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  1. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  2. How can GPs drive software changes to improve healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples?

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Changes to the software used in general practice could improve the collection of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status of all patients, and boost access to healthcare measures specifically for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples provided directly or indirectly by general practitioners (GPs). Despite longstanding calls for improvements to general practice software to better support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, little change has been made. The aim of this article is to promote software improvements by identifying desirable software attributes and encouraging GPs to promote their adoption. Establishing strong links between collecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, clinical decision supports, and uptake of GP-mediated health measures specifically for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples - and embedding these links in GP software - is a long overdue reform. In the absence of government initiatives in this area, GPs are best placed to advocate for software changes, using the model described here as a starting point for action.

  3. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  4. Essential service standards for equitable national cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute the largest cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and remain the primary contributor to life expectancy differentials between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians. As such, CVD remains the most critical target for reducing the life expectancy gap. The Essential Service Standards for Equitable National Cardiovascular Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (ESSENCE) outline elements of care that are necessary to reduce disparity in access and outcomes for five critical cardiovascular conditions. The ESSENCE approach builds a foundation on which the gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians can be reduced. The standards purposefully focus on the prevention and management of CVD extending across the continuum of risk and disease. Each of the agreed essential service standards are presented alongside the most critical targets for policy development and health system reform aimed at mitigating population disparity in CVD and related conditions.

  5. Australia's Efforts to Improve Food Security for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples.

    PubMed

    Davy, Deanna

    2016-12-01

    Australia is a wealthy country; however, available evidence suggests that food security among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples has not yet been achieved. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples living in remote, regional, and urban parts of Australia experience food insecurity for a number of reasons that usually include low income and a lack of access to affordable and healthy food. The much higher rate of illness and disease that this population experiences compared to non-indigenous Australians is directly related to food insecurity. This paper examines the food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and recent Australian government efforts to combat this problem. The paper first considers what constitutes a human rights-based approach to achieving food security. Second, it describes the food insecurity that currently exists among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples across the three pillars of food access, food availability, and food use. Third, the paper critically examines recent and current Australian government policy aimed at improving food security. The paper concludes with some reflections regarding how the Australian government can improve its efforts to achieve food security for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

  6. Consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Colonial Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2015-01-01

    In Australian early years education, consultation and partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are central to embedding Indigenous perspectives. Building sustained and reciprocal partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people supports access to local knowledges and perspectives to inform curriculum planning,…

  7. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  8. A snapshot of physical activity programs targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Macniven, Rona; Elwell, Michelle; Ride, Kathy; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2017-01-19

    Issue addressed: Participation in physical activity programs can be an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease risk factors and improve broader social outcomes. Health and social outcomes are worse among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders than non-Indigenous Australians, who represent an important group for culturally specific programs. The extent of current practice in physical activity programs is largely unknown. This study identifies such programs targeting this population group and describes their characteristics.Methods: Bibliographic and Internet searches and snowball sampling identified eligible programs operating between 2012 and 2015 in Australia (phase 1). Program coordinators were contacted to verify sourced information (phase 2). Descriptive characteristics were documented for each program.Results: A total of 110 programs were identified across urban, rural and remote locations within all states and territories. Only 11 programs were located through bibliographic sources; the remainder through Internet searches. The programs aimed to influence physical activity for health or broader social outcomes. Sixty five took place in community settings and most involved multiple sectors such as sport, health and education. Almost all were free for participants and involved Indigenous stakeholders. The majority received Government funding and had commenced within the last decade. More than 20 programs reached over 1000 people each; 14 reached 0-100 participants. Most included process or impact evaluation indicators, typically reflecting their aims.Conclusion: This snapshot provides a comprehensive description of current physical activity program provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people across Australia. The majority of programs were only identified through the grey literature. Many programs collect evaluation data, yet this is underrepresented in academic literature.So what?: Capturing current practice can inform future efforts to

  9. Smoke-free homes and workplaces of a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David P; Panaretto, Kathryn S; Stevens, Matthew; Bennet, Pele T; Borland, Ron

    2015-06-01

    To examine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's protection from second-hand smoke at home and work. The Talking About The Smokes project surveyed 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait, using quota sampling, from April 2012 to October 2013. We made comparisons with data from Australian smokers in the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), collected from either July 2010 to May 2011 or September 2011 to February 2012. Whether smoking was not allowed anywhere in the home, or not allowed in any indoor area at work. More than half (56%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and 80% of non-smokers reported that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. Similar percentages of daily smokers in our sample and the Australian ITC Project data reported bans. Most employed Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers (88%) reported that smoking was not allowed in any indoor area at work, similar to the Australian ITC Project estimate. Smokers working in smoke-free workplaces were more likely to have smoke-free homes than those in workplaces where smoking was allowed indoors (odds ratio, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.67-4.87). Smokers who lived in smoke-free homes were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year, to want to quit, and to have made quit attempts of 1 month or longer. Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are protected from second-hand smoke at work, and similar proportions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and other Australian smokers do not allow smoking inside their homes.

  10. Using linkage between hospital and ABS mortality data to enhance reporting of deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    Neville, Sarah E; Taylor, Lee K; Moore, Helen; Madden, Richard; Ring, Ian; Pulver, Lisa Jackson; Tickle, Leonie

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the potential of record linkage between the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) mortality data and the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) to improve reporting of deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. ABS mortality data for 2002 to 2006 were linked with APDC records for 2001 to 2006. Six algorithms were developed to enumerate deaths. Possible biases by age, sex and geographic remoteness were investigated. Levels of reporting ranged from baseline reporting on the ABS mortality data to the largest enhancement with the 'ever reported as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander' algorithm. Enhancement was more likely in females, older people and residents of major cities. Data linkage substantially improved reporting of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths. An algorithm that includes both the number of APDC records and the number of facilities reporting a person as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander was considered most promising. Inclusion of other datasets in the enhancement process is warranted to further improve reporting and address possible bias produced by using APDC records only. Further work should take into account the possibility that a person may be falsely reported as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or not reported in either hospital or death records. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  12. Macrovascular disease risk factors and insulin resistance in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Kerin; Rowley, Kevin G

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that insulin resistance (IR) underlies a cluster of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors constituting a "metabolic syndrome." CVD is a leading cause of premature mortality among indigenous Australians. In a group of younger (15-44 years, fasting glucose <7.8 mmol/l) Aboriginal (n=643) and Torres Strait Islander (n=220) people participating in community-based risk factor surveys, we identified high prevalences of metabolic syndrome components: glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and IR. There were inconsistent associations of IR with other risk factors, and the data do not support a direct causal relationship between insulin and other metabolic variables. Rather, metabolic syndrome components may arise from social and environmental factors interacting with behavioural and biochemical factors in individuals.

  13. What do we know about the diets of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Whalan, Sarah; Farnbach, Sara; Volk, Lena; Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Trieu, Kathy; Brimblecombe, Julie; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-09-12

    To provide an overview of published research on the dietary intake of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to October 2016 was searched to identify studies that measured the dietary intake of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Study quality was assessed using a purposely devised quality appraisal tool. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity in dietary intake assessment methods. A narrative synthesis of study findings, where key themes were compared and contrasted was completed. Twenty-five articles from twenty studies with outcome measures related to dietary intake were included. Dietary intake was assessed by electronic store sales, store turnover method, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire and short questions. Consistent findings were low reported intakes of fruit and vegetables and high intakes of total sugar and energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages. While differences between studies and study quality limit the generalisability of the findings, most studies suggest that the diets of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are inadequate. Implications for public health: A more concerted approach to understanding dietary patterns of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is required to inform policy and practice to improve diet and nutrition. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Sleep Disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and Residents of Regional and Remote Australia

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Cindy E.; McPherson, Karen; Tikoft, Erik; Usher, Kim; Hosseini, Fariborz; Ferns, Janine; Jersmann, Hubertus; Antic, Ral; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the use of sleep diagnostic tests, the risks, and cofactors, and outcomes of the care of Indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adults in regional and remote Australia in whom sleep related breathing disorders have been diagnosed. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 200 adults; 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and 100 non-indigenous adults with a confirmed sleep related breathing disorder diagnosed prior to September 2011 at Alice Springs Hospital and Cairns Hospital, Australia. Results: Results showed overall Indigenous Australians were 1.8 times more likely to have a positive diagnostic sleep study performed compared with non-indigenous patients, 1.6 times less likely in central Australia and 3.4 times more likely in far north Queensland. All regional and remote residents accessed diagnostic sleep studies at a rate less than Australia overall (31/100,000/y (95% confidence interval, 21–44) compared with 575/100,000/y). Conclusion: The barriers to diagnosis and ongoing care are likely to relate to remote residence, lower health self-efficacy, the complex nature of the treatment tool, and environmental factors such as electricity and sleeping area. Indigeneity, remote residence, environmental factors, and low awareness of sleep health are likely to affect service accessibility and rate of use and capacity to enhance patient and family education and support following a diagnosis. A greater understanding of enablers and barriers to care and evaluation of interventions to address these are required. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1255. Citation: Woods CE, McPherson K, Tikoft E, Usher K, Hosseini F, Ferns J, Jersmann H, Antic R, Maguire GP. Sleep disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and residents of regional and remote Australia. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1263–1271. PMID:26094934

  15. Social acceptability and desirability of smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; van der Sterren, Anke E; Bennet, Pele T; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe social normative beliefs about smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and to assess the relationship of these beliefs with quitting. The Talking About The Smokes project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1392 daily smokers, 251 non-daily smokers, 311 ex-smokers and 568 never-smokers from April 2012 to October 2013. Eight normative beliefs about smoking; wanting and attempting to quit. Compared with daily smokers in the general Australian population, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers were less likely to report that mainstream society disapproves of smoking (78.5% v 62%). Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers, 40% agreed that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community leaders where they live disapprove of smoking, 70% said there are increasingly fewer places they feel comfortable smoking, and most (90%) believed non-smokers set a good example to children. Support for the government to do more to tackle the harm caused by smoking was much higher than in the general Australian population (80% v 47.2%). These five normative beliefs were all associated with wanting to quit. Non-smokers reported low levels of pressure to take up smoking. Tobacco control strategies that involve the leadership and participation of local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community leaders, particularly strategies that emphasise protection of others, may be an important means of reinforcing beliefs that smoking is socially unacceptable, thus boosting motivation to quit.

  16. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-12-31

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged<5 years--over 100 times more common than in other children--compared to none in 2006/07–2009/10. With respect to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), there has been a reduction of 87% in notifications of IPD caused by serotypes contained in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) since the introduction of the childhood 7vPCV program among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. However, due to a lower proportion of IPD caused by 7vPCV types prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant

  17. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.

    PubMed

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-08-22

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  18. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  19. Guide to Success for Organisations in Achieving Employment Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddy, Kristine; Lopez, Jessica; Redman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander job-seekers find and keep a job has been the focus of recent reforms announced by the Australian Government. This guide describes seven essential characteristics of employment service organisations that lead to successful employment outcomes for their Indigenous clients. Based on a selection of…

  20. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2015-05-14

    Purpose . To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Design . The study used a prospective intervention design. Setting . The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Subjects . Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. Intervention . A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Measures . Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. Analysis . The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results . Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. Conclusions . The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults.

  1. Using a participatory action research framework to listen to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia about pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adrian; Massey, Peter D; Judd, Jenni; Kelly, Jenny; Durrheim, David N; Clough, Alan R; Speare, Rick; Saggers, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use and effectiveness of the participatory action research (PAR) framework to better understand community members' perceptions and risks of pandemic influenza. In 2009, the H1N1 influenza pandemic affected Indigenous populations more than non-Indigenous populations in Oceania and the Americas. Higher prevalence of comorbidities (diabetes, obesity, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) as well as pregnancy in Indigenous communities may have contributed to the higher risks of severe disease. Social disparity, institutionalised racism within health services and differences in access to culturally safe health services have also been reported as contributors to disadvantage and delayed appropriate treatment. Given these factors and the subsequent impact they had on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, the authors set out to ensure that the Australian national, state and territory pandemic plans adequately reflected the risk status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and promoted meaningful engagement with communities to mitigate this risk. A national study explored the views of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and their experiences with H1N1 and used a qualitative PAR framework that was effective in gaining deep understandings from participants. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-controlled organisations and health services were involved in the implementation, interpretation and monitoring of this project. As a result, important features of the implementation of this PAR framework with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and organisations emerged. These features included the importance of working in a multidisciplinary team with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander researchers; the complexities and importance of obtaining multi-site human research ethics approval processes; the importance and value of building the research capacity of both experienced and

  2. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  3. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  4. Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access. PMID:23327694

  5. Making every Australian count: challenges for the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and the equal inclusion of homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with neurocognitive disability.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Clare; White, Paul; Cullen, Jennifer; Wright, Courtney J; Zeeman, Heidi

    2017-03-30

    This article highlights the dearth of accurate evidence available to inform the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) regarding the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Without accurate prevalence rates of neurocognitive disability, homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are in danger of not being counted by the NDIS and not receiving supports to which they are entitled. Addressing this knowledge gap is challenged by a range of factors, including: (1) the long-term effect of profound intergenerational disenfranchisement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; (2) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural perspectives around disability; (3) the generally unrecognised and poorly understood nature of neurocognitive disability; (4) the use of research methods that are not culturally safe; (5) research logistics; and (6) the absence of culturally appropriate assessment tools to identify prevalence. It is argued that an accurate evidence base that is informed by culturally safe research methods and assessment tools is needed to accurately guide the Commonwealth government and the National Disability Insurance Agency about the expected level of need for the NDIS. Research within this framework will contribute to the realisation of a truly inclusive NDIS.

  6. Methods of a national survey of young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people regarding sexually transmissible infections and bloodborne viruses.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Bryant, Joanne; Wand, Handan; Kaldor, John; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Betts, Sarah; Waples-Crowe, Peter; Cairnduff, Sallie; Coburn, Tony; Donovan, Basil; Pitts, Marian

    2016-04-01

    To describe the methods and basic demographics of participants in a national survey of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) people specific to sexually transmissible infections and bloodborne viruses. A national cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal people aged 16-29 years in all Australian jurisdictions between 2011 and 2013 conducted at Aboriginal community events. Questions comprised demographic information, knowledge, risk behaviours and health service utilisation. Questionnaires were completed on personal digital assistants (PDAs). A total of 2,877 people at 21 unique community events completed the questionnaire. A total of 59% of participants were female, median age was 21 years and more than 60% were single at the time of the survey. Just over half the participants were resident in an urban area (53%) and 38% were from a regional area. Aboriginal health organisations played an important role in implementing the research. PDAs were found to be an acceptable method for collecting health information. This survey has recruited a large representative sample of Aboriginal people aged 16-29 years using a methodology that is feasible, acceptable and repeatable. The methodology provides a model for ongoing monitoring of this population as programs and policies are implemented to address young Aboriginal people's STI and BBV risks. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Sleep Disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and Residents of Regional and Remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Woods, Cindy E; McPherson, Karen; Tikoft, Erik; Usher, Kim; Hosseini, Fariborz; Ferns, Janine; Jersmann, Hubertus; Antic, Ral; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-11-15

    To compare the use of sleep diagnostic tests, the risks, and cofactors, and outcomes of the care of Indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adults in regional and remote Australia in whom sleep related breathing disorders have been diagnosed. A retrospective cohort study of 200 adults; 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and 100 non-indigenous adults with a confirmed sleep related breathing disorder diagnosed prior to September 2011 at Alice Springs Hospital and Cairns Hospital, Australia. Results showed overall Indigenous Australians were 1.8 times more likely to have a positive diagnostic sleep study performed compared with non-indigenous patients, 1.6 times less likely in central Australia and 3.4 times more likely in far north Queensland. All regional and remote residents accessed diagnostic sleep studies at a rate less than Australia overall (31/100,000/y (95% confidence interval, 21-44) compared with 575/100,000/y). The barriers to diagnosis and ongoing care are likely to relate to remote residence, lower health self-efficacy, the complex nature of the treatment tool, and environmental factors such as electricity and sleeping area. Indigeneity, remote residence, environmental factors, and low awareness of sleep health are likely to affect service accessibility and rate of use and capacity to enhance patient and family education and support following a diagnosis. A greater understanding of enablers and barriers to care and evaluation of interventions to address these are required. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1255. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Simon; Harrod, Mary-Ellen; Iversen, Jenny; Simone Hocking, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia. Evidence Acquisition We searched the databases: Pubmed, Web of Science and Informit, and the New South Wales and Northern Territory Public Health Bulletins. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people testing positive for anti-HCV and the number tested for anti-HCV. A meta-analysis by population-group was conducted if three or more studies reported a prevalence estimate. Variables included: author, year of publication, study design, study period, gender (female, male), age, population group (Aboriginal people in prison, Aboriginal people who inject drugs), number testing anti-HCV positive, number tested for anti-HCV and prevalence (%). Due to a long time period, we separated the studies estimating the prevalence anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in prison into two time periods, 1994 - 2004 and 2005 - 2012. Results Overall, 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Among Aboriginal people in prison, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 18.1% (95%CI: 6.6 - 29.7). The pooled prevalence among Aboriginal people in prison was 25.7% (95%CI: 4.1-47.3) in studies published between 1994 - 2004 and 14.5% (95%CI: 1.7 - 27.3) in studies published from 2005 - 2012. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 58.7% (95%CI: 53.9 - 63.5) among Aboriginal people who inject drugs and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.30 - 6.1) among Aboriginal people who did not inject drugs, however there was

  9. With good intentions: complexity in unsolicited informal support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nathaniel J; Jowsey, Tanisha; Haora, Penny J; Aspin, Clive; Yen, Laurann E

    2011-09-04

    Understanding people's social lived experiences of chronic illness is fundamental to improving health service delivery and health outcomes, particularly in relation to self-management activity. In explorations of social lived experiences this paper uncovers the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness experience informal unsolicited support from peers and family members. Nineteen Aboriginal and Torres Islander participants were interviewed in the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS). Participants were people with Type 2 diabetes (N = 17), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 3) and/or chronic heart failure (N = 11) and family carers (N = 3). Participants were asked to describe their experience of having or caring for someone with chronic illness. Content and thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews was undertaken, assisted by QSR Nvivo8 software. Participants reported receiving several forms of unsolicited support, including encouragement, practical suggestions for managing, nagging, growling, and surveillance. Additionally, participants had engaged in 'yarning', creating a 'yarn' space, the function of which was distinguished as another important form of unsolicited support. The implications of recognising these various support forms are discussed in relation to responses to unsolicited support as well as the needs of family carers in providing effective informal support. Certain locations of responsibility are anxiety producing. Family carers must be supported in appropriate education so that they can provide both solicited and unsolicited support in effective ways. Such educational support would have the added benefit of helping to reduce carer anxieties about caring roles and responsibilities. Mainstream health services would benefit from fostering environments that encourage informal interactions that facilitate learning and support in a relaxed atmosphere.

