at Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine using the world's largest decameter radio telescope UTR-2 (arrays "South - North" and "East - West") are described. The low-frequency radio recombination lines can be used as effective means of the low-density partially ionized interstellar medium diagnostic. However, low intensities of the lines and high level of interferences makes such investigations very difficult and impose high requirements to equipment. Observations are carried out with the 4096-channel digital correlometer and new generation digital spectral processors with 8192 spectral channels. Currently, the systematic observations of radio recombination lines have been carried out in the directions of remnants of supernova stars, Galactic plane, nebulas and dust clouds. Experiments aimed to finding the redshifted line of neutral hydrogen HI which arises in the cosmological epochs of reionization in the range 8 - 32 MHz are carried out. The carbon radio recombination lines have been detected in the direction of Cassiopeia A in the broad range of frequencies from 20 to 32 MHz. The carbon radio recombination line, corresponding to the transitions to atomic level with number of 1009 (these corresponds to the Bohr size of atom near 0,1 mm) have been registered.

  5. Intelligent detection and removing of straight periodic streaks on digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zehao; Sheng, Hui; Xu, Xianfeng

    2017-08-01

    Straight periodic steaks are common negative errors on images, an intelligent method is proposed to test and remove the periodic streaks on digital images. Because of many artificial errors or negative experiment factors, digital images are always contaminated by straight periodic streaks, which will correspondently incur error information on them. By Fast Two Dimensional Fourier Transform, the space spectra from these periodic streaks are discrete and can be test intelligently. After eliminate these frequency ingredient, the periodic streaks disappear after inverse Fourier Transform. The numerical simulation experiment shows that this method is robust in detesting and removing the periodic streaks on digital figures.

  6. An incremental block-line-Gauss-Seidel method for the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, M.; Walters, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A block-line-Gauss-Seidel (LGS) method is developed for solving the incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions. The method requires only one block-tridiagonal solution process per iteration and is consequently faster per step than the linearized block-ADI methods. Results are presented for both incompressible and compressible separated flows: in all cases the proposed block-LGS method is more efficient than the block-ADI methods. Furthermore, for high Reynolds number weakly separated incompressible flow in a channel, which proved to be an impossible task for a block-ADI method, solutions have been obtained very efficiently by the new scheme.

  7. An incremental block-line-Gauss-Seidel method for the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, M.; Walters, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A block-line-Gauss-Seidel (LGS) method is developed for solving the incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions. The method requires only one block-tridiagonal solution process per iteration and is consequently faster per step than the linearized block-ADI methods. Results are presented for both incompressible and compressible separated flows: in all cases the proposed block-LGS method is more efficient than the block-ADI methods. Furthermore, for high Reynolds number weakly separated incompressible flow in a channel, which proved to be an impossible task for a block-ADI method, solutions have been obtained very efficiently by the new scheme.

  8. Monte Carlo Methods for Estimating Interfacial Free Energies and Line Tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Kurt; Block, Benjamin; Das, Subir K.; Virnau, Peter; Winter, David

    2011-08-01

    Excess contributions to the free energy due to interfaces occur for many problems encountered in the statistical physics of condensed matter when coexistence between different phases is possible (e.g. wetting phenomena, nucleation, crystal growth, etc.). This article reviews two methods to estimate both interfacial free energies and line tensions by Monte Carlo simulations of simple models, (e.g. the Ising model, a symmetrical binary Lennard-Jones fluid exhibiting a miscibility gap, and a simple Lennard-Jones fluid). One method is based on thermodynamic integration. This method is useful to study flat and inclined interfaces for Ising lattices, allowing also the estimation of line tensions of three-phase contact lines, when the interfaces meet walls (where "surface fields" may act). A generalization to off-lattice systems is described as well. The second method is based on the sampling of the order parameter distribution of the system throughout the two-phase coexistence region of the model. Both the interface free energies of flat interfaces and of (spherical or cylindrical) droplets (or bubbles) can be estimated, including also systems with walls, where sphere-cap shaped wall-attached droplets occur. The curvature-dependence of the interfacial free energy is discussed, and estimates for the line tensions are compared to results from the thermodynamic integration method. Basic limitations of all these methods are critically discussed, and an outlook on other approaches is given.

  9. Line tension effects on the wetting of nanostructures: an energy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao-Yuan; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    The superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property of micro/nano-structured solid surfaces require a stable Cassie–Baxter (CB) wetting state at the liquid–solid interface. We present an energy method to investigate how the three-phase line tension affects the CB wetting state on nanostructured materials. For some nanostructures, the line tension may engender a distinct energy barrier, which restricts the position of the three-phase contact line and affects the stability of the CB wetting state. We ascertain the upper and lower limits of the critical pressure at the CB–Wenzel transition. Our results suggest that superhydrophobicity on nanostructures can be modulated by tailoring the line tension and harnessing the curvature effect. This study also provides new insights into the sinking phenomena observed in the nanoparticle-floating experiment.

  10. Line tension effects on the wetting of nanostructures: an energy method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao-Yuan; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2017-09-20

    The superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property of micro/nano-structured solid surfaces require a stable Cassie-Baxter (CB) wetting state at the liquid-solid interface. We present an energy method to investigate how the three-phase line tension affects the CB wetting state on nanostructured materials. For some nanostructures, the line tension may engender a distinct energy barrier, which restricts the position of the three-phase contact line and affects the stability of the CB wetting state. We ascertain the upper and lower limits of the critical pressure at the CB-Wenzel transition. Our results suggest that superhydrophobicity on nanostructures can be modulated by tailoring the line tension and harnessing the curvature effect. This study also provides new insights into the sinking phenomena observed in the nanoparticle-floating experiment.

  11. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  12. A new convergent conjugate gradient method under the exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Osman; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are widely used for unconstrained optimization problems, especially large scale problems. That is, for its simplicity, low memory requirement, and global convergence properties. In this paper, we study the global convergence properties of a new conjugate gradient method under the exact line search. Under some assumptions, the proofs of the sufficient descent property and the global convergence are given. The numerical results show that our new method is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.

  13. Exponentially Fitted Variants of Euler's Method for ODEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanwar, V.; Tomar, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of Euler's method for the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations is presented in this article. The methods are iterative in nature and admit their geometric derivation from an exponentially fitted osculating straight line. They are single-step methods and do not require evaluation of any derivatives. The accuracy and…

  14. An improved, robust, axial line singularity method for bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The failures encountered in attempts to increase the range of applicability of the axial line singularity method for representing incompressible, inviscid flow about an inclined and slender body-of-revolution are presently noted to be common to all efforts to solve Fredholm equations of the first kind. It is shown that a previously developed smoothing technique yields a robust method for numerical solution of the governing equations; this technique is easily retrofitted to existing codes, and allows the number of circularities to be increased until the most accurate line singularity solution is obtained.

  15. An improved, robust, axial line singularity method for bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The failures encountered in attempts to increase the range of applicability of the axial line singularity method for representing incompressible, inviscid flow about an inclined and slender body-of-revolution are presently noted to be common to all efforts to solve Fredholm equations of the first kind. It is shown that a previously developed smoothing technique yields a robust method for numerical solution of the governing equations; this technique is easily retrofitted to existing codes, and allows the number of circularities to be increased until the most accurate line singularity solution is obtained.

  16. A modified indirect method for fabricating silicone soft-lined complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Oki, Meiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-12-01

    A method is described of polymerizing silicone soft lining materials with a hard acrylic resin base by using a photoactivated spacer. The use of a photoactivated spacer is convenient because of the ease in determining the correct location covering the attached mucosa but not extending to the border margins. By using this method, the optimum shape and thickness of the spacer can also be ensured. Thus, the long-term durability of soft lining dentures is achieved without invasion by microorganisms or peeling away from the denture margin.

  17. A method for modeling discontinuities in a microwave coaxial transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method for modeling discontinuities in a coaxial transmission line is presented. The methodology involves the use of a nonlinear least-squares fit program to optimize the fit between theoretical data (from the model) and experimental data. When this method was applied to modeling discontinuities in a slightly damaged Galileo spacecraft S-band (2.295-GHz) antenna cable, excellent agreement between theory and experiment was obtained over a frequency range of 1.70-2.85 GHz. The same technique can be applied for diagnostics and locating unknown discontinuities in other types of microwave transmission lines, such as rectangular, circular, and beam waveguides.

  18. Attitudes toward straight, gay male, and transsexual parenting.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Brittany A; Zinner, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined American attitudes toward transsexual and gay male parenting, compared to straight parenting. After reporting levels of transphobia, participants read a vignette regarding a couple seeking child adoption. Individuals high in transphobia perceived nontraditional couples as more emotionally unstable than straight couples and were less willing to grant custody of a child to the nontraditional couples vs. the straight couples. In addition, the transsexual couple faced more prejudice and discrimination than the gay male couple. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. A Hybrid Method for Evaluating of Lightning Performance of Overhead Lines based on Monte Carlo Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatinasab, Reza; Tadayon, Pooya; Ametani, Akihiro

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid method for calculating lightning performance of overhead lines caused by direct strokes by combining Lattice diagram together with the Monte Carlo method. In order to go through this, firstly, the proper analytical relations for overvoltages calculation are established based on Lattice diagram. Then, the Monte Carlo procedure is applied to the obtained analytical relations. The aim of the presented method that will be called `ML method' is simply estimation of the lightning performance of the overhead lines and performing the risk analysis of power apparatus with retaining the acceptable accuracy. To confirm the accuracy, the calculated results of the presented ML method are compared with those calculated by the EMTP/ATP simulation.

  20. A Sea-Sky Line Detection Method for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Gradient Saliency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Su, Yumin; Wan, Lei

    2016-04-15

    Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to detect the sea-sky line (SSL) accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF). In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the "XL" USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF.

  1. A Sea-Sky Line Detection Method for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Gradient Saliency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Su, Yumin; Wan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to detect the sea-sky line (SSL) accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF). In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the “XL” USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF. PMID:27092503

  2. A Passive Method for Detecting Vegetation Stress from Orbit: Chlorophyll Fluorescence Spectra from Fraunhofer Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theisen, Arnold F.

    2000-01-01

    Solar-stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence measured with the Fraunhofer line depth method has correlated well with vegetation stress in previous studies. However, the instruments used in those studies were limited to a single solar absorption line (e.g. 656.3 nm), obviating the red/far-red ratio (R/FR) method. Optics and detector technology have reached the level whereby multiple, very narrow Fraunhofer lines are resolvable. Thirteen such lines span the visible spectrum in the red to far-red region where chlorophyll fluorescence occurs. Fluorescence intensities at the 13 Fraunhofer line wavelengths were used to model emission spectra. The source data were collected for summer and fall bean crops (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various levels of nitrogen fertilization. The intensities were adjusted to account for Fraunhofer line depth and atmospheric transmittance. Multiple R/FR fluorescence ratios, calculated from the modeled fluorescence spectra, correlated strongly with leaf chlorophyll concentration and well with applied nitrogen. The ratio yielding the best correlation with chlorophyll utilized red fluorescence at the 694.5 nm Fraunhofer line and farred fluorescence at the 755.6 nm Fraunhofer line. Twenty R/FR ratios, each evaluated for the maximum differential between low and high (optimal) nitrogen treatments, ranked higher in some cases and lower in others, possibly related to the time of year the crops were grown and the stage of growth of the crops. Ratios with 728.9 nm and 738.9 nm in the denominator consistently ranked in the lowest and next lowest quartile, respectively. Ratios of the 656.3 nm Fraunhofer line and the 755.6 nm line consistently ranked highest for the summer crop. Ratios with 755.6 nm in the denominator ranked in the upper quartile for 10 out of 12 measurement dates. Differences in ratio ranking indicate that physiological conditions may be estimated using selected ratios of Fraunhofer lines within the context of R/FR analysis. A

  3. Method for generation of spiral bevel gears with conjugate gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Coy, J. J.; Heine, C.; Tsung, Wei-Jiung

    1987-01-01

    A method for generation of spiral bevel gears is proposed that provides conjugate gear tooth surfaces. This method is based on a new principle for the performance of parallel motion of a straight line that slides along two mating ellipses with related dimensions and parameters of orientation. The parallel motion of the straight line, that is, the contact normal, is performed parallel to the line which passes through the foci of symmetry of the related ellipses. The manufacturing of gears can be performed with the existing Gleason's equipment.

  4. Getting to the Bottom Line: A Method for Synthesizing Findings within Mixed-Method Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConney, Andrew; Rudd, Andy; Ayres, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a method for synthesizing findings within mixed-method program evaluations. The proposed method uses a set of criteria and analytic techniques to assess the worth of each data source or type and to establish what each says about program effect. Once data are on a common scale, simple mathematics allows synthesis across data sources or…

  5. Temperature measurement of wood flame based on the double line method of atomic emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhenhua; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at the testing requirement of the transient high temperature in explosion field and the bore of barrel weapon, the temperature measurement system of double line of atomic emission spectrum was designed, the method of flame spectrum testing system were used for experimental analysis. The experimental study of wood burning spectra was done with flame spectrum testing system. The measured spectra contained atomic emission spectra of the elements K, Na, and the excitation ease of two kinds atomic emission spectra was analyzed. The temperature was calculated with two spectral lines of K I 766.5nm and 769.9nm. The results show that, compared with Na, the excitation temperature of K atomic emission spectra is lower. By double line method, the temperature of wood burning is 1040K, and error is 3.7%.

  6. A high speed electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing method for line printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, Thanh Huy; Kim, Seora; Kwon, Kye-Si

    2017-10-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing has drawn attention due to its capability to produce smaller dots and patterns with finer lines when compared to those obtained from using conventional inkjet printing. Previous studies have suggested that drop-on-demand EHD-patterning applications should be limited to very slow printing cases with speeds far less than 10 mm s-1 due to the small dot size and limited jetting frequency. In this study, a new EHD printing method is proposed to significantly increase the line-patterning printing speed by modifying the ink and thereby changing the relic shape. The proposed method has the additional advantage of reducing the line-pattern width. The results of the experiment show that the pattern width could be reduced from 20 µm to 4 µm by increasing the printing speed from 10 mm s-1 to 50 mm s-1, respectively.

  7. Application and comparison of on-line identification methods for flexible manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzes, Anthony P.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The application of on-line identification schemes to flexible manipulators is considered. The common objective of all methods, for control purposes, is a time domain parameterization of the system transfer function. Time domain methods generally require more computational load, are more sensitive to noise than frequency domain methods, and suffer from over- (under-) parameterization of the transfer function. Frequency domain methods parameterize the lightly damped transfer function in terms of its easily recognizable poles and zeros and offer alternatives to time domain methods. Several solutions to overcome the aforementioned problems are discussed and demonstrated through experimental studies on a one-link flexible manipulator.

  8. Application and comparison of on-line identification methods for flexible manipulator control

    SciTech Connect

    Tzes, A.P. ); Yurkovich, S. )

    1991-10-01

    The application of on-line identification schemes to flexible manipulators is considered. The common objective of all methods, for control purposes, is a time domain parameterization of the system transfer function. Time domain methods generally require more computational load, are more sensitive to noise than frequency domain methods, and suffer from over- (under-) parameterization of the transfer function. Frequency domain methods parameterize the lightly damped transfer function in terms of its easily recognizable poles and zeros and offer alternatives to time domain methods. Several solutions to overcome the aforementioned problems are discussed and demonstrated through experimental studies on a one-link flexible manipulator.

  9. Regularization Method And Its Application In Problem Of Determination A Radial Distribution Of Spectral Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vuceljic, M. J.

    2007-04-23

    There are a lot of methods dealing with the problems how to get the local radial intensity from a measured lateral intensity of the spectral line. All of them need some a priori information and often a preliminary filtering of the signal. Thus, it is always a question about loosing the useful information of the signal. One of the methods for determination radial intensity is a Tikhonov regularization method. This method requires minimum a priori information such as: the intensity is a monotone positive function. To check applicability limitations of the method, some model functions have been introduced. Special attention was devoted to the model function with the fine structure.

  10. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  11. Finger vein recognition using local line binary pattern.

    PubMed

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP).

  12. Searching for Narrow Emission Lines in X-ray Spectra: Computation and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taeyoung; van Dyk, David A.; Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2008-12-01

    The detection and quantification of narrow emission lines in X-ray spectra is a challenging statistical task. The Poisson nature of the photon counts leads to local random fluctuations in the observed spectrum that often result in excess emission in a narrow band of energy resembling a weak narrow line. From a formal statistical perspective, this leads to a (sometimes highly) multimodal likelihood. Many standard statistical procedures are based on (asymptotic) Gaussian approximations to the likelihood and simply cannot be used in such settings. Bayesian methods offer a more direct paradigm for accounting for such complicated likelihood functions, but even here multimodal likelihoods pose significant computational challenges. The new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods developed in 2008 by van Dyk and Park, however, are able to fully explore the complex posterior distribution of the location of a narrow line, and thus provide valid statistical inference. Even with these computational tools, standard statistical quantities such as means and standard deviations cannot adequately summarize inference and standard testing procedures cannot be used to test for emission lines. In this paper, we use new efficient MCMC algorithms to fit the location of narrow emission lines, we develop new statistical strategies for summarizing highly multimodal distributions and quantifying valid statistical inference, and we extend the method of posterior predictive p-values proposed by Protassov and coworkers to test for the presence of narrow emission lines in X-ray spectra. We illustrate and validate our methods using simulation studies and apply them to the Chandra observations of the high-redshift quasar PG 1634+706.

  13. Calculation of the ac to dc resistance ratio of conductive nonmagnetic straight conductors by applying FEM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riba, Jordi-Roger

    2015-09-01

    This paper analyzes the skin and proximity effects in different conductive nonmagnetic straight conductor configurations subjected to applied alternating currents and voltages. These effects have important consequences, including a rise of the ac resistance, which in turn increases power loss, thus limiting the rating for the conductor. Alternating current (ac) resistance is important in power conductors and bus bars for line frequency applications, as well as in smaller conductors for high frequency applications. Despite the importance of this topic, it is not usually analyzed in detail in undergraduate and even in graduate studies. To address this, this paper compares the results provided by available exact formulas for simple geometries with those obtained by means of two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental results. The paper also shows that FEM results are very accurate and more general than those provided by the formulas, since FEM models can be applied in a wide range of electrical frequencies and configurations.

  14. The unified transform method for the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half-line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-01-01

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann–Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation. PMID:24204181

  15. A comparison of alternative methods for estimating the self-thinning boundary line

    Treesearch

    Lianjun Zhang; Huiquan Bi; Jeffrey H. Gove; Linda S. Heath

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental validity of the self-thinning "law" has been debated over the last three decades. A long-sanding concern centers on how to objectively select data points for fitting the self-thinning line and the most appropriate regression method for estimating the two coefficients. Using data from an even-aged Pinus strobus L. stand as an...

  16. Simple in-line method to measure the dispersion of an optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Feinberg, Jack

    1993-01-01

    We describe a simple in-line method to measure the dispersion of an optical system. The light beam passing through the optical system interferes with a reference beam in a spectrometer, and the resulting spectrum yields the quadratic and cubic dispersion terms of the system. We demonstrate this technique on an optical system made of grating pairs.

  17. BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at the target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.

  18. The solution of the two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation using the method of lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratsos, A. G.

    2007-09-01

    The method of lines is used to transform the initial/boundary-value problem associated with the two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation in two space variables into a second-order initial-value problem. The finite-difference methods are developed by replacing the matrix-exponential term in a recurrence relation with rational approximants. The resulting finite-difference methods are analyzed for local truncation error, stability and convergence. To avoid solving the nonlinear system a predictor-corrector scheme using the explicit method as predictor and the implicit as corrector is applied. Numerical solutions for cases involving the most known from the bibliography line and ring solitons are given.

  19. Vowel-related tongue movements in speech: straight or curved paths? (L).

    PubMed

    Löfqvist, Anders

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines tongue movements between the two vowels in sequences of vowel-labial consonant-vowel, addressing the question whether the movement is a straight line or a curved path. Native speakers of Japanese and Italian served as subjects. The linguistic material consisted of words where the bilabial consonant was either long or short. The inclusion of words with different consonant lengths was motivated by earlier findings that the tongue movement is often longer when the consonant is long, which may be due to a more curved movement path. Tongue movements were recorded using a three-transmitter magnetometer system. To assess the movement path, the movement magnitude was calculated in two ways, as a straight line, the Euclidean distance, and as the actual path, obtained by summing the individual Euclidean distances between successive samples from movement onset to offset. The ratio between the path and the Euclidean distance is 1 when the movement is a straight line and greater than 1 when the path is curved. Results show that in virtually all 21 cases examined the ratio was very close to 1 and in most cases 1.2 or less. There was no reliable influence of consonant length on the ratio. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  20. Use of a straight, side-hole delivery sheath for improved delivery of Amplatzer ASD occluder.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Shelby; Asnes, Jeremy D; Srinath, Gowdagere; Preminger, Tamar J; Prieto, Lourdes R; Latson, Larry A

    2007-01-01

    The Amplatzer ASD occluder may be difficult to position in some patients with a large atrial septal defect (ASD) or deficiency of one or more atrial septal rims. We developed a method to modify a Mullins transseptal sheath to enhance delivery. The resulting sheath is straight and has an exit orifice essential in the side of the distal portion of the sheath-a straight, side-hole (SSH) delivery sheath. We have used this modified delivery sheath in 140 successive patients with excellent results. The techniques of sheath modification and delivery of the device using the modified sheath are described.

