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Sample records for strait islander people

  1. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  2. Essential service standards for equitable national cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute the largest cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and remain the primary contributor to life expectancy differentials between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians. As such, CVD remains the most critical target for reducing the life expectancy gap. The Essential Service Standards for Equitable National Cardiovascular Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (ESSENCE) outline elements of care that are necessary to reduce disparity in access and outcomes for five critical cardiovascular conditions. The ESSENCE approach builds a foundation on which the gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians can be reduced. The standards purposefully focus on the prevention and management of CVD extending across the continuum of risk and disease. Each of the agreed essential service standards are presented alongside the most critical targets for policy development and health system reform aimed at mitigating population disparity in CVD and related conditions.

  3. Consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Colonial Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2015-01-01

    In Australian early years education, consultation and partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are central to embedding Indigenous perspectives. Building sustained and reciprocal partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people supports access to local knowledges and perspectives to inform curriculum planning,…

  4. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  5. A snapshot of physical activity programs targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Macniven, Rona; Elwell, Michelle; Ride, Kathy; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2017-01-19

    Issue addressed: Participation in physical activity programs can be an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease risk factors and improve broader social outcomes. Health and social outcomes are worse among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders than non-Indigenous Australians, who represent an important group for culturally specific programs. The extent of current practice in physical activity programs is largely unknown. This study identifies such programs targeting this population group and describes their characteristics.Methods: Bibliographic and Internet searches and snowball sampling identified eligible programs operating between 2012 and 2015 in Australia (phase 1). Program coordinators were contacted to verify sourced information (phase 2). Descriptive characteristics were documented for each program.Results: A total of 110 programs were identified across urban, rural and remote locations within all states and territories. Only 11 programs were located through bibliographic sources; the remainder through Internet searches. The programs aimed to influence physical activity for health or broader social outcomes. Sixty five took place in community settings and most involved multiple sectors such as sport, health and education. Almost all were free for participants and involved Indigenous stakeholders. The majority received Government funding and had commenced within the last decade. More than 20 programs reached over 1000 people each; 14 reached 0-100 participants. Most included process or impact evaluation indicators, typically reflecting their aims.Conclusion: This snapshot provides a comprehensive description of current physical activity program provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people across Australia. The majority of programs were only identified through the grey literature. Many programs collect evaluation data, yet this is underrepresented in academic literature.So what?: Capturing current practice can inform future efforts to

  6. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-12-31

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged<5 years--over 100 times more common than in other children--compared to none in 2006/07–2009/10. With respect to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), there has been a reduction of 87% in notifications of IPD caused by serotypes contained in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) since the introduction of the childhood 7vPCV program among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. However, due to a lower proportion of IPD caused by 7vPCV types prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant

  7. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  8. Macrovascular disease risk factors and insulin resistance in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Kerin; Rowley, Kevin G

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that insulin resistance (IR) underlies a cluster of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors constituting a "metabolic syndrome." CVD is a leading cause of premature mortality among indigenous Australians. In a group of younger (15-44 years, fasting glucose <7.8 mmol/l) Aboriginal (n=643) and Torres Strait Islander (n=220) people participating in community-based risk factor surveys, we identified high prevalences of metabolic syndrome components: glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and IR. There were inconsistent associations of IR with other risk factors, and the data do not support a direct causal relationship between insulin and other metabolic variables. Rather, metabolic syndrome components may arise from social and environmental factors interacting with behavioural and biochemical factors in individuals.

  9. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  10. Guide to Success for Organisations in Achieving Employment Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddy, Kristine; Lopez, Jessica; Redman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander job-seekers find and keep a job has been the focus of recent reforms announced by the Australian Government. This guide describes seven essential characteristics of employment service organisations that lead to successful employment outcomes for their Indigenous clients. Based on a selection of…

  11. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2015-05-14

    Purpose . To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Design . The study used a prospective intervention design. Setting . The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Subjects . Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. Intervention . A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Measures . Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. Analysis . The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results . Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. Conclusions . The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults.

  12. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  13. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  14. Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access. PMID:23327694

  15. Making every Australian count: challenges for the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and the equal inclusion of homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with neurocognitive disability.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Clare; White, Paul; Cullen, Jennifer; Wright, Courtney J; Zeeman, Heidi

    2017-03-30

    This article highlights the dearth of accurate evidence available to inform the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) regarding the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Without accurate prevalence rates of neurocognitive disability, homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are in danger of not being counted by the NDIS and not receiving supports to which they are entitled. Addressing this knowledge gap is challenged by a range of factors, including: (1) the long-term effect of profound intergenerational disenfranchisement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; (2) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural perspectives around disability; (3) the generally unrecognised and poorly understood nature of neurocognitive disability; (4) the use of research methods that are not culturally safe; (5) research logistics; and (6) the absence of culturally appropriate assessment tools to identify prevalence. It is argued that an accurate evidence base that is informed by culturally safe research methods and assessment tools is needed to accurately guide the Commonwealth government and the National Disability Insurance Agency about the expected level of need for the NDIS. Research within this framework will contribute to the realisation of a truly inclusive NDIS.

  16. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Simon; Harrod, Mary-Ellen; Iversen, Jenny; Simone Hocking, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia. Evidence Acquisition We searched the databases: Pubmed, Web of Science and Informit, and the New South Wales and Northern Territory Public Health Bulletins. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people testing positive for anti-HCV and the number tested for anti-HCV. A meta-analysis by population-group was conducted if three or more studies reported a prevalence estimate. Variables included: author, year of publication, study design, study period, gender (female, male), age, population group (Aboriginal people in prison, Aboriginal people who inject drugs), number testing anti-HCV positive, number tested for anti-HCV and prevalence (%). Due to a long time period, we separated the studies estimating the prevalence anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in prison into two time periods, 1994 - 2004 and 2005 - 2012. Results Overall, 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Among Aboriginal people in prison, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 18.1% (95%CI: 6.6 - 29.7). The pooled prevalence among Aboriginal people in prison was 25.7% (95%CI: 4.1-47.3) in studies published between 1994 - 2004 and 14.5% (95%CI: 1.7 - 27.3) in studies published from 2005 - 2012. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 58.7% (95%CI: 53.9 - 63.5) among Aboriginal people who inject drugs and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.30 - 6.1) among Aboriginal people who did not inject drugs, however there was

  17. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1) ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2) kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still constructed as ‘non-ideal users

  18. Hemostatic factors in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaimin; Rowley, Kevin; Best, James; McDermott, Robyn; Taylor, Michael; O'Dea, Kerin

    2007-05-01

    Hemostatic processes are important in precipitating myocardial infarction and stroke. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the results of previous studies on the association of plasma factor VIIc activity with CVD and diabetes have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to explore the association of plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc to clinical characteristics and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cross-sectional surveys of Australian Aboriginal people (n = 852) and Torres Strait Islanders (n = 276) aged 15 years and older were conducted from 1993 to 1995. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, fasting plasma fibrinogen, factor VIIc, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were measured. Levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence interval) for Aboriginal (3.52, 3.44-3.59 g/L) and Torres Strait Islander people (3.62, 3.49-3.75 g/L) were higher compared with previous reports from other populations. Factor VIIc (mean, 95% confidence interval) was especially high in Torres Strait Islanders (116%, 111%-122%) compared with Aboriginal people (99%, 97%-102%). Fibrinogen increased with age in both ethnic groups and sexes. Fibrinogen was independently associated with female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes, whereas the independent predictors for factor VIIc were Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, and total cholesterol. Average fibrinogen levels were high (>3.5 mg/dL) even for people considered "below average risk of coronary heart disease" according to conventional risk factor levels. For Aboriginal women, levels of fibrinogen and factor VIIc were significantly higher for persons at high risk than those at below average risk. The data suggest that plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc might

  19. Managing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    van Gaans, D.; Ahmed, S.; D’Onise, K.; Taylor, S. M.; McDermott, R.

    2016-01-01

    Good quality data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are needed to assess the effectiveness of programs and interventions, and to evaluate policies that are designed to improve the status of, and service delivery to, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Due to the lack of longitudinal data it is difficult to gain knowledge on the specific causes or consequences of changes in indigenous outcomes. Variables such as name, date of birth and address for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders may be subject to more variation and be less consistently reported than other Australians. Improving the collection and management of key identifying variables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are key to providing more quality information on this population group. PMID:28210423

  20. The Education of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: Repair or Radical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Australia's indigenous population is made up of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, who each have distinctly different cultures. The former can be found in cities and towns and cross the vast reaches of rural and remote Australia; the latter inhabit the coastal islands off the northeast coast and adjacent mainland areas. According to…

  1. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  2. An innovative nurse education program in the Torres Strait Islands.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Lindsay, David; Mackay, Wendy

    2005-08-01

    As the most numerous and geographically dispersed professional group, registered nurses in Australia work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers and other members of the multidisciplinary team in a variety of practice contexts to provide health care to Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. Despite the introduction of a variety of recruitment and proactive support strategies by employers, universities and State and Commonwealth governments, few Indigenous people in Australia enrol in, and graduate from, entry level higher education courses in the health professions. The reasons for this are complex and, as yet, not well understood or described; however, it is clear that the well-documented execrable health status of Indigenous Australians demands a response from universities, which are largely responsible for the education of health professionals. An innovative model of registered nurse education in the Torres Strait region of Australia is reported in this paper. A satellite campus established by James Cook University (JCU) on Thursday Island delivers the undergraduate nursing course by mixed mode, supplemented by specific strategies designed to improve Indigenous student recruitment and retention and thus increase the likelihood of graduation. The course and the strategies implemented are discussed in this paper.

  3. Getting it Right: study protocol to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a culturally-specific measure to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Maree L; Farnbach, Sara; Glozier, Nick; Skinner, Timothy; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Askew, Deborah; Gee, Graham; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A freely available, culturally valid depression screening tool is required for use by primary care services across Australia to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander populations. This is the protocol for a study aiming to determine the validity, sensitivity and specificity of the culturally adapted 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (aPHQ-9). Methods and analysis Cross-sectional validation study. A total of 500 people who self-identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, are ≥18 years of age, attending 1 of 10 primary healthcare services or service events across Australia and able to communicate sufficiently to answer study questions will be recruited. All participants will complete the aPHQ-9 and the criterion standard MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 6.0.0. The primary outcome is the criterion validity of the aPHQ-9. Process outcomes related to acceptability and feasibility of the aPHQ-9 will be analysed only if the measure is found to be valid. Ethics and dissemination Lead ethical approval was obtained jointly from the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (project 2014/361) and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (project 1044/14). Results will be disseminated via the usual scientific forums, including peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international conferences following presentation to, discussion with and approval by participating primary healthcare service staff and community. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000705684. PMID:27927669

  4. Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…

  5. Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander patients in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Trout, M I; Henson, G; Senthuran, S

    2015-03-01

    A retrospective cohort analysis of an admission database for the intensive care unit at The Townsville Hospital was undertaken to describe the characteristics and short-term outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. The Townsville Hospital is the tertiary referral centre for Northern Queensland and services a region in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people constitute 9.6% of the population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients were significantly younger and had higher rates of invasive mechanical ventilation, emergency admissions and transfers from another hospital. Despite these factors, intensive care mortality did not differ between groups (9.4% versus 7.7%, P=0.1). Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III-j scores were noted in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population requiring emergency admission (65 versus 60, P=0.022) but were lower for elective admission (38 versus 42, P <0.001). Despite higher predicted hospital mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring emergency admission, no significant difference was observed (20.1% versus 19.1%, P=0.656). In a severity adjusted model, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status did not statistically significantly alter the risk of death (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.65, 1.2, P=0.398). Though Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring intensive care differed in admission characteristics, mortality was comparable to other critically ill patients.

  6. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  7. Kapua Gutchen: Educator, Mentor and Innovator of Torres Strait Islander Music, Dance and Language at Erub (Darnley Island), Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, Lyn; Neuenfeldt, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of local community members to Indigenous education can be an important component in curriculum programs. This article explores the contributions of one such dedicated and talented Torres Strait Islander community member: Meuram tribal elder Kapua Gutchen. He teaches at the Erub (Darnley Island) Campus of Tagai College in the…

  8. Torres strait islanders and Australian nationhood: Some educational perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    This article analyses the role of education in incorporating Australia's Melanesian minority, the Torres Strait Islanders, into the Australian nation. The analysis begins with the introduction of Queensland government schooling into Torres Strait in 1892, which fostered expectations of Queensland citizenship and employment opportunities available to other races in the economy of the Strait. From 1904 to the outbreak of world war II in the Pacific in 1942 these early directions were altered by educational policies which initially sought to train Islanders for a life in the Islands as a "race apart" from the rest of Australia. Subsequent syllabus reforms, paralleling but not equalling regular schooling offered in Queensland, did not meet Islanders' aspirations for "proper schooling" and the jobs they expected would flow from it. Following world war II, regulations confining Islanders to the Strait were relaxed and many migrated to the Queensland mainland in search of better jobs, better pay, and better education for their children. Those who remained in the Islands received an education which, by 1985, had been brought up to the mainland standard. Yet, neither group's educational aspirations were satisfied despite initiatives and financial incentives of the Commonwealth government aimed at keeping Islander children at school. The article concludes that the way ahead for Islanders in staking out their educational future in the Australian nation on a basis of equality with other Australians lies in educational developments in the Islands themselves, where Islanders are playing an active role in developing, managing, and guiding schooling in directions which recognise their identity and their citizenship aspirations.

  9. Depression and diabetes in the remote Torres Strait Islands.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sean; McDermott, Robyn; Thompson, Fintan; Usher, Kim

    2016-07-20

    Issue addressed: Diabetes is associated with significant depression, which can result in poorer clinical outcomes, including increased mortality. Little is known about the prevalence of depression among Torres Strait Islander adults with diabetes.Methods: Self-reported depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 translated into Torres Strait Creole, and associations with socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical indicators in Torres Strait Islander adults with diabetes in five remote Torres Strait Islands were examined.Results: Seventy-three men and 115 women completed interviews. The median PHQ-9 score was 5.5 (IQR 0-7); 42% of respondents scored 0-4 (none-minimal), 46% scored 5-9 (mild) and 12% scored 10+ (moderate-severe). Mean HbA1c was 8.3% (67.4mmol). HbA1c was not related to PHQ-9 scores (β=0.20, P=0.323), however exercise in hours (β=-0.34, P<0.001) and screen time in hours (β=0.11, P<0.001) were significant predictors of depression after adjusting for other study variables.Conclusions: This sample of remote living Torres Strait Islanders reported relatively low rates of depression compared with national samples, and depression was not related to glycaemic control. Exercise and screen time were the strongest predictors of depression based on PHQ-9 scores. This represents an opportunity for health promotion.So what?: These findings provide an indication of the health impact of physical activity in rural and remote communities. Local health and education services, councils and sporting bodies should work collaboratively to promote sustainable physical activity programs.

  10. Making tuba in the Torres Strait Islands: the cultural diffusion and geographic mobility of an alcoholic drink.

    PubMed

    Brady, Maggie; McGrath, Vic

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively scant evidence of the Indigenous production and consumption of intoxicating drinks on the Australian mainland prior to the arrival of outsiders. Although Australian Aboriginal peoples had mastered fermentation in some regions, the Indigenous manufacture of much stronger drinks by distillation was unknown on the Australian mainland. However, following contact with Pacific Island and Southeast Asian peoples in the 19th century, Islanders in the Torres Strait adopted techniques for fermenting and distilling what became a quasi-indigenous alcoholic drink known as tuba. This paper discusses the historical process of the diffusion of this substance as a result of labour migration and internationalisation in the Strait, and provides present-day accounts of tuba production from Torres Strait Islanders.

  11. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  12. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  13. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  14. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  15. New species of Nuuanu (Amphipoda: Nuuanuidae) from Norfolk Island, Torres Strait and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Bopiah, A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Nuuanu, N. quintalana sp. nov., N. stuckeyorun sp. nov. and N. titaseyi sp. nov. are described from Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean and the Torres Strait, Australia, respectively. There are currently 17 described species of Nuuanu with the genus distributed world-wide.

  16. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897

  17. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  18. Effective Teaching Practices for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Natalie J.; Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Osborne, Barry; Boon, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature pertaining to the teacher actions that influence Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander student learning outcomes. This review investigates two foci: the identification of teacher actions influencing learning outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students and the methodological…

  19. Improving the Participation and Engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Thi Kim Anh; Vitartas, Peter; Ambrose, Kurt; Millar, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Most Australian universities have among their goals to increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students at their institutions. In the Australian higher education context, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are seriously under-represented, particularly in business education compared to other disciplines. An…

  20. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. 117.169 Section 117.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  1. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  2. The Kuroshio bifurcation associated with islands at the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruili; Wang, Guihua; Chen, Changlin

    2016-06-01

    Based upon a suite of satellite and hydrology data along with numerical model simulations, the Kuroshio is found to be separated into two branches. The two branches are located on the western and eastern sides of the Batanes Islands. The western branch, which is the main branch of the Kuroshio, is estimated to carry roughly 68% of the transport, while the eastern branch, which has not been reported before, carries the remainder. Both branches bring warmer water northward, producing two separate warm tongues east of the Luzon Strait. The western warm tongue has an obvious seasonal variation due to the seasonal variation of the Kuroshio in the northern Luzon Strait, while the eastern warm tongue is associated with Pacific mesoscale eddies. As an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) eddy approaches the Batanes Islands from the east, the eastern branch of the Kuroshio is strongly intensified (weakened), and a more (less) pronounced warm tongue is induced. Consequently, interannual variability of Pacific mesoscale eddies affects the strength of the eastern branch.

  3. Driver licensing: descriptive epidemiology of a social determinant of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Helps, Yvonne; Senserrick, Teresa; Byrne, Jake; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Daniels, John; Harrison, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Education, employment and equitable access to services are commonly accepted as important underlying social determinants of health. For most Australians, access to health, education and other services is facilitated by private transport and a driver licence. This study aimed to examine licensing rates and predictors of licensing in a sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, as these have previously been poorly described. Methods: Interviewer‐administered surveys were conducted with 625 people 16 years or older in four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales and South Australia over a two‐week period in 2012–2013. Results: Licensing rates varied from 51% to 77% by site. Compared to not having a licence, having a driver licence was significantly associated with higher odds of full‐time employment (adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 2.5–6.3) and educational attainment (adjusted OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.2–2.8 for trade or certificate; adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.6–9.5 for degree qualification). Conclusions: Variation in driver licensing rates suggests different yet pervasive barriers to access. There is a strong association between driver licensing, education and employment. Implications: Licensing inequality has far‐reaching impacts on the broader health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, reinforcing the need for appropriate and accessible pathways to achieving and maintaining driver licensing. PMID:27481274

  4. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-01-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  5. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  6. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  7. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  8. Introducing Torres Strait Island Dance to the Australian High School Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out within the context of a requirement for every Australian Capital Territory Education and Training Directorate (ACT ETD) high school to include Indigenous perspectives across all areas of the curriculum. For the first time ever in the case study school reported in this article, two Torres Strait Island dances were taught…

  9. Contextualising the Teaching and Learning of Measurement within Torres Strait Islander Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Bronwyn; Cooper, Thomas J.; Baturo, Annette R.; Matthews, Chris; Sun, Huayu

    2010-01-01

    A one-year mathematics project that focused on measurement was conducted with six Torres Strait Islander schools and communities. Its key focus was to contextualise the teaching and learning of measurement within the students' culture, communities and home languages. Six teachers and two teacher aides participated in the project. This paper…

  10. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  11. A Profile of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Higher Education Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Judith; Wilson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together recent statistics relating to the participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education. A number of key statistical realities relating to their enrolment into, retention during, and completion of, their university courses are depicted. Foremost among these realities is that despite…

  12. Evaluation of the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module.

    PubMed

    Tsey, Komla; Chigeza, Philemon; Holden, Carol A; Bulman, Jack; Gruis, Hilton; Wenitong, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module. Although men experience higher levels of illness and die younger than women, educational programs to support health workers utilise a gender-based approach to increase participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in health care are rare and lack appropriate content. Recognising this gap in service provision, and under the guidance of a Reference Group comprising community leaders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait male health, a comprehensive and culturally appropriate Male Health Module has been developed to enhance the capacity of health workers to improve access to services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males. Methods used were: in-depth interviews with Module developers, pilot workshops for trainers and health workers, questionnaires and focus group discussions with workshop participants, and participant observations. As well as enhancing capacity to facilitate access to health services for men, the Module was deemed relevant because of its potential to promote health worker empowerment and wellbeing. Findings revealed that improving access to services for men required male and female health workers working in partnership. Despite overall enthusiasm for the Module, the findings also revealed deep fear that it would end up 'collecting dust on shelves'. Strategies to improve the Module quality and accessibility are highlighted.

  13. A strategy for translating evidence into policy and practice to close the gap - developing essential service standards for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    The development and application of essential standards for cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people creates a strategic platform on which to systematically close the gap in the health outcomes and life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people in Australia. We outline six developmental stages that can be used to enhance the effective translation of evidence into practice that reduces life expectancy differentials. Focussing efforts where the biggest gain can be made; considering how to make a policy-relevant difference with an emphasis on translation into policy and practice; establishing a foundation for action by engaging with stakeholders throughout the process; developing a framework to guide action; drafting policy-relevant and framework-appropriate essential service standards; and defining standards that help policy decision makers achieve current priority policy targets.

  14. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  17. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  18. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  1. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  2. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  4. Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

  5. Adha Gara Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Rod; Kennedy, Judy

    This series of articles, focusing on the Western Torres Strait Islander people, presents the following: "A Brief Introduction to Torres Strait Culture" (Rod Kennedy); "Some Guidelines for Relating to Torres Strait Islanders" (Rod Kennedy); "One Mouth Two Hands" (Rod Kennedy); "My Trading Friend in the Village of…

  6. Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region. PMID:23698533

  7. Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J; Warner, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region.

  8. Two-stage opening of the Dover Strait and the origin of island Britain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Collier, Jenny S; Garcia-Moreno, David; Oggioni, Francesca; Trentesaux, Alain; Vanneste, Kris; De Batist, Marc; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Potter, Graeme; Van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte; Arthur, John C R

    2017-04-04

    Late Quaternary separation of Britain from mainland Europe is considered to be a consequence of spillover of a large proglacial lake in the Southern North Sea basin. Lake spillover is inferred to have caused breaching of a rock ridge at the Dover Strait, although this hypothesis remains untested. Here we show that opening of the Strait involved at least two major episodes of erosion. Sub-bottom records reveal a remarkable set of sediment-infilled depressions that are deeply incised into bedrock that we interpret as giant plunge pools. These support a model of initial erosion of the Dover Strait by lake overspill, plunge pool erosion by waterfalls and subsequent dam breaching. Cross-cutting of these landforms by a prominent bedrock-eroded valley that is characterized by features associated with catastrophic flooding indicates final breaching of the Strait by high-magnitude flows. These events set-up conditions for island Britain during sea-level highstands and caused large-scale re-routing of NW European drainage.

  9. The Prospects for Using Little Diomede Island as a Base for Monitoring Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Kelly, V.; Codispoti, L. A.; Sheffield, G.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Diomede, Alaska is arguably the most isolated community in the United States, located on a small island in the center of Bering Strait, one mile from the international dateline, where nutrient-rich waters from the Bering Sea enter the Arctic Ocean. Postal service is once weekly via helicopter, weather permitting and the 140 Native Inupiat residents (2000 census) are highly dependent upon a subsistence lifestyle utilizing local seabirds, marine mammals, and shellfish. Since the summer of 2000, we have worked with the local community to improve analytical capabilities to analyze waters flowing through the Bering Strait. Other goals of the Bering Strait Environmental Observatory include evaluating the biological health and contaminant burdens of marine mammals used for subsistence by island residents. We have also been annually using the Canadian Coast Guard Service Sir Wilfrid Laurier to assess the biological productivity of benthic organisms that are important as food sources in the Bering Strait region for apex predators such as bearded seal, walrus, diving ducks and gray whale. Future infrastructure that is needed includes a subsea water intake system that would be less vulnerable to wave and ice damage than the interim systems we have employed to date. Using a jet well pump in August, 2001, we pumped water onshore through a thermosalinograph, automated nutrient monitoring devices, a fluorometer, and we also collected discrete samples for silica and oxyen-18/oxygen-16 ratios in a small laboratory constructed under the village school. Results indicate that there is a strong relationship between the surface wind regime and the fertility of waters flowing through the center of Bering Strait. Following sustained northerly wind events, and an approximate 72 hour lag period, waters passing Little Diomede Island were predominantly of Alaska Coastal Water origin, with low nutrients and salinity, and comparatively high temperatures. Southerly winds were by contrast

  10. Influence of island chains on the Kuroshio intrusion in the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhida; Liu, Hailong; Lin, Pengfei; Hu, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    By applying a global high-resolution (0.1°) OGCM, the influence of the island chains in the Luzon Strait (LS) on the Kuroshio intrusion is studied systematically. The island chains in the LS are separated into three parts: the south island chain, the middle and north island chain, and Babuyan Island. One control and three sensitivity experiments are conducted by adding these three parts of the topography gradually. From comparisons of the circulation, temperature, and salinity structures, it is found that the south island chain decreases the westward bending of the main Kuroshio path, the middle and north island chain increases the westward bending, and Babuyan Island also increases the westward bending. These results are extremely clear in winter. Dynamic diagnoses suggest that the westward bending increases with an increase in the incidence angle of the Kuroshio and an increase in the Kuroshio east branch transport. Moreover, the middle and north island chain can split the Kuroshio into two parts, the Kuroshio west and east branches, which can be seen clearly in the satellite altimeter maps.

  11. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  12. So far, so good: Maintenance of prevention is required to stem HIV incidence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Costello-Czok, Michael; Willis, Jon; Saunders, Mark; Shannon, Cindy

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous people globally remain resilient yet vulnerable to the threats of HIV. Although Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience the worst health status of any identifiable group in Australia, with a standardized morbidity rate three times that of non-Indigenous Australians, the Australian response to HIV has resulted in relatively low and stable rates of HIV infection among Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper examines the reasons for the success of HIV prevention efforts. These include early recognition by Indigenous peoples of the potential effect that HIV could have on their communities; the supply of health hardware (needle and syringe programs and condoms); the development and implementation of culturally-appropriate health promotion messages such as the internationally-recognized Condoman campaign; the inclusion of dedicated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Sexual Health Workers in communities; and an inclusive policy and partnership approach. Furthermore, the efforts of peak Aboriginal health organizations including NACCHO and its member services and Indigenous programs in peak mainstream organizations like AFAO and its member organizations, have all contributed to prevention success. Efforts need to be maintained however to ensure an escalated epidemic does not occur, particularly among heterosexual people, especially women, and people who inject drugs. New ideas are required as we enter a new era of HIV prevention within the context of the new paradigm of treatment as prevention, and getting to zero new infections.

  13. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  14. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID

  15. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups:…

  16. Transformation of tsunami waves passing through the Straits of the Kuril Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostenko, Irina; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Pacific ocean and themselves Kuril Islands are located in the zone of high seismic activity, where underwater earthquakes cause tsunamis. They propagate across Pacific ocean and penetrates into the Okhotsk sea. It is natural to expect that the Kuril Islands reflect the Okhotsk sea from the Pacific tsunami waves. It has long been noted that the historical tsunami appeared less intense in the sea of Okhotsk in comparison with the Pacific coast of the Kuril Islands. Despite the fact that in the area of the Kuril Islands and in the Pacific ocean earthquakes with magnitude more than 8 occur, in the entire history of observations on the Okhotsk sea coast catastrophic tsunami was not registered. The study of the peculiarities of the propagation of historical and hypothetical tsunami in the North-Eastern part of the Pacific ocean was carried out in order to identify level of effect of the Kuril Islands and Straits on them. Tsunami sources were located in the Okhotsk sea and in the Pacific ocean. For this purpose, we performed a series of computational experiments using two bathymetries: 1) with use Kuril Islands; 2) without Kuril Islands. Magnitude and intensity of the tsunami, obtained during numerical simulation of height, were analyzed. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Numerical experiments have shown that in the simulation without the Kuril Islands tsunamis in the Okhotsk sea have higher waves, and in the Central part of the sea relatively quickly damped than in fact. Based on shallow-water equation tsunami numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.

  17. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  18. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  19. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  20. Assessment of circulation and inter-basin transport in the Salish Sea including Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Xu, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    The Salish Sea consisting of Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in U.S and Canadian waters has been the subject of several independent data collection and modeling studies. However, these interconnected basins and their hydrodynamic interactions have not received attention as a contiguous unit. The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the primary pathway through which Pacific Ocean water enters the Salish Sea but the role played by Johnstone Strait and the complex channels northeast of Vancouver Island, connecting the Salish Sea and the Pacific Ocean, on overall Salish Sea circulation has not been characterized. In this paper we present a modeling-based assessment of the two-layer circulation and transport through the multiple interconnected sub-basins within the Salish Sea including the effect of exchange via Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands. The Salish Sea Model previously developed using the finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was expanded over the continental shelf for this assessment encircling Vancouver Island, including Discovery Islands, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Archipelago and the associated waterways. A computational technique was developed to allow summation of volume fluxes across arbitrary transects through unstructured finite volume cells. Tidally averaged volume fluxes were computed at multiple transects. The results were used to validate the classic model of Circulation in Embracing Sills for Puget Sound and to provide quantitative estimates of the lateral distribution of tidally averaged transport through the system. Sensitivity tests with and without exchanges through Johnstone Strait demonstrate that it is a pathway for Georgia Basin runoff and Fraser River water to exit the Salish Sea and for Pacific Ocean inflow. However the relative impact of this exchange on circulation and flushing in Puget Sound Basin is small.

  1. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  2. Exploring potential dietary contributions including traditional seafood and other determinants of urinary cadmium levels among indigenous women of a Torres Strait Island (Australia).

    PubMed

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; McGrath, Victor; Moore, Michael; Satarug, Soisungwan; Walmby, Maria; Ng, Jack

    2007-05-01

    Indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands have been concerned about the safety of their traditional seafoods since the discovery of high cadmium levels in the liver and kidney of dugong and turtle in 1996. This study explored links between urinary cadmium levels and consumption frequency of these traditional foods and piloted a community-based methodology to identify potential determinants of cadmium exposure and accumulation. Consultations led to selection of one community for study from which 60 women aged 30 to 50 years participated in health and food frequency survey, urine collection and a routine health check. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry; data were analysed using SPSS-14. The geometric mean cadmium level in this group of women was 1.17 (arithmetic mean 1.86) microg/g creatinine with one-third exceeding 2.0 microg/g creatinine. Heavy smoking (>or=300 pack years) was linked to higher cadmium in urine, as was increasing age and waist circumference. Analysis of age-adjusted residuals revealed significant associations (P<0.05) between cadmium level and higher consumption of turtle liver and kidney, locally gathered clams, peanuts, coconut, chocolate and potato chips. Dugong kidney consumption approached significance (P=0.06). Multiple regression revealed that 40% (adjusted r(2)) of variation in cadmium level was explained by the sum of these associated foods plus heavy smoking, age and waist circumference. No relationships between cadmium and pregnancy history were found. This paper presents a novel approach to explore contributions of foods and other factors to exposure to toxins at community level and the first direct evidence that frequent turtle (and possibly dugong) liver and kidney and wild clam consumption is linked to higher urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islander women.

  3. Epistemological Considerations for Approaching Teaching in an On-Line Environment Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Teacher Education Program: Reconsidering TPACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Knight, Cecily; Lenoy, Max

    2015-01-01

    This research inquiry explores teacher educator knowledge, understandings and beliefs informing their teaching in a web-based Australian teacher education program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Through the use of a phenomenologically aligned interview process, the study investigates instructors' consideration of practice for…

  4. What's in a Name?: Exploring the Implications of Eurocentric (Re)naming Practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nomenclature in Australian Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weuffen, Sara; Cahir, Fred; Zeegers, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide teachers with knowledge of ways in which Eurocentric (re)naming practices inform contemporary pedagogical approaches, while providing understandings pertinent to the mandatory inclusion of the cross-curriculum priority area: "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures" (Australian…

  5. Best Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education. Proceedings of the Conference (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, November 17-18, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.

    Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu…

  6. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. 334.1200 Section 334.1200 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1200 Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly...

  7. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  8. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  9. Urinary excretion of cadmium among Torres Strait Islanders (Australia) at risk of elevated dietary exposure through traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Imray, Paula; Satarug, Soisungwan; Moore, Michael R; O'dea, Kerin

    2007-07-01

    This study explored urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islanders in response to concerns about potential health impact of high levels of cadmium in some traditional seafood (dugong and turtle liver and kidney). Cadmium levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry in de-identified urine samples collected during general screening programs in 1996 in two communities with varying dugong and turtle catch statistics. Statistical analysis was performed to identify links between cadmium levels and demographic and background health information. Geometric mean cadmium level among the sample group was 0.83 mug/g creatinine with 12% containing over 2 microg/g creatinine. Cadmium level was most strongly associated with age (46% of variation), followed by sex (females >males, 7%) and current smoking status (smokers >non-smokers, 4.7%). Adjusting model conditions suggested further positive associations between cadmium level and diabetes (p=0.05) and residence in the predicted higher exposure community (p=0.07). Positive correlations between cadmium and body fat in bivariate analysis were eliminated by control for age and sex. This study found only suggestive differences in cadmium levels between two communities with predicted variation in exposure from traditional foods. However, the data indicate that factors linked with higher cadmium accumulation overlap with those of renal disease risk (i.e. older, females, smokers, diabetes) and suggest that levels may be sufficient to contribute to renal pathology. More direct assessment of exposure and health risks of cadmium to Torres Strait Islanders is needed given the disproportionate level of diet-related disease and the cultural importance of dugong and turtle. This study highlights the need to consider social and cultural variation in exposure and to define "safe" cadmium levels during diabetes given its rising global prevalence.

  10. Kane Basin, Nares-Strait: Strike-slip induced sediment deformation along the coastline of Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Nares-Strait (NS), a seaway between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, is important to understand the plate tectonic history of the Arctic region. As it is clear that rifting and seafloor spreading took place between Greenland and Baffin Island, it is unclear how the extension was compensated between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Already Alfred Wegener suggested some kind of left lateral transform fault along the NS, a straight seaway separating the Greenland Plate from the North American Plate, nowadays proposed as the Wegener-Fault. Plate tectonic reconstruction models require a transform fault for the compensation of several hundred km of extension and seafloor spreading from Late Cretaceous to Eocene times. However, land geological data do not support this thesis and let assume that no lateral displacement occurred between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. With the formation of the recent Midatlantic Ridge System between Greenland and Europe since the early Eocene, the western branch became inactive and consequently the proposed transform fault, too. Northeast motion of Greenland replaced the left lateral transform and caused compression. The inactive transform fault was overprinted and as a consequence it was altered, probably displaced and is difficult to recognize. The Kane Basin is one of a series of basins that are aligned along the NS. It resembles probably a pull-apart basin following the approach that NS developed as transform fault. This paper presents insight into the Kane Basin by means of 2D seismic data, sonobuoy data, gravity and magnetic data acquired during surveys of BGR in 2001 and 2010. The eastern Kane Basin is characterized by a deeper rim and a more shallow central part. Most of it is floored by Proterozoic crust without any sediment on top of it. Only in the western part of the Kane Basin a sedimentary infill can be recorded which terminates with an erosional truncation on to the seafloor. Because of the mapped sediment and

  11. ‘Choice, culture and confidence’: key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

  12. Ellis Island and the Peopling of America: The Official Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia; Lightman, Marjorie

    This guide book helps to place the Ellis Island Museum (New York) and site within the context of the worldwide, continuing history of immigration. The guide views immigration as a continuing social process that brings people from one part of the world to another where they contribute the richness of their labor to their newly adopted home. Ethnic…

  13. Monitoring seabird populations in areas of oil and gas development on the Alaskan continental shelf: Foraging distribution and feeding ecology of seabirds at the Diomede Islands, bering strait. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.F.; Pinchuk, A.; Kitsiskiy, A.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    The distribution of zooplankton and seabirds in relation to oceanography in Bering Strait was investigated July 1-8, 1991. Seabirds were counted at the sea surface on 302 standardized shipboard transects. Zooplankton densities in various depth strata were measured acoustically during 287 seabird transects. Species composition was determined from 65 net-tows at 18 stations. Sea surface salinity and temperature were recorded continuously on transects, and CTD profiles of the water column were obtained at 70 stations. Millions of seabirds, mostly planktivorous Aethial auklets, breed on the Diomede islands in the center of Bering Strait. Three distinct water masses flow north through Bering Strait. East of the Diomedes is the Alaska Coastal Water. Least Auklets and ocean copepods were abundant in stratified Shelf Water and near upwelled Anadyr Water in western Bering Strait. It was concluded that physical processes in Bering Strait determine zooplankton availability to planktivores.

  14. Atmospheric and Oceanic Processes in the Vicinity of an Island Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    the uniquely wind-driven origin of the Philippine dipole eddies. By contrast, in other volcanic island regions of the world (including the Hawaiian...Aristegui, and F. Herrera. 2000. Lee region of Gran Canaria . Journal of Geophysical Research 105(C7):17,173–17,193. Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H...Gran Canaria ). Geophysical Research Letters 36, L14605, doi:10.1029/2008GL037010. Pullen, J., J.D. Doyle, P. May, C. Chavanne, P. Flament, and R.A

  15. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008–09: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Methods Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008–09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. Results More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35–44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. Conclusions These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public

  16. A network approach to policy framing: A case study of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jennifer; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Gleeson, Deborah; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal health policy in Australia represents a unique policy subsystem comprising a diverse network of Aboriginal-specific and "mainstream" organisations, often with competing interests. This paper describes the network structure of organisations attempting to influence national Aboriginal health policy and examines how the different subgroups within the network approached the policy discourse. Public submissions made as part of a policy development process for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan were analysed using a novel combination of network analysis and qualitative framing analysis. Other organisational actors in the network in each submission were identified, and relationships between them determined; these were used to generate a network map depicting the ties between actors. A qualitative framing analysis was undertaken, using inductive coding of the policy discourses in the submissions. The frames were overlaid with the network map to identify the relationship between the structure of the network and the way in which organisations framed Aboriginal health problems. Aboriginal organisations were central to the network and strongly connected with each other. The network consisted of several densely connected subgroups, whose central nodes were closely connected to one another. Each subgroup deployed a particular policy frame, with a frame of "system dysfunction" also adopted by all but one subgroup. Analysis of submissions revealed that many of the stakeholders in Aboriginal health policy actors are connected to one another. These connections help to drive the policy discourse. The combination of network and framing analysis illuminates competing interests within a network, and can assist advocacy organisations to identify which network members are most influential.

  17. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Plankton in Connected Waters of Bali Strait, Between Eastern Part of Java and Western Part of Bali Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, NTM; Wulandari, DY; Ayu, IP; Iswantari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Bali Strait waters located between Java and Bali Island contain high productivity, which indicated by the high diversity of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The purpose of the research was to understand the local (α), intra-space (β), and regional or total (Υ) diversity values (that expressed as richness) of plankton taken from surface and thermocline layers. The surface observation was carried out at three locations, two locations, with 5 stations of each, nearshore (Banyuwangi/Jawa Island and Southern part of Bali Island) and one location, with 9 stations, offshore (Bali Strait). The thermocline was observed offshore at all 9 stations as the surface. The diversity of each stations (α) were 11-20 for phytoplankton and 7-12 for zooplankton at the surface, then 9-11 and 7-13, respectively at the thermocline. The total diversity (Υ) of phytoplankton was 27 and 13 of zooplankton. Based on the β values, the plankton of nearshore were also found at offshore locations. Furthermore, some species of plankton at the surface were not found in thermocline layer. As a whole, phytoplankton and zooplankton were well distributed at the surface, but showed as specific distribution at thermocline layer, especially for phytoplankton.