  10. With good intentions: complexity in unsolicited informal support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding people's social lived experiences of chronic illness is fundamental to improving health service delivery and health outcomes, particularly in relation to self-management activity. In explorations of social lived experiences this paper uncovers the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness experience informal unsolicited support from peers and family members. Methods Nineteen Aboriginal and Torres Islander participants were interviewed in the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS). Participants were people with Type 2 diabetes (N = 17), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 3) and/or chronic heart failure (N = 11) and family carers (N = 3). Participants were asked to describe their experience of having or caring for someone with chronic illness. Content and thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews was undertaken, assisted by QSR Nvivo8 software. Results Participants reported receiving several forms of unsolicited support, including encouragement, practical suggestions for managing, nagging, growling, and surveillance. Additionally, participants had engaged in 'yarning', creating a 'yarn' space, the function of which was distinguished as another important form of unsolicited support. The implications of recognising these various support forms are discussed in relation to responses to unsolicited support as well as the needs of family carers in providing effective informal support. Conclusions Certain locations of responsibility are anxiety producing. Family carers must be supported in appropriate education so that they can provide both solicited and unsolicited support in effective ways. Such educational support would have the added benefit of helping to reduce carer anxieties about caring roles and responsibilities. Mainstream health services would benefit from fostering environments that encourage informal interactions that facilitate learning and support

  11. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1) ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2) kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still constructed as ‘non-ideal users

  12. The experience of lung cancer in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and what it means for policy, service planning and delivery.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; Jiwa, Moyez; Digiacomo, Michelle L; McGrath, Sarah J; Newton, Phillip J; Durey, Angela J; Bessarab, Dawn C; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience inferior outcomes following diagnosis of lung cancer. To examine the experience of lung cancer in this population and identify reasons for poorer outcomes and lower levels of treatment compared with non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and opportunities for early intervention. Literature was sought via electronic database searches and journal hand-searching for the period from January 1995 to July 2010. Databases used included Indigenous HealthInfoNet, SCOPUS, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, HealthInsite and Google Scholar. Exposure to risk factors, cultural and spiritual values, remoteness and geographic characteristics, entrenched socioeconomic inequalities and racism contribute to reduced service access and poor outcomes. The review highlighted a complex interplay of individual, social, health system and environmental factors that impact on optimal lung cancer care and lung cancer outcomes. Considering the burden of lung cancer within a framework of social determinants of health is necessary for policy-making and service planning and delivery. It is imperative that the disproportionate burden of lung cancer in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is addressed immediately. Whilst strategic interventions in lung cancer prevention and care are needed, service providers and policy makers must acknowledge the entrenched inequality that exists and consider the broad range of factors at the patient, provider and system level. Primary care strategies and health promotion activities to reduce risk factors, such as smoking, must also be implemented, with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' engagement and control at the core of any strategy. This review has indicated that multifaceted interventions, supported by enabling policies that target individuals, communities and health professionals, are necessary to improve lung cancer

  13. Plain packaging implementation: perceptions of risk and prestige of cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Raglan; Durkin, Sarah; Lovett, Ray

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings on perceptions of risk and prestige related to different cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Australian Capital Territory. We hypothesised that the changes would decrease perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others', and that 'some brands are more prestigious than others', and this would be stronger among participants aged ≤35 years, and among smokers compared with non-smokers. Participants completed the survey prior to packaging changes, and were followed up 12 months later (n=98). Repeated measures ANCOVAs assessed perception changes. Following plain packaging implementation, there was a significant reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others'. There was no overall change in perceptions of prestige. However, there was a significant interaction for age. Analyses indicated a reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more prestigious than others' among younger participants (p=0.05), but no change among older participants (p>0.20). There was no interaction for smoking status for perceptions of prestige, indicating smokers' and non-smokers' perceptions did not differ on this measure. These findings provide support for the packaging changes. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    disseminated by the ACCHS, and at community forums. Note about terminology We use the term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, except where previous research has reported findings from only one group for example, Aboriginal people. Indigenous is used here to refer to Indigenous peoples in the international context, and issues, policies or systems, for example, Indigenous health, Indigenous tobacco control. PMID:24902729

  15. Deadly Choices™ community health events: a health promotion initiative for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Malseed, Claire; Nelson, Alison; Ware, Robert; Lacey, Ian; Lander, Keiron

    2014-01-01

    The present study was an evaluation of the effectiveness of Deadly Choices™ community events for improving participants' short-term knowledge of chronic disease and risk factors, and increasing community engagement with local health services. Surveys were completed directly before and after participating in health education activities (pre and post surveys, respectively) assessing knowledge of chronic diseases and risk factors at three Deadly Choices community events and four National Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee (NAIDOC) events in south-east Queensland where Deadly Choices health education activities took place. An audit trail was conducted at two Deadly Choices community events in Brisbane to identify the proportion of participants who undertook a health screen at the event who then followed up for a Medicare-funded health check (MBS item 715) or other appointment at an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clinic in the local area within 2 months. Results were compared with a sample of participants who attended one Deadly Choices community event but did not complete a health screen. There were 472 community members who completed a pre and post survey. All knowledge scores significantly improved between baseline and follow up. Although based on a small sample, the audit trail results suggest individuals who participated in a health screen at the community day were approximately twice as likely to go back to a clinic to receive a full health check or have an alternative appointment compared with attendees who did not participate in a screen. Community events that include opportunities for health education and health screening are an effective strategy to improve chronic disease health literacy skills and appear to have the potential to increase community engagement with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services.

  16. Developing anti-tobacco messages for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: evidence from a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking rates in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples remain high, with limited impact of government measures for many subgroups. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in organisational practice for developing anti-tobacco messages for these target populations. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted with 47 organisation representatives using a structured questionnaire based on health communication and health promotion frameworks. Responses were coded into phases of message development, message types (educational, threat, positive or advocacy), target groups, message recommendations, and evaluations undertaken. Cultural sensitivity for message development was divided into surface structure (use of images, language, demographics) and deep structure (use of socio-cultural values). A categorical principal component analysis explored the key dimensions of the findings and their component relationships. Results Among organisations interviewed, a community-orientated, bottom-up approach for developing anti-tobacco messages was reported by 47% (n = 24); 55% based message development on a theoretical framework; 87% used a positive benefit appeal; 38% used threat messages. More Aboriginal Medical Services (AMSs) targeted youth (p < 0.005) and advised smokers to quit (p < 0.05) than other types of organisations. AMSs were significantly more likely to report using deep structure in tailoring messages compared with non-government (p < 0.05) and government organisations (p < 0.05). Organisations that were oriented to the general population were more likely to evaluate their programs (p < 0.05). A two-dimensional non-linear principal component analysis extracted components interpreted as “cultural understanding” (bottom-up, community-based approaches, deep structures) and “rigour” (theoretical frameworks, and planned/completed evaluations), and accounted for 53% of the variability

  17. Primary Health Networks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    PubMed

    Couzos, Sophia; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Page, Priscilla

    2016-04-04

    The Australian Government has established that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a priority for the newly established 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs). Efforts to reduce the high hospitalisation rates of Aboriginal people will require PHNs to build formal participatory structures with Aboriginal health organisations to support best practice service models. There are precedents as to how PHNs can build formal partnerships with Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHSs), establish an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander steering committee to guide strategic plan development, and work towards optimising comprehensive primary care. All health services within PHN boundaries can be supported to systematically and strategically improve their responsiveness to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people by assessing systems of care, adopting best practice models, embedding quality assurance activity, and participating in performance reporting. PHNs can be guided to adopt an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific quality improvement framework, agree to local performance measures, review specialist and other outreach services to better integrate with primary health care, enhance the cultural competence of services, and measure and respond to progress in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations. Through collaborations and capacity building, PHNs can transition certain health services towards greater Aboriginal community control. These proposals may assist policy makers to develop organisational performance reporting on PHN efforts to close the gap in Aboriginal health disparity.

  18. Yarning about fall prevention: community consultation to discuss falls and appropriate approaches to fall prevention with older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Coombes, Julieann; Turner, Norma Jean; Hillmann, Elizabeth; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Cathie; Ivers, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Fall related injury is an emerging issue for older Indigenous people worldwide, yet few targeted fall prevention programs are currently available for Indigenous populations. In order to inform the development of a new Aboriginal-specific fall prevention program in Australia, we conducted community consultation with older Aboriginal people to identify perceptions and beliefs about falls, and to identify desired program elements. Yarning Circles were held with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 45 years and over. Each Yarning Circle was facilitated by an Aboriginal researcher who incorporated six indicative questions into each discussion. Questions explored the impact of falls on Yarning Circle participants, their current use of fall prevention services and investigated Yarning Circle participant's preferences regarding the design and mode of delivery of a fall prevention program. A total of 76 older Aboriginal people participated in ten Yarning Circles across six sites in the state of New South Wales. Participants associated falls with physical disability, a loss of emotional well-being and loss of connection to family and community. Many participants did not use existing fall prevention services due to a lack of availability in their area, having no referral provided by their GP and/or being unaware of fall prevention programs in general. Program elements identified as important by participants were that it be Aboriginal-specific, group-based, and on-going, with the flexibility to be tailored to specific communities, with free transport provided to and from the program. Older Aboriginal people reported falls to be a priority health issue, with a significant impact on their health and well-being. Few older Aboriginal people accessed prevention programs, suggesting there is an important need for targeted Aboriginal-specific programs. A number of important program elements were identified which if incorporated into prevention programs, may help to

  19. Hemostatic factors in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaimin; Rowley, Kevin; Best, James; McDermott, Robyn; Taylor, Michael; O'Dea, Kerin

    2007-05-01

    Hemostatic processes are important in precipitating myocardial infarction and stroke. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the results of previous studies on the association of plasma factor VIIc activity with CVD and diabetes have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to explore the association of plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc to clinical characteristics and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cross-sectional surveys of Australian Aboriginal people (n = 852) and Torres Strait Islanders (n = 276) aged 15 years and older were conducted from 1993 to 1995. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, fasting plasma fibrinogen, factor VIIc, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were measured. Levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence interval) for Aboriginal (3.52, 3.44-3.59 g/L) and Torres Strait Islander people (3.62, 3.49-3.75 g/L) were higher compared with previous reports from other populations. Factor VIIc (mean, 95% confidence interval) was especially high in Torres Strait Islanders (116%, 111%-122%) compared with Aboriginal people (99%, 97%-102%). Fibrinogen increased with age in both ethnic groups and sexes. Fibrinogen was independently associated with female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes, whereas the independent predictors for factor VIIc were Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, and total cholesterol. Average fibrinogen levels were high (>3.5 mg/dL) even for people considered "below average risk of coronary heart disease" according to conventional risk factor levels. For Aboriginal women, levels of fibrinogen and factor VIIc were significantly higher for persons at high risk than those at below average risk. The data suggest that plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc might

  20. Shared medical appointments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men.

    PubMed

    Stevens, John A; Dixon, John; Binns, Andrew; Morgan, Bob; Richardson, Jeff; Egger, Garry

    2016-06-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health is generally the worst of any population group in Australia. Inaccessibility to health services is one possible cause of this. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) appear to be a culturally competent and appropriate way of improving access to, and the quality of, primary healthcare services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The objective of this article is to assess the acceptability and appropriateness of SMAs as an adjunct process in primary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men. As part of a broader study on SMAs, three SMA sessions were delivered at an Aboriginal men's health centre in northern New South Wales. One-day training sessions in SMA facilitation were also provided to two groups of 12-14 Aboriginal health workers (AHWs). Mixed methods were used to assess patient and provider satisfaction, subjective outcomes, and operational procedures in the SMA groups, as well as interest in the SMA process by AHWs. Satisfaction with SMAs among Aboriginal men was unanimously positive, with the numbers in the group increasing over time. Patients most enjoyed the 'yarn up' nature of SMAs with peer support, which reduced the 'scary' and culturally 'unnatural' nature of one-on-one consultations with a general practitioner (GP). AHWs who were trained to a level to conduct SMAs saw this as an effective way of improving cultural competence in, and accessibility of, their various Aboriginal health services. The results, though not generalisable, suggest that SMAs may offer a culturally safe and appropriate tool to enhance Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' access to primary care.

  1. Managing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    van Gaans, D.; Ahmed, S.; D’Onise, K.; Taylor, S. M.; McDermott, R.

    2016-01-01

    Good quality data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are needed to assess the effectiveness of programs and interventions, and to evaluate policies that are designed to improve the status of, and service delivery to, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Due to the lack of longitudinal data it is difficult to gain knowledge on the specific causes or consequences of changes in indigenous outcomes. Variables such as name, date of birth and address for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders may be subject to more variation and be less consistently reported than other Australians. Improving the collection and management of key identifying variables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are key to providing more quality information on this population group. PMID:28210423

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of a Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infection Among Young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Wand, Handan; Bryant, Joanne; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Byron, Kat; Moore, Elizabeth; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M

    2016-03-01

    Young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) people are recognized as a priority population for the control of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in Australia. This article reports the prevalence of self-reported STI diagnoses and their correlates among Aboriginal people aged 16 to 29 years. Results were analyzed from a survey conducted between 2011 and 2013 at regular community events. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the correlates of a history of STI diagnosis among participants who reported being sexually active and ever having been tested for STIs. All analyses were stratified by sex. Of the 2877 participants in this study, 2320, comprising 60% females, self-reported ever having had vaginal or anal sex, and a further subset of 1589 (68%) reported ever being tested for any of the following STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, or trichomonas. Within this latter group, the proportion who reported that they had had a positive STI diagnosis was 25%. In multivariate analysis, women who reported sexual debut before the age of 16 years (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.81; P < 0.05), ever having had oral sex (PR, 2.66; 1.47-4.82; P < 0.001), inconsistent condom use in the past 12 months (PR, 1.71; 1.13-2.58; P < 0.012), having had sex with someone they had just met (adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 1.21-2.50; P < 0.003), and using ecstasy (PR, 1.81; 1.16-2.81; P < 0.009) were significantly associated with a self-reported history of an STI diagnosis. For men, being older (25-29 years; PR, 2.10; 1.10-3.96; P < 0.023), being gay or bisexual (PR, 2.22; 1.16-4.27; P < 0.016), not using a condom during last sex, (PR, 1.74; 1.10-2.76; P < 0.019), past ecstasy use (PR, 1.88; 1.11-3.20; P < 0.019), and injecting drug use (PR, 2.81; 1.35-5.88); P < 0.006) were independent predictors of ever reporting being diagnosed as having an STI. In the first community-based survey of this population, a

  3. The Education of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: Repair or Radical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Australia's indigenous population is made up of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, who each have distinctly different cultures. The former can be found in cities and towns and cross the vast reaches of rural and remote Australia; the latter inhabit the coastal islands off the northeast coast and adjacent mainland areas. According to…

  4. An innovative nurse education program in the Torres Strait Islands.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Lindsay, David; Mackay, Wendy

    2005-08-01

    As the most numerous and geographically dispersed professional group, registered nurses in Australia work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers and other members of the multidisciplinary team in a variety of practice contexts to provide health care to Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. Despite the introduction of a variety of recruitment and proactive support strategies by employers, universities and State and Commonwealth governments, few Indigenous people in Australia enrol in, and graduate from, entry level higher education courses in the health professions. The reasons for this are complex and, as yet, not well understood or described; however, it is clear that the well-documented execrable health status of Indigenous Australians demands a response from universities, which are largely responsible for the education of health professionals. An innovative model of registered nurse education in the Torres Strait region of Australia is reported in this paper. A satellite campus established by James Cook University (JCU) on Thursday Island delivers the undergraduate nursing course by mixed mode, supplemented by specific strategies designed to improve Indigenous student recruitment and retention and thus increase the likelihood of graduation. The course and the strategies implemented are discussed in this paper.

  5. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  6. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  7. Getting it Right: study protocol to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a culturally-specific measure to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Maree L; Farnbach, Sara; Glozier, Nick; Skinner, Timothy; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Askew, Deborah; Gee, Graham; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A freely available, culturally valid depression screening tool is required for use by primary care services across Australia to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander populations. This is the protocol for a study aiming to determine the validity, sensitivity and specificity of the culturally adapted 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (aPHQ-9). Methods and analysis Cross-sectional validation study. A total of 500 people who self-identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, are ≥18 years of age, attending 1 of 10 primary healthcare services or service events across Australia and able to communicate sufficiently to answer study questions will be recruited. All participants will complete the aPHQ-9 and the criterion standard MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 6.0.0. The primary outcome is the criterion validity of the aPHQ-9. Process outcomes related to acceptability and feasibility of the aPHQ-9 will be analysed only if the measure is found to be valid. Ethics and dissemination Lead ethical approval was obtained jointly from the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (project 2014/361) and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (project 1044/14). Results will be disseminated via the usual scientific forums, including peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international conferences following presentation to, discussion with and approval by participating primary healthcare service staff and community. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000705684. PMID:27927669

  8. Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…

  9. Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander patients in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Trout, M I; Henson, G; Senthuran, S

    2015-03-01

    A retrospective cohort analysis of an admission database for the intensive care unit at The Townsville Hospital was undertaken to describe the characteristics and short-term outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. The Townsville Hospital is the tertiary referral centre for Northern Queensland and services a region in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people constitute 9.6% of the population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients were significantly younger and had higher rates of invasive mechanical ventilation, emergency admissions and transfers from another hospital. Despite these factors, intensive care mortality did not differ between groups (9.4% versus 7.7%, P=0.1). Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III-j scores were noted in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population requiring emergency admission (65 versus 60, P=0.022) but were lower for elective admission (38 versus 42, P <0.001). Despite higher predicted hospital mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring emergency admission, no significant difference was observed (20.1% versus 19.1%, P=0.656). In a severity adjusted model, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status did not statistically significantly alter the risk of death (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.65, 1.2, P=0.398). Though Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring intensive care differed in admission characteristics, mortality was comparable to other critically ill patients.

  10. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  11. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  12. Understanding practitioner professionalism in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: lessons from student and registrar placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service.

    PubMed

    Askew, Deborah A; Lyall, Vivian J; Ewen, Shaun C; Paul, David; Wheeler, Melissa

    2017-08-15

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to be pathologised in medical curriculum, leaving graduates feeling unequipped to effectively work cross-culturally. These factors create barriers to culturally safe health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this pilot pre-post study, the learning experiences of seven medical students and four medical registrars undertaking clinical placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service in 2014 were followed. Through analysis and comparison of pre- and post-placement responses to a paper-based case study of a fictitious Aboriginal patient, four learning principles for medical professionalism were identified: student exposure to nuanced, complex and positive representations of Aboriginal peoples; positive practitioner role modelling; interpersonal skills that build trust and minimise patient-practitioner relational power imbalances; and knowledge, understanding and skills for providing patient-centred, holistic care. Though not exhaustive, these principles can increase the capacity of practitioners to foster culturally safe and optimal health care for Aboriginal peoples. Furthermore, competence and effectiveness in Aboriginal health care is an essential component of medical professionalism.