  1. The vibration and stability analysis of moderate thick plates by the method of lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shou-Gao; Yuan, Si

    1992-06-01

    The method of lines based on Hu Hai-chang's theory for the vibration and stability of moderate thick plates is developed. The standard nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) system for natural frequencies and critical load is given by use of ODE techniques; any indicated eigenvalue could be obtained directly from ODE solver by employing the so-called initial eigenfunction technique instead of the mode orthogonality condition. Numerical examples show that the present method is very effective and reliable.

  2. Endoscopic Shearography and Thermography Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation of Lined Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Lansing, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this research effort was the development of methods for shearographic and thermographic inspection of coatings, bonds, or laminates inside rocket fuel or oxidizer tanks, fuel lines, and other closed structures. The endoscopic methods allow imaging and inspection inside cavities that are traditionally inaccessible with shearography or thermography cameras. The techniques are demonstrated and suggestions for practical application are made in this report. Drawings of the experimental setups, detailed procedures, and experimental data are included.

  3. Endoscopic Shearography and Thermography Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation of Lined Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research effort was the development of methods for shearography and thermography inspection of coatings, bonds, or laminates inside rocket fuel or oxidizer tanks, fuel lines, and other closed structures. The endoscopic methods allow imaging and inspection inside cavities which are traditionally inaccessible with shearography or thermography cameras. The techniques are demonstrated and suggestions for practical application are made in this report. Drawings of the experimental setups, detailed procedures, and experimental data are included.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative PCR methods for detection of three lines of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rho, Jae Kyun; Lee, Theresa; Jung, Soon-Il; Kim, Tae-San; Park, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mi

    2004-06-02

    Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been developed for the detection of genetically modified (GM) potatoes. The combination of specific primers for amplification of the promoter region of Cry3A gene, potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and potato virus Y coat protein gene allows to identify each line of NewLeaf, NewLeaf Y, and NewLeaf Plus GM potatoes. Multiplex PCR method was also established for the simple and rapid detection of the three lines of GM potato in a mixture sample. For further quantitative detection, the realtime PCR method has been developed. This method features the use of a standard plasmid as a reference molecule. Standard plasmid contains both a specific region of the transgene Cry3A and an endogenous UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene of the potato. The test samples containing 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% GM potatoes were quantified by this method. At the 3.0% level of each line of GM potato, the relative standard deviations ranged from 6.0 to 19.6%. This result shows that the above PCR methods are applicable to detect GM potatoes quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  5. A nonlinear adaptive method of elimination of power line interference in ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Ziarani, Alireza K; Konrad, Adalbert

    2002-06-01

    A new method of elimination of power line noise in electrocardiogram signals is presented. The proposed method employs, as its main building block, a recently developed signal processing algorithm capable of extracting a specified component of a signal and tracking its variations over time. Design considerations and performance of the proposed method are presented with the aid of computer simulations. Superior performance is observed in terms of effective elimination of noise under conditions of varying powerline interference frequency. The proposed method presents a simple and robust structure which complies with practical constraints involved in the problem such as low computational resource availability and low sampling frequency.

  6. UND: unite-and-divide method in Fourier and Radon domains for line segment detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Daming; Gao, Junbin; Rahmdel, Payam S; Antolovich, Michael; Clark, Tony

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we extend our previously proposed line detection method to line segmentation using a so-called unite-and-divide (UND) approach. The methodology includes two phases, namely the union of spectra in the frequency domain, and the division of the sinogram in Radon space. In the union phase, given an image, its sinogram is obtained by parallel 2D multilayer Fourier transforms, Cartesian-to-polar mapping and 1D inverse Fourier transform. In the division phase, the edges of butterfly wings in the neighborhood of every sinogram peak are firstly specified, with each neighborhood area corresponding to a window in image space. By applying the separated sinogram of each such windowed image, we can extract the line segments. The division Phase identifies the edges of butterfly wings in the neighborhood of every sinogram peak such that each neighborhood area corresponds to a window in image space. Line segments are extracted by applying the separated sinogram of each windowed image. Our experiments are conducted on benchmark images and the results reveal that the UND method yields higher accuracy, has lower computational cost and is more robust to noise, compared to existing state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Simulation of linear aeracoustic propagation in lined ducts with discontinuous Galerkin method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyret, Christophe; Delorme, Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The simulation of the acoustic propagation inside a lined duct with nonuniform flow still presents problems when geometry is complex. To handle computations on a complex geometry, without consequential effort, unstructured meshes are required. Assuming irrotational flow and acoustic perturbation, a well-posed finite element method based on the potential equation is established. But, the effect of the thin boundary layer is then neglected, which is not relevant to the acoustical processes occurring near the lining. Recent works have focused on the tremendous interest of the Galerkin discontinuous method (GDM) to solve Euler's linearized equations. The GDM can handle computations on unstructured meshes and introduces low numerical dissipation. Very recent mathematical works have established, for the GDM, a well-posed boundary condition to simulate the lining effect. Results computed with the GDM are presented for a uniform cross section lined duct with a shear flow and are found to be in good agreement with the modal analysis results, thereby validating the boundary condition. To illustrate the flexibility of the method other applications dealing with instabilities, air-wing diffraction, and atmospheric propagation are also presented.

  8. A New Method for Modeling Optical Depth Effects in Cometary Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersch, Alan; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2008-09-01

    We create a model of the carbon monoxide IR spectra of a cometary coma including optical depth effects using Coupled Escape Probability (CEP), a new exact method for line radiative transfer solutions (see Elitzur & Asensio Ramos, 2005). In the CEP method a plane parallel atmosphere is divided into vertical "zones". Each zone's distribution of fractional populations in molecular energy levels is determined using statistical equilibrium. All the zones are coupled through terms resembling escape probability expressions, which encapsulate the self-radiation due to scattering and absorption between zones. This enables a self-consistent solution for the line radiation produced even in optically thick cases. We have implemented the CEP approach to calculate the line emission of the CO IR 1-0 ro-vibrational spectra, for arbitrary conditions such as those found in cometary comae. The coma itself is modeled using numerical integration of the expanding coma gas from the nucleus outwards (see, e.g. Chin & Weaver, 1984.) Our model of the coma uses the CEP method for integrating CO emission throughout the coma in a piecewise manner which yields a model spectra for any observed line of sight through the coma. We have constructed spectral "maps" of the coma of comet Tempel-1 in various frequencies, corresponding to observations during the approach and impact of the Deep Impact mission. These are compared with the actual Deep Impact observations to better understand the coma composition.

  9. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-06-15

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.

  10. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of...

  15. Friends, Families, and the Importance of Straight Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woog, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Argues that gay issues should be recognized and discussed in schools, and cites the killing of Matthew Shepard as an example of hatred perpetuated through ignorance. Outlines the need for straight allies to stand up for gay students whenever they can, and suggests ways straight teachers can show their gay colleagues that they are sensitive to the…

  16. The development of straightness measuring equipment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Demint, P.D.; Abraham, M.

    1997-05-20

    This report details work performed between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and UTE Straight-O-Matic (UTE) under the National Machine Tool Partnership program. This work included the design and construction of an automatic straightness measuring system capable of retrofitting to existing machines. 1 fig.

  17. The Straight Edge Movement: It's Not What You Think.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Kibby

    2000-01-01

    A high school senior describes the straight edge movement, a misunderstood youth-oriented group whose members are against smoking, drinking, doing drugs, and engaging in promiscuous sex. Straight edgers are often mislabeled as troublemakers because of their style of dress and taste in hardcore and punk music, and because of the violent actions of…

  18. Measuring the depth of crosslinking demarcation line in vivo: Comparison of methods and devices.

    PubMed

    Thorsrud, Andreas; Sandvik, Gunhild F; Hagem, Anne M; Drolsum, Liv

    2017-02-01

    To assess the interrelationship of different methods of measuring the demarcation line depth after corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). University eye clinic, Oslo, Norway. Prospective case series. Eyes having CXL for progressive keratoconus were evaluated 1 month after CXL by in vitro confocal microscopy (IVCM), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and Scheimpflug imaging. When applying IVCM, the depth of the CXL demarcation line was measured with 2 methods; that is, IVCM keratocyte disappearance and IVCM intensity increase. With OCT, the evaluations were made by measuring the depth of the corneal stromal demarcation line. Scheimpflug imaging was used with 2 depth-measuring methods; that is manual Scheimpflug and objective Scheimpflug intensity change. The demarcation line depths in the central cornea were compared by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and pairwise comparison of the measured treated depth. If acceptable correlations (ICC > 0.7) were found, Bland-Altman analysis was performed. Twenty eyes of 20 patients were evaluated. Acceptable correlations were found between depth measurements using OCT-IVCM keratocyte disappearance (ICC = 0.80), OCT-IVCM intensity increase (ICC = 0.75), and IVCM intensity increase-IVCM keratocyte disappearance (ICC = 0.91). The Bland-Altman plots of these 3 pairs showed sufficient levels of agreement. Using pairwise comparison of these pairs, the measured depths were in the same level by the OCT-IVCM intensity increase only (P = .529). Scheimpflug images were inaccurate for measuring the CXL demarcation line depth. The 2 confocal microscopy methods and OCT images showed good correlation. Of these 3 pairs, only measurements with OCT and IVCM intensity increase depths were in the same level. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  20. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  1. Application of a finite volume based method of lines to turbulent forced convection in circular tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, A.; Tebeest, K.; Lacoa, U.; Morales, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    A semianalytic analysis of in-tube turbulent forced convection is performed whose special computational feature is the combination of the method of lines, the finite volume technique, and a radial coordinate transformation. First, a numerical solution of the momentum equation was obtained by a simple Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Second, the energy equation was reformulated into a system of ordinary differential equations of first order. Each equation in the system controls the temperature along a line in a mesh consisting of concentric lines. Reliable analytic solutions for the temperature distribution of fluids in the region of thermal development can be determined for combinations of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Predicted results for the distributions of mean bulk temperature and local Nusselt numbers for air, water, and oils compare satisfactorily with the available experimental data.

  2. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.

  3. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Daniel Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications. - Graphical abstract:.

  4. Building Bridges One Line at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  5. Building Bridges One Line at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  7. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  8. Design and Validation of a Straight-Copy Typewriting Prognostic Test Using Kinesthetic Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Norma Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a kinesthetic sensitivity test to determine whether it is a valid and reliable measure of straight-copy typing speed and accuracy. The author states that this kinesthetic sensitivity instrument may be used as a prognostic aptitude test and recommends administration methods. (MF)

  9. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system.

  10. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  11. A new conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent without any line search for unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Osman; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Amani, Zahrahtul

    2015-02-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are one of the most used methods for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, especially of large scale. Their wide applications are due to their simplicity and low memory requirement. The sufficient descent property is an important issue in the analyses and implementations of conjugate gradient methods. In this paper, a new conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization problems. The theoretical analysis shows that the directions generated by the new method are always satisfy the sufficient descent property, and this property is independent of the line search used. Furthermore, a numerical experiment based on comparing the new method with other known conjugate gradient methods shows that the new is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.

  12. Evaluation of glycerol removal techniques, cryoprotectants, and insemination methods for cryopreserving rooster sperm with implications of regeneration of breed or line or both.

    PubMed

    Purdy, P H; Song, Y; Silversides, F G; Blackburn, H D

    2009-10-01

    A series of experiments was designed to evaluate the quality of cryopreserved rooster sperm and its fertility so that programs needing to bank germplasm and recreate animals can do so utilizing a minimal amount of cryopreserved semen. In experiment 1, rooster semen from the National Animal Germplasm Program genebank was thawed and glycerol was removed using a discontinuous Accudenz column or by stepwise dilution. The postthaw sperm motilities, plasma membrane integrity, and concentration were determined before and after deglycerolization. Line differences in postthaw sperm concentration and progressive motility were observed before deglycerolization (P<0.05). After glycerol removal, the sperm that was centrifuged through Accudenz had greater total motility (37 vs. 33% sperm; P<0.05), but use of the stepwise dilution method recovered more sperm per milliliter (320.4x10(6)) compared with the Accudenz method (239.2x10(6) sperm; P<0.05; range across 6 lines of 165.7 to 581.0x10(6) sperm/mL). In experiment 2, rooster semen was cryopreserved using Lake's diluent containing either dimethyl acetamide (DMA) or glycerol as the cryoprotectants. Postthaw analysis revealed that the samples cryopreserved with glycerol survived freezing better, determined by total motility (47.8 and 15.1% glycerol and DMA samples, respectively; P<0.05) and annexin V analyses (1.6 and 11.3% membrane-damaged sperm for glycerol and DMA samples, respectively; P<0.05). Differences in sperm motilities (total and progressive motility) and velocities (path velocity, straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity) were observed between the 2 cryoprotectant treatments once the glycerol had been removed from those samples cryopreserved with glycerol, of which the glycerol samples had significantly more motile sperm and higher velocities (P<0.05). The fertility of the samples frozen using the 2 cryoprotectants was tested using a single insemination (intravaginal or intramagnal) of 200x10(6) sperm and the

  13. Joint line restoration during revision total knee arthroplasty: an accurate and reliable method.

    PubMed

    Sadaka, Chantal; Kabalan, Ziad; Hoyek, Fadi; Abi Fares, Georges; Lahoud, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    During revision total knee arthroplasty, the joint line is frequently malpositioned, due to the disappearance of the anatomical landmarks following previous interventions. This leads to decreased clinical outcome and increased risk of re-intervention. Many methods have been proposed to restore the joint line, but none of them has shown itself to be reliable. We describe an accurate and precise method to localize the exact position of the joint line which guarantees a better clinical knee score. The adductor tubercle (AT) is recognized to be the most reliable landmark used to localize the knee joint line (JL). The distance from the AT to the JL on antero-posterior radiographs (ATJL) and the femoral diameter (FD) on true lateral views were measured on 200 randomly selected normal knees. These measurements were tested for intra- and inter-observer differences. Then, the relationship between these two measurements was studied. A significant correlation and linear regression between FD and ATJL was found (p < 0.001), making the adductor tubercle a valid landmark to accurately position the prosthetic joint within 4 mm from the normal position. No significant difference was noted in the intra and inter-observer measurements (F test not significant). Sex was found to be an intervening variable (p ˂ 0.001). The correlation and regression between ATJL and FD had to be adjusted accordingly. Once the ATJL was determined preoperatively, the JL level is found during surgery by using a caliper that is held on the easily palpable AT. Knowing the femoral diameter, we can easily locate the joint line level surgically, using the adductor tubercle as a landmark. This method leads to better clinical outcomes and a reduced risk of re-intervention following revision total knee arthroplasty.

  14. Monte Carlo method for calculating oxygen abundances and their uncertainties from strong-line flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M.; Oh, S. M.; Fierroz, D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Kewley, L.; Graur, O.

    2016-07-01

    We present the open-source Python code pyMCZ that determines oxygen abundance and its distribution from strong emission lines in the standard metallicity calibrators, based on the original IDL code of Kewley and Dopita (2002) with updates from Kewley and Ellison (2008), and expanded to include more recently developed calibrators. The standard strong-line diagnostics have been used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium through various emission line ratios (referred to as indicators) in many areas of astrophysics, including galaxy evolution and supernova host galaxy studies. We introduce a Python implementation of these methods that, through Monte Carlo sampling, better characterizes the statistical oxygen abundance confidence region including the effect due to the propagation of observational uncertainties. These uncertainties are likely to dominate the error budget in the case of distant galaxies, hosts of cosmic explosions. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, our code produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 15 metallicity calibrators simultaneously, as well as for E(B- V) , and estimates their median values and their 68% confidence regions. We provide the option of outputting the full Monte Carlo distributions, and their Kernel Density estimates. We test our code on emission line measurements from a sample of nearby supernova host galaxies (z < 0.15) and compare our metallicity results with those from previous methods. We show that our metallicity estimates are consistent with previous methods but yield smaller statistical uncertainties. It should be noted that systematic uncertainties are not taken into account. We also offer visualization tools to assess the spread of the oxygen abundance in the different calibrators, as well as the shape of the estimated oxygen abundance distribution in each calibrator, and develop robust metrics for determining the appropriate Monte Carlo sample size. The code

  15. On line diagnostics and self-tuning method for the fluidized bed temperature controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porzuczek, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the method of on-line diagnostics of the bed temperature controller for the fluidized bed boiler. Proposed solution is based on the methods of statistical process control. Detected decrease of the bed temperature control quality is used to activate the controller self-tuning procedure. The algorithm that provides optimal tuning of the bed temperature controller is also proposed. The results of experimental verification of the presented method is attached. Experimental studies were carried out using the 2 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler.

  16. A density-independent method for high moisture content measurement using a microstrip transmission line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangjun; Okamura, Seichi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure high moisture content in materials from 190% to 350% on a dry weight basis. The method uses a microstrip transmission line, on which the material under test is overlaid. A parameter calculated from the attenuation and phase shift of the microwave signal is proposed to measure the moisture content. The experiments were performed on samples of sawdust, and the results show that the method is able to determine high moisture content independent of density. The standard error of calibration for the moisture content determination was 12.4% in the moisture content range from 190% to 350%.

  17. An improved multimodal method for sound propagation in nonuniform lined ducts.

    PubMed

    Bi, WenPing; Pagneux, Vincent; Lafarge, Denis; Aurégan, Yves

    2007-07-01

    An efficient method is proposed for modeling time harmonic acoustic propagation in a nonuniform lined duct without flow. The lining impedance is axially segmented uniform, but varies circumferentially. The sound pressure is expanded in term of rigid duct modes and an additional function that carries the information about the impedance boundary. The rigid duct modes and the additional function are known a priori so that calculations of the true liner modes, which are difficult, are avoided. By matching the pressure and axial velocity at the interface between different uniform segments, scattering matrices are obtained for each individual segment; these are then combined to construct a global scattering matrix for multiple segments. The present method is an improvement of the multimodal propagation method, developed in a previous paper [Bi et al., J. Sound Vib. 289, 1091-1111 (2006)]. The radial rate of convergence is improved from O(n(-2)), where n is the radial mode indices, to O(n(-4)). It is numerically shown that using the present method, acoustic propagation in the nonuniform lined intake of an aeroengine can be calculated by a personal computer for dimensionless frequency K up to 80, approaching the third blade passing frequency of turbofan noise.

  18. Investigation of organic materials by generalized m-line spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusciuk, Elzbieta; Roszko, Marcin

    2004-08-01

    A generalized m-line spectroscopy method enables evaluation of the parameters (the refractive index, n and the thickness, W) of sub-guiding films deposited on a planar waveguide. A sub-guiding film (not reaching the guiding effect) when deposited on the existing planar waveguide influences the present guiding system and affects its guiding properties. In the method a laser beam is coupling via a prism to the sample and a light distribution decoupled by the same prism is studied. Complementary to the beam spot reflected geometrically from the prism base the light distribution takes a form of discrete lines, m-modes. This image is observed but only for some discrete values of the coupling angles. The refractive index, n and thickness, W of the waveguide are then calculated by numerical evaluation of the dispersion equation with a set of the coupling angles. From the previous and actual coupling angles the thin film parameters can be evaluated. In the paper an application of the generalized m-line spectroscopy method to biological samples is presented. Some initial measurements reveal an effect of the presence of the films on the coupling angles of the structure. The presence of glucose has been revealed in secretions of patients suffering from diabetes. Testing of glucose presence with the proposed method is performed with a trace amount of the patient secretion alike in medical preliminary tests.

  19. Oscillatory Flow in Curved and Straight Tubes: Transport and Transition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmann, David Matthew

    Transport of soluble material is analyzed for volume-cycled oscillatory flow in a curved tube. The Navier -Stokes equations of motion are solved using a regular perturbation method for small ratio of tube radius to radius of curvature and order unity amplitude over a range of the Womersley parameter. A stream function definition of the lateral velocities is defined to satisfy the conservation of mass equation exactly. A pressure-gradient amplitude is specified to satisfy the fluid volume-cycling constraint imposed. Axial velocity profiles and cross-sectional steady streaming velocity profiles are compared to previous theories and experiments. The convection-diffusion transport equation is similarly solved by a regular perturbation scheme where uniform steady end concentrations and no wall flux are assumed. The time-average axial transport, consisting of the diffusive and convective flux of solute is calculated. There is substantial modification of transport compared to the straight tube case and the results are interpreted with respect to pulmonary gas exchange. A Laser Doppler Anemometer is used to analyze volume-cycled oscillatory flow of a Newtonian viscous fluid in a straight circular tube. The working fluid is chosen to match index of refraction with the Plexiglas test section. The axial velocity is measured at radial positions across the diameter of the tube for a wide range of amplitude A = stroke distance/tube radius (2.4 <=q A <=q 21.6) and Womersley parameter (9 < alpha < 33). Transition to turbulence is detected during the decelerating phase of fluid motion for 500 < R_delta < 875, where R_delta = alphaAsurd2 is the Reynolds number based on Stokes layer thickness. This instability is confined to the viscous boundary layer and does not appear in the inviscid core as reported by previous investigators, unless a source of vorticity such as a hot -wire anemometer probe is resident in the flow.