  18. Coronary heart disease among Pacific Island people in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tukuitonga, C F; Stewart, A; Beaglehole, R

    1990-09-26

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in New Zealand. Death rates are higher among the Maori than the European population but rates have been declining in both groups over recent years. The occurrence of coronary heart disease among the Pacific Island population in New Zealand is unknown. Data from the National Health Statistics Centre (NHSC) and the Auckland coronary or stroke (ARCOS) study were used to describe the occurrence of coronary heart diseases among Pacific Island people. Age standardised mortality rates show that coronary heart disease is an important cause of death among Pacific Island men. Death rates have declined between 1973-77 and 1978-82 but this trend did not continue among men in the 1983-86 period. Age standardised mortality rates from coronary heart disease from the ARCOS data are 175/100,000 and 52/100,000 for Pacific Island men and women compared with 325/100,000 and 141/100,000 for Maori men and women. Age standardised rates for European men and women are 154/100,000 and 36/100,000 respectively.

  19. Changes in exposure to ‘life stressors’ in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Negative Life Events Scale (NLES) has been included in nationally representative surveys of the Indigenous and Australian population since 2002 as a measure of exposure to a range of ‘life stressors’. There has been limited reporting or analysis of estimates of the NLES from these surveys. This paper reports changes in exposure to stressors from 2002 to 2008 for the Indigenous population, and examines inter-relationships between eleven NLES items. Data for the 2006 Australian population is also included for comparative purposes. Methods Data from the 2002 and 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Surveys (NATSISS) and the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) were accessed from the Australia Bureau of Statistics in order to determine significant changes in exposure to stressors for the 2002 and 2008 Indigenous population by remoteness and to compare this with the 2006 Australian population. Factor analysis was used to assess the inter-relationships between stressors for the Indigenous and Australian population by remoteness. Results In remote locations, between 2002 and 2008, exposure to life stressors decreased significantly for the Indigenous population across seven of the eleven stressors. In non-remote locations, exposure to four of the stressors increased significantly. Exposure to stressors in the 2002 and 2008 non-remote Indigenous population were significantly higher than those for the 2006 Australian population for all items, except ‘alcohol and/or drug problems’ and ‘trouble with the police’, which showed no evidence of a difference. The factor analysis of the NLES for the 2002 and 2008 remote and non-remote Indigenous populations and the 2006 Australian population showed a consistent clustering of items into three groups: social transgressions; grief and trauma; and labour market stressors. Conclusions The reduction in exposure to life stressors for the remote Indigenous population may be related to policy and

  20. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    DOE PAGES

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearlymore » bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.« less

  1. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearly bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.

  2. DNA-based identifications reveal multiple introductions of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) into the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Blacket, M J; Rice, A D; Semeraro, L; Malipatil, M B

    2015-10-01

    Leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) can be serious economic pests of horticultural crops. Some genera such as Liriomyza are particularly problematic with numerous species, some of which are highly polyphagous (wide host range), which can only be confidently identified morphologically from adult males. In our study, DNA barcoding was employed to establish new locality records of the vegetable leafminer fly, Liriomyza sativae, from the islands of Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia) and the central highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). These records represent significant range extensions of this highly invasive plant pest. Specimens of immature leafminers (from leaf mines) were collected over a 5-year period during routine plant health surveys in ethanol or on FTA® filter paper cards, both methods proved effective at preserving and transporting insect DNA under tropical conditions, with FTA cards possessing some additional logistical benefits. Specimens were identified through sequencing two sections of the cytochrome oxidase I gene and the utility of each was assessed for the identification of species and intra-specific genetic lineages. Our study indicates that multiple haplotypes of L. sativae occur in PNG, while a different haplotype is present in the Torres Strait, with genetic regionalization between these areas apart from a single possible instance - one haplotype 'S.7' appears to be common between these two regions - interestingly this has also been the most common haplotype detected in previous studies of invasive L. sativae populations. The DNA barcoding methods employed here not only identified multiple introductions of L. sativae, but also appear generally applicable to the identification of other agromyzid leafminers (Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae) and should decrease the likelihood of potentially co-amplifying internal hymenopteran parasitoids. Currently, L. sativae is still not recorded from the Australian mainland; however, further sampling of

  3. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  4. Translating E-Mental Health Into Practice: What Are the Barriers and Enablers to E-Mental Health Implementation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Professionals?

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Judy; DuBois, Simon; Hyde, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Background With increasing evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions for enhancing mental health and well-being, a growing challenge is how to translate promising research findings into service delivery contexts. A 2012 e-mental health initiative by the Australian Federal Government (eMHPrac) has sought to address the issue through several strategies, one of which has been to train different health professional workforces in e-mental health (e-MH). Objective The aim of the study was to report on the barriers and enablers of e-MH uptake in a cohort of predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals (21 Indigenous, 5 non-Indigenous) who occupied mainly support or case management roles within their organizations. Methods A 3- or 2-day e-MH training program was followed by up to 5 consultation sessions (mean 2.4 sessions) provided by the 2 trainers. The trainer-consultants provided written reports on each of the 30 consultation sessions for 7 consultation groups. They were also interviewed as part of the study. The written reports and interview data were thematically analyzed by 2 members of the research team. Results Uptake of e-MH among the consultation group was moderate (22%-30% of participants). There were significant organizational barriers to uptake resulting from procedural and administrative problems, demanding workloads, prohibitive policies, and a lack of fit between the organizational culture and the introduction of new technologies. Personal barriers included participant beliefs about the applicability of e-MH to certain populations, and workers’ lack of confidence and skills. However, enthusiastic managers and tech-savvy champions could provide a counter-balance as organizational enablers of e-MH; and the consultation sessions themselves appear to have enhanced skills and confidence, shifted attitudes to new technologies, and seeded a perception that e-MH could be a valuable health education resource

  5. Bering Strait

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... west, the Bering Strait separates the United States and the Russian Federation by only 90 kilometers. It is named for Danish explorer Vitus ... the Alaskan mainland in 1741 while leading an expedition of Russian sailors. This view of the region was captured by the Multi-angle ...

  6. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.

    This book deals with the Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo language as spoken on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, an island near the Bering Strait and on the tip of the Asian mainland opposite Russia. This book has been used with college-level classes composed of a mixture of Yupik speakers and well-prepared non-speakers (people who have studied other,…

  7. Development of a Humane Slaughter Device for Green Turtles for Use by Traditional Owners in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C; Loban, Frank; Simpson, Tristan; Lui, Stan; Fujii, Ronald; Whap, Don; Flint, Jaylene B; Owen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities. Between 2012 and 2015, a device was developed, tested on 11 carcasses to determine effectiveness and repeatability, used on 5 anaesthetised animals independently diagnosed as candidates for euthanasia, and ultimately used on 2 healthy, conscious animals as part of normal indigenous community subsistence harvesting under observation before being left with the communities for use. Feedback was sought from the communities on the suitability and potential adoption of the device. The device effectively ablated the hind brain and severed the spinal cord when deployed in 81% (9/11) of the tested carcasses, with death in 100% (5/5) of turtles, on average, within 78 seconds of deployment on anaesthetised turtles and death in 100% (2/2) of turtles, on average, within 144 seconds when deployed on healthy turtles within community. Failure to ablate the hindbrain and sever the spinal cord in the cadaver cases was due to incorrect deployment of the device. This device showed promise as an alternative euthanasia method available to indigenous communities of the Torres Straits. Further work is required to encourage acceptance by hunters.

  8. Development of a Humane Slaughter Device for Green Turtles for Use by Traditional Owners in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C.; Loban, Frank; Simpson, Tristan; Lui, Stan; Fujii, Ronald; Whap, Don; Flint, Jaylene B.; Owen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities. Between 2012 and 2015, a device was developed, tested on 11 carcasses to determine effectiveness and repeatability, used on 5 anaesthetised animals independently diagnosed as candidates for euthanasia, and ultimately used on 2 healthy, conscious animals as part of normal indigenous community subsistence harvesting under observation before being left with the communities for use. Feedback was sought from the communities on the suitability and potential adoption of the device. The device effectively ablated the hind brain and severed the spinal cord when deployed in 81% (9/11) of the tested carcasses, with death in 100% (5/5) of turtles, on average, within 78 seconds of deployment on anaesthetised turtles and death in 100% (2/2) of turtles, on average, within 144 seconds when deployed on healthy turtles within community. Failure to ablate the hindbrain and sever the spinal cord in the cadaver cases was due to incorrect deployment of the device. This device showed promise as an alternative euthanasia method available to indigenous communities of the Torres Straits. Further work is required to encourage acceptance by hunters. PMID:28076432

  9. Quaternary sedimentation in Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Shelikof Strait, a nearly parallel-sided marine channel between the Kodiak island group and the Alaska Penninsula, has experienced a succession of distinct sedimentary environments during Quaternary time. Pleistocene glaciers carved a deep basin into bedrock in the southwest part of the strait and a shallower platform surface with incised channels in the northeast. The basin and channels were filled with glacial and glacialmarine sediment before and during the time that ice retreated and oceanic conditions returned. Restricted marine conditions prevailed in early Holocene time and sediment prograded transversely into the strait from the adjacent landmasses, with some localized dispersal to the deep, central strait. Onset of modern open-marine conditions commenced when regional currents breached the sill across Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances to combine with sediment-laden outflow from Cook Inlet and deposit a blanket of well-stratified sediment throughout the strait. ?? 1985.

  10. Indigenous Young People in the Juvenile Justice System: 2010-11. Bulletin No. 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kirsten; Schlumpp, Arianne

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are substantially over-represented in the juvenile justice system in Australia, and this over-representation is highest in the most serious processes and outcomes--particularly in detention. This bulletin examines the numbers and characteristics of Indigenous young people in the juvenile justice…

  11. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 34 by 59 km sub-scene, acquired on July 5, 2000, covers the eastern part of the Strait of Gibraltar, separating Spain from Morocco. The promontory on the eastern side of the conspicuous Spanish port is the Rock of Gibraltar. The Rock of Gibraltar was once one of the two classical Pillars of Hercules, crowned with silver columns by Phoenician mariners to mark the limits of safe navigation for the ancient Mediterranean peoples. The rocky promontory still commands the western entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, separated from North Africa only by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. A British colony, Gibraltar occupies a narrow strip of land at the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is separated from the Spanish mainland by a neutral zone contained on a narrow, sandy isthmus. The rocky limestone and shale ridge known as the Rock rises abruptly from the sea, to a maximum elevation of 426 meters (1,398 feet). Because of its strategic location and formidable topography, Gibraltar serves mainly as a British fortress. The Rock has traditionally been a symbol of British naval strength. Most of its sparse land is taken up by air and naval installations, and the civilian population is small. The image is centered at 36 degrees north latitude, 5.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. The net water circulation through Torres strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Thomas, Christopher; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The extensive existing data set on the oceanography of Torres Strait (separating Australia and Papua New Guinea) is reviewed and is used to show that the long-term east to west water flux through Torres Strait is about 0.04 Sv. To explain this finding, a high resolution, finite element, depth-integrated (2D) model of Torres Strait is set-up. The model is driven by the wind and the open boundary conditions that are prescribed in the Coral Sea, the northern Great Barrier Reef continental shelf, the Gulf of Papua, and the Gulf of Carpentaria. The latter/open boundary conditions were taken from field data. The model suggests that the wind alone over Torres Strait generates negligible net currents; the net currents are instead generated by the wind setting up a water slope across Torres Strait through its opposing influence on the mean sea levels in the Gulf of Carpentaria and in the Coral Sea. The model predicts that the long-term, net east-west flow through Torres Strait is small to negligible, in agreement with field data. The model also reveals that large scale flow dynamics are largely restricted to reef passages and open waters, and that areas of shallow waters and areas densely populated with reefs and islands are poorly flushed. Finally, the model also reveals the prevalence of highly energetic tidal flows around shoals, reefs, islands and reef passages, and these swift tidal currents are responsible for the small net flow through Torres Strait through the sticky water effect. These findings enable us to propose a general water circulation model for the whole Great Barrier Reef during southeast winds.

  13. Spatial Variation in Storm Surge in the Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontiens, N. K.; Allen, S. E.; Latornell, D.; Le Souef, K.; Machuca, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a strongly stratified, deep body of water located between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia and is connected to the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the south and Johnstone Strait to the north. It is on average 220 km in length and 30 km wide and its maximum depth is 420 m. During the winter months, coastal communities in the Strait of Georgia are at risk to flooding caused by storm surges, a natural hazard that occurs when a strong wind storm with low atmospheric pressure coincides with an unusually high tide. This study presents storm surge hindcasts of significant events between 2006 and 2009 using a numerical model of the Straits of Georgia, Juan de Fuca, Johnstone and Puget Sound (together the Salish Sea). The model is based on the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) in a regional configuration. Realistic stratification is produced by including input from the surrounding rivers. A discussion on the sensitivity of modelled surge amplitude to open boundary conditions and atmospheric forcing will be presented. As barotropic models have previously shown, the surge entering the domain from the Pacific Ocean contributes most significantly. Surge amplitudes are found to be greater within the Strait of Georgia than those in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Local wind patterns cause spatial variations in the strength of the surge in the Strait of Georgia, generally leading to stronger surges on the Mainland side of the Strait.

  14. What processes control the net currents through shallow straits? A review with application to the Bohai Strait, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Wolanski, Eric; Zhang, Hua

    2015-06-01

    We review the key processes controlling the net water circulation in shallow straits. The circulation is mainly barotropic, driven by the difference in mean sea level and tides on either side of the strait, the wind, the meandering of the currents in the adjoining seas, the bathymetry including the shape and width of the mouths and the presence of narrows, shoals, sills, islands, and lateral embayments. As the oceanography forcing can be non-synchronised on either side of the strait, the resulting net currents through the strait may appear chaotic. We apply these findings to the net circulation through the Bohai Strait in China using local wind, remote-sensing data of currents and sea level, and a hydrodynamic model. The net currents through the Bohai Strait were episodic. They were largest during winter storms when the wind generated a cyclonic coastal current in the northern Yellow Sea that flowed across the width of the Bohai Strait. Like the Luzon Strait, this current meandered and a branch of the current intruded into the northern Bohai Strait along the deeper channel. The wind set-up in the Bohai Sea and the wind-driven longshore current in the southern Bohai Sea generated a seaward flow through the southern Bohai Strait, somewhat like in Irbe Strait. As with the straits of the Seto Inland Sea, stagnation occurred in some embayments. As in the Torres Strait, the islands in the southern Bohai Strait retarded the net flow and increased the width of the outflow zone. These flows were also modulated at very long periods (∼60 days) by long waves in the Yellow Sea, possibly generated by meandering of the Kuroshio Current that created an additional sea level slope through the strait. The transit time in the Bohai Strait was 60 and 10 days, respectively, during calm weather and winter storms. The residence time in the Bohai Sea was estimated to be about 1.68 years by the LOICZ model and 1.56 years by the hydrodynamic model, and the influence of the river runoff

  15. Healthy People 2010 and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders: Defining a Baseline of Information

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chandak

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health lists 6 areas of disparity in minority health services: infant mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and immunizations. This study compiles existing Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) health data to establish a baseline. Methods. For federally-sponsored research (1986–2000), the Computer Retrieval of Information on Specific Projects (CRISP) database was analyzed. AAPI initiatives were divided by subpopulation and disparity area. MEDLINE articles (1966–2000) were similarly scrutinized. Results. Few federal health-related grants (0.2%) and MEDLINE articles (0.01%) mention AAPIs. For the 6 disparity areas, significant AAPI data gaps remain. Conclusions. To reach the Healthy People 2010 goals and have useful data, researchers and grant makers must focus on obtaining baseline data for disaggregated AAPI subgroups. (Am J Public Health. 2003;93:2093–2098) PMID:14652340

  16. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar (36.0N, 5.5W), at the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, separates Europe and Africa. On the Spanish side of the strait, the port of Cadiz and the Rota Naval Base as well as the great Andalucian city of Seville can be seen. To the south in Morocco, the coastal cities of Tangier, Tetouan and Ceuta are easily seen.

  17. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from the south (36.0N, 5.5W). This scene shows the actual Rock of Gibraltar under cloud cover but most of the Strait of Gibraltar, at the mouth of the Mediterranaen Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, can be seen in good detail. Despite the obliquity of the scene, much of the beauty of the Spanish and Moroccan countryside can still be appreciated.

  18. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  2. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Gateway to the Atlantic, since ancient times the Strait of Gibraltar (36.5N, 4.5W) is also the border between Africa and Europe. In Spain to the north, the dark area near the coast is the delta of the Guadalquivir River and the city of Seville. The small spike of land on the north side of the strait is the actual Rock of Gibraltar. On the African side, a cloud front cutting across from the coast is blowing into Europe from Morocco and Algeria.

  3. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Gateway to the Atlantic, since ancient times the Strait of Gibraltar (36.5N, 4.5W) is also the border between Africa and Europe. In Spain to the north, the dark area near the coast is the delta of the Guadalquivir River and the city of Seville. The small spike of land on the north side of the strait is the actual Rock of Gibraltar. On the African side, the sharp line cutting across from the coast is dust cloud blowing into Europe from Algeria.

  4. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  5. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  6. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  7. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  8. Effects of tidal current phase at the junction of two straits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.; Schoellhamer, D.; Burau, J.; Schladow, G.

    2002-01-01

    Estuaries typically have a monotonic increase in salinity from freshwater at the head of the estuary to ocean water at the mouth, creating a consistent direction for the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. However, Mare Island Strait in San Francisco Bay has a local salinity minimum created by the phasing of the currents at the junction of Mare Island and Carquinez Straits. The salinity minimum creates converging baroclinic pressure gradients in Mare Island Strait. Equipment was deployed at four stations in the straits for 6 months from September 1997 to March 1998 to measure tidal variability of velocity, conductivity, temperature, depth, and suspended sediment concentration. Analysis of the measured time series shows that on a tidal time scale in Mare Island Strait, the landward and seaward baroclinic pressure gradients in the local salinity minimum interact with the barotropic gradient, creating regions of enhanced shear in the water column during the flood and reduced shear during the ebb. On a tidally averaged time scale, baroclinic pressure gradients converge on the tidally averaged salinity minimum and drive a converging near-bed and diverging surface current circulation pattern, forming a "baroclinic convergence zone" in Mare Island Strait. Historically large sedimentation rates in this area are attributed to the convergence zone. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. (a) A line drawn from...

  10. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. Objective This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. Results The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). Conclusions There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies

  11. Tide and tidal current observation in the Karimata Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Sulistiyo, Budi; Dwi Susanto, R.; Setiawan, Agus; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Qiao, Fangli; Fan, Bin; Li, Shujiang

    2013-04-01

    It is believed that the water exchanges between the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas are significant, and play an important role in the water mass formation and air-sea interactions of both the South China Sea and Indonesian Seas. It has also been found that the current in Sunda Strait has been obvious seasonal variation, which indicates the water exchange between West Indonesian Seas and India Ocean. In order to make quantitative evaluation of the magnitudes of the exchange, the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), China, the Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research, Indonesia, and the Lamont-Doheries Earth Observatory, USA established a collaborative program, "The South-China Sea-Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration" in 2006. And, they extend and expand the cooperation to Sunda Strait in 2008, the title of the collaborative program was changed to "The South China Sea - Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Dynamics of Sunda and Lombok Straits, and Their Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration". Till now, 12 joint cruises have been conducted since December, 2007. Ten Trawl-Resistant Bottom Mounts (TRBM) have been deployed in the Karimata and Sunda Straits. The TRBMs are equipped with ADCPs and tide gauges for measuring current profiles and sea levels, respectively. The temperature-salinity profiles were measured with ship-board CTD during the cruises. Data obtained in Karimata Strait revealed that a significant water mass transport. This indicates that the Karimata Strait throughflow can greatly impacts the circulation of both the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas. The data obtained at the 5 stations alone the two sections in the Karimata Strait were used to study the tide and tidal currents in the Karimata Strait. 2 TRBMs were deployed at Section A, as well as 3 at Section B, which lies at the southeast of Section A. Station B1 is in the Gaspar Strait between Bangka Island and Belitung Island, Stations

  12. Structures and sedimentary deposition in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilohadi, Susilohadi; Gaedicke, Christoph; Djajadihardja, Yusuf

    2009-03-01

    The Sunda Strait lies between the islands of Java and Sumatra and separates the nearly orthogonal subduction along the south of Java and oblique subduction beneath Sumatra. The Sumatra fault accommodating most of the trench parallel shear of the oblique subduction initiates in the Sunda Strait. This setting implies that the Sunda Strait is an attractive area to study the geodynamic evolution of the western Indonesian region. Thirteen multichannel seismic lines acquired in the Sunda Strait have allowed a detailed study of the structure, sedimentation patterns and volcanic activities that occurred in the Sunda Strait. The Sunda Strait evolution has been strongly tied with the development of the Sumatra fault in this area. The opening of the Sunda Strait initiated in the early Late Miocene following the commencement of the Sumatra fault system in the Middle Miocene. Since then, three major graben systems have been evolved, which are referred to as the West and East Semangko Grabens, and the Krakatau Graben. These graben systems can be regarded as pull-apart basins developed within the releasing fault overstep area in between the main strand of the Sumatra fault and its relay faults south off Ujung Kulon. Prior to the Late Miocene most of the Sunda Strait and the surroundings probably developed in a non-marine environment. In Late Miocene the Sunda Strait started to open and volcanism began and has been the main source of clastics. Three major sedimentary units can be identified which represent Late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments respectively. The Late Miocene unit has been developed in the shelfal area on top of the Middle Miocene unconformity following a relative rapid sea level rise, and a subsequent highstand prior to the sea level fall at the end of Miocene. Its lower part has syn-structurally been deposited into the Late Miocene basement block faulting. The early deposition of the Pliocene unit was in response to the Pliocene sea level rise and

  13. The Floating Forest: Traditional Knowledge and Use of Matupá Vegetation Islands by Riverine Peoples of the Central Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Carolina T.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Piedade, Maria T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape. PMID:25837281

  14. Hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer on Chongming Island, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Tu, J T; Gao, R N; Zhang, D H; Gu, B C

    1985-12-01

    Data on potential risk factors for primary liver cancer (PLC), including hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, contaminated drinking water, maize consumption, and use of tobacco and alcohol were collected from 12,222 males over 40 years of age living on Chongming Island, a high-risk area for PLC. During the first 3 years of follow-up (1980-82), 70 deaths from this disease occurred among study subjects. Preliminary results indicate that HBV carriers were 6.7 times more likely to die of PLC than were noncarriers (P less than .05). No association was found between PLC and alcohol consumption. More data are needed for evaluation of the relationships between cigarette smoking, maize consumption, contaminated drinking water, and PLC on Chongming Island.

  15. Globin genes in Micronesia: origins and affinities of Pacific Island peoples.

    PubMed Central

    O'Shaughnessy, D F; Hill, A V; Bowden, D K; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B

    1990-01-01

    DNA polymorphisms and copy-number variants of alpha-, zeta-, and gamma-globin genes have been studied in seven Micronesian island populations and have been compared with those in populations from Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Micronesians are not significantly different from Polynesians at these loci and appear to be intermediate between Southeast Asians and Melanesians. There is evidence of significant Melanesian input into the Micronesian gene pool and of substantial proto-Polynesian contact with Melanesia. PMID:1967206

  16. Fram Strait sea ice outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Pang, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize 24 years (1978??2) of ice export estimates and examine, over a 9-year record, the associated variability in the time-varying upward-looking sonar (ULS) thickness distributions of the Fram Strait.

  17. Conservation Status of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca, in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Esteban, R; Verborgh, P; Gauffier, P; Alarcón, D; Salazar-Sierra, J M; Giménez, J; Foote, A D; de Stephanis, R

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna. In summer, the whales were observed in the shallow central waters of the Strait. A relatively new feeding strategy has been observed among two of the five pods. These two pods interact with an artisanal drop-line fishery. Pods depredating the fishery had access to larger tuna in comparison with pods that were actively hunting. The Strait of Gibraltar killer whales are socially and ecologically different from individuals in the Canary Islands. Molecular genetic research has indicated that there is little or no female-mediated gene migration between these areas. Conservation threats include small population size, prey depletion, vessel traffic, and contaminants. We propose the declaration of the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales as an endangered subpopulation. A conservation plan to protect the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales is urgently needed, and we recommend implementation of a seasonal management area where activities producing underwater noise are restricted, and the promotion of bluefin tuna conservation.

  18. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  19. The vulnerability of the Strait of Georgia (Canada) to future hypoxia and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianson, Debby; Allen, Susan; Moore-Maley, Ben; Haigh, Rowan; Johannessen, Sophia; Macdonald, Robie; Krogh, Jeremy; Simpson, Eleanor; Kohfeld, Karen; Hamme, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Pacific coast is filled with fjords and islands. Circulation in the region is dynamic, so that large changes in acidity (pH) and oxygen may occur both in space and time. The Strait of Georgia (Canada) is a large (200 X 30 km) semi-enclosed basin, that has relatively low pH with respect to the adjacent outer coast and yet hosts a lucrative aquaculture industry. On the other hand this region is relatively well oxygenated due to gas exchange in the turbulent (tidal) flow in the narrow Straits with sills connecting it with the outer coast. We investigate the role that this intense gas exchange plays in protecting the Strait of Georgia from future hypoxia and ocean acidification. Finally, we contrast surface water properties (including dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity) measured on large ships with those measured nearshore and at shore-based aquaculture sites within the Strait.

  20. Two kinorhynch species (Cyclorhagida, Echinoderidae, Echinoderes) show different distribution patterns across Tsugaru Strait, Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Hiruta, Shimpei F; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Dick, Matthew H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the geographic population structures of two intertidal kinorhynch species, Echinoderes sensibilis and Echinoderes sp. A, in the vicinity of Tsugaru Strait between Honshu and Hokkaido Islands, Japan, to examine whether the distribution or connectivity of populations of either species has been constrained by the strait. For each species, we examined the geographic distribution of COI haplotypes, constructed a median-joining haplotype network, and calculated statistics of genetic variation and connectivity. Tsugaru Strait is the northern range limit for E. sensibilis, which comprises a large, evolutionarily stable metapopulation that appears to have undergone a reduction in size followed by expansion; connectivity is low among most local populations, including across Tsugaru Strait. A divergent haplotype lineage showing no variation occurred only at Horozuki, suggesting recent immigration there from outside the study area. Echinoderes sp. A underwent a severe population bottleneck followed by rapid expansion. It occurred at all sampling sites on both sides of the strait, with high connectivity between populations across the strait. There is a zone of secondary contact between moderately divergent, presumably previously allopatric lineages in eastern Hokkaido. Present-day conditions in the strait have existed only for the past 8000 years, and differences in these species' distributions and apparent connectivity across the strait may relate to conditions existing in the strait when the species underwent population expansions or shifts in range; these historical events were not necessarily concurrent between the species, and occurred more than 8000 years ago. We discuss dispersal mechanisms for kinorhynchs, which could include suspension transport or rafting.

  1. Freshwater exhange in the Sunda Strait estimated by Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, J. T.; Hacker, P. W.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific and Indian Oceans are connected at a low latitude via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Through direct observations it is now understood that approximately 10 to 15 Sv of water are transported from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. The implications of this transport, including impacts to water mass formation, heat and freshwater budgets and potential feedbacks to the atmosphere are still under investigation. One of the complexities in this region is the large number of smaller straits and passages between islands that may or may not play an important role in ITF processes. Many of these straits are more narrow than the typical resolution of ocean circulation models, and therefore are not properly simulated. For mass transport this is likely not an issue, since recent observations suggest that most of the mass transport flows via the Makassar Strait and then exits to the Indian Ocean via the Lombok, Ombai and Timor passages. This study, however, focuses on the fresh water transport between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean in particular via the Sunda Strait. There are very few direct observations of the upper ocean stratification in this region. Conversely, the recent launch of the Aquarius mission provides a unique opportunity to study the transport of fresh water, as indicated by sea surface salinity variability, between the Java Sea and the eastern Indian Ocean. Numerical model results, Argo measurements and Aquarius-derived sea surface salinity are used to examine the annual variability of fresh water exchange via the Sunda Strait. Model mass transport is typically low, averaging less than 1 Sv, but fresh water transport could have important implications for stratification along the Sumatra/Java southern coast and thus impact coastal wave propagation. The satellite derived sea surface salinity will be used to show the importance of seasonal variations in this region.

  2. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  3. EFFECTS OF TIDAL CURRENT PHASE AT THE JUNCTION OF TWO STRAITS. (R826940)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Estuaries typically have a monotonic increase in salinity from freshwater at the head of the estuary to ocean water at the mouth, creating a consistent direction for the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. However, Mare Island Strait in San Francisco Ba...

  4. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  5. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  6. Satellite estimate of freshwater exchange between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, James T.; Hacker, Peter W.; Melnichenko, Oleg; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    The straits in Indonesia allow for low-latitude exchange of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Collectively known as the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), this exchange is thought to occur primarily via the Makassar Strait and downstream via Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Timor Passage. The Sunda Strait, between the islands of Sumatra and Java, is a very narrow (≈10 km) and shallow (≈20 m) gap, but it connects the Java Sea directly to the Indian Ocean. Flow through this strait is presumed to be small, given the size of the passage; however, recent observations from the Aquarius satellite indicate periods of significant freshwater transport, suggesting the Sunda Strait may play a more important role in Pacific to Indian Ocean exchange. The nature of this exchange is short-duration (several days) bursts of freshwater injected into the eastern Indian Ocean superimposed on a mean seasonal cycle. The mean volume transport is small averaging about 0.1 Sv toward the Indian Ocean, but the freshwater transport is nonnegligible (estimated at 5.8 mSv). Transport through the strait is hydraulically controlled and directly correlates to the along-strait pressure difference. The episodic low-salinity plumes observed by Aquarius do not, however, appear to be forced by this same mechanism but are instead controlled by convergence of flow at the exit of the Strait in the Indian Ocean. Numerical model results show the fate of this freshwater plume varies with season and is either advected to the northwest along the coast of Sumatra or southerly into the ITF pathway.

  7. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  8. The Identification of Octocorals from the Northern Region of Straits of Malacca

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mahadi; Apandi, Zaharatul Naa’imah; Marican, Hana Abdul Wahab; Kamphol, Nadthikphorn; Mubin, Nur Ain Amani Abdul; Salleh, Sazlina; Ismail, Md Nizam

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the northern region of the Straits of Malacca have a diverse group of octocorals growing on its bed. The octocorals identified in this study are from islands along the Straits. In this study, 23 specimens were identified, belonging to 4 sub-orders, which have been subdivided into 8 families. From these 8 families, 15 different genera have been identified. The identification process for this research was conducted based on five important keys; the external form and colouration, polyps or colonial and fundamental structure of colonies, monomorphic or dimorphic, the arrangement of polyps, and the arrangement of sclerites. PMID:27965745

  9. Using paleolimnology to track the impacts of early Arctic peoples on freshwater ecosystems from southern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelutti, Neal; McCleary, Kathryn M.; Antoniades, Dermot; Sutherland, Patricia; Blais, Jules M.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2013-09-01

    Paleolimnological approaches can be used to determine the ways in which past Arctic peoples have affected the ecosystems in which they live, and simultaneously to reconstruct the climate and other aspects of the environment that may have influenced local populations. Here we analyze sediment cores from seven ponds on the south-western coast of Baffin Island, Nunavut, in order to assess the impacts of early Arctic peoples on freshwater ecosystems. Prior to the historic Inuit occupation, the study area was extensively inhabited by Thule culture Inuit (ca 1200-1600 AD) and by an earlier Arctic group, the Dorset culture Palaeo-Eskimos (ca 500 BC-1500 AD) and their predecessors from as early as 2500 BC. The study ponds were selected to cover a gradient of the intensity of human activity in their catchments. The ecological impacts of early hunting societies can be detected using paleolimnology because the butchering of marine mammals released nutrients that eutrophied nearby ponds and left distinct geochemical signals in the sediments. The degree of eutrophication in the small freshwater ponds depended on the length of the occupation, as well as the amount and type of marine mammals taken as primary prey items (eg, whales, walrus, or seals). All sediment cores were AMS 14C dated to establish their chronologies, and analyzed for diatoms and stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N). Both diatoms and sedimentary δ15N have been previously demonstrated to respond sensitively to nutrient enrichment from Inuit whalers. Our δ15N and diatom data record nutrient enrichment in lakes surrounded by either long-term Thule or Dorset settlements. The Dorset sites that were the locations of periodic seasonal gatherings did not register any evidence of eutrophication in the nearby ponds, reflecting the shorter, less intensive nature of these occupations. Similarly, nearby control ponds with no evidence of significant human activity in their catchments showed little-to-no changes in δ15N

  10. Bedform facies in western Torres Strait and the influence of hydrodynamics, coastal geometry, and sediment supply on their distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-04-01

    This study uses outputs from hydrodynamic and bedload transport models combined with satellite imagery, aerial photography, and bathymetric data to understand the distributions and mechanisms maintaining six spatially extensive bedform facies in western Torres Strait. Changes in bedform morphology occur along north-south variations in coastal geometry and east-west variations in hydrodynamic regime. Numerous islands create an environment that favours the formation of banner banks in the south, while other sandbank morphologies occur on an extensive and comparatively 'flat' basement to the north. The western side of Torres Strait experiences net bedload transport that is directed to the west throughout the year and favours the formation of bedforms that prefer unidirectional bedload transport regimes (i.e. barchan-shaped sandbanks and sand ribbons). The eastern side of the strait experiences seasonal changes in the direction of net bedload transport and maintains 'S' and 'V' shaped sandbanks. Sediment availability also influences the bedform facies. Western Torres Strait experiences net westward bedload transport through the Strait. However, sandbanks (indicating high sediment availability) are found in the central shallow and high current velocity areas, while sand ribbons (indicating low sediment availability) are a distal facies on the western side of the Strait. This sequence of bedforms indicates that sediments are preferentially trapped within the central portion of the Strait and not transported further west into the Gulf of Carpentaria.

  11. A history of the people of Bikini following nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: with recollections and views of elders of Bikini Atoll.

    PubMed

    Niedenthal, J

    1997-07-01

    The people of Bikini Atoll were moved from their homeland in 1946 to make way for the testing of 23 nuclear weapons by the United States government, beginning with the world's fourth atomic detonation. The subsequent half-century exodus of the Bikini people included a 2-y stay on Rongerik Atoll, where near starvation resulted, and a 6-mo sojourn on Kwajalein Atoll, where they lived in tents beside a runway used by the U.S. military. In 1948, they were finally relocated to Kili, a small, isolated, 200-acre island owned by the U.S. Trust Territory government. Numerous hardships have been faced there, not the least of which was the loss of skills required for self-sustenance. Located 425 miles south of Bikini, Kili Island is without a sheltered lagoon. Thus for six months of the year, fishing and sailing become futile endeavors. Because of the residual radioactive contamination from the nuclear testing, the majority of the Bikinian population still resides on Kili today. One attempt was made to resettle Bikini in the late 1960's when President Lyndon B. Johnson, on recommendations from the Atomic Energy Commission, declared Bikini Atoll safe for habitation. In 1978, however, it was discovered by the U.S. Department of Energy that in the span of only one year, some of the returned islanders were showing a 75% increase in their body burdens of 137Cs. In 1978, the people residing on Bikini were moved again, this time to a small island in Majuro Atoll. In the early 1980's, the Bikinians filed a class action lawsuit against the U.S. government for damages arising out of the nuclear testing program. Although the claim was dismissed, eventually a $90 million trust fund was established for their local government. Since then the leaders of the people of Bikini residing on Kili Island and Majuro Atoll have been confronted with the immense responsibility of determining how to clean their atoll while at the same time maintaining the health and welfare of their displaced

  12. Fram Strait sea ice outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Pang, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize 24 years of ice export estimates and examine, over a 9-year record, the associated variability in the time-varying upward-looking sonar (ULS) thickness distributions of the Fram Strait. A more thorough assessment of the PMW (passive microwave) ice motion with 5 years of synthetic aperture radar (SAR)observations shows the uncertainties to be consistent with that found by Kwok and Rothrock [1999], giving greater confidence to the record of ice flux calculations.

  13. Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    echo sounders (PIESs) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal interaction with topography in Luzon Strait (Fig. 1), and to...Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] (see Li et al. 2009). Five instruments were deployed in a pilot study and 13 were deployed at the...internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. Li Qiang & David M Farmer (2011), The Generation and

  14. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Social Justice Report, 1999. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, HREOC. Report to the Attorney-General as Required by Section 46C(1)(a) of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, William

    This report examines the disadvantaged and marginalized condition of the Indigenous peoples of Australia as a human rights issue, focusing on issues concerning Indigenous young people. Permeating the report is the idea that this disadvantage arises from a history of overt and structural discrimination and that special efforts and differential…

  16. Transport estimates in the Strait of Gibraltar with a tidal inverse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baschek, Burkard; Send, Uwe; Lafuente, Jesus Garcia; Candela, Julio

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the volume transport through the Strait of Gibraltar and to study the spatial structure of the time-variable flow, a varying number of current meter moorings were maintained at the eastern entrance of the strait between October 1994 and April 1998, and was complemented with intensive shipboard measurements during the European Union project Canary Island Azores Gibraltar Experiment (CANIGO). A tidal inverse model is used to merge these data sets in order to investigate the flow at the eastern entrance of the strait. The two-dimensional structure of the tidal flow was described by simple analytical functions. Harmonics with the seven most important tidal frequencies were used as temporal functions. With this model, the tidal currents can be predicted for any time and location at the eastern entrance of the strait, and more than 92% of the variance of the lower layer flow is explained. It was used to remove the tidal currents from the individual measurements and to calculate the mean flow through the strait from the residuals. Combined with a similar inverse model for determining the depth of the interface between Mediterranean and Atlantic water, the volume transport was estimated to be 0.81±0.07 Sv for the upper layer and -0.76±0.07 Sv for the lower layer. The correlation of the tidal currents and the fluctuations of the interface accounts for ˜7% of the transport at the eastern entrance.