  13. Kapua Gutchen: Educator, Mentor and Innovator of Torres Strait Islander Music, Dance and Language at Erub (Darnley Island), Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, Lyn; Neuenfeldt, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of local community members to Indigenous education can be an important component in curriculum programs. This article explores the contributions of one such dedicated and talented Torres Strait Islander community member: Meuram tribal elder Kapua Gutchen. He teaches at the Erub (Darnley Island) Campus of Tagai College in the…

  14. Torres strait islanders and Australian nationhood: Some educational perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    This article analyses the role of education in incorporating Australia's Melanesian minority, the Torres Strait Islanders, into the Australian nation. The analysis begins with the introduction of Queensland government schooling into Torres Strait in 1892, which fostered expectations of Queensland citizenship and employment opportunities available to other races in the economy of the Strait. From 1904 to the outbreak of world war II in the Pacific in 1942 these early directions were altered by educational policies which initially sought to train Islanders for a life in the Islands as a "race apart" from the rest of Australia. Subsequent syllabus reforms, paralleling but not equalling regular schooling offered in Queensland, did not meet Islanders' aspirations for "proper schooling" and the jobs they expected would flow from it. Following world war II, regulations confining Islanders to the Strait were relaxed and many migrated to the Queensland mainland in search of better jobs, better pay, and better education for their children. Those who remained in the Islands received an education which, by 1985, had been brought up to the mainland standard. Yet, neither group's educational aspirations were satisfied despite initiatives and financial incentives of the Commonwealth government aimed at keeping Islander children at school. The article concludes that the way ahead for Islanders in staking out their educational future in the Australian nation on a basis of equality with other Australians lies in educational developments in the Islands themselves, where Islanders are playing an active role in developing, managing, and guiding schooling in directions which recognise their identity and their citizenship aspirations.

  15. Legally invisible: stewardship for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    PubMed

    Howse, Genevieve; Dwyer, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The need to improve access to good health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has been the subject of policy debate for decades, but progress is hampered by complex policy and administrative arrangements and lack of clarity about the responsibilities of governments. This study aimed to identify the current legal basis of those responsibilities and define options available to Australian governments to enact enduring responsibility for Aboriginal health care. This study used a framework for public health law research and conducted a mapping study to examine the current legal underpinnings for stewardship and governance for Aboriginal health and health care. More than 200 pieces of health legislation were analysed in the context of the common and statutory law and health policy goals. Very little specific recognition of the needs of Aboriginal people was found, and nothing that creates responsibility for stewardship and governance. The continuing absence of a legislative framework to address and protect Aboriginal health can be traced back to the founding doctrine of terra nullius (unoccupied land). We considered the results applying both a human rights perspective and the perspective of therapeutic jurisprudence. We suggest that national law for health stewardship would provide a strong foundation for progress, and should itself be based on recognition of Australia's First Peoples in the Australian Constitution, as is currently proposed. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Legally invisible: stewardship for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

    PubMed Central

    Howse, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The need to improve access to good health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has been the subject of policy debate for decades, but progress is hampered by complex policy and administrative arrangements and lack of clarity about the responsibilities of governments. This study aimed to identify the current legal basis of those responsibilities and define options available to Australian governments to enact enduring responsibility for Aboriginal health care. Methods: This study used a framework for public health law research and conducted a mapping study to examine the current legal underpinnings for stewardship and governance for Aboriginal health and health care. More than 200 pieces of health legislation were analysed in the context of the common and statutory law and health policy goals. Results: Very little specific recognition of the needs of Aboriginal people was found, and nothing that creates responsibility for stewardship and governance. The continuing absence of a legislative framework to address and protect Aboriginal health can be traced back to the founding doctrine of terra nullius (unoccupied land). Conclusions: We considered the results applying both a human rights perspective and the perspective of therapeutic jurisprudence. We suggest that national law for health stewardship would provide a strong foundation for progress, and should itself be based on recognition of Australia's First Peoples in the Australian Constitution, as is currently proposed. PMID:25903648

  17. Self-reported health-related quality-of-life issues for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with experience of cancer in Australia: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Micklem, Jasmine M

    2015-12-01

    Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islander peoples (who comprise the indigenous people or the original inhabitants of Australia before colonization) are more likely to experience cancers with poorer prognoses, are more likely to be diagnosed with cancer at a later stage of disease progression, are less likely to receive adequate cancer treatment and are more likely to pass away due to cancer, compared with other Australians. Cancer and biomedical therapies for cancer often have significant, ongoing effects on patient health-related quality of life (HRQL). Therefore, consideration of HRQL for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with experience of cancer in Australia is imperative. This article examines the literature for HRQL issues self-reported by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people with experience of cancer in Australia. A search of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other literature was undertaken using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Self-reports from Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people with experience of cancer were examined. HRQL issues were determined utilizing the Australian Psycho-Oncology Co-operative Research Group's definition of HRQL. Fifty-two documents were found with original data from Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people who self-reported their experiences of cancer. No published reports were found that specifically examined self-reports from Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people on the impact of cancer and biomedical treatment on their HRQL. Previous literature suggests that there is urgency for improved communication and cultural competency in cancer care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients in Australia, with a stronger focus on meeting patient needs and improving HRQL. This review has provided insight into HRQL issues for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with cancer in Australia. Further work using patient-reported outcomes

  18. Food and nutrition programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jennifer; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Gleeson, Deborah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-09-19

    Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why.Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool.Results Twelve papers reporting 11 reviews were identified. Two reviews were rated high quality, three were rated medium and six were rated low quality. The reviews demonstrated that a positive effect on nutrition and chronic disease indicators can be a result of: 1) incorporating nutrition and breastfeeding advice into maternal and child health care services; and 2) multifaceted community nutrition programs. The evidence suggests that the most important factor determining the success of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander food and nutrition programs is community involvement in (and, ideally, control of) program development and implementation.Conclusions Community-directed food and nutrition programs, especially those with multiple components that address the underlying causes of nutrition issues, can be effective in improving nutrition-related outcomes.What is known about the topic? More effective action is urgently required in order to reduce the unacceptable health inequalities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Food insecurity and nutrition-related chronic conditions are responsible for a large proportion of the ill health experienced by Australia's First Peoples.What does this paper add? This narrative overview of 11 reviews published between 2005 and 2015 provides a synthesis of the current evidence for improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nutrition across

  19. Depression and diabetes in the remote Torres Strait Islands.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sean; McDermott, Robyn; Thompson, Fintan; Usher, Kim

    2016-07-20

    Issue addressed: Diabetes is associated with significant depression, which can result in poorer clinical outcomes, including increased mortality. Little is known about the prevalence of depression among Torres Strait Islander adults with diabetes.Methods: Self-reported depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 translated into Torres Strait Creole, and associations with socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical indicators in Torres Strait Islander adults with diabetes in five remote Torres Strait Islands were examined.Results: Seventy-three men and 115 women completed interviews. The median PHQ-9 score was 5.5 (IQR 0-7); 42% of respondents scored 0-4 (none-minimal), 46% scored 5-9 (mild) and 12% scored 10+ (moderate-severe). Mean HbA1c was 8.3% (67.4mmol). HbA1c was not related to PHQ-9 scores (β=0.20, P=0.323), however exercise in hours (β=-0.34, P<0.001) and screen time in hours (β=0.11, P<0.001) were significant predictors of depression after adjusting for other study variables.Conclusions: This sample of remote living Torres Strait Islanders reported relatively low rates of depression compared with national samples, and depression was not related to glycaemic control. Exercise and screen time were the strongest predictors of depression based on PHQ-9 scores. This represents an opportunity for health promotion.So what?: These findings provide an indication of the health impact of physical activity in rural and remote communities. Local health and education services, councils and sporting bodies should work collaboratively to promote sustainable physical activity programs.

  20. Making tuba in the Torres Strait Islands: the cultural diffusion and geographic mobility of an alcoholic drink.

    PubMed

    Brady, Maggie; McGrath, Vic

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively scant evidence of the Indigenous production and consumption of intoxicating drinks on the Australian mainland prior to the arrival of outsiders. Although Australian Aboriginal peoples had mastered fermentation in some regions, the Indigenous manufacture of much stronger drinks by distillation was unknown on the Australian mainland. However, following contact with Pacific Island and Southeast Asian peoples in the 19th century, Islanders in the Torres Strait adopted techniques for fermenting and distilling what became a quasi-indigenous alcoholic drink known as tuba. This paper discusses the historical process of the diffusion of this substance as a result of labour migration and internationalisation in the Strait, and provides present-day accounts of tuba production from Torres Strait Islanders.

  1. After accounting for competing causes of death and more advanced stage, do Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with cancer still have worse survival? A population-based cohort study in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Walton, Richard; You, Hui; Baker, Deborah; Roder, David; Currow, David; Aranda, Sanchia

    2017-06-02

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia have been found to have poorer cancer survival than non-Aboriginal people. However, use of conventional relative survival analyses is limited due to a lack of life tables. This cohort study examined whether poorer survival persist after accounting for competing risks of death from other causes and disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis, for all cancers collectively and by cancer site. People diagnosed in 2000-2008 were extracted from the population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry. Aboriginal status was multiply imputed for people with missing information (12.9%). Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 'advanced stage' at diagnosis (separately for distant and distant/regional stage). Survival was examined using competing risk regression to compute subhazard ratios (SHRs) with 95%CIs. Of the 301,356 cases, 2517 (0.84%) identified as Aboriginal (0.94% after imputation). After adjusting for age, sex, year of diagnosis, socio-economic status, remoteness, and cancer site Aboriginal peoples were more likely to be diagnosed with distant (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17-1.44) or distant/regional stage (OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.18-1.40) for all cancers collectively. This applied to cancers of the female breast, uterus, prostate, kidney, others (those not included in other categories) and cervix (when analyses were restricted to cases with known stages/known Aboriginal status). Aboriginal peoples had a higher hazard of death than non-Aboriginal people after accounting for competing risks from other causes of death, socio-demographic factors, stage and cancer site (SHR 1.40, 95%CI 1.31-1.50 for all cancers collectively). Consistent results applied to colorectal, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers. Aboriginal peoples with cancer have an elevated hazard of cancer death compared with non-Aboriginal people, after accounting for more advanced stage and competing

  2. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  3. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  4. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  5. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  6. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on...

  7. New species of Nuuanu (Amphipoda: Nuuanuidae) from Norfolk Island, Torres Strait and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Bopiah, A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Nuuanu, N. quintalana sp. nov., N. stuckeyorun sp. nov. and N. titaseyi sp. nov. are described from Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean and the Torres Strait, Australia, respectively. There are currently 17 described species of Nuuanu with the genus distributed world-wide.

  8. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897

  9. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  10. Effective Teaching Practices for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Natalie J.; Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Osborne, Barry; Boon, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature pertaining to the teacher actions that influence Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander student learning outcomes. This review investigates two foci: the identification of teacher actions influencing learning outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students and the methodological…

  11. Improving the Participation and Engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Thi Kim Anh; Vitartas, Peter; Ambrose, Kurt; Millar, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Most Australian universities have among their goals to increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students at their institutions. In the Australian higher education context, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are seriously under-represented, particularly in business education compared to other disciplines. An…

  12. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  13. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  14. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  15. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  16. Predictors of wanting to quit in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Davey, Maureen E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe factors that predict wanting to quit smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. Baseline survey data were collected from 1643 current smokers between April 2012 and October 2013. Wanting to quit smoking. More than two-thirds of smokers (70%) said they want to quit. Many factors were associated with wanting to quit, including past quitting activity. Interest in quitting was lower among men and smokers from economically disadvantaged areas, but there was no difference by age, remoteness or other measures of economic disadvantage. Attitudes and beliefs negatively associated with wanting to quit included enjoying smoking and believing quitting to be very difficult, and those positively associated included regretting ever starting to smoke, perceiving that local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community leaders disapprove of smoking, believing non-smokers set a good example to children, worrying about future smoking-related health effects and believing quitting to be beneficial. Reporting support from family and friends was predictive of wanting to quit, but factors related to smoking in the social network were not. Associations with health and wellbeing were mixed. While most tobacco control policy exposure variables were positively associated with wanting to quit, two - receiving advice to quit from a health professional, and recall of targeted anti-tobacco advertising - appeared to have an effect that extended beyond influencing relevant attitudes and beliefs. Interest in quitting among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers appears to be influenced by a broad range of factors, highlighting the importance of taking a comprehensive approach to tobacco control. Advice from health professionals and

  17. The Kuroshio bifurcation associated with islands at the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruili; Wang, Guihua; Chen, Changlin

    2016-06-01

    Based upon a suite of satellite and hydrology data along with numerical model simulations, the Kuroshio is found to be separated into two branches. The two branches are located on the western and eastern sides of the Batanes Islands. The western branch, which is the main branch of the Kuroshio, is estimated to carry roughly 68% of the transport, while the eastern branch, which has not been reported before, carries the remainder. Both branches bring warmer water northward, producing two separate warm tongues east of the Luzon Strait. The western warm tongue has an obvious seasonal variation due to the seasonal variation of the Kuroshio in the northern Luzon Strait, while the eastern warm tongue is associated with Pacific mesoscale eddies. As an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) eddy approaches the Batanes Islands from the east, the eastern branch of the Kuroshio is strongly intensified (weakened), and a more (less) pronounced warm tongue is induced. Consequently, interannual variability of Pacific mesoscale eddies affects the strength of the eastern branch.

  18. Driver licensing: descriptive epidemiology of a social determinant of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Helps, Yvonne; Senserrick, Teresa; Byrne, Jake; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Daniels, John; Harrison, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Education, employment and equitable access to services are commonly accepted as important underlying social determinants of health. For most Australians, access to health, education and other services is facilitated by private transport and a driver licence. This study aimed to examine licensing rates and predictors of licensing in a sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, as these have previously been poorly described. Methods: Interviewer‐administered surveys were conducted with 625 people 16 years or older in four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales and South Australia over a two‐week period in 2012–2013. Results: Licensing rates varied from 51% to 77% by site. Compared to not having a licence, having a driver licence was significantly associated with higher odds of full‐time employment (adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 2.5–6.3) and educational attainment (adjusted OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.2–2.8 for trade or certificate; adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.6–9.5 for degree qualification). Conclusions: Variation in driver licensing rates suggests different yet pervasive barriers to access. There is a strong association between driver licensing, education and employment. Implications: Licensing inequality has far‐reaching impacts on the broader health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, reinforcing the need for appropriate and accessible pathways to achieving and maintaining driver licensing. PMID:27481274

  19. Inequalities in the social determinants of health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: a cross-sectional population-based study in the Australian state of Victoria.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; Parsons, Lorraine; McNeil, John

    2014-10-18

    Aboriginal Australians are a culturally, linguistically and experientially diverse population, for whom national statistics may mask important geographic differences in their health and the determinants of their health. We sought to identify the determinants of health of Aboriginal adults who lived in the state of Victoria, compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. We obtained data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey: a cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. The data included measures of the social determinants of health (socioeconomic status (SES), psychosocial risk factors, and social capital), lifestyle risk factors, health care service use, and health outcomes. We calculated prevalence ratios (PR) using a generalised linear model with a log link function and binomial distribution; adjusted for age and sex. Aboriginal Victorians had a higher prevalence of self-rated fair or poor health, cancer, depression and anxiety, and asthma; most notably depression and anxiety (PR = 1.7, 95% CI; 1.4-2.2). Determinants that were statistically significantly different between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Victorians included: a higher prevalence of psychosocial risk factors (psychological distress, food insecurity and financial stress); lower SES (not being employed and low income); lower social capital (neighbourhood tenure of less than one year, inability to get help from family, didn't feel valued by society, didn't agree most people could be trusted, not a member of a community group); and a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (smoking, obesity and inadequate fruit intake). A higher proportion of Aboriginal Victorians sought help for a mental health related problem and had had a blood pressure check in the previous two years. We identified inequalities in health between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Victorians, most notably in the prevalence of depression and anxiety, and the social

  20. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-01-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  1. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  2. Cultural safety and maternity care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue; Barclay, Lesley

    2006-09-01

    To discuss cultural safety and critique the provision of culturally appropriate maternity services to remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in Australia. The literature and policies around 'culture' and 'cultural safety' are discussed and applied to the provision of maternity services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in remote areas of Australia. The current provision of maternity services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, particularly those living in remote Australia, appears largely inadequate. The provision of culturally safe maternity care requires health system reform at all levels including: the individual practitioner response; the educational preparation of practitioners; the delivery of maternity services and the development of policy at local, state and national level. This paper considers the changes that can be made from the individual practitioner through to the design and implementation of maternity services. Cultural safety provides a useful framework to improve the delivery of maternity services to remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and their families.

  3. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  4. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, correlates and interventions among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: a scoping review protocol.

    PubMed

    Avery, Jodie C; Bowden, Jacqueline A; Dono, Joanne; Gibson, Odette R; Brownbill, Aimee; Keech, Wendy; Roder, David; Miller, Caroline L

    2017-07-31

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities of Australia experience poorer health outcomes in the areas of overweight and obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Contributing to this burden of disease in the Australian community generally and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, is the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). We have described a protocol for a review to systematically scope articles that document use of SSBs and interventions to reduce their consumption with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. These results will inform future work that investigates interventions aimed at reducing harm associated with SSB consumption. This scoping review draws on a methodology that uses a six-step approach to search databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Informit (including Informit: Indigenous Peoples), Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database and Mura, between January 1980 and February 2017. Two reviewers will be engaged to search for and screen studies independently, using formulated selection criteria, for inclusion in our review. We will include primary research studies, systematic reviews including meta-analysis or meta-synthesis, reports and unpublished grey literature. Results will be entered into a table identifying study details and characteristics, summarised using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis chart and then critically analysed. This review will not require ethics committee review. Results will be disseminated at appropriate scientific meetings, as well as through the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment.Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions.Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region.Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys.What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially.What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking in

  7. The recording of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status in general practice clinical records: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Allison; Morgan, Simon; O'Mara, Peter; Tapley, Amanda; Henderson, Kim; van Driel, Mieke; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Ball, Jean; Scott, John; Spike, Neil; McArthur, Lawrie; Magin, Parker

    2016-04-01

    To document the frequency of recording of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status in general practice (GP) clinical records and to establish associations of this recording. Cross-sectional analysis of recording of patients' Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status in GP clinical records from GP training practices in four Australian states. Of the 9,704 clinical records examined, the patients' Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status had been documented in 5,165 (53.2%). Higher rates of recording were associated with older patient age, practices outside a major city, patients who were not new to the practice and the patient being Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. In encounters with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients, the patient's status had been documented in 82% of records. Those attending larger practices were less likely to have had their status recorded. This is the first report of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording in GP clinical records. Almost 20% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients did not have their status recorded in the clinical record, with indications that recording may be unsystematic. Our findings reinforce the need for a systematic approach to identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status in general practice and will inform policy and practice in this important area. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  9. How an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service improved access to mental health care.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Julie; Askew, Deborah; Foley, Wendy; Duthie, Deb; Shuter, Patricia; Combo, Michelle; Clements, Lesley-Ann

    2015-06-06

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience higher levels of psychological distress and mental ill health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, but underuse mental health services. Interventions are required to address the structural and functional access barriers that cause this underuse. In 2012, the Southern Queensland Centre of Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care employed a psychologist and a social worker to integrate mental health care into its primary health care services. This research study examines the impact of this innovation. A mixed-method research design was used whereby a series of qualitative open-ended interviews were conducted with 7 psychology clients, 5 social work clients, the practice dietician, and the social worker and psychologist. General practitioners, practice nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers and receptionists participated in 4 focus groups. Key themes were identified, discussed, refined and agreed upon by the research team. Occasions of service by the psychologist and social worker were reviewed and quantitative data presented. Clients and staff were overwhelmingly positive about the inclusion of a psychologist and a social worker as core members of a primary health care team. In one-year, the psychologist and social worker recorded 537 and 447 occasions of service respectively, and referrals to a psychologist, psychiatrist, mental health worker or counsellor increased from 17% of mental health clients in 2010 to 51% in 2012. Increased access by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to mental health care was related to three main themes: (1) Responsiveness to community needs; (2) Trusted relationships; and (3) Shared cultural background and understanding. The holistic nature and cultural safety of the primary health care service, its close proximity to where most people lived and the existing trusted relationships were identified as key factors in decreasing barriers to access

  10. Rich and purposeful mathematical knowledge of mothers and children in a Torres Strait Islander community.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a pilot study that explored the situated mathematical knowledge of mothers and children in one Torres Strait Islander community in Australia. The community encouraged parental involvement in their children's learning and schooling. The study explored parents' understandings of mathematics and how their children came to learn about it on the island. A funds of knowledge approach was used in the study. This approach is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been historically and culturally accumulated into a body of knowledge and skills essential for their functioning and well-being (TIP 31:132, 1992). The participants, three adults and one child are featured in this paper. Three separate events are described with epiphanic or illuminative moments analysed to ascertain the features that enabled an understanding of the nature of the mathematical events. The study found that Indigenous ways of knowing of mathematics were deeply embedded in rich cultural practices that were tied to the community. This finding has implications for teachers of children in the early years. Where school mathematics is often presented as disembodied and isolated facts with children seeing little relevance, learning a different perspective of mathematics that is tied to the resources and practices of children's lives and facilitated through social relationships, may go a long way towards improving the engagement of children and their parents in learning and schooling.