  20. Stress Intensity Factors of Semi-Circular Bend Specimens with Straight-Through and Chevron Notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, M. R.; Mahdavi, E.; Alborzi, M. J.; Obara, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Semi-circular bend specimen is one of the useful test specimens for determining fracture toughness of rock and geo-materials. Generally, in rock test specimens, initial cracks are produced in two shapes: straight-edge cracks and chevron notches. In this study, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factors of semi-circular bend specimen (SCB) with straight-through and chevron notches are calculated. First, using finite element analysis, a suitable relation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack is presented based on the normalized crack length and half-distance between supports. For evaluating the validity and accuracy of this relation, the obtained results are then compared with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature. Subsequently, by performing some experiments and also finite element analysis of the SCB specimen with chevron notch, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factor of this specimen is obtained. Using the new equation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack and an analytical method, i.e., Bluhm's slice synthesis method, the minimum (critical) dimensionless stress intensity factor of chevron notched semi-circular bend specimens is calculated. Good agreement is observed between the results of two mentioned methods.

  1. Gliding flight: drag and torque of a hawk and a falcon with straight and turned heads, and a lower value for the parasite drag coefficient.

    PubMed

    Tucker, V A

    2000-12-01

    Raptors - falcons, hawks and eagles in this study - such as peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) that attack distant prey from high-speed dives face a paradox. Anatomical and behavioral measurements show that raptors of many species must turn their heads approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey straight ahead with maximum visual acuity, yet turning the head would presumably slow their diving speed by increasing aerodynamic drag. This paper investigates the aerodynamic drag part of this paradox by measuring the drag and torque on wingless model bodies of a peregrine falcon and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with straight and turned heads in a wind tunnel at a speed of 11.7 m s(-)(1). With a turned head, drag increased more than 50 %, and torque developed that tended to yaw the model towards the direction in which the head pointed. Mathematical models for the drag required to prevent yawing showed that the total drag could plausibly more than double with head-turning. Thus, the presumption about increased drag in the paradox is correct. The relationships between drag, head angle and torque developed here are prerequisites to the explanation of how a raptor could avoid the paradox by holding its head straight and flying along a spiral path that keeps its line of sight for maximum acuity pointed sideways at the prey. Although the spiral path to the prey is longer than the straight path, the raptor's higher speed can theoretically compensate for the difference in distances; and wild peregrines do indeed approach prey by flying along curved paths that resemble spirals. In addition to providing data that explain the paradox, this paper reports the lowest drag coefficients yet measured for raptor bodies (0.11 for the peregrine and 0.12 for the red-tailed hawk) when the body models with straight heads were set to pitch and yaw angles for minimum drag. These values are markedly lower than value of the parasite drag coefficient (C(D,par)) of 0.18 previously

  2. Magnetic fields dispersed by high-voltage power lines: an advanced evaluation method based on 3-D models of electrical lines and the territory.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, D; Zoppetti, N

    2004-01-01

    An advanced numerical evaluation tool is proposed for calculating the magnetic flux density dispersed by high-voltage power lines. When compared to existing software packages based on the application of standardized methods, this tool turned out to be particularly suitable for making accurate evaluations on vast portions of the territory, especially when the contribution of numerous aerial and/or underground lines must be taken into account. The aspects of the tool of greatest interest are (1) the interaction with an electronic archive of power lines, from which all the information necessary for the calculation is obtained; (2) the use of three-dimensional models of both the power lines and the territory crossed by these; (3) the direct interfacing with electronic cartography; and finally (4) the use of a representation procedure for the results that is based on contour maps. The tool had proven to be very useful especially for Environmental Impact Assessment procedures relative to new power lines.

  3. Line Graph or Scatter Plot? Automatic Selection of Methods for Visualizing Trends in Time Series.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunhai; Han, Fubo; Zhu, Lifeng; Deussen, Oliver; Chen, Baoquan

    2017-01-16

    Line graphs are usually considered to be the best choice for visualizing time series data, whereas sometimes also scatter plots are used for showing main trends. So far there are no guidelines that indicate which of these visualization methods better display trends in time series for a given canvas. Assuming that the main information in a time series is its overall trend, we propose an algorithm that automatically picks the visualization method that reveals this trend best. This is achieved by measuring the visual consistency between the trend curve represented by a LOESS fit and the trend described by a scatter plot or a line graph. To measure the consistency between our algorithm and user choices, we performed an empirical study with a series of controlled experiments that show a large correspondence. In a factor analysis we furthermore demonstrate that various visual and data factors have effects on the preference for a certain type of visualization.

  4. Recursive Trace Line Method for Detecting Myelinated Bundles: a Comparison Study with Pyramidal Cell Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel F.; Konkachbaev, Anouar I.; Switala, Andrew E.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.

    2008-01-01

    Minicolumns are thought to be the smallest cortical modules within the hierarchical organization of the isocortex. Several reports suggest alterations in minicolumnar morphometry may be involved in psychiatric disorders such as autism, dyslexia, and schizophrenia. Thus far anatomical studies of minicolumns have primarily relied on measurements of pyramidal cell arrays. This study expands on a recursive trace line segmentation method used to define morphometric measures for myelinated axon bundles. The results were compared against those of pyramidal cell arrays derived from immediately adjacent serial sections. Width estimates based on cell somas and myelinated axon bundles were highly correlated (r = 0.9888). Histograms of signal intensity using the recursive trace line method produced expected features of myeloarchitectonics; that is, bundles of Meynert and intervening interradiary plexus. The close correspondence of derived values for myelinated axon bundles and pyramidal cell arrays suggests their participation and interaction within the same modular arrangement of the isocortex. PMID:18192023

  5. A line rate calculation method for arbitrary directional imaging of an Earth observing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Moon-Jin; Kim, Eunghyun; Lim, Seong-Bin; Choi, Seok-Weon

    2016-10-01

    For an earth observing satellite, a line rate is the number of lines which the CCD of push broom type camera scans in a second. It can be easily calculated by ground velocity divided by ground sample distance. Accurate calculation of line rate is necessary to obtain high quality image using TDI CCD. The earth observing satellite has four types of imaging missions which are strip imaging, stereo imaging, multi-point imaging, and arbitrary directional imaging. For the first three types of imaging, ground scanning direction is aligned with satellite velocity direction. Therefore, if the orbit propagation and spacecraft attitude information are available, the ground velocity and ground sample distance could be easily calculated. However, the calculation method might not be applicable to the arbitrary directional imaging. In the arbitrary directional imaging mode, the ground velocity is not fixed value which could be directly derived by orbit information. Furthermore, the ground sample distance might not be easily calculated by simple trigonometry which is possible for the other types of imaging. In this paper, we proposed a line rate calculation method for the arbitrary directional imaging. We applied spherical geometry to derive the equation of ground point which is the intersection between the line of sight vector of the camera and earth surface. The derivative of this equation for time is the ground velocity except the factor of earth rotation. By adding this equation and earth rotation factor, the true ground velocity vector could be derived. For the ground sample distance, we applied the equation of circle and ellipse for yaw angle difference. The equation of circle is used for the yaw angle representation on the plane which is orthogonal to the line of sight vector. The equation of ellipse is used for the yaw angle representation on the ground surface. We applied the proposed method to the KOMPSAT-3A (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 3A) mission which is the first

  6. Vortex methods with immersed lifting lines applied to LES of wind turbine wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Philippe; Bricteux, Laurent; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    We present the coupling of a vortex particle-mesh method with immersed lifting lines. The method relies on the Lagrangian discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations in vorticity-velocity formulation. Advection is handled by the particles while the mesh allows the evaluation of the differential operators and the use of fast Poisson solvers. We use a Fourier-based fast Poisson solver which simultaneously allows unbounded directions and inlet/outlet boundaries. A lifting line approach models the vorticity sources in the flow. Its immersed treatment efficiently captures the development of vorticity from thin sheets into a three-dimensional field. We apply this approach to the simulation of a wind turbine wake at very high Reynolds number. The combined use of particles and multiscale subgrid models allows the capture of wake dynamics with minimal spurious diffusion and dispersion.

  7. Directivity analysis of meander-line-coil EMATs with a wholly analytical method.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuedong; Liu, Zenghua; Yin, Liyuan; Wu, Jiande; Deng, Peng; Yin, Wuliang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation and experimental study of the radiation pattern of a meander-line-coil EMAT. A wholly analytical method, which involves the coupling of two models: an analytical EM model and an analytical UT model, has been developed to build EMAT models and analyse the Rayleigh waves' beam directivity. For a specific sensor configuration, Lorentz forces are calculated using the EM analytical method, which is adapted from the classic Deeds and Dodd solution. The calculated Lorentz force density are imported to an analytical ultrasonic model as driven point sources, which produce the Rayleigh waves within a layered medium. The effect of the length of the meander-line-coil on the Rayleigh waves' beam directivity is analysed quantitatively and verified experimentally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Research for different crack width calculation methods of concrete-lined steel pressure pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuang; Li, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Based on a certain threshold to ensure the durability of structure, the concrete-lined steel pressure pipes used in the structure of large hydropower station widely are allowed to exist in concrete cracking under the action of a certain hydraulic pressure. According to the 1:2 large scale experiment model and the measured data of Three Gorges Hydro-power Station, the existing different methods for calculating crack width were compared and improvements and crack control measures were raised.

  9. "Not Going Away": Approaches Used by Students, Faculty, and Staff Members to Create Gay-Straight Alliances at Three Religiously Affiliated Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntarfer, Heather Killelea

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the processes of forming gay-straight alliances at three religiously affiliated institutions of higher education. Using the lens of Social Movement Theory (SMT), this paper presents the methods and approaches used when advocates of gay-straight alliances at these institutions encountered resistance from…

  10. "Not Going Away": Approaches Used by Students, Faculty, and Staff Members to Create Gay-Straight Alliances at Three Religiously Affiliated Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntarfer, Heather Killelea

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the processes of forming gay-straight alliances at three religiously affiliated institutions of higher education. Using the lens of Social Movement Theory (SMT), this paper presents the methods and approaches used when advocates of gay-straight alliances at these institutions encountered resistance from…

  11. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Kao; Debski, Paul

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  12. Application of autofocusing methods in continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2015-07-01

    Terahertz digital holography is a combination of terahertz imaging and digital holography. During reconstruction, the key point is to find accurately the propagation distance from which the distribution of focused samples can be reconstructed. In this paper, we use a continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holographic imaging system to record holograms. Moreover, the autofocusing algorithms through which the reconstructed distance can be calculated are applied to the reconstruction. The in-line schematic is beneficial to the terahertz wave imaging, which, however, inevitably produces the object's twin image. In the refocusing process, both the reconstructed image with low signal-to-noise ratio and contrast and the twin image induce the formation of false peaks corresponding to improper distances on the autofocusing curves. To restrain the disturbance factors and improve the accuracy of the judgment, a phase retrieval method is implemented in the reconstruction. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the autofocusing method with phase retrieval in terahertz in-line digital holographic imaging system. The proposed method provides an automated and efficient evaluation which helps to obtain the optimized propagation distance.

  13. Analysis of the genetic divergence of soybean lines through hierarchical and Tocher optimization methods.

    PubMed

    Cantelli, D A V; Hamawaki, O T; Rocha, M R; Nogueira, A P O; Hamawaki, R L; Sousa, L B; Hamawaki, C D L

    2016-10-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the clustering pattern consistency of soybean (Glycine max) lines, using seven different clustering methods. Our aim was to evaluate the best method for the identification of promising genotypes to obtain segregating populations. We used 51 generations F5 and F6 soybean lines originating from different hybridizations and backcrosses obtained from the soybean breeding program of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia in addition to three controls (Emgopa 302, BRSGO Luziânia, and MG/BR46 Conquista). We evaluated the following agronomic traits: number of days to flowering, number of days to maturity, height of the plant at maturity, insertion height of the first pod, grain yield, and weight of 100 seeds. The data was submitted to analyses of variance followed by average Euclidean distance matrix estimation used as measure of dissimilarity. Subsequently, clusters were formed using the Tocher method and dendrograms were constructed using the hierarchical methods simple connection (nearest neighbor), complete connection (most distant neighbor), Ward, median, average within cluster connection. The nearest neighbor method presented the largest number of genotypes in group I and showed the greatest similarity with the Tocher optimization method. The joint use of these two methodologies allows for differentiation of the most genetically distant genotypes that may constitute the optimal parents in a breeding program.

  14. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-02-18

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.

  15. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  16. Line segment confidence region-based string matching method for map conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yong; Yang, Sungchul; Ga, Chillo; Yu, Kiyun; Shi, Wenzhong

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a method to detect corresponding point pairs between polygon object pairs with a string matching method based on a confidence region model of a line segment is proposed. The optimal point edit sequence to convert the contour of a target object into that of a reference object was found by the string matching method which minimizes its total error cost, and the corresponding point pairs were derived from the edit sequence. Because a significant amount of apparent positional discrepancies between corresponding objects are caused by spatial uncertainty and their confidence region models of line segments are therefore used in the above matching process, the proposed method obtained a high F-measure for finding matching pairs. We applied this method for built-up area polygon objects in a cadastral map and a topographical map. Regardless of their different mapping and representation rules and spatial uncertainties, the proposed method with a confidence level at 0.95 showed a matching result with an F-measure of 0.894.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Steel with Multi-Line Internal Standard Calibration Method Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Congyuan; Du, Xuewei; An, Ning; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Shengbo; Wang, Qiuping

    2016-04-01

    A multi-line internal standard calibration method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of carbon steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A procedure based on the method was adopted to select the best calibration curves and the corresponding emission lines pairs automatically. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiments with carbon steel samples were performed, and C, Cr, and Mn were analyzed via the proposed method. Calibration curves of these elements were constructed via a traditional single line internal standard calibration method and a multi-line internal standard calibration method. The calibration curves obtained were evaluated with the determination coefficient, the root mean square error of cross-validation, and the average relative error of cross-validation. All of the parameters were improved significantly with the proposed method. The results show that accurate and stable calibration curves can be obtained efficiently via the multi-line internal standard calibration method. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Method for measuring radial impurity emission profiles using correlations of line integrated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-04-01

    A method of determining radial impurity emission profiles is outlined. The method uses correlations between line integrated signals and is based on the assumption of cylindrically symmetric fluctuations. Measurements at the reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R show that emission from impurities expected to be close to the edge is clearly different in raw as well as analyzed data to impurities expected to be more central. Best fitting of experimental data to simulated correlation coefficients yields emission profiles that are remarkably close to emission profiles determined using more conventional techniques. The radial extension of the fluctuations is small enough for the method to be used and bandpass filtered signals indicate that fluctuations below 10kHz are cylindrically symmetric. The novel method is not sensitive to vessel window attenuation or wall reflections and can therefore complement the standard methods in the impurity emission reconstruction procedure.

  19. Measurement of cylindrical Rayleigh surface waves using line-focused PVDF transducers and defocusing measurement method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-I; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2014-08-01

    Line-focused PVDF transducers and defocusing measurement method are applied in this work to determine the dispersion curve of the Rayleigh-like surface waves propagating along the circumferential direction of a solid cylinder. Conventional waveform processing method has been modified to cope with the non-linear relationship between phase angle of wave interference and defocusing distance induced by a cylindrically curved surface. A cross correlation method is proposed to accurately extract the cylindrical Rayleigh wave velocity from measured data. Experiments have been carried out on one stainless steel and one glass cylinders. The experimentally obtained dispersion curves are in very good agreement with their theoretical counterparts. Variation of cylindrical Rayleigh wave velocity due to the cylindrical curvature is quantitatively verified using this new method. Other potential applications of this measurement method for cylindrical samples will be addressed.

  20. A comparison of matrix methods for calculating eigenvalues in acoustically lined ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W.; Lansing, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Three approximate methods - finite differences, weighted residuals, and finite elements - were used to solve the eigenvalue problem which arises in finding the acoustic modes and propagation constants in an absorptively lined two-dimensional duct without airflow. The matrix equations derived for each of these methods were solved for the eigenvalues corresponding to various values of wall impedance. Two matrix orders, 20 x 20 and 40 x 40, were used. The cases considered included values of wall admittance for which exact eigenvalues were known and for which several nearly equal roots were present. Ten of the lower order eigenvalues obtained from the three approximate methods were compared with solutions calculated from the exact characteristic equation in order to make an assessment of the relative accuracy and reliability of the three methods. The best results were given by the finite element method using a cubic polynomial. Excellent accuracy was consistently obtained, even for nearly equal eigenvalues, by using a 20 x 20 order matrix.

  1. Methods and computer executable instructions for marking a downhole elongate line and detecting same

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.

    2003-05-13

    Methods and computer executable instructions are provided for making an elongate line (22) with a plurality of marks (30) and detecting those marks (30) to determine a distance of the elongate line (22) in a downhole or a physical integrity thereof. In a preferred embodiment, each mark comprises a plurality of particles (44) having a substantially permanent magnetizing capability adhered to an exterior surface of the elongate line (22) at preselected intervals with an epoxy paint. The particles (44) are arranged at each interval as a plurality of bands (40). Thereafter, the particles are oriented into a magnetic signature for that interval by magnetizing the particles to create a magnetic field substantially normal to the exterior surface. This facilitates detection by a Hall effect probe. The magnetic signatures are stored in a computing configuration and, once a mark is detected, a correlation is made to a unique position on the elongate line by comparison with the stored magnetic signatures. Preferred particles include samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boride.

  2. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Junichiro Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yasuda, Yuichi

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  3. A novel method for predicting critical flashover (CFO) voltages insulation strength of multiple dielectrics on distribution overhead lines

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Shahzad, F.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities are striving to improve the appearance of distribution lines, apply different combinations of insulating components to establish the necessary insulation for such lines, by the use of new insulators and simultaneously reduce lightning outages. The impulse critical flashover (CFO) voltages of many overhead line insulators are determined for single and multiple (porcelain, fiberglass, polymers and wood). Laboratory investigation and studies relating to the evaluation of CFO values of distribution lines for multiple dielectrics were reported. Data used by the industry for transmission lines are not fully applicable to estimate CFO`s for distribution lines. Many engineers concerned with the design or operation of high voltage transmission lines have devised methods to estimate the performance of lightning impulse. There is at the present time no such method available on estimating insulation strengths of multiple dielectrics of distribution lines subjected to impulse CFO. This paper presents a method of estimating the CFO insulation strengths of two and three dielectric combinations used on distribution overhead lines using the developed Extended Multi Curves (EMC). The proper use and evaluation of the insulation level by this novel method has a major influence on the design and cost of distribution line construction, application, also improving the performance of specific line designs.

  4. The variable anchorage straight wire technique compared with the straight wire technique in deep overbite correction.

    PubMed

    Banaie, Fariba; Parikakis, Konstantinos; Moberg, Svante; Hellsing, Eva

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the treatment results and the number of required treatment appointments between the variable anchorage straight wire technique (VAST) and the straight wire (SW) technique. The subjects were 53 Caucasian patients of both sexes (25 males and 28 females, mean age 13.5 years at the start of treatment), with an overjet > or = 4 mm and an overbite > or = 3 mm. The patients were divided into four groups, VAST (n = 31) or SW (n = 22), extraction or non-extraction, and were treated by the same orthodontist. Variables from two lateral cephalograms obtained before and at the completion of active treatment, and the number of scheduled appointments were compared between the two techniques. The main difference between the two techniques was the bracket design. With the VAST, the bracket allowed both tipping and parallel movements with the possibility to combine double archwires. Due to the influence of the Begg technique, no extra-oral traction was needed in the VAST groups and Class II elastics were used at the start of treatment. Both techniques seemed to produce equal treatment results. However, in this study, it was shown that in deep overbite correction, the VAST required fewer scheduled appointments than the SW technique.

  5. Solution of axisymmetric and two-dimensional inviscid flow over blunt bodies by the method of lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. H., II

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons with experimental data and the results of other computational methods demonstrated that very accurate solutions can be obtained by using relatively few lines with the method of lines approach. This method is semidiscrete and has relatively low core storage requirements as compared with fully discrete methods since very little data were stored across the shock layer. This feature is very attractive for three dimensional problems because it enables computer storage requirements to be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude. In the present study it was found that nine lines was a practical upper limit for two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This condition limits application of the method to smooth body geometries where relatively few lines would be adequate to describe changes in the flow variables around the body. Extension of the method to three dimensions was conceptually straightforward; however, three dimensional applications would also be limited to smooth body geometries although not necessarily to total of nine lines.