  17. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  18. On Flow Variability in the Bosphorus Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-27

    Akten, 2003]. Hence, understanding of the flow dynamics in the Bosphorus is essential and appealing not only to marine scientists but also to...along-strait momentum balance is expressed as follows: du’ r drf rx -rr • T» ~ -«7 r at h ox pah (2) where u’ is the along-strait

  19. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  20. Genesis of the Coupling of Internal Wave Modes in the Strait of Messina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    can be encountered. It separates the Italian Peninsula from the island of Sicily and is a natural connection between the Tyrrhenian Sea in the north...water masses are encountered in the strait: the Tyrrhenian surface water and the colder and saltier Levantine Intermediate Water from the Ionian Sea ...southwards direction (w0.10 m s ’ time-averaged velocity) and a bottom current is flowing in the opposite direction towards the Tyrrhenian Sea (~0.13 m

  1. Genesis of the Coupling of Internal Wave Modes in the Strait of Messina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Tyrrhenian Sea (≈0.13 m s−1 time-averaged velocity). The Ionian water coming from the south is saltier and heavier, the relative density difference is of...strait with the tides of the adjacent seas . During maximum tidal flow from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Ionian Sea (rema scendente) and inversely (rema...many ocean features can be encountered. It separates the Italian Peninsula from the island of Sicily and is a natural connection between the Tyrrhenian

  2. Population subdivision of the tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, in Taiwan Strait.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Che; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Chen, Chang-Po

    2007-03-01

    The genetic structure of the Asian tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, was investigated in three populations of Taiwan Strait using mitochondrial (mt) AT-rich region DNA sequences. We examined 23 individuals from Kinmen, an island located on the western side of Taiwan Strait, and 12 each from Tiexianwei and Dongwei near Magong Island in the Penghu Archipelago, in the middle of Taiwan Strait. DNA sequence analysis of 369 base pairs (bp) of the mt AT-rich region revealed 10 haplotypes among the 47 individuals, with a mean haplotypic diversity (h) of 0.626+/-0.075 and nucleotide diversity (pi) of 0.0039+/-0.00055. Pairwise F-statistics (F(ST)) revealed significantly high gene flow between Kinmen and Dongwei (F(ST)=-0.0351, p>0.05, N(e)m=infinity), but marked population subdivision and restricted gene flow between Kinmen and Tiexianwei (F(ST)=0.1382, p<0.05, N(e)m=3.1176). Between populations at Magong Island, gene flow was moderate (F(ST)=0.0634, p>0.05, N(e)m=7.3913). Mismatch distribution analysis indicated that the relatively low haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed in the Tiexianwei T. tridentatus population can be attributed to a recent bottleneck, probably due to isolation of Tiexianwei in semi-closed Magong Bay that prevents gene flow from neighboring populations.

  3. Gravitational circulation in a tidal strait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Burau, J.R.; Simpson, M.R.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Eight months of continuous measurements of tidal current profiles with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were made in Carquinez Strait, California, during 1988 for the purpose of estimating long-term variations in vertical profiles of Eulerian residual currents. Salinity stratification near the ADCP deployment site also was analyzed. The strength of density-driven gravitational circulation and the amount of salinity stratification in the strait varied significantly over the spring-neap tidal cycle. Density currents and stratification were greater during neap tides when vertical mixing from the tide is at a minimum. Landward residual currents along the bottom were observed only during neap tides. Simulations made with a three-dimensional model to supplement the field measurements show a significant, tidally induced lateral variation in residual currents across the strait. The Stokes drift of 1-2 cm/s in the strait is small relative to the speed of gravitational currents.

  4. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  5. Ice-Ocean Interactions to the North-West of Greenland: Glaciers, Straits, Ice Bridges, and the Rossby Radius (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenchow, A.; Falkner, K. K.; Melling, H.; Johnson, H. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Ryan, P.; Friends Of Petermann

    2010-12-01

    Petermann Glacier at 81 N latitude is a major outlet glacier adjacent to Nares Strait. It terminates in a long (70 km), narrow (16 km) and thin (50 m) floating tongue and has a grounding line more than 500 m below sea level. A calving event in 2010 reduced the floating area by 25% and produced a single 240 km2 ice island currently moving south in Nares Strait where it will likely interact with island to potentially create a temporary polynya in Nares Strait. The 2010 calving from Petermann Glacier contributes <10% to its mass balance as more than 80% is lost due to basal melting by the ocean. Hence the largely unexplored physics at the ice-ocean interface determine how a changing climate impacts this outlet glacier. Conducting exploratory surveys inside Petermann Fjord in 2003, 2007, and 2009, we find a 1100 m deep fjord connected to Nares Strait via a sill at 350-450 m depth. The fjord receives about 3 times the amount of heat required for the basal melt rates. Furthermore, limited data and analytical modeling suggests a 3-dimensional circulation over the upper 300-m of the water column with a coastally trapped buoyant outflow. We integrate these findings with more complete oceanic time series data from an array moored in Nares Strait from 2003 through 2009 near 80.5 N. In the past Nares Strait and Petermann Fjord were covered by land fast sea ice during the 9-10 month long winter season. Archeological and remotely sensed records indicate that an ice bridge formed regularly at the southern end of Nares Strait creating the North-Water polynya near 79 N latitude. Since 2006 this ice bridge has largely failed to form, leading, perhaps, to the occasional formation of a secondary ice bridge 300 km to the north where Nares Strait connects to the Arctic Ocean. However, this ice bridge appears to form for shorter periods only. Consequently Arctic sea ice can now exit the Arctic in winter via pathways to the west of Greenland all year. We speculate that this changed ocean

  6. Arctic Outflow West Of Greenland: Nine Years Of Volume And Freshwater Transports From Observations In Davis Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, B.; Lee, C.; Petrie, B.; Moritz, R. E.; Kwok, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Arctic changes suggest alterations in the export of freshwater from the Arctic to the North Atlantic, with conceivable impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation. Approximately 50% of the Arctic outflow exits west of Greenland, traveling through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and into Baffin Bay before crossing Davis Strait. The CAA outflow contributes over 50% of the net southward freshwater outflow through Davis Strait. The remainder is deeper outflow from Baffin Bay, flow from the West Greenland Current and runoff from West Greenland and CAA glaciers. Since September 2004, an observational program in Davis Strait has quantified volume and freshwater transport variability. The year-round program includes velocity, temperature and salinity measurements from 15 moorings spanning the full width (330 km) of the strait accompanied by autonomous Seagliders surveys (average profile separation = 4 km) and autumn ship-based hydrographic sections. Over the shallow Baffin Island and West Greenland shelves, moored instrumentation provides temperature and salinity measurements near the ice-ocean interface. From 2004-2013, the average net volume and liquid freshwater transports are -1.6 ± 0.2 Sv, -94 ± 7 mSv, respectively (salinity referenced to 34.8 and negative indicates southward transport); sea ice contributes an additional -10 ± 1 mSv. Over this period, volume and liquid freshwater transports show significant interannual variability and no clear trends, but a comparison with reanalyzed 1987-90 data indicate a roughly 40% decrease in net southward liquid volume transport and a corresponding an almost 30% decrease in freshwater transport. Connections between the Arctic are also captured, e.g., a unique yearlong Davis Strait freshening event starting September 2009 that was likely driven by an earlier freshening (January 2009 - April/May 2010) in the Canadian Arctic. The Davis Strait autumn 2009 salinity minimum was fresher (by about 0

  7. The interaction of short surface waves with stratified flow in Raccoon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, T. T.; Pearman, D. W.; Herbers, T. H.; Largier, J. L.; McIntyre, S.; Jessen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Strong tidal currents and complex wave-current interaction characterize the west side of Raccoon Strait, the narrow waterway between Angel Island and the Tiburon Peninsula in San Francisco Bay. The surface and internal hydrodynamics in this area are strongly affected by the presence of a shallow sill (depth ~10m) that extends partially across the strait near the western tip of Angel Island. In this work we present observations collected during several field experiments in 2011 and 2012 in Raccoon Strait, San Francisco Bay, using shipboard ADCP, bottom mounted ADCPs, CTDs, and Wave Resolving Drifters (WRDs). By combining observations from bottom-mounted, fixed (Eulerian) instruments and newly developed Lagrangian drifters that can resolve wind wave dynamics and surface drifts, we relate the spatial structure of the stratified flow dynamics with the observed wave evolution in the area. We analyze the interaction and characteristics of the wave blocking dynamics observed near the sill, the development of a subduction zone of surface waters during flood tide, and the occurrence of an internal lee wave downstream of the sill.

  8. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  9. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  11. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  12. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  13. Sediment Distribution in Central San Francisco Bay in the Vicinity of Raccoon Strait.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, K. A.; White, L. D.; Vavro, M.; Tran, J.; Basconcillo, N.; Kheradyar, T.; Pestrong, R.

    2003-12-01

    We collected sediment grab samples from twenty-one sites distributed within a 2-km2 area in Central San Francisco Bay, including Raccoon Strait, which is located between the Tiburon Peninsula and Angel Island. We gathered these samples in May and August of 2003, dried and disaggregated them using a Gilson Sieve Tester, and analyzed the sediments by weight percent. Our purpose in monitoring sediment distributions over time in Central San Francisco Bay is to gain understanding of the oceanographic dynamics of the bay-delta estuarine system. Our initial results indicate that grain sizes range from > 2 millimeters to < 125 microns with coarser samples located at the entrance to Raccoon Strait. We anticipate collecting samples from these twenty-one sites in November of 2003, and eventually relating the sediment distribution patterns to seasonal variations in transport. This study is part of a larger-scale project involving bedform migration and current transport in Central San Francisco Bay.

  14. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  15. Tidal propagation and dissipation in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Huaming; Wang, Lu; Kuang, Liang; Wang, Hui; Ding, Yang; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lawen, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Previous research on tides and tidal dynamics in the Taiwan Strait (TS) is reviewed in this paper. Tidal dynamics, which is the basic and dominant hydrodynamics in this area, attracts much interest in the last 30 years and till now its physical mechanism is still in debate. In this study, the major research methods and findings of previous works on barotropic tides in the TS are summarized. Based on Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1) are well simulated with the mean root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 4.7, 2.0, 1.3 and 0.7 cm between the observed and simulated tidal constants, respectively. It has been proved that semi-diurnal tidal movement is mainly determined by the waves from the East China Sea (ECS), while waves from the ECS and the Luzon Strait (LS) play comparable roles in diurnal tidal movement in the TS by linear superposition and the interaction of these two waves is the main cause for the progressive diurnal tidal waves in the TS. Furthermore, energy analysis revealed that the M2 tidal wave system in the TS and its adjacent area south to the shoal is an standing wave system and the anti-node appears in the central TS while the wave node locates in the shoal area, which can be contributed to the interaction of the incident waves from the ECS and the topography step south to Taiwan island, while the shoal also has an impact on the whole semi-diurnal tidal wave system in the TS. This standing wave system is consistent with the little energy dissipation in the central TS and much energy dissipation in the southern TS, where the shallow water effect also contributes to the local dissipation to some extent.

  16. Out-of-Africa, the peopling of continents and islands: tracing uniparental gene trees across the map

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Genetic relationships between human groups were first studied by comparisons of relative allele frequency at multiple loci. Geographical study of detailed, highly resolved trees of single, non-recombining uniparental loci (mitochondrial DNA: mtDNA and Y chromosome/non-recombining Y: NRY), following specific lineages rather than populations, then revolutionized knowledge of the peopling of the world, although, curiously, the use of geographically highly specific mutations that protect against malaria, found on individual autosomal globin genes, were first in single-locus phylogeography. mtDNA, with its high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation rates and relative ease of dating, led the way and gave stronger proof of the recent near replacement of all human species by anatomically modern humans (AMH). AMH left Africa via a single southern exit about 70 000 years ago and rapidly spread around the Indian Ocean towards the Antipodes, long before a small branch left a South Asian colony, earlier on the trail, to populate Europe. The worldwide skeleton phylogeny of mtDNA is fully resolved, but a regional analysis will continue to illuminate subsequent migrations. NRY with a lower SNP mutation rate still has a dating problem relating to use the of single tandem repeats (STRs), but has validated mtDNA results and with more geographical specificity and genomic size, as with the autosomal human genome, has much more detail to offer for the future. PMID:22312044

  17. First Davis Strait discovery overcomes offshore hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.

    1982-04-01

    In spite of icebergs umpredictable currents and brief drilling seasons, the first discovery well was completed recently in the Davis Strait. The success of this well, known as Hekja 0-71, has opened the waters off the northeastern coast of Canada to more exploration. A discussion is presented of how the well was drilled, the problems encountered and how they were overcome.

  18. Internal tide in the Kara Gates Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, E. G.; Kozlov, I. E.; Shchuka, S. A.; Frey, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    We observed strong internal tidal waves in the Kara Gates Strait. Internal tides are superimposed over a system of mean currents from the Barents to the Kara Sea. Field studies of internal tides in the Kara Gates were performed in 1997, 2007, and 2015. In 2015, we analyzed data from towed CTD measurements, numerical model calculations, and satellite images in the region. An internal tidal wave with a period of 12.4 h is generated due to the interaction between the currents of the barotropic tide and the bottom relief on the slopes of a ridge that crosses the strait from Novaya Zemlya to the continent. The depths of the ridge crest are 30-40 m. A constant current of relatively warm water flows from the Barents to the Kara Sea. An internal wave propagates in both directions from the ridge. In the Barents Sea, internal waves are intensified by the current from the Barents to the Kara Sea. Internal bores followed by a packet of short-period internal waves are found in both directions from the strait. Satellite images show that short-period internal waves are generated after the internal bore. A hydraulic jump was found on the eastern side of the strait. Numerical modeling agrees with the experimental results.

  19. On the hydrography of Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropole, Dana; Pickart, Robert S.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn; Vâge, Kjetil; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Girton, James

    2017-01-01

    Using 111 shipboard hydrographic sections across Denmark Strait occupied between 1990 and 2012, we characterize the mean conditions at the sill, quantify the water mass constituents, and describe the dominant features of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). The mean vertical sections of temperature, salinity, and density reveal the presence of circulation components found upstream of the sill, in particular the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC. These correspond to hydrographic fronts consistent with surface-intensified southward flow. Deeper in the water column the isopycnals slope oppositely, indicative of bottom-intensified flow of DSOW. An end-member analysis indicates that the deepest part of Denmark Strait is dominated by Arctic-Origin Water with only small amounts of Atlantic-Origin Water. On the western side of the strait, the overflow water is a mixture of both constituents, with a contribution from Polar Surface Water. Weakly stratified "boluses" of dense water are present in 41% of the occupations, revealing that this is a common configuration of DSOW. The bolus water is primarily Arctic-Origin Water and constitutes the densest portion of the overflow. The boluses have become warmer and saltier over the 22 year record, which can be explained by changes in end-member properties and their relative contributions to bolus composition.

  20. Gliders in the Fram Strait Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Schauer, Ursula; Rohr, Harald; Lee, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Variability of oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait, one of the main gateways to the Arctic Ocean, has been monitored since 1997 by the array of 16 moorings and summer hydrographic sections. The main focus is on the inflow of warm Atlantic waters from the Nordic Seas, the only source of heat for the Arctic Ocean, and on the freshwater outflow to the North Atlantic. However, spatial resolution of the moored array, which varies from 10 to 30 km, is not sufficient to resolve the mesoscale variability of the complex, topographically flow through the strait. In the recently established multidisciplinary Fram Strait Observatory a combination of oceanographic observations by moorings and gliders with acoustic tomography measurements and the eddy-resolving numerical model will provide a new tool to assess the contribution of mesoscale dynamics to the variability of oceanic fluxes through Fram Strait. Since 2007, in the framework of the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the long-term moored observations in Fram Strait have been complemented with repeated glider sections. During eight summer and autumn missions the oceanographic data with high spatial resolution were collected down to 1000 m by Seagliders profiling along the moored array. Here we report on the results from five years of gliders measurements and a comparison of glider data to observations from moorings and ship-borne CTD sections. The special attention is paid to measurements in the West Spitsbergen Current, where gliders have to operate in the strong current regime (occasional events up to 1 m/s). Spatially averaged glider data were also applied in the finite element inverse model FEMSECT and preliminary results are presented. Future plans envisage a substitution of the upper part of moored array with repeated glider sections to achieve year-round glider operations in the partially sea-ice covered region. Since 2010 the array of RAFOS sources and tomographic sources providing RAFOS signal with

  1. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius of 4,700 yards, centered at a point bearing 316° true, 3,605 yards, from Mare Island Strait Light...

  2. Introduced marine species: Management arrangements of consideration for the Torres Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, Kerry M.; Hilliard, Robert; Russell, Barry; Clark, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Introduced marine species (IMS) can have significant impacts on economic, ecological, social and cultural aspects of coastal marine environments. There is, therefore, a need to minimise these impacts through the implementation of comprehensive and consistent management strategies and monitoring processes that work towards preventing introductions, detecting introductions if they were to occur and managing incursions should they be detected. There is also the need to ensure that approaches taken are comparable to provide consistency of IMS management effort, particularly across areas that are multi-jurisdictional (e.g. spanning State or Territory borders). A number of studies have examined IMS, their vectors and management arrangements for the Torres Strait region, a multi-jurisdictional area between Queensland, Australia and Papua New Guinea. This paper presents information from a baseline survey conducted in the Torres Strait for marine pests in conjunction with a synthesis of information from other studies on IMS risks, their vectors and management strategies of relevance to the Torres Strait region. A number of strengths, but also gaps, between the various jurisdictions have been identified and discussed. Processes such as the establishment of Biosecurity Queensland as a specialist group and the development of the National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions are occurring. However, the Torres Strait region is at current risk of marine pest inoculation, particularly for species such as Perna viridis, and management strategies to minimise this risk are lacking. The information presented here will assist management groups in their ability to work towards mitigating the risk of an IMS being translocated to and negatively impacting the unique and diverse ecology of the marine systems, and the industries, people and customs that rely on the coastal marine environment for food, recreation and commerce in the Torres Strait.

  3. Quantifying submarine landslide processes driven by active tectonic forcing: Cook Strait submarine canyon, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Barnes, P. M.; Pettinga, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Cook Strait submarine canyon system is a multi-branched, deeply incised and highly sinuous feature of New Zealand's active margin, covering some 1500km2 of sea floor between the North and South Islands and spanning water depths of between 50 and 2700m. The canyon occurs at the transition from the westward dipping oblique subduction zone adjacent to the SE North Island and the zone of continental transpression in NE South Island. The recent acquisition of high resolution (5-10m) SIMRAD EM300 bathymetric data allows active tectonic and geomorphic processes to be assessed and quantified at a level of detail previously not possible. While multiple active submarine fault traces have been identified in the Cook Strait by previous studies, quantitative information on their activity has been limited. Cook Strait is structurally characterized by westward dipping thrust faults and E-W trending dextral strike slip faults. The multiple large magnitude high frequency earthquake sources define zones of very high ground shaking expected to contribute to triggering of extensive submarine slope failures. Landslide activity within the canyon system is widespread and represents the dominant mass movement process affecting canyon heads and walls, redistributing material into valley fills. Complexes of large (km3) multi-stepped, deep-seated (100m) translational bedding plane failures represented by gently sloping (<3°) evacuated slide-scar areas with associated blocky valley fill deposits are numerous. Steep catchment heads, channel walls and the leading edges of asymmetric thrust-fault driven anticlines are dominated by gulley and rill systems with associated eroded and/or incipient slump features. Large (107m3+) slide blocks are recognized in discrete failures with quantifiable displacement vectors. Tsunamigenic landslides in this environment are inevitable. This study will provide quantification of landslide models including triggering mechanisms, discrete geometries and

  4. Chlorophyll distribution in a temperate estuary: The Strait of Georgia and Juan de Fuca Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Diane; Peña, Angelica

    2009-03-01

    Data collected during 7 years of seasonal surveys are used to investigate the distribution of phytoplankton biomass within the estuarine waters of the Strait of Georgia and Juan de Fuca Strait. Variability of the chlorophyll distribution is examined in relation to the density stratification, light availability and nutrient concentration. In the Strait of Georgia, both the horizontal and vertical distribution of chlorophyll are found to be linked to the presence of a near-surface layer of increased density stratification. Despite important year-to-year variability, the seasonal cycle of chlorophyll in the Strait of Georgia is dominated every year by relatively large near-surface concentrations in the spring that are linked to the seasonal increase in solar radiation onto the stratified near-surface layer. In the vertical, a sub-surface peak is observed around 10 m depth, corresponding to the depth of maximum water column stability. Nutrients within the euphotic zone are in general abundant, with the exception of the Strait of Georgia in summer where phytoplankton growth is potentially limited by low nitrate concentration near the surface. The depth of the euphotic zone is estimated along the thalweg of the estuary from transmissometer profiles. It appears to vary relatively little within the estuary from a minimum of 20 m in spring, near the mouth of the Fraser River, to an autumnal maximum of about 30 m in the northern Strait of Georgia. Finally, the estimated self-shading contribution to light attenuation is shown to be generally significant (5-10%) in the surface waters of the Strait of Georgia, during spring and summer, reaching values as high as 35% during the spring bloom.

  5. Beneath Bass Strait: Linking Tasmania and Mainland Australia using Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilia, S.; Rawlinson, N.; Direen, N. G.; Reading, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most hotly debated topics in Australian geology pertains to the tectonic relationship between Tasmania and mainland Australia. Studies that attempt to link Victoria and Tasmania have been wide ranging and have undergone considerable change through time, leading to a variety of plausible tectonic models. One of the main difficulties in reconciling mainland Australian and Tasmanian tectonics is the lack of Precambrian exposure in the Lachlan Orogen (Victoria), which contrast with the West Tasmania Terrane that exhibits numerous outcrops of Proterozoic rocks, apparently excluding any tectonic affinity between them. Furthermore, the West Tasmania Terrane differs significantly from the East Tasmania Terrane in that the latter does not contain any evidence of Precambrian rocks and no evidence of a Proterozoic continental basement has been reported, either in outcrop nor inferred from geophysical surveys. Perhaps most significantly, the presence of Bass Strait and the Mesozoic and Cainozoic sedimentary and volcanic sequences that mask the older terranes, makes the link between Tasmania and southeast mainland Australia even harder to decipher. This has significantly impeded the ability of conventional surface mapping to unravel the tectonic history of this area, which remains one of the great challenges of Australian Earth sciences. The focus of this study is ambient seismic noise data from 24 broadband stations, which span northern Tasmania, several islands in Bass Strait (King Island, Deal Island and Flinders Island) and southern Victoria, thus allowing a dense coverage of surface wave paths that can be exploited to image the 3-D structure of the crust joining Tasmania and Victoria in high detail. To produce the highest quality Green's functions, careful processing of the data has been performed, after which Group and Phase velocity dispersion measurements have been carried out using a frequency-time analysis method on the symmetric component (average of the

  6. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island

  7. Biogeochemical cycling in the Strait of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, S C; Macdonald, R W; Burd, B; van Roodselaar, A

    2008-12-01

    The papers in this special issue present the results of a five-year project to study sedimentary biogeochemical processes in the Strait of Georgia, with special emphasis on the near-field of a large municipal outfall. Included in this special issue are overviews of the sedimentology, benthic biology, status of siliceous sponge reefs and distribution of organic carbon in the water column. Other papers address the cycling of contaminants (PCBs, PBDEs) and redox metals in the sediment, a method to map the extent of the influence of municipal effluent from staining on benthic bivalves, and the relationships among geochemical conditions and benthic abundance and diversity. The latter set of papers addresses the role of municipal effluent as a pathway of organic carbon and other contaminants into the Strait of Georgia and the effect of the effluent on benthic geochemistry and biology.

  8. Geoacoustic and Tomographic Inversion of Haro Strait Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Geoacoustic and Tomographic Inversion of Haro Strait Data A. Tolstoy 1538 Hampton Hill Circle, McLean VA 22101 phone: (703) 760-0881 email... inversion codes. • the geometric inversion of an individual Haro Strait nw014 (data) slice (and the nw024, sw029 paths) to determine likely...found plus possible array shapes). Different Haro Strait slice inversion efforts have also been made by Jaschke and Chapman (󈨧), Corré and N.R

  9. Indonesian Maritime Security Cooperation In the Malacca Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Piracy, Maritime Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits, ed. Graham Gerard Ong -Webb (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006), 7. 2...Maritime Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits, ed. Graham Gerard Ong -Webb (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006), 153. 7 John F...Southeast Asia,” in Piracy, Maritime Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits, ed. Graham Gerrad Ong -Webb (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

  10. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥ 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs.

  11. The late Miocene Panama isthmian strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Laurel S.; Coates, Anthony G.; Berggren, William A.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Zhang, Jijun

    1996-08-01

    Miocene sediments of the Caribbean Gatun and Chagres formations, Panama Canal basin, were deposited within an archipelagic strait that connected Caribbean and Pacific waters. Shallow-water (˜ 25 m) benthic foraminifera of the Gatun Formation have a strong Caribbean affinity, indicating that a significant interoceanic, biogeographic barrier had formed at ˜ 8 Ma. However, benthic foraminifera of the overlying Chagres Formation are bathyal and markedly Pacific in affinity, indicating that at ˜ 6 Ma, waters of the Panama isthmian strait deepened to ˜ 200 500 m and Pacific bathyal waters flowed into the Caribbean. The Chagres Formation crops out at the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal in a large wedge of cross-laminated sandstone and coquina. The cross-laminations and coarse grain size indicate high-energy currents atypical of bathyal settings. We infer that a jet of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent Equatorial Undercurrent passed through the Panama isthmian strait to deposit these sediments on the Caribbean side. This later entry of Pacific taxa into the Caribbean had no apparent effect on the subsequent composition of Caribbean faunas.

  12. EPA Responds to Incident that Leaves Four People Ill on St. John, EPA Working with U.S. Virgin Islands Government on Ongoing Investigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Monday, March 23, 2015) The EPA is working closely with the U.S. Virgin Island government to investigate an incident reported to the U.S. Virgin Islands government and EPA on March 20, 2015. On March 20, 2015, paramedics responded to a call that four peop

  13. Preliminary results of receiver function analyses at three sites across the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Arévalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Almendros, J.; Aznarte, J. L.; Alguacil, G.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2008, in the framework of the International Polar Year 2008-2009 under grant POL2006-08663 of the spanish Ministry of Education, we deployed three broadband seismometers at points forming a N-S profile across the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, in the region between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. This region is very interesting from a tectonic point of view, due to the opening of the rift of the Bransfield and the presence of the South Shetland microplate. For logistic reasons, our instruments where located in the vicinity of the Antarctic bases Juan Carlos I (Livingston Island), Gabriel de Castilla (Deception Island), and Primavera (Antarctic Peninsula). Each seismic station consisted of a broad-band, three-component electrolitic seismometer equiped with a 24-bit data acquisition system. The energy was provided by wind generators and solar panels connected to a battery bank, a combination that has been able to provide enough power at all sites, even during the Antarctic winter. All components were designed to function under the extreme conditions of the Antarctic weather. The main objective of this experiment was to use receiver function techniques on teleseism data to investigate the structure of the crust under the sites, in order to compare with other studies and shed light on the structure and tectonics of the region. During this past year, we have recorded several tens of teleseisms at distances appropriate for receiver function analyses. Preliminary results will add information on critical issues regarding the structure of the Bransfield Strait region. Although the Earth models obtained will contain extra information, we are specially interested in the determination of the depth of the Moho at each site, a controversial point in this area. These results will be compared with estimates obtained by different techniques. We are also interested in the determination of the vertical extent of the magma chamber recently imaged by

  14. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385 Section 80.1385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of...

  15. Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca

    SciTech Connect

    Rensel, Jack; Kiefer, Dale; Forster, John R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2007-10-07

    Finfish mariculture has existed in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for over thirty years, but for the past 15 years most effort has focused on culture of Atlantic salmon in protected, inshore cage sites. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (the "Strait") is a large area with relatively sparce shoreline development and several apparent advantages for mariculture using offshore technology.

  16. 78 FR 36655 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Carquinez Strait, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Carquinez Strait, Martinez, CA AGENCY... Drawbridge across the Carquinez Strait, mile 7.0 at Martinez, CA. The deviation is necessary to perform a..., at Martinez, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides 135 feet vertical clearance above Mean...

  17. Submarine geology framework of the Strait of Gibralter

    SciTech Connect

    Mrah, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Three-dimensional, computer-generated bathymetric views and high-resolution sparker profiles are presented to illustrate the geologic framework of the Strait of Gibraltar. 'The Ridge,' an apparent structural feature, divides the Strait into a deeper, more narrow eastern portion and a shallower, wider and more irregular western portion. Sparker profiles show the Moroccan and Spanish shelves to be underlain by rocks whose deformation correlates with the structural deformation of the Betic and Rif Mountains. However, a portion of the center portion of the Strait is floored with approximately 700 m of horizontal sediments despite the adjacent structural deformation and the presence of strong bottom currents. The alternating sequence of well-layered and chaotic-layered sediments suggests periods of large-scale subaqueous landslides that post-date the structural deformation of the Strait. In other areas, the Strait appears to be free of unconsolidated sediments. Large bedrock horsts modify the topography of the floor and side walls.

  18. Strait of Gibraltar seen from STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Swift currents flow through the Strait of Gibraltar, producing complicated patterns in the surface waters. Some of those patterns are highlighted in the sunglint in this photograph. The Mediterranian Sea is on the upper right, the Atlantic Ocean in in the lower left. Few features can be seen on the Mediterranian side, but current shears (straight lines coming off Spain), several sets of internal waves (impinging on the Spanish continental shelf) and ship wakes can be seen on the Atlantic side, west of Cadiz. Both Tangier and Cadiz show up in the sunglint as well.

  19. Sedimentary constraints on the development of a narrow deep strait (São Sebastião Channel, SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Sasaki, Dalton Kei; Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch de; Taborda, Rui; de Souza, Luiz Antonio Pereira

    2017-02-01

    The São Sebastião Channel (SSC), which separates São Sebastião Island from the continent, is a deep elongated strait on the inner shelf of the São Paulo Bight (SE Brazil). The aim of this study is to explain why it is presently sediment starved, instead of forming a tombolo. Wave data were obtained from both a WW3 model database and buoy records, and wave propagation patterns from the SWAN numerical model. Grain size trend analysis of 579 surficial sediment samples from the strait and the surrounding region served to estimate the residual transport directions. Bedload sediment transport was computed considering in situ currents and bottom sediment grain size. Moreover, six seismic profiles and one gravity core were obtained in the strait in order to evaluate the hickness of the sedimentary deposits. The geometry of the SSC (X/B=0.3, where B is the breakwater or island diameter and X is its cross-shore distance to the mainland) predicts that a tombolo should be formed, and wave patterns confirm that it is a zone sheltered from both S and NE waves. Previous studies have shown that the hydrodynamics of the SSC is controlled by wind-driven currents, which are more intense in the eastern and central sectors of the strait. The western sector is currently covered by sandy mud, whereas very coarse to fine sand prevails in the deeper eastern sector. Sediment patterns show a trend to deposition of fine sediment in the western sector of the SSC and two main depocentres located at the northern limit of the study area and at the southern mouth of the strait. Sandy mud in the western sector forms a 40-m-thick deposit close to the outer limit of Araçá Bay, whereas the remainder of the SSC is covered by a very thin layer of sandy sediments. Dominance of mud in the depositional western sector suggests low availability of sand in the area. Therefore, despite the geometry and wave patterns of the SSC favouring the formation of a tombolo, the dominance of wind-driven currents

  20. Winds, Eddies and Flow through Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    driven origin of the Philippine dipole eddies. By contrast, in other volcanic island regions of the world (including the Hawaiian, Cabo Verde, and... volcanic island regions of the world. By contrast in the Hawaiian, Cabo Verde and Canary Islands, the driving mechanism in the eddy dynamics is...J. Aristegui, and F. Herrera (2000), Lee region of Gran Canaria , J. Geophys. Res., 105(C7), 17173-17193. Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H. Hendon

  1. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  2. The Andaman Islanders in a regional genetic context: reexamining the evidence for an early peopling of the archipelago from South Asia.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Endicott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands were considered by many early anthropologists to be pristine examples of a "negrito" substrate of humanity that existed throughout Southeast Asia. Despite over 150 years of research and study, questions over the extent of shared ancestry between Andaman Islanders and other small-bodied, gracile, dark-skinned populations throughout the region are still unresolved. This shared phenotype could be a product of shared history, evolutionary convergence, or a mixture of both. Recent population genetic studies have tended to emphasize long-term physical isolation of the Andaman Islanders and an affinity to ancestral populations of South Asia. We reexamine the genetic evidence from genome-wide autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for a shared history between the tribes of Little Andaman (Onge) and Great Andaman, and between these two groups and the rest of South and Southeast Asia (both negrito and non-negrito groups).

  3. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  4. A new tidal current forecasting in the Kanmon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Noboru; Sasaki, Takashi; Sato, Satoshi; Horii, Ryouichi

    Kanmon Strait, where more than seven hundreds ships pass in a day, is known as one of the most difficult straits for ship navigation in Japan. This strait is narrow and the maximum velocity of tidal current is faster than ten knots in some cases. So, those who are engaged in safety navigation of this strait request more accurate forecast of tidal current in the Kanmon Strait. For this purpose, we created a new system to forecast more precisely the tidal current in the Kanmon Strait. The system is based upon a two-dimensional numerical simulation model of the whole Kanmon Strait. The goal of this system is to be able to consider the meteorological effect, which cannot be taken into account the conventional method based upon harmonic constituents, for the tidal current. Calculated tidal currents were compared with observed ones. High reliability of the tidal current simulation was confirmed to some degree. It is intended to open the result of the simulation on the Internet, so the system will have a visual presentaion function that displays tidal current vector or tidal curves on Internet browser at the PC.

  5. Numerical modeling of late Glacial Laurentide advance of ice across Hudson Strait: Insights into terrestrial and marine geology, mass balance, and calving flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeffer, W.T.; Dyurgerov, M.; Kaplan, M.; Dwyer, J.; Sassolas, C.; Jennings, A.; Raup, B.; Manley, W.

    1997-01-01

    A time-dependent finite element model was used to reconstruct the advance of ice from a late Glacial dome on northern Quebec/Labrador across Hudson Strait to Meta Incognita Peninsula (Baffin Island) and subsequently to the 9.9-9.6 ka 14C Gold Cove position on Hall Peninsula. Terrestrial geological and geophysical information from Quebec and Labrador was used to constrain initial and boundary conditions, and the model results are compared with terrestrial geological information from Baffin Island and considered in the context of the marine event DC-0 and the Younger Dryas cooling. We conclude that advance across Hudson Strait from Ungava Bay to Baffin Island is possible using realistic glacier physics under a variety of reasonable boundary conditions. Production of ice flux from a dome centered on northeastern Quebec and Labrador sufficient to deliver geologically inferred ice thickness at Gold Cove (Hall Peninsula) appears to require extensive penetration of sliding south from Ungava Bay. The discharge of ice into the ocean associated with advance and retreat across Hudson Strait does not peak at a time coincident with the start of the Younger Dryas and is less than minimum values proposed to influence North Atlantic thermohaline circulation; nevertheless, a significant fraction of freshwater input to the North Atlantic may have been provided abruptly and at a critical time by this event.

  6. Magnetovariational measurements in the Cook Strait region of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, Malcolm R.

    1985-08-01

    Magnetovariational measurements have been made at 10 sites on the northern side of the Cook Strait, New Zealand. Single-station transfer functions have been calculated for the sites and indicate that the effect of induction in the shallow water of the Cook Strait is most important at around 1000 s period. At longer periods the effect of induced currents in the Pacific Ocean predominates. A two-dimensional electrical conductivity model including local conductivity structure has been shown to satisfy the measured responses at sites about 60-80 km distance from the strait. Closer to the strait the inductive process is strongly three-dimensional. A simple d.c. line current model of current flow has been shown to reproduce some of the features of the observed responses. Induction arrows indicate the existence of conductivity anomalies associated with a known lateral seismic boundary and with one of the two principal faults in the region.

  7. Closing the transport budget of the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Clément; Beal, Lisa M.

    2014-04-01

    Closing the mean mass budget of the Florida Straits is fundamental to understanding the source waters of the Gulf Stream and for constraining ocean simulations and forecasts in a region of complex topography. Existing transport time series of the inflow through Yucatan Channel and the outflow at 27°N yield a 9 Sv difference in the mean, which cannot be reconciled by the two minor inflows between. Here we present a synthesis of transport estimates from throughout the Florida Straits, using velocity data collected aboard the cruise ship Explorer of the Seas. Our transports form a consistent mass budget and conform with the northern outflow from the Straits of 32.1 ± 3.3 Sv, as measured continuously by cable. In particular, we find an average of 30.0 ± 5.3 Sv for the inflow to southern Florida Straits and estimate that Old Bahama Channel contributes less than an additional 2 Sv.

  8. Solitary Wave Effects North of Strait of Messina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    their propagation in the Tyrrhenian Sea & subsequent shoaling in the Gulf of Gioia. The nonhydrostatic 3D EULAG model is used for the oceanographic...ocean-acoustic modeling study of solitary wave generation in the Strait of Messina, their propagation in the Tyrrhenian Sea and subsequent shoaling...data 1. Introduction The Strait of Messina connects the Tyrrhenian Sea , on the north side, and the Ionian Sea , on the south side. Fig. 1 shows the

  9. Typhoons enhancing northward transport through the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhou; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2013-03-01

    Volume transport in the Taiwan Strait is usually northward for most of the year and varies seasonally because of the adjustment of the East Asian monsoon. Based on model simulations, the influence on this northward transport of every typhoon formed during the period 2005-2009 was examined. The results showed that there were four typhoons which enhanced northward transport during these five years. The current measurements, obtained from a buoy deployed in the Taiwan Strait, matched these events exactly. These typhoons had special moving tracks and life histories. They traveled westward in the area south of the strait or moved northward from the south to the north. Under the influence of such a typhoon, the prophase southward atmospheric forcing in the strait was weak and the anaphase northward atmospheric forcing (mainly along-strait wind stress) was strong, which is necessary and crucial in enhancing the northward transport. The ageostrophic process, another important driving factor in transport change, was generated mainly by local atmospheric forces inside the strait under the typhoon weather conditions and its effect on transport magnitude was comparable to that of direct atmospheric forcing. It first stored some energy from the atmospheric forcing to restrain the transport change, and then released the stored energy to prolong and even to intensify the enhanced northward transport.

  10. Observation and modelling of turbulent mixing in the Kuril and Aleutian Straits and impact of its 18.6-year period tidal cycle on ocean and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, I.; Tanaka, Y.; Itoh, S.; Hasumi, H.; Komatsu, K.; Osafune, S.; Yagi, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kaneko, H.; Ikeya, T.; Konda, S.; Nishioka, J.; Nakatsuka, T.; Katsumata, K.; Tatebe, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Hiroe, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Direct turbulent observations in the Kuril Straits and Aleutian Straits reveal that tide-induced strong vertical mixing corresponds to strong shear of combined diurnal tidal and/or mean currents and significantly modifies the water-mass and potential vorticity distribution. Bi-decadal variability synchronized with 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle were found in various parts of the ocean and climate indices: water-mass variability in the subarctic North Pacific, especially near the strong diurnal tide regions as Kuril Straits and Aleutian Islands, and in long-term climate indices as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in proxy-reconstructed records. In low-frequency part of the PDO and SOI records, negative (positive)-PDO and positive (negative)-SOI tend to occur in the 4-6-th (10-12-th) year after the maximum diurnal tide, which is consistent with the climate model experiments with locally enhanced vertical mixing around Kuril Straits showing that tidal mixing and its variability could generate bi-decadal variability in ocean and climate. Ocean and climate model experiments with parameterized tidal mixing explain some of the water-mass modifications and bi-decadal variability of water-masses and climate.