  11. Case Studies of Training Advantage for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Learners. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Janet; Bat, Melodie; Guenther, John; Boughton, Bob; Williamson, Frances; Wooltorton, Sandra; Marshall, Mel; Dwyer, Anna; Stephens, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The case studies presented in this Support Document are a compilation of learnings derived from the research project, "Enhancing training advantage for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners." The project, funded by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), was conducted by a consortium of researchers…

  12. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  13. Bureaucratic Impediments to Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Empowerment, Self-Determination & Self-Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; And Others

    This paper examines the context of current social policy and analyzes the bureaucratic impediments to achieving greater coordination of programs and services for Australia's Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how a "national commitment" involving bureaucratic rationality and imperatives continues…

  14. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  15. Enhancing Training Advantage for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Stephens, Anne; Skewes, Janet; Boughton, Bob; Williamson, Frances; Wooltorton, Sandra; Marshall, Melissa; Dwyer, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in very remote parts of Australia are increasingly participating in vocational education and training (VET); however, completion rates remain low and employment outcomes are not improving. This project identifies how retention and completion can be improved and what other indicators of success are important…

  16. Introducing Torres Strait Island Dance to the Australian High School Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out within the context of a requirement for every Australian Capital Territory Education and Training Directorate (ACT ETD) high school to include Indigenous perspectives across all areas of the curriculum. For the first time ever in the case study school reported in this article, two Torres Strait Island dances were taught…

  17. Contextualising the Teaching and Learning of Measurement within Torres Strait Islander Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Bronwyn; Cooper, Thomas J.; Baturo, Annette R.; Matthews, Chris; Sun, Huayu

    2010-01-01

    A one-year mathematics project that focused on measurement was conducted with six Torres Strait Islander schools and communities. Its key focus was to contextualise the teaching and learning of measurement within the students' culture, communities and home languages. Six teachers and two teacher aides participated in the project. This paper…

  18. Schooling the Torres Strait Islanders, 1873-1941: Context, Custom and Colonialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Alan

    This book overviews the colonial history of the Torres Strait Islanders and the role of the London Missionary Society (LMS) and the government of Queensland (Australia) in their education from 1873 until 1941. Section 1 examines the educational implications of European contact and argues that although schooling was an important feature of LMS and…

  19. VET Retention in Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on the research project "Enhancing training advantage for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners" by John Guenther et al. on behalf of Ninti One Limited. The project examines five unique and successful vocational education and training (VET) programs in remote areas and identifies how…

  20. A Profile of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Higher Education Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Judith; Wilson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together recent statistics relating to the participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education. A number of key statistical realities relating to their enrolment into, retention during, and completion of, their university courses are depicted. Foremost among these realities is that despite…

  1. Evaluation of the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module.

    PubMed

    Tsey, Komla; Chigeza, Philemon; Holden, Carol A; Bulman, Jack; Gruis, Hilton; Wenitong, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module. Although men experience higher levels of illness and die younger than women, educational programs to support health workers utilise a gender-based approach to increase participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in health care are rare and lack appropriate content. Recognising this gap in service provision, and under the guidance of a Reference Group comprising community leaders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait male health, a comprehensive and culturally appropriate Male Health Module has been developed to enhance the capacity of health workers to improve access to services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males. Methods used were: in-depth interviews with Module developers, pilot workshops for trainers and health workers, questionnaires and focus group discussions with workshop participants, and participant observations. As well as enhancing capacity to facilitate access to health services for men, the Module was deemed relevant because of its potential to promote health worker empowerment and wellbeing. Findings revealed that improving access to services for men required male and female health workers working in partnership. Despite overall enthusiasm for the Module, the findings also revealed deep fear that it would end up 'collecting dust on shelves'. Strategies to improve the Module quality and accessibility are highlighted.

  2. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 ...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 ...

  4. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N* 1627.01W...

  5. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N* 1627.01W...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 ...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 ...

  8. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N* 1627.01W...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 ...

  10. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N* 1627.01W...

  11. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N* 1627.01W...

  12. A strategy for translating evidence into policy and practice to close the gap - developing essential service standards for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    The development and application of essential standards for cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people creates a strategic platform on which to systematically close the gap in the health outcomes and life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people in Australia. We outline six developmental stages that can be used to enhance the effective translation of evidence into practice that reduces life expectancy differentials. Focussing efforts where the biggest gain can be made; considering how to make a policy-relevant difference with an emphasis on translation into policy and practice; establishing a foundation for action by engaging with stakeholders throughout the process; developing a framework to guide action; drafting policy-relevant and framework-appropriate essential service standards; and defining standards that help policy decision makers achieve current priority policy targets.

  13. Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

  14. Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

  15. LIt.search: fast tracking access to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Jennifer J; Lawrence, Mikaela A; Damarell, Raechel A; Sladek, Ruth M; Nikolof, Arwen

    2014-11-01

    To develop and validate a PubMed search filter, LIt.search, that automatically retrieves Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature and to make it publicly accessible through the Lowitja Institute website. Search filter development phases included: (1) scoping of the publication characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Start Islander literature; (2) advisory group input and review; (3) systematic identification and testing of MeSH and text word terms; (4) relevance assessment of the search filter's retrieved items; and (5) translation for use in PubMed through the web. Scoping study analyses demonstrated complexity in the nature and use of possible search terms and publication characteristics. The search filter achieved a recall rate of 84.8% in the full gold standard test set. To determine real-world performance, post-hoc assessment of items retrieved by the search filter in PubMed was undertaken with 87.2% of articles deemed as relevant. The search filter was constructed as a series of URL hyperlinks to enable one-click searching. LIt.search is a search tool that facilitates research into practice for improving outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and is publicly available on the Lowitja Institute website. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: Health professionals, researchers and decision makers can find it difficult to retrieve published literature on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health easily, effectively and in a timely way. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This paper describes a new web-based searching tool, LIt.search, which facilitates access to the relevant literature. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Ready access to published literature on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health reduces a barrier to the use of this evidence in practice. LIt.search encourages the use of this evidence to inform clinical judgement and policy and service decision-making as well as reducing the burdens associated with searching for

  16. A review of programs that targeted environmental determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-08-09

    Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller's Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge.

  17. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    PubMed

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Intussusception in the Northern Territory: the incidence is low in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    PubMed

    Webby, Rosalind J; Bines, Julie E; Barnes, Graeme L; Tindall, Helen; Krause, Vicki; Patel, Mahomed

    2006-05-01

    To describe the epidemiology, immunisation status and management of children with intussusception in the Northern Territory (NT), 1993-2003. Intussusception data were obtained from all NT hospitals using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 9/10) codes for children under 18 years of age between 1993 and 2003. Medical records of these children were used to collect information on demographics, admission date, clinical symptoms, signs and management. Immunisation data were obtained from the NT immunisation register. The NT mortality database was reviewed for deaths from intussusception in children between 1993 and 2003. One death in an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child was found in the NT mortality database. Medical records for this child were destroyed and so the case definition for intussusception used in this study was not fulfilled and the child was excluded. Intussusception proven by radiological or surgical means was identified in 23 children from hospital records. The incidence for children with intussusception in NT is 0.65/1000 live births. The incidence of intussusception was lower in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (0.16/1000 live births) than in non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (0.92/1000 live births) (P < 0.01). The incidence of intussusception in the NT is similar to other developed countries but Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have a very low incidence of intussusception. Intussusception is a rare event in the NT and will require a sensitive surveillance system to detect any potential increased risk of intussusception after the introduction of a new rotavirus vaccine.

  19. Adha Gara Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Rod; Kennedy, Judy

    This series of articles, focusing on the Western Torres Strait Islander people, presents the following: "A Brief Introduction to Torres Strait Culture" (Rod Kennedy); "Some Guidelines for Relating to Torres Strait Islanders" (Rod Kennedy); "One Mouth Two Hands" (Rod Kennedy); "My Trading Friend in the Village of…

  20. Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J; Warner, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region.

  1. Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region. PMID:23698533

  2. Two-stage opening of the Dover Strait and the origin of island Britain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Collier, Jenny S; Garcia-Moreno, David; Oggioni, Francesca; Trentesaux, Alain; Vanneste, Kris; De Batist, Marc; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Potter, Graeme; Van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte; Arthur, John C R

    2017-04-04

    Late Quaternary separation of Britain from mainland Europe is considered to be a consequence of spillover of a large proglacial lake in the Southern North Sea basin. Lake spillover is inferred to have caused breaching of a rock ridge at the Dover Strait, although this hypothesis remains untested. Here we show that opening of the Strait involved at least two major episodes of erosion. Sub-bottom records reveal a remarkable set of sediment-infilled depressions that are deeply incised into bedrock that we interpret as giant plunge pools. These support a model of initial erosion of the Dover Strait by lake overspill, plunge pool erosion by waterfalls and subsequent dam breaching. Cross-cutting of these landforms by a prominent bedrock-eroded valley that is characterized by features associated with catastrophic flooding indicates final breaching of the Strait by high-magnitude flows. These events set-up conditions for island Britain during sea-level highstands and caused large-scale re-routing of NW European drainage.

  3. Two-stage opening of the Dover Strait and the origin of island Britain

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Collier, Jenny S.; Garcia-Moreno, David; Oggioni, Francesca; Trentesaux, Alain; Vanneste, Kris; De Batist, Marc; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Potter, Graeme; Van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte; Arthur, John C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Late Quaternary separation of Britain from mainland Europe is considered to be a consequence of spillover of a large proglacial lake in the Southern North Sea basin. Lake spillover is inferred to have caused breaching of a rock ridge at the Dover Strait, although this hypothesis remains untested. Here we show that opening of the Strait involved at least two major episodes of erosion. Sub-bottom records reveal a remarkable set of sediment-infilled depressions that are deeply incised into bedrock that we interpret as giant plunge pools. These support a model of initial erosion of the Dover Strait by lake overspill, plunge pool erosion by waterfalls and subsequent dam breaching. Cross-cutting of these landforms by a prominent bedrock-eroded valley that is characterized by features associated with catastrophic flooding indicates final breaching of the Strait by high-magnitude flows. These events set-up conditions for island Britain during sea-level highstands and caused large-scale re-routing of NW European drainage. PMID:28375202

  4. Two-stage opening of the Dover Strait and the origin of island Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Collier, Jenny S.; Garcia-Moreno, David; Oggioni, Francesca; Trentesaux, Alain; Vanneste, Kris; de Batist, Marc; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Potter, Graeme; van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte; Arthur, John C. R.

    2017-04-01

    Late Quaternary separation of Britain from mainland Europe is considered to be a consequence of spillover of a large proglacial lake in the Southern North Sea basin. Lake spillover is inferred to have caused breaching of a rock ridge at the Dover Strait, although this hypothesis remains untested. Here we show that opening of the Strait involved at least two major episodes of erosion. Sub-bottom records reveal a remarkable set of sediment-infilled depressions that are deeply incised into bedrock that we interpret as giant plunge pools. These support a model of initial erosion of the Dover Strait by lake overspill, plunge pool erosion by waterfalls and subsequent dam breaching. Cross-cutting of these landforms by a prominent bedrock-eroded valley that is characterized by features associated with catastrophic flooding indicates final breaching of the Strait by high-magnitude flows. These events set-up conditions for island Britain during sea-level highstands and caused large-scale re-routing of NW European drainage.

  5. The Prospects for Using Little Diomede Island as a Base for Monitoring Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Kelly, V.; Codispoti, L. A.; Sheffield, G.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Diomede, Alaska is arguably the most isolated community in the United States, located on a small island in the center of Bering Strait, one mile from the international dateline, where nutrient-rich waters from the Bering Sea enter the Arctic Ocean. Postal service is once weekly via helicopter, weather permitting and the 140 Native Inupiat residents (2000 census) are highly dependent upon a subsistence lifestyle utilizing local seabirds, marine mammals, and shellfish. Since the summer of 2000, we have worked with the local community to improve analytical capabilities to analyze waters flowing through the Bering Strait. Other goals of the Bering Strait Environmental Observatory include evaluating the biological health and contaminant burdens of marine mammals used for subsistence by island residents. We have also been annually using the Canadian Coast Guard Service Sir Wilfrid Laurier to assess the biological productivity of benthic organisms that are important as food sources in the Bering Strait region for apex predators such as bearded seal, walrus, diving ducks and gray whale. Future infrastructure that is needed includes a subsea water intake system that would be less vulnerable to wave and ice damage than the interim systems we have employed to date. Using a jet well pump in August, 2001, we pumped water onshore through a thermosalinograph, automated nutrient monitoring devices, a fluorometer, and we also collected discrete samples for silica and oxyen-18/oxygen-16 ratios in a small laboratory constructed under the village school. Results indicate that there is a strong relationship between the surface wind regime and the fertility of waters flowing through the center of Bering Strait. Following sustained northerly wind events, and an approximate 72 hour lag period, waters passing Little Diomede Island were predominantly of Alaska Coastal Water origin, with low nutrients and salinity, and comparatively high temperatures. Southerly winds were by contrast

  6. Investigating the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of outreach case management in an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Askew, Deborah A; Togni, Samantha J; Schluter, Philip J; Rogers, Lynne; Egert, Sonya; Potter, Nichola; Hayman, Noel E; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex D H

    2016-05-13

    The disparities in health and life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples compared to non-Indigenous Australians are well documented. Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to these disparities. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of a case management approach to chronic disease care integrated within an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service. The Home-based, Outreach case Management of chronic disease Exploratory (HOME) Study provided holistic, patient centred multidisciplinary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic disease. A developmental evaluation approach supported the implementation and ongoing adaptations in the delivery of the model of care, and ensured its alignment with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' understandings of, and approaches to, health and wellbeing. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine patient participants (one interview also included a participant's spouse) and 15 health service staff and key themes were identified through an iterative reflective process. Quantitative data were collected directly from patient participants and from their medical records at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Patient participants' baseline characteristics were described using frequencies and percentages. Attrition and patterns of missing values over time were evaluated using binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models and mean differences in key clinical outcomes were determined using normal GEE models. Forty-one patients were recruited and nine withdrew over the 6 month period. There was no evidence of differential attrition. All participants (patients and health service staff) were very positive about the model of care. Patient participants became more involved in their health care, depression rates significantly decreased (p = 0.03), and significant improvements in systolic blood pressure (p

  7. Influence of island chains on the Kuroshio intrusion in the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhida; Liu, Hailong; Lin, Pengfei; Hu, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    By applying a global high-resolution (0.1°) OGCM, the influence of the island chains in the Luzon Strait (LS) on the Kuroshio intrusion is studied systematically. The island chains in the LS are separated into three parts: the south island chain, the middle and north island chain, and Babuyan Island. One control and three sensitivity experiments are conducted by adding these three parts of the topography gradually. From comparisons of the circulation, temperature, and salinity structures, it is found that the south island chain decreases the westward bending of the main Kuroshio path, the middle and north island chain increases the westward bending, and Babuyan Island also increases the westward bending. These results are extremely clear in winter. Dynamic diagnoses suggest that the westward bending increases with an increase in the incidence angle of the Kuroshio and an increase in the Kuroshio east branch transport. Moreover, the middle and north island chain can split the Kuroshio into two parts, the Kuroshio west and east branches, which can be seen clearly in the satellite altimeter maps.

  8. A commentary on the NH&MRC Draft Values and Ethics in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Lynn; Pyett, Priscilla

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss and critically evaluate the National Health and Medical Research Council's recently released document entitled 'Draft Values and Ethics in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research'. We provide a brief account of its development, philosophy and contents, and then consider how the document could be used by HRECs. We recommend that three specially targeted documents be developed from this one document, to meet the particular needs of HRECs, Indigenous people and researchers. We propose a system of Indigenous ethics advisors as a way to implement the central ideas of the new draft guidelines, without falling into the legalism and rule-following that these guidelines explicitly aim to avoid.

  9. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  10. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID

  11. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  12. So far, so good: Maintenance of prevention is required to stem HIV incidence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Costello-Czok, Michael; Willis, Jon; Saunders, Mark; Shannon, Cindy

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous people globally remain resilient yet vulnerable to the threats of HIV. Although Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience the worst health status of any identifiable group in Australia, with a standardized morbidity rate three times that of non-Indigenous Australians, the Australian response to HIV has resulted in relatively low and stable rates of HIV infection among Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper examines the reasons for the success of HIV prevention efforts. These include early recognition by Indigenous peoples of the potential effect that HIV could have on their communities; the supply of health hardware (needle and syringe programs and condoms); the development and implementation of culturally-appropriate health promotion messages such as the internationally-recognized Condoman campaign; the inclusion of dedicated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Sexual Health Workers in communities; and an inclusive policy and partnership approach. Furthermore, the efforts of peak Aboriginal health organizations including NACCHO and its member services and Indigenous programs in peak mainstream organizations like AFAO and its member organizations, have all contributed to prevention success. Efforts need to be maintained however to ensure an escalated epidemic does not occur, particularly among heterosexual people, especially women, and people who inject drugs. New ideas are required as we enter a new era of HIV prevention within the context of the new paradigm of treatment as prevention, and getting to zero new infections.