  6. Straight to colonoscopy: the ideal patient pathway for the 2-week suspected cancer referrals?

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Andrew D; Bhate, Ravinda D; Irukulla, Shashi; Achiek, Mayen; Abulafi, A Muti

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The UK has a higher mortality for colon cancer than the European average. The UK Government introduced a 2-week referral target for patients with colorectal symptoms meeting certain criteria and 62-day target for the delivery of treatment from the date of referral for those patients diagnosed with cancer. Hospitals are expected to meet 100% and 95% of these targets, respectively; therefore, an efficient and effective patient pathway is required to deliver diagnosis and treatment within this period. It is suggested that ‘straight-to-test’ will help this process and we have examined our implementation of ‘straight-to-colonoscopy’ as a method of achieving this aim. PATIENTS AND METHODS We carried out a retrospective audit of 317 patients referred under the 2-week rule over a 1-year period between October 2004 and September 2005 and were eligible for ‘straight-to-colonoscopy'. Demographic data, appropriateness of referral and colonoscopy findings were obtained. The cost effectiveness and impact on waiting period were also analysed. RESULTS A total of 317 patients were seen within 2 weeks. Cancer was found in 23 patients and all were treated within 62 days. Forty-four patients were determined by the specialist to have been referred inappropriately because they did not meet NICE referral guidelines. No cancer was found in any of the inappropriate referrals. The use of straight-to-test colonoscopy lead to cost savings of £26,176 (£82.57/patient) in this group compared to standard practice. There was no increase in waiting times. CONCLUSIONS Straight-to-colonoscopy for urgent suspected cancer referrals is a safe, feasible and cost-effective method for delivery of the 62-day target and did not lead to increase in the endoscopy waiting list. PMID:21073821

  7. Research of location method for billet recognition in complex production line scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hanyu; Yu, Zhejun; Zhang, Xiuhua

    2011-11-01

    Steel code location is the key point to realize billet detection and recognition in production line scene with complex illumination. However, due to high temperature and complex scene in the rolling line, the steel code location at the end of billet is quite different from optical character location with simple background and vehicle license plate location. In the process of billet detection and recognition, how to determine steel code target location at the end of billet from the complex illumination scene is first necessary in steel intelligent recognition system. In order to solve this problem, a novel method for steel code location is proposed in this paper. First of all, production line scene image is restrained by Mean Shift filtering and iterative segmentation filter, and then candidate character region can be found by clustering character connected domain with same features. At last, the quantitative model is established for candidate region and the statistical decision algorithm can be used to complete screening object region. The experimental results show that the proposed location method is very precise in most different scenes.

  8. A Mach line panel method for computing the linearized supersonic flow over planar wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for solving the linearized supersonic flow over planar wings using panels bounded by two families of Mach lines. Polynomial distributions of source and doublet strength lead to simple, closed form solutions for the aerodynamic influence coefficients, and a nearly triangular matrix yields rapid solutions for the singularity parameters. The source method was found to be accurate and stable both for analysis and design boundary conditions. Similar results were obtained with the doublet method for analysis boundary conditions on the portion of the wing downstream of the supersonic leading edge, but instabilities in the solution occurred for the region containing a portion of the subsonic leading edge. Research on the method was discontinued before this difficulty was resolved.

  9. Cell culture methods for the establishment of the NCI series of lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Oie, H K; Russell, E K; Carney, D N; Gazdar, A F

    1996-01-01

    More than 200 human small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines were established over 15 years mainly by utilizing the serum-free, hormone and growth factor supplemented, defined media HITES and ACL4. Use of modified, established cell culture techniques such as the mechanical spillout method for the releasing of cell aggregates from tumor tissue, ficoll gradient centrifugation for the separation of tumor cells from erythrocytes and tissue debris, and an apparatue consisting of a platinum tubing attached to a suction flask for removal of spent medium have greatly contributed to the success in culturing tumor cells. Characterization of these lung cancer cell lines have extended our knowledge of lung cell biology. Studies elucidating the nutritional requirements of lung cancer cell growth may be helpful for the manipulation of these tumors in patients.

  10. Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, W.H.

    1971-02-02

    A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

  11. Obtaining macroscopic quantities for the contact line problem from Density Functional Theory using asymptotic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, David; Nold, Andreas; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2015-11-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT), a statistical mechanics of fluids approach, captures microscopic details of the fluid density structure in the vicinity of contact lines, as seen in computations in our recent study. Contact lines describe the location where interfaces between two fluids meet solid substrates, and have stimulated a wealth of research due to both their ubiquity in nature and technological applications and also due to their rich multiscale behaviour. Whilst progress can be made computationally to capture the microscopic to mesoscopic structure from DFT, complete analytical results to fully bridge to the macroscale are lacking. In this work, we describe our efforts to bring asymptotic methods to DFT to obtain results for contact angles and other macroscopic quantities in various parameter regimes. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  12. Visual experience without lines: effect on developing cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, J D; Freeman, R D

    1973-11-09

    Kittens were reared in a planetarium-like visual environment that lacked straight line contours. Cortical neurons were subsequently highly sensitive to spots of light but not to straight lines, in marked contrast to those from a normal cat. If linear contour processing is an innate function it appears to be subject to substantial modification by early visual experience.

  13. Assessment of the line transect method: an examination of the spatial patterns of down and standing dead wood

    Treesearch

    Duncan C. Lutes

    2002-01-01

    The line transect method, its underlying assumptions, and the spatial patterning of down and standing pieces of dead wood were examined at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in central Montana. The accuracy of the line transect method was not determined due to conflicting results of t-tests and ordinary least squares regression. In most instances down pieces were...

  14. Development of flow injection potentiometric methods for the off-line and on-line determination of fluoride to monitor the biodegradation of a monofluorophenol in two bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Raquel B R; Santos, Inês C; Pedrosa, Marta F F; Duque, Anouk F; Castro, Paula M L; Rangel, António O S S

    2011-06-15

    Water treatment has become a source of concern as new pollutants and higher volumes of waste water must be treated. Emerging biological approaches, namely the use of bioreactors, for cleaning processes have been introduced. The use of bioreactors requires the development of efficient monitoring tools, preferably with real-time measurements. In this work, a couple of flow injection systems were developed and optimized for the potentiometric determination of fluoride to monitor a rotating biological contactor (RBC) bioreactor and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with off-line and on-line sampling. Both the RBC and the SBR bioreactors were set up for the biodegradation of the halogenated organic compound 2-fluorophenol and, as fluoride was a degradation byproduct, the process was monitored by following up its concentration. The described flow injection potentiometric methods enabled the fluoride determination within the required quantification range 0.10-100mM. The possible interferences from the growth medium were minimized in-line. The determination rate was 78 h(-1) for the off-line monitoring of RBC and 50(-1)h for the on-line monitoring of the SBR, with a sample consumption of 0.500 mL and 0.133 mL per determination, respectively. Furthermore, the overall reagent consumption was quite low. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by comparison with a batch procedure. The SBR efficiency was monitored both on-line by the flow system and off-line by HPLC, for comparison purposes.

  15. Using the Deming quality improvement method to manage medical record department product lines.

    PubMed

    Postal, S N

    1990-06-01

    The above application of the quality improvement cycle provides insight into the use of the Deming method to address one of several identified customer needs and expectations obtained during the managing phase of product-line administration. Implementation of the quality improvement method requires a major commitment from all team members. Process improvement requires a willingness to be detail oriented. Gathering of statistics--such as analysis turn-around time--and evaluation are critical. This objective view of processes requires accountability and a commitment to change. Improvements focus on long-term problem resolution, not the quick fixes that result from addressing symptoms of problems. True problem resolution occurs by solving the root causes of variations. Medical record departments must move from being outcome oriented to being process focused. It is no longer feasible to be constantly putting out fires in an environment that demands well-planned and well-designed products that meet customers' expectations. The long-term management of product lines requires a systematic method of planning, doing, checking, and acting. The Deming quality improvement method provides a framework for positive change that focuses on quality processes resulting in a quality product that meets consumers' needs.

  16. Genomic instability of human embryonic stem cell lines using different passaging culture methods.

    PubMed

    Tosca, Lucie; Feraud, Olivier; Magniez, Aurélie; Bas, Cécile; Griscelli, Frank; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells exhibit genomic instability that can be related to culture duration or to the passaging methods used for cell dissociation. In order to study the impact of cell dissociation techniques on human embryonic stem cells genomic instability, we cultured H1 and H9 human embryonic stem cells lines using mechanical/manual or enzymatic/collagenase-IV dissociation methods. Genomic instability was evaluated at early (p60) passages by using oligonucleotide based array-comparative genomic hybridization 105 K with a mean resolution of 50 Kb. DNA variations were mainly located on subtelomeric and pericentromeric regions with sizes <100 Kb. In this study, 9 recurrent genomic variations were acquired during culture including the well known duplication 20q11.21. When comparing cell dissociation methods, we found no significant differences between DNA variations number and size, DNA gain or DNA loss frequencies, homozygous loss frequencies and no significant difference on the content of genes involved in development, cell cycle tumorigenesis and syndrome disease. In addition, we have never found any malignant tissue in 4 different teratoma representative of the two independent stem cell lines. These results show that the occurrence of genomic instability in human embryonic stem cells is similar using mechanical or collagenase IV-based enzymatic cell culture dissociation methods. All the observed genomic variations have no impact on the development of malignancy.

  17. [Freshwater fish freshness on-line detection method based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Yi; Tao, Hai-Long; Li, Peng; Xiong, Shan-Bai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the near infrared spectrum of freshwater fish was used to detect the freshness on line, and the near infrared spectra on-line acquisition device was built to get the fish spectrum. In the process of spectrum acquisition, experiment samples move at a speed of 0.5 m · s(-1), the near-infrared diffuse reflection spectrum (900-2,500 nm) could be got for the next analyzing, and SVM was used to build on-line detection model. Sample set partitioning based on joint X-Y distances algo- rithm (SPXY) was used to divide sample set, there were 111 samples in calibration set (57 fresh samples and 54 bad samples), and 37 samples in test set (19 fresh samples and 18 bad samples). Seven spectral preprocessing methods were utilized to prepro- cess the spectrum, and the influences of different methods were compared. Model results indicated that first derivative (FD) with autoscale was the best preprocessing method, the model recognition rate of calibration set was 97.96%, and the recognition rate of test set was 95.92%. In order to improve the modeling speed, it is necessary to optimize the spectra variables. Therefore genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA) and competitive adaptive reweighed sampling (CARS) were adopted to select characteristic variables respectively. Finally CARS was proved to be the optimal variable selection method, 10 characteristic wavelengths were selected to develop SVM model, recognition rate of calibration set reached 100%, and recognition rate of test set was 93.88%. The research provided technical reference for freshwater fish freshness online detection.

  18. Geometric correction method for 3d in-line X-ray phase contrast image reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanical system with imperfect or misalignment of X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) components causes projection data misplaced, and thus result in the reconstructed slice images of computed tomography (CT) blurred or with edge artifacts. So the features of biological microstructures to be investigated are destroyed unexpectedly, and the spatial resolution of XPCI image is decreased. It makes data correction an essential pre-processing step for CT reconstruction of XPCI. Methods To remove unexpected blurs and edge artifacts, a mathematics model for in-line XPCI is built by considering primary geometric parameters which include a rotation angle and a shift variant in this paper. Optimal geometric parameters are achieved by finding the solution of a maximization problem. And an iterative approach is employed to solve the maximization problem by using a two-step scheme which includes performing a composite geometric transformation and then following a linear regression process. After applying the geometric transformation with optimal parameters to projection data, standard filtered back-projection algorithm is used to reconstruct CT slice images. Results Numerical experiments were carried out on both synthetic and real in-line XPCI datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method improves CT image quality by removing both blurring and edge artifacts at the same time compared to existing correction methods. Conclusions The method proposed in this paper provides an effective projection data correction scheme and significantly improves the image quality by removing both blurring and edge artifacts at the same time for in-line XPCI. It is easy to implement and can also be extended to other XPCI techniques. PMID:25069768

  19. Optimal precursor of the transition from Kuroshio large meander to straight path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Ma, Libin; Xu, Qiangqiang

    2013-09-01

    We used the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method to explore the optimal precursor of the transition from Kuroshio large meander (LM) to straight path within a barotropic inflowout-flow model, and found that large amplitudes of the optimal precursor are mainly located in the east of Kyushu, which implies that perturbations in the region are important for the transition from LM to straight path. Furthermore, we investigated the transition processes caused by the optimal precursor, and found that these processes could be divided into three stages. In the first stage, a cyclonic eddy is advected to the formation region of the Kuroshio large meander, which enhances the LM path and causes a cyclonic eddy to shed from the Kuroshio mainstream. This process causes the LM path to change into a small meander path. Subsequently, the small meander is maintained for a period because the vorticity advection is balanced by the beta effect in the second stage. In the third stage, the small meander weakens and the straight path ultimately forms. The positive vorticity advecting downstream is responsible for this process. The exploration of the optimal precursor will conduce to improve the prediction of the transition processes from LM path to straight path, and its spatial structure can be used to guide Kuroshio targeted observation studies.

  20. 9. DETAIL OF WEST SIDE STAIR, STRAIGHT DOWN VIEW, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF WEST SIDE STAIR, STRAIGHT DOWN VIEW, FROM OVER THIRD FLOOR RAILING. NOTE SECOND FLOOR LANDING AND STEAM RADIATOR ON FIRST FLOOR. (THE LANDINGS ARE ATTACHED TO THE EXTERIOR WALLS) - Talladega College, Swayne Hall, Talladega, Talladega County, AL

  1. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  2. Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 20. Interior view of eastern segment of Roundhouse looking straight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of eastern segment of Roundhouse looking straight on locomotive smoke flue - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. Straight studs from southern pine veneer cores and cordwood

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1968-01-01

    An economically feasible system has been developed for converting southern pine veneer cores into straight 8-foot studs (2). Prototype studs - two per core - were 100 percent SPIB stud grade and better.

  5. 22. Ceiling detail of mezzanine lounge, looking straight up from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Ceiling detail of mezzanine lounge, looking straight up from beneath central lantern, which is wholly visible in WA-197-21. (July 1991) - Fox Theater, Seventh Avenue & Olive Way, Seattle, King County, WA

  6. 9. WEST SIDE OF EAST TOWER CAMERA POINTED STRAIGHT DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST SIDE OF EAST TOWER CAMERA POINTED STRAIGHT DOWN FOR THE BENEFIT OF ACROPHOBICS; NOTE EXTREMELY TURBULENT WATER FROM CURRENT - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  7. Straight to colonoscopy: the ideal patient pathway for the 2-week suspected cancer referrals?

    PubMed

    Beggs, Andrew D; Bhate, Ravinda D; Irukulla, Shashi; Achiek, Mayen; Abulafi, A Muti

    2011-03-01

    The UK has a higher mortality for colon cancer than the European average. The UK Government introduced a 2-week referral target for patients with colorectal symptoms meeting certain criteria and 62-day target for the delivery of treatment from the date of referral for those patients diagnosed with cancer. Hospitals are expected to meet 100% and 95% of these targets, respectively; therefore, an efficient and effective patient pathway is required to deliver diagnosis and treatment within this period. It is suggested that 'straight-to-test' will help this process and we have examined our implementation of 'straight-to-colonoscopy' as a method of achieving this aim. We carried out a retrospective audit of 317 patients referred under the 2-week rule over a 1-year period between October 2004 and September 2005 and were eligible for 'straight-to-colonoscopy'. Demographic data, appropriateness of referral and colonoscopy findings were obtained. The cost effectiveness and impact on waiting period were also analysed. A total of 317 patients were seen within 2 weeks. Cancer was found in 23 patients and all were treated within 62 days. Forty-four patients were determined by the specialist to have been referred inappropriately because they did not meet NICE referral guidelines. No cancer was found in any of the inappropriate referrals. The use of straight-to-test colonoscopy lead to cost savings of £26,176 (£82.57/patient) in this group compared to standard practice. There was no increase in waiting times. Straight-to-colonoscopy for urgent suspected cancer referrals is a safe, feasible and cost-effective method for delivery of the 62-day target and did not lead to increase in the endoscopy waiting list.

  8. Evaluation of the capacitively coupled resistivity (line antenna) method for the characterization of vadose zone dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Qifei; Wang, Yu-Hsing; Zhao, Kairan

    2014-07-01

    The electrical resistivity survey, traditionally realized by the direct current (DC) resistivity method, has shown great value for characterizing vadose zone dynamics. Compared with the DC resistivity method, the capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity method has a higher ratio of measurement speed to data density, and thus is economically preferred for resistivity surveys that require high data density, e.g., hydrological characterizations. To test the applicability of the CC resistivity method to the study of vadose zone dynamics, we conducted time-lapse resistivity surveys using a commercial CC resistivity (line antenna) system, the OhmMapper, to monitor the water content change in an unsaturated zone due to artificial rainfall infiltration. Special considerations were paid to the inversion of CC resistivity (line antenna) measurements in order to increase the accuracy of inversion results. The derived resistivity of the subsurface clearly captures the water movement in the vadose zone and shows the applicability of the CC resistivity method. The experiment also showed a limitation of the equipment: when the ground surface became extremely conductive, the OhmMapper falsely interpreted the current level. If the wrong current level is identified in the measurement, the measured resistance should be corrected accordingly. The overestimation of the ground resistivity of the CC resistivity method, arising from the decrease in the ground resistivity, was also examined and discussed. Although the measurement bias was found to be negligible in our study, one should still be cautious about it when using the CC resistivity method for similar applications, especially when the measurement is made with a short dipole cable.

  9. Oculogravic illusion in response to straight-ahead acceleration of a CF-104 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Jennings, G. L.; Johnson, W. H.; Money, K. E.; Malcolm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental subjects wore goggles that restricted monocular vision to a luminous line fixed relative to the head, and they were exposed on one occasion to a straight-ahead acceleration of an aircraft and on another occasion to a tilting chair. The magnitude of change of direction of the resultant acceleration was the same on both occasions, but the perceived movement of the luminous line from the two stimuli was very different. In response to the aircraft stimulus, the oculogravic illusion was experienced and the luminous line was perceived as tilting relative to the subject, in response to the tilting chair stimulus, the line was perceived as remaining fixed relative to the subject. It was concluded that the oculogravic illusion, as experienced in the aircraft (and previously in centrifuges), is a true illusion and not merely a fact of physics.

  10. Oculogravic illusion in response to straight-ahead acceleration of CF-104 aircraft.

    PubMed

    Graybiel, A; Johnson, W H; Money, K E; Malcolm, R E; Jennings, G L

    1979-04-01

    Experimental subjects wore goggles that restricted monocular vision to a luminous line fixed relative to the head, and they were exposed on one occasion to a straight-ahead acceleration of an aircraft and on another occasion to a tilting chair. The magnitude of change of direction of the resultant accleration was the same on both occasions, but the perceived movement of the luminous line from the two stimuli was very different. In response to the aircraft stimulus, the oculogravic illusion was experienced and the luminous line was perceived as tilting relative to the subject, in response to the tilting chair stimulus, the line was perceived as remaining fixed relative to the subject. It was concluded that the oculogravic illusion, as experienced in the aircraft (and previously in centrifuges), is a true illusion and not merely a fact of physics.

  11. Oculogravic illusion in response to straight-ahead acceleration of a CF-104 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Jennings, G. L.; Johnson, W. H.; Money, K. E.; Malcolm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental subjects wore goggles that restricted monocular vision to a luminous line fixed relative to the head, and they were exposed on one occasion to a straight-ahead acceleration of an aircraft and on another occasion to a tilting chair. The magnitude of change of direction of the resultant acceleration was the same on both occasions, but the perceived movement of the luminous line from the two stimuli was very different. In response to the aircraft stimulus, the oculogravic illusion was experienced and the luminous line was perceived as tilting relative to the subject, in response to the tilting chair stimulus, the line was perceived as remaining fixed relative to the subject. It was concluded that the oculogravic illusion, as experienced in the aircraft (and previously in centrifuges), is a true illusion and not merely a fact of physics.

  12. A Comparison of Lifting-Line and CFD Methods with Flight Test Data from a Research Puma Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Toulmay, Francois; Gilbert, Neil E.; Strawn, Roger C.; Miller, Judith V.; Maier, Thomas H.; Costes, Michel; Beaumier, Philippe

    1996-01-01

    Four lifting-line methods were compared with flight test data from a research Puma helicopter and the accuracy assessed over a wide range of flight speeds. Hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were also examined for two high-speed conditions. A parallel analytical effort was performed with the lifting-line methods to assess the effects of modeling assumptions and this provided insight into the adequacy of these methods for load predictions.

  13. The cavity resonator design: stochastic optimization of the transmission line method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurečka, Stanislav; Müllerová, Jarmila; Dado, Milan

    2012-02-01

    Stable cavity resonators provide an ideal solution for high quality applications in telecommunications, laser sources, sensors, oscillators and filters, instrumentation and other large area of applications. For the determination of the electromagnetic field (EMF) properties in a cavity resonator several numerical methods are widely used. In our approach we used the transmission line modeling method (TLM). It is a wide-band time-domain numerical method suitable for solution of the electromagnetic field in a studied region. TLM method is based on the isomorphism between the theory of passive electrical network and the wave equation describing the properties of the EMF. TLM method offers two important advantages over the time-domain techniques such as the finite-difference time domain methods. The electric and magnetic field are resolved synchronously in time and space and TLM in implicitly stable method due to the mapping to electrical circuits. The EMF in the rectangular cavity is in our approach determined by the TLM method and the frequency spectrum is computed by the Fourier transform of the time signal. The theoretical model of the cavity EMF power spectral density function contains information about the geometrical configuration of the resonator. In our work we use the genetic algorithm for the determination of optimal dimensions of the cavity resonator expected for the proposed output resonant frequency. The stochastic modification of the theoretical model parameters is controlled by the genetic operators of mutation, crossover and selection, leading to overall improvement of the theoretical model estimation during the optimization process.