  11. Varying sediment sources (Hudson Strait, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Bay) to the NW Labrador Sea slope between and during Heinrich events 0 to 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Barber, D.C.; Jennings, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Maclean, B.; Kirby, M.E.; Stoner, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Core HU97048-007PC was recovered from the continental Labrador Sea slope at a water depth of 945 m, 250 km seaward from the mouth of Cumberland Sound, and 400 km north of Hudson Strait. Cumberland Sound is a structural trough partly floored by Cretaceous mudstones and Paleozoic carbonates. The record extends from ∼10 to 58 ka. On-board logging revealed a complex series of lithofacies, including buff-colored detrital carbonate-rich sediments [Heinrich (H)-events] frequently bracketed by black facies. We investigate the provenance of these facies using quantitative X-ray diffraction on drill-core samples from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock from the SE Baffin Island Shelf, and on the < 2-mm sediment fraction in a transect of five cores from Cumberland Sound to the NW Labrador Sea. A sediment unmixing program was used to discriminate between sediment sources, which included dolomite-rich sediments from Baffin Bay, calcite-rich sediments from Hudson Strait and discrete sources from Cumberland Sound. Results indicated that the bulk of the sediment was derived from Cumberland Sound, but Baffin Bay contributed to sediments coeval with H-0 (Younger Dryas), whereas Hudson Strait was the source during H-events 1–4. Contributions from the Cretaceous outcrops within Cumberland Sound bracket H-events, thus both leading and lagging Hudson Strait-sourced H-events.

  12. The potential impact of bedform migration on seagrass communities in Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.; Harris, Peter T.; Hughes, Michael G.; Hemer, Mark; Heap, Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass communities in the northwest of Torres Strait are known to disappear episodically over broad areas. Sediment mobility surveys were undertaken within two study areas during the monsoon and trade wind seasons, in the vicinity of Turnagain Island, to find out if the migration of bedforms could explain this disappearance. The two study areas covered sand bank and sand dune environments to compare and contrast their migration characteristics. Repeat multibeam sonar surveys were used to measure dune-crest migration during each season. Our results show that seagrass beds occur in the troughs of sediment-starved dunes, but no seagrass occurs in association with full-bedded dunes that are superimposed on large sand bank features. The coincidence of seagrass beds with the sediment-starved dunes is in spite of the fact that they migrate faster (0.59 m day -1) than full-bedded dunes (0.13 m day -1), which indicates that some other factor (other than dune migration rate) limits seagrass growth within Torres Strait. We suggest that seagrasses are unable to colonise full-bedded dunes because of the semi-continuously transported sand that characterises this environment. In contrast, the troughs of sediment-starved dunes experience only limited bedload transport and are less hostile for seagrasses. A conceptual model is presented to explain the occurrence of seagrass beds in relation to their proximity to migrating sand dunes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the widespread dieback of seagrasses documented for the Turnagain Island region was not caused by dune migration.

  13. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc

  14. Seasonal Variability of Transport Through Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    We have investigated the transport variability through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Corsica) with a very high resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea. A numerical simulation of the Mediterranean circulation has been done with a 1/16o horizontal grid mesh, 43 vertical z-level model. Initial hydrological conditions were provided by the Mediterranean MODB5 climatology. The model has been run eleven years. It has been forced in a yearly perpetual mode by the daily sea surface fluxes from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis during the year March 1998 - February 1999. This study has been supported by the french MERCA- TOR project and SHOM. We grateful the PAM team of CERFACS (Toulouse, France). Analysis is focused on three major straits which play an important role in control- ling the circulation through mass transport exchanges. Model results are compared to recent observations and good agreement is obtained. It demonstrates advantages to improve resolution in numerical models. Gibraltar and Sicily strait transports are largely baroclinic. The transport through the Gibraltar Strait is forced by density difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic water (AW) penetrates the Mediterranean Sea while Mediterranean Outflow Water flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This transport is hy- draulically maximal, with a semi-annual signal, and its seasonal variation is weak. The Sicily Strait transport is probably first forced by the AW coming from the West rather than the density gradient between the western and eastern mediterranean seas. AW inflow (i.e. Eastern Mediterranean Overflow Water outflow) is maximum in late Fall and minimum in late Winter. In opposite to previous straits, the northward Cor- sica Strait transport presents strong seasonal variability, and thus a strong barotropic component related to the wind stress curl.

  15. Geodetic surveys in Messina straits area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, P.; Achilli, V.; Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.

    1983-03-01

    By using the fit of theoretical displacements on a fault according to Mindlin and Cheng (1950) dislocation theory, the vertical deformation field (maximum subsidence of 70 cm) associated to the Dec. 28 1908 Messina M=7.0 earthquake is compared to the results of a spirit levelling survey that we performed in the Messina Straits area in 1981 1982. The differences in level from the last levelling campaign in the area, completed in 1970, show that the coastlines have undergone a moderate differential subsidence of about 1 mm/year in the last decade. This is in agreement with the trend observed around 1908 and with the data of the Messina tide-gauge relative to the period 1897 1908 and 1910 1918. The lack of data in the period 1918 1970 does not allow definite conclusions about the vertical tectonic deformations in the area. Recent data on planimetric deformations have shown a South-North relative motion of Sicily. A comparison with the theoretical displacements indicates that a pure dip-slip of 4 cm on the 1908 fault system does explain the observed vertical deformation, but not the horizontal.

  16. Crisis Management in the Taiwan Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ancient Mediterranean, the people in Athens spread the free trade system and the democratic system which we live upon today. Now, Taiwan is spreading the...unsatisfactory, but painfully acceptable to Mainland China. 4 What is the biggest concern in the Peoples ’ Republic of China(PRC) leadership? The PRC...Chinese without jobs. The CCP, the single party, and the leadership would be blamed for the failure. Angry people can not wait until the next

  17. Changes in the Composition of the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Granskog, Mats; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Stedmon, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Fram Strait is the largest gateway and only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar oceans. Monitoring the exchanges through Fram Strait allows us to detect and understand current changes occurring in the Arctic Ocean and to predict the effects of those changes on the Arctic and Subarctic climate and ecosystems. Polar water, recirculating Atlantic Water and deeper water masses exported from the Arctic Ocean through western Fram Strait are monitored year-round by an array of moored instruments along 78°50'N, continuously maintained by the Norwegian Polar Institute since the 1990s. Complimentary annual hydrographic sections have been repeated along the same latitude every September. This presentation will focus on biogeochemical tracer measurements collected along repeated sections from 1997-2015, which can be used to identify freshwater from different sources and reveal the causes of variations in total volume of freshwater exported e. g.: pulses of freshwater from the Pacific. Repeated tracer sections across Fram Strait reveal significant changes in the composition of the outflow in recent years, with recent sections showing positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC, suggesting that more sea ice melts back into the surface than previously. The 1997-2015 time series of measurements reveals a strong anti-correlation between run-off and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that run-off and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. While the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait typically exhibits a similar run-off to net sea ice meltwater ratio to the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, we find that the ratio of run-off to sea ice meltwater at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, suggesting an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent years. In 2014 and 2015 measurements of salinity, δ18O and total alkalinity were collected from sea ice cores as well as the

  18. Does differential particulate food supply explain the presence of mussels in Wellington Harbour (New Zealand) and their absence on neighbouring Cook Strait shores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helson, Jeremy G.; Pledger, Shirley; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2007-03-01

    Rocky intertidal reef communities in Wellington Harbour, New Zealand, are dominated by mussels (the ribbed mussel Aulacomya maoriana, the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus). Only a few kilometres away, outside the Harbour on exposed Cook Strait shores, these mussels are absent. We tested the hypothesis of bottom-up food limitation as the explanation for this distributional difference. The water column at three Harbour sites and five Cook Strait coastal sites was sampled over an 18-month period for temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total particulate matter (TPM), particulate organic matter (POM), percent organic matter (PCOM), chlorophyll a (Chl a), particle counts (number of particles mL -1 in the range 2.5-63 μm), percent carbon, percent nitrogen, and C:N ratio. Mean values of PCOM and Chl a were significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in the Harbour than in Cook Strait. On two separate occasions mussels were transferred from Wellington Harbour to the Island Bay Marine Laboratory (IBML on Cook Strait) and sampled at regular intervals to permit the determination of body condition index (CI) and mortality rate to measure their response to the coastal seston regime. On both occasions monthly CI values of all three species held at IBML decreased significantly when compared with monthly CI values of mussels collected from Harbour sites. Mortality rates at IBML exhibited consistent taxon-specific responses ( P. canaliculus > M. galloprovincialis > A. maoriana). We interpret these field-based and laboratory-based findings as providing support for the hypothesis that multi-species mussel distributions and hence intertidal community structure at Cook Strait sites are regulated at least in part by particulate food supply.

  19. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1312 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  5. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  6. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  7. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1312 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  8. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  9. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  12. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  13. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  14. Australian Diabetes Foot Network: practical guideline on the provision of footwear for people with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Trauma, in the form of pressure and/or friction from footwear, is a common cause of foot ulceration in people with diabetes. These practical recommendations regarding the provision of footwear for people with diabetes were agreed upon following review of existing position statements and clinical guidelines. The aim of this process was not to re-invent existing guidelines but to provide practical guidance for health professionals on how they can best deliver these recommendations within the Australian health system. Where information was lacking or inconsistent, a consensus was reached following discussion by all authors. Appropriately prescribed footwear, used alone or in conjunction with custom-made foot orthoses, can reduce pedal pressures and reduce the risk of foot ulceration. It is important for all health professionals involved in the care of people with diabetes to both assess and make recommendations on the footwear needs of their clients or to refer to health professionals with such skills and knowledge. Individuals with more complex footwear needs (for example those who require custom-made medical grade footwear and orthoses) should be referred to health professionals with experience in the prescription of these modalities and who are able to provide appropriate and timely follow-up. Where financial disadvantage is a barrier to individuals acquiring appropriate footwear, health care professionals should be aware of state and territory based equipment funding schemes that can provide financial assistance. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and people living in rural and remote areas are likely to have limited access to a broad range of footwear. Provision of appropriate footwear to people with diabetes in these communities needs be addressed as part of a comprehensive national strategy to reduce the burden of diabetes and its complications on the health system. PMID:23442978

  15. Reconstructing palaeo-volcanic geometries using a Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM): Application to Deception Island volcano (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas, C.; Berrocoso, M.; Felpeto, A.; Torrecillas, M. D.; Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a reconstruction made of the palaeo-volcanic edifice on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) prior to the formation of its present caldera. Deception Island is an active Quaternary volcano located in the Bransfield Strait, between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The morphology of the island has been influenced mainly by the volcanic activity but geodynamics and volcanic deformation have also contributed. A volcanic reconstruction method, the Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM), which includes a terrain deformation factor, is proposed. In the case of Deception Island, the directions of this deformation are NW-SE and NE-SW, and match both the observed deformation of the Bransfield Strait and the volcanic deformation monitored over the last 20 years in the island, using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques. Based on these data, possible volcanic deformation values of 5-15 mm/yr in these directions have been derived. A possible coastline derived from a current bathymetry is transformed, according to values for the chosen date, to obtain the palaeo-coastline of Deception Island of 100 k years ago. Topographic, geomorphologic, volcanological and geological data in a GIS system have been considered, for computation of the outside caldera slope, palaeo-coastline, palaeo-summit height and palaeo digital elevation model (DEM). The result is a 3D palaeo-geomorphological surface model of a volcano, reaching 640 m in height, with an increase of 4 km3 in volume compared to the current edifice, covering 4 km2 more surface area and the method reveals the previous existence of parasite volcanoes. Two photorealistic images of the island are obtained by superposition of textures extracted from a current Quick Bird satellite image also. This technique for reconstructing the terrain of an existing volcano could be useful for analysing the past and future geomorphology of this island and similar locations.

  16. A Bibliography of the Physical Oceanography of Straits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Kelley (eds.), Univer- description of currents in the Glebinka Strait in Puck sity of Alaska, Fairbanks, pp. 3-37. Bay (Poland). Oceanografia , Gdansk 5...3742. Archivio di Oceanografia E Limnologia 19:65-82. Whitworth, T. and R. G. Peterson (1985). Volume Waldichuk, M. (1957). Physical oceanography of

  17. Classification properties of Holocene sediment in Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A textural sorting pattern is evident, with pronounced and regular changes in sand content throughout the strait but with consistent separation of silt from clay only at the lowest sand contents. Vane shear strength values fall in the very soft to medium range. They are best predicted by the amount of silt-size grains (an indicator of mean grain size). -from Author

  18. Ship collision risk assessment for the Singapore Strait.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaobo; Meng, Qiang; Suyi, Li

    2011-11-01

    The Singapore Strait is considered as the bottleneck and chokepoint of the shipping routes connecting the Indian and the Pacific Ocean. Therefore, the ship collision risk assessment is of significant importance for ships passing through the narrow, shallow, and busy waterway. In this paper, three ship collision risk indices are initially proposed to quantitatively assess the ship collision risks in the Strait: index of speed dispersion, degree of acceleration and deceleration, and number of fuzzy ship domain overlaps. These three risk indices for the Singapore Strait are estimated by using the real-time ship locations and sailing speeds provide by Lloyd's MIU automatic identification system (AIS). Based on estimation of these three risk indices, it can be concluded that Legs 4W, 5W, 11E, and 12E are the most risky legs in the Strait. Therefore, the ship collision risk reduction solutions should be prioritized being implemented in these four legs. This study also finds that around 25% of the vessels sail with a speed in excess of the speed limit, which results in higher potentials of ship collision. Analysis indicates that the safety level would be significantly improved if all the vessels follow the passage guidelines.

  19. Laboratory Modeling of Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    modeling to provide insight into the generation of the internal tide at the Luzon Strait. Ultimately, in combination with other reserach projects...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  20. A subglacial landform assemblage on the outer-shelf of M'Clure Strait, Canadian Arctic, ploughed by deglacial iceberg keels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Christine; Dowdeswell, Julian; Dowdeswell, Evelyn; Todd, Brian

    2015-04-01

    stream. The subglacial landforms and sediments in M'Clure Strait were subsequently traversed and reworked by the keels of deep-drafted icebergs (up to 280 m thick) during deglaciation. Groups of parallel to subparallel iceberg ploughmarks indicate a uniform pattern of iceberg drift to the west and northwest during deglaciation. The ploughmarks were formed either by large individual icebergs with wide and uneven keels, or by several deep-keeled icebergs drifting uniformly while trapped within a thick multi-year sea-ice floe. It is possible that multi-year sea-ice cover developed in the relatively protected setting between the islands that flank M'Clure Strait. The iceberg keels which formed the parallel to subparallel ploughmarks also dissected some of the esker-like ridges, redistributing the sediment from the ridges across the seafloor. Isolated linear to curvilinear ploughmarks with highly-irregular orientations record the grounding of individual iceberg keels in seafloor sediments during the later stages of deglaciation.

  1. Transitional care coordination in New York City jails: facilitating linkages to care for people with HIV returning home from Rikers Island.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Alison O; Cohen, Louise R; Harriman, Graham; Teixeira, Paul A; Cruzado-Quinones, Jacqueline; Venters, Homer

    2013-10-01

    New York City (NYC) jails are the epicenter of an epidemic that overwhelmingly affects Black and Hispanic men and offer a significant opportunity for public health intervention. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene instituted population based approaches to identify the HIV-infected, initiate discharge planning at jail admission, and facilitate post-release linkages to primary care. Using a caring and supportive 'warm transitions' approach, transitional care services are integral to continuity of care. Since 2010, over three-quarters of known HIV-infected inmates admitted to jails received discharge plans; 74 % of those released were linked to primary care. The EnhanceLink initiative's new Health Liaison, a lynchpin role, facilitated 250 court-led placements in medical alternatives to incarceration. Transitional care coordination programs are critical to facilitate continuity of care for people with chronic health conditions including the HIV-infected returning home from jail and for the public health of the communities to which they return.

  2. Modeling the biogeochemical seasonal cycle in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Romero, E.; Vichi, M.; Castro, M.; Macías, J.; Macías, D.; García, C. M.; Bruno, M.

    2014-11-01

    A physical-biological coupled model was used to estimate the effect of the physical processes at the Strait of Gibraltar over the biogeochemical features of the Atlantic Inflow (AI) towards the Mediterranean Sea. This work was focused on the seasonal variation of the biogeochemical patterns in the AI and the role of the Strait; including primary production and phytoplankton features. As the physical model is 1D (horizontal) and two-layer, different integration methods for the primary production in the Biogeochemical Fluxes Model (BFM) have been evaluated. An approach based on the integration of a production-irradiance function was the chosen method. Using this Plankton Functional Type model (BFM), a simplified phytoplankton seasonal cycle in the AI was simulated. Main results included a principal bloom in spring dominated by nanoflagellates, whereas minimum biomass (mostly picophytoplankton) was simulated during summer. Physical processes occurring in the Strait could trigger primary production and raise phytoplankton biomass (during spring and autumn), mainly due to two combined effects. First, in the Strait a strong interfacial mixing (causing nutrient supply to the upper layer) is produced, and, second, a shoaling of the surface Atlantic layer occurs eastward. Our results show that these phenomena caused an integrated production of 105 g C m- 2 year- 1 in the eastern side of the Strait, and would also modify the proportion of the different phytoplankton groups. Nanoflagellates were favored during spring/autumn while picophytoplankton is more abundant in summer. Finally, AI could represent a relevant source of nutrients and biomass to Alboran Sea, fertilizing the upper layer of this area with 4.95 megatons nitrate year- 1 (79.83 gigamol year- 1) and 0.44 megatons C year- 1. A main advantage of this coupled model is the capability of solving relevant high-resolution processes as the tidal forcing without expensive computing requirements, allowing to assess the

  3. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and other Pacific Islands. This small population often is grouped with Asians ... Islanders often have unmet health needs and face barriers to good health. This group is more likely ...

  4. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  5. Middle pleistocene mollusks from St. Lawrence Island and their significance for the paleo-oceanography of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Patton, W.W.

    1972-01-01

    Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression. A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait. ?? 1972.

  6. Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

  7. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  8. Electromagnetic induction in the New Zealand South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Dosso, H. W.; Ingham, M.

    1993-12-01

    Laboratory magnetic field measurements for a scaled analogue model of New Zealand and the surrounding oceans are used to provide induction arrows for simulated geomagnetic variations of 5-120 min periods for a series of traverses over the South Island. As the island is relatively narrow, the field responses for all on-land locations show significant effects of the surrounding oceans. The model simulates a uniformly resistive island, the oceans, and a conductive asthenosphere at depth, and thus discrepancies between the model and field results for sites on the island are attributed to anomalous geological structures not simulated in the model. Removing the coast effects before interpretation, by subtracting the model induction arrows from the field site arrows at Eyrewell permits an obvious reinterpretation that attributes a significant component of the field responses to the nearby Alpine and Marlborough Faults, rather than to the channelled current in Cook Strait.

  9. Human genetic differentiation across the Strait of Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Strait of Gibraltar is a crucial area in the settlement history of modern humans because it represents a possible connection between Africa and Europe. So far, genetic data were inconclusive about the fact that this strait constitutes a barrier to gene flow, as previous results were highly variable depending on the genetic locus studied. The present study evaluates the impact of the Gibraltar region in reducing gene flow between populations from North-Western Africa and South-Western Europe, by comparing formally various genetic loci. First, we compute several statistics of population differentiation. Then, we use an original simulation approach in order to infer the most probable evolutionary scenario for the settlement of the area, taking into account the effects of both demography and natural selection at some loci. Results We show that the genetic patterns observed today in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar may reflect an ancient population genetic structure which has not been completely erased by more recent events such as Neolithic migrations. Moreover, the differences observed among the loci (i.e. a strong genetic boundary revealed by the Y-chromosome polymorphism and, at the other extreme, no genetic differentiation revealed by HLA-DRB1 variation) across the strait suggest specific evolutionary histories like sex-mediated migration and natural selection. By considering a model of balancing selection for HLA-DRB1, we here estimate a coefficient of selection of 2.2% for this locus (although weaker in Europe than in Africa), which is in line with what was estimated from synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates. Selection at this marker thus appears strong enough to leave a signature not only at the DNA level, but also at the population level where drift and migration processes were certainly relevant. Conclusions Our multi-loci approach using both descriptive analyses and Bayesian inferences lead to better characterize the role of

  10. Bio-optical characteristics along the Straits of Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Vivian; Frouin, Robert; Negri, Rubén; Silva, Ricardo; Pompeu, Mayza; Rudorff, Natalia; Cabral, Anderson; Dogliotti, Ana; Martinez, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    The Straits of Magallanes at the tip of South America connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The variability in the absorption characteristics by phytoplankton (aph(440)), non-pigmented particles, NPP (aNPP(440)), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter, CDOM (ay(440)), measured along the Straits in late summer 2011 (R/V Melville MV1102 cruise), was analyzed. Satellite-derived monthly PAR data showed that at the time of the cruise the western sector was exposed to a low-light environment (~ 16 mol quanta m-2d-1) while the eastern sector received higher irradiance (~ 28 mol quanta m-2d-1). In the Patagonian Shelf total absorption was dominated by phytoplankton (up to 76%; aph(440)=0.265 m-1), while in the Atlantic Sector of the Straits, the major contributor was NPP (up to 42%; aNPP(440)=0.138 m-1), and in the Pacific Sector of the Straits CDOM contributed up to 80% of the total absorption (ay(440)=0.232 m-1). These changes could be related in part to the input of fresh water from glacier melting and rain in the Pacific Sector (ay(440) vs salinity rs=-0.98). The carbon biomass (C) was composed in its majority by pico-phytoplankton and secondly by nano-phytoplankton, with exception of the Atlantic Sector where the micro-phytoplankton dominated. Carbon to chlorophyll-a ratios (C:Chla) were very low throughout the Straits (average of ~ 6) because of photoacclimation to the extremely low light. Complementary pigments data obtained in spring 2003 by the BEAGLE expedition indicated the predominance of diatoms all along the Straits, but the bio-optical trend resembled the one found in late summer 2011, i.e., NPP dominated the absorption in the well mixed Atlantic Sector, phytoplankton in the Middle Sector, and CDOM in the Pacific Sector. These results emphasize that underwater light is the major factor affecting phytoplankton growth and physiology, and that prevalent physical and geochemical conditions play an important role regulating the bio-optical properties in

  11. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Glacial-interglacial organic carbon record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia: Implications for regional changes in continental vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visser, K.; Thunell, R.; Goni, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies convincingly show that climate in the Western Pacific Warm Pool and other equatorial/tropical regions was significantly colder (by ???3-4??C) during glacial periods, prompting a reexamination of the late Pleistocene paleoenvironments of these regions. This study examines changes in continental vegetation during the last two deglaciations (Terminations I and II) using a sediment core (MD9821-62) recovered from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia. Evidence based on the lignin phenol ratios suggests that vegetation on Borneo and other surrounding islands did not significantly change from tropical rainforest during the last two glacial periods relative to subsequent interglacial periods. This supports the hypothesis that the winter monsoon increased in strength during glacial periods, allowing Indonesia to maintain high rainfall despite the cooler conditions. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management and control of pollution in Inner Johore Strait.

    PubMed

    Koh, H L; Lim, P E; Midun, Z

    1991-10-01

    Coastal waters in South Johore, Malaysia are polluted to various degrees. The major pollution sources are domestric wastes from human settlements, agro-based wastes from palm oil mills and rubber processing factories, industrial effluents from industrial estates and discharges from animal farms. These pollution problems have adversely affected resources such as fisheries, recreational potential as well as the general aesthetic quality of the coastal environment particularly the Inner Johore Strait. Hence proper management and control measures are urgently needed to protect and further enhance the water quality to ensure environmentally sustainable development. This study examines various management options to control the pollution in the Inner Johore Strait. The options involve partial opening as well as complete removal of the Causeway to improve the tidal flow for more effective dilution and dispersion of pollutants. Computer simulation models are used to assess the impacts of the proposed options.

  14. Maritime Security Cooperation in the Strait of Malacca

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Banlaoi, “Maritime Security Outlook for Southeast Asia,” The Best of Time, the Worst of Times, ed. Joshua Ho and Catherine Zara Raymond (Singapore...Johor Straits, Singapore’s water supply and the territorial issue of Pedra Branca Islet.51 Singapore had begun to reclaim land through its land...lies first in the fact that Singapore’s primary source of water is Malaysia and in two agreements on the terms and pricing of the supply of untreated

  15. Iran’s Threat to the Strait of Hormuz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-23

    the Strait of Hormuz Source: Jacqueline Nolan, Library of Congress, with data from Petroleum Economist, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...continued) more than three to five boats together. The machine guns and rocket launchers deployed on its small-boat fleet remain highly...conventional combatants such as the cruiser Vincennes, in its firefight with Iranian small boats in July 1988, showed that the five-inch guns could

  16. Generation and Evolution of Internal Waves in Luzon Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Distribution approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Generation and Evolution of Internal Waves in...turbulence makes this a current locus of uncertainty. For this study, our focus is on generation , propagation, evolution, and dissipation of small-scale...The primary objectives of this observational program are to quantify 1) the generation of NLIWs and internal tides in the vicinity of Luzon Strait

  17. Laboratory Modeling of Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    Peacock 2010). 3. The suitability of the double ridge configuration of the Luzon Strait to give rise to resonant forcing of the semi-diurnal...Figure 6. 6 Figure 6: PIV visualization of the magnitude of the in-plane velocity of the 3D conical internal wave field generated by a...Visualization of the conical 3D internal wave field generated by an oscillating sphere using stereo-PIV, Experiments in Fluids, 54, 1454. Mathur

  18. Hydrographic Measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar, June 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    DATE OF REPORT (Yr., Mo., Day) April 1987 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Planning Systems, Inc. 15. PAGE COUNT 14 COSATI CODES GROUP 18. SUBJECT...hydrographic cruise form part of a broad study of the dynamics and kinematics of the Strait of Gibraltar. The station plan was chosen to resolve the...Kinder t^ ^^u*-. Donald A. Burns Oceanography Division Ocean Science Directorate Michael R. Wilcox Planning Systems, Inc. Slidell, Louisiana

  19. The Straits of Malacca and Singapore, the Neglected Choke Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Product JDW Jane’s Defense Weekly LOS Law of the Sea MADGE Malaysian Air Defense System MCM Mine Countermeasures NEP New Economic Program PDR Pacific...Defense Reporter . RMAF Royal Malaysian Air Force * RMN Royal Malaysian Navy SAM Surface to Air Missile SSM Surface to Surface Missile O TSS Traffic...The English retained control of the Malay peninsula and what became the Straits settlements. Penang , Malacca and Singapore were valued for their

  20. Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia - Controlling the Malacca Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    RESTRICTING THE MALACCA STRAITS..73 A. UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA III (UNCLOS) ....................... 73 B. POLLUTION ...ship missiles, which are installed on an equally large number of frigates, corvettes, and patrol craft. They have also developed extensive air forces...qualitative superiority in large modern warships, the naval balance is inclined toward the littoral states because of the quantitatively superior air

  1. Internal Waves in Straits (IWISE): Observations of Wave Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    deployment of a 2-D array of pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal...east of the strait to the westernmost deployments. Fig. 1 Deployment locations of Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] in South...measurements of nonlinear internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. David M Farmer, Li, Qiang & Jae-Hun

  2. Observed Volume Fluxes and Mixing in the Dardanelles Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-04

    there was a net low-salinity water outflow to the Aegean Sea, and that they varied weakly on longer time scales (monthly to seasonal). High-salinity... water fluxes (>= 39 psu) were used to calculate strait-averaged vertical eddy diffusivities which ranged between ICT" and 10Ŗ m2 sŕ. Additionally...net low-salinity water outflow to the Aegean Sea, and that they varied weakly on longer time scales (monthly to seasonal). High- salinity water

  3. The Observation of SAR, Optical and Altimeter Data to Study the Generation of Internal Wave in Tsushima Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvelyna, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2006-07-01

    This study proposes D iscr eet Mey er wavelet tr ansform and spectr al reflectan ce analysis for internal w ave detection in ERS1/2 and ASTER imag es data over the Tsushima Strait, Jap an, during 1993-2004 period. The wavelet tr ansform of imag e w as successfully der ived the intern al wav e f eature with h igher w avelet coeff icien t than sea surf ace, i.e. between 2-4.59 times, on horizon tal and vertical d etail coefficient at level 2-5, incr eased the detection probability over 80%. The intern al w ave is modeled using Co mbined Korteweg the Vries (combKdV) model. Non linier speed of in ternal wave is calculated about 85 cm-1. Th e altimetry data products from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 data are used to predict th e internal wav e gener ation. Th e observation results show th e propagation of in ternal w aves wer e varied between N W-SW at eastern channel and N-SW at western channel of Tsush ima Strait, p arallel to the direction of the geostrophic curren t. A t NE coast off Tsushima Island, the direction is on S/SE dir ection. I t is suggested th at th e internal wav es w ere sourced from south co ast off Tsush ima Island and south coast off the Japan Sea. They w ere possib ly tid ally gen erated and formed due to bathymetr ic change.

  4. The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: Extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Seas and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus (heterococcolith-bearing phase) in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects crossing Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Iceland Sea, respectively, each conducted during both July 2011 and September-October 2007. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles were used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water and surface mixed layer at the time of sampling. Strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks characterized the northern and southern transects, where the maximum values of 53×103 cells/l (fall) and 70×103 cells/l (summer), respectively, were essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This pattern confirms previous findings of a summer to fall northwestward shift in peak coccolithophore cell densities within the Nordic Seas. While depicting an overall zonal shift in high cell densities between the summer (Norwegian Sea) and fall (northern Iceland Sea) conditions, the southern transects were additionally characterized by local peak coccolithophore concentrations associated with a geographically and temporally restricted convective process (Lofoten Gyre, summer), as well as an island mass effect (in the vicinity of Jan Mayen Island, fall). Maximum coccolithophore abundances within Fram Strait were found during both seasons close to the western frontal zone (Polar and Arctic Fronts) an area of strong density gradients where physical and chemical properties of the surface mixed layer are prone to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Here, changes in species dominance from E. huxleyi in summer, to C. pelagicus in fall, were related to the strengthened influence during summer, of surface AW, as well as to high July solar irradiance, within an area usually characterized by C. pelagicus-dominated low density populations.

  5. Biogeochemical fluxes through the Strait of Otranto (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, G.; Gačić, M.; Vetrano, A.; Boldrin, A.; Bregant, D.; Rabitti, S.; Souvermezoglou, E.

    1998-06-01

    A series of seasonal cruises and Eulerian current measurements in the Otranto Strait were carried out to study the biogeochemical characteristics of the strait and to estimate the exchange of water, dissolved and particulate matter between the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea. Analysis of data shows that on an annual scale, the Adriatic Sea exports dissolved nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) to the Ionian, and imports particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. Estimate of the mean annual water flux for the first time based on direct Eulerian current measurements gives value of 0.9 Sv that is appreciably higher than those found in literature. Calculations of the ratio of new and total primary production based on an annual phosphate subsurface export suggest that the trophic status of the Adriatic Sea on the whole is close to that of an oligotrophic sea. From the biogeochemical distributions obtained, an active role for the Adriatic in supporting the well-known N:P ratio anomaly of the Mediterranean is hy pothesized. Further studies are needed to estimate the contribution of the dissolved organic forms to the nutrient exchanges through the strait, and to establish the total budget of N and P in the Adriatic Sea.

  6. Temporal and spatial variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) represents about half of the export of dense waters formed in the Nordic Seas to the deep circulation in the North Atlantic. The passage connecting the two is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation, and highly variable meso-scale current fluctuations are observed in the overflow. In the summer of 2014, the mooring array used for monitoring the Denmark Strait Overflow was expanded from two to five moorings in order to better resolve its spatial variability. Continuous measurements of the velocity field were made using four acoustic profilers (ADCP) and one point current meter (RCM). The instruments were deployed along the sill between the deepest point and 33 km westward of it, towards the Greenland shelf. A descriptive analysis of the structure of the velocity field at the Denmark Strait sill is presented, along with its spatial and temporal variability. The fluctuations are dominated by passing meso-scale vortices, pulsating changes in the strength of the overflow and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. These changes and their respective contribution to the variability of the flow field are discussed with relation to the different source water masses for the DSO. The relationship between spatial coherence and temporal variability on daily to monthly time scales is explored, and the influence of meso-scale eddies on daily to weekly transport estimates is quantified. The results of the analysis are used to develop a measurement strategy for unbiased DSO transport estimates.

  7. Formation of wind-driven ice bridges in narrow straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Zheng, Zhong; Winton, Michael; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-11-01

    An ice bridge is a static arch made of tightly packed ice that can be formed when sea ice flows through a narrow strait between landmasses. The formation of a stable ice arch prevents the further flow of sea ice into warmer oceans, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of the local climate and ecology and to an extent, the mass balance of Arctic ice. While ice bridges are a seasonal phenomenon in many parts of the Canadian Archipelago, the process of their formation and breakup is poorly understood. Using thin-layer theory along with dynamic sea ice models widely used in climate modeling, we develop a reduced-order description of wind-driven ice bridge formation in long, narrow straits. Our theory predicts a critical static condition for arrested flow that involves the ice properties (thickness and compactness), the geometry of the channel, and the magnitude of the wind stress. Further, we show that in a channel of varying shape and under a constant wind stress, a spatially uniform ice field evolves towards a steady state with discontinuities in its properties, consistent with observed mechanisms of ice bridge formation. The reduced-order model thus provides a predictive tool for the flow and stoppage of sea ice in straits.

  8. A Strait Comparison: Lessons Learned from the 1915 Dardanelles Campaign in the Context of a Strait of Hormuz Closure Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    the Dardanelles through the lens of such an event, distill a number of recommendations for the United States and its Coalition partners relevant to...knots going against the current of the Straits, were to steam past the minefields, turn, and sweep them coming back downstream. Seven trawlers set...principle, be increased to 11 MBD using drag -reducing agents [23]. 37 Saudi Arabia and the UAE, and Iran has a large, restive population that, in

  9. Variability of Fram Strait Ice Flux and North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ron

    1999-01-01

    An important term in the mass balance of the Arctic Ocean sea ice is the ice export. We estimated the winter sea ice export through the Fram Strait using ice motion from satellite passive microwave data and ice thickness data from moored upward looking sonars. The average winter area flux over the 18-year record (1978-1996) is 670,000 square km, approximately 7% of the area of the Arctic Ocean. The winter area flux ranges from a minimum of 450,000 sq. km in 1984 to a maximum of 906,000 sq km in 1995. The daily, monthly and interannual variabilities of the ice area flux are high. There is an upward trend in the ice area flux over the 18-year record. The average winter volume flux over the winters of October 1990 through May 1995 is 1745 cubic km ranging from a low of 1375 cubic km in 1990 to a high of 2791 cubic km in 1994. The sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait explains more than 80% of the variance in the ice flux over the 18-year record. We use the coefficients from the regression of the time-series of area flux versus pressure gradient across the Fram Strait and ice thickness data to estimate the summer area and volume flux. The average 12-month area flux and volume flux are 919,000 sq km and 2366 cubic km. We find a significant correlation (R =0.86) between the area flux and positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index over the months of December through March. Correlation between our six years of volume flux estimates and the NAO index gives R =0.56. During the high NAO years, a more intense Icelandic low increases the gradient in the sea-level pressure by almost 1 mbar across the Fram Strait thus increasing the atmospheric forcing on ice transport. Correlation is reduced during the negative NAO years because of decreased dominance of this large-scale atmospheric pattern on the sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait. Additional information is contained in the original.

  10. Low-frequency variability of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar during CANIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Delgado, Javier; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Vargas, Manuel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek

    Time series of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar at the eastern section have been estimated from current-meter observations taken between October 1995 and May 1998 within the Canary Islands Azores Gibraltar Observations (CANIGO) project. The inflow exhibits a clear annual signal that peaks in late summer simultaneously with a deepening of the interface. The cycle seems to be driven by the seasonal signal of the density contrast between the surface Atlantic water that forms the inflow and the deep Mediterranean water of the outflow. The outflow and the depth of the interface have predominant semiannual signals and a smaller annual one whose phase agrees with that of the density contrast as well. Local wind stress and atmospheric pressure difference between the Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean to less extent have clear semiannual signal, so that the possibility that the semiannual cycle of the outflow and of the depth of the interface are forced by them was analyzed. The composite Froude number in this section is well below the critical value, suggesting submaximal exchange. Therefore, the conditions in the Alboran basin influence the exchange and some evidence that the size and location of the Western Alboran Gyre contribute to the observed signals, both annual and semiannual, is provided.

  11. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  12. Tectonomagmatic activity and ice dynamics in the Bransfield Strait back-arc basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, Robert P.; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Matsumoto, Haru; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R.; Haxel, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    An array of moored hydrophones was used to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes and ice-generated sounds within the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. During a 2 year period, a total of 3900 earthquakes, 5925 icequakes and numerous ice tremor events were located throughout the region. The seismic activity included eight space-time earthquake clusters, positioned along the central neovolcanic rift zone of the young Bransfield back-arc basin. These sequences of small magnitude earthquakes, or swarms, suggest ongoing magmatic activity that becomes localized along isolated volcanic features and fissure-like ridges in the southwest portion of the basin. A total of 122 earthquakes were located along the South Shetland trench, indicating continued deformation and possibly ongoing subduction along this margin. The large number of icequakes observed show a temporal pattern related to seasonal freeze-thaw cycles and a spatial distribution consistent with channeling of sea ice along submarine canyons from glacier fronts. Several harmonic tremor episodes were sourced from a large (˜30 km2) iceberg that entered northeast portion of the basin. The spectral character of these signals suggests they were produced by either resonance of a small chamber of fluid within the iceberg, or more likely, due to periodicity of discrete stick-slip events caused by contact of the moving iceberg with the seafloor. These pressure waves appear to have been excited by abrasion of the iceberg along the seafloor as it passed Clarence and Elephant Islands.

  13. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  14. Strong Phylogeographic Structure in a Sedentary Seabird, the Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus)

    PubMed Central

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Till, Charlotte E.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Collins, Catherine J.; Lalas, Chris; Loh, Graeme; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Waters, Jonathan M.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Kennedy, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus) comprises two regional groups (Otago and Foveaux Strait) that show consistent differentiation in relative frequencies of pied versus dark-bronze morphotypes, the extent of facial carunculation, body size and breeding time. We used modern and ancient DNA (mitochondrial DNA control region one), and morphometric approaches to investigate the phylogeography and taxonomy of L. chalconotus and its closely related sister species, the endemic Chatham Island Shag (L. onslowi). Our analysis shows Leucocarbo shags in southern New Zealand comprise two well-supported clades, each containing both pied and dark-bronze morphs. However, the combined monophyly of these populations is not supported, with the L. chalconotus Otago lineage sister to L. onslowi. Morphometric analysis indicates that Leucocarbo shags from Otago are larger on average than those from Foveaux Strait. Principal co-ordinate analysis of morphometric data showed substantial morphological differentiation between the Otago and Foveaux Strait clades, and L. onslowi. The phylogeographic partitioning detected within L. chalconotus is marked, and such strong structure is rare for phalacrocoracid species. Our phylogenetic results, together with consistent differences in relative proportions of plumage morphs and facial carunculation, and concordant differentiation in body size and breeding time, suggest several alternative evolutionary hypotheses that require further investigation to determine the level of taxonomic distinctiveness that best represents the L. chalconotus Otago and Foveaux Strait clades. PMID:24614677

  15. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  16. Hydroclimatic variations in the Makassar Strait over the past 5000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, C.; Mohtadi, M.; Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Hebbeln, D.; Mulitza, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is the only low-latitude connection between two oceans and an important part of the global conveyor belt influencing global climate. About 80% of the ITF flows through the Makassar Strait between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi and can be modified by the complex climate system over the Maritime continent characterized by interacting climate phenomena like e.g. El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Australasian monsoon system. To assess changes in the hydroclimate of the Makassar Strait in relation to dominant climatic forcing over the past 5,000 years, sediment core SO 217-18517 (1°32.198' S 117°33.756' E, 698 m water depth) collected off the Mahakam Delta, eastern Borneo, was studied. We use shell Mg/Ca ratio in planktic foraminifera to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), sedimentation rates and Ti/Ca ratios to reconstruct changes in terrigenous runoff, and seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) as a measure of past changes in sea surface salinity. Zr/Rb ratios are interpreted to indicate changes in grain size distribution. SST shows small-scale variations around 28.5°C during the mid Holocene, a decreasing trend between 3,000 and 1,700 years BP, and thereafter minor variations around 27.5°C. Sedimentation rates were higher between 3,400 and 1,000 years BP. Runoff increased during the past 5,000 years while our data indicate no change in sea surface salinity from mid to late Holocene. Grain size decreased until 1,700 years BP, and remained stable thereafter towards the present. The partly inconsistent timing and pattern of our data indicate the different degree to which our proxies are influenced by different forcings. We will explore the complex connection between local insolation and climate phenomena such as ENSO, dynamic and thermodynamic changes in ITCZ and monsoonal rainfall, their possible relation to high-latitude forcing including an (inter)hemispheric insolation gradient.