  13. Working at the interface in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: focussing on the individual health professional and their organisation as a means to address health equity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Kelly, Janet; Magarey, Anthea; Jones, Michelle; Mackean, Tamara

    2016-11-17

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience inequity in health outcomes in Australia. Health care interactions are an important starting place to seek to address this inequity. The majority of health professionals in Australia do not identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people and the health care interaction therefore becomes an example of working in an intercultural space (or interface). It is therefore critical to consider how health professionals may maximise the positive impact within the health care interaction by skilfully working at the interface. Thirty-five health professionals working in South Australia were interviewed about their experiences working with Aboriginal people. Recruitment was through purposive sampling. The research was guided by the National Health and Medical Research Council Values and Ethics for undertaking research with Aboriginal communities. Critical social research was used to analyse data. Interviews revealed two main types of factors influencing the experience of non-Aboriginal health professionals working with Aboriginal people at the interface: the organisation and the individual. Within these two factors, a number of sub-factors were found to be important including organisational culture, organisational support, accessibility of health services and responding to expectations of the wider health system (organisation) and personal ideology and awareness of colonisation (individual). A health professional's practice at the interface cannot be considered in isolation from individual and organisational contexts. It is critical to consider how the organisational and individual factors identified in this research will be addressed in health professional training and practice, in order to maximise the ability of health professionals to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and therefore contribute to addressing health equity.

  14. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups:…

  15. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups:…

  16. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of serum 25–hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. Methods 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007–2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45–77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. For participants with 25(OH)D < 50 vs ≥50 nmol/L, cardio-metabolic risk profile differed for: diabetes (54%, 36% p < 0.001), past history of cardiovascular disease (16%, 9%, p = 0.014), waist-hip ratio (0.98, 0.92, p < 0.001), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (2.7, 1.5 mg/mmol, p < 0.001). The OR (95% CI) for diabetes was 2.02 (1.03 – 3.95) for people in the lowest vs highest tertiles of 25(OH)D (<53 vs >72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. Conclusion The percentage of 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L was high among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with

  17. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and

  18. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey.

    PubMed

    Wand, Handan; Ward, James; Bryant, Joanne; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M

    2016-07-19

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16-29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 %) identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males) and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females). At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other similar aged populations in Australia. Illicit drug use was

  19. Transformation of tsunami waves passing through the Straits of the Kuril Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostenko, Irina; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Pacific ocean and themselves Kuril Islands are located in the zone of high seismic activity, where underwater earthquakes cause tsunamis. They propagate across Pacific ocean and penetrates into the Okhotsk sea. It is natural to expect that the Kuril Islands reflect the Okhotsk sea from the Pacific tsunami waves. It has long been noted that the historical tsunami appeared less intense in the sea of Okhotsk in comparison with the Pacific coast of the Kuril Islands. Despite the fact that in the area of the Kuril Islands and in the Pacific ocean earthquakes with magnitude more than 8 occur, in the entire history of observations on the Okhotsk sea coast catastrophic tsunami was not registered. The study of the peculiarities of the propagation of historical and hypothetical tsunami in the North-Eastern part of the Pacific ocean was carried out in order to identify level of effect of the Kuril Islands and Straits on them. Tsunami sources were located in the Okhotsk sea and in the Pacific ocean. For this purpose, we performed a series of computational experiments using two bathymetries: 1) with use Kuril Islands; 2) without Kuril Islands. Magnitude and intensity of the tsunami, obtained during numerical simulation of height, were analyzed. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Numerical experiments have shown that in the simulation without the Kuril Islands tsunamis in the Okhotsk sea have higher waves, and in the Central part of the sea relatively quickly damped than in fact. Based on shallow-water equation tsunami numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.

  20. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  1. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  2. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  3. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  4. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  5. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  6. The Power of Words: Bias and Assumptions in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Melitta

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that genuine engagement and consultation is required where Indigenous voice is prevalent within the policy development process for true progress to be achieved in the educational attainments of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. It is important to note that there has been little critical analysis of policy…

  7. Diversity in eMental Health Practice: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Jennifer; Rotumah, Darlene; Singer, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Background In Australia, mental health services are undergoing major systemic reform with eMental Health (eMH) embedded in proposed service models for all but those with severe mental illness. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers have been targeted as a national priority for training and implementation of eMH into service delivery. Implementation studies on technology uptake in health workforces identify complex and interconnected variables that influence how individual practitioners integrate new technologies into their practice. To date there are only two implementation studies that focus on eMH and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. They suggest that the implementation of eMH in the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations may be different from the implementation of eMH with allied health professionals and mainstream health services. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers in one regional area of Australia used eMH resources in their practice following an eMH training program and to determine what types of eMH resources they used. Methods Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. Interviews were co-conducted by one indigenous and one non-indigenous interviewer. A sample of transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed by each interviewer and then peer reviewed. Consensus codes were then applied to all transcripts and themes identified. Results It was found that 9 of the 16 service providers were implementing eMH resources into their routine practice. The findings demonstrate that participants used eMH resources for supporting social inclusion, informing and educating, assessment, case planning and management, referral, responding to crises, and self and family care. They chose a variety of types of eMH resources to

  8. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-10-13

    Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ

  9. Assessment of circulation and inter-basin transport in the Salish Sea including Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Xu, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    The Salish Sea consisting of Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in U.S and Canadian waters has been the subject of several independent data collection and modeling studies. However, these interconnected basins and their hydrodynamic interactions have not received attention as a contiguous unit. The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the primary pathway through which Pacific Ocean water enters the Salish Sea but the role played by Johnstone Strait and the complex channels northeast of Vancouver Island, connecting the Salish Sea and the Pacific Ocean, on overall Salish Sea circulation has not been characterized. In this paper we present a modeling-based assessment of the two-layer circulation and transport through the multiple interconnected sub-basins within the Salish Sea including the effect of exchange via Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands. The Salish Sea Model previously developed using the finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was expanded over the continental shelf for this assessment encircling Vancouver Island, including Discovery Islands, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Archipelago and the associated waterways. A computational technique was developed to allow summation of volume fluxes across arbitrary transects through unstructured finite volume cells. Tidally averaged volume fluxes were computed at multiple transects. The results were used to validate the classic model of Circulation in Embracing Sills for Puget Sound and to provide quantitative estimates of the lateral distribution of tidally averaged transport through the system. Sensitivity tests with and without exchanges through Johnstone Strait demonstrate that it is a pathway for Georgia Basin runoff and Fraser River water to exit the Salish Sea and for Pacific Ocean inflow. However the relative impact of this exchange on circulation and flushing in Puget Sound Basin is small.

  10. Assessment of circulation and inter-basin transport in the Salish Sea including Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Xu, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    The Salish Sea consisting of Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in U.S and Canadian waters has been the subject of several independent data collection and modeling studies. However, these interconnected basins and their hydrodynamic interactions have not received attention as a contiguous unit. The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the primary pathway through which Pacific Ocean water enters the Salish Sea but the role played by Johnstone Strait and the complex channels northeast of Vancouver Island, connecting the Salish Sea and the Pacific Ocean, on overall Salish Sea circulation has not been characterized. In this paper we present a modeling-based assessment of the two-layer circulation and transport through the multiple interconnected sub-basins within the Salish Sea including the effect of exchange via Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands. The Salish Sea Model previously developed using the finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was expanded over the continental shelf for this assessment encircling Vancouver Island, including Discovery Islands, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Archipelago and the associated waterways. A computational technique was developed to allow summation of volume fluxes across arbitrary transects through unstructured finite volume cells. Tidally averaged volume fluxes were computed at multiple transects. The results were used to validate the classic model of Circulation in Embracing Sills for Puget Sound and to provide quantitative estimates of the lateral distribution of tidally averaged transport through the system. Sensitivity tests with and without exchanges through Johnstone Strait demonstrate that it is a pathway for Georgia Basin runoff and Fraser River water to exit the Salish Sea and for Pacific Ocean inflow. However the relative impact of this exchange on circulation and flushing in Puget Sound Basin is small.

  11. Climate signals in Late Holocene sediments from Maxwell Bay and English Strait (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Schröder, Simon; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Climate fluctuations of the past two millennia such as the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period are reported mainly from the Northern Hemisphere. Evidence from Antarctica is comparably sparse and reveals regional and temporal differences, which are particularly evident at the western and eastern sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. High-resolution coastal-marine sediment cores from the northernmost tip of the West Antarctic Peninsula reveal periods dominated by finer sediments between periods that lack the finer sediment component. In Maxwell Bay this fine sediment (grain size mode around 16 µm) has been traced back to sediment related to the occurrence of glacial meltwater. It was found in sheltered places and meltwater creeks of Potter Cove, a small tributary fjord to Maxwell Bay. In the sediment core this sediment occurs predominantly between 600 and 1250 AD (Medieval Warm Period) whereas it is only sparsely affecting the record between 1450 and 1900 AD (Little Ice Age). The temporal pattern is very similar to global-temperature reconstructions and even resembles temperature reconstructions from the Northern Hemisphere. To avoid local effects that may occur in Maxwell Bay more sediment cores were taken from bays and straits further south of King George Island during Cruise PS97 of RV "Polarstern" in 2016. A core from English Strait reveals completely different sedimentary conditions with no detectable meltwater signal (16 µm). However, the mean grain size record resembles that of the cores from Maxwell Bay. The lack of a clear-cut meltwater sediment class as it occurs further north is likely the result of a much smaller hinterland (Greenwich and Robert islands) when compared to Maxwell Bay between Nelson Island and the much bigger King George Island where glaciers and ice sheets discharge large quantities of very turbid meltwater directly into the bay. It is concluded that during the warmer climate periods a large amount of meltwater was released along the

  12. Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Gregory; Ironfield, Natalie; Kelly, Claire M; Dart, Katrina; Arabena, Kerry; Bond, Kathy; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-08-22

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions. The Delphi consensus method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to be included in the guidelines. These statements describe helping actions that Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous frontline workers can take, and information they should have, to help someone who is engaging in NSSI. The statements were sourced from systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, books, websites and online materials, and existing NSSI courses. A panel was formed, comprising 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with expertise in NSSI. The panellists were presented with the helping statements via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest re-wording of statements and any additional helping statements that were not included in the original questionnaire. Statements were only accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥90% of panellists as essential or important. From a total of 185 statements shown to the expert panel, 115 were endorsed as helping statements to be included in the re-developed guidelines. A panel of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with expertise in NSSI were able to reach consensus on appropriate strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engaging in NSSI. The re-development of the guidelines has resulted in more comprehensive guidance than the earlier

  13. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  14. Using cultural immersion as the platform for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Janie D; Wolfe, Christina; Springer, Shannon; Martin, Mary; Togno, John; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Sargeant, Sally; Murphy, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Bond University was looking for innovative ways to meet the professional standards and guidelines in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in its Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) curriculum. In 2012 Bond piloted a compulsory cultural immersion program for all first year students, which is now a usual part of the MBBS program. Three phases were included - establishing an Indigenous health group, determining the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational content based on the professional standards and developing nine educational sessions and resources - as well as significant administrative processes. The cultural immersion was piloted in 2012 with 92 first year medical students. Following refinements it was repeated in 2013 with 95 students and in 2014 with 94 students. A comprehensive evaluation process was undertaken that included a paper-based evaluation form using a five-point Likert scale, as well as a confidential talking circle evaluation. The response rate was 95.4% (n=271, pooled cohort). Data were entered separately into SPSS and annual reports were written to the Faculty. Descriptive statistics are reported alongside themed qualitative data. The three combined student evaluation results were extremely positive. Students (n=271) strongly agreed that the workshop was well organised (M=4.3), that the facilitators contributed very positively to their experience (M=4.3), and that they were very satisfied overall with the activity (M=4.2). They agreed that the eight overall objectives had been well met (M=3.9-4.3). The nine sessions were highly evaluated with mean ratings of between 3.9 and 4.8. The 'best thing' about the immersion identified by more than half of the students was overwhelmingly (n=140) the Storytelling session, followed by bonding with the cohort, the Torres Strait Islander session and learning more about culture. The item identified as needing most improvement was the food (n=87), followed by the

  15. Developing the rural health workforce to improve Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, Kylie; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-05-23

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify evidence-based strategies in the literature for developing and maintaining a skilled and qualified rural and remote health workforce in Australia to better meet the health care needs of Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Aboriginal) people.Methods A systematic search strategy was implemented using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and checklist. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied, and 26 papers were included in the study. These 26 papers were critically evaluated and analysed for common findings about the rural health workforce providing services for Aboriginal people.Results There were four key findings of the study: (1) the experience of Aboriginal people in the health workforce affects their engagement with education, training and employment; (2) particular factors affect the effectiveness and longevity of the non-Aboriginal workforce working in Aboriginal health; (3) attitudes and behaviours of the workforce have a direct effect on service delivery design and models in Aboriginal health; and (4) student placements affect the likelihood of applying for rural and remote health jobs in Aboriginal communities after graduation. Each finding has associated evidence-based strategies including those to promote the engagement and retention of Aboriginal staff; training and support for non-Aboriginal health workers; effective service design; and support strategies for effective student placement.Conclusions Strategies are evidenced in the peer-reviewed literature to improve the rural and remote workforce for health delivery for Australian Aboriginal people and should be considered by policy makers, funders and program managers.What is known about the topic? There is a significant amount of peer-reviewed literature about the recruitment and retention of the rural and remote health workforce.What does this paper add? There is

  16. Continuous quality improvement and metabolic screening during pregnancy at primary health centres attended by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.

    PubMed

    Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J; Rumbold, Alice R; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Bailie, Ross S; Boyle, Jacqueline A

    2015-11-02

    To investigate associations between the provision of routine metabolic screening and follow-up in pregnancy and participation by primary health care centres in a large-scale continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiative. Longitudinal analysis of 2592 audited maternal health records. Seventy-six community-controlled or government-operated primary health care centres serving predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, in urban, regional or remote locations in five Australian states and territories. Up to four CQI cycles supported by the Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease Research Partnership. Screening and follow-up for body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and diabetes in pregnancy. Overall, 87.9% of women attending the participating health centres were Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. Women attending a health centre after it had conducted one or more CQI cycles were more likely to receive BMI, blood pressure and diabetes screening. For example, the proportion of women receiving diabetes screening at baseline (before the first CQI cycle) was 56.1%; after cycle 1 it was 63.7% (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6), after cycle 2, 61.6% (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.7), after cycle 3, 63.7% (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), and after cycle 4, 75.5% (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.9-5.9). Diabetes screening was associated with higher self-ratings of overall organisational systems (P = 0.03), self-management support (P = 0.04) and organisational influence and integration (P = 0.01). These findings support the value of CQI approaches that focus on systems-level issues in primary care to improve the provision of recommended pregnancy care at primary health care centres in predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

  17. Health research policy: a case study of policy change in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research.

    PubMed

    de la Barra, Sophia Leon; Redman, Sally; Eades, Sandra

    2009-02-26

    There is considerable potential for health research to contribute to improved health services, programs, and outcomes; the policies of health research funding agencies are critical to achieving health gains from research. The need for research to better address health disparities in Indigenous people has been widely recognised. This paper: (i) describes the policy changes made by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) from 1997 to 2002 to improve funding of Aboriginal health research (ii) examines catalysts for the policy changes (iii) describes the extent to which policy changes were followed by new models of research and (iv) outlines issues for Indigenous health policy in the future. This study had two parts: (i) semi-structured interviews were conducted over a four -month period with seven individuals who played a leading role in the policy changes at NHMRC during the period 1997-2002, to describe policy changes and to examine the catalysts for the changes; (ii) a case study was undertaken to evaluate projects by recipients of NHMRC People Support awards and NHMRC Capacity Building Grants in Population Health Research to examine the types of research being undertaken five years after the policy changes were implemented. The proposals of these researchers were assessed in terms of whether they reported intending to: evaluate interventions; engage Indigenous community members and organisations; and build research capacity among Indigenous people. Seven policy changes over a period of five years were identified, including those to: establish an ethical approach to working with Indigenous people; increase the influence of Indigenous people within NHMRC; encourage priority research directed at improving Indigenous health; and recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research as a priority area including a commitment to an expenditure target of 5% of annual funds. Seven catalysts for this change were identified. These included: a

  18. Exploring potential dietary contributions including traditional seafood and other determinants of urinary cadmium levels among indigenous women of a Torres Strait Island (Australia).

    PubMed

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; McGrath, Victor; Moore, Michael; Satarug, Soisungwan; Walmby, Maria; Ng, Jack

    2007-05-01

    Indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands have been concerned about the safety of their traditional seafoods since the discovery of high cadmium levels in the liver and kidney of dugong and turtle in 1996. This study explored links between urinary cadmium levels and consumption frequency of these traditional foods and piloted a community-based methodology to identify potential determinants of cadmium exposure and accumulation. Consultations led to selection of one community for study from which 60 women aged 30 to 50 years participated in health and food frequency survey, urine collection and a routine health check. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry; data were analysed using SPSS-14. The geometric mean cadmium level in this group of women was 1.17 (arithmetic mean 1.86) microg/g creatinine with one-third exceeding 2.0 microg/g creatinine. Heavy smoking (>or=300 pack years) was linked to higher cadmium in urine, as was increasing age and waist circumference. Analysis of age-adjusted residuals revealed significant associations (P<0.05) between cadmium level and higher consumption of turtle liver and kidney, locally gathered clams, peanuts, coconut, chocolate and potato chips. Dugong kidney consumption approached significance (P=0.06). Multiple regression revealed that 40% (adjusted r(2)) of variation in cadmium level was explained by the sum of these associated foods plus heavy smoking, age and waist circumference. No relationships between cadmium and pregnancy history were found. This paper presents a novel approach to explore contributions of foods and other factors to exposure to toxins at community level and the first direct evidence that frequent turtle (and possibly dugong) liver and kidney and wild clam consumption is linked to higher urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islander women.

  19. Identification of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Patients in the Primary Health Care Setting.

    PubMed

    de Witt, Audra; Cunningham, Frances C; Bailie, Ross; Bernardes, Christina M; Matthews, Veronica; Arley, Brian; Meiklejohn, Judith A; Garvey, Gail; Adams, Jon; Martin, Jennifer H; Walpole, Euan T; Williamson, Daniel; Valery, Patricia C

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes and experience 30% higher mortality rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Primary health care (PHC) services are increasingly being recognized as pivotal in improving Indigenous cancer patient outcomes. It is currently unknown whether patient information systems and practices in PHC settings accurately record Indigenous and cancer status. Being able to identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing services in PHC settings is the first step in improving outcomes. Aboriginal Medical Centres, mainstream (non-Indigenous specific), and government-operated centers in Queensland were contacted and data were collected by telephone during the period from 2014 to 2016. Participants were asked to (i) identify the number of patients diagnosed with cancer attending the service in the previous year; (ii) identify the Indigenous status of these patients and if this information was available; and (iii) advise how this information was obtained. Ten primary health care centers (PHCCs) across Queensland participated in this study. Four centers were located in regional areas, three in remote areas and three in major cities. All participating centers reported ability to identify Indigenous cancer patients attending their service and utilizing electronic Patient Care Information Systems (PCIS) to manage their records; however, not all centers were able to identify Indigenous cancer patients in this way. Indigenous cancer patients were identified by PHCCs using PCIS (n = 8), searching paper records (n = 1), and combination of PCIS and staff recall (n = 1). Six different types of PCIS were being utilized by participating centers. There was no standardized way to identify Indigenous cancer patients across centers. Health service information systems, search functions and capacities of systems, and staff skill in extracting data using PCIS varied between centers. It is crucial to be able to

  20. Best Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education. Proceedings of the Conference (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, November 17-18, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.

    Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu…

  1. Epistemological Considerations for Approaching Teaching in an On-Line Environment Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Teacher Education Program: Reconsidering TPACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Knight, Cecily; Lenoy, Max

    2015-01-01

    This research inquiry explores teacher educator knowledge, understandings and beliefs informing their teaching in a web-based Australian teacher education program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Through the use of a phenomenologically aligned interview process, the study investigates instructors' consideration of practice for…

  2. What's in a Name?: Exploring the Implications of Eurocentric (Re)naming Practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nomenclature in Australian Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weuffen, Sara; Cahir, Fred; Zeegers, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide teachers with knowledge of ways in which Eurocentric (re)naming practices inform contemporary pedagogical approaches, while providing understandings pertinent to the mandatory inclusion of the cross-curriculum priority area: "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures" (Australian…

  3. What's in a Name?: Exploring the Implications of Eurocentric (Re)naming Practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nomenclature in Australian Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weuffen, Sara; Cahir, Fred; Zeegers, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide teachers with knowledge of ways in which Eurocentric (re)naming practices inform contemporary pedagogical approaches, while providing understandings pertinent to the mandatory inclusion of the cross-curriculum priority area: "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures" (Australian…

  4. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. 334.1200 Section 334.1200 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1200 Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly...

  5. Development and feasibility testing of an education program to improve knowledge and self-care among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robyn A; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Buitendyk, Natahlia J; Adams, Michael J; Howie-Esquivel, Jill; Dracup, Kathleen A; Berry, Narelle M; Atherton, John; Johnson, Stella

    2015-01-01

    There is a 70% higher age-adjusted incidence of heart failure (HF) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, three times more hospitalisations and twice as many deaths as among non-Aboriginal people. There is a need to develop holistic yet individualised approaches in accord with the values of Aboriginal community health care to support patient education and self-care. The aim of this study was to re-design an existing HF educational resource (Fluid Watchers-Pacific Rim) to be culturally safe for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, working in collaboration with the local community, and to conduct feasibility testing. This study was conducted in two phases and utilised a mixed-methods approach (qualitative and quantitative). Phase 1 used action research methods to develop a culturally safe electronic resource to be provided to Aboriginal HF patients via a tablet computer. An HF expert panel adapted the existing resource to ensure it was evidence-based and contained appropriate language and images that reflects Aboriginal culture. A stakeholder group (which included Aboriginal workers and HF patients, as well as researchers and clinicians) then reviewed the resources, and changes were made accordingly. In Phase 2, the new resource was tested on a sample of Aboriginal HF patients to assess feasibility and acceptability. Patient knowledge, satisfaction and self-care behaviours were measured using a before and after design with validated questionnaires. As this was a pilot test to determine feasibility, no statistical comparisons were made. Phase 1: Throughout the process of resource development, two main themes emerged from the stakeholder consultation. These were the importance of identity, meaning that it was important to ensure that the resource accurately reflected the local community, with the appropriate clothing, skin tone and voice. The resource was adapted to reflect this, and members of the local community voiced the recordings for the

  6. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  7. Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS) protocol: a cohort study investigating the significance of minor echocardiographic abnormalities in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Australia, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is almost exclusively restricted to Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people with children being at highest risk. International criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD have been developed but the significance of minor heart valve abnormalities which do not reach these criteria remains unclear. The Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS) aims to clarify this question in children and adolescents at high risk of RHD. Methods/design RhFFUS is a cohort study of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and adolescents aged 8–17 years residing in 32 remote Australian communities. Cases are people with non-specific heart valve abnormalities detected on prior screening echocardiography. Controls (two per case) are age, gender, community and ethnicity-matched to cases and had a prior normal screening echocardiogram. Participants will have echocardiography about 3 years after initial screening echocardiogram and enhanced surveillance for any history suggestive of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). It will then be determined if cases are at higher risk of (1) ARF or (2) developing progressive echocardiography-detected valve changes consistent with RHD. The occurrence and timing of episodes of ARF will be assessed retrospectively for 5 years from the time of the RhFFUS echocardiogram. Episodes of ARF will be identified through regional surveillance and notification databases, carer/subject interviews, primary healthcare history reviews, and hospital separation diagnoses. Progression of valvular abnormalities will be assessed prospectively using transthoracic echocardiography and standardized operating and reporting procedures. Progression of valve lesions will be determined by specialist cardiologist readers who will assess the initial screening and subsequent RhFFUS screening echocardiogram for each participant. The readers will be blinded to the initial assessment and temporal order of the two

  8. Urinary excretion of cadmium among Torres Strait Islanders (Australia) at risk of elevated dietary exposure through traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Imray, Paula; Satarug, Soisungwan; Moore, Michael R; O'dea, Kerin

    2007-07-01

    This study explored urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islanders in response to concerns about potential health impact of high levels of cadmium in some traditional seafood (dugong and turtle liver and kidney). Cadmium levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry in de-identified urine samples collected during general screening programs in 1996 in two communities with varying dugong and turtle catch statistics. Statistical analysis was performed to identify links between cadmium levels and demographic and background health information. Geometric mean cadmium level among the sample group was 0.83 mug/g creatinine with 12% containing over 2 microg/g creatinine. Cadmium level was most strongly associated with age (46% of variation), followed by sex (females >males, 7%) and current smoking status (smokers >non-smokers, 4.7%). Adjusting model conditions suggested further positive associations between cadmium level and diabetes (p=0.05) and residence in the predicted higher exposure community (p=0.07). Positive correlations between cadmium and body fat in bivariate analysis were eliminated by control for age and sex. This study found only suggestive differences in cadmium levels between two communities with predicted variation in exposure from traditional foods. However, the data indicate that factors linked with higher cadmium accumulation overlap with those of renal disease risk (i.e. older, females, smokers, diabetes) and suggest that levels may be sufficient to contribute to renal pathology. More direct assessment of exposure and health risks of cadmium to Torres Strait Islanders is needed given the disproportionate level of diet-related disease and the cultural importance of dugong and turtle. This study highlights the need to consider social and cultural variation in exposure and to define "safe" cadmium levels during diabetes given its rising global prevalence.

  9. Recall of anti-tobacco advertising and information, warning labels and news stories in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Sarin, Jasmine; Wallace, Sharon; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe recall of anti-tobacco advertising (mainstream and targeted), pack warning labels, and news stories among a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers, and to assess the association of these messages with attitudes that support quitting, including wanting to quit. A quota sampling design was used to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1643 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers from April 2012 to October 2013. Frequency of recall of advertising and information, warning labels and news stories; recall of targeted and local advertising; attitudes about smoking and wanting to quit. More smokers recalled often noticing warning labels in the past month (65%) than recalled advertising and information (45%) or news stories (24%) in the past 6 months. When prompted, most (82%) recalled seeing a television advertisement. Just under half (48%) recalled advertising that featured an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person or artwork (targeted advertising), and 16% recalled targeted advertising from their community (local advertising). Frequent recall of warning labels, news stories and advertising was associated with worry about health and wanting to quit, but only frequent advertising recall was associated with believing that society disapproves of smoking. The magnitude of association with relevant attitudes and wanting to quit increased for targeted and local advertising. Strategies to tackle Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking should sustain high levels of exposure to anti-tobacco advertising, news stories and warning labels. More targeted and local information may be particularly effective to influence relevant beliefs and subsequently increase quitting.

  10. Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kathleen; Ward, Paul; Grace, Blair S; Gleadle, Jonathan

    2017-10-11

    Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492) using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The data were then correlated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas for an examination of socioeconomic disparities. There is a social gradient in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia with disease incidence decreasing incrementally with increasing affluence (Spearman's rho = .765 p < 0.001). There is a higher risk of developing end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes for males with low socioeconomic status (RR 1.20; CI 1.002-1.459) in comparison to females with low socioeconomic status. In Australia and New Zealand Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Maori and Pacific Islanders appear to have a low risk of end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes but continue to carry a vastly disproportionate burden of end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes (RR 6.57 CI 6.04-7.14 & 6.48 CI 6.02-6.97 respectively p < 0.001) in comparison to other Australian and New Zealanders. Whilst low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes the inverse social gradient seen in this study has not previously been reported. The social disparity seen in relation to treated end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  11. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  12. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  13. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008-09: analysis of national survey data.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Joan; Paradies, Yin C

    2013-07-01

    There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008-09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35-44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public, legal and work settings identified as

  14. Kane Basin, Nares-Strait: Strike-slip induced sediment deformation along the coastline of Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Nares-Strait (NS), a seaway between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, is important to understand the plate tectonic history of the Arctic region. As it is clear that rifting and seafloor spreading took place between Greenland and Baffin Island, it is unclear how the extension was compensated between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Already Alfred Wegener suggested some kind of left lateral transform fault along the NS, a straight seaway separating the Greenland Plate from the North American Plate, nowadays proposed as the Wegener-Fault. Plate tectonic reconstruction models require a transform fault for the compensation of several hundred km of extension and seafloor spreading from Late Cretaceous to Eocene times. However, land geological data do not support this thesis and let assume that no lateral displacement occurred between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. With the formation of the recent Midatlantic Ridge System between Greenland and Europe since the early Eocene, the western branch became inactive and consequently the proposed transform fault, too. Northeast motion of Greenland replaced the left lateral transform and caused compression. The inactive transform fault was overprinted and as a consequence it was altered, probably displaced and is difficult to recognize. The Kane Basin is one of a series of basins that are aligned along the NS. It resembles probably a pull-apart basin following the approach that NS developed as transform fault. This paper presents insight into the Kane Basin by means of 2D seismic data, sonobuoy data, gravity and magnetic data acquired during surveys of BGR in 2001 and 2010. The eastern Kane Basin is characterized by a deeper rim and a more shallow central part. Most of it is floored by Proterozoic crust without any sediment on top of it. Only in the western part of the Kane Basin a sedimentary infill can be recorded which terminates with an erosional truncation on to the seafloor. Because of the mapped sediment and

  15. New and newly recorded micro-caddisfly species (Insecta: Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from Australia's north, including islands of Torres Strait.

    PubMed

    Wells, Alice; Dostine, Peter

    2016-06-24

    From the north of Australia's Northern Territory, far northeastern Queensland and Torres Strait Islands, six new species of microcaddisfly are described: Hydroptila roperi sp. nov., Hellyethira khukri sp. nov., Oxyethira (Trichoglene) bamaga sp. nov., Oxyethira (Dampfitrichia) torresiana sp. nov., Orthotrichia pethericki sp. nov., and Orthotrichia becca sp. nov. Oxyethira torresiana is recorded from the northwest of York Peninsula and Badu Island in the Torres Strait as well as from Papua New Guinea. Northern Australian records are given for Orthotrichia veikaba Wells and Orthotrichia ensiformis Wells, previously known only from Papua New Guinea. Northern Australian distributions are extended eastwards for  Tricholeiochiton jabirella Wells and westwards for Oxyethira (Trichoglene) triangulata Wells, until now recorded only from the Northern Territory and northeastern Australia, respectively. Brief notes are given on collecting methods and sites.

  16. ‘Choice, culture and confidence’: key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

  17. Strait of Hormuz

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-07-04

    Portions of Oman, The United Arab Emirates and Iran are seen at the Strait of Hormuz (26.0N, 56.0E) in this view. A number of ship wakes can be seen in the area of the strait. Sunglint in the Persian Gulf to the northwest, accentuates the complex currents and oil slicks, seen as dark toned blue streaks on the surface. Qeshm Island, just off the coast of Iran, can be seen on the edge of the photo.

  18. An education intervention for childhood asthma by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Masters, Ian B; Taylor, Brett; Laifoo, Yancy; O'Rourke, Peter K; Chang, Anne B

    2010-05-17

    To assess the outcomes of an education intervention for childhood asthma conducted by Australian Indigenous health care workers (IHCWs). Randomised controlled trial in a primary health care setting on Thursday Island and Horn Island, and in Bamaga, Torres Strait region of northern Australia, April 2005 to March 2007. 88 children, aged 1-17 years, with asthma diagnosed by a respiratory physician (intervention group, 35; control group, 53; 98% Indigenous children). Children were randomly allocated to: (i) three additional asthma education sessions with a trained IHCW, or (ii) no additional asthma education. Both groups were re-assessed at 12 months. Primary endpoint: number of unscheduled visits to hospital or a doctor caused by asthma exacerbation. measures of quality of life (QoL) and functional severity index; asthma knowledge and understanding of asthma action plans (AAPs); and school days missed because of wheezing. The groups were comparable at baseline (except for asthma severity, which was adjusted for in the analysis). There were no significant differences in the primary outcome (number of unscheduled medical visits for asthma). School children in the intervention group missed fewer school days because of wheezing (100% < 7 days v 21% of those in the control group missed 7-14 days). Significantly more carers in the intervention group could answer questions about asthma medication, knew where their AAP was kept (84% v 56%), and were able to describe the plan (67% v 40%). In both the intervention and control groups (before-and-after comparison), there was a significantly reduced frequency of asthma exacerbations, as well as an improved QoL score and functional severity index, with no significant differences between the groups. A community-based asthma education program conducted by trained IHCWs improves some important asthma outcomes in Indigenous children with asthma. Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012605000718640.

  19. Monitoring seabird populations in areas of oil and gas development on the Alaskan continental shelf: Foraging distribution and feeding ecology of seabirds at the Diomede Islands, bering strait. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.F.; Pinchuk, A.; Kitsiskiy, A.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    The distribution of zooplankton and seabirds in relation to oceanography in Bering Strait was investigated July 1-8, 1991. Seabirds were counted at the sea surface on 302 standardized shipboard transects. Zooplankton densities in various depth strata were measured acoustically during 287 seabird transects. Species composition was determined from 65 net-tows at 18 stations. Sea surface salinity and temperature were recorded continuously on transects, and CTD profiles of the water column were obtained at 70 stations. Millions of seabirds, mostly planktivorous Aethial auklets, breed on the Diomede islands in the center of Bering Strait. Three distinct water masses flow north through Bering Strait. East of the Diomedes is the Alaska Coastal Water. Least Auklets and ocean copepods were abundant in stratified Shelf Water and near upwelled Anadyr Water in western Bering Strait. It was concluded that physical processes in Bering Strait determine zooplankton availability to planktivores.

  20. Atmospheric and Oceanic Processes in the Vicinity of an Island Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    the uniquely wind-driven origin of the Philippine dipole eddies. By contrast, in other volcanic island regions of the world (including the Hawaiian...Aristegui, and F. Herrera. 2000. Lee region of Gran Canaria . Journal of Geophysical Research 105(C7):17,173–17,193. Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H...Gran Canaria ). Geophysical Research Letters 36, L14605, doi:10.1029/2008GL037010. Pullen, J., J.D. Doyle, P. May, C. Chavanne, P. Flament, and R.A

  1. A network approach to policy framing: A case study of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jennifer; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Gleeson, Deborah; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal health policy in Australia represents a unique policy subsystem comprising a diverse network of Aboriginal-specific and "mainstream" organisations, often with competing interests. This paper describes the network structure of organisations attempting to influence national Aboriginal health policy and examines how the different subgroups within the network approached the policy discourse. Public submissions made as part of a policy development process for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan were analysed using a novel combination of network analysis and qualitative framing analysis. Other organisational actors in the network in each submission were identified, and relationships between them determined; these were used to generate a network map depicting the ties between actors. A qualitative framing analysis was undertaken, using inductive coding of the policy discourses in the submissions. The frames were overlaid with the network map to identify the relationship between the structure of the network and the way in which organisations framed Aboriginal health problems. Aboriginal organisations were central to the network and strongly connected with each other. The network consisted of several densely connected subgroups, whose central nodes were closely connected to one another. Each subgroup deployed a particular policy frame, with a frame of "system dysfunction" also adopted by all but one subgroup. Analysis of submissions revealed that many of the stakeholders in Aboriginal health policy actors are connected to one another. These connections help to drive the policy discourse. The combination of network and framing analysis illuminates competing interests within a network, and can assist advocacy organisations to identify which network members are most influential.

  2. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008–09: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Methods Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008–09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. Results More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35–44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. Conclusions These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public

  3. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Plankton in Connected Waters of Bali Strait, Between Eastern Part of Java and Western Part of Bali Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, NTM; Wulandari, DY; Ayu, IP; Iswantari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Bali Strait waters located between Java and Bali Island contain high productivity, which indicated by the high diversity of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The purpose of the research was to understand the local (α), intra-space (β), and regional or total (Υ) diversity values (that expressed as richness) of plankton taken from surface and thermocline layers. The surface observation was carried out at three locations, two locations, with 5 stations of each, nearshore (Banyuwangi/Jawa Island and Southern part of Bali Island) and one location, with 9 stations, offshore (Bali Strait). The thermocline was observed offshore at all 9 stations as the surface. The diversity of each stations (α) were 11-20 for phytoplankton and 7-12 for zooplankton at the surface, then 9-11 and 7-13, respectively at the thermocline. The total diversity (Υ) of phytoplankton was 27 and 13 of zooplankton. Based on the β values, the plankton of nearshore were also found at offshore locations. Furthermore, some species of plankton at the surface were not found in thermocline layer. As a whole, phytoplankton and zooplankton were well distributed at the surface, but showed as specific distribution at thermocline layer, especially for phytoplankton.

  4. Cross-sector collaborations in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander childhood disability: a systematic integrative review and theory-based synthesis.

    PubMed

    Green, Anna; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Luckett, Tim; Abbott, Penelope; Davidson, Patricia Mary; Delaney, Joanne; Delaney, Patricia

    2014-12-18

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia experience a higher prevalence of disability and socio-economic disadvantage than other Australian children. Early intervention is vital for improved health outcomes, but complex and fragmented service provision impedes access. There have been international and national policy shifts towards inter-sector collaborative responses to disability, but more needs to be known about how collaboration works in practice. A systematic integrative literature review using a narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature was undertaken to describe components of inter- and intra-sector collaborations among services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children with a disability and their families. The findings were synthesized using the conceptual model of the ecological framework. Thirteen articles published in a peer-reviewed journal and 18 articles from the grey literature met inclusion criteria. Important factors in inter- and intra-sector collaborations identified included: structure of government departments and agencies, and policies at the macro- (government) system level; communication, financial and human resources, and service delivery setting at the exo- (organizational) system level; and relationships and inter- and intra-professional learning at the meso- (provider) system level. The policy shift towards inter-sector collaborative approaches represents an opportunity for the health, education and social service sectors and their providers to work collaboratively in innovative ways to improve service access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children with a disability and their families. The findings of this review depict a national snapshot of collaboration, but as each community is unique, further research into collaboration within local contexts is required to ensure collaborative solutions to improve service access are responsive to local needs and sustainable.

  5. Study protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a 12-week physical activity and nutritional education program for overweight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have a higher prevalence and incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than non-Indigenous Australian women. Physical inactivity is a key modifiable risk factor for obesity and evidence shows that even modest reductions in waist circumference (WC) have significant health benefits. Trialing physical activity programs in difficult-to-reach high risk groups, especially urban Indigenous Australians poses distinct implementation challenges. Methods/Design The trial objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured 12-week physical activity group program with nutritional advice. The design is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. This study protocol describes the implementation and evaluation of the program. Participants are randomised into either an intervention or waitlisted group. The waitlisted group have a 12 month waiting period before commencing the 12-week program. Participant data is collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, aged 18-64 years with a waist circumference greater than 80 centimetres residing in Adelaide. The primary outcome measure is WC change immediately post program from baseline. Secondary outcomes include short term and long term changes in WC, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (calculated HOMA), haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP). Behavioural and psychosocial surveys are administered to assess physical activity, dietary intake and the participant's motivation, self-efficacy and perceived social support for physical activity. Qualitative interviews focusing on participants' motivation, enablers and barriers to healthy eating and physical activity will be undertaken. Implementation fidelity and participation are also assessed. Discussion The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women's Fitness Program (WFP) is designed to provide a rigorous

  6. Study protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a 12-week physical activity and nutritional education program for overweight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.