  14. The cavity resonator design: stochastic optimization of the transmission line method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurečka, Stanislav; Müllerová, Jarmila; Dado, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Stable cavity resonators provide an ideal solution for high quality applications in telecommunications, laser sources, sensors, oscillators and filters, instrumentation and other large area of applications. For the determination of the electromagnetic field (EMF) properties in a cavity resonator several numerical methods are widely used. In our approach we used the transmission line modeling method (TLM). It is a wide-band time-domain numerical method suitable for solution of the electromagnetic field in a studied region. TLM method is based on the isomorphism between the theory of passive electrical network and the wave equation describing the properties of the EMF. TLM method offers two important advantages over the time-domain techniques such as the finite-difference time domain methods. The electric and magnetic field are resolved synchronously in time and space and TLM in implicitly stable method due to the mapping to electrical circuits. The EMF in the rectangular cavity is in our approach determined by the TLM method and the frequency spectrum is computed by the Fourier transform of the time signal. The theoretical model of the cavity EMF power spectral density function contains information about the geometrical configuration of the resonator. In our work we use the genetic algorithm for the determination of optimal dimensions of the cavity resonator expected for the proposed output resonant frequency. The stochastic modification of the theoretical model parameters is controlled by the genetic operators of mutation, crossover and selection, leading to overall improvement of the theoretical model estimation during the optimization process.

  15. An Interpolation Method for Obtaining Thermodynamic Properties Near Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Huy H.; Martin, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The two most common approaches used to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances are fundamental (or characteristic) equations of state (Helmholtz and Gibbs functions) and a piecemeal approach that is described in Adebiyi and Russell (1992). This paper neither presents a different method to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances nor validates the aforementioned approaches. Rather its purpose is to present a method to generate property tables from existing property packages and a method to facilitate the accurate interpretation of fluid thermodynamic property data from those tables. There are two parts to this paper. The first part of the paper shows how efficient and usable property tables were generated, with the minimum number of data points, using an aerospace industry standard property package. The second part describes an innovative interpolation technique that has been developed to properly obtain thermodynamic properties near the saturated liquid and saturated vapor lines.

  16. A transmission line method for evaluation of vertical InAs nanowire contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M. Svensson, J. Lind, E. Wernersson, L.-E.

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we present a method for metal contact characterization to vertical semiconductor nanowires using the transmission line method (TLM) on a cylindrical geometry. InAs nanowire resistors are fabricated on Si substrates using a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) spacer between the bottom and top contact. The thickness of the HSQ is defined by the dose of an electron beam lithography step, and by varying the separation thickness for a group of resistors, a TLM series is fabricated. Using this method, the resistivity and specific contact resistance are determined for InAs nanowires with different doping and annealing conditions. The contacts are shown to improve with annealing at temperatures up to 300 °C for 1 min, with specific contact resistance values reaching down to below 1 Ω µm{sup 2}.

  17. A transmission line method for evaluation of vertical InAs nanowire contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, M.; Svensson, J.; Lind, E.; Wernersson, L.-E.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a method for metal contact characterization to vertical semiconductor nanowires using the transmission line method (TLM) on a cylindrical geometry. InAs nanowire resistors are fabricated on Si substrates using a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) spacer between the bottom and top contact. The thickness of the HSQ is defined by the dose of an electron beam lithography step, and by varying the separation thickness for a group of resistors, a TLM series is fabricated. Using this method, the resistivity and specific contact resistance are determined for InAs nanowires with different doping and annealing conditions. The contacts are shown to improve with annealing at temperatures up to 300 °C for 1 min, with specific contact resistance values reaching down to below 1 Ω µm2.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Contact Angles and Contact Lines in Multiphase Flows using Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendota, Premchand

    Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, a simple approach to incorporate the static and dynamic contact angle boundary conditions using the level set method is developed and implemented in multiphase CFD codes, LIT (Level set Interface Tracking) (Herrmann (2008)) and NGA (flow solver) (Desjardins et al (2008)). Various DCA models and associated boundary conditions are reviewed. In addition, numerical aspects such as the occurrence of a stress singularity at the contact lines and grid convergence of macroscopic interface shape are dealt with in the context of the level set approach.

  19. A method to measure an indicator of viraemia in Atlantic salmon using a reporter cell line.

    PubMed

    Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Noguera, Patricia; Larsen, Katrine H; Lester, Katherine; Smail, David; Bruno, David

    2013-08-01

    RTG-P1 is a transgenic fish cell line producing luciferase under the control of the IFN-induced Mx rainbow trout gene promoter. This cell line was used to measure viraemia of Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the cause of Salmon Pancreas Disease (SPD), a serious disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. Two SAV genotype 1 (SAV1) isolates were used in this study, F93-125 (tissue-culture adapted, from Ireland) and 4640 (from a field case in Scotland). The kinetics and magnitude of luciferase activity were monitored versus the time of infection. During a direct infection experiment, the induction of luciferase significantly increased 16- and 4-fold after incubation for 6 days with F93-125 at 15 and 20°C, respectively. Filtration and heat treatment experiments demonstrated that the luciferase induction in RTG-P1 was dependent on viral replication. Unlike many cell lines used in fish viral diagnostic, RTG-P1 is not sensitive to salmonid serum, therefore, viraemia could be successfully monitored on serum collected from fish during a cohabitation challenge with 4640 isolate. A peak of viraemia could be detected 16 days post IP inoculation of the shedders. This novel cost-effective method to measure viraemia does not rely on development of cytopathic effect (CPE) in culture, is compatible with non-lethal blood collections in fish and can be used to assign emerging diseases to a viral aetiology.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of electron temperature and density by a line pair method in the RFP plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Shimizu, S.; Ogawa, H.; Shinohara, T.

    2009-11-01

    A line-pair-method has been applied for a simultaneous measurement of the electron temperature and density in ATRAS RFP plasma. Three helium spectrum lines (668nm, 706nm, 728nm) were measured during the discharge at the same time and the electron temperature and density is estimated by using a Collision-Radiation model. To get the signal of the helium impunity line from the RFP discharge, the RFP plasma in the hydrogen gas with a few mixed helium gas was formed. In the typical ATRAS RFP discharge of the plasma current of 60kA, the electron temperature was approximately 50-150 eV and the electron density is the order of 10^18 m-3. During the discharge, the change of the temperature and density are mutually related and this correlation was the almost reverse phase. The periodically change of the temperature and density were also observed. This change synchronizes with a periodically increase of the averaged toroidal magnetic field, which is caused by the toroidal rotation of the increase of the toroidal magnetic field. This rotation, which is deeply related with dynamo effect, makes the plasma energy lose and particles also diffuse toward the plasma edge. As a result, the recycling of the particle and energy are occurred at the same time.

  1. Oxygen abundance from strong-line methods at extremely low metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Luis, A. B.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Pérez Montero, E.; Muñoz-Tuñon, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Vilchez, J. M.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.

    2013-05-01

    The determination of oxygen abundance in nebulae requires measuring a significant number of emission lines distributed along a wide spectral range. The required measurements are hard to obtain at high redshift, where sources are very faint, and where the accessible spectral range is limited. These difficulties are often overcome using empirical relationships between the oxygen abundance and the fluxes in a small number of strong lines. The so-called strong-line methods are often the only practical alternative for metallicity estimate at high redshift. In this sense, the low metallicities range is particularly important since high redshift objects are primitive and so of low metallic content. One of the most widely used relationships links the oxygen with the ratio between [NII]6583 and Hα. This relationship shows a large scatter at low metallicity. In an effort to bring down the errors, we re-calibrated the relationship using a large sample of extremely metal-poor galaxies. The SDSS spectra of the galaxies were all analyzed in the same way to minimize systematic errors. To our surprise, the decrease of scatter reveals that the ratio [N{II}]6583 to Hα seems to be independent of metallicity at low oxygen abundance (12+log[{O}/{H}] < 7.6). This result casts doubts on the metallicities of high-redshift objects based on the relationship. We explain how the re-calibration was carried (including the sample selection and the abundance determinations). In addition, we try explain what produces the lack of correlation.

  2. Electrical test methods for on-line fuel cell ohmic resistance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. R.; Smith, M.

    The principles and trade-offs of four electrical test methods suitable for on-line measurement of the ohmic resistance (R Ω) of fuel cells is presented: current interrupt, AC resistance, high frequency resistance (HFR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The internal resistance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell determined with the current interrupt, HFR and EIS techniques is compared. The influence of the AC amplitude and frequency of the HFR measurement on the observed ohmic resistance is examined, as is the ohmic resistance extracted from the EIS data by modeling the spectra with a transmission line model for porous electrodes. The ohmic resistance of a H 2/O 2 PEM fuel cell determined via the three methods was within 10-30% of each other. The current interrupt technique consistently produced measured cell resistances that exceeded those of the other two techniques. For the HFR technique, the frequency at which the measurement was conducted influenced the measured resistance (i.e., higher frequency providing smaller R Ω), whereas the AC amplitude did not effect the observed value. The difference in measured ohmic resistance between these techniques exceeds that reasonably accounted for by measurement error. The source of the discrepancy between current interrupt and impedance-based methods is attributed to the difference in the response of a non-uniformly polarized electrode, such as a porous electrode with non-negligible ohmic resistance, to a large perturbation (current interrupt event) as compared to a small perturbation (impedance measurement).

  3. Two methods for transmission line simulation model creation based on time domain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinas, D.; Frei, S.

    2011-07-01

    The emission from transmission lines plays an important role in the electromagnetic compatibility of automotive electronic systems. In a frequency range below 200 MHz radiation from cables is often the dominant emission factor. In higher frequency ranges radiation from PCBs and their housing becomes more relevant. Main sources for this emission are the conducting traces. The established field measurement methods according CISPR 25 for evaluation of emissions suffer from the need to use large anechoic chambers. Furthermore measurement data can not be used for simulation model creation in order to compute the overall fields radiated from a car. In this paper a method to determine the far-fields and a simulation model of radiating transmission lines, esp. cable bundles and conducting traces on planar structures, is proposed. The method measures the electromagnetic near-field above the test object. Measurements are done in time domain in order to get phase information and to reduce measurement time. On the basis of near-field data equivalent source identification can be done. Considering correlations between sources along each conductive structure in model creation process, the model accuracy increases and computational costs can be reduced.

  4. Design method for a laser line beam shaper of a general 1D angular power distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oved, E.; Oved, A.

    2016-05-01

    Laser line is a beam of laser, spanned in one direction using a beam shaper to form a fan of light. This illumination tool is important in laser aided machine vision, 3D scanners, and remote sensing. For some applications the laser line should have a specific angular power distribution. If the distribution is nonsymmetrical, the beam shaper is required to be nonsymmetrical freeform, and its design process using optical design software is time consuming due to the long optimization process which usually converges to some local minimum. In this paper we introduce a new design method of a single element refractive beam shaper of any predefined general 1D angular power distribution. The method makes use of a notion of "prism space", a geometrical representation of all double refraction prisms, and any 1D beam shaper can be described by a continuous curve in this space. It is shown that infinitely many different designs are possible for any given power distribution, and it is explained how an optimal design is selected among them, based on criteria such as high transmission, low surface slopes, robustness to manufacturing errors etc. The method is non-parametric and hence does not require initial guess of a functional form, and the resultant optical surfaces are described by a sequence of points, rather than by an analytic function.

  5. Photometric classification of emission line galaxies with machine-learning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavuoti, Stefano; Brescia, Massimo; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Longo, Giuseppe; Paolillo, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an application of machine-learning-based methods to the identification of candidate active galactic nucleus (AGN) from optical survey data and to the automatic classification of AGNs in broad classes. We applied four different machine-learning algorithms, namely the Multi Layer Perceptron, trained, respectively, with the Conjugate Gradient, the Scaled Conjugate Gradient, the Quasi Newton learning rules and the Support Vector Machines, to tackle the problem of the classification of emission line galaxies in different classes, mainly AGNs versus non-AGNs, obtained using optical photometry in place of the diagnostics based on line intensity ratios which are classically used in the literature. Using the same photometric features, we discuss also the behaviour of the classifiers on finer AGN classification tasks, namely Seyfert I versus Seyfert II, and Seyfert versus LINER. Furthermore, we describe the algorithms employed, the samples of spectroscopically classified galaxies used to train the algorithms, the procedure followed to select the photometric parameters and the performances of our methods in terms of multiple statistical indicators. The results of the experiments show that the application of self-adaptive data mining algorithms trained on spectroscopic data sets and applied to carefully chosen photometric parameters represents a viable alternative to the classical methods that employ time-consuming spectroscopic observations.

  6. On-line estimation of laser-drilled hole depth using a machine vision method.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chao-Ching; He, Jun-Jia; Liao, Te-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for monitoring and estimating the depth of a laser-drilled hole using machine vision. Through on-line image acquisition and analysis in laser machining processes, we could simultaneously obtain correlations between the machining processes and analyzed images. Based on the machine vision method, the depths of laser-machined holes could be estimated in real time. Therefore, a low cost on-line inspection system is developed to increase productivity. All of the processing work was performed in air under standard atmospheric conditions and gas assist was used. A correlation between the cumulative size of the laser-induced plasma region and the depth of the hole is presented. The result indicates that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were a linear function of the cumulative plasma size, with a high degree of confidence. This research provides a novel machine vision-based method for estimating the depths of laser-drilled holes in real time.

  7. On-Line Estimation of Laser-Drilled Hole Depth Using a Machine Vision Method

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chao-Ching; He, Jun-Jia; Liao, Te-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for monitoring and estimating the depth of a laser-drilled hole using machine vision. Through on-line image acquisition and analysis in laser machining processes, we could simultaneously obtain correlations between the machining processes and analyzed images. Based on the machine vision method, the depths of laser-machined holes could be estimated in real time. Therefore, a low cost on-line inspection system is developed to increase productivity. All of the processing work was performed in air under standard atmospheric conditions and gas assist was used. A correlation between the cumulative size of the laser-induced plasma region and the depth of the hole is presented. The result indicates that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were a linear function of the cumulative plasma size, with a high degree of confidence. This research provides a novel machine vision-based method for estimating the depths of laser-drilled holes in real time. PMID:23112593

  8. Multiple line arrays for the characterization of aeroacoustic sources using a time-reversal method.

    PubMed

    Mimani, A; Doolan, C J; Medwell, P R

    2013-10-01

    This letter investigates the use of multiple line arrays (LAs) in a Time-Reversal Mirror for localizing and characterizing multipole aeroacoustic sources in a uniform subsonic mean flow using a numerical Time-Reversal (TR) method. Regardless of the original source characteristics, accuracy of predicting the source location can be significantly improved using at least two LAs. Furthermore, it is impossible to determine the source characteristics using a single LA, rather a minimum of two are required to establish either the monopole or dipole source nature, while four LAs (fully surrounding the source) are required for characterizing a lateral quadrupole source.

  9. Investigation of the stochastic subspace identification method for on-line wind turbine tower monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Wang, Ying; Lu, Wensheng; Ren, Xiaosong; Huang, Zhenhua

    2017-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of wind turbines has been applied in the wind energy industry to obtain their real-time vibration parameters and to ensure their optimum performance. For SHM, the accuracy of its results and the efficiency of its measurement methodology and data processing algorithm are the two major concerns. Selection of proper measurement parameters could improve such accuracy and efficiency. The Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) is a widely used data processing algorithm for SHM. This research discussed the accuracy and efficiency of SHM using SSI method to identify vibration parameters of on-line wind turbine towers. Proper measurement parameters, such as optimum measurement duration, are recommended.

  10. Naive vs. Sophisticated Methods of Forecasting Public Library Circulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Two sophisticated--autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), straight-line regression--and two naive--simple average, monthly average--forecasting techniques were used to forecast monthly circulation totals of 34 public libraries. Comparisons of forecasts and actual totals revealed that ARIMA and monthly average methods had smallest mean…

  11. A shallow landslide analysis method consisting of contour line based method and slope stability model with critical slip surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, D.

    2015-12-01

    To mitigate sediment related disaster triggered by rainfall event, it is necessary to predict a landslide occurrence and subsequent debris flow behavior. Many landslide analysis method have been developed and proposed by numerous researchers for several decades. Among them, distributed slope stability models simulating temporal and spatial instability of local slopes are more essential for early warning or evacuation in area of lower part of hill-slopes. In the present study, a distributed, physically based landslide analysis method consisting of contour line-based method that subdivide a watershed area into stream tubes, and a slope stability analysis in which critical slip surface is searched to identify location and shape of the most instable slip surface in each stream tube, is developed. A target watershed area is divided into stream tubes using GIS technique, grand water flow for each stream tubes during a rainfall event is analyzed by a kinematic wave model, and slope stability for each stream tube is calculated by a simplified Janbu method searching for a critical slip surface using a dynamic programming method. Comparing to previous methods that assume infinite slope for slope stability analysis, the proposed method has advantage simulating landslides more accurately in spatially and temporally, and estimating amount of collapsed slope mass, that can be delivered to a debris flow simulation model as a input data. We applied this method to a small watershed in the Izu Oshima, Tokyo, Japan, where shallow and wide landslides triggered by heavy rainfall and subsequent debris flows attacked Oshima Town, in 2013. Figure shows the temporal and spatial change of simulated grand water level and landslides distribution. The simulated landslides are correspond to the uppermost part of actual landslide area, and the timing of the occurrence of landslides agree well with the actual landslides.

  12. Defect Detection in Arc-Welding Processes by Means of the Line-to-Continuum Method and Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Allende, P. Beatriz; Mirapeix, Jesus; Conde, Olga M.; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma optical spectroscopy is widely employed in on-line welding diagnostics. The determination of the plasma electron temperature, which is typically selected as the output monitoring parameter, implies the identification of the atomic emission lines. As a consequence, additional processing stages are required with a direct impact on the real time performance of the technique. The line-to-continuum method is a feasible alternative spectroscopic approach and it is particularly interesting in terms of its computational efficiency. However, the monitoring signal highly depends on the chosen emission line. In this paper, a feature selection methodology is proposed to solve the uncertainty regarding the selection of the optimum spectral band, which allows the employment of the line-to-continuum method for on-line welding diagnostics. Field test results have been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the solution. PMID:22408478

  13. An experimental evaluation method for the performance of a laser line scanning system with multiple sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qingguo; Yang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ge, Baozhen

    2014-01-01

    Laser line scanning 3D digitising systems have a wide range of applications. Their working performance is mainly determined by the system calibration procedure and is also affected by the working conditions, CCD camera imperfections, and object surface optical characteristics. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of working performance is necessary before and during use. This study proposes an experimental method for the performance evaluation of a laser line scanner (LLS) with 8 scanning sensors developed in our laboratory. This method first obtains the dense point clouds of standard parts composed of disks, cylinders, and squares. Next, the single-layer point clouds located in horizontal planes of different heights are fitted using the least squares method to obtain the enclosed contours S. Three parameters, namely, the standard deviation of the distance distribution between points and S, the mean distance of the distance distribution, and the shape feature sizes, are used to evaluate the performance. The proposed method evaluates both the scanner as a whole and each scanning sensor. Using this method, more comprehensive information can be acquired to evaluate the scanner performance. The experimental results show that the absolute dimension size error and relative error are less than 5 mm and 3%, respectively, and the relative shape error is less than 2%; therefore, the evaluated LLS system can meet the requirements for human anthropometry applications. Although each scanning sensor has different random and systematic error, these errors are the function of measurement depth. These conclusions are helpful for the further use of this scanner system and can be utilised to optimise this LLS system further.

  14. A line source tracer test - a better method for assessing high groundwater velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magal, E.; Weisbrod, N.; Yakirevich, A.; Kurtzman, D.; Yechieli, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A line source injection is suggested as an effective method for assessing groundwater velocities and flow directions in subsurface characterized by high water fluxes. Modifying the common techniques of injecting a tracer into a well was necessary after frequently-used methods of natural and forced gradient tracer tests ended with no reliable information on the local groundwater flow. In a field experiment, tracers were injected into 8-m long line injection system constructed below the water table almost perpendicular to the assumed flow direction. The injection system was divided to four separate segments (each 2 m long) enabling the injection of four different tracers along the line source. An array of five boreholes located in an area of 10x10 m downstream was used for monitoring the tracers' transport. Two dye tracers (Uranine and Na Naphthionate) were injected in a long pulse of several hours into two of the injection pipe segments and two tracers (Rhenium oxide and Gd-DTPA) were instantaneously injected to the other two segments. The tracers were detected 0.7 to 2.3 hours after injection in four of the five observation wells, located 2.3 to 10 m from the injection system, respectively. Groundwater velocities were calculated directly from the tracers' arrival times and by fitting the observed breakthrough curves to simulations with one and two dimensions analytical solutions for conservative tracer transport. The groundwater velocity was determined to be ~100 m/d. The longitudinal dispersivity value, generated from fitting the tracer breakthrough curves, was in a range of 0.2-3m. The groundwater flow direction was derived based on the arrival of the tracers and was found to be consistent with the apparent direction of the hydraulic gradient. The hydraulic conductivity derived from the groundwater velocity was ~1200 m/d, which is in the upper range of gravel sediment.