  17. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  5. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  8. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  9. 76 FR 23191 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 RIN 1625-AA48 Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de... without change its November 19, 2010, interim rule codifying traffic separation schemes in the Strait of..., and the Strait of Georgia. The Coast Guard established these traffic separation schemes...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  13. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  14. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  15. Atlantic to Mediterranean Sea Level Difference Driven by Winds near Gibraltar Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menemenlis, Dimitris; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong

    2006-01-01

    Observations and numerical simulations show that winds near Gibraltar Strait cause an Atlantic Ocean to Mediterranean Sea sea level difference of 20 cm peak to peak with a 3-cm standard deviation for periods of days to years. Theoretical arguments and numerical experiments establish that this wind-driven sea level difference is caused in part by storm surges due to alongshore winds near the North African coastline on the Atlantic side of Gibraltar. The fraction of the Moroccan coastal current offshore of the 284-m isobath is deflected across Gibraltar Strait, west of Camarinal Sill, resulting in a geostrophic surface pressure gradient that contributes to a sea level difference at the stationary limit. The sea level difference is also caused in part by the along-strait wind setup, with a contribution proportional to the along-strait wind stress and to the length of Gibraltar Strait and adjoining regions and inversely proportional to its depth.

  16. Numerical Modelling of Circulation and Exchange through Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, M.; Chua, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation in the Singapore coastal region is complicated and influenced by the combination of tidal forcing of the surrounding seas, complex bathymetry, irregular coastlines, and seasonal monsoon and local winds. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator) model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow in Singapore coastal waters. The unstructured-grid has an average resolution of 50 - 100 m around Singapore and in areas close to the shoreline, while a coarse grid resolution is employed in the open waters. The model is tidally forced at the three open boundaries, located to the west, south and east of Singapore, using the 8 main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS). A detailed calibration is performed, and the model-predicted water levels and currents compare well with observed data throughout the model domain. We examine the individual and combined effects of tidal and wind forcing by performing simulations with (1) tides only, (2) winds only and (3) both tides and wind. The exchange through Singapore Strait is investigated by computing volume fluxes and transport pathways at four transects, namely the Malacca Strait, Java Sea, South China Sea and Singapore transects. The transport pathways are computed by releasing particles on each side of the transects, and identifying the spatial distribution of the particles over one tidal cycle. Our results show that tidal forcing is predominant in Singapore Strait, and wind forcing is an important mechanism during the monsoon season. The residual effects, attributed to nonlinear interactions between tidal and wind forcing, is dominant during the inter-monsoon season.

  17. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  18. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions until May 2003. The evacuation of the island's residents in 1990 was ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...

  19. Observations of velocity divergence in Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. K.; Stabeno, P. J.

    1993-02-01

    Direct observations of horizontal velocity divergence and relative vorticity were made in Shelikof Strait, Alaska during May 1990 with Loran-C buoys and satellite-tracked drifters. These kinematic properties typically had values of 2 × 10 -5s -1. Some of the observations indicated a cyclic divergence which appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the pycnocline driven by an internal, semidaily tide. The data also suggested that the net divergence over several days was quite small; thus larval concentration models can ignore this effect.

  20. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  1. Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Bakar, R.A.; Woon, W.C.

    1996-07-01

    The Straits of Johor is a narrow stretch of water separating Peninsular Malaysia from Singapore. The two land masses bordering the Straits of Johor are characterized by a wide range of landscapes and activities. On the Malaysian side, which constitutes the state of Johor, lies the state capital as well as a rapidly developing international seaport, in the vicinity of a major industrial area. The eastern portion of the state bordering the straits is relatively undeveloped, comprising of wetland forests. On the Singapore side, apart from a power-generating facility, much of northern Singapore which borders the straits is undeveloped. The Straits of Johor and nearby-waters also represent an important area for fishing and aquaculture activities. Fish traps are a common sight along the length of the straits. Oil pollution has been identified as the major contribution to the deterioration of the marine water quality in the Straits of Johor. Shipping activities involving tankers and other vessels plying the Straits of Malacca, have been recognized as a source of petroleum hydrocarbons in these waters. Land-based industrial and urban sources also contribute to the overall oil pollution load in these waters. In recognizing the need for baseline data in assessing environmental pollution, the Department of Environment has been conducting pollution monitoring programs since 1976, at numerous sampling stations situated in the major river systems of the nation, as well as coastal areas,. including the Straits of Johor. However, as far as oil pollution is concerned, these programs have been restricted to measuring oil and grease. The present study was undertaken to determine petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as oil and grease in water and sediments along the near- coastal areas of the Straits of Johor and near-by waters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The Holocene Isolation of Dalma Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Dalma Island can be broadly defined as an emergent salt diapir formed through the halokinetic emplacement of the Precambrian-Cambrian Hormuz Complex. The outline of the island, as seen today, has been much modified by anthropogenic dredge-and-fill activities. The lithofacies of Dalma Island can be subdivided into three distinct geological and geographical provinces. The core of the island is dominated by the sedimentary, evaporitic and volcanic lithologies of the Hormuz Complex. These chaotically distributed units are unconformably overlain by sediments and evaporites of the Miocene Fars Formation. The island's coastline is dominated by Recent bioclastic sediments, primarily derived from reefs at the island's northern coast. Following exposure of the Arabian Gulf floor during the Last Glacial Maximum, marine waters entered the Strait of Hormuz in the latest Pleistocene and the Gulf once again became a shallow epicontinental seaway. Bathymetric surveys reveal that the sea floor surrounding Dalma Island and separating it from the mainland lies at a depth shallower than 40 m. The Holocene transgression would not have had any effect on this area until after 10.2 Ka. After this time, rising ground water levels, associated with the advancing shoreline, may have resulted in the localised formation of shallow lakes or marshes in depressions. As sea level continued to rise, these lakes coalesced and the Dalma Salt Dome became increasingly isolated from the mainland. Once the transgression had reached the -15 m contour, by 8.5 Ka, Dalma would have been completely isolated from the mainland. By 6 ka sea level had reached present levels with continued rise eventually peaking between 1-2 m higher than today. At this time the area of the island would have been much reduced with wide areas of the island's low-lying coastal plain being either submerged or lying in the intertidal environment. The above figures for the isolation of Dalma make two assumptions. Firstly, it is

  3. Wind-Driven Formation of Ice Bridges in Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Zheng, Zhong; Winton, Michael; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-03-01

    Ice bridges are static structures composed of tightly packed sea ice that can form during the course of its flow through a narrow strait. Despite their important role in local ecology and climate, the formation and breakup of ice bridges is not well understood and has proved difficult to predict. Using long-wave approximations and a continuum description of sea ice dynamics, we develop a one-dimensional theory for the wind-driven formation of ice bridges in narrow straits, which is verified against direct numerical simulations. We show that for a given wind stress and minimum and maximum channel widths, a steady-state ice bridge can only form beyond a critical value of the thickness and the compactness of the ice field. The theory also makes quantitative predictions for ice fluxes, which are particularly useful to estimate the ice export associated with the breakup of ice bridges. We note that similar ideas are applicable to dense granular flows in confined geometries.

  4. Synoptic Drivers of Bering Strait Wave States, Fall 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Bering Strait region of western Alaska, as the single point of entry to the Arctic from the Pacific, represents an important focal point of activity that ranges from heavy transport operations, such bulk ore carriers as to Teck Alaska Red Dog mine, to Arctic tourism activities, and subsistence fishing and hunting carried out by local residents. Much of that activity is set to increase in the coming years as sea ice continues to recede, allowing greater access to transport and resources in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas. The presence of annual sea ice cover has greatly limited the deployment of marine monitoring systems, especially wave measurement buoys. This is problematic because it limits the direct linkage of wave states to their specific synoptic drivers. To begin to address this shortcoming a buoy was deployed just south of the Bering Strait in late July with anticipated pickup in mid October, 2011. Wave events recorded by buoy, which was sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and NOAA, will be examined in terms of the specific synoptic systems responsible. The broader context of how typical these storm systems are will also be overviewed.

  5. Wind-Driven Formation of Ice Bridges in Straits.

    PubMed

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Zheng, Zhong; Winton, Michael; Stone, Howard A

    2017-03-24

    Ice bridges are static structures composed of tightly packed sea ice that can form during the course of its flow through a narrow strait. Despite their important role in local ecology and climate, the formation and breakup of ice bridges is not well understood and has proved difficult to predict. Using long-wave approximations and a continuum description of sea ice dynamics, we develop a one-dimensional theory for the wind-driven formation of ice bridges in narrow straits, which is verified against direct numerical simulations. We show that for a given wind stress and minimum and maximum channel widths, a steady-state ice bridge can only form beyond a critical value of the thickness and the compactness of the ice field. The theory also makes quantitative predictions for ice fluxes, which are particularly useful to estimate the ice export associated with the breakup of ice bridges. We note that similar ideas are applicable to dense granular flows in confined geometries.

  6. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A. ); Hill, K.C. ); Smith, M.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received [approximately]10[sup 6] km[sup 3] of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana's Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960's, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana's Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable [approximately]300[prime] gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  7. A Navigation Safety Support Model for the Strait of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, M. Anil; Otay, Emre N.

    In this study, a real time maritime traffic support model is developed for safe navigation in the Strait of Istanbul, also known as the Bosporus. The present model simulates vessel trajectories corresponding to possible headings, using channel geometry, counter traffic, and surface currents as input. A new MATLAB code is developed for the simulation and the Marine GNC Toolbox (Fossen and Perez, 2004) is used for the vessel hydrodynamics and the auto-pilot model. After computing the trajectory tree of the vessel by forward-mapping its position distribution with respect to the initial position vector, the casualty probabilities of each trajectory are found. Within certain restrictions on vessel geometry, the proposed model predicts the safest possible intended course for the transit vessels based on the navigational parameters including position, speed, and course of the vessel. The model is tested for the Strait of Istanbul for validation. Without loss of generality, the model can be used for any narrow channel with a vessel traffic system providing the necessary input.

  8. Funds of Knowledge of Sorting and Patterning: Networks of Exchange in a Torres Strait Island Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature and how they might be used to support parents and children with their learning of mathematics that is taught and learned in the early years of school. Funds of knowledges are those that have been historically and culturally accumulated into a body of knowledge and…

  9. Sound-Field Amplification: Enhancing the Classroom Listening Environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Robyn; Theodoros, Deborah; McPherson, Bradley; Smaldino, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Sound-field amplification is an educational tool that allows control of the acoustic environment in a classroom. Teachers wear small microphones that transmit sound to a receiver system attached to loudspeakers around the classroom. The goal of sound-field amplification is to amplify the teacher's voice by a few decibels, and to provide uniform…

  10. Cretaceous to Recent extension in the Bering Strait region, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Miller, Elizabeth L.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Hannula, Kimberly A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Gans, Phillip B.

    1995-06-01

    A key issue presented by the geology of northern Alaska concerns the demise of the Brooks Range going west toward the Bering Strait region. The main Brookian tectonic and stratigraphic elements continue into the Russian Far East, but the thick crustal root and high elevations that define the modern physiographic Brooks Range die out approaching the Bering and Chukchi shelves, which form an unusually broad area of submerged continental crust. Structural, geochronologic, and apatite fission-track data indicate that at least three episodes of extension may have affected the crust beneath the Bering Strait region, in the middle to Late Cretaceous, Eocene-early Oligocene, and Pliocene(?)-Recent. This extension may explain the present thinner crust of the region, the formation of extensive continental shelves, and the dismemberment and southward translation of tectonic elements as they are traced from the Brooks Range toward Russia. Evidence for these events is recorded within a gently tilted 10- to 15-km thick crustal section exposed on the western Seward Peninsula. The earliest episode is documented at high structural levels by the postcollision exhumation history of blueschists. Structural data indicate exhumation was accomplished in part by thinning of the crust during north-south extension bracketed between 120 and 90 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages. The Kigluaik Mountains gneiss dome rose through the crust during the later stages of this extension at 91 Ma. Similar gneiss domes occur within a broad, discontinuous belt of Cretaceous magmatism linking interior Alaska with northeast Russia; mantle-derived melts within this belt likely heated the crust and facilitated extension. Apatite fission-track ages indicate cooling below ≈120-85°C occurred sometime between 100 and 70 Ma, and the area subsequently resided at shallow crustal depths (<3-4 km) until the present. This suggests that denudation of deep levels of the crust by erosion and/or tectonism was mostly

  11. Circulation and Mixing of Water Masses in the Taiwan Strait Elucidated from Radium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, F.; Huh, C.; Chen, W.; Liu, C.; Guo, Z.; Gao, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Taiwan Strait is a pivotal gateway connecting two largest marginal seas in the Pacific Ocean, namely the South China Sea and the East China Sea. The strait thus serves as an important conduit for the transport and exchange of water, heat and associated chemical materials in the western Pacific margin. To shed light on the complex circulation and mixing of water masses in the strait, distributions of 226Ra and 228Ra were observed during 2009-2012 and studied in conjunction with concurrent CTD and ADCP data. The results show strong seasonality and inter-annual variability in the flow of four water masses in response to East Asia monsoon and ENSO cycles. The four water masses are the China Coastal Water (CCW) flowing southward along the Chinese coast, the South China Sea Water (SCSW) entering the strait from the south, the Kuroshio Branch Water (KBW) intruding northward through the Penghu Channel, and the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) flowing toward the East China Sea. The TWC exiting the strait in the north is in fact a mixture of SCSW and KBW from the south. When the southwest monsoon prevails in the summertime, volume transport toward the East China Sea increases and correlates positively with wind speed and apparent horizontal eddy diffusivity derived from cross-strait distribution of 228Ra in surface water, suggesting the effectiveness of wind in enhancing coastal divergence and along-strait transport. An integrated analysis of our datasets suggests that volume transport in the Taiwan Strait is dominated by geostrophic flow and modified by Ekman flow. Furthermore, it is likely that the intrusion of KBW into the Taiwan Strait is stronger and contributes more to volume transport in El Niño than in La Niña years. In comparison, SCSW may contribute proportionately less to the northbound flow of the TWC in El Niño than in La Niña years.

  12. Nonlinear multiscale interactions and internal dynamics underlying a typical eddy-shedding event at Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-Bing; Liang, X. San; Gan, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Eddy-shedding is a highly nonlinear process that presents a major challenge in geophysical fluid dynamics. Using the newly developed localized multiscale energy and vorticity analysis (MS-EVA), this study investigates an observed typical warm eddy-shedding event as the Kuroshio passes the Luzon Strait, in order to gain insight into the underlying internal dynamics. Through multiscale window transform (MWT), it is found that the loop-form Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS) is not a transient feature, but a quasi-equilibrium state of the system. A mesoscale reconstruction reveals that the eddy does not have its origin at the intrusion path, but comes from the Northwest Pacific. It propagates westward, preceded by a cyclonic (cold) eddy, through the Kuroshio into the SCS. As the eddy pair runs across the main current, the cold one weakens and the warm one intensifies through a mixed instability. In its development, another cold eddy is generated to its southeast, which also experiences a mixed instability. It develops rapidly and cuts the warm eddy off the stream. Both the warm and cold eddies then propagate westward in the form of a Rossby wave (first baroclinic mode). As the eddies approach the Dongsha Islands, they experience another baroclinic instability, accompanied by a sudden accumulation of eddy available potential energy. This part of potential energy is converted to eddy kinetic energy through buoyancy conversion, and is afterward transferred back to the large-scale field through inverse cascading, greatly reducing the intensity of the eddy and eventually leading to its demise.

  13. Seasonal Pattern of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Migration Across the Bohai Strait in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Xie, Bingtang; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

    2015-04-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.), is a serious crop pest with a strong migratory ability. Previous studies on the migration of S. litura were mostly carried out in its "year-round breeding region" (YBR) or "overwintering region" (OR). However, the pattern of seasonal movements in its "summer breeding region" (SBR; i.e., northern China where they cannot overwinter) remains unknown. Here, we present data from an 11-yr study of this species made by searchlight trapping on Beihuang (BH) Island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which provides direct evidence that S. litura regularly migrates across this sea. There was considerable yearly and monthly variation in the number of S. litura trapped on BH, with the vast majority trapped in the autumn. The mean time from the earliest trapping to the latest trapping within a year was 110±12 d during 2003-2013, with the shortest time span of 40 d in 2003 and the longest of 166 d in 2012. S. litura moths had downwind displacement rather than randomly by heading toward their seasonally favorable direction (i.e. toward southwest in the four autumn migration events by prevailing northeasterly winds). Some females trapped in July showed a relatively higher proportion of having mated and a degree of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings provide a good starting point of research on S. litura migration between its OR (or YBR) and SBR, which will help us develop more effective regional management strategies against this pest.

  14. Correlation of welded ignimbrites on Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) using paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Fabio; di Chiara, Anita; Rotolo, Silvio G.

    2012-03-01

    Although the oldest volcanic rocks exposed at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) are older than 300 ka, most of the island is covered by the 45-50 ka Green Tuff ignimbrite, thought to be related to the Cinque Denti caldera, and younger lavas and scoria cones. Pre-50 ka rocks (predominantly rheomorphic ignimbrites) are exposed at isolated sea cliffs, and their stratigraphy and chronology are not completely resolved. Based on volcanic stratigraphy and K/Ar dating, it has been proposed that the older La Vecchia caldera is related to ignimbrite Q (114 ka), and that ignimbrites F, D, and Z (106, 94, and 79 ka, respectively) were erupted after caldera formation. We report here the paleomagnetic directions obtained from 23 sites in ignimbrite P (133 ka) and four younger ignimbrites, and from an uncorrelated (and loosely dated) welded lithic breccia thought to record a caldera-forming eruption. The paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field recorded by ignimbrites is used as correlative tool, with an estimated time resolution in the order of 100 years. We find that ignimbrites D and Z correspond, in good agreement with recent Ar/Ar ages constraining the D/Z eruption to 87 ka. The welded lithic breccia correlates with a thinner breccia lying just below ignimbrite P at another locality, implying that collapse of the La Vecchia caldera took place at ~130-160 ka. This caldera was subsequently buried by ignimbrites P, Q, F, and D/Z. Paleomagnetic data also show that the northern caldera margin underwent a ~10° west-northwest (outwards) tilting after emplacement of ignimbrite P, possibly recording magma resurgence in the crust.

  15. Tidal variability of the motion in the Strait of Otranto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursella, L.; Kovačević, V.; Gačić, M.

    2013-03-01

    Various current data, collected in the Strait of Otranto during the period 1994-2007, have been analysed with the aim of describing the characteristics of the tidal motions and their contribution to the total flow variance. The principal tidal constituents in the area were the semi-diurnal (M2) and the diurnal (K1), with the latter one predominant. The total flow was, in general, more energetic along the flanks than in the middle of the Strait. Specifically, it was most energetic over the western shelf and in the upper layer along the eastern flank. In spite of the generally low velocities (a few cm s-1) of the principal tidal constituents, the tidal variance has a pattern similar to that of the total flow variance, that is, it was large over the western shelf and low in the middle. The proportion of non-tidal (comprising the inertial and sub-inertial low-frequency bands) to tidal flow variances was quite variable in both time and space. The contribution of the low-frequency motions predominated over the tidal and inertial ones in the eastern portion of the strait during the major part of the year, particularly in the upper and intermediate layers. In the deep, near-bottom, layer the variance was evenly distributed between the low frequency, diurnal and semi-diurnal bands. A prominent exception was observed near the western shelf break during the summer season when the contribution of the tidal signal alone to the total variance reached 77%. This high contribution was mainly due to the intensification of the diurnal signal at that location in the proximity of both the surface and bottom layers (velocities of about 10 cm s-1). Local wind and sea level data were analysed and compared with the flow to find the possible origin of this diurnal intensification. Having excluded the sea-breeze impact on the intensification of the diurnal tidal signal, the most likely cause remains the generation of the topographically trapped internal waves and the diurnal resonance in the

  16. Tidal variability of the motion in the Strait of Otranto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursella, L.; Kovačević, V.; Gačić, M.

    2014-02-01

    Various current data, collected in the Strait of Otranto during the period 1994-2007, have been analysed with the aim of describing the characteristics of the tidal motions and their contribution to the total flow variance. The principal tidal constituents in the area were the semi-diurnal (M2) and the diurnal (K1), with the latter one predominant. The total flow was, in general, more energetic along the flanks than in the middle of the strait. Specifically, it was most energetic over the western shelf and in the upper layer along the eastern flank. In spite of the generally low velocities (a few cm s-1) of the principal tidal constituents, the tidal variance has a pattern similar to that of the total flow variance, that is, it was large over the western shelf and low in the middle. The proportion of non-tidal (comprising the inertial and sub-inertial low-frequency bands) to tidal flow variances was quite variable in both time and space. The low-frequency motions dominated over the tidal and inertial ones in the eastern portion of the strait during the major part of the year, particularly in the upper and intermediate layers. In the deep, near-bottom layer the variance was evenly distributed between the low frequency, diurnal and semi-diurnal bands. An exception was observed near the western shelf break during the summer season when the contribution of the tidal signal to the total variance reached 77%. This high contribution was mainly due to the intensification of the diurnal signal at that location at both upper and bottom current records (velocities of about 10 cm s-1). Local wind and sea level data were analysed and compared with the flow to find the possible origin of this diurnal intensification. Having excluded the sea-breeze impact on the intensification of the diurnal tidal signal, the most likely cause remains the generation of the topographically trapped internal waves and the diurnal resonance in the tidal response. These waves were sometimes generated

  17. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  18. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  19. Eddy-driven recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattermann, Tore; Isachsen, Pâl. Erik; Appen, Wilken-Jon; Albretsen, Jon; Sundfjord, Arild

    2016-04-01

    Eddy-resolving regional ocean model results in conjunction with synthetic float trajectories and observations provide new insights into the recirculation of the Atlantic Water (AW) in Fram Strait that significantly impacts the redistribution of oceanic heat between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. The simulations confirm the existence of a cyclonic gyre around the Molloy Hole near 80°N, suggesting that most of the AW within the West Spitsbergen Current recirculates there, while colder AW recirculates in a westward mean flow south of 79°N that primarily relates to the eastern rim of the Greenland Sea Gyre. The fraction of waters recirculating in the northern branch roughly doubles during winter, coinciding with a seasonal increase of eddy activity along the Yermak Plateau slope that also facilitates subduction of AW beneath the ice edge in this area.

  20. Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left.

    The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30

  1. Remote sensing of the Fram Strait marginal ice zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shuchman, R.A.; Burns, B.A.; Johannessen, O.M.; Josberger, E.G.; Campbell, W.J.; Manley, T.O.; Lannelongue, N.

    1987-01-01

    Sequential remote sensing images of the Fram Strait marginal ice zone played a key role in elucidating the complex interactions of the atmosphere, ocean, and sea ice. Analysis of a subset of these images covering a 1-week period provided quantitative data on the mesoscale ice morphology, including ice edge positions, ice concentrations, floe size distribution, and ice kinematics. The analysis showed that, under light to moderate wind conditions, the morphology of the marginal ice zone reflects the underlying ocean circulation. High-resolution radar observations showed the location and size of ocean eddies near the ice edge. Ice kinematics from sequential radar images revealed an ocean eddy beneath the interior pack ice that was verified by in situ oceanographic measurements.

  2. Stochastic seismic analysis in the Messina strait area

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciola, P.; Maugeri, N.; Muscolino, G.

    2008-07-08

    After 1908 Messina earthquake significant progresses have been carried out in the field of earthquake engineering. Usually seismic action is represented via the so called elastic response spectrum or alternatively by time histories of ground motion acceleration. Due the random nature of the seismic action, alternative representations assume the seismic action as zero-mean Gaussian process fully defined by the so-called Power Spectral Density function. Aim of this paper is the comparative study of the response of linear behaving structures adopting the above representation of the seismic action using recorded earthquakes in the Messina strait area. In this regard, a handy method for determining the power spectral density function of recorded earthquakes is proposed. Numerical examples conducted on the existing space truss located in Torre Faro (Messina) will show the effectiveness of stochastic approach for coping with the seismic analysis of structures.

  3. Stochastic seismic analysis in the Messina strait area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciola, P.; Maugeri, N.; Muscolino, G.

    2008-07-01

    After 1908 Messina earthquake significant progresses have been carried out in the field of earthquake engineering. Usually seismic action is represented via the so called elastic response spectrum or alternatively by time histories of ground motion acceleration. Due the random nature of the seismic action, alternative representations assume the seismic action as zero-mean Gaussian process fully defined by the so-called Power Spectral Density function. Aim of this paper is the comparative study of the response of linear behaving structures adopting the above representation of the seismic action using recorded earthquakes in the Messina strait area. In this regard, a handy method for determining the power spectral density function of recorded earthquakes is proposed. Numerical examples conducted on the existing space truss located in Torre Faro (Messina) will show the effectiveness of stochastic approach for coping with the seismic analysis of structures.

  4. Analysis of upwelling event in Southern Makassar Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utama, F. G.; Atmadipoera, A. S.; Purba, M.; Sudjono, E. H.; Zuraida, R.

    2017-01-01

    The southeast monsoon (SEM) winds which blow in southern Makassar Strait, generate the coastal upwelling phenomenon. The wind data for one year, which is equipped with CTD data from MAJAFLOX cruise results, is used to analyze the phenomenon of upwelling in this region. During the SEM 2015 occurrence, the southeasterly winds speed were in average of 6 m/s, while the highest speed appeared in August and September. Using the Ekman theory’s analysis of upwelling during this monsoon period, we could estimate the Ekman transport was about 8.50 m2/s toward offshore (to the Southwest direction); the upwelled water, occurred from deeper layer, started from the coastal area with vertical velocity was about 6.87 x 10-5 m/s – 7.84 x 10-5 m/s; and The Ekman layer depth in the upwelling region was approximately 60 m and these were good agreement with CTD observation result.

  5. Mesoscale current variability in the Otranto Straits, Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastanos, Nikos; Ferentinos, George

    1991-05-01

    The study of satellite infrared images and analysis of current measurements in the Strait of Otranto using time and space correlation and power spectra tecniques, has shown the existence of a horizontal velocity shear zone, formed between a northward and a southward flowing current. The shear zone extends from the surface to the seabed along an inclined plane. Time and space scales in the northerly and southerly flowing currents are much larger than those in the shear zone. In the unstable flow field of the shear zone, mesoscale eddies and strong near-inertial waves are generated. These advective phenomena seem to be the result of mainly barotropic instability processes. The near-inertial waves are found to be trapped inside the shear zone, and their frequency is found to be affected by the passage of the energy containing eddies and the background flow field vorticity.

  6. Water circulation patterns in the Otranto Straits, eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferentinos, George; Kastanos, Nick

    1988-09-01

    Current measurements collected across the Otranto Straits, from mid-September to mid-October 1979, are discussed. Data analyses show there to be two-layer circulation: a northerly flowing current, which is restricted to the surface and mid-water depths over the Greek continental slope; and a southerly flowing current, which occupies the whole of the water column over the Italian continental shelf and slope and extends as far as the mid-channel. The northerly flow was found to be continuous over the period of measurement, whilst the southerly flow was interrupted by short period reversals, often followed by rotatory currents with an inertial period. Flow in the shear zone, between the northerly and southerly flow was variable and the result of inertially drifting parcels of water and northwards propagating cyclonic eddies; these were formed probably through baroclinic instability processes within the shear zone.

  7. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... geographical positions: Latitude Longitude 49°01.39′ N 123°17.53′ W 49°03.84′ N 123°21.30′ W 49°03.24′ N 123°22... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167....66′ W 48°49.49′ N 122°54.24′ W 48°47.93′ N 122°57.12′ W 48°47.78′ N 122°59.12′ W 48°48.19′ N...

  8. Volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) with more than twenty eruptions recognised over the past two centuries. The island was formed on the expansion axis of the Central Bransfield Strait and its evolution consists of constructive and destructive phases. A first a shield phase was followed by the construction of a central edifice and formation of the caldera with a final monogenetic volcanism along the caldera rim. The post-caldera magma composition varies from andesitic-basaltic to dacitic. The activity is characterised by monogenetic eruptions of low volume and short duration. The eruptions show a variable degree of explosivity, strombolian or phreatomagmatic, with a VEI 2 to 4, which have generated a wide variety of pyroclastic deposits and lavas. It is remarkable how many phases of phreatic explosive eruptions are associated to the emission of large ballistic blocks. Tephra record preserved in the glacier ice of Livingston Island or in marine sediments show the explosive power of the phreatomagmatic phases and the wide dispersal of its finest products in a great variety of directions of the prevailing winds. Also it is important to highlight the presence of different lahar deposits associated with some of these eruptions. In this contribution we present the guidelines to conduct a short-term and long-term volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island. We apply probabilistic methods to estimate the susceptibility, statistical techniques to determine the eruption recurrence and eruptive scenario, and reproduce the effects of historical eruptions too. Volcanic hazard maps and scenarios are obtained using a Voris-based model tool (Felpeto et al., 2007) in a free Geographical Information System (GIS), a Quantum GIS.

  9. Research: Documenting an Urban/Rural Aboriginal Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Margaret R.

    During research on cultural differences in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander pedagogy, it became obvious that the lack of an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander cultural typology was impeding research progress. The author's cultural heritage group, the Malara People, a subgroup of the Bandjalang People of northern New South Wales,…

  10. Fram Strait Spring Ice Export and September Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedsrud, Lars H.; Halvorsen, Mari H.; Stroeve, Julienne; Zhang, Rong; Kloster, Kjell

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Basin exports between 600 000 - 1 million km² of it's sea ice cover southwards through Fram Strait each year, comparing to about 10% of the ice covered area inside the basin. During winter ice export results in growth of new and relatively thin ice inside the basin, while during summer or spring export contributes directly to open water further north. A new updated time series from 1935 to 2014 of Fram Strait sea ice area export shows that the long-term annual mean export is about 880,000 km², with large annual and decadal variability and no long-term trend over the past 80 years. Nevertheless, the last decade has witnessed increased annual ice export, with several years having annual ice export exceed 1 million km². Evaluating the trend onwards from 1979, when satellite based sea ice coverage became more readily available, reveals an increase in annual export of about +6% per decade. This increase is caused by higher southward ice drift speeds due to stronger southward geostrophic winds, largely explained by increasing surface pressure over Greenland. Spring and summer area export increased more (+11% per decade) than in autumn and winter. Contrary to the last decade the 1950 - 1970 period had low export during spring and summer, and mid-September sea ice extent was consistently higher than both before and after these decades. We thus find that export anomalies during spring have a clear influence on the following September sea ice extent in general, and that for the recent decade the export may be partially responsible for the accelerating decline in Arctic sea ice extent.

  11. Metals in the surface sediments of Istanbul Strait (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Okay, Oya S; Pekey, Hakan; Morkoc, Enis; Basak, Serden; Baykal, Berna

    2008-12-01

    Surface sediments from 17 stations in the Istanbul Strait and Marmara Sea were collected and analysed for major and trace elements by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 1.3 to 7.2 % for Al, 4.8 to 18 mg kg(- 1) for As, 119 to 599 mg kg(- 1) for Ba, below detection limit (bdl) to 6.6 mg kg(- 1) for Cd, 18 to 222 mg kg(- 1) for Cr, 7.6 to 180 mg kg(- 1) for Cu, 1.0 to 5.5 % for Fe (10 000 to 55 000 mg kg(- 1)), 171 to 718 mg kg(- 1)for Mn, 3.3 to 64 mg kg(- 1) for Ni, 4.5 to 461 mg kg(- 1) for Pb, 1.3 to 68 mg kg(- 1) for Sn, 19 to 170 mg kg(- 1) for V and 16 to 859 mg kg(- 1) for Zn. Three tools have been applied in order to evaluate metal pollution in the sediments; Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), enrichment factors (EFs) and geoaccumulation index (I(geo)). SQGs values indicate that Pb and Ni are the most likely contaminants to cause adverse biological effects. On the other hand, both metal enrichment factors and geoaccumulation index show that As, Zn, Pb and Cd contaminations exist in the entire study area and contamination of other metals is also present in some sites depending on the sources. Factor analysis (FA) receptor modelling technique was applied to investigate the sources affecting surface sediment samples at the Istanbul Strait.

  12. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A.; Hill, K.C.; Smith, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received {approximately}10{sup 6} km{sup 3} of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana`s Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960`s, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana`s Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable {approximately}300{prime} gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  13. Early ocean survival and marine movements of hatchery and wild steelhead trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) determined by an acoustic array: Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, David W.; Ward, Bruce R.; Batten, Sonia D.

    2004-03-01

    Early ocean movements, residency, and survival of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined in Queen Charlotte Strait, a large (20×100 km2) marine area separating Vancouver Island from the mainland. The results provide the first detailed data on the ocean biology of hatchery and wild steelhead smolts. Initial ocean movements were not strongly directed, with most smolts swimming in the range of 0.2-0.5 body length (BL) s-1. The majority (78%) vacated Queen Charlotte Strait within 1 week of release in freshwater. Relative marine survival of hatchery smolts surgically implanted 1 month prior to release was identical to that of wild smolts implanted on the day of release; survival of hatchery smolts transported to the study site, implanted, and released all on the same day was significantly lower. The results suggest that the early marine survival of hatchery and wild smolts may be fundamentally similar, but that the cumulative stress of transportation and surgery may reduce post-surgery survival. Hatchery smolts moved at higher average swimming speeds than wild smolts, but the difference was not statistically significant. Early marine survival within the study region appears to be relatively high (⩾55%), contradicting assumptions that the early marine phase is the critical period for determining salmon recruitment.

  14. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  15. Shipboard LADCP/chipod Profiling of Internal Wave Structure and Dissipation in the Luzon Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Structure and Dissipation in the Luzon Strait Jonathan D. Nash & James N. Moum College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences Oregon State University...internal wave and turbulence modeling for interpretation. OBJECTIVES Luzon Strait represents a major source of internal tides and NLIWs in the...Specifically, we have deployed 5 moorings (locations indicated at right in red) and executed detailed shipboard campaigns to: • identify hotspots of

  16. Can U.S.-Led Efforts Reduce Piracy in the Malacca and Singapore Straits?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-10

    June 2004, in International Waters in the Strait of Malacca. “About ten pirates (suspected GAM rebels) in a speedboat opened fire on ship while at...U.S., whose businesses are the third largest owners of ships that transit the Straits (see Appendix A – Shipping and Economic Importance of the...keeping with the international legal definition of piracy, this report will use the terms piracy for incidents on the high seas and armed robbery for

  17. Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

    2008-04-23

    We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

  18. Water, salt, and heat exchange through the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkovskaya, R. Ya.; Demidov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Based on the multiannual observations (1965-2011), the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variabilities of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates in the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary are studied. A method for calculation of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates through the strait is proposed, and the respective values are specified to be used for solving the practical problems related to efficient use of the water resources in this near-mouth region.

  19. Temporal variations of volume transport through the Taiwan Strait, as identified by three-year measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsien-Wen; Liu, Cho-Teng; Matsuno, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kaoru; Fukudome, Ken-ichi; Yang, Yih; Doong, Dong-Jiing; Tsai, Wei-Ling

    2016-02-01

    The water characteristics of the East China Sea depend on influxes from river run-off, the Kuroshio, and the Taiwan Strait. A three-year observation using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) operated on a ferry provides the first nearly continuous data set concerning the seasonal flow pattern and the volume transport from the Taiwan Strait to the East China Sea. The observed volume transport shows strong seasonality and linkage to the along-strait wind stress. An empirical regression formula between the volume transport and wind was derived to fill the gaps of observation so as to obtain a continuous data set. Based on this unique data set, the three-year mean of monthly volume transport is northeastward throughout the year, large (nearly 3 Sv) in summer and low (nearly zero) in winter. The China Coastal Current flows southward in winter, while the northward-flowing Taiwan Strait Current may reverse direction during severe northeasterly winds in the winter or under typhoons. The sea level difference across Taiwan Strait is closely correlated to the transport through the strait, and their relation is found seasonally nearly stable.

  20. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  1. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  2. Social indicators study of Alaskan Coastal Villages I. Key informant summaries. Volume 2. Schedule B regions (Bristol Bay, Kodiak, Bering Straits). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, T.; Fienup-Riordan, A.; Jorgensen, J.; McNabb, S.; Petrivelli, P.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this report is on Alaska Natives--Inupiaq and Yupik Eskimos, Athabascans, and Aleuts--for two important reasons: (1) Alaska Natives are numerically dominant populations in rural areas closest to potential offshore oil development sites and (2) their economic adjustments are most vulnerable to potential impacts from such development. This report is divided into Schedules A, B, and C. Comprising Schedules A and B are the study areas originally identified by Minerals Management Service for this study (North Slope, NANA, Bering Straits, Calista, Bristol Bay, Aleutian-Pribilof Islands, and Kodiak regions). Schedule C is comprised of communities that were added subsequent to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 in the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet regions. One aim of this study was to document the attitudes and belief systems or ideologies about quality of life and well-being in the coastal, rural portions of Alaska.

  3. T-PAH contamination in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lamarck, 1819) at various stations of the Turkish Straits System.

    PubMed

    Balcıoğlu, Esra Billur; Aksu, Abdullah; Balkıs, Nuray; Öztürk, Bayram

    2014-11-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Turkish Straits Systems were analyzed for sixteen parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This marine organism was selected because of its multitude, wide distribution, being bio indicator for the pollution and consumption by humans. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 589 μg g(-1) in Istanbul Strait, 0.94-36.4 μg g(-1) in Marmara Sea and 0.4-47.9 μg g(-1) in Çanakkale Strait during the samplings. According to the results Istanbul and Çanakkale Straits are more polluted than the Marmara Sea.

  4. Possible tsunami transmission across the Strait of Gibraltar: numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, V.; Servidio, S.; Vecchio, A.; Anzidei, M.; Guerra, I.