    PubMed

    Canuto, Karla J; McDermott, Robyn A; Cargo, Margaret; Esterman, Adrian J

    2011-08-19

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have a higher prevalence and incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than non-Indigenous Australian women. Physical inactivity is a key modifiable risk factor for obesity and evidence shows that even modest reductions in waist circumference (WC) have significant health benefits. Trialing physical activity programs in difficult-to-reach high risk groups, especially urban Indigenous Australians poses distinct implementation challenges. The trial objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured 12-week physical activity group program with nutritional advice. The design is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. This study protocol describes the implementation and evaluation of the program. Participants are randomised into either an intervention or waitlisted group. The waitlisted group have a 12 month waiting period before commencing the 12-week program. Participant data is collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, aged 18-64 years with a waist circumference greater than 80 centimetres residing in Adelaide. The primary outcome measure is WC change immediately post program from baseline. Secondary outcomes include short term and long term changes in WC, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (calculated HOMA), haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP). Behavioural and psychosocial surveys are administered to assess physical activity, dietary intake and the participant's motivation, self-efficacy and perceived social support for physical activity. Qualitative interviews focusing on participants' motivation, enablers and barriers to healthy eating and physical activity will be undertaken. Implementation fidelity and participation are also assessed. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women's Fitness Program (WFP) is designed to provide a rigorous physiological and client

  7. Ellis Island and the Peopling of America: The Official Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia; Lightman, Marjorie

    This guide book helps to place the Ellis Island Museum (New York) and site within the context of the worldwide, continuing history of immigration. The guide views immigration as a continuing social process that brings people from one part of the world to another where they contribute the richness of their labor to their newly adopted home. Ethnic…

  8. Ellis Island and the Peopling of America: The Official Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia; Lightman, Marjorie

    This guide book helps to place the Ellis Island Museum (New York) and site within the context of the worldwide, continuing history of immigration. The guide views immigration as a continuing social process that brings people from one part of the world to another where they contribute the richness of their labor to their newly adopted home. Ethnic…

  9. Hydrographic control of the marine ecosystem in the South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Valerie; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Holm-Hansen, Osmund

    2010-04-01

    The South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region of the West Antarctic Peninsula is an important spawning and nursery ground of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and is an important source of krill to the Southern Ocean. Krill reproductive and recruitment success, hence supply of krill to predator populations locally and in downstream areas, are extremely variable on interannual and longer time scales. Interannual ecosystem variability in this region has long been recognized and thought related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but understanding of how has been limited by the hydrographic complexity of the region and lack of appropriate ocean-atmosphere interaction models. This study utilizes multidisciplinary data sets collected in the region from 1990 to 2004 by the U.S. Antarctic Living Marine Resources (AMLR) Program. We focus on hydrographic conditions associated with changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of salp- and copepod-dominated zooplankton assemblages during 1998 and 1999, years characterized respectively by a strong El Niño event and La Niña conditions. We provide detailed analyses of hydrographic, biological and ecological conditions during these dichotomous years in order to identify previously elusive oceanographic processes underlying ecosystem variability. We found that fluctuations between salp-dominated coastal zooplankton assemblages and copepod-dominated oceanic zooplankton assemblages result from the relative influence of Weddell Sea and oceanic waters and that these fluctuations are associated with latitudinal movement of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (sACCf). Latitudinal movements of the sACCf can be explained by meridional atmosphere teleconnections instigated in the western tropical Pacific Ocean by ENSO variability and are consistent with out-of-phase forcing in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans by the Antarctic Dipole high-latitude climate mode. During El

  10. Changes in exposure to ‘life stressors’ in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Negative Life Events Scale (NLES) has been included in nationally representative surveys of the Indigenous and Australian population since 2002 as a measure of exposure to a range of ‘life stressors’. There has been limited reporting or analysis of estimates of the NLES from these surveys. This paper reports changes in exposure to stressors from 2002 to 2008 for the Indigenous population, and examines inter-relationships between eleven NLES items. Data for the 2006 Australian population is also included for comparative purposes. Methods Data from the 2002 and 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Surveys (NATSISS) and the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) were accessed from the Australia Bureau of Statistics in order to determine significant changes in exposure to stressors for the 2002 and 2008 Indigenous population by remoteness and to compare this with the 2006 Australian population. Factor analysis was used to assess the inter-relationships between stressors for the Indigenous and Australian population by remoteness. Results In remote locations, between 2002 and 2008, exposure to life stressors decreased significantly for the Indigenous population across seven of the eleven stressors. In non-remote locations, exposure to four of the stressors increased significantly. Exposure to stressors in the 2002 and 2008 non-remote Indigenous population were significantly higher than those for the 2006 Australian population for all items, except ‘alcohol and/or drug problems’ and ‘trouble with the police’, which showed no evidence of a difference. The factor analysis of the NLES for the 2002 and 2008 remote and non-remote Indigenous populations and the 2006 Australian population showed a consistent clustering of items into three groups: social transgressions; grief and trauma; and labour market stressors. Conclusions The reduction in exposure to life stressors for the remote Indigenous population may be related to policy and

  11. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.

    PubMed

    Kildea, Sue; Stapleton, Helen; Murphy, Rebecca; Low, Natalie Billy; Gibbons, Kristen

    2012-12-21

    Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri) antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367) with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414) provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy) rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary services, and working in partnership with community

  12. Changes in exposure to 'life stressors' in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, 2002 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Matthew; Paradies, Yin

    2014-02-11

    The Negative Life Events Scale (NLES) has been included in nationally representative surveys of the Indigenous and Australian population since 2002 as a measure of exposure to a range of 'life stressors'. There has been limited reporting or analysis of estimates of the NLES from these surveys. This paper reports changes in exposure to stressors from 2002 to 2008 for the Indigenous population, and examines inter-relationships between eleven NLES items. Data for the 2006 Australian population is also included for comparative purposes. Data from the 2002 and 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Surveys (NATSISS) and the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) were accessed from the Australia Bureau of Statistics in order to determine significant changes in exposure to stressors for the 2002 and 2008 Indigenous population by remoteness and to compare this with the 2006 Australian population. Factor analysis was used to assess the inter-relationships between stressors for the Indigenous and Australian population by remoteness. In remote locations, between 2002 and 2008, exposure to life stressors decreased significantly for the Indigenous population across seven of the eleven stressors. In non-remote locations, exposure to four of the stressors increased significantly. Exposure to stressors in the 2002 and 2008 non-remote Indigenous population were significantly higher than those for the 2006 Australian population for all items, except 'alcohol and/or drug problems' and 'trouble with the police', which showed no evidence of a difference. The factor analysis of the NLES for the 2002 and 2008 remote and non-remote Indigenous populations and the 2006 Australian population showed a consistent clustering of items into three groups: social transgressions; grief and trauma; and labour market stressors. The reduction in exposure to life stressors for the remote Indigenous population may be related to policy and practice changes (e.g. more police, income

  13. The characteristics, implementation and effects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion tools: a systematic literature search

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion by and with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Indigenous) Australians is critically important given a wide gap in health parity compared to other Australians. The development and implementation of step-by-step guides, instruments, packages, frameworks or resources has provided a feasible and low-resource strategy for strengthening evidence-informed health promotion practice. Yet there has been little assessment of where and how these tools are implemented or their effectiveness. This paper reviews the characteristics, implementation and effects of Indigenous health promotion tools. Methods Indigenous health promotion tools were identified through a systematic literature search including a prior scoping study, eight databases, references of other reviews and the authors’ knowledge (n = 1494). Documents in the peer reviewed and grey literature were included if they described or evaluated tools designed, recommended or used for strengthening Indigenous Australian health promotion. Eligible publications were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and documented tools classified according to their characteristics, implementation and effects. Quality was appraised using the Dictionary for Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) and Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tools for quantitative and qualitative studies respectively. Results The review found that Indigenous health promotion tools were widely available. Of 74 publications that met inclusion criteria, sixty (81%) documented tools developed specifically for the Indigenous Australian population. All tools had been developed in reference to evidence; but only 22/74 (30%) publications specified intended or actual implementation, and only 11/74 (15%) publications evaluated impacts of the implemented tools. Impacts included health, environmental, community, organisational and health care improvements. The quality of impact evaluations was strong for only five (7

  14. Resting heart rate, physiological stress and disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: analysis from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alice; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Brown, Alex; Lawton, Paul D; Cass, Alan; Hoy, Wendy; O'Dea, Kerin; Maple-Brown, Louise J

    2016-02-11

    Lower socioeconomic status has been linked to long-term stress, which can manifest in individuals as physiological stress. The aim was to explore the relationship between low socioeconomic status and physiological stress in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Using data from the eGFR Study (a cross-sectional study of 634 Indigenous Australians in urban and remote areas of northern and central Australia), we examined associations between resting heart rate and demographic, socioeconomic, and biomedical factors. An elevated resting heart rate has been proposed as a measure of sustained stress activation and was used as a marker of physiological stress. Relationships were assessed between heart rate and the above variables using univariate and multiple regression analyses. We reported a mean resting heart rate of 74 beats/min in the cohort (mean age 45 years). On multiple regression analysis, higher heart rate was found to be independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity, being a current smoker, having only primary level schooling, higher HbA1c and higher diastolic blood pressure (model R(2) 0.25). Elevated resting heart rate was associated with lower socioeconomic status and poorer health profile in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Higher resting heart rate may be an indicator of stress and disadvantage in this population at high risk of chronic diseases.

  15. "For the Life of Me, I Can't See Why Those Students Were Let Go on So Long": Educating the Educators, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, almost 40% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students enrolled in the Graduate Diploma in Indigenous Health Promotion at The University of Sydney failed to complete the course. Although this was not considered unusual when compared to previous years, the decision was made to investigate why so many students struggled to meet the…

  16. Adjusting for under-identification of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in time series produced from birth records: Using record linkage of survey data and administrative data sources

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Statistical time series derived from administrative data sets form key indicators in measuring progress in addressing disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. However, inconsistencies in the reporting of Indigenous status can cause difficulties in producing reliable indicators. External data sources, such as survey data, provide a means of assessing the consistency of administrative data and may be used to adjust statistics based on administrative data sources. Methods We used record linkage between a large-scale survey (the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey), and two administrative data sources (the Western Australia (WA) Register of Births and the WA Midwives’ Notification System) to compare the degree of consistency in determining Indigenous status of children between the two sources. We then used a logistic regression model predicting probability of consistency between the two sources to estimate the probability of each record on the two administrative data sources being identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in a survey. By summing these probabilities we produced model-adjusted time series of neonatal outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. Results Compared to survey data, information based only on the two administrative data sources identified substantially fewer Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. However, these births were not randomly distributed. Births of children identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the survey only were more likely to be living in urban areas, in less disadvantaged areas, and to have only one parent who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, particularly the father. They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing outcomes. Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased the estimated number of

  17. Coronary heart disease among Pacific Island people in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tukuitonga, C F; Stewart, A; Beaglehole, R

    1990-09-26

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in New Zealand. Death rates are higher among the Maori than the European population but rates have been declining in both groups over recent years. The occurrence of coronary heart disease among the Pacific Island population in New Zealand is unknown. Data from the National Health Statistics Centre (NHSC) and the Auckland coronary or stroke (ARCOS) study were used to describe the occurrence of coronary heart diseases among Pacific Island people. Age standardised mortality rates show that coronary heart disease is an important cause of death among Pacific Island men. Death rates have declined between 1973-77 and 1978-82 but this trend did not continue among men in the 1983-86 period. Age standardised mortality rates from coronary heart disease from the ARCOS data are 175/100,000 and 52/100,000 for Pacific Island men and women compared with 325/100,000 and 141/100,000 for Maori men and women. Age standardised rates for European men and women are 154/100,000 and 36/100,000 respectively.

  18. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    DOE PAGES

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearlymore » bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.« less

  19. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearly bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.

  20. Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health study (BIRCH) protocol: rationale and design of a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to identify novel cardiovascular risk indicators in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander adults.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc G W; Stewart, Simon; Carrington, Melinda J; Marwick, Thomas H; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Meikle, Peter; O'Brien, Darren; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Maguire, Graeme P

    2017-08-23

    Of the estimated 10-11 year life expectancy gap between Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) and non-Indigenous Australians, approximately one quarter is attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk prediction of CVD is imperfect, but particularly limited for Indigenous Australians. The BIRCH (Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health) project aims to identify and assess existing and novel markers of early disease and risk in Indigenous Australians to optimise health outcomes in this disadvantaged population. It further aims to determine whether these markers are relevant in non-Indigenous Australians. BIRCH is a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults (≥ 18 years) living in remote, regional and urban locations. Participants will be assessed for CVD risk factors, left ventricular mass and strain via echocardiography, sleep disordered breathing and quality via home-based polysomnography or actigraphy respectively, and plasma lipidomic profiles via mass spectrometry. Outcome data will comprise CVD events and death over a period of five years. Results of BIRCH may increase understanding regarding the factors underlying the increased burden of CVD in Indigenous Australians in this setting. Further, it may identify novel markers of early disease and risk to inform the development of more accurate prediction equations. Better identification of at-risk individuals will promote more effective primary and secondary preventive initiatives to reduce Indigenous Australian health disadvantage.

  1. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-30

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede, and the eastern island Little Diomede are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite.

  2. DNA-based identifications reveal multiple introductions of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) into the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Blacket, M J; Rice, A D; Semeraro, L; Malipatil, M B

    2015-10-01

    Leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) can be serious economic pests of horticultural crops. Some genera such as Liriomyza are particularly problematic with numerous species, some of which are highly polyphagous (wide host range), which can only be confidently identified morphologically from adult males. In our study, DNA barcoding was employed to establish new locality records of the vegetable leafminer fly, Liriomyza sativae, from the islands of Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia) and the central highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). These records represent significant range extensions of this highly invasive plant pest. Specimens of immature leafminers (from leaf mines) were collected over a 5-year period during routine plant health surveys in ethanol or on FTA® filter paper cards, both methods proved effective at preserving and transporting insect DNA under tropical conditions, with FTA cards possessing some additional logistical benefits. Specimens were identified through sequencing two sections of the cytochrome oxidase I gene and the utility of each was assessed for the identification of species and intra-specific genetic lineages. Our study indicates that multiple haplotypes of L. sativae occur in PNG, while a different haplotype is present in the Torres Strait, with genetic regionalization between these areas apart from a single possible instance - one haplotype 'S.7' appears to be common between these two regions - interestingly this has also been the most common haplotype detected in previous studies of invasive L. sativae populations. The DNA barcoding methods employed here not only identified multiple introductions of L. sativae, but also appear generally applicable to the identification of other agromyzid leafminers (Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae) and should decrease the likelihood of potentially co-amplifying internal hymenopteran parasitoids. Currently, L. sativae is still not recorded from the Australian mainland; however, further sampling of

  3. Transport Pathways and Residence Times of Biological Hot Spots Along the Shelf North of the South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinones, M. A.; Ramos, M.

    2016-02-01

    Observations from several multidisciplinary research programs over the last four decades identified a number of localized regions around the northern Antarctic Peninsula (AP) and Bransfield Strait (BS) characterized by high biological production that is in excess of average conditions (e.g. biological hot spots). These regions typically are persistent over several years and appear to be a common feature of the Antarctic shelf environment, in particular in parts of the Southern Ocean where the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) impinges the shelf break bringing nutrient rich Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) onto the continental shelf. Ocean circulation and the dynamical processes controlling the CDW intrusions exert a strong influence in the formation of the hot spots regions. The objective of this study is to determine dominant pathways of intrusions of CDW onto the shelf and determine residence times of eight hot spot regions along the north of the South Shetland Islands (SSI) and BS. To accomplish this goal Lagrangian tracking experiments were done using a coupled sea ice/ice shelf/ocean circulation model for the Antarctic Peninsula using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The results showed preferred transport pathways along the shelf break in regions characterized by bathymetric depressions. Estimated residence times varied between the hot spots located north of the SSI and inside BS. The longest residence times were observed for the hot spots along the innershelf north of SSI (50-60 days). These time scales were consistent with development times of the local mesozooplankton and may contribute to the local biological processes. The hot spots along the outer shelf were less retentive (5-10 days) and presented similar time scales as the hot spots in the eastern Bransfield Strait. Our results suggests that circulation is important in developing localized areas of high biological production, their formation and maintenance has broad implications for the

  4. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  5. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  6. Translating E-Mental Health Into Practice: What Are the Barriers and Enablers to E-Mental Health Implementation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Professionals?

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Judy; DuBois, Simon; Hyde, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Background With increasing evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions for enhancing mental health and well-being, a growing challenge is how to translate promising research findings into service delivery contexts. A 2012 e-mental health initiative by the Australian Federal Government (eMHPrac) has sought to address the issue through several strategies, one of which has been to train different health professional workforces in e-mental health (e-MH). Objective The aim of the study was to report on the barriers and enablers of e-MH uptake in a cohort of predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals (21 Indigenous, 5 non-Indigenous) who occupied mainly support or case management roles within their organizations. Methods A 3- or 2-day e-MH training program was followed by up to 5 consultation sessions (mean 2.4 sessions) provided by the 2 trainers. The trainer-consultants provided written reports on each of the 30 consultation sessions for 7 consultation groups. They were also interviewed as part of the study. The written reports and interview data were thematically analyzed by 2 members of the research team. Results Uptake of e-MH among the consultation group was moderate (22%-30% of participants). There were significant organizational barriers to uptake resulting from procedural and administrative problems, demanding workloads, prohibitive policies, and a lack of fit between the organizational culture and the introduction of new technologies. Personal barriers included participant beliefs about the applicability of e-MH to certain populations, and workers’ lack of confidence and skills. However, enthusiastic managers and tech-savvy champions could provide a counter-balance as organizational enablers of e-MH; and the consultation sessions themselves appear to have enhanced skills and confidence, shifted attitudes to new technologies, and seeded a perception that e-MH could be a valuable health education resource

  7. Translating E-Mental Health Into Practice: What Are the Barriers and Enablers to E-Mental Health Implementation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Professionals?