  15. Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Thomas, L. E. N.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Medica, Philip A.; Marlow, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the degree to which field observers can meet the assumptions underlying line transect sampling to monitor populations of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). We present the results of 2 field trials using artificial tortoise models in 3 size classes. The trials were conducted on 2 occasions on an area south of Las Vegas, Nevada, where the density of the test population was known. In the first trials, conducted largely by experienced biologists who had been involved in tortoise surveys for many years, the density of adult tortoise models was well estimated (-3.9% bias), while the bias was higher (-20%) for subadult tortoise models. The bias for combined data was -12.0%. The bias was largely attributed to the failure to detect all tortoise models on or near the transect centerline. The second trials were conducted with a group of largely inexperienced student volunteers and used somewhat different searching methods, and the results were similar to the first trials. Estimated combined density of subadult and adult tortoise models had a negative bias (-7.3%), again attributable to failure to detect some models on or near the centerline. Experience in desert tortoise biology, either comparing the first and second trials or in the second trial with 2 experienced biologists versus 16 novices, did not have an apparent effect on the quality of the data or the accuracy of the estimates. Observer training, specific to line transect sampling, and field testing are important components of a reliable survey. Line transect sampling represents a viable method for large-scale monitoring of populations of desert tortoise; however, field protocol must be improved to assure the key assumptions are met.

  16. Optimizing A Lipocomplex-Based Gene Transfer Method into HeLa Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Alimohammad; Banan, Mehdi; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in gene expression studies is transferring genes into cell cultures. Despite there are different methods for gene delivery such as viral and non-viral producers, some cationic lipid reagents have recently developed to transfect into mam- malian cell lines. The main aim of this study was optimizing and improving lipocomplex based transient transfection procedures into HeLa cell line which is being used widely as a typical cell in biological studies. This study was an experimental research. In this work, pCMV β-Gal DNA plasmid was used as a reporter DNA for determining the rate of gene transfection into HeLa cells. To accomplish the highest gene delivery into HeLa cells, optimizing experiments were carried out in different volumes of FuGENE-HD, LipofectamineTM2000 and X-tremeGENE. Also, we investigated tranasfection efficiency in presence of various cell densities of HeLa cells. Then, transfection efficiency and cell toxicity were measured by beta gal staining and trypan blue methods, respectively. Using FuGENE-HD in volume of 4µl along with 105 HeLa cells, transfection efficiency was higher (43.66 ± 1.52%) in comparison with the cationic lipids LipofectamineTM2000 and X-tremeGENE. In addition, the rate of cell toxicity in presence of FuGENE-HD was less than 5%. In summary, the cationic lipid FuGENE-HD indicates a suitable potential to transfer DNA into HeLa cells and it can be an efficient reagent for gene delivery for HeLa cells in vitro. Moreover, it is worth designing and optimizing gene transfer experiments for other cell lines with FuGENE-HD due to its low toxicity and high efficiency. PMID:24381863

  17. Optimizing A Lipocomplex-Based Gene Transfer Method into HeLa Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, Alimohammad; Banan, Mehdi; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in gene expression studies is transferring genes into cell cultures. Despite there are different methods for gene delivery such as viral and non-viral producers, some cationic lipid reagents have recently developed to transfect into mam- malian cell lines. The main aim of this study was optimizing and improving lipocomplex based transient transfection procedures into HeLa cell line which is being used widely as a typical cell in biological studies. This study was an experimental research. In this work, pCMV β-Gal DNA plasmid was used as a reporter DNA for determining the rate of gene transfection into HeLa cells. To accomplish the highest gene delivery into HeLa cells, optimizing experiments were car- ried out in different volumes of FuGENE-HD, Lipofectamine(TM)2000 and X-tremeGENE. Also, we investigated tranasfection efficiency in presence of various cell densities of HeLa cells. Then, transfection efficiency and cell toxicity were measured by beta gal staining and trypan blue methods, respectively. Using FuGENE-HD in volume of 4µl along with 10(5) HeLa cells, transfection efficiency was higher (43.66 ± 1.52%) in comparison with the cationic lipids Lipofectamine(TM)2000 and X-tremeGENE. In addition, the rate of cell toxicity in presence of FuGENE-HD was less than 5%. In summary, the cationic lipid FuGENE-HD indicates a suitable potential to transfer DNA into HeLa cells and it can be an efficient reagent for gene delivery for HeLa cells in vitro. Moreover, it is worth designing and optimizing gene transfer experiments for other cell lines with FuGENE-HD due to its low toxicity and high efficiency.

  18. Easy assessment of ES cell clone potency for chimeric development and germ-line competency by an optimized aggregation method.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, G; Yamamoto, Y; Yoshida, K; Suzuki, Y; Osuka, S; Nakano, Y; Morita, T; Takeda, J

    1999-05-13

    Production of germ-line competent chimeric mice from embryonic stem (ES) cells is an inevitable step in establishing gene-manipulated mouse lineages. A common method used for creating chimeric mice is the injection of ES cells into the blastocoelic cavity (blastocyst injection). The aggregation method is an alternative way to introduce ES cells to the host embryo which is less difficult than blastocyst injection. Here we re-examined the condition of embryo-ES cell coculture on the aggregation method and found improvement of germ-line competent chimeric production by a simple modification of the coculture medium. Moreover, R1 ES cell and its 10 gene-manipulated subclones were tested by this method. Although all ES cell clones showed good morphology and a normal karyotype, the efficiency of chimeric development and germ-line transmission varied among clones and were classified into three grades according to germ-line competency. In the first group (class A), both the incidence of chimera with high ES cell contribution and the rate of germ-line transmission were fairly high. Germ-line competent chimeras were obtained but with rather low efficiency in the second group (class B), while another group (class C) showed an absence of high ES cell-contributed chimeras and no germ-line transmission. These results suggest the usefulness of this modified aggregation method to predict the potency of ES cell clones for germ-line competency.

  19. Classification of cancer cell lines using an automated two-dimensional liquid mapping method with hierarchical clustering techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen R; Shedden, Kerby A; Barder, Timothy J; Lubman, David M

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional liquid mapping method was used to map the protein expression of eight ovarian serous carcinoma cell lines and three immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Maps were produced using pI as the separation parameter in the first dimension and hydrophobicity based upon reversed-phase HPLC separation in the second dimension. The method can be reproducibly used to produce protein expression maps over a pH range from 4.0 to 8.5. A dynamic programming method was used to correct for minor shifts in peaks during the HPLC gradient between sample runs. The resulting corrected maps can then be compared using hierarchical clustering to produce dendrograms indicating the relationship between different cell lines. It was found that several of the ovarian surface epithelial cell lines clustered together, whereas specific groups of serous carcinoma cell lines clustered with each other. Although there is limited information on the current biology of these cell lines, it was shown that the protein expression of certain cell lines is closely related to each other. Other cell lines, including one ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line, two endometrioid carcinoma cell lines, and three breast epithelial cell lines, were also mapped for comparison to show that their protein profiles cluster differently than the serous samples and to study how they cluster relative to each other. In addition, comparisons can be made between proteins differentially expressed between cell lines that may serve as markers of ovarian serous carcinomas. The automation of the method allows reproducible comparison of many samples, and the use of differential analysis limits the number of proteins that might require further analysis by mass spectrometry techniques.

  20. Extensions to the integral line-beam method for gamma-ray skyshine analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Shultis, J.K.; Faw, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    A computationally simple method for estimating gamma-ray skyshine dose rates has been developed on the basis of the line-beam response function. Both Monte Carlo and pointkernel calculations that account for both annihilation and bremsstrahlung were used in the generation of line beam response functions (LBRF) for gamma-ray energies between 10 and 100 MeV. The LBRF is approximated by a three-parameter formula. By combining results with those obtained in an earlier study for gamma energies below 10 MeV, LBRF values are readily and accurately evaluated for source energies between 0.02 and 100 MeV, for source-to-detector distances between 1 and 3000 m, and beam angles as great as 180 degrees. Tables of the parameters for the approximate LBRF are presented. The new response functions are then applied to three simple skyshine geometries, an open silo geometry, an infinite wall, and a rectangular four-wall building. Results are compared to those of previous calculations and to benchmark measurements. A new approach is introduced to account for overhead shielding of the skyshine source and compared to the simplistic exponential-attenuation method used in earlier studies. The effect of the air-ground interface, usually neglected in gamma skyshine studies, is also examined and an empirical correction factor is introduced. Finally, a revised code based on the improved LBRF approximations and the treatment of the overhead shielding is presented, and results shown for several benchmark problems.

  1. Exploring Photometric Methods for Identifying Emission-Line B-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazier, Amy; Whelan, David

    2017-06-01

    Emission-line B-type stars, or Be stars, are a mysterious class of stars defined by their unique behavior: These stars eject material from their surfaces, forming a disc of gas that surrounds them. Furthermore, the gaseous disc is not necessarily a permanent feature of its host star. Some Be stars’ discs vary in structure over time, and may even disappear only to be regenerated later. Other Be stars may never show appreciable changes in the natures of their discs once they have been formed. The disc’s existence causes the appearance of characteristic emission lines in Be stars’ spectra, making spectroscopy the traditional method for identifying Be stars. However, spectroscopy is an inefficient and time-consuming method of finding Be stars, because it allows for only a single star to be observed in each exposure, and each star may require multiple exposures for durations of many minutes. Photometry, on the other hand, can be used to observe many stars simultaneously, but at the cost of the greater detail afforded by spectroscopy. While photometry has been used to identify Be stars, its success has been limited. In this work, we present a novel photometric technique that enables efficient identification of Be stars.

  2. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  3. At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

    Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

  4. A fast-converging iterative method for X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Nghia T.; Atwood, Robert C.; Moser, Herbert O.; Lee, Peter D.; Breese, Mark B. H.; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2012-11-01

    X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography holds great promise for the quantitative analysis of soft materials. However, its applications have been limited, so far, by the fact that direct methods based on the transport-of-intensity equation and the contrast transfer function are sensitive to noise and applicable only to limited types of samples. Here, we propose an iterative method based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972)), but overcoming its slow convergence by an acceleration technique, named random signed feedback, which shows an excellent performance, both in numerical simulation and tomographic experiment, of discriminating various polymers even when using 53 keV synchrotron X-rays.

  5. A fast-converging iterative method for X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Nghia T.; Breese, Mark B. H.; Atwood, Robert C.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Moser, Herbert O.; Lee, Peter D.

    2012-11-26

    X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography holds great promise for the quantitative analysis of soft materials. However, its applications have been limited, so far, by the fact that direct methods based on the transport-of-intensity equation and the contrast transfer function are sensitive to noise and applicable only to limited types of samples. Here, we propose an iterative method based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972)), but overcoming its slow convergence by an acceleration technique, named random signed feedback, which shows an excellent performance, both in numerical simulation and tomographic experiment, of discriminating various polymers even when using 53 keV synchrotron X-rays.

  6. Remote atmospheric probing by ground to ground line of sight optical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. S.

    1969-01-01

    The optical effects arising from refractive-index variations in the clear air are qualitatively described, and the possibilities are discussed of using those effects for remotely sensing the physical properties of the atmosphere. The effects include scintillations, path length fluctuations, spreading of a laser beam, deflection of the beam, and depolarization. The physical properties that may be measured include the average temperature along the path, the vertical temperature gradient, and the distribution along the path of the strength of turbulence and the transverse wind velocity. Line-of-sight laser beam methods are clearly effective in measuring the average properties, but less effective in measuring distributions along the path. Fundamental limitations to the resolution are pointed out and experiments are recommended to investigate the practicality of the methods.

  7. A new extraction method of loess shoulder-line based on Marr-Hildreth operator and terrain mask.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sheng; Tang, Guoan; Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Loess shoulder-lines are significant structural lines which divide the complicated loess landform into loess interfluves and gully-slope lands. Existing extraction algorithms for shoulder-lines mainly are based on local maximum of terrain features. These algorithms are sensitive to noise for complicated loess surface and the extraction parameters are difficult to be determined, making the extraction results usually inaccurate. This paper presents a new extraction approach for loess shoulder-lines, in which Marr-Hildreth edge operator is employed to construct initial shoulder-lines. Then the terrain mask for confining the boundary of shoulder-lines is proposed based on slope degree classification and morphology methods, avoiding interference from non-valley area and modify the initial loess shoulder-lines. A case study is conducted in Yijun located in the northern Shanxi Loess Plateau of China. The Digital Elevation Models with a grid size of 5 m is applied as original data. To obtain optimal scale parameters, the Euclidean Distance Offset Percentages between shoulder-lines is calculated by the Marr-Hildreth operator and the manual delineations. The experimental results show that the new method could achieve the highest extraction accuracy when σ = 5 in Gaussian smoothing. According to the accuracy assessment, the average extraction accuracy is about 88.5%, which indicates that the proposed method is applicable for the extraction of loess shoulder-lines in the loess hilly and gully areas.

  8. A New Extraction Method of Loess Shoulder-Line Based on Marr-Hildreth Operator and Terrain Mask

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sheng; Tang, Guoan; Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Loess shoulder-lines are significant structural lines which divide the complicated loess landform into loess interfluves and gully-slope lands. Existing extraction algorithms for shoulder-lines mainly are based on local maximum of terrain features. These algorithms are sensitive to noise for complicated loess surface and the extraction parameters are difficult to be determined, making the extraction results usually inaccurate. This paper presents a new extraction approach for loess shoulder-lines, in which Marr-Hildreth edge operator is employed to construct initial shoulder-lines. Then the terrain mask for confining the boundary of shoulder-lines is proposed based on slope degree classification and morphology methods, avoiding interference from non-valley area and modify the initial loess shoulder-lines. A case study is conducted in Yijun located in the northern Shanxi Loess Plateau of China. The Digital Elevation Models with a grid size of 5 m is applied as original data. To obtain optimal scale parameters, the Euclidean Distance Offset Percentages between shoulder-lines is calculated by the Marr-Hildreth operator and the manual delineations. The experimental results show that the new method could achieve the highest extraction accuracy when σ = 5 in Gaussian smoothing. According to the accuracy assessment, the average extraction accuracy is about 88.5%, which indicates that the proposed method is applicable for the extraction of loess shoulder-lines in the loess hilly and gully areas. PMID:25910079

  9. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Doug Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2015-10-13

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  10. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2017-08-01

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  11. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Straight and Flared Cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.

  12. Extension of Shockley’s transmission line method (TLM) to characterize ohmic contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.; Herrera-Bernal, M. G.

    2017-05-01

    A method to extract the resistance of the metallic pad of ohmic contacts is presented. It utilizes the transmission line method array of ohmic contacts and measurements required to obtain their specific contact resistance plus just an additional current voltage measure. The method was applied to fully characterize, included their reliability, standard ohmic contacts on p-GaAs and n-GaInP thin epitaxial layers whose measured sheet resistances were 96 and 6.86 (Ohms Sq-1) respectively. Our extended method found contact pad sheet resistances of R shMP = 0.9 and 0.09 (Ohms Sq-1) for those on p-GaAs and n-InGaP, respectively, giving a ratio of 1%-2%, in this case. For their reliability it was found that after 430 °C for a 30 min thermal anneal, those on n-InGaP strongly degrade. The degradation initiates increasing the metallic pad sheet resistance and then the contact resistance, while those on p-GaAs remain unchanged. This method should contribute to a better characterization of ohmic contacts.

  13. An experimental method of modeling ;Line-Type; and ;Area-Type; connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mian; Zheng, Gangtie

    2017-07-01

    A method for experimentally modeling complex connections, such as ;Line-Type; connection (LTC) and ;Area-Type; connection (ATC), is proposed in this paper. Unlike traditional methods, instead of treating the junction forces as presumed approximate functions, a new strategy proposed in the present paper is to estimate them from experimentally measured accelerations. Along with them, the junction motion information is also estimated from the measured data. Based on this estimated information, the connection's model is built. In this way, two potential disadvantages of traditional methods in modeling complex connections, i.e. the difficulty in finding appropriate functions for complex connections and the computation burden in identifying too many parameters through optimization process, can be avoided. In the proposed method, the LTC is modeled as a series of independent junction node pairs, and the ATC is modeled as a combination of a presumed Virtual Structure and a series of independent Virtual Node Pairs. Numerical and experimental results with the constructed example have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method in modeling both LTC and ATC.

  14. An experiment-library least-squares method on on-line coal element contents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, HuiDong; Lu, JingBin; Lu, YuPing; Yang, Dong; Ma, KeYan; Yang, Kang; Liu, YuMin; Cheng, DaoWen

    2012-11-01

    A new experiment-library least-squares (experiment-LLs) method used in the neutron inelastic-scattering and thermal-capture analysis (NITA) technique for on-line coal analysis was developed, which has significantly decreased the non-linear radiation effects. In this method, sixty samples with preset elemental contents were made, from whose experimental spectra twenty single-element spectrum libraries corresponding to twenty kinds of coal were built using the least-squares method. The spectrum of the unknown sample was analyzed based on these twenty libraries to estimate its element contents. With the initial estimated result, the procedure of developing library and analysis was iterated to build a new library with the closest element contents to the unknown sample. Hence the experiment-LLs method can reduce non-linear radiation effects. The experiment-LLs method was performed on an improved coal analysis system which was equipped with a long-life 14 MeV pulsed-neutron generator, a bulk BGO detector with a temperature controller, a moisture meter and coal-smoothing device. The precisions of this system for ash content, water content, volatile content and calorific value have reached 1.0wt%, 0.5wt%, 1.0wt%, 350 kJ/kg, respectively.

  15. Improved Line Tracing Methods for Removal of Bad Streaks Noise in CCD Line Array Image-A Case Study with GF-1 Images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Bao, Jianwei; Wang, Shikui; Wang, Houjun; Sheng, Qinghong

    2017-04-24

    Remote sensing images could provide us with tremendous quantities of large-scale information. Noise artifacts (stripes), however, made the images inappropriate for vitalization and batch process. An effective restoration method would make images ready for further analysis. In this paper, a new method is proposed to correct the stripes and bad abnormal pixels in charge-coupled device (CCD) linear array images. The method involved a line tracing method, limiting the location of noise to a rectangular region, and corrected abnormal pixels with the Lagrange polynomial algorithm. The proposed detection and restoration method were applied to Gaofen-1 satellite (GF-1) images, and the performance of this method was evaluated by omission ratio and false detection ratio, which reached 0.6% and 0%, respectively. This method saved 55.9% of the time, compared with traditional method.

  16. A method to characterize the sheet resistance of a laser doped line on crystalline silicon wafers for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kee Soon; Tjahjono, Budi S.; Uddin, Ashraf; Wenham, Stuart R.

    2011-02-28

    A theory is presented that correlates the different sheet resistance (R{sub sh}) values of the same phosphorus laser doped (LD) line approximated by two different methods: the LD box and transfer length measurement (TLM) methods. By modeling the LD line junction profile, an effective R{sub sh} value using the LD box method is obtained and used to derive the R{sub sh} upper limit (R{sub sh.UL}) of the LD line. This value matches within {+-}10% of the R{sub sh.UL} value obtained using the TLM method across four lasing speeds. Subsequently, a LD box method is introduced to determine the LD line R{sub sh.UL} easily without modeling work.

  17. Vortex-based line beam optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-10-01

    A vortex-based line beam, which has a straight-line shape of intensity and possesses phase gradient along the line trajectory is developed and applied for optical manipulation in this paper. The intensity and phase distributions of the beam in the imaging plane of the Fourier transform are analytically studied. Simulation results show that the length of the line and phase gradient possessed by a vortex-based line beam are dependent on the topological charge and the azimuthal proportional constant. A superposition of multiple phase-only holograms with elliptical azimuthal phases can be used to generate an array of vortex-based line beams. Optical trapping with the vortex-based line beams has been implemented. Furthermore, the automatic transportation of microparticles along the line trajectory perpendicular to the optical axis is realized with an array of the beams. The generation method for the vortex-based line beam is simple. The beam would have potential applications in fields such as optical trapping, laser machining, and so on.

  18. Powder diffraction in Bragg–Brentano geometry with straight linear detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kriegner, Dominik; Matěj, Zdeněk; Kužel, Radomír; Holý, Václav

    2015-01-01

    A common way of speeding up powder diffraction measurements is the use of one- or two-dimensional detectors. This usually goes hand in hand with worse resolution and asymmetric peak profiles. In this work the influence of a straight linear detector on the resolution function in the Bragg–Brentano focusing geometry is discussed. Because of the straight nature of most modern detectors geometrical defocusing occurs, which heavily influences the line shape of diffraction lines at low angles. An easy approach to limit the resolution-degrading effects is presented. The presented algorithm selects an adaptive range of channels of the linear detector at low angles, resulting in increased resolution. At higher angles the whole linear detector is used and the data collection remains fast. Using this algorithm a well behaved resolution function is obtained in the full angular range, whereas using the full linear detector the resolution function varies within one pattern, which hinders line-shape and Rietveld analysis. PMID:25844084

  19. Performance of a Line Loss Correction Method for Gas Turbine Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, D. E.; Whitefield, P. D.; Lobo, P.