    2012-12-01

    The possibility that a tsunami, generated as a consequence of the large earthquake in the Atlantic or Pacific ocean, could be recorded by the tide gauge stations located in the Mediterranean has been numerically investigated. In particular, direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (SWE) have been performed in order to simulate the transmission of large scale waves trough the Strait of Gibraltar. The SWE have wide applications in ocean and hydraulic engineering: tidal flows in estuary and coastal water regions, bore wave propagation, hydraulic jump, open channel flows, and so on. Among all these examples, the application of SWE to tsunamies is indeed one of the most successful. A numerical scheme, based on a Godunov-type method for solving the SWE with source term, has been proposed in Ref. [1]. In contrast to conventional data reconstruction methods based on conservative variables, the water surface level is chosen as the basis for data reconstruction. This provides accurate values of the conservative variables at cell interfaces so that the fluxes can be accurately calculated with a Riemann solver. The surface gradient method can be incorporated into any Godunov-type method which requires data reconstruction. Here, the MUSCL-Hancock finite-volume method has been combined with a body-fitted cut cell mesh [2], which can efficiently treat irregular boundaries while retaining the simplicity of a Cartesian grid implementation. Preliminary results show that incident waves, coming from the free ocean, can enter the Mediterraneum sea, passing trough the Strait. The incoming wave, altough is strongly reduced in intensity, fragmentate because of the bed profile and the interaction with the coasts, producing low ang high frequency disturbances. In agreement with observations (See Ref. [3]), these numerical simulations suggest that large tsunamis can pass through Gibraltar, initiating anomalous fluctuations in the Mediterraneum. [1] J. G. Zhou, D

  5. Water, heat and salt transport through the Strait of Otranto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yari, Sadegh; Gačić, Miroslav; Kovačević, Vedrana; Cardin, Vanessa

    2010-05-01

    The water, heat and salt transports through the Strait of Otranto are estimated applying direct method to historical current and hydrographical data (from December 94 through November 95). A variational inverse method based on a variational principle and a finite element solver is used to reconstruct the current, temperature and salinity fields across the Strait section from sparse measurements. The mean annual inflow and outflow water transport rates are estimated as 0.901±0.039 Sv and -0.939±0.315 Sv, respectively, and the net transport for the period of study is equal to -0.032±0.208 Sv. Thus, on a yearly time interval, the inflow and the outflow are practically compensated. The heat and salt transports due to advection process are estimated for five monthly periods, namely December 1994, February, May, August and November 1995. Considering these five periods representative of the seasonal cycle during the year, their average values show that there is a net heat advection into the Adriatic Sea on a yearly basis. The estimated value of advected heat and the corresponding error are 2.408±0.490 TW, which is equivalent to a heat gain of 17.37±3.53 W m-2 for the whole basin. This value is compared to the heat loss of -36±152 (std) W m-2 through the air-sea interface calculated by means of bulk formulas over the Adriatic Sea. The two values are expected to be balance each other in order to close the heat budget of the basin. The possible reasons for this difference to occur are discussed. On a yearly basis, the salt transport is estimated as an input of salt equal to 0.05×106 Kg s-1. The average annual fresh water budget is estimated as -0.002 Sv, equivalent to the mass of fresh water of 2.00×106Kg s-1 or to the level of 0.45 m yr-1 for the entire Adriatic Sea. The import of salt that is less than the gain of fresh water is in agreement with the fact that the Adriatic Sea is a dilution basin.

  6. Monthly Variation of Taiwan Strait Through-flow Transports and Associated Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, S.; Sheu, D.; Kuo, H.

    2005-05-01

    Through-flow transports and associated water masses are analyzed using current data measured by bottom-mounted and ship-board ADCP (1999-2001) across the central Taiwan Strait and strait-wide hydrographic data acquired from 79 CTD survey cruises (1986-2003). The East Asian monsoon, from southwest in July to August and northeast in October to March, controls the transport fluctuation which peaks in August (2.34 Sv northward), is hampered by the northeast monsoon after September and diminishes to the minimum (0.26 Sv southward) in December. The standard deviation of the calculated transport ranges from 0.56 to 1.05 Sv during northeast monsoon months and is relatively small in other months. A cluster analysis together with conventional T-S diagrams identifies the saline and warm Kuroshio Branch Water (KBW), the less saline South China Sea Surface Water (SCSSW), the brackish and cold China Coastal Water (CCW), the saline Subsurface Water (SW) (depth > 100 m) and the Diluted Coastal Water (DCW). The majority of the northward transport in summer carries the SCSSW to the East China Sea. Meanwhile, the DCW appears off the northwest bank of the strait and the SW resides in the bottom layer of a deep trench in the southeastern strait. The onset of the northeast monsoon in September drives the CCW from the Yangtze river mouth to the northern strait. In the southern strait, the northward-moving KBW replaces the SCSSW and meets the southward-intruding CCW in the middle strait during November to April.

  7. Numerical study on the interactions between the Kuroshio current in the Luzon Strait and a mesoscale eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Zheng, Zhe-Wen

    2017-02-01

    The Luzon Strait (LS) connects the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea (SCS) and is the western boundary gap for the Kuroshio current (KC). Satellite observations indicate that a cyclonic mesoscale eddy can trigger westward extension of the KC into the SCS and shed a smaller anticyclonic eddy to the west of the LS. We used a nonlinear reduced-gravity (primitive equation) model to study this phenomenon and analyzed the dynamic process. The location of the collision between the eddy and the KC could be critical for varying the circulation in the LS. The eddy's deformation rate, associated with its decaying speed, is also closely related to the location of the eddy during collision. When a cyclonic eddy moved from a region to the east of the Luzon Island toward the LS, the KC intruded into the SCS with growing negative vorticity during the collision of the eddy and KC. This tendency for negative vorticity is attributed to the beta effect and squeezing of the planetary vorticity caused by the flow divergence. As the eddy dissipated, the KC in the LS recovered its original pattern. When the collision of the eddy occurred at the center of the LS, the momentum balance of the KC loop was dominated by the inertial term, and the circulation in the LS remained in a leaping state.

  8. Effect of tides on solute flushing from a strait: imaging flow and transport in the East River with SF6.

    PubMed

    Caplow, Theodore; Schlosser, Peter; Ho, David T; Enriquez, Rica C

    2004-09-01

    In June 2003, two injections of approximately 3.9 mol of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were made 8 days apart in the East River, a 25 km tidal strait, to observe solute mixing and dissipation. The first injection occurred at slack before flood, and the second at slack before ebb (flood = northward flow). Tidally synchronized surveys of the SF6 tracer patch, supplemented by vertical profiles, were conducted by boat for 6 and 4 days following the flood and ebb injections, respectively. Residence times for the tracer-tagged water mass in the East River were estimated to be 3.3 +/- 0.7 days and 1.7 +/- 0.5 days for the flood and ebb injections, respectively, after correcting SF6 inventories for losses of SF6 from the water column by air-water gas exchange. The data indicate that the majority of East River solutes are transported to New York Harbor and that tidal mixing dominates subtidal circulation with respectto solute transport. Surveys of the adjacent lower Hudson River revealed a northward-moving, intermediate layer of East River water. Our results suggest that tidal phasing of contaminant discharges in the East River could reduce environmental impacts, by increasing flushing rates and directing a greater fraction of material away from Long Island Sound.

  9. Tide at the eastern section of the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Jesús Garcia; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek; Candela, Julio; Bascheck, Burkard

    2000-06-01

    From October 1995 to April 1996, three mooring lines were deployed at the eastern entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar. The spatial coverage of the mooring array allows for a good description of the tides. They exhibit a dominant semidiurnal nature and a noticeable baroclinic structure that matches the one of the mean exchange. Tidal currents in the upper layer are irregular and usually too weak to reverse the mean upper layer flow that keeps on flowing east. Lower layer flow reverses with semidiurnal periodicity because of the smallness of the mean flow and the appreciable amplitude of the regular semidiurnal oscillation of tidal currents in this layer. Tidal transports can be satisfactorily compared with previous estimates of Bryden et al. [1994] if we allow for strong internal divergences associated with the internal tide. No significant eddy flux of water transport (tidal rectification) is observed at the eastern section, contrary to the almost 50% of the total layer transport found by Bryden et al. [1994] in Camarinal Sill section. Time-dependent hydraulic theory provides a good scenario for interpreting these two independent sets of observations despite the fact that the composite Froude number does not reach the critical values predicted in the hydraulic models most of the time.

  10. Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella

    2008-07-08

    The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices.

  11. Analysis of turbulent mixing in Dewakang Sill, Southern Makassar Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risko; Atmadipoera, A. S.; Jaya, I.; Sudjono, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Dewakang Sill is located in southern Makassar Strait, conveying major path of Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), as a confluence region of different water masses, such as salty Pacific water and fresh Java Sea water. Its depth is about 680 m which blocks the ITF flow below this depth into Flores Sea. This research aimed to estimate turbulent mixing in the Dewakang Sill by applying Thorpe analysis using 24 hours “yoyo” CTD data sets, acquired from MAJAFLOX Cruise in August 2015. The results showed that stratification of water masses is dominated by Pacific water origin. Those are North Pacific Subtropical thermocline and Intermediate water masses. Mean dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) and turbulent vertical diffusivity (Kρ ) value in the Dewakang Sill are of O(1.08 × 10‑6)Wkg‑1, and O(2.84 × 10‑4) m2s‑1 respectively. High correlation between epsilon and internal waves oscillation suggested that internal tidal waves activities are the major forcing for turbulent mixing in the study area.

  12. Eddies spatial variability at Makassar Strait – Flores Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzula, F.; Syamsudin, M. L.; Yuliadi, L. P. S.; Purba, N. P.; Martono

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to get the distribution of eddies spatially and temporally from Makassar Waters (MW) to Flores Sea (FS), as well as its relations with the upwelling, the downwelling, and chlorophyll-a concentration. The study area extends from 115º–125º E to 2.5º–8º S. The datasets were consisted of monthly geostrophic currents, sea surface heights, sea surface temperatures, and chlorophyll-a from 2008 – 2012. The results showed that eddies which found at Makassar Strait (MS) has the highest diameter and speed of 255.3 km and 21.4 cm/s respectively, while at the southern MW has 266.4 km and 15.6 cm/s, and at FS has 182.04 km and 11.4 cm/s. From a total of 51 eddies found, the majority of eddies type was anticyclonic. At MS and FS, eddies formed along the year, whereas at southern MW were found missing in West Season. Moreover, the chlorophyll-a concentration was consistently higher at the eddies area. Even though, the correlation among eddies and the upwelling downwelling phenomena was not significantly as shown by sea surface temperatures value.

  13. Light and nutrient limitation on phytoplankton production in the strait of an enclosed coastal sea (Bisan Strait, eastern Seto Inland Sea, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Hirade, Naoto; Higashizono, Keigo; Tada, Kuninao; Kishimoto, Koji; Oyama, Kenichi; Ichimi, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    The Bisan Strait is a vertically well-mixed, shallow area (mean depth 13.9 m) in the Seto Inland Sea. The strait has the lowest Secchi transparency (mean 4.5 m) within the Inland Sea because of active sediment re-suspension. Therefore, in comparison with adjacent areas, phytoplankton production in the strait may be strongly affected by light availability in addition to nutrient availability. In this study, we examined environmental variables, photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) curves and phytoplankton production in the Bisan Strait over 1 year. There were temporal variations in the light-saturated photosynthesis rate (PBm) and initial slope of P-I curve (αB), with maxima in autumn and minima in spring. Most of the variability in PBm and αB was explained by variations in nutrient concentrations (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and water temperature. Meanwhile, phytoplankton production reached a peak in summer and a nadir in spring, but an autumn peak in production was not observed. Diagnostic analysis suggested that, for almost all of the year, nutrients were more important for phytoplankton growth than light limitation. However, light limitation became more important in autumn when underwater irradiance reached low levels. Therefore, the lack of an autumn peak in production is likely to be related to light limitation. We suggest that low light availability during the autumn depresses the annual rate of phytoplankton production in the Bisan Strait, in comparison with adjacent areas where seasonal stratification is established and phytoplankton blooms frequently occur in early autumn.

  14. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  15. 231Pa/230Th records of Arctic/Atlantic interchange in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, S. S.; McDermott, K. J.; McManus, J. F.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Fram Strait, the Arctic Ocean's only deep passage for exchange with lower latitude oceans, today serves as a conduit for waters flowing north into the Arctic Ocean and south into the Atlantic. Reconstruction of circulation patterns and strength at depth in the strait can help to clarify the history of Arctic/Atlantic deep water exchange and Arctic contributions to global meridional overturning circulation. We will present new sedimentary measurements of radioisotopes 231Pa and 230Th to provide information on this exchange in the past and its relationship to sedimentation and climatic events. Coretop and downcore 231Pa/230Th ratios from Arctic sediments indicate that 231Pa has been exported from the central Arctic basin throughout the Holocene and deglaciation. Fram Strait represents a possible sink for this "missing" 231Pa. Preliminary results from ODP Holes 908A and 909A, at 1274 m and 2519 m water depths respectively in the central strait, suggest that ratios in this region during the Holocene have varied between ~0.106 (above the 231Pa/230Th production ratio of 0.093 in seawater, indicating net import of 231Pa)and ~0.055 (well below the production ratio, indicating net export of 231Pa). Further measurements in cores from the Greenland and Svalbard continental slopes will give a fuller regional picture of 231Pa deposition and transport across the strait.

  16. Arctic Sea Ice Export Through Fram Strait and Atmospheric Planetary Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Koblinsky, Chester (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A link is found between the variability of Arctic sea ice export through Ram Strait and the phase of the longest atmospheric planetary wave (zonal wave 1) in SLP for the period 1958-1997. Previous studies have identified a link between From Strait ice export and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), but this link has been described as unstable because of a lack of consistency over time scales longer than the last two decades. Inconsistent and low correlations are also found between From Strait ice export and the Arctic Oscillation (AD) index. This paper shows that the phase of zonal wave 1 explains 60% - 70% of the simulated From Strait ice export variance over the Goodyear period 1958 - 1997. Unlike the NAB and AD links, these high variances are consistent for both the first and second halves of the Goodyear period. This consistency is attributed to the sensitivity of the wave I phase at high latitudes to the presence of secondary low pressure systems in the Barents Sea that serve to drive sea ice southward through From Strait. These results provide further evidence that the phase of zonal wave 1 in SLP at high latitudes drives regional as well as hemispheric low frequency Arctic Ocean and sea ice variability.

  17. Is the Gibraltar strait a barrier to gene flow for the bat Myotis myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)?

    PubMed

    Castella, V; Ruedi, M; Excoffier, L; Ibáñez, C; Arlettaz, R; Hausser, J

    2000-11-01

    Because of their role in limiting gene flow, geographical barriers like mountains or seas often coincide with intraspecific genetic discontinuities. Although the Strait of Gibraltar represents such a potential barrier for both plants and animals, few studies have been conducted on its impact on gene flow. Here we test this effect on a bat species (Myotis myotis) which is apparently distributed on both sides of the strait. Six colonies of 20 Myotis myotis each were sampled in southern Spain and northern Morocco along a linear transect of 1350 km. Results based on six nuclear microsatellite loci reveal no significant population structure within regions, but a complete isolation between bats sampled on each side of the strait. Variability at 600 bp of a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) confirms the existence of two genetically distinct and perfectly segregating clades, which diverged several million years ago. Despite the narrowness of the Gibraltar Strait (14 km), these molecular data suggest that neither males, nor females from either region have ever reproduced on the opposite side of the strait. Comparisons of molecular divergence with bats from a closely related species (M. blythii) suggest that the North African clade is possibly a distinct taxon warranting full species rank. We provisionally refer to it as Myotis cf punicus Felten 1977, but a definitive systematic understanding of the whole Mouse-eared bat species complex awaits further genetic sampling, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean areas.

  18. 75 FR 3981 - National Angel Island Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... inscriptions into the walls in their native language--from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to Russian, German... call upon the people of the United States to learn more about the history of Angel Island and...

  19. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  20. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  1. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.

    2015-12-01

    equilibrium shape more quickly but were also susceptible to total erosion. Our observations support the hypothesis that the islands were initially carved by high-water volume flows via a unique catastrophic drainage of a pro-glacial lake in the southern North Sea at the Dover Strait rather than by fluvial erosion throughout the Pleistocene.

  2. Beastly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Don; Hurley, J. Casey

    1993-01-01

    Both positive and negative people can strongly influence other staff. The thinking majority can best be influenced by supplying them with positive information. Leaders can counteract negative staff by being good role models, considering verbal and nonverbal messages, identifying negative staffers and limiting their leadership opportunities, and…

  3. People's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsini, S. R.

    The "Folkehojskole," or Folk High School (more accurately translated as "People's College") which is Denmark's unique contribution to adult education, offer residential adult instruction. The aims of folk education are to help adults behave as independent and mature members of the community and think and speak freely. Emphasis…

  4. Trophic cascades and future harmful algal blooms within ice-free Arctic Seas north of Bering Strait: A simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Chen, F. Robert; Lenes, Jason M.; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Cassano, John J.; Whitledge, Terry E.; Stockwell, Dean; Flint, Mikhail; Sukhanova, Irina N.; Christensen, John

    2011-11-01

    Within larger ice-free regions of the western Arctic Seas, subject to ongoing trophic cascades induced by past overfishing, as well as to possible future eutrophication of the drainage basins of the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, prior very toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) - first associated with ∼100 human deaths near Sitka, Alaska in 1799 - may soon expand. Blooms of calcareous coccolithophores in the Bering Sea during 1997-1998 were non-toxic harbingers of the subsequent increments of other non-siliceous phytoplankton. But, now saxitoxic dinoflagellates, e.g. Alexandrium tamarense, were instead found by us within the adjacent downstream Chukchi Sea during SBI cruises of 2002 and 2003. A previous complex, coupled biophysical model had been validated earlier by ship-board observations from the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during the summer of 2002. With inclusion of phosphorus as another chemical state variable to modulate additional competition by recently observed nitrogen-fixers, we now explore here the possible consequences of altered composition of dominant phytoplankton functional groups [diatoms, microflagellates, prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis colonies, coccolithophores, diazotrophs, and dinoflagellates] in relation to increases of the toxic A. tamarense, responding to relaxation of grazing pressure by herbivores north of Bering Strait as part of a continuing trophic cascade. Model formulation was guided by validation observations obtained during 2002-2004 from: cruises of the SBI, CHINARE, and CASES programs; moored arrays in Bering Strait; other RUSALCA cruises around Wrangel Island; and SBI helicopter surveys of the shelf-break regions of the Arctic basin. Our year-long model scenarios during 2002-2003 indicate that post bloom silica-limitation of diatoms, after smaller simulated spring grazing losses, led to subsequent competitive advantages in summer for the coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and diazotrophs. Immediate top-down control is exerted by imposed

  5. Hydrothermal activity along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge and in the Bransfield Strait Backarc Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Carol S.

    1998-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal circulation through young oceanic crust results in the expulsion of fluids as both diffuse and focused flow in the form of hydrothermal venting. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are enriched in reduced chemical species that rapidly oxidize upon interaction with ambient, oxygen-rich bottom waters, resulting in plumes that are detectable in the water column both by their dissolved chemical composition as well as by their particle concentration. This study employed a novel instrument package which detected both dissolved manganese and particle concentration in situ. This package also included a standard CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) and rosette for the collection of water samples. Because hydrothermal plumes integrate the output from an entire vent field, measurements in plumes can be used to estimate vent field fluxes. Some geochemical tracers from hydrothermal vents can also be detected thousands of kilometers from their sources. Thus, plumes provide the means to prospect for undiscovered hydrothermal sites, and can also predict characteristics of the venting site. This work includes studies of hydrothermal plumes along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge and in the Bransfield Strait backarc basin, Antarctica. In recent years, the number of known hydrothermal sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) has increased from two to seven, and most other segments between 12° and 41° N have shown evidence of high-temperature hydrothermal activity. Furthermore, it appears that as one approaches the Azores Plateau, the concentration of dissolved delta3He in the bottom water (originating from hydrothermal venting) increases, suggesting that hydrothermal activity increases toward the plateau. This is consistent with the significant tectonic extension and crustal fissuring observed near the Azores Platform, which is expected to support increased convection. The Bransfield Strait is a backarc basin between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South

  6. 75 FR 70818 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 RIN 1625-AA48 Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de... this interim rule with request for comments, the Coast Guard codifies traffic separation schemes in the..., Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia. These traffic separation schemes (TSSs) were validated by a...

  7. 33 CFR 167.1302 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. 167.1302 Section 167.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters....1302 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. In the southwestern approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by...

  8. 33 CFR 167.1301 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. 167.1301 Section 167.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1301 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. In the western approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by a line...

  9. 33 CFR 167.1302 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. 167.1302 Section 167.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters....1302 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. In the southwestern approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1301 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. 167.1301 Section 167.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1301 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. In the western approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by a line...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  16. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) is a strait that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara in the center of this view of northwest Turkey, taken during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The water of the Black Sea at the top of the image and Sea of Marmara below the center are colored blue in this image, along with several large lakes. The largest lake, to the lower right of the Sea of Marmara, is Iznik Lake. The Bosporus (Turkish Bogazici) Strait is considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia, and the large city of Istanbul, Turkey is located on both sides of the southern end of the strait, visible as a brighter (light green to white) area on the image due to its stronger reflection of radar. Istanbul is the modern name for a city with along history, previously called Constantinople and Byzantium. It was rebuilt as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D. by Constantine on the site of an earlier Greek city, and it was later the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires until 1922.

    The Gulf of Izmit is the narrow gulf extending to the east (right) from the Sea of Marmara. The city of Izmit at the end of the gulf was heavily damaged by a large magnitude 7.4 earthquake on August 17,1999, often called the Izmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake), that killed at least 17,000 people. A previous earthquake under the Gulf of Izmit in 1754 killed at least 2,000people. The Izmit earthquake ruptured a long section of the North Anatolian Fault system from off the right side of this image continuing under the Gulf of Izmit. Another strand of the North Anatolian Fault system is visible as a sharp linear feature in the topography south of Iznik Lake. Bathymetric surveys show that the north Anatolian Fault system extends beneath and has formed the Sea of Marmara, in addition to the Gulf of Izmit and Iznik Lake. Scientists are studying the North Anatolian Fault system to determine the risk of a large earthquake on the

  17. Sea Level Trend and Variability in the Straits of Singapore and Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Q.; Tkalich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Straits of Singapore and Malacca (SSM) connect the Andaman Sea located northeast of the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea, the largest marginal sea situated in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Consequently, sea level in the SSM is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale sea level variability is dominant by the Asian monsoon. Interannual sea level signals are modulated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). In the long term, regional sea level is driven by the global climate change. However, relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on regional sea level in the SSM are yet to be quantified. In present study, publicly available tide gauge records and satellite altimetry data are used to derive long-term sea level trend and variability in SSM. We used the data from research-quality stations, including four located in the Singapore Strait (Tanjong Pagar, Raffles Lighthouse, Sultan Shoal and Sembawang) and seven situated in the Malacca Strait (Kelang, Keling, Kukup, Langkawji, Lumut, Penang and Ko Taphao Noi), each one having 25-39 year data up to the year 2011. Harmonic analysis is performed to filter out astronomic tides from the tide gauge records when necessary; and missing data are reconstructed using identified relationships between sea level and the governing phenomena. The obtained sea level anomalies (SLAs) and reconstructed mean sea level are then validated against satellite altimetry data from AVISO. At multi-decadal scale, annual measured sea level in the SSM is varying with global mean sea level, rising for the period 1984-2009 at the rate 1.8-2.3 mm/year in the Singapore Strait and 1.1-2.8 mm/year in the Malacca Strait. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ×5 cm with correlation coefficient

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    PubMed

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  19. Current measurements in the Strait of Otranto reveal unforeseen aspects of its hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, P.-M.; Gačcić, M.; Vetrano, A.

    The Strait of Otranto is a 75-km-wide and ˜300-m-deep (on average) inlet that separates the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Figure 1). It is the southern open boundary of the Adriatic Sea, which is a semi-enclosed, shallow basin. The forcing through this open boundary plays an important role in driving the general circulation of the Adriatic, which, in turn, affects the biochemical properties in the two adjacent basins. The Strait of Otranto is also a key area for the entire Eastern Mediterranean deep circulation, since the Adriatic Sea presumably produces most of the Mediterranean's bottom water. The monitoring of water mass transport in the strait and the study of the water exchange dynamics are therefore crucial for an understanding of a broad range of oceanographic processes in the Adriatic and in the entire Eastern Mediterranean, as well as for addressing environmental issues, such as pollution that spreads from coastal to deep-sea areas.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

  1. The Arctic Front in the Fram Strait in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny; Falck, Eva; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sagen, Hanne

    2016-04-01

    The front between Atlantic water carried northward by the main branch of the West Spitsbergen Current and the cooler, fresher Arctic domain in the central Fram Strait, here called the Arctic Front, is important because of the exchange of heat and salt across it. The marked water mass boundary and the dynamics of the front also profoundly affect the living conditions for marine organisms. A northwest-to-southeast transect across the Arctic Front with concurrent shipboard and glider measurements was done in September 2011. The CTD data, nutrient and pigment samples, and underway ADCP data from the research cruise are complemented by the glider observations of temperature and salinity at higher horizontal resolution. In addition, images from the ship's scientific echo sounder are used to qualitatively describe the water column structure and distribution of marine organisms along the transect. Crossing the front from northwest to southeast, the near-surface (5 m) temperature increased by more than 4°C and salinity increased by 0.98 PSU between stations 19 km apart. The front was thus clearly marked in salinity and temperature in the upper 200 m, but below the surface layer it was largely density compensated. The highest chlorophyll-a concentrations were found in subsurface maxima on the Arctic side of the front. We investigate the hydrographic structure of the front, considering properties relevant to cross-frontal exchange and mixing. We also assess the environmental conditions on each side of the front - for example mixed layer depths, nutrient availability, and bio-optical properties - and their implications for marine life.

  2. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chung, Chai

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  3. How is the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow Responding to Changes in the Arctic Climate System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, P. A.; Rabe, B.; Hansen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, delta 18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2011. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2009-2011 sections are also the first to show positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC. Sections from September 2009-2011 show an increased input of sea ice meltwater at the surface relative to older September sections. This suggests that more sea ice now melts back into the surface in late summer than previously. Comparison of April, July and September sections reveals seasonal variations in the inventory of positive sea ice meltwater, with maximum inventories in September sections. The time series of sections reveals a strong anti-correlation between meteoric water and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting that much of the sea ice meltwater and meteoric water at Fram Strait may originate from these regions. However, we also find that the ratio of meteoric water to sea ice meltwater inventories at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, due to an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent sections. From 2010 to 2013, automatic water samplers have provided high frequency year round tracer observations required to resolve seasonal and short-term variations in the freshwater composition at Fram Strait. Measurements from these instruments reveal significant short-term variations in the freshwater composition over the East Greenland Shelf.

  4. Performance assessment for an operational ocean model of the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xinyou; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Zhang, Zhenchang

    2016-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait Nowcast/Forecast System (TFOR), which is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System, may be the first operational ocean model to include both tide and circulation processes in the Taiwan Strait. In this study, we assessed the performance of TFOR by investigating the differences between observational data and the results obtained by TFOR, thereby illustrating the ability of TFOR to reproduce significant physical processes. We also evaluated the utility and reliability of TFOR products for successful applications in maritime search and rescue. The mean bias, root mean-squared difference, correlation coefficient (CC), and Willmott skill for the differences in temperature between the cruise observations and the TFOR results were -0.01°C, 1.2°C, 0.87, and 0.92, respectively, and those for the corresponding salinity results were 0.06 PSU, 0.4 PSU, 0.74, and 0.83, respectively. The distributions of the TFOR M2 harmonic constants indicated that TFOR simulates the tidal characteristics well in the Taiwan Strait. The CC between the Taiwan Strait volume transport based on the TFOR results and the along-strait wind stress was 0.77, thereby indicating that monsoon winds exert an important influence on the variability in volume transport through the Taiwan Strait. Statistical analyses of the TFOR results showed that the annual, spring, summer, autumn, and winter mean transport volumes were 1.16, 1.28, 2.52, 0.80, and 0.04 Sv, respectively. In conclusion, the TFOR is robust and it can simulate the temperature, salinity, and velocity in a reasonable and stable manner.

  5. How is the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow Responding to Changes in the Arctic Climate System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Rabe, Benjamin; Granskog, Mats; Stedmon, Colin; Kristiansen, Svein; Hansen, Edmond

    2014-05-01

    The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, δ18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2012. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The 2009-2012 sections are also the first to show positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC. Sections from September 2009-2012 show an increased input of sea ice meltwater at the surface relative to older September sections. This suggests that more sea ice now melts back into the surface in late summer than previously. Comparison of April, July and September sections reveals seasonal variations in the inventory of positive sea ice meltwater, with maximum inventories in September sections. The time series of sections reveals a strong anti-correlation between meteoric water and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting that much of the sea ice meltwater and meteoric water at Fram Strait may originate from these regions. However, we also find that the ratio of meteoric water to sea ice meltwater inventories at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, due to an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent sections. From 2010 to 2013, automatic water samplers have provided high frequency year round tracer observations required to resolve seasonal and short-term variations in the freshwater composition at Fram Strait. Measurements from these instruments reveal significant short-term variations in the freshwater composition over the East Greenland Shelf.

  6. Retreat of the Coalescent Greenland and Innuitian Ice Sheets from Nares Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, A. E.; Bailey, E.; Oliver, B.; Andrews, J. T.; Prins, M. A.; Troelstra, S.; Stoner, J. S.; Reilly, B. T.; Davies-Walczak, M.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Nares Strait, which forms one of the main connections between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay was blocked by coalescent Innuitian and Greenland ice sheets during the LGM. Nares Strait opened ca. 9000 cal ka BP when the connection between the two ice sheets was finally severed. Our research focuses on the events and processes leading up to the opening of the strait and the response of the glacier and marine systems to establishment of the throughflow. The study at present involves new analysis of two sediment cores: 2001LSSL-163PC from Smith Sound, at the southern end of Nares Strait, and 2001LSSL-079PC from the mouth of Petermann Fjord at the northern end of the strait. X-radiography and core photographs were studied to establish basic lithofacies and stratigraphy. Foraminiferal faunas provide insight into changes in ice margin proximity, Atlantic Water advection and sea-ice conditions and are used to develop the radiocarbon chronologies. Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sediments aids in determining sediment provenance and the establishment of a north to south connection. Grain size analysis allows sediment processes and sedimentary environments, such as iceberg rafting, current deposition, and sub ice-shelf deposition to be evaluated. A radiocarbon date of >50 kyr was obtained from foraminifera in an overconsolidated, gray diamicton in core 163PC. The diamicton is overlain by a red deglacial sequence of barren laminated sediments followed by gray pebbly mud. Two radiocarbon dates submitted from near the base of the pebbly mud constrain the timing of ice retreat from Smith Sound. The chronology of core 079PC indicates that it captures the opening of Nares Strait, but 4 submitted radiocarbon dates will further constrain its chronology. The goal of the work on these two cores is to lay a framework for extensive marine fieldwork to study ice sheet-ocean interactions in the Petermann Glacier in late summer 2015.

  7. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf.

    PubMed

    Austin, Jeremy J; Soubrier, Julien; Prevosti, Francisco J; Prates, Luciano; Trejo, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf (FIW), Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century. It is the only terrestrial mammal on the Falkland Islands (also known as the Malvinas Islands), which lie ~460 km from Argentina, leading to suggestions of either human-mediated transport or overwater dispersal. Previous studies used ancient DNA from museum specimens to suggest that the FIW diverged from its closest living relative, the South American maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) around 7 Ma, and colonized the islands ~330 ka by unknown means. Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka (8-31 ka), during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over.

  8. Estimates of entrainment in the Denmark Strait overflow plume from CTD/LADCP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbas, V. M.; Paka, V. T.; Rudels, B.; Quadfasel, D.

    2016-03-01

    The data of the CTD survey conducted in the Denmark Strait and Irminger Sea in May-June 2009 are used to calculate the vertical profiles of the turbulent overturning scale, which are then used to estimate the dissipation and entrainment rates in the overflow plume. The resulting estimates of the entrainment rate varied widely from 2 × 10-7 to 7 × 10-3 m/s. It is shown that such a wide range of entrainment rates is caused by the intermittency of turbulence. Large turbulent overturning at the interface of the Denmark Strait overflow plume is detected on the vertical temperature, salinity, and potential density profiles.

  9. The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astraldi, M.; Balopoulos, S.; Candela, J.; Font, J.; Gacic, M.; Gasparini, G. P.; Manca, B.; Theocharis, A.; Tintoré, J.

    1999-08-01

    Straits in the Mediterranean Sea form an important network from which one can determine the characteristics of the water exchange between all the constituent sub-basins. This includes the definition of water masses and water transport and their time variability. From 1994, all the major straits in the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Otranto, Balearic Sea Straits, Cretan Arc Straits and Corsica) were subject to long term observations as part of various research projects. Besides adding new elements to the knowledge of internal strait conditions, the data sets collected allow us to propose a fairly consistent representation of the Mediterranean circulation and budgets in key points within the basin. The amplitude of the annual water transport measured at these straits was about 1 Sv and it appears to be modulated by a significant low-frequency and seasonal variability. For the first time, a seasonal component was identified at Gibraltar, thus raising new questions on the actual state of the Mediterranean. Also, the very likely existence of a significant interannual component was documented. In the Corsica Channel, this component was found to be related to the interannual variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The observations in the Cretan Arc Straits have provided a more comprehensive representation of the recent changes in the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline cell. It is noteworthy that the effects of these changes have been observed both in the Otranto and Sicily Straits, and are now affecting the adjacent sea regions. The presence of a stream of Modified Atlantic Water in the Balearic Sea Channels indicates that part of the Atlantic inflow may be diverted directly into the northern region of the Western Mediterranean. Finally, data gathered in the Sardinia Channel indicate that the central Mediterranean region plays a critical role in controlling exchanges between the Eastern and the Western Mediterranean, while it is emphasized that the

  10. Tidal dynamics with corrected volume transport at Sunda Shelf and Singapore Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung; Xu, Haihua

    2015-04-01

    Connecting the Indian Ocean with the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean, the Sunda Shelf displays a complicated transitional hydrodynamic characteristics. At daily timescale, water level and current in the shelf are governed by mixed diurnal and semidiurnal tides. At monthly timescale, mean sea level and seasonal volume transport are amplified by monsoonal winds from the South China Sea. In this study, we present the development of a high-resolution barotropic numerical model for the Sunda Shelf based on the Semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite-Element (SELFE) model. The computational domain includes western half of the South China Sea, Malacca Strait, Java Sea, and is focused on Singapore Strait. Topography complexity is resolved by merging the high-resolution bathymetry data from Jeppesen's C-MAP product and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans One Minute Grid (GEBCO1). A fine unstructured mesh consisting of a half million (447974) elements is generated for the entire domain, with very fine elements (up to 100 meter) along the coast of the Singapore Strait. At open boundaries, the model is forced by FES2012 tide prediction. The model is calibrated at open boundaries based on mean sea level archived from AVISO satellite altimetry data to reproduce corrected monthly volume transport through Malacca, Singapore and Karimata Straits. Surface wind stress is taken into account using daily NCEP climatology downscaled by WRF model. The computed sea level agrees well with tide gauge records and consistent with tidal prediction softwares (TotalTide, MIKE21 and FES2012) at hourly and monthly scales. Computed tidal currents are well compared against ADCP measurements in the Singapore Strait. The mean discharge through the Karimata Strait is 1.3 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s) toward the south, with the maximum of 2.8 Sv in December-January and minimum of -0.8 Sv in July-August. The annual transport through the Malacca Strait is mainly westward, with the mean of 0.13 Sv and

  11. Popular Education for Adult Literacy and Health Development in Indigenous Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is adult literacy, and the impact this has on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individual and community health. It directs attention to those Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people and adults who have not benefited from the formal school education system, and who, as a consequence, have very low levels of…

  12. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  13. OBSERVATIONS FROM CONTAMINANT PLUMES ON LONG ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aquifers of Long Island serve as a sole source drinking water supply for the entire
    local population of about three million people. Where the shallow Upper Glacial Aquifer has been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), intensive site ...

  14. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  15. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    I \\ - a 11 KUW i \\13C L 4^T .Rewse Area 10. Retail/Residential (94 Acres) This reuse area , adjacent to Mare Island Strait, is bounded by the...inches by 2075 (US EPA 1995). Land subsidence is a process of settlement which lowers the land surface and can expose new areas to flood hazards...authority throughout the San Francisco Bay Area . Permit authority is derived from a combination of state and Federal legislation and can be categorized into

  16. Influence of pycnocline topography and water-column structure on marine distributions of alcids (Aves: Alcidae) in Anadyr Strait, Northern Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, J. Chris

    1991-01-01

    Systematic ship-board surveys were used to simultaneously record seabird abundances and resolve coarse-scale (3 to 10 km) horizontal and fine-scale (1 to 10 m) vertical variability in water-column structure and bathymetry for portions of the coastal zone in Anadyr Strait near western St. Lawrence Island, northern Bering Sea, Alaska, during August and September 1987. Three plankton-feeding alcids, parakeet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula), crested (Aethia cristatella) and least (A. pusilla) auklets, each exhibited distinct associations for different pycnocline characteristics. Least auklets were more abundant in mixed water, but they also occurred within stratified water where the pycnocline and upper-mixed layer were shallow (≤8 m) and thin (≤10 m), respectively. Low body mass (85 g), high buoyancy, and relatively poor diving ability may have restricted this auklet to areas where water-column strata nearly intersected the surface, or to areas from which strata were absent altogether due to strong vertical mixing. Parakeet and crested auklets, which are larger-bodied (ca. 260 g) planktivores with presumably greater diving ability, were more abundant in stratified water, and both species exhibited less specific affinities for water-column characteristic at intermediate and shallow levels. All three auklets avoided locations with strong pycnocline gradients (≤0.22σtm−1), a crude index of the strong, subsurface shear in water velocities characteristic of this region. Auklet distributions in Anadyr Strait were consistent with: (1) strata accessibility, as estimated from relationships between body mass and relative diving ability, (2) possible avoidance of strong subsurface water motions, and (3) habits and distributions of plankton prey. In contrast, largebodied (>450 g) alcids [i.e., common (Uria aalge) and thick-billed (U. lomvia) murres, pigeon guillemots (Cephus columba), tufted (Fratercula cirrhata), and horned (F. corniculata) puffins feeding on fish or

  17. Abrupt Atmospheric Methane Increases Associated With Hudson Strait Heinrich Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, R.; Brook, E.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Blunier, T.; Maselli, O. J.; McConnell, J. R.; Romanini, D.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The drivers of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Period are not well understood. While Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles are thought to be linked to variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), it is not clear how or if Heinrich Events—extensive influxes of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean that impacted global climate and biogeochemistry—are related. An enduring problem is the difficultly in dating iceberg rafted debris deposits that typically lack foraminifera. Here we present an ultra-high resolution record of methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core at unprecedented, continuous temporal resolution from 67.2-9.8 ka BP, which we propose constrains the timing of Heinrich events. Our methane record essentially mirrors Greenland ice core stable isotope variability across D-O events, except during Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4 and 5. Partway through these stadials only, methane increases abruptly and rapidly, as at the onset of a D-O event but Greenland temperature exhibits no equivalent response. Speleothem records exhibit signatures of drought in the Northern extra-tropics and intensified monsoonal activity over South America at these times. We use a simple heuristic model to propose that cold air temperatures and extensive sea ice in the North, resulting from Heinrich events, caused extreme reorganization of tropical hydroclimate. This involved curtailment of the seasonal northerly migration of tropical rain belts, leading to intensification of rainfall over Southern Hemisphere tropical wetlands, thus allowing production of excess methane relative to a 'normal' Greenland stadial. We note that this mechanism can operate if AMOC is already in a slowed state when a Heinrich event occurs, as paleo-evidence suggests it was. Heinrich events and associated sea ice cover would therefore act to prolong the duration of this AMOC state. Our findings place the big four Heinrich events of Hudson Strait origin

  18. Single-ping ADCP measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammartino, Simone; García Lafuente, Jesús; Naranjo, Cristina; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos; Sánchez Leal, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    In most Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) user manuals, it is widely recommended to apply ensemble averaging of the single-pings measurements, in order to obtain reliable observations of the current speed. The random error related to the single-ping measurement is typically too high to be used directly, while the averaging operation reduces the ensemble error of a factor of approximately √N, with N the number of averaged pings. A 75 kHz ADCP moored in the western exit of the Strait of Gibraltar, included in the long-term monitoring of the Mediterranean outflow, has recently served as test setup for a different approach to current measurements. The ensemble averaging has been disabled, while maintaining the internal coordinate conversion made by the instrument, and a series of single-ping measurements has been collected every 36 seconds during a period of approximately 5 months. The huge amount of data has been fluently handled by the instrument, and no abnormal battery consumption has been recorded. On the other hand a long and unique series of very high frequency current measurements has been collected. Results of this novel approach have been exploited in a dual way: from a statistical point of view, the availability of single-ping measurements allows a real estimate of the (a posteriori) ensemble average error of both current and ancillary variables. While the theoretical random error for horizontal velocity is estimated a priori as ˜2 cm s-1 for a 50 pings ensemble, the value obtained by the a posteriori averaging is ˜15 cm s-1, with an asymptotical behavior starting from an averaging size of 10 pings per ensemble. This result suggests the presence of external sources of random error (e.g.: turbulence), of higher magnitude than the internal sources (ADCP intrinsic precision), which cannot be reduced by the ensemble averaging. On the other hand, although the instrumental configuration is clearly not suitable for a precise estimation of turbulent

  19. 76 FR 21330 - Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...The Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Juneau, Alaska, April 25, 2011. The purpose of this meeting is to orient the new appointees as to the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2008, provide operational guidelines, discuss and adopt specific bylaws for the RAC, and elect a RAC...