    2015-12-01

    International concern for the environmental impact of jet engine exhaust emissions in the atmosphere has led to increased attention on gas turbine engine emission testing. The Society of Automotive Engineers Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter from aircraft engines, and is developing an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) for methodology and system specification. The Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST) Center for Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research has led numerous jet engine exhaust sampling campaigns to characterize emissions at different locations in the expanding exhaust plume. Particle loss, due to various mechanisms, occurs in the sampling train that transports the exhaust sample from the engine exit plane to the measurement instruments. To account for the losses, both the size dependent penetration functions and the size distribution of the emitted particles need to be known. However in the proposed ARP, particle number and mass are measured, but size is not. Here we present a methodology to generate number and mass correction factors for line loss, without using direct size measurement. A lognormal size distribution is used to represent the exhaust aerosol at the engine exit plane and is defined by the measured number and mass at the downstream end of the sample train. The performance of this line loss correction is compared to corrections based on direct size measurements using data taken by MST during numerous engine test campaigns. The experimental uncertainty in these correction factors is estimated. Average differences between the line loss correction method and size based corrections are found to be on the order of 10% for number and 2.5% for mass.

  20. Capturing the Central Line Bundle Infection Prevention Interventions: Comparison of Reflective and Composite Modeling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Heather M.; Sousa, Karen H.; Battaglia, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background The central line (CL) bundle interventions are important for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), but a modeling method for testing the CL bundle interventions within a health systems framework is lacking. Objectives Guided by the Quality Health Outcomes Model (QHOM), this study tested the CL bundle interventions in reflective and composite, latent, variable measurement models to assess the impact of the modeling approaches on an investigation of the relationships between adherence to the CL bundle interventions, organizational context, and CLABSIs. Methods A secondary data analysis study was conducted using data from 614 U.S. hospitals that participated in the Prevention of Nosocomial Infection and Cost-Effectiveness-Refined study. The sample was randomly split into exploration and validation subsets. Results The two CL bundle modeling approaches resulted in adequate fitting structural models (RMSEA = .04; CFI = .94) and supported similar relationships within the QHOM. Adherence to the CL bundle had a direct effect on organizational context (reflective = .23; composite = .20; p = .01), and CLABSIs (reflective = −.28; composite = −.25; p =.01). The relationship between context and CLABSIs was not significant. Both modeling methods resulted in partial support of the QHOM. Discussion There were little statistical, but large, conceptual differences between the reflective and composite modeling approaches. The empirical impact of the modeling approaches was inconclusive, for both models resulted in a good fit to the data. Lessons learned are presented. The comparison of modeling approaches is recommended when initially modeling variables that have never been modeled, or with directional ambiguity, to increase transparency and bring confidence to study findings. PMID:27579507

  1. A study of a new time-domain method of lines and its application for the characterization of microstrip line and its discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Sangwook; Ling, Hao; Itoh, Tatsuo

    1989-05-01

    A new time domain method for the analysis of planar guided wave propagation and scattering is developed in which an analytical process is incorporated along one of the spatial dimensions. The method makes use of the Method of Lines which has been applied to microwave problems in the time-harmonic cases. The procedure and the formulation of the proposed method to calculate the time history of a pulse scattered in a partially filled waveguide and a finned waveguide are described in detail. The cutoff characteristics of the structures can be derived via the Fourier transform of the time-domain pulse scattering data. The results are compared with other available data. The method is extended to characterize 3-D structures. The procedure and the formulation of the 3-D analysis are explained. The propagation and scattering data of a pulse in a planar transmission line with its discontinuities can be obtained by using the 3-D analysis. From the time domain data, the frequency-domain characteristics for a wide range of frequencies can be extracted by the Fourier transform. The important design parameters such as the characteristic impedance and the propagation constant of a uniform microstrip line and the scattering parameters of its discontinuities (step-in-width, open end and gap discontinuities) are presented and compared with available published data.

  2. Visual straight-ahead preference in saccadic eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Camors, Damien; Trotter, Yves; Pouget, Pierre; Gilardeau, Sophie; Durand, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Ocular saccades bringing the gaze toward the straight-ahead direction (centripetal) exhibit higher dynamics than those steering the gaze away (centrifugal). This is generally explained by oculomotor determinants: centripetal saccades are more efficient because they pull the eyes back toward their primary orbital position. However, visual determinants might also be invoked: elements located straight-ahead trigger saccades more efficiently because they receive a privileged visual processing. Here, we addressed this issue by using both pro- and anti-saccade tasks in order to dissociate the centripetal/centrifugal directions of the saccades, from the straight-ahead/eccentric locations of the visual elements triggering those saccades. Twenty participants underwent alternating blocks of pro- and anti-saccades during which eye movements were recorded binocularly at 1 kHz. The results confirm that centripetal saccades are always executed faster than centrifugal ones, irrespective of whether the visual elements have straight-ahead or eccentric locations. However, by contrast, saccades triggered by elements located straight-ahead are consistently initiated more rapidly than those evoked by eccentric elements, irrespective of their centripetal or centrifugal direction. Importantly, this double dissociation reveals that the higher dynamics of centripetal pro-saccades stem from both oculomotor and visual determinants, which act respectively on the execution and initiation of ocular saccades. PMID:26975598

  3. Numerical-Model Investigation of the Hydrothermal Regime of a Straight-Through Shallow Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. S.

    2013-11-15

    A mathematic model based on solution of hydrodynamics and heat-transfer equations by the finite-element method is constructed to predict the hydrothermal regime of a straight-through shallow cooling pond, which provides cooling circulating water to a repository of spent nuclear fuel. Numerical experiments made it possible to evaluate the influence exerted by wind conditions and flow rate of water in the river on the temperature of the circulating water.

  4. Longitudinal Characteristics of a Semispan Model of the Grumman Airplane Design 83 having a Sweptback Wing and of the Model with a Straight Wing as Determined from Wing-Flow Tests at Transonic Speeds, TED No. NACA DE337

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S.; Kennedy, Robert M.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been made by the NACA wing-flow method to provide information on the relative longitudinal characteristics of a straight and sweptback wing in the transonic speed range. Tests were made of a semispan model of the Grumman airplane design 83 (XFlOF) incorporating a wing swept back 42.5deg with reference to quarter-chord line and also of the model with the swept wing replaced by a straight wing similar to that of the XF9F airplane. The airfoil sections were symmetrical 64l-series, with thickness ratios of 12 percent for the straight wing and 10 percent for the sweptback wing parallel to the stream direction. Measurements were made of normal force, chord force, and pitching moment at various angles of attack with the two wings both with and without the empennage, and with the fuselage alone. The tests covered a range of effective Mach numbers at the wing of the model from 0.65 to 1.10.

  5. New methods for assessing male germ line mutations in humans and genetic risks in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Verhofstad, Nicole; Linschooten, Joost O; van Benthem, Jan; Dubrova, Yuri E; van Steeg, Harry; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2008-07-01

    Germ line mutations resulting from chemical or radiation exposure are a particular problem in toxicology as they affect not only the exposed generation but also an infinite number of generations thereafter. Established methods to show that these mutations occur in an F1 or subsequent population require the use of a large number of progeny for statistical significance. Consequently, many thousands of animals have been used in the past. Such a use is no longer considered desirable and is also very expensive. Several new molecular techniques (including analysis of tandem repeats and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) now provide alternative methods of assessment, which also allow the quantification of individual mutations in individual sperm cells. These can also be applied to human offspring, making extrapolation obsolete. The downside of these methods is that they effectively determine the mutation rate in certain regions of DNA and the relevance of these to diseases, particularly cancer, is not always apparent. Therefore, it must be assumed that an increase in mutation rates in these selected regions correlates with altered phenotype. However, disease types linked to changes in tandem repeat length indicate that these may act as relevant markers for the development of phenotypes. Further research and evaluation are required to more closely link changes in DNA with altered phenotype and validate the use of tandem repeats and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA in transgenerational genotoxicity testing. This paper introduces and compares recently developed methods to assess mutations in sperm due to stem cell damage.

  6. Very Efficient Methods for Multilevel Radiative Transfer in Atomic and Molecular Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    The development of fast numerical methods for multilevel radiative transfer (RT) applications often leads to important breakthroughs in astrophysics, because they allow the investigation of problems that could not be properly tackled using the methods previously available. Probably, the most familiar example is the so-called Multilevel Accelerated Λ-Iteration (MALI) technique of Rybicki & Hummer for the case of a local approximate operator, which is based on Jacobi iteration. However, there are superior operator-splitting methods, based on Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) iteration, which provide a dramatic increase in the speed with which non-LTE multilevel transfer problems can be solved in one, two and three-dimensional geometries. Such RT methods, which were introduced by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho ten years ago, are the main subject of the first part of this paper. We show in some detail how they can be applied for solving multilevel RT problems in spherical geometry, for both atomic and molecular line transitions. The second part of the article addresses the issue of the calculation of the molecular number densities when the approximation of instantaneous chemical equilibrium turns out to be inadequate, which happens to be the case whenever the dynamical time scales of the astrophysical plasma under consideration are much shorter than the time needed by the molecules to form.

  7. A Bayesian Method For Finding Galaxies That Cause Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Emileigh Suzanne; Laubner, David Andrew; Scott, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of candidate absorber-galaxy pairs for 39 low redshift quasar sightlines (0.06 < z < 0.85) using a statistical approach to match absorbers with galaxies near the quasar lines of sight. Of the 75 quasars observed with HST/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and archived on the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), 39 overlap with the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We downloaded the COS linelists for these quasar spectra from MAST and queried the SDSS DR12 database for photometric data on all galaxies within 1 Mpc of each of these quasar lines of sight. We calculated photometric redshifts for all the SDSS galaxies using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift code. We used all these absorber and galaxy data as input into an absorber-galaxy matching code which also employs a Bayesian scheme, along with known statistics of the intergalactic medium and circumgalactic media of galaxies, for finding the most probable galaxy match for each absorber. We compare our candidate absorber-galaxy matches to existing studies in the literature and explore trends in the absorber and galaxy properties among the matched and non-matched populations. This method of matching absorbers and galaxies can be used to find targets for follow up spectroscopic studies.

  8. Application of the lifting line vortex wake method to dynamic load case simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorsma, K.; Hartvelt, M.; Orsi, L. M.

    2016-09-01

    Within the EU AVATAR project, the added benefit of using the vortex line method is researched by calculating aero-elastic response for a variety of IEC load cases. A comparison is made to BEM to identify differences. Results are presented for yawed flow, extreme transient shear, half wake and turbulent inflow conditions. In addition to that also a dynamic pitch step case is performed including a comparison to experimental data. The aerodynamic code used for this purpose allows to easily switch between BEM and vortex line models whilst keeping the external input the same. The comparison indicates that taking into account vortex wake models can yield a significantly different aero-elastic response compared to BEM models, often acting as a damper to fluctuations. As such estimated fatigue loads are reduced for selected load cases. Since the free vortex wake simulations come at a substantial increase of CPU-time, a hybrid approach prescribing the far wake is shown to offer a promising compromise.

  9. A semi-automatic method for extracting thin line structures in images as rooted tree network

    SciTech Connect

    Brazzini, Jacopo; Dillard, Scott; Soille, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of semi-automatic extraction of line networks in digital images - e.g., road or hydrographic networks in satellite images, blood vessels in medical images, robust. For that purpose, we improve a generic method derived from morphological and hydrological concepts and consisting in minimum cost path estimation and flow simulation. While this approach fully exploits the local contrast and shape of the network, as well as its arborescent nature, we further incorporate local directional information about the structures in the image. Namely, an appropriate anisotropic metric is designed by using both the characteristic features of the target network and the eigen-decomposition of the gradient structure tensor of the image. Following, the geodesic propagation from a given seed with this metric is combined with hydrological operators for overland flow simulation to extract the line network. The algorithm is demonstrated for the extraction of blood vessels in a retina image and of a river network in a satellite image.

  10. Biomechanical differences in the stem straightening process among Pinus pinaster provenances. A new approach for early selection of stem straightness.

    PubMed

    Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario; Pando, Valentín; Martínez-Zurimendi, Pablo; Peñalvo, Alejandro; Báscones, Esther; Moulia, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Stem straightness is an important selection trait in Pinus pinaster Ait. breeding programs. Despite the stability of stem straightness rankings in provenance trials, the efficiency of breeding programs based on a quantitative index of stem straightness remains low. An alternative approach is to analyze biomechanical processes that underlie stem form. The rationale for this selection method is that genetic differences in the biomechanical processes that maintain stem straightness in young plants will continue to control stem form throughout the life of the tree. We analyzed the components contributing most to genetic differences among provenances in stem straightening processes by kinetic analysis and with a biomechanical model defining the interactions between the variables involved (Fournier's model). This framework was tested on three P. pinaster provenances differing in adult stem straightness and growth. One-year-old plants were tilted at 45 degrees, and individual stem positions and sizes were recorded weekly for 5 months. We measured the radial extension of reaction wood and the anatomical features of wood cells in serial stem cross sections. The integral effect of reaction wood on stem leaning was computed with Fournier's model. Responses driven by both primary and secondary growth were involved in the stem straightening process, but secondary-growth-driven responses accounted for most differences among provenances. Plants from the straight-stemmed provenance showed a greater capacity for stem straightening than plants from the sinuous provenances mainly because of (1) more efficient reaction wood (higher maturation strains) and (2) more pronounced secondary-growth-driven autotropic decurving. These two process-based traits are thus good candidates for early selection of stem straightness, but additional tests on a greater number of genotypes over a longer period are required.

  11. [An abnormal characteristic line mining method of celestial spectrum based on attribute weight and w(k)-distance].

    PubMed

    Lou, Sheng-Jin; Zhang, Ji-Fu; Yang, Hai-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Outlier mining is one of the effective methods to find the abnormal celestial spectrum data, and is also one of effective ways to discover the special and unknown celestial bodies. In the present paper, an abnormal characteristic line mining method of celestial spectrum is presented based on the attribute weight and w(k)-distance by using the idea of information entropy. Based on it, an abnormal characteristic line mining system of celestial spectrum was designed and implemented. Firstly, attribute weight of characteristic line was determined by using the idea of information entropy, so that important degree was effectively reflected for each characteristic line. Secondly, massive characteristic line data set of celestial spectrum was reduced by utilizing pruning technique based on neighborhood radius, so that candidate set of abnormal characteristic line was obtained by deleting data objects in which there may not be abnormal characteristic lines. Thirdly, w(k)-distance sum was computed according to the deviation between the data objects in the candidate set, and the objects whose w(k)-distance sum value ranks the first top n were regarded as abnormal characteristic line data objects. In the end, the experimental and the system's running results validated the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by using the SDSS star spectral data set.

  12. Comparison of structural and least-squares lines for estimating geologic relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, G.P.; Troutman, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Two different goals in fitting straight lines to data are to estimate a "true" linear relation (physical law) and to predict values of the dependent variable with the smallest possible error. Regarding the first goal, a Monte Carlo study indicated that the structural-analysis (SA) method of fitting straight lines to data is superior to the ordinary least-squares (OLS) method for estimating "true" straight-line relations. Number of data points, slope and intercept of the true relation, and variances of the errors associated with the independent (X) and dependent (Y) variables influence the degree of agreement. For example, differences between the two line-fitting methods decrease as error in X becomes small relative to error in Y. Regarding the second goal-predicting the dependent variable-OLS is better than SA. Again, the difference diminishes as X takes on less error relative to Y. With respect to estimation of slope and intercept and prediction of Y, agreement between Monte Carlo results and large-sample theory was very good for sample sizes of 100, and fair to good for sample sizes of 20. The procedures and error measures are illustrated with two geologic examples. ?? 1990 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo

    2016-03-03

    Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method.

  14. Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:26950130

  15. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching.

    PubMed

    Long, Julie A; Purdy, Phillip H; Zuidberg, Kees; Hiemstra, Sipke-Joost; Velleman, Sandra G; Woelders, Henri

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw function of sperm from five turkey lines: one commercial line and four research (RBC1; E; RBC2; F) lines from Ohio State University (OSU). The model for cryopreservation was set up as a 2×2×2×5 design for cryoprotectant (glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)), cryopreservation medium (Lake or ASG), method of dilution (fixed dilution volume versus fixed sperm concentration) and turkey line, respectively. The final cryoprotectant concentrations were 11% glycerol or 6% DMA. Thawed sperm were evaluated for plasma membrane integrity and quality, motility, acrosome integrity and, after artificial insemination, for egg fertility and hatchability. Commercial turkey hens were used for all fertility trials, regardless of semen source. Turkey sperm frozen with glycerol exhibited higher membrane integrity and membrane quality upon thawing than turkey sperm frozen with DMA although no differences in total motility, and only minimal differences in progressive motility, were detected among the eight cryopreservation treatments. Within line, fertility was affected by cryoprotectant, medium and dilution method, where the overall highest percentages of fertile, viable embryos (Day 7) occurred for the DMA/ASG/fixed sperm concentration method, while high percentages (15.8-31.5%) of fertile, non-viable embryos (Day 1-6) were observed for multiple cryopreservation methods, including two glycerol treatments. From a single insemination, the duration of true and viable fertility in all lines was 10-13 weeks and 9-10 weeks, respectively. The duration of hatchability was 4-6 weeks after insemination for four of the turkey lines. The highest percentage of viable embryos was observed for the commercial

  16. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  17. Line-of-sight-attenuation chemical species tomography through the level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twynstra, Matthew G.; Daun, Kyle J.; Waslander, Steven L.

    2014-08-01

    Chemical species tomography based on line-of-sight attenuation (LOSA-CST) is an emerging diagnostic for mapping the concentration of a gaseous species. Since laser absorption measurements alone are insufficient to specify a unique species concentration distribution, reconstruction algorithms must incorporate additional information that promotes presumed physical attributes of the distribution. This paper pioneers the application of the level set method to LOSA-CST. The species concentration distribution is initially represented by a signed distance function, which is progressively deformed by forces that scale with the difference between the measured and simulated absorption data, as well as deviation from spatial smoothness. The final distribution explains the LOSA data and is also qualitatively consistent with mixed advection/diffusion transport physics. The algorithm is demonstrated by solving a simulated laser tomography experiment on a turbulent methane plume.

  18. Method for decomposing observed line shapes resulting from multiple causes - Application to plasma charge-exchange-neutral spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patch, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is given for decomposing the widths of observed spectral lines resulting from unresolved line splitting, additive kinetic processes of different types, instrumental broadening (slit function), Doppler broadening, etc. all superimposed. The second moments are used as measures of the various widths involved. The method is not applicable if dispersion type (Lorentz) broadening occurs. Application is made to plasma charge-exchange-neutral spectra of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium.

  19. NSLS IN-VACUUM UNDULATORS AND MINI-BETA STRAIGHTS.

    SciTech Connect

    RAKOWSKY,G.; LYNCH,D.; BLUM,E.B.; KRINSKY,S.

    2001-06-18

    We review the work carried out in the X13 R&D Straight Section of the NSLS X-Ray Ring on small gap in-vacuum undulators (IVUNs). Then we discuss: (1) plans to replace the pure permanent magnet undulator in X13 by a hybrid design providing stronger magnetic fields, enhancing the tunability of the device; (2) plans to install hybrid IVUNs in the two RF straights of the X-Ray Ring, increasing the number of insertion devices in the XRay Ring to eight; (3) the possibility of reducing the vertical beta function in the X13 straight from 0.33 m down to 0.16 m. This reduction in beta function would allow us to decrease the usable undulator gap from 3mm down to 2mm, further increasing the tuning range.

  20. Ion beam guiding with straight and curved Teflon tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takao M.; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kanai, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Esaulov, Vladimir A.

    2011-09-01

    In an effort to develop a flexible ion beam guiding scheme, the guiding capabilities of straight and curved Teflon tubes were tested with 8 keV Ar8+ ions. The tubes used were about 50 mm long and of 1 mm/2 mm inner and outer diameters. One was straight, and the others were bent with different radii of curvature corresponding to bending angles from 9.6° to 26.7°. Transmission of several tens of per cent of the injected beam was observed for the curved tubes, while transmission through the tilted straight tube vanished when the tilt was more than 7°. This demonstrates the possibility of efficient ion beam guiding with flexible insulator tubes.

  1. Evaluation of soybean lines and environmental stratification using the AMMI, GGE biplot, and factor analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L B; Hamawaki, O T; Nogueira, A P O; Batista, R O; Oliveira, V M; Hamawaki, R L

    2015-10-19

    In the final phases of new soybean cultivar development, lines are cultivated in several locations across multiple seasons with the intention of identifying and selecting superior genotypes for quantitative traits. In this context, this study aimed to study the genotype-by-environment interaction for the trait grain yield (kg/ha), and to evaluate the adaptability and stability of early-cycle soybean genotypes using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis, genotype main effects and genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot, and factor analysis methods. Additionally, the efficiency of these methods was compared. The experiments were carried out in five cities in the State of Mato Grosso: Alto Taquari, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sinop, Querência, and Rondonópolis, in the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. Twenty-seven early-cycle soybean genotypes were evaluated, consisting of 22 lines developed by Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) soybean breeding program, and five controls: UFUS Carajás, MSOY 6101, MSOY 7211, UFUS Guarani, and Riqueza. Significant and complex genotype-by-environment interactions were observed. The AMMI model presented greater efficiency by retaining most of the variation in the first two main components (61.46%), followed by the GGE biplot model (57.90%), and factor analysis (54.12%). Environmental clustering among the methodologies was similar, and was composed of one environmental group from one location but from different seasons. Genotype G5 presented an elevated grain yield, and high adaptability and stability as determined by the AMMI, factor analysis, and GGE biplot methodologies.

  2. Capturing the Central Line Bundle Infection Prevention Interventions: Comparison of Reflective and Composite Modeling Methods.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Heather M; Sousa, Karen H; Battaglia, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The central line (CL) bundle interventions are important for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), but a modeling method for testing the CL bundle interventions within a health systems framework is lacking. Guided by the Quality Health Outcomes Model (QHOM), this study tested the CL bundle interventions in reflective and composite, latent, variable measurement models to assess the impact of the modeling approaches on an investigation of the relationships between adherence to the CL bundle interventions, organizational context, and CLABSIs. A secondary data analysis study was conducted using data from 614 U.S. hospitals that participated in the Prevention of Nosocomial Infection and Cost-Effectiveness Refined study. The sample was randomly split into exploration and validation subsets. The two CL bundle modeling approaches resulted in adequate fitting structural models (RMSEA = .04; CFI = .94) and supported similar relationships within the QHOM. Adherence to the CL bundle had a direct effect on organizational context (reflective = .23; composite = .20; p = .01) and CLABSIs (reflective = -.28; composite = -.25; p = .01). The relationship between context and CLABSIs was not significant. Both modeling methods resulted in partial support of the QHOM. There were little statistical, but large, conceptual differences between the reflective and composite modeling approaches. The empirical impact of the modeling approaches was inconclusive, for both models resulted in a good fit to the data. Lessons learned are presented. The comparison of modeling approaches is recommended when initially modeling variables that have never been modeled or with directional ambiguity to increase transparency and bring confidence to study findings.

  3. Multidimensional method-of-lines transport for atmospheric flows over steep terrain using arbitrary meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, James; Weller, Hilary; Methven, John; Davies, Terry

    2017-09-01

    Including terrain in atmospheric models gives rise to mesh distortions near the lower boundary that can degrade accuracy and challenge the stability of transport schemes. Multidimensional transport schemes avoid splitting errors on distorted, arbitrary meshes, and method-of-lines schemes have a low computational cost because they perform reconstructions at fixed points. This paper presents a multidimensional method-of-lines finite volume transport scheme, ;cubicFit;, which is designed to be numerically stable on arbitrary meshes. Stability conditions derived from a von Neumann stability analysis are imposed during model initialisation to obtain stability and improve accuracy in distorted regions of the mesh, and near steeply-sloping lower boundaries. Reconstruction calculations depend upon the mesh only, needing just one vector multiply per face per time-stage irrespective of the velocity field. The cubicFit scheme is evaluated using three, idealised numerical tests. The first is a variant of a standard horizontal transport test on severely distorted terrain-following meshes. The second is a new test case that assesses accuracy near the ground by transporting a tracer at the lower boundary over steep terrain on terrain-following meshes, cut-cell meshes, and new, slanted-cell meshes that do not suffer from severe time-step constraints associated with cut cells. The third, standard test deforms a tracer in a vortical flow on hexagonal-icosahedral meshes and cubed-sphere meshes. In all tests, cubicFit is stable and largely insensitive to mesh distortions, and cubicFit results are more accurate than those obtained using a multidimensional linear upwind transport scheme. The cubicFit scheme is second-order convergent regardless of mesh distortions.

  4. Rheological study of concentrated suspensions in pressure-driven shear flow using a novel in-line ultrasound Doppler method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouriev, B.; Windhab, E. J.

    In this work a novel in-line non-invasive rheological measuring technique is developed and tested in pilot plant and industrial-scale applications. The method is based on a combination of the ultrasonic pulsed echo Doppler technique (UVP) and pressure difference method (PD). The rheological flow properties are derived from simultaneous recording and on-line analysis of the velocity profiles across the tube channel and related radial shear stress profiles calculated from the pressure loss along the flow channel. It is shown that the in-line UVP-PD technique allows for the non-invasive rheological flow behaviour characterization of non-transparent and highly concentrated suspensions.

  5. [The research on separating and extracting overlapping spectral feature lines in LIBS using damped least squares method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Zhao, Nan-jing; Liu, Wen-qing; Yu, Yang; Fang, Li; Meng, De-shuo; Hu, Li; Zhang, Da-hai; Ma, Min-jun; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jian-guo

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the technology of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy has been developed rapidly. As one kind of new material composition detection technology, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can simultaneously detect multi elements fast and simply without any complex sample preparation and realize field, in-situ material composition detection of the sample to be tested. This kind of technology is very promising in many fields. It is very important to separate, fit and extract spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, which is the cornerstone of spectral feature recognition and subsequent elements concentrations inversion research. In order to realize effective separation, fitting and extraction of spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, the original parameters for spectral lines fitting before iteration were analyzed and determined. The spectral feature line of' chromium (Cr I : 427.480 nm) in fly ash gathered from a coal-fired power station, which was overlapped with another line(FeI: 427.176 nm), was separated from the other one and extracted by using damped least squares method. Based on Gauss-Newton iteration, damped least squares method adds damping factor to step and adjust step length dynamically according to the feedback information after each iteration, in order to prevent the iteration from diverging and make sure that the iteration could converge fast. Damped least squares method helps to obtain better results of separating, fitting and extracting spectral feature lines and give more accurate intensity values of these spectral feature lines: The spectral feature lines of chromium in samples which contain different concentrations of chromium were separated and extracted. And then, the intensity values of corresponding spectral lines were given by using damped least squares method and least squares method separately. The calibration curves were plotted, which showed the relationship between spectral

  6. An off-line high pH reversed-phase fractionation and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for global proteomic profiling of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Si; Liu, Ping; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and first-dimensional fractionation is widely used for reducing sample complexity in large-scale proteomic profiling experiments. However, the limited number of proteins identified and the relatively long running time are a barrier to the successful application of this approach. In this study, off-line high pH reversed-phase fractionation (RPF) was combined with nano-LC-MS/MS in order to develop an improved method for global proteomic profiling of different cell lines. In the first dimensional reverse phase HPLC separation, 300 μg of digested cell protein was separated into 78 fractions under high pH conditions and condensed into 26 fractions for the second nano-LC-MS/MS analysis at low pH. The chromatographic conditions for the first and second steps were optimized, and the accuracy and reproducibility of protein quantification were investigated with an average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.94. The method was then applied in the identification of proteins in six common cell lines (DMS, MFM, HepG2, U2OS, 293T and yeast), which resulted in identification of 7300-8500 and 8956 proteins in heavy/light labeled and label-free cell samples, respectively, in 1.5 days. The performance of the developed method was compared with isoelectric focusing (IEF)-nano-LC-MS/MS and the previously reported method; and off-line high pH RPF-nano-LC-MS/MS proved advantageous in terms of the number of proteins identified and the analytical time needed to achieve a successful global proteomic profiling outcome. The RPF-nano-LC-MS/MS method identified more proteins from low abundance (150 μg) samples with an average sequence coverage for each cell line of 23.4-35.1%. RPF-nano-LC-MS/MS may therefore be an efficient alternative tool for achieving improved proteomic coverage of multiple cell lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Can seduction make straight men gay?

    PubMed

    Meijer, H

    1993-01-01

    The article raises the question of changing sexual preference: Can a man whose past sexual practice has been almost exclusively heterosexual change his practice to homosexual after being seduced by another man? To those who believe that homosexual preference is homosexual orientation, an innate biological predisposition, the answer is a resounding "no." Contrary to this response, the author presents three cases in which the men switch from heterosexual to homosexual relationships (exclusively in two cases) by means of a sexual encounter initiated by another man. The author credits part of the change to the gay liberation movement which rescued homosexual desire from the hidden, forbidden, and shameful. The evidence that these men experienced a genuine change in sexual preference, shows that life-long, exclusive homosexuality, as articulated by gay rhetoric, is more a statement about the culture in which it occurs than the "essence" of homosexuality. The author concludes that putting the question of "What do I like?" before the question of "Who am I?" would allow more sexual freedom for those interested in crossing the line that divides sexual preferences.

  8. Bent versus straight tips in micropulsed longitudinal phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Brian C; Gupta, Isha; Cahoon, Judd; Ronquillo, Cecinio; Shi, Dallas; Zaugg, Brian; Gardiner, Gareth; Barlow, William R; Pettey, Jeff H; Aabid Farukhi, M; Jensen, Jason; Olson, Randall J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bent and straight phacoemulsification tips to determine which tip is more efficient in removal of lens fragments, using micropulsed longitudinal ultrasound in phacoemulsification. In vitro laboratory study. The John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, was the study setting. Pig lenses hardened in a manner comparable with dense human cataracts were cut into 2-mm cubes and removed with micropulsed longitudinal ultrasound using settings previously shown to be optimally efficient (6 milliseconds on and 6 milliseconds off for a bent tip). To verify this time as most efficient for a straight tip, we also tested times of 5, 6, and 7 milliseconds time on and off. The tips were either straight or with a 20-degree bend. Twenty cubes were used for each comparative run. For the straight tip, 6 milliseconds on (1.56 ± 0.815 seconds) was significantly more efficient than 7 milliseconds on (2.45 ± 1.56 seconds, p = 0.001) and not significantly more efficient than 5 milliseconds on (1.69 ± 0.86 seconds, p = 0.43). Five milliseconds off time (1.45 ± 0.76s) was more efficient than 6 milliseconds (2.06 ± 1.37 seconds, p = 0.004) and 7 milliseconds off (2.18 ± 1.24s, p = 0.001). The straight tip was more efficient than the bent tip (1.38 ± 0.83 versus 2.93 ± 2.14 seconds, p = 0.006). Results are contrary to accepted common belief. Micropulsed longitudinal phacoemulsification is more efficient with a straight rather than a bent tip. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Signal and ASE Evolution in Erbium-Doped Amplifiers With the Method of Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laliotis, Athanasios; Yeatman, Eric M.; Al-Bader, Samir J.

    2006-03-01

    A complete theoretical treatment for modeling erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) by the method of lines (MoL) numerical scheme is presented. Though a similar approach has previously been applied to the treatment of bent amplifiers, the present procedure is generalized by the inclusion of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and bidirectional pumping, which were not included in previous treatments. An iterative scheme is described and its convergence verified. The scheme accounts for the coupling that arises between all the otherwise independent length increments when bidirectional propagation of either pumping or ASE occurs. Since the method uses the electric field rather than the intensity profile, a new treatment of the ASE based on randomizing the phase of the field by the application of a Brownian random process is accordingly developed. Additional information on the ASE power coupled to the whole set of amplifier modes and on the spatial dependence of the noise is obtained. This allows for more effective analysis of the noise figure of devices such as mode evolution couplers, for which mode interference is of primary importance. The theoretical results are compared with experiments, and with results obtained by previous methods applied to similar problems.

  10. Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua

    2015-09-01

    Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects.

  11. 3D Elasto-Plastic Stress Analysis by the Method of Arbitrary Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminishi, Ken; Ando, Ryuma

    The method of arbitrary lines (MAL) constitutes a general dimensional reduction methodology for elliptic boundary value problems (BVP) in arbitrary two- and three-dimensional domains by solving systems of one-dimensional boundary value ordinary differential equations (ODEs). It has been already applied to two-dimensional problem, and the good results have been reported. In this work, we consider the extension of the MAL to three-dimensional elasto-plastic stress analysis. We first give the MAL formulation of three-dimensional elasto-plastic problems. Although the MAL formulation is derived from the principle of three-dimensional increment virtual work as well as the finite element method (FEM), the MAL is different from FEM in that displacement increment and virtual displacement increment are expressed continuous functions along one direction and shape-functions along other two directions. Substituting displacement increment and virtual displacement increment into the principle of three-dimensional increment virtual work, we have a system of ODEs. The three-dimensional elasto-plastic analysis of BGA model, which was a method of the solder joints of electronic component, was carried out. As results, it was confirmed that to solve 3D elasto-plastic problem at the good accuracy was possible by the MAL.

  12. Commissioning of the cryogenics of the LHC long straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; Darve, C.; Ferlin, G.; Millet, F.; Parente, C.; Rabehl, R.; Soubiran, M.; van Weelderen, R.; Wagner, U.; /CERN

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

  13. Transmission of straight and curved multimode optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Kravchenko, Igor; Denisov, Nikolay A.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rusina, Tatyana V.

    1995-01-01

    Bent multimode optical fibers were studied using a 3D ray tracing program. Effect of fiber bending increased with smaller input aperture beams. Transmission of fibers decreased for the longer proximal straight part of the fiber. Significant focusing effect and output light redistribution were detected if a proximal straight part of the fiber was less than 1 fiber diameter. Transmission of hollow waveguides considerably depended on the inner surface quality. Calculated data were in accordance with experimental measurements of fiber transmission and output light distribution. Ray tracing is a useful approach to simulate different delivery systems using optical fibers and hollow waveguides.

  14. Evaluating unsupervised methods to size and classify suspended particles using digital in-line holography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Emlyn J.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Graham, George W.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial information can be gained from digital in-line holography of marine particles, eliminating depth-of-field and focusing errors associated with standard lens-based imaging methods. However, for the technique to reach its full potential in oceanographic research, fully unsupervised (automated) methods are required for focusing, segmentation, sizing and classification of particles. These computational challenges are the subject of this paper, in which we draw upon data collected using a variety of holographic systems developed at Plymouth University, UK, from a significant range of particle types, sizes and shapes. A new method for noise reduction in reconstructed planes is found to be successful in aiding particle segmentation and sizing. The performance of an automated routine for deriving particle characteristics (and subsequent size distributions) is evaluated against equivalent size metrics obtained by a trained operative measuring grain axes on screen. The unsupervised method is found to be reliable, despite some errors resulting from over-segmentation of particles. A simple unsupervised particle classification system is developed, and is capable of successfully differentiating sand grains, bubbles and diatoms from within the surf-zone. Avoiding miscounting bubbles and biological particles as sand grains enables more accurate estimates of sand concentrations, and is especially important in deployments of particle monitoring instrumentation in aerated water. Perhaps the greatest potential for further development in the computational aspects of particle holography is in the area of unsupervised particle classification. The simple method proposed here provides a foundation upon which further development could lead to reliable identification of more complex particle populations, such as those containing phytoplankton, zooplankton, flocculated cohesive sediments and oil droplets.

  15. Elliptical broken line method for calculating capillary density in nailfold capillaroscopy: Proposal and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Karbalaie, Abdolamir; Abtahi, Farhad; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Emrani, Zahra; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik

    2017-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a practical method for identifying and obtaining morphological changes in capillaries which might reveal relevant information about diseases and health. Capillaroscopy is harmless, and seems simple and repeatable. However, there is lack of established guidelines and instructions for acquisition as well as the interpretation of the obtained images; which might lead to various ambiguities. In addition, assessment and interpretation of the acquired images are very subjective. In an attempt to overcome some of these problems, in this study a new modified technique for assessment of nailfold capillary density is introduced. The new method is named elliptic broken line (EBL) which is an extension of the two previously known methods by defining clear criteria for finding the apex of capillaries in different scenarios by using a fitted elliptic. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed for pre-processing, manual assessment of capillary apexes and automatic correction of selected apexes based on 90° rule. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of EBL and corrected EBL is evaluated in this study. Four independent observers familiar with capillaroscopy performed the assessment for 200 nailfold videocapillaroscopy images, form healthy subject and systemic lupus erythematosus patients, in two different sessions. The results show elevation from moderate (ICC=0.691) and good (ICC=0.753) agreements to good (ICC=0.750) and good (ICC=0.801) for intra- and inter-observer reliability after automatic correction of EBL. This clearly shows the potential of this method to improve the reliability and repeatability of assessment which motivates us for further development of automatic tool for EBL method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining isothermal line of laser-welding plasma by computerizing RGB tricolor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinhe; Yang, Decai; Lu, Kaijing; Hu, Wanqian

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, according to the relation of light source, RGB tricolor and color temperature, considering the rule of constant brightness, firstly, the color pictures of laser welding plasma were input into computer in the term of COLOR RGB through AGFA SCANNER, then grading grey scale properly to each picture element's three primary color, so the constant value lines of three primary color and the constant value line of the color picture brightness can be determined. Apparently, each constant value line of brightness corresponds a isothermal line and the denser the constant value lines are, the larger the gradient of temperature change is.

  17. Multi-Objective Analysis Applied to Mixed-Model Assembly Line Sequencing Problem through Elite Induced Evolutionary Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Sakaguchi, Tatsuhiko; Pralomkarn, Theerayoth

    To meet higher customer satisfaction and shorter production lead time, assembly lines are shifting to mixed-model assembly lines. Accordingly, sequencing is becoming an increasingly important operation scheduling that directly affects on efficiency of the entire process. In this study, such sequencing problem at the mixed-model assembly line has been formulated as a bi-objective integer programming problem so that decision making through trade-off analysis can bring about significant production improvements. Then we have developed a multi-objective analysis method by hybridizing conventional and recent meta-heuristic methods. After showing its generic idea, the car mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem is concerned as a case study. Certain measures are also introduced to quantitatively evaluate the performances of the method through comparison.

  18. A new family of Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient method with the strong-Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Nur Hamizah Abdul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is an important technique in unconstrained optimization, due to its effectiveness and low memory requirements. The focus of this paper is to introduce a new CG method for solving large scale unconstrained optimization. Theoretical proofs show that the new method fulfills sufficient descent condition if strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search is used. Besides, computational results show that our proposed method outperforms to other existing CG methods.

  19. Balancing a U-Shaped Assembly Line by Applying Nested Partitions Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, Nikhil V.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we applied the Nested Partitions method to a U-line balancing problem and conducted experiments to evaluate the application. From the results, it is quite evident that the Nested Partitions method provided near optimal solutions (optimal in some cases). Besides, the execution time is quite short as compared to the Branch and Bound algorithm. However, for larger data sets, the algorithm took significantly longer times for execution. One of the reasons could be the way in which the random samples are generated. In the present study, a random sample is a solution in itself which requires assignment of tasks to various stations. The time taken to assign tasks to stations is directly proportional to the number of tasks. Thus, if the number of tasks increases, the time taken to generate random samples for the different regions also increases. The performance index for the Nested Partitions method in the present study was the number of stations in the random solutions (samples) generated. The total idle time for the samples can be used as another performance index. ULINO method is known to have used a combination of bounds to come up with good solutions. This approach of combining different performance indices can be used to evaluate the random samples and obtain even better solutions. Here, we used deterministic time values for the tasks. In industries where majority of tasks are performed manually, the stochastic version of the problem could be of vital importance. Experimenting with different objective functions (No. of stations was used in this study) could be of some significance to some industries where in the cost associated with creation of a new station is not the same. For such industries, the results obtained by using the present approach will not be of much value. Labor costs, task incompletion costs or a combination of those can be effectively used as alternate objective functions.

  20. On-line characterization of YBCO coated conductors using Raman spectroscopy methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, V. A.; Reeves, J. L.; Schwab, G.; Chemical Engineering; SuperPower, Inc.

    2007-04-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy for on-line monitoring of the production of superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+X (YBCO) thin films on long-length metal tapes coated with textured buffer layers is reported for the first time. A methodology is described for obtaining Raman spectra of YBCO on moving tape exiting a metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition (MOCVD) enclosure. After baseline correction, the spectra recorded in this way show the expected phonons of the specific YBCO crystal orientation required for high supercurrent transport, as well as phonons of non-superconducting second-phase impurities when present. It is also possible to distinguish YBCO films that are properly textured from films having domains of misoriented YBCO grains. An investigation of the need for focus control on moving tape indicated that focusing of the laser on the surface of the highly reflective YBCO films exiting the MOCVD enclosure tends to produce aberrant photon bursts that swamp the Raman spectrum. These photon bursts are very likely a consequence of optical speckle effects induced by a combination of surface roughness, crystallographic texture, and/or local strain within the small grain microstructure of the YBCO film. Maintaining a slightly out-of-focus condition provides the best signal-to-noise ratio in terms of the obtained Raman spectra. In addition to examining moving tape at the post-MOCVD stage, Raman spectra of the film surface can also be recorded after the oxygen anneal performed to bring the YBCO to the optimum superconducting state. Consideration is given to data processing methods that could be adapted to the on-line Raman spectra to allow the tagging of out-of-specification tape segments and, at a more advanced level, feedback control to the MOCVD process.