  20. 77 FR 55452 - Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Forest Service Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the Title II of the Act. The...), implementing stewardship objectives that enhance forested ecosystems, and/or restoring and improving...

  1. Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits - ESR Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits – ESR Component Amy Ffield Earth & Space Research, 290...Earth & Space Research,290 Clausland Mountain Road,Upper Grandview,NY,10960-4113 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  2. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Strait. DATES: Comments and related material must either be submitted to our online docket via http://www... comments and material online, or by fax, mail or hand delivery, but please use only one of these means....

  3. Sedimentological effects of strong southward flow in the Straits of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, W.D.; Richardson, M.J.; Cacchione, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Periodic southerly currents along the western side of the Straits of Florida are sufficiently strong to erode the seafloor and create large sand waves and coral mounds up to several meters high. Mapping with side-looking sonar and visual observations from the Nuclear Research Submarine NR-1 show that the sand waves are confined to an area about 2 km wide, but over 70 km long. Southerly currents in excess of 50 cm s-1 were measured during our dives, and the size of the bedforms and grain size of sediments suggests currents could attain velocities of 100 cm s-1. The eastern boundary of the sand waves terminates abruptly with an erosional cliff or a series of erosional steps, grades to a zone of nondeposition and then to an area of sediment accumulation. In the central Straits are regions of ripples, megaripples and small coral mounds that indicate persistent flow to the north. Chemical as well as current erosion appears to be altering the seafloor on the southern side of the Northwest Providence Channel, which feeds into the Straits of Florida. Relict lithoherms are abundant in this channel, but they are much smaller than those observed further north in the Straits of Florida. Bedforms and current measurements show a strong northwest flow in the channel along the south wall. ?? 1989.

  4. 75 FR 53870 - Security Zone, Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Mackinac Bridge Walk security zone on the Straits of Mackinac from 6 a.m. through 11:59 p.m. on September 6... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the security zone for the annual Labor Day Mackinac Bridge Walk...

  5. 33 CFR 165.928 - Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge... § 165.928 Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan. (a) Definitions. The following.... (5) Michigan Law Enforcement Officer means any regularly employed member of a Michigan police...

  6. 33 CFR 165.928 - Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge... § 165.928 Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan. (a) Definitions. The following.... (5) Michigan Law Enforcement Officer means any regularly employed member of a Michigan police...

  7. 33 CFR 165.928 - Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge... § 165.928 Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan. (a) Definitions. The following.... (5) Michigan Law Enforcement Officer means any regularly employed member of a Michigan police...

  8. 33 CFR 165.928 - Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge... § 165.928 Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan. (a) Definitions. The following.... (5) Michigan Law Enforcement Officer means any regularly employed member of a Michigan police...

  9. A particle-tracking model for simulating pollutant dispersion in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, R

    2004-10-01

    A particle-tracking model to simulate the dispersion of contaminants in the Strait of Gibraltar has been developed. The model solves the hydrodynamic equations off-line and tidal analysis is carried out to determine tidal constants for the two main constituents. Tidal constants and residuals are stored in files that are read by the dispersion model. A lagrangian approach is used to solve dispersion; diffusion and decay are simulated by a Monte Carlo method. A method for assessing the areas of the Strait with higher probability of being affected by contamination occurring after an accident in the shipping routes is given. Generally speaking, the fate of a pollutant discharge strongly depends on wind conditions. Winds from the east tend to retain contamination into the Strait. As a consequence, transverse mixing occurs and both Spain and Morocco coasts are affected by contamination. Under calm conditions and west winds, contaminants are flushed out of the Strait faster and transverse mixing does not occur. Thus, only part of Morocco coast has a higher probability of being affected by contamination.

  10. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated Areas... located near Port Angeles, Washington: Point 1: 48°07′24″ N, 123°25′32″ W; Point 2: 48°07′26″ N,...

  11. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated Areas... located near Port Angeles, Washington: Point 1: 48°07′24″ N, 123°25′32″ W; Point 2: 48°07′26″ N,...

  12. A Numerical Study of Topographically Steered Flows in the Fram Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    like East Greenland Curent . and the Return Atlantic Current (R-C) (see figure 1) provide the basis for the Fram Strait circulation. This circulation...and thermohaline mixing are not in- cluded. 2. Model Domain A rectangular region (521.7 km x 395.0 km) was divided into 4.7 km by 5.0 km rectangles to

  13. Gibraltar Experiment: A Plan for Dynamic and Kinematic Investigations of Strait Mixing, Exchange and Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    Mediterranean outflow entrains ambient Atlantic Water as it follows the Iberian continental slope and sinks toward an ultimate depth near 1000 m in the...A r03 30000. ALONG - STRAIT" F ..,, I I I I I II 59 0 56 OCEANOGRAFIA QUIMICA Jose M. Cabanas, Jose’ G. Braun, M. Deya Objet ivos. - Se plantea el

  14. Gibraltar Experiment: A Plan for Dynamic and Kinematic Investigations of Strait Mixing, Exchange and Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    55 35. 0. 0 I 71 - 27 - As it exits the Strait in the Gulf of Cadiz, the Mediterranean outflow entrains ambient Atlantic Water as it follows the...AOd.N -S R I CURE0 MEE A R A A % . ,. d.,’ . a. . ... 230.,. ... ,. . ’.-’... ... .4... . 230.. * . ._ 4% OCEANOGRAFIA QUIMICA Jos& M. Cabanas, Jose’ G

  15. A high-resolution modelling study of the Turkish Straits System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannino, Gianmaria; Sözer, Adil; Özsoy, Emin

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution modelling, for the first time, is used to study the basic hydrodynamics of the Turkish Straits System (TSS). Hydraulic controls in the Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits are found to be essential in determining the coupled response of the TSS, which directly influences the interaction between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The mixed baroclinic—barotropic response of the system is investigated as a function of the net barotropic flux and density stratification imposed at external boundaries, in the absence of atmospheric and tidal effects. The intense surface jet issuing from the Bosphorus is found to drive the basin-wide circulation of the Marmara Sea, varying with the net flux. The temporal response of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits picks up rather fast, within a day or two, thanks to hydraulic controls within straits, while the surface currents in the Marmara Sea only approach steady state after a few months. Model stratification and circulation features are validated against independent measurements and a stand-alone model of the Bosphorus.

  16. Last Glacial - Holocene stratigraphic development at the Marmara Sea exit of the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köprülü, Kerem; Alpar, Bedri; Vardar, Denizhan

    2016-03-01

    High resolution Chirp and Sparker data allowed definition and mapping of distinct seismic units in the shallow sediment record (~100 ms) acquired from the southern exit of the Bosphorus Strait; a dynamic depositional environment. The bottommost unit observed in the Chirp data (unit-3) is made up of marine-lacustrine sediments thinning seaward and onlaps the basement rocks which are represented by folded strata in the Sparker data, possibly lower to middle Pleistocene age. It is overlain by a series of prograding deposits along the shelf (unit-2) referring to sediment input from the northern sector depending on the water levels of the paleo Marmara lake's during MIS 3. The uppermost deposits (unit-1) close to the Bosphorus Strait were represented by three separate subunits, unlike to relatively thin drape of sediments observed at the other places in the surrounding regions. The detailed definition of these subunits deduced from the closely-spaced reflection profiles and available radiocarbon ages helped to explain the history of the latest stratigraphic development depending on the connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In addition to the previously proposed major conduits, which controlled the sedimentary deposition at the southern exit of the Bosphorus, namely the Bosphorus Strait and Kurbağalıdere River, another submarine sedimentary pathway at the eastern bank of the strait's channel seems to have delivered sediments directly into the basin.

  17. Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region GLEB PANTELEEV International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska ...Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska , and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia MAX YAREMCHUK Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space...Center, Mississippi JACOB STROH University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska PAMELA POSEY AND DAVID HEBERT Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis

  18. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  19. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  2. Moored Observations of Internal Waves in Luzon Strait: 3-D Structure, Dissipation, and Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    variability, it may be due to waves propagating into Luzon strait from remote sources. Lee Waves and Dissipation on Supercritical Slopes A profiling...variability of the internal wave field in the upper 1000 m of the water column. The phase progression of internal waves as they propagate away from their

  3. Too Distant Shores: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Space of Exception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluhovic, Milija

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on "The Sheep and the Whale" ("Le mouton et la baleine," 2001) by Moroccan-Canadian playwright Ahmed Ghazali, this essay examines political and ethical issues concerning human migration from Africa to Europe. The play's representation of human rights abuses in the Strait of Gibraltar and the dilemmas facing illegal…

  4. The island.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    A clinician's chance encounter on the subway, after a long day seeing patients, prompts reflections on the nature of our interactions with our patients and with others we come across in our lives. Random yet precise, these interactions create a string of opportunities to witness other people's lives as well as our own. Sitting next to a young girl and her mother, the author daydreams about the images that appear to be on the surface, and then suddenly glimpses another level of reality that redefines the stereotypes. Like strangers on a train, we accompany our patients, everyone with their own stories and histories, in a series of unique moments. Occasionally a door opens that lets us see things differently. If we are receptive to it, we may learn something not only about our patients but also about ourselves.

  5. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  6. Modelling the upwelling offthe east Hainan Island coast in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng; Gu, Yanzhen; Li, Peiliang; Wu, Kejian

    2016-11-01

    A synoptic-scale upwelling event that developed offthe east coast of the Hainan Island (EHIU) in the summer of 2010 is defined well via processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with high spatial resolution has been used to investigate this upwelling event. By comparing the ROMS results against tide station data, Argo float profiles and MODIS SST, it is confirmed that the ROMS reproduces the EHIU well. The cooler-water core (CWC) distinguished by waters < 27.5°C in the EHIU, which occurred in the east Qiongzhou Strait mouth area and was bounded by a high temperature gradient, was the focus of this paper. Vertical structure of the CWC suggests that interaction between the westward flow and the bathymetry slope played a significant role in the formation of CWC. Numerical experiments indicated that the westward flow in the Qiongzhou Strait was the result of tidal rectification over variable topography (Shi et al., 2002), thus tides played a critical role on the development of the CWC. The negative wind stress curl that dominated the east Qiongzhou Strait mouth area suppressed the intensity of the CWC by 0.2-0.4°C. Further, nonlinear interaction between tidal currents and wind stress enhanced vertical mixing greatly, which would benefit the development of the CWC.

  7. The Davis Strait crust—a transform margin between two oceanic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckro, Sonja K.; Gohl, Karsten; Funck, Thomas; Heyde, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Gerlings, Joanna; Damm, Volkmar

    2013-04-01

    The Davis Strait is located between Canada and Greenland and connects the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay basins. Both basins formed in Cretaceous to Eocene time and were connected by a transform fault system in the Davis Strait. Whether the crust in the central Davis Strait is oceanic or continental has been disputed. This information is needed to understand the evolution of this transform margin during the separation of the North American plate and Greenland. We here present a 315-km-long east-west-oriented profile that crosses the Davis Strait and two major transform fault systems-the Ungava Fault Complex and the Hudson Fracture Zone. By forward modelling of data from 12 ocean bottom seismographs, we develop a P-wave velocity model. We compare this model with a density model from ship-borne gravity data. Seismic reflection and magnetic anomaly data support and complement the interpretation. Most of the crust is covered by basalt flows that indicate extensive volcanism in the Davis Strait. While the upper crust is uniform, the middle and lower crust are characterized by higher P-wave velocities and densities at the location of the Ungava Fault Complex. Here, P-wave velocities of the middle crust are 6.6 km s-1 and of the lower crust are 7.1 km s-1 compared to 6.3 and 6.8 km s-1 outside this area; densities are 2850 and 3050 kg m-3 compared to 2800 and 2900 kg m-3. We here interpret a 45-km-long section as stretched and intruded crust or as new igneous crust that correlates with oceanic crust in the southern Davis Strait. A high-velocity lower crust (6.9-7.3 km s-1) indicates a high content of mafic material. This mantle-derived material gradually intruded the lower crust of the adjacent continental crust and can be related to the Iceland mantle plume. With plate kinematic modelling, we can demonstrate the importance of two transform fault systems in the Davis Strait: the Ungava Fault Complex with transpression and the Hudson Fracture Zone with pure strike

  8. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily) tidal upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, F.; Decembrini, F.; Raffa, F.; Crisafi, E.

    2007-10-01

    In the Straits of Messina, large gradients of tidal displacements, as well as the topographic constrictions, determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability in the surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on the upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements onboard dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during high tide and northward during low tide. During the low water slack tide, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were found, while at the high water slack tide, a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn due to a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they were inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones during winter, while in summer it was found in the middle of the Straits and in the southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, the maximum chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 μg-Chla l-1); in summer, when back and forth tidal movements between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas intensify, decreased values were observed throughout the study area. The data set obtained through continuous and repeatable samplings has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong and dynamic environment. The Straits system could be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, initially enriches itself and subsequently provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  9. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily) tidal upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, F.; Decembrini, F.; Raffa, F.; Crisafi, E.

    2007-05-01

    In the Straits of Messina the large gradients of tidal displacements as well as the topographic constrictions determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements on board dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during the high tide and northward during the low tide. During the low water slack, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were mainly found, while in the high water slack a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn, in coincidence of a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they are inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, during winter, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones, while in summer it involved the middle of the Straits and southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, maximum of chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 µg-Chla l-1); in summer, when back and forth tidal movements become intense between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas, values was everywhere lower. The data set from continuous and repeatable acquisition has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong dynamic environment. The Straits system can be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, before enriched itself and then it provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  10. Breaking Britain: submerged and buried landforms suggest catastrophic flood breaching of the Dover Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Collier, J.; Garcia, D.; Oggioni, F.; Trentesaux, A.; Vanneste, K.; De Batist, M. A. O.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2015-12-01

    The separation of Britain from mainland Europe in the late Quaternary is widely considered to be a consequence of spillover of a proglacial lake that occupied the present-day southern North Sea basin. This event had significant palaeogeographic, biological and archaeological implications. Lake spillover is inferred to have caused breaching of a Chalk rock dam to form the Dover Strait, thus releasing a significant flood into a subaerial English Channel. Whilst evidence for catastrophic flooding derived from sonar imaging of the seabed in the central Channel is strong, the breaching model is controversial through lack of data at the inferred spillpoint in the Dover Strait. We combine high-resolution sonar-derived bathymetry and seismic reflection data from the eastern English Channel to test the breaching hypothesis. We find a set of isolated, sediment-infilled depressions that are deeply incised into bedrock. Sub-circular to elliptical in planform, <4 kilometres in diameter and ~100 m in depth, these features are clustered along the projected trend of the Chalk dam and best interpreted as giant plunge pools formed by vertical drilling into bedrock by waterfalls. Bathymetric data show evidence of second opening event of the Strait. The floor of a prominent bedrock channel is eroded into cataracts and extensive longitudinal ridge-and-groove bedforms, features characteristic of erosion by catastrophic flood flows. This evidence strongly supports initial erosion of the Dover Strait by lake overspill, plunge pool erosion by waterfalls and subsequent dam breaching. Subsequent modification of the Strait by flood erosion of the Lobourg Channel may have been a consequence of spillover of younger ice-marginal lake systems.

  11. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Geological Features Inferred from Local Seismic Tomography in the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Sakti, A. P.; Rohadi, S.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted seismic tomographic inversions to obtain a P-wave seismic velocity structure beneath the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia. The Sunda Strait is located in a complex geological system i.e. in the transition from the oblique subduction beneath Sumatra to the nearly perpendicular subduction below Java. The Krakatau active volcano is located in the Sunda Strait. In this study, we have used selected P-wave arrival times from the data catalogs of the SeisComP-BMKG network (from 2009 to 2011) and the BMKG BALAI II network (from 1992 to 2011) compiled by Badan Meteorologi,Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Indonesia. In total, there are 1,598 local earthquakes and 10,366 P-wave phases from 25 seismographic stations that have been used for the tomographic inversions. We have also relocated the hypocenter locations along with velocity inversions simultaneously. Our preliminary results depict some prominent geological features that include: (1) a low velocity anomaly beneath north of the Ujung Kulon region, which coincides with a low gravity anomaly resulting from a previous study, (2) a low velocity anomaly alignment beneath the Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, (3) a sharp contrast in velocity anomalies extending from Pelabuhan Ratu towards Jakarta with a strike of SW-NE, and (4) a low velocity anomaly in the offshore of Pelabuhan Ratu that may be correlated with the continuation of the Cimandiri fault zone. More detailed information will be presented during the meeting. Keywords: tomography, Sunda Strait, West Java, velocity anomaly

  13. Mediterranean waters along and across the Strait of Gibraltar, characterization and zonal modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Cristina; Sammartino, Simone; García-Lafuente, Jesús; Bellanco, María J.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Hydrological data collected in the Strait of Gibraltar have been used to examine the distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of the water masses in the area. The spatial variability has been addressed by means of a clustering method that determines the affinity of a collection of temperature-salinity samples to one of the water masses involved in the exchange. The method, which has been applied to a nearly-synoptic data set, highlights the clear evolution of the Mediterranean Waters as they flow westward through the Strait. While up to four different Mediterranean Waters are spatially distinguishable east of the main sill of Camarinal in the Strait, most of their differentiating characteristics are eroded after flowing over this restrictive topography due to mixing. West of the sill, therefore, speaking of a unique Mediterranean Water seems more appropriate. The same applies to the North Atlantic Central Water flowing in the opposite direction, which is noticeably modified along its path to the Mediterranean Sea, most of its transformation taking place in the Camarinal sill surroundings. A series of repeated transects carried out in the eastern and western sides of the Strait, provided a temporal analysis of the water masses evolution: the temporal variability manifests seasonality in the surface waters, while interannual signal is mainly detected in the deeper water masses. It is worth remarking the statistically significant positive trend of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (0.009 °C/year) and Winter Intermediate Water (0.03 °C/year), with the latter showing also intermittent occurrence in the Strait.

  14. Genetic structure among Fijian island populations.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Gerhard P; Taylor, Diana A; Tyagi, Anand; Tiwari, Geetanjali; Redd, Alan J

    2015-02-01

    We examined nine Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 region in the Fijian island populations of Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau islands and Rotuma. We found significant genetic structure among these populations for the Y-STRs, both with and without the Rotumans, but not for the mtDNA. We also found that all five populations exhibited the sex-biased admixture associated with areas settled by Austronesian-speaking people, with paternal lineages more strongly associated with Melanesian populations and maternal lineages more strongly associated with Polynesian populations. We also found that the Rotumans in the north and the Lau Islanders in the east were genetically more similar to Polynesian populations than were the other Fijians, but only for the mtDNA. For the Y-STRs, the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were genetically as similar to Melanesian populations as were the other three populations. Of the five populations, the Rotumans were the most different in almost every regard. Although past genetic studies treated the Fijians as being genetically homogenous despite known geographic, phenotypic, cultural and linguistic variation, our findings show significant genetic variation and a need for a closer examination of individual island populations within Fiji, particularly the Rotumans, in order to better understand the process of the peopling of Fiji and of the surrounding regions.

  15. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  16. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  17. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  18. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Cryptic speciation in a benthic isopod from Patagonian and Falkland Island waters and the impact of glaciations on its population structure

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Florian; Kop, Anna; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Held, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background The Falkland Islands and Patagonia are traditionally assigned to the Magellan Biogeographic Province. Most marine species in Falkland waters are also reported from southern Patagonia. It remains unclear if relatively immobile, marine benthic, shallow-water species maintain gene flow, and by what mechanism. Recurrent fluctuations in sea level during glacial cycles are regarded as a possible mechanism that might have allowed genetic exchange between the regions. However, the realized genetic exchange between the Falkland Islands and Patagonia has never been estimated. Results This study analyses the genetic structure of three populations of the marine shallow-water isopod Serolis paradoxa (Fabricius, 1775) from the Falkland Islands and southern Patagonia (central Strait of Magellan and the Atlantic opening) applying seven nuclear microsatellites and a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Both marker systems report highest genetic diversity for the population from the central Strait of Magellan and lowest for the Falkland Islands. The estimated effective population sizes were large for all populations studied. Significant differentiation was observed among all three populations. The magnitude of differentiation between Patagonia and the Falkland Islands (16S: uncorrected p-distance 2.1%; microsatellites: standardized F'ST > 0.86) was an order of magnitude higher than between populations from within Patagonia. This indicates that there is currently no effective gene flow for nominal S. paradoxa between these two regions and it has been absent for time exceeding the last glacial maximum. We argue that specimens from the Strait of Magellan and the Falkland Islands very likely represent two distinct species that separated in the mid-Pleistocene (about 1 MY BP). Conclusion The results of this study indicate limited gene flow between distant populations of the brooding isopod Serolis paradoxa. The patterns of genetic diversity suggest that the only

  20. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  1. M2 tidal effects in greater cook strait, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibblewhite, Alick C.; Ash, David E.

    1980-05-01

    The application of a M2 nonlinear numerical tidal model to the shelf seas of central New Zealand (~38.500 km2 area) is described. It has provided a preliminary assessment of tidal and residual currents, bottom stress, energy dissipation, and the stratification index. The existence of a permanent, tidally driven mesoscale eddy (~75 km diameter) is predicted nort of D'Urville Island. Large spatial gradients in bottom stress qualitatively agree with many features of the surficial sediment distribution. A comparison of all available bulk stratification data with the h/u3 stratification index clearly demonstrates the dominance of tidal versus wind mixing over the control of summer stratification. A potential application of the model to fisheries science is suggested through a comparison of the stratification index contour map and some observations of squid fishing vessel locations.

  2. Recent advancements on modelling the exchange flow dynamics through the Turkish Strait System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannino, Gianmaria; Sözer, Adil; Özsoy, Emin

    2014-05-01

    The system composed by the two narrow Straits, Dardanelles and Bosphorus, and the Marmara Sea is known as the Turkish Straits System (TSS). The scientific questions on the role of the TSS in coupling the adjacent basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas with highly contrasting properties, in a region of high climatic variability and materials transport depending critically on the cycle of water can only be answered by model predictions of the processes that determine the integral properties of the coupled sub-systems. This can only be achieved if the entire TSS is modeled as a finely resolved integral system that appropriately accounts for the high contrasts in seawater properties, steep topography, hydraulic controls, fine and meso-scale turbulence, nonlinear and non-hydrostatic effects, thermodynamic states and an active free-surface in the fullest extent, based on well represented fluid dynamical principles. In this study the MITgcm is used at very high resolution to study this extreme environment that needs to be represented as a whole and with the full details of its highly contrasting properties. The model domain chosen extends over the entire TSS, including also part of the north-east Aegean Sea at south, and the Black Sea at north of the domain. A non-uniform curvilinear orthogonal grid covers the domain at variable resolution: from less than 50 m in the two Straits up to about 1 Km in the Marmara Sea. To adequately resolve the complex hydraulic dynamics of the TSS, the model grid is made by 100 vertical z-levels. The model is initialized with three different water masses filling the western part of the domain, the Marmara Sea and the eastern side of the domain respectively, with vertical profiles selected from CTD casts obtained during the cruise of the R/V BİLİM of the Institute of Marine Sciences in June-July 2013. With the initial condition specified as lock-exchanges at the two straits, the model is left free to adjust to the expected two

  3. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Ivanov, Boris V.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2015-03-01

    Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC was significantly higher (more than 3-fold) compared to Atlantic water in the WSC, with values of absorption coefficient, aCDOM(350), m- 1 of 0.565 ± 0.100 (in 2009) and 0.458 ± 0.117 (in 2010), and 0.138 ± 0.036 (in 2009) and 0.153 ± 0.039 (in 2010), respectively. An opposite pattern was observed for particle absorption with higher absorption found in the eastern part of the Fram Strait. Average values of particle absorption (aP(440), m- 1) were 0.016 ± 0.013 (in 2009) and 0.014 ± 0.011 (in 2010), and 0.047 ± 0.012 (in 2009) and 0.016 ± 0.014 (in 2010), respectively for Polar and Atlantic water. Thus absorption of light in eastern part of the Fram Strait is dominated by particles - predominantly phytoplankton, and the absorption of light in the western part of the strait is dominated by CDOM, with predominantly terrigenous origin. As a result the balance between the importance of CDOM and particulates to the total absorption budget in the upper 0-10 m shifts across Fram Strait. Under water spectral irradiance profiles were generated using ECOLIGHT 5.4.1 and the results indicate that the shift in composition between dissolved and particulate material does not influence substantially the penetration of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the

  4. Anthropogenic CO 2 fluxes in the Otranto Strait (E. Mediterranean) in February 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Souvermezoglou, Ekaterini; Goyet, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    This study presents the distribution and fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (C T), total alkalinity ( AT) and anthropogenic carbon (C ant) along the Otranto strait, during February 1995. Based on a limited number of properties (temperature, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon), the composite tracer TrOCA was used to estimate the concentration of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Otranto strait. Total alkalinity exhibits high values and weak variability throughout the water column of the strait, probably associated with the dense water formation processes in the Adriatic basin that induce a rapid transport of the coastal alkalinity to the deep waters. Elevated C ant concentrations and high anthropogenic pH variations are observed in the bottom layer of the strait, associated with the presence of Adriatic Deep Water (ADW). The study shows that large amounts of C ant have penetrated the highly alkaline Eastern Mediterranean waters, thereby causing a significant pH reduction since the pre-industrial era. Estimates of the transports of C T and C ant through the strait indicate that during February 1995, the Adriatic Sea imports through the Otranto strait natural and anthropogenic carbon and acts as a net sink of carbon for the Ionian Sea. The anthropogenic carbon that is imported to the Adriatic Sea represents less than 1% of the net C T inflow. The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) contributes to about one-third of the total C T and C ant inflow. Although the amounts of C ant annually transported by LIW and ADW are almost equal, the contribution of C ant to the C T transported by each water mass is slightly higher in ADW (3.1%) than in LIW (2.6%), as a result of its higher mean C ant concentration. The ADW, despite its weak contribution to the total outflow of C ant, has a vital role for the sequestration and storage of the anthropogenic carbon, as this water mass is the main component of the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Waters and, thus, the

  5. Glider observations of oceanic conditions in the Fram Strait, 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sagen, Hanne; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Latarius, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    The Fram Strait is the deepest gateway to the Arctic Ocean (2600 m sill depth), and a crucial pathway for exchange of heat and freshwater between the Arctic and the rest of the world ocean. The region is important for studying changes in the Arctic Ocean and possible feedback mechanisms between the ocean and sea ice. In order to monitor volume, heat and freshwater exchanges between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, the Alfred Wegener Institute and the North Polar Institute have been maintaining an oceanographic mooring array along 78°50'N since 1997. The Fram Strait is characterized by strong variability in temperature, salinity and currents on time and spatial scales corresponding to oceanic mesoscale phenomena. This makes estimation of long-term fluxes difficult. In order to improve monitoring the Fram Strait ocean observing system was extended by a multi-purpose acoustic system for thermometry, passive acoustics, and glider navigation between 2008 and 2012 as part of the ACOBAR project. Acoustic thermometry provides depth range averaged ocean temperature at a high temporal resolution. To improve the spatial resolution of the monitoring system Seagliders were deployed in Fram Strait for a few months at a time following a quasi-zonal transect and profiling down to 1000 m. We present analysis of hydrographic data from the Seagliders operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Fram Strait between 2008 and 2012. During eight glider missions physical oceanography data were collected along repeated sections south of the mooring array. In addition to the directly measured hydrographic data (conductivity, temperature, and pressure), depth-averaged current velocities are derived from glider displacements. Data from the five summer (July-September) and three autumn (September-November) glider missions are used to make year-to-year comparisons of vertical temperature and salinity profiles in the upper 1000 m of the water column. Glider section data show a high

  6. The Past, Present, and Future: An Analysis of the Across Strait Relationship and its Implications to the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    presidential election, Beijing conducted a series of military exercises in the Taiwan Strait, including missile tests with target areas just thirty to forty... tests .18 The immediate danger to armed confrontation passed, but cross-strait relations lurched, for the next four years, between stalemated... anxiety over China policy advocated by DPP and certain KMT faction.29 China’s White Paper clearly states that Taiwan was given over to China de facto and

  7. Mixing it up in the Makassar Strait: Seasonal Reconstructions from Corals of Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity Allow for Records of Source Water Mixing in the Makassar Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, S. A.; Goodkin, N.; Halide, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Suprinhanto, I.; Prayudi, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian seas provide a maze of passages through which relatively warm and fresh water flows from the equatorial Pacific to the Indian Ocean forming the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). As it flows, the ITF provides a transport pathway affecting heat and buoyancy fluxes throughout the region, interacting with both the Asian monsoon and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present and past behavior of the ITF is therefore one of the keys to understanding regional and global climate variability. Past ITF behavior has been previously recorded in massive coral colonies, which serve as continuous, high-resolution climate archives because of their high linear extension rates and annual banding pattern. Here we present Sr/Ca-SST and δ18O-SSS calibrations from three Porites spp. coral colonies located in the southern Makassar Strait, through which roughly 75-80% of all ITF waters flow. At interannual timescales, we find that in all three corals Sr/Ca significantly (all p-values<0.05) correlates with sea surface temperature (SST) during the SE monsoon from July to September, while δ18O is correlated with sea surface salinity (SSS) during the NW monsoon from December to March (all p-values<0.05). HADI SST and SODA SSS instrumental temperature-salinity diagrams from our coral sites indicate that the southern Makassar Strait is a region of surface seawater mixing between end member water masses of the ITF during the SE monsoon. During the NW monsoon, however, end members of the South China Sea Throughflow (SCSTF) instead mix in the surface waters. The strength of our interannual calibrations suggests that it may be possible to reconstruct the ITF and SCSTF surface mixing patterns during their respective monsoon seasons. To preliminarily assess this, we present 150-year seasonally resolved records of Sr/Ca and δ18O to reconstruct surface water mixing in the southern Makassar Strait.

  8. Rapid fluctuations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the mouth of Hudson Strait: New evidence for ocean/ice-sheet interactions as a control on the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Kaufman, Darrell S.

    1990-12-01

    Ice-directional features and erratic lithologies of the last glaciation demonstrate that a major outlet glacier of the Laurentide Ice Sheet flowed NNE across outer Hudson Strait rather than SE down the Strait as previously hypothesized. Ice advanced more than 600 km from a Labradorean source, crossing Hudson Strait and outer Frobisher Bay, and advancing onto Hall Peninsula; the highest summits on Loks Land (circa 400 m asl), a large island at the SE tip of Hall Peninsula, were inundated by Labradorean ice. Three distinct Late Wisconsin advances have been recognized. The earliest, most extensive advance crossed Frobisher about 11.5 kyr B.P. and was maintained for circa 1 kyr. Differences in the extent of amino acid racemization in shells from interstadial and deglacial sites on eastern Loks Land limit the duration of the most extensive Late Wisconsin advance(s) to a brief interval of no more than 2 kyr. Radiocarbon dates on in situ shells and on shells incorporated in till indicate that Frobisher Bay was ice-free from at least 10.5 to 10.2 kyr B.P. after which a second Labradorean advance, the Gold Cove readvance, attained nearly the same extent as the earlier advance. The readvance was short lived, and the Bay was deglaciated before 9.5 kyr B.P. A final readvance occurred during the Cockburn Substage (9 to 8 kyr B.P.), but ice failed to cross Frobisher Bay. The maximum extent of the Labradorean advance coincides with the onset of Younger Dryas cooling. Based on a minimum cross-sectional area and reasonable estimates of ice velocity, the iceberg flux to the North Atlantic Ocean at this time was between 300 to 2400 km³ year-1, about the same as the freshwater influx from the diversion of Lake Agassiz drainage to the St. Lawrence. The input of a significant volume of ice into the North Atlantic via the Labrador Sea would have cooled sea surface and air temperatures, increased sea-surface albedo, and diminished the effectiveness of wind mixing of surface waters

  9. Hydrodynamic modelling of coastal seas: the role of tidal dynamics in the Messina Strait, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sinerchia, Matteo; Tedesco, Costanza; Sorgente, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the importance of considering tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian subbasins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tides and the induced water circulation in this Strait are among the most intense oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean Sea. The quantification of these effects can be particularly relevant for operational oceanographic systems aimed to provide short-term predictions of the main hydrodynamics in the Western Mediterranean subbasins. A numerical approach based on the use of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model was followed to reproduce the tides propagation and the wind-induced and thermohaline water circulation within the Strait and in surrounding areas. A set of numerical simulations was carried out to quantify the role of the Strait dynamics on the larger-scale water circulation. The obtained results confirmed the importance of a correct representation of the hydrodynamics in the Messina Strait even when focusing on predicting the water circulation in the external sea traits. In fact, model results show that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.

  10. Bedrock assemblages of the Bering Strait region: Implications for offshore metal sources in the marine environment: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    The Bering Strait region is important habitat for Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Elevated metal levels in tissues of some walrus have raised concerns about the sources of these metals. This study synthesizes and integrates onshore geology, regional gravity and magnetic data, and information about mineral deposits and the natural processes that weather, erode, and disperse metals in the Bering Strait region. In this region (Seward Peninsula, St. Lawrence Island, Chukotsk Peninsula, and intervening areas of the Bering Sea shelf), six bedrock assemblages can be defined and extended from onshore to offshore areas. These assemblages include (1) Paleozoic sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks, (2) upper Paleozoic to Triassic sedimentary and related mafic igneous rocks, (3) Mesozoic high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks, (4) Cretaceous amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks, (5) Cretaceous volcanic and related intrusive rocks, and (6) Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely scattered and locally intrude all of the pre-Tertiary bedrock assemblages. The distribution and thickness of Tertiary sedimentary rocks can be approximated in offshore areas using satellite gravity data. The resulting new map shows that about 40 percent of the offshore Bering Strait region may have bedrock at or near the sea floor. Some mineral deposits and rock units with high background metal contents are associated with specific bedrock assemblages whereas other mineral deposits are more regionally distributed. The mineral deposits of the region are mostly types that contain Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Sn, or Au (or certain combinations of these metals) and elevated concentrations of associated elements, such as As, Bi, Be, B, Sb, and F. The mineral deposits have been physically and chemically weathered and eroded by both subaerial and marine processes. Marine processes have been particularly important as the region has experienced

  11. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    In this research, we study the influence of dynamic processes in the Danish Straits on the sea surface height (SSH) oscillations in the Baltic Sea. For this purpose, we use the model of marine and oceanic circulation INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model). The simulations were carried out for the period 2009-2010, and the coastal station data were used for verification of SSH modelling quality. Comparison of the simulated data with the ones measured in the coastal points showed us that the model does not describe SSH variability in different areas of the Baltic Sea well enough, so in the following simulation series the in situ SSH data of the coastal measurements were assimilated at the open boundary in the Danish Straits. The results of the new simulation showed us that this approach significantly increases the SSH simulation quality in all areas of the sea, where the comparison was made. In particular, the correlation coefficients between the simulated and measured SSH data increased from 0.21-0.73 to 0.81-0.90. On the basis of these results, it has been suggested that the Baltic Sea SSH variability is largely determined by the influence of the dynamic processes in the Danish Straits, which can be represented as a superposition of oscillations of different space-time scales. These oscillations can either be generated in the straits themselves, or propagate from the North Sea. For verification of this hypothesis and assessment of the oscillation propagation distance in the Baltic Sea, the following experiment was performed. At the open boundary in the Danish Straits, the six harmonics were set with the following parameters: the periods are 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 13.5, 40.5, and 121.5 days, and the amplitude for all the harmonics is 50 cm. The results showed us that the prescribed harmonic oscillations at the open boundary propagate into all areas of the sea without changing the frequency, but with decreasing amplitude. The decrease in amplitude is not

  12. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  13. Initial Observation of High Resolution Velocity Profile and Stratification in the Sunda Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    straits and underway fishfinder as well as ADCP. CTD are taken in the locations of Krakatoa Volcano to investigate possibility of hydrothermal...resources. 9 Measure cross section bathymetric data along the mooring array as well as surrounding Krakatoa volcano . 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...surrounding Krakatoa volcano , 2011a, Nature Geoscience, in preparation. Susanto, R. D, Analysis of Indonesian throughflow time series using Hilbert

  14. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; von Appen, W.-J.

    2015-09-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian - Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 μmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 μmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10-35 μmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  15. Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment: Workshop Report, Torres Strait, Australia, Annex A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-23

    Language barriers not an issue. • Fish near the #1 Reef , but usually stay away from the channels, so no need for radio traffic. Recreational...Passages, the Prince of Wales Channel, the Great North East Channel, Endeavour Strait, and the Adolphus Channel to abeam Cape York. Changes to...Draft Mariner Proficiency Today: • Operating costs encourage mixed crews which creates communication barriers . • Some flag states giving away or

  16. An estimate of the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca transports: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabor, F.; Samah, A. A.; Ooi, S. H.; Chenoli, S. N.

    2015-02-01

    Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), this study aims to provide an estimate of the volume, freshwater, heat, and salt transports through the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca in the southern region of the South China Sea (SSCS). The modeling system is configured with two one-way nested domains representing parent and child with resolutions of 1/2 and 1/12°, respectively. The simulated currents, sea surface salinity, temperature and various transports (e.g., volume, heat, etc) agree well with the observed values as well as those estimated from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) re-analysis product. The ROMS estimated seasonal and mean annual transports are in accord with those calculated from SODA and those of limited observations. The ROMS estimates of mean annual volume, freshwater, heat and salt transports through the Sunda Shelf into the Java Sea are 0.32Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), 0.023 Sv, 0.032 PW (1 PW = 1015 j s-1), and 0.010 × 109 kg s-1 respectively. The corresponding ROMS estimates for mean annual transports through the Strait of Malacca into Andaman Sea are 0.14, 0.009 Sv, 0.014 PW, and 0.0043 × 109 kg s-1 respectively. The relative percentages of mean annual transports computed individually from those of volume, heat, salinity, and freshwater between the Strait of Malacca and the Sunda Shelf range from 39 to 43.8%. This reflects that the Strait of Malacca plays an equally significant role in the annual transports from the SSCS into the Andaman Sea.

  17. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  18. Tidal-induced inorganic carbon dynamics in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Paz, Mercedes; Debelius, Bibiana; Macías, Diego; Vázquez, Agueda; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo; Forja, Jesus M.

    2008-08-01

    This study presents the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) along the Strait of Gibraltar, its tidal-induced variability, as well as the inorganic carbon exchange between the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. During November 2003, water column samples were collected at nine stations to measure total alkalinity (TA), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) for the spatial characterization of the carbonate system. At the same time, anchored samplings were carried out, above the Camarinal Sill and in the Eastern Section of the Strait, in order to assess the tidal mixing effects for oxygen and DIC distribution on the water column. Three distinct water masses can be discerned in this area: the Surface Atlantic Water (SAW), the Mediterranean Water (MW), and the less abundant North Atlantic Central Water (NACW). The observations show an increase in the DIC and a decrease in oxygen concentration with depth, related to the different physico-chemical features of each water mass. The results show the high time-dependence of the vertical distribution of DIC with the interface oscillation, affected by the intense mixing processes taking place in the Strait. Intense mixing episodes over the Camarinal Sill are responsible for an increase in the DIC concentrations in the upper layer of the Eastern Section of the Strait. Higher DIC concentrations in the Mediterranean than in the Atlantic waters are responsible for a net DIC transport of 1.47×10 12 mol C yr -1 to the Atlantic Ocean. Nevertheless, the net exchange is highly sensitive to the interface definition, as well as to the estimate of water volume transport used.

  19. Trace the Denmark Strait Overflow Water in an Eddy-Resolving Atlantic Simulation: Some Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Trace the Denmark Strait overflow water in an eddy-resolving Atlantic simulation: some preliminary results Xiaobiao Xu ( COAPS /FSU), Alan...Wallcraft (NRL/SSC), Eric Chassignet ( COAPS /FSU) Thanks: Peter Rhines (UW) and William Schmitz May 21-23, Layered ocean modeling workshop, Ann Arbor, MI...Prediction Studies ( COAPS ),2000 Levy Avenue, Building A, Suite 292,Tallahassee,FL,32306-2741 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  20. Moored Observations of Internal Waves in Luzon Strait: 3-D Structure, Dissipation, and Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    the performance of operational and climate models, as well as for understanding local problems such as pollutant dispersal and biological productivity...substantially improves both our understanding and predictive ability of linear internal tides and NLIWs in Luzon Strait and the South China Sea...westward into the northeastern South China Sea (SCS). • To better understand generation and propagation of internal waves in a strongly sheared

  1. Deep Mediterranean Water footprint measured in the Strait of Gibraltar during the last decade.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo Rosa, Cristina; García Lafuente, Jesús; Sammartino, Simone; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Deep Mediterranean Water is formed during winter in the Mediterranean Sea due to atmospheric cooling of salty Mediterranean waters. When it reaches the Strait of Gibraltar it finally flows westward into the Atlantic, from where it begins to descend the continental slope by gravity while it mixes with the overlying waters and becomes lighter. Far beyond the strait itself it maintains a recognizable signal and so affects the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, the Strait of Gibraltar is the perfect site to monitor the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean Sea just before Mediterranean Waters incorporate to the Atlantic circulation. From October 2004 until today the Temperature and Salinity of the Mediterranean outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar have been monitored, resulting in a long-term temporal series with more than 11 years of measurements. A Conductivity-Temperature sensor is placed around 12 meters above the seafloor in the Espartel Sill (35°56'N 5°45'W), the last constriction the Mediterranean deep water finds before leaving the Mediterranean, and is configured to take measurements every 30 minutes. The instrument has been collecting data almost continuously from 2004, except for a 2.5 month gap in 2009 and a 5 months gap during 2011. This record allows the study of the long-term trend and the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean during the last 11 years. First results show a mean temperature of the deep Mediterranean waters of 13.20±0.06 °C and a mean salinity of 38.39±0.02. It is noteworthy the cold signals registered in 2006 and 2013, which could be the result of the severe winters of 2005 and 2012 in Europe, and the positive trend in 2015 toward warmer values. No significant trends have been found for the whole period. On the other hand, the time series exhibits a noticeable interannual variability that merits a deeper analysis.

  2. Moored Observations of Internal Waves in Luzon Strait: 3-D Structure, Dissipation, and Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    advancing the performance of operational and climate models, as well as for understanding local problems such as pollutant dispersal and biological...Y.J. Yang, M.-H. Chang , and Q. Li. 2011. From Luzon Strait to Dongsha Plateau: Stages in the life of an internal wave. Oceanography 24(4):64–77...Knowledge of the general problems of internal waves and ocean mixing are important for advancing the performance of operational and climate models, as well

  3. Transport Variability in the Korea/Tsushima Strait: Characteristics and Relationship to Synoptic Atmospheric Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Boonsoon; Hirose, Naoki; Fukudome, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    The characteristics of high-frequency transport variation through the Korea/Tsushima Strait and its response to atmospheric synoptic forcing are investigated by using acoustic velocity measurements and a barotropic model. The first principal mode for the current data in the high-frequency band (3-50 days) is mostly coherent to transport variation through the strait. As the dominant mode, the cross-sectional pattern of the transport variability is clarified: strong axes exist in the centers of the western and eastern channels of the strait. Seasonal change in the high-frequency variability is also elucidated: it is strong from November to January, peaks in April and September, and is weak from May to August. Both data analysis and numerical experiments clarify that the transport variation is mainly attributable to wind and pressure forcing, especially in a synoptic time band (3-9 days). The amplitude of the high-frequency variability is even stronger than that of seasonal transport variation. The lagged cross-covariance reveals a spatial pattern that causes the transport variation to be a synoptic weather system passing eastward along the mid-latitudes with a period of around 5 days. The transport response to this synoptic change is investigated through numerical experiments with idealized atmospheric forcing. The experiments reveal that about 40-50% of the total transport fluctuations in the synoptic time band are explained by the idealized forcing, with a contribution from wind stress higher than that from pressure. Sensitivity experiments on the forcing area show that the pressure-driven transport fluctuation is mainly determined by forcing over the East/Japan Sea. Additional experiments indicate that the strait transport fluctuation responds coherently to the local and remote winds of the synoptic atmospheric forcing.

  4. Footprints of mesoscale eddy passages in the Strait of Otranto (Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursella, Laura; KovačEvić, Vedrana; GačIć, Miroslav

    2011-04-01

    The footprints of mesoscale eddies propagating through the Strait of Otranto are documented from current meter records, and their formation mechanism is hypothesized. Bottom-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers data, collected during 5 months (November 2006 through April 2007) at a transect in the core of the outflowing Adriatic Dense Water, reveal energetic events that manifest as vertically uniform current vector rotations on a time scale of about 10 days. At the two moorings close to the center of the strait, coherent current vector rotations were in opposite senses. Simulation of the passage of an idealized cyclonic or anticyclonic rigid circular eddy confirms that these opposed rotations could be associated with passages of eddies in the southward direction. Characteristic parameters of the eddies were estimated: the duration was several days, the peak azimuthal velocity was around 10-20 cm/s, and advection velocity below 15 cm/s was predominantly in the southwestward direction. Cyclones were bigger (diameter 30-36 km) than anticyclones (14-24 km), and they traveled at greater depths. The eddy passage left a prominent signal in the thermohaline and turbidity properties. This latter is probably due to sediment resuspension by strong currents and to the advection of the suspended particles through an upstream located canyon. The eddy formation is explained in terms of stretching of the high potential vorticity water column outflowing the Strait of Otranto, a mechanism similar to that observed in the Denmark Strait overflow. Another possible explanation is the baroclinic instability of the overflow layer which results in the eddy formation.

  5. Assessment of pollution aerosols sources above the Straits of Dover using lead isotope geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Deboudt, K; Flament, P; Weis, D; Mennessier, J P; Maquinghen, P

    1999-09-15

    We assess the capability of lead isotopes to study the transport of pollution aerosols above the Straits of Dover by collecting atmospheric aerosols above the Eastern Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. During the same period, we characterized the lead isotopic signature of the main industrial sources on the French coast near the Straits of Dover. Urban and automobile-derived aerosols were also collected. Due to the phasing out of lead in gasoline, the urban isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb = 1.158 +/- 0.003) has become more radiogenic, although it is highly variable. On a regional scale, major industrial emissions have a well-defined isotopic composition (1.13 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.22), more radiogenic than the petrol-lead signature (1.06 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.12). These results together with those measured near the main coastal highway show that the automobile source has become a minor component of particulate lead in air. On a local scale, Dunkerque, the most urbanized and industrialized area along the Straits of Dover, may transiently control elevated lead concentrations. Except for the occurrence of local and regional range transport episodes, lead concentrations in the Straits of Dover can be related to remote or semi-remote pollution source emissions. Combining air mass retrospective trajectories and related lead abundances and isotopic compositions, it can be shown that lead aerosols originating from eastern Europe have an isotopic signature (1.145 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.169) different from the isotopic composition of west-European lead aerosols (1.111 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.142). The influence of remote North American sources is suggested, with caution, due to uncertainties in meteorological calculations.

  6. Numerical simulation of marine currents in the Bunaken Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompas, P. T. D.; Manongko, J. D. I.

    2016-04-01

    This study intended for the generation of hydroelectric power at suitable area of the strait in order to provide electric current to a close environment. The project uses a three-dimensional model of taking flow into account the variation of hydrostatic pressure in the liquid vertical layers. We brought back to a two-dimensional calculation using the shallow water equations. The objectives of the study are getting simultaneous obtaining the velocities of currents by the component of velocities and distributions of the kinetic energy from the numerical results. The Bunaken strait is 5280 m width for an average depth of 130 m. Numerical calculation is simulated using horizontal meshes of 60 side meters. The numerical solutions obtained by using a time step of one second. It found that there was no great difference between 2D and 3D numerical simulations because the effect of flow velocity in the vertical direction is very small. The numerical results have shown that the average current velocities when low and high tide currents are 1.46 m/s and 0.85 m/s respectively. The kinetic energy ranged from 0.01 to 2.54 kW/m2 when low and high tide in the Bunaken strait area at discharge of 1 Sv, whereas at discharge 2 Sv, 0.11-17.40 kW/m2 and 0.11-2.77 kW/m2 (when low and high tide currents). These results can used in the design of turbines for power generation marine currents in the Bunaken strait at depths below 60 meters.

  7. Expanded Late Wisconsinan ice cap and ice sheet margins in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent mapping of surficial geology and geomorphology in the western Canadian High Arctic (Melville and Eglinton islands), together with new radiocarbon dates acquired from ice-contact raised marine sediments, document expanded late Wisconsinan ice limits for the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and the western Innuitian Ice Sheet. An extension of the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet onto Eglinton Island is proposed based on evidence from till containing erratics derived from the Canadian Shield and a pattern of meltwater channels indicating ice retreat offshore into M'Clure Strait. Expansion of the western Melville Island Ice Cap (part of the western, lowland sector of the Innuitian Ice Sheet) to its offshore late Wisconsinan limit was facilitated by coalescence with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whose buttressing allowed thickening to occur. Estimates of ice extent and thickness (>500 m) of the western Melville Island Ice Cap are in agreement with high marine limits (≤70 m asl). Lateral and proglacial meltwater channels, moraines and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits indicate radial retreat of the western Melville Island Ice Cap onto central highlands after ˜13.0 cal ka BP. Older marine limit shorelines on southern Eglinton Island (˜13.6 cal ka BP) are broadly synchronous with the early and rapid deglaciation of other areas formerly glaciated by the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet to the southeast and southwest (˜14.2-13.6 cal ka BP). The collapse of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet in M'Clure Strait beginning at ˜14.2 cal ka BP, in addition to prior inferred thinning, opens the possibility that it made a significant contribution to meltwater pulse 1A.

  8. Distribution of macroalgae and seaweed in the Azov Sea, Kerch Strait, and Taman Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanian, O. V.

    2009-06-01

    The analysis of the macroalgae distribution along the salinity gradient in the Azov Sea, the Kerch strait, and Taman Bay during the summer allowed finding two macroalgae complexes. The first complex (brackish) is formed by algae belonging to the Enteromorpha, Cladophora, Rhizoclonium, and Chaetomorpha genera in the Taganrog Gulf. The second complex (marine) with dominating algae belonging to the Enteromorpha, Chaetomorpha, Ceramium, and Polysiphonia inhabits the littoral part of the Azov Sea itself, the Kerch Strait, and Taman Bay. The saprobe analysis of the flora showed that the majority of macroalgae species inhabiting the Azov Sea are represented by meso- and polysaprobes and a small number of oligosaprobe species inhabit the Kerch Strait. The biggest species diversity of macroalgae was noted in the southwestern part of the sea; the value of Shannon’s index was 0.65 in the Taganrog Gulf, 1.04 in the Azov Sea, 1.38 in Taman Bay. The leading role in the littoral communities of Taganrog Gulf belongs to aquatic flowering plants with Potamogeton perfoliatus being dominant; as the salinity increases, the share of such species as P. pectinatus, Zostera marina, Z. noltii, Ruppia maritime, and Zannichellia major starts to increase.

  9. Metamorphic and structural evolution of the Straits Schist, W. Connecticut: U-PB monazite constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzirotti, A.; Hanson, G.N. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    U-Pb dating of monazites from two outcrops of The Straits Schist south of Waterbury Dome precisely constrains the timing of Acadian metamorphism and deformation. Synkinematic pegmatites which parallel schistosity are common in The Straits Schist south of Waterbury. A pegmatite at the type-section of The Straits Schist east of Straitsville yields U-Pb monazite ages of 385 [+-] 2.5 Ma. At both outcrops the axial planar schistosity is defined by muscovites and biotites which wrap around axes of folds but are not themselves deformed, suggesting they represent a recrystallized fabric. Monazites in the schists at both outcrops display petrographic evidence of grain boundary pinning against mica surfaces and growth across muscovite-biotite grain boundaries, consistent with growth during or after biotite and muscovite crystallization. Monazites from the schist at Straitsville and Naugatuck yield U-Pb ages of 383 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data, coupled with field and petrographic observations, suggest that pegmatite intrusion, deformation, and metamorphic recrystallization occurred within 3 Ma of about 383 Ma.

  10. High-frequency internal waves near the Luzon Strait observed by underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.; Johnston, T. M. Shaun; Sherman, Jeffrey T.

    2013-02-01

    flow through the Luzon Strait produces large internal waves that propagate westward into the South China Sea and eastward into the Pacific. Underwater gliders gathered sustained observations of internal waves during seven overlapping missions from April 2007 through July 2008. A particular focus is the high-frequency internal waves, where the operational definition of high involves periods shorter than a glider profile taking 3-6 h. Internal wave vertical velocity is estimated from measurements of pressure and glider orientation through two methods: (1) use of a model of glider flight balancing buoyancy and drag along the glider path and (2) high-pass filtering of the observed glider vertical velocity. By combining high-frequency vertical velocities from glider flight with low-frequency estimates from isopycnal depth variations between dives, a spectrum covering five decades of frequency is constructed. A map of the standard deviation of vertical velocity over the survey area shows a decay from the Luzon Strait into the Pacific. The growth of high-frequency vertical velocity with propagation into the South China Sea is observed through two 2-week time series stations. The largest observed vertical velocities are greater than 0.2 m s-1 and are associated with displacements approaching 200 m. The high-frequency waves are observed at regular intervals of 1 day as they ride on diurnal tidal internal waves generated in the Strait.

  11. Potential polyunsaturated aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under two tidal regimes.

    PubMed

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-03-13

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell⁻¹. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  12. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound and Northwest Straits

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-12-10

    The hydrodynamic model used in this study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) developed by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. The unstructured grid and finite volume framework, as well as the capability of wetting/drying simulation and baroclinic simulation, makes FVCOM a good fit to the modeling needs for nearshore restoration in Puget Sound. The model domain covers the entire Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, San Juan Passages, and Georgia Strait at the United States-Canada Border. The model is driven by tide, freshwater discharge, and surface wind. Preliminary model validation was conducted for tides at various locations in the straits and Puget Sound using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide data. The hydrodynamic model was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model (GNOME) to predict particle trajectories at various locations in Puget Sound. Model results demonstrated that the Puget Sound GNOME model is a useful tool to obtain first-hand information for emergency response such as oil spill and fish migration pathways.

  13. Probabilistic Hazard of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides in the Cook Strait Canyon (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Emily M.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Power, William L.; Mueller, Christof

    2016-12-01

    Cook Strait Canyon is a submarine canyon that lies within ten kilometres of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The canyon walls are covered with scars from previous landslides which could have caused local tsunamis. Palaeotsunami evidence also points to past tsunamis in the Wellington region. Furthermore, the canyon's location in Cook Strait means that there is inhabited land in the path of both forward- and backward-propagating waves. Tsunamis induced by these submarine landslides pose hazard to coastal communities and infrastructure but major events are very uncommon and the historical record is not extensive enough to quantify this hazard. The combination of infrequent but potentially very consequential events makes realistic assessment of the hazard challenging. However, information on both magnitude and frequency is very important for land use planning and civil defence purposes. We use a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geological information with modelling to construct a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of submarine landslide-generated tsunami. Although there are many simplifying assumptions used in this assessment, it suggests that the Cook Strait open coast is exposed to considerable hazard due to submarine landslide-generated tsunamis. We emphasise the uncertainties involved and present opportunities for future research.

  14. Reconstructing Deep Circulation Strength in Fram Strait Using Grain Size Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, K. J.; Hoffmann, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Marine sediment cores obtained from Fram Strait, the Arctic's only deep passage for exchange with the world oceans, may capture records of past circulation between the Arctic and North Atlantic. Changes in grain size can be correlated to changes in bottom water current velocity, enabling the reconstruction of past deep circulation strength. We will present new sortable silt grain size data from sediment cores in Fram Strait, enhancing our understanding of deep circulation in this region throughout the Holocene and deglaciation. Cores from depths between 1 and 2.5 km on the Svalbard slope, Greenland slope, and in the central strait will provide a transect to compare data from areas dominated by northward Atlantic-derived waters, southward Arctic-derived waters, and east/west recirculation. Analyzing the coarse-fraction and sortable silt-sized fraction will assist us in untangling the effects of ice-rafting and current speed. These records, coupled with age models derived from radiocarbon and stable isotopic analyses from planktonic foraminifera, will provide new insight into the past dynamics of Arctic/Atlantic deep water exchange.

  15. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public health This approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH challenges in a local, national and global context. PMID:27190981

  16. A Step on the Messy Path to Alignment: Developing the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Intercultural Capability Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerke, Veronica; Taylor, Kate; Kickett, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Like many other Australian universities, Curtin University identifies intercultural capabilities in its list of graduate attributes. Within this mandate, Curtin is increasingly foregrounding the need for graduates to develop Indigenous cultural capabilities. It is widely recognised that in order to develop these capabilities in graduates,…

  17. 78 FR 38835 - Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ..., the safety zone will encompass the navigable waters around the launch site within a radius of 420 feet... navigable waters around the fireworks launch site within a radius 420 feet from position 38 06'04'' N, 122... radius of 420 feet. (b) Enforcement period. The zone described in paragraph (a) of this section will...

  18. 77 FR 39418 - Safety Zone: Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... the navigable waters around the launch site within a radius of 420 feet. The fireworks display is... navigable waters around the fireworks launch site within a radius 420 feet from position 38 06'09'' N, 122... position 38 06'09'' N, 122 16'15'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 420 feet. (b) Enforcement Period. The...

  19. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  20. Early humans and rapidly changing holocene sea levels in the Queen Charlotte Islands - Hecate Strait, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Josenhans, H.; Fedje, D.; Pienitz, R.; Southon, J.

    1997-07-04

    Marine cores from the continental shelf edge of British Columbia (Canada) demonstrate that sea level at the shelf edge was 153 meters below present 14,000 calendar years ago and more than 30 meters lower than the maximum eustatic low of -120 meters. Dated artifacts, including stone tools, indicate that humans occupied this region by at least 10,200 calendar years before present (B.P.). Local sea level rose rapidly (5 centimeters per year) during the period of early human occupation as a result of eustatic sea-level rise and glacio-isostatic forebulge movement. This shelf edge site was first elevated and then subsided. The exposed shelf edge was available for human occupation and may have served as a migration route during times of lowered sea levels between 13,500 and 9500 {sup 14}C years B.P. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Addressing Uncomfortable Issues: Reflexivity as a Tool for Culturally Safe Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognised that research with Aboriginal communities needs to be ethical, meaningful and useful, in a way that is defined by communities themselves. This article provides an example of how reflexivity, from a number of positions and paradigms, can be used to undertake such research. I used a reflexive journal to document and critically…

  2. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects.

    PubMed

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-04-26

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public healthThis approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH challenges in a local, national and global context.

  3. Geology of the peralkaline volcano at Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahood, G.A.; Hildreth, W.

    1986-01-01

    Situated in a submerged continental rift, Pantelleria is a volcanic island with a subaerial eruptive history longer than 300 Ka. Its eruptive behavior, edifice morphologies, and complex, multiunit geologic history are representative of strongly peralkaline centers. It is dominated by the 6-km-wide Cinque Denti caldera, which formed ca. 45 Ka ago during eruption of the Green Tuff, a strongly rheomorphic unit zoned from pantellerite to trachyte and consisting of falls, surges, and pyroclastic flows. Soon after collapse, trachyte lava flows from an intracaldera central vent built a broad cone that compensated isostatically for the volume of the caldera and nearly filled it. Progressive chemical evolution of the chamber between 45 and 18 Ka ago is recorded in the increasing peralkalinity of the youngest lava of the intracaldera trachyte cone and the few lavas erupted northwest of the caldera. Beginning about 18 Ka ago, inflation of the chamber opened old ring fractures and new radial fractures, along which recently differentiated pantellerite constructed more than 25 pumice cones and shields. Continued uplift raised the northwest half of the intracaldera trachyte cone 275 m, creating the island's present summit, Montagna Grande, by trapdoor uplift. Pantellerite erupted along the trapdoor faults and their hingeline, forming numerous pumice cones and agglutinate sheets as well as five lava domes. Degassing and drawdown of the upper pantelleritic part of a compositionally and thermally stratified magma chamber during this 18-3-Ka episode led to entrainment of subjacent, crystal-rich, pantelleritic trachyte magma as crenulate inclusions. Progressive mixing between host and inclusions resulted in a secular decrease in the degree of evolution of the 0.82 km3 of magma erupted during the episode. The 45-Ka-old caldera is nested within the La Vecchia caldera, which is thought to have formed around 114 Ka ago. This older caldera was filled by three widespread welded units

  4. Geology of the peralkaline volcano at Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Gail A.; Hildreth, Wes

    1986-06-01

    Situated in a submerged continental rift, Pantelleria is a volcanic island with a subaerial eruptive history longer than 300 Ka. Its eruptive behavior, edifice morphologies, and complex, multiunit geologic history are representative of strongly peralkaline centers. It is dominated by the 6-km-wide Cinque Denti caldera, which formed ca. 45 Ka ago during eruption of the Green Tuff, a strongly rheomorphic unit zoned from pantellerite to trachyte and consisting of falls, surges, and pyroclastic flows. Soon after collapse, trachyte lava flows from an intracaldera central vent built a broad cone that compensated isostatically for the volume of the caldera and nearly filled it. Progressive chemical evolution of the chamber between 45 and 18 Ka ago is recorded in the increasing peralkalinity of the youngest lava of the intracaldera trachyte cone and the few lavas erupted northwest of the caldera. Beginning about 18 Ka ago, inflation of the chamber opened old ring fractures and new radial fractures, along which recently differentiated pantellerite constructed more than 25 pumice cones and shields. Continued uplift raised the northwest half of the intracaldera trachyte cone 275 m, creating the island's present summit, Montagna Grande, by trapdoor uplift. Pantellerite erupted along the trapdoor faults and their hingeline, forming numerous pumice cones and agglutinate sheets as well as five lava domes. Degassing and drawdown of the upper pantelleritic part of a compositionally and thermally stratified magma chamber during this 18-3-Ka episode led to entrainment of subjacent, crystal-rich, pantelleritic trachyte magma as crenulate inclusions. Progressive mixing between host and inclusions resulted in a secular decrease in the degree of evolution of the 0.82 km3 of magma erupted during the episode. The 45-Ka-old caldera is nested within the La Vecchia caldera, which is thought to have formed around 114 Ka ago. This older caldera was filled by three widespread welded units

  5. Adriatic water masses, their rates of formation and transport through the Otranto Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Orlić, Mirko

    2002-08-01

    The paper examines dense water formation in the South Adriatic by analysing temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen data collected during six along-Adriatic cruises carried out from the Jabuka Pit to the Otranto Strait. The least-squares tracer analysis method is applied to distinguish the fractions of the four characteristic deep, dense water masses of the Adriatic Sea. Two types of dense water generation are considered: (1) shelf type occurring during cold and dry winters in the North Adriatic and resulting in the North Adriatic dense water (NAdDW) which partially transforms to the Middle Adriatic dense water (MAdDW) on its way along the Italian shelf to the Bari Canyon, where it interacts with topography, violently mixes and sinks; and (2) deep-convection type occurring in the centre of the South Adriatic Pit, generating dense water which reaches down to 800 m, fills the bottom and enters the Ionian Sea through the Otranto Strait. Both processes are visible in the July 1976 data, as the previous winter was cold (February) and relatively dry over the whole Adriatic basin. Both types of processes can influence the bottom layer of the Otranto Strait, where the fraction of shelf-type dense water generated in the North and Middle Adriatic was occasionally observed along with the fraction of water generated by deep convection in the South Adriatic. During the non-generative period, the cyclonic South Adriatic Gyre moved more to the northwest in general, as the Levantine intermediate water (LIW) occupied southeastern part of the South Adriatic Pit. However, such behaviour was not observed in January 1980, when LIW filled much of the Adriatic, thus diminishing density gradients in the South Adriatic. By applying a simple box model of water masses, it is estimated that the decay time of the Adriatic water masses equals 26 months, whereas transport of the Adriatic deep water (ADW) in the Otranto Strait amounted to 0.34 Sv during summer 1975. In the winter 1974/75 the

  6. Eulerian current measurements in the Strait of Otranto and in the Southern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Vedrana; Gačić, Miroslav; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    1999-04-01

    The main features of the mean flow across the Strait of Otranto are studied using long-term (2-years) direct current measurements. The flow is characterized by a cyclonic horizontal shear between the inflowing currents from the Ionian into the Adriatic to the east and the outflowing currents from the Adriatic into the Ionian to the west, and by a two-layer structure in the central region, where in the bottom layers Adriatic Deep Water (ADW) outflows into the Ionian. The currents were also measured in the Southern Adriatic during summer. These data reveal the cyclonic circulation around the South Adriatic Pit, while the flow over the Otranto Sill has a two-layer structure with inflow near the surface and outflow near the bottom. The subtidal flow variability across the Strait of Otranto during winter, summer, and autumn is also analyzed. The space-time structures of the flow are obtained using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. It is shown that in winter and autumn the greatest portion of the current variance is associated with the intense fluctuations in the upper layers along the strait flanks. This subtidal variability is superimposed over the outflow along the western shelf and over the inflow along the eastern strait margin, with a time scale on the order of 10 days. The fluctuations are mostly driven by the local north-south winds, which through the Ekman transport and consequent geostrophic adjustments modulate the mean circulation. The barotropic-like flow fluctuations trapped over the western continental slope, with the intensification in the ADW layer, are prominent in summer, probably because the intensity of the wind-forced fluctuations along the strait flanks is attenuated. This barotropic-like pattern seems to modulate ADW outflow, blocking it completely from time to time. From the presently available data sets the main force driving these fluctuations has not been identified. However, they are partially associated with the barotropic

  7. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  8. Modification of the Stratification and Velocity Profile Within the Straits and Seas of the Indonesian Archipelago

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-10

    the Halmahera Sea, Maluku Sea, the Seram Sea and the northern Banda Sea (Spice Islands). Besides the monsoonal forcing there is an abundance of...and Halmahera Retroflections (Eddies); localized winds blowing through the gaps between the islands composing the "Spice Island" configuration...IV, into the Seram, Halmahera and Maluku Seas, the Spice Islands domain, to obtain an initial ’snap-shot’ view of the stratification and circulation

  9. People's Libraries in Support of People's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zijl, Philip

    This paper addresses the planning of information services in South Africa via Peoples Libraries in support of People's Education, i.e., Post-Apartheid education with a humanistic perspective that strives to offer black and white students education with equal levels of quality, and includes Black Studies in the curriculum. People's Libraries are…

  10. Three-dimenstional crustal velocity structure beneath the strait of georgia, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, B.C.; Ellis, R.M.; Zelt, C.A.; Hyndman, R.D.; Lowe, C.; Spence, G.D.; Fisher, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a topographic depression straddling the boundary between the Insular and Coast belts in southwestern British Columbia. Two shallow earthquakes located within the strait (M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) and felt throughout the Vancouver area illustrate the seismic potential of this region. As part of the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiment, seismic instruments were placed in and around the Strait of Georgia to record shots from a marine source within the strait. We apply a tomographic inversion procedure to first-arrival travel-time data to derive a minimum-structure 3-D P-wave velocity model for the upper crust to about 13 km depth. We also present a 2-D velocity model for a profile orientated across the Strait of Georgia derived using a minimum-parameter traveltime inversion approach. This paper represents the first detailed look at crustal velocity variations within the major Cretaceous to Cenozoic Georgia Basin, which underlies the Strait of Georgia. The 3-D velocity model clearly delineates the structure of the Georgia Basin. Taking the 6 km s-1 isovelocity contour to represent the top of the underlying basement, the basin thickens from between 2 and 4 km in the northwestern half of the strait to between 8 and 9 km at the southeastern end of the study region. Basin velocities in the northeastern half are 4.5-6 km s-1 and primarily represent the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group. Velocities to the south are lower (3-6 km s-1) because of the additional presence of the overlying Tertiary Huntingdon Formation and more recent sediments, including glacial and modern Fraser River deposits. In contrast to the relatively smoothly varying velocity structure of the basin, velocities of the basement rocks, which comprise primarily Palaeozoic to Jurassic rocks of the Wrangellia Terrane and possibly Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Coast Belt, show significantly more structure, probably an indication

  11. Local influences of geothermal anomalies on permafrost distribution in an active volcanic island (Deception Island, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyanes, G.; Vieira, G.; Caselli, A.; Cardoso, M.; Marmy, A.; Santos, F.; Bernardo, I.; Hauck, C.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at understanding the spatial distribution and characteristics of the frozen and unfrozen terrain in an alluvial fan on Deception Island, which is an active strato-volcano located in the Bransfield Strait (South Shetland Islands) with recent eruptions in 1967, 1969 and 1970. The alluvial fan is dominated by debris-flow, run-off and rock fall processes and permafrost occurs in several parts in the vicinity of anomalous geothermal heat flux. The aim is to assess the ways volcanic activity controls permafrost development and associated geomorphic dynamics using shallow subsurface, surface and air temperature measurements as well as thaw depth and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. Results show a temperature increase with depth in the lower part of the fan reaching 13 °C at 0.80 m depth, without the presence of permafrost. The shallow borehole located at this site showed a stable thermal stratification all year-round, with only the upper 0.20 m reacting to meteorological forcing. In the upper part of the alluvial fan and debris cones, c. 100 m from the coast, frozen ground is present at c. 0.70 m depth. There, the shallow borehole shows a good coupling with air temperatures and the thermal regime favours the presence of permafrost. ERT shows the lowest resistivity values in the lower part of the alluvial fan and a highly resistivity zone in the upper sector of the fan and in the debris cones. These large variations in resistivity mark the presence of a saline water wedge from the sea into the fan, reaching frozen ground conditions about 100 m inland. It can be shown that the volcano-hydrothermal activity only inhibits frost development very locally, with frozen ground conditions occurring about 100 m away.

  12. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  13. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... an obstacle to the westerly winds, and wake patterns in the cloud layers are visible downstream of the island's location. In the lower left ... the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by cumulus clouds, and a spiral cloud pattern associated with an atmospheric ...

  14. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  15. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  16. Measuring tidal and residual currents and volume transport through a wide strait by use of the coastal acoustic tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Nan; Ma, Yun-Long; Fan, Xiaopeng; Long, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the tidal current and volume transport through the Qiongzhou Strait (QS) is vital to understanding circulation in the northern South China Sea. To measure the tidal current in the strait, a 15-day coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) experiment with four acoustic stations was carried out in March, 2013. The horizontal distributions of the tidal currents were calculated by an inverse analysis using the CAT data. Diurnal tidal current constituents are dominant: the ratio of the amplitudes of O1, K1, M2, S2 and MSF is1.00:0.60:0.47:0.21:0.11. The residual currents are westward in the northern QS and turn southward in the southern part of the strait. The velocities of residual current are larger in the northern area than in the southern area, with a maximum westward velocity of -12.4 cm/s, appearing at the northern part of the QS. Volume transport estimated using the CAT data, varies between -0.710 and 0.859 Sv, with a westward residual current transport of 0.044 Sv. Dynamic analyses indicate that tidal rectification and sea level difference between two entrances of the QS are important in maintaining the residual current through the strait. This is the first estimation from synchronous measurements on major tidal current constituents, residual current and volume transport in this strait.

  17. Genetic distinctness and variation in the Tsushima Islands population of the Japanese marten, Martes melampus (Carnivora: Mustelidae), revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Shouko; Moteki, Shusaku; Baba, Minoru; Ochiai, Keiji; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-12-01

    A carnivoran mammal endemic to Japan, the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) is native in forested regions on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu (main islands of Japan), and the Tsushima Islands. The Tsushima population is classified as a different subspecies (M. m. tsuensis) from populations on the main islands (M. m. melampus). To elucidate the genetic structure of the Tsushima population, we genotyped 101 individuals from the Tsushima Islands and 43 individuals from Honshu and Kyushu using 10 microsatellite loci, and performed population genetic analyses on the genotype data. Genetic diversity was lower in the Tsushima population than in three geographic populations on the main islands: heterozygosity was 0.189-0.364 in the former, compared to 0.457-0.747 in the latter. In addition, high pairwise Fst values (0.485-0.682) and Nei's standard distance (0.550-1.183) between the Tsushima and main-island populations indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation. Finally, a Bayesian clustering analysis showed that the Tsushima population is apparently differentiated from the main-island populations and comprises two genetic clusters. A factorial correspondence analysis corroborated these results. Our results suggest that restricted gene flow or inbreeding may have reduced genetic diversity in the Tsushima population, which has been geographically isolated from the main-island populations since the formation of Tsushima Strait.

  18. From Easter Island to coated coronary stents: a remarkable saga.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, John D

    2008-01-01

    Easter Island, even though it's in the middle of nowhere, is indeed a piece of the continent, as John Donne alluded to. In addition to contributing rapamycin to the medical field, the island is an example to the whole world of the consequences of affluent lifestyles, tribal wars, and ignorance of ecology. Jared Diamond expressed these thoughts best in his book, "Collapse:" The parallels between Easter Island and the whole modern world are chillingly obvious... All countries on earth today share resources and affect each other just as did Easter's dozen clans. Polynesian Easter Island was as isolated in the Pacific Ocean as the Earth is today in space. People see the collapse of Easter Island 's society as a metaphor; a worst-case scenario, for what may lie ahead for us in our own future. Some veteran Easter Island archaeologists like Claudio Cristina feel that Diamond's views are overly simplistic, commenting that he only spent a week on the island (versus 30 years for Cristina). Predatory Polynesian rats, earthquakes, tsunamis, variations in rainfall, diseases introduced by European sailing ships, could all have contributed to the near-demise of Easter Island. Tribal wars certainly didn't help, nor did slave-raiding parties from Peru. Only the eyes of the moai (Fig. 5) have seen it all, but the statues remain silent, as they have for over 1,000 years.

  19. [Cholera epidemics on Reunion Island during the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2012-01-01

    The first cholera outbreak on Bourbon Island (now Reunion Island) was recorded in January 1820. The disease was imported from Mauritius Island aboard the steamer Pivert. The epidemic began on Mauritius in November 1819 after the English frigate, La Topaze, called from Calcutta, India. Dr. François Vinson demonstrated the transmissibility of cholera during this epidemic. Drastic sanitary measures spared Reunion from the two epidemics on Mauritius Island, in 1854 and 1856. The second outbreak of cholera on Reunion Island was recorded on March 6, 1859. The disease was introduced from East Africa by the steamer Mascareignes, which carried indentured servants. The captain (d'Agnel) et the supercargo (Menon) of the steamer claimed to the doctor who boarded the ship before landing that no passengers or crew had had cholera, in flagrant contradiction to the autopsy report issued by Navy surgeon Alfred Vaillant, who had concluded that cholera was present when the vessel left the African coast. This report was withheld from the boarding physician. Cholera spread quickly on the island and affected the poorest people, especially freed slaves, most severely. Dr. Petit, the chief Navy Physician and Director of the Health Department, obtained a confession by Menon about the fraudulent statements. On January 24, 1860, a trial for public health endangerment began on Reunion Island; it ended on February 1 with a not-guilty verdict, based largely on the testimony of several island doctors that cholera was not contagious.

  20. The Late Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the Southern Shelf of the Strait of Istanbul (Sea of Marmara, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz Abuş, Eren

    2013-04-01

    The sea level changes in the northern shelf (Istanbul) of the Sea of Marmara and the sources of sedimentary packages at the southern exist of the Strait of Istanbul have been an ongoing debate the past decade. This study aims to enlighten both the sea level oscillations since ~125 ky before present and the structure of aforesaid sedimentary sequence, Unit 2, near Kurbaǧalı River observed in high resolution sparker seismic sections using global sea level change curves. Contary to Hiscott et al. (2002), Gökaşan et al. (2005), and Eriş et al. (2007) preferring the global sea level change curve in Fairbanks (1989) so as to explain the age interval of the sequence, we introduced the curve in Bard et al. (1990) presented the 230Th - 234U ages of Acropora palmata samples collected from the offshore of the island of Barbados, where Fairbanks (1989) submits the first chronology using the limited 14C ages. Therefore, the deposition of the Unit 2 was considered as 10 - 9 ky before present by Hiscott et al. (2002), as 12 - 11±1.1 ky BP by Gökaşan et al. (2005), and as 6.4 - 3.2 ky BP by Eriş et al. (2007). Having applied this calibration to our study, the age interval of the Unit 2 was calculated as 11.5 ky before present. In previous studies, Unit 2 was presented as prograding deltaic deposits of the Kurbaǧalı River yet our studies illustrates that the stream current of Kurbaǧalı River is not capable of supporting adequate sediment input, which is about 1.5 x 8.5 kilometers when the thickness and rate of propagation of Unit 2 are considered. Thanks to high resolution seismic sections and bathymetry, we firstly introduce that the Unit 2 is a point-bar structure forming as a product of the meandering regime at the southern exit of the Bosphorus.