    PubMed

    Bennett-Levy, James; Singer, Judy; DuBois, Simon; Hyde, Kelly

    2017-01-11

    With increasing evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions for enhancing mental health and well-being, a growing challenge is how to translate promising research findings into service delivery contexts. A 2012 e-mental health initiative by the Australian Federal Government (eMHPrac) has sought to address the issue through several strategies, one of which has been to train different health professional workforces in e-mental health (e-MH). The aim of the study was to report on the barriers and enablers of e-MH uptake in a cohort of predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals (21 Indigenous, 5 non-Indigenous) who occupied mainly support or case management roles within their organizations. A 3- or 2-day e-MH training program was followed by up to 5 consultation sessions (mean 2.4 sessions) provided by the 2 trainers. The trainer-consultants provided written reports on each of the 30 consultation sessions for 7 consultation groups. They were also interviewed as part of the study. The written reports and interview data were thematically analyzed by 2 members of the research team. Uptake of e-MH among the consultation group was moderate (22%-30% of participants). There were significant organizational barriers to uptake resulting from procedural and administrative problems, demanding workloads, prohibitive policies, and a lack of fit between the organizational culture and the introduction of new technologies. Personal barriers included participant beliefs about the applicability of e-MH to certain populations, and workers' lack of confidence and skills. However, enthusiastic managers and tech-savvy champions could provide a counter-balance as organizational enablers of e-MH; and the consultation sessions themselves appear to have enhanced skills and confidence, shifted attitudes to new technologies, and seeded a perception that e-MH could be a valuable health education resource. A conclusion from the program was that it

  8. Bering Strait

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... west, the Bering Strait separates the United States and the Russian Federation by only 90 kilometers. It is named for Danish explorer Vitus ... the Alaskan mainland in 1741 while leading an expedition of Russian sailors. This view of the region was captured by the Multi-angle ...

  9. 78 FR 38835 - Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks... near Vallejo, CA in support of the City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display on July 4, 2013... Vallejo will sponsor the City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display on July 4, 2013, on Mare Island...

  10. Development of a Humane Slaughter Device for Green Turtles for Use by Traditional Owners in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C; Loban, Frank; Simpson, Tristan; Lui, Stan; Fujii, Ronald; Whap, Don; Flint, Jaylene B; Owen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities. Between 2012 and 2015, a device was developed, tested on 11 carcasses to determine effectiveness and repeatability, used on 5 anaesthetised animals independently diagnosed as candidates for euthanasia, and ultimately used on 2 healthy, conscious animals as part of normal indigenous community subsistence harvesting under observation before being left with the communities for use. Feedback was sought from the communities on the suitability and potential adoption of the device. The device effectively ablated the hind brain and severed the spinal cord when deployed in 81% (9/11) of the tested carcasses, with death in 100% (5/5) of turtles, on average, within 78 seconds of deployment on anaesthetised turtles and death in 100% (2/2) of turtles, on average, within 144 seconds when deployed on healthy turtles within community. Failure to ablate the hindbrain and sever the spinal cord in the cadaver cases was due to incorrect deployment of the device. This device showed promise as an alternative euthanasia method available to indigenous communities of the Torres Straits. Further work is required to encourage acceptance by hunters.

  11. Development of a Humane Slaughter Device for Green Turtles for Use by Traditional Owners in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C.; Loban, Frank; Simpson, Tristan; Lui, Stan; Fujii, Ronald; Whap, Don; Flint, Jaylene B.; Owen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities. Between 2012 and 2015, a device was developed, tested on 11 carcasses to determine effectiveness and repeatability, used on 5 anaesthetised animals independently diagnosed as candidates for euthanasia, and ultimately used on 2 healthy, conscious animals as part of normal indigenous community subsistence harvesting under observation before being left with the communities for use. Feedback was sought from the communities on the suitability and potential adoption of the device. The device effectively ablated the hind brain and severed the spinal cord when deployed in 81% (9/11) of the tested carcasses, with death in 100% (5/5) of turtles, on average, within 78 seconds of deployment on anaesthetised turtles and death in 100% (2/2) of turtles, on average, within 144 seconds when deployed on healthy turtles within community. Failure to ablate the hindbrain and sever the spinal cord in the cadaver cases was due to incorrect deployment of the device. This device showed promise as an alternative euthanasia method available to indigenous communities of the Torres Straits. Further work is required to encourage acceptance by hunters. PMID:28076432

  12. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.

    This book deals with the Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo language as spoken on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, an island near the Bering Strait and on the tip of the Asian mainland opposite Russia. This book has been used with college-level classes composed of a mixture of Yupik speakers and well-prepared non-speakers (people who have studied other,…

  13. Quaternary sedimentation in Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Shelikof Strait, a nearly parallel-sided marine channel between the Kodiak island group and the Alaska Penninsula, has experienced a succession of distinct sedimentary environments during Quaternary time. Pleistocene glaciers carved a deep basin into bedrock in the southwest part of the strait and a shallower platform surface with incised channels in the northeast. The basin and channels were filled with glacial and glacialmarine sediment before and during the time that ice retreated and oceanic conditions returned. Restricted marine conditions prevailed in early Holocene time and sediment prograded transversely into the strait from the adjacent landmasses, with some localized dispersal to the deep, central strait. Onset of modern open-marine conditions commenced when regional currents breached the sill across Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances to combine with sediment-laden outflow from Cook Inlet and deposit a blanket of well-stratified sediment throughout the strait. ?? 1985.

  14. Archipelago strait exchange processes—an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engqvist, A.; Stenström, P.

    2004-02-01

    Archipelagos consist of a set of islands forming a collection of basins interconnected by straits, and are typically characterized by widely varying spatial and temporal scales regarding geometry and forcing conditions. Focusing on the strait exchange parameterization, we describe an archipelago water exchange model in which the archipelago is subdivided into a network of discrete basins and interconnecting straits and where the time integration assumes a series of quasi-steady states. We propose an algorithm that should be sufficiently flexible to provide reasonable strait exchange estimates under the variety of forcing conditions encountered in the Stockholm archipelago. We start from the functional formulation of two-layer hydraulic theory, which allows numerical schemes to be designed that, given the forcing conditions at the ends of a given strait, distinguish between maximal and sub-maximal flow cases and solve the flow accordingly. We relax the assumption of two homogeneous layers when necessary, using an approximate method based on a self-similarity assumption and with the sea-level difference over the strait as an explicit part of the problem. This method allows exchange flows with two groups of layers to be solved for the same set of geometries that the pure two-layer theory can handle, including sill-contraction combinations and non-rectangular cross-sections. We further show how aspiration of dense water from below the sill crest can be quantified with hydraulic theory, and be included in the method for stratified strait exchange. Rotational control in wide straits and in parallel straits connecting the same two basins is treated with a simple but robust scheme. We evaluate the calculations with data from the Oxdjupet strait in the Stockholm archipelago. Simulations with a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic numerical model are performed to compensate for sparsity in data.

  15. Integrated Clinical Decision Support Systems Promote Absolute Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: An Important Primary Prevention Measure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Veronica; Burgess, Christopher P; Connors, Christine; Moore, Elizabeth; Peiris, David; Scrimgeour, David; Thompson, Sandra C; Larkins, Sarah; Bailie, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA) as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC) sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions. We also examine the proportion with elevated risk and follow-up actions recorded. We undertook cross-sectional analysis of 2,052 client records from 97 PHC centers to assess CVRA in Indigenous adults aged ≥20 years with no recorded chronic disease diagnosis (2012-2014). Multilevel regression was used to quantify the variation in CVRA attributable to health center and client level factors. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adults who had CVRA recorded. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of clients with elevated risk that had follow-up actions recorded. Approximately 23% (n = 478) of eligible clients had documented CVRA. Almost all assessments (99%) were conducted in the Northern Territory. Within this jurisdiction, there was wide variation between centers in the proportion of clients with documented CVRA (median 38%; range 0-86%). Regression analysis showed health center factors accounted for 48% of the variation. Centers with integrated clinical decision support systems were more likely to document CVRA (OR 21.1; 95% CI 5.4-82.4; p < 0.001). Eleven percent (n = 53) of clients were found with moderate/high CVD risk, of whom almost one-third were under 35 years (n = 16). Documentation of follow-up varied with respect to the targeted risk factor. Fewer than 30% with abnormal blood

  16. Upper airway viruses and bacteria in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Brisbane, Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Hall, Kerry K; Sloots, Theo P; Anderson, Jennie; Chang, Anne B

    2017-04-04

    Respiratory morbidity in Australian Indigenous children is higher than their non-Indigenous counterparts, irrespective of urban or remote residence. There are limited studies addressing acute respiratory illness (ARI) in urban Indigenous children, particularly those that address the upper airway microbiome and its relationship to disease. We aimed to describe the prevalence of upper airway viruses and bacteria in symptomatic and asymptomatic urban-based Australian Indigenous children aged less than 5 years. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected at baseline in an ongoing prospective cohort study of urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children registered with a primary health care service in the northern suburbs of Brisbane, Australia. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data and bilateral anterior nasal swabs were collected on enrolment. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on nasal swabs to detect 17 respiratory viruses and 7 bacteria. The primary outcome was the prevalence of these microbes at enrolment. Logistic regression was performed to investigate differences in microbe prevalence between children with and without acute respiratory illness with cough as a symptom (ARIwC) at time of specimen collection. Between February 2013 and October 2015, 164 children were enrolled. The median age at enrolment was 18.0 months (IQR 7.2-34.3), 49.4% were boys and 56 children (34.2%) had ARIwC. Overall, 133/164 (81%) nasal swabs were positive for at least one organism; 131 (79.9%) for any bacteria, 59 (36.2%) for any virus and 57 (34.8%) for both viruses and bacteria. Co-detection of viruses and bacteria was more common in females than males (61.4% vs 38.6%, p = 0.044). No microbes, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with the presence of ARIwC. The prevalence of upper airways microbes in asymptomatic children is similar to non-Indigenous children with ARIwC from the same region. Determining the aetiology of ARIwC in this

  17. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  18. Indigenous Young People in the Juvenile Justice System: 2010-11. Bulletin No. 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kirsten; Schlumpp, Arianne

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are substantially over-represented in the juvenile justice system in Australia, and this over-representation is highest in the most serious processes and outcomes--particularly in detention. This bulletin examines the numbers and characteristics of Indigenous young people in the juvenile justice…

  19. The Indigenous Australian Malnutrition Project: the burden and impact of malnutrition in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander hospital inpatients, and validation of a malnutrition screening tool for use in hospitals-study rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Morris, Natasha F; Stewart, Simon; Riley, Malcolm D; Maguire, Graeme P

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with adverse outcomes for hospital inpatients and is a significant economic burden on hospitals. Malnutrition is frequently under-recognised in this setting and valid screening and early diagnosis are important for timely nutritional management. Aboriginal Australian and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples (Indigenous Australians) are likely to be at increased risk of malnutrition due to their disproportionate burden, pattern and age-distribution of chronic diseases. Despite this increased risk, the burden and impact of malnutrition in Indigenous Australians is poorly understood. Furthermore, a suitable screening tool has not been validated for this vulnerable patient group. The aim of this study is to determine the burden of malnutrition, understand its impact, and validate a malnutrition screening tool for Indigenous Australian inpatients. This project involves cross-sectional, prospective cohort and diagnostic validation methodologies to assess the burden and impact of malnutrition and to validate a malnutrition screening tool. A target of 752 adult Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian inpatients will be recruited across three different public hospitals in the Northern Territory and far north Queensland of Australia. Cross-sectional data collection will be used to determine the prevalence of malnutrition using the Subjective Global Assessment and to stratify participants based on the International Consensus Guideline Committee malnutrition aetiology-diagnostic framework. Subjects will then be followed prospectively to measure short and long-term health outcomes such as length of hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, 30-day and 6-month readmission rates. Finally, the utility of a new screening tool, the Australian Nutrition Tool, will be assessed against an existing screening tool, the malnutrition screening tool, used in these settings and the malnutrition reference standard, the Subjective Global Assessment. Indigenous Australians

  20. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 34 by 59 km sub-scene, acquired on July 5, 2000, covers the eastern part of the Strait of Gibraltar, separating Spain from Morocco. The promontory on the eastern side of the conspicuous Spanish port is the Rock of Gibraltar. The Rock of Gibraltar was once one of the two classical Pillars of Hercules, crowned with silver columns by Phoenician mariners to mark the limits of safe navigation for the ancient Mediterranean peoples. The rocky promontory still commands the western entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, separated from North Africa only by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. A British colony, Gibraltar occupies a narrow strip of land at the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is separated from the Spanish mainland by a neutral zone contained on a narrow, sandy isthmus. The rocky limestone and shale ridge known as the Rock rises abruptly from the sea, to a maximum elevation of 426 meters (1,398 feet). Because of its strategic location and formidable topography, Gibraltar serves mainly as a British fortress. The Rock has traditionally been a symbol of British naval strength. Most of its sparse land is taken up by air and naval installations, and the civilian population is small. The image is centered at 36 degrees north latitude, 5.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 34 by 59 km sub-scene, acquired on July 5, 2000, covers the eastern part of the Strait of Gibraltar, separating Spain from Morocco. The promontory on the eastern side of the conspicuous Spanish port is the Rock of Gibraltar. The Rock of Gibraltar was once one of the two classical Pillars of Hercules, crowned with silver columns by Phoenician mariners to mark the limits of safe navigation for the ancient Mediterranean peoples. The rocky promontory still commands the western entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, separated from North Africa only by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. A British colony, Gibraltar occupies a narrow strip of land at the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is separated from the Spanish mainland by a neutral zone contained on a narrow, sandy isthmus. The rocky limestone and shale ridge known as the Rock rises abruptly from the sea, to a maximum elevation of 426 meters (1,398 feet). Because of its strategic location and formidable topography, Gibraltar serves mainly as a British fortress. The Rock has traditionally been a symbol of British naval strength. Most of its sparse land is taken up by air and naval installations, and the civilian population is small. The image is centered at 36 degrees north latitude, 5.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This 34 by 59 km sub-scene, acquired on July 5, 2000, covers the eastern part of the Strait of Gibraltar, separating Spain from Morocco. The promontory on the eastern side of the conspicuous Spanish port is the Rock of Gibraltar. The Rock of Gibraltar was once one of the two classical Pillars of Hercules, crowned with silver columns by Phoenician mariners to mark the limits of safe navigation for the ancient Mediterranean peoples. The rocky promontory still commands the western entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, separated from North Africa only by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. A British colony, Gibraltar occupies a narrow strip of land at the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is separated from the Spanish mainland by a neutral zone contained on a narrow, sandy isthmus. The rocky limestone and shale ridge known as the Rock rises abruptly from the sea, to a maximum elevation of 426 meters (1,398 feet). Because of its strategic location and formidable topography, Gibraltar serves mainly as a British fortress. The Rock has traditionally been a symbol of British naval strength. Most of its sparse land is taken up by air and naval installations, and the civilian population is small. The image is centered at 36 degrees north latitude, 5.5 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11167

  3. Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P < 0.01). Except for one Y short tandem repeat lineage (Y-STR), seen in two unrelated Yami families, no other Y-STR lineages were shared between villages, whereas mtDNA haplotypes were indiscriminately distributed throughout Orchid Island. The genetic affinity seen between Yami and Taiwanese aborigines or between Ivatan and the Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis

  4. Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jun-Hun; Trejaut, Jean A; Yen, Ju-Chen; Chen, Zong-Sian; Lee, Chien-Liang; Lin, Marie

    2011-01-31

    Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P < 0.01). Except for one Y short tandem repeat lineage (Y-STR), seen in two unrelated Yami families, no other Y-STR lineages were shared between villages, whereas mtDNA haplotypes were indiscriminately distributed throughout Orchid Island. The genetic affinity seen between Yami and Taiwanese aborigines or between Ivatan and the Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a

  5. The net water circulation through Torres strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Thomas, Christopher; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The extensive existing data set on the oceanography of Torres Strait (separating Australia and Papua New Guinea) is reviewed and is used to show that the long-term east to west water flux through Torres Strait is about 0.04 Sv. To explain this finding, a high resolution, finite element, depth-integrated (2D) model of Torres Strait is set-up. The model is driven by the wind and the open boundary conditions that are prescribed in the Coral Sea, the northern Great Barrier Reef continental shelf, the Gulf of Papua, and the Gulf of Carpentaria. The latter/open boundary conditions were taken from field data. The model suggests that the wind alone over Torres Strait generates negligible net currents; the net currents are instead generated by the wind setting up a water slope across Torres Strait through its opposing influence on the mean sea levels in the Gulf of Carpentaria and in the Coral Sea. The model predicts that the long-term, net east-west flow through Torres Strait is small to negligible, in agreement with field data. The model also reveals that large scale flow dynamics are largely restricted to reef passages and open waters, and that areas of shallow waters and areas densely populated with reefs and islands are poorly flushed. Finally, the model also reveals the prevalence of highly energetic tidal flows around shoals, reefs, islands and reef passages, and these swift tidal currents are responsible for the small net flow through Torres Strait through the sticky water effect. These findings enable us to propose a general water circulation model for the whole Great Barrier Reef during southeast winds.

  6. Spatial Variation in Storm Surge in the Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontiens, N. K.; Allen, S. E.; Latornell, D.; Le Souef, K.; Machuca, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a strongly stratified, deep body of water located between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia and is connected to the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the south and Johnstone Strait to the north. It is on average 220 km in length and 30 km wide and its maximum depth is 420 m. During the winter months, coastal communities in the Strait of Georgia are at risk to flooding caused by storm surges, a natural hazard that occurs when a strong wind storm with low atmospheric pressure coincides with an unusually high tide. This study presents storm surge hindcasts of significant events between 2006 and 2009 using a numerical model of the Straits of Georgia, Juan de Fuca, Johnstone and Puget Sound (together the Salish Sea). The model is based on the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) in a regional configuration. Realistic stratification is produced by including input from the surrounding rivers. A discussion on the sensitivity of modelled surge amplitude to open boundary conditions and atmospheric forcing will be presented. As barotropic models have previously shown, the surge entering the domain from the Pacific Ocean contributes most significantly. Surge amplitudes are found to be greater within the Strait of Georgia than those in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Local wind patterns cause spatial variations in the strength of the surge in the Strait of Georgia, generally leading to stronger surges on the Mainland side of the Strait.

  7. What processes control the net currents through shallow straits? A review with application to the Bohai Strait, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Wolanski, Eric; Zhang, Hua

    2015-06-01

    We review the key processes controlling the net water circulation in shallow straits. The circulation is mainly barotropic, driven by the difference in mean sea level and tides on either side of the strait, the wind, the meandering of the currents in the adjoining seas, the bathymetry including the shape and width of the mouths and the presence of narrows, shoals, sills, islands, and lateral embayments. As the oceanography forcing can be non-synchronised on either side of the strait, the resulting net currents through the strait may appear chaotic. We apply these findings to the net circulation through the Bohai Strait in China using local wind, remote-sensing data of currents and sea level, and a hydrodynamic model. The net currents through the Bohai Strait were episodic. They were largest during winter storms when the wind generated a cyclonic coastal current in the northern Yellow Sea that flowed across the width of the Bohai Strait. Like the Luzon Strait, this current meandered and a branch of the current intruded into the northern Bohai Strait along the deeper channel. The wind set-up in the Bohai Sea and the wind-driven longshore current in the southern Bohai Sea generated a seaward flow through the southern Bohai Strait, somewhat like in Irbe Strait. As with the straits of the Seto Inland Sea, stagnation occurred in some embayments. As in the Torres Strait, the islands in the southern Bohai Strait retarded the net flow and increased the width of the outflow zone. These flows were also modulated at very long periods (∼60 days) by long waves in the Yellow Sea, possibly generated by meandering of the Kuroshio Current that created an additional sea level slope through the strait. The transit time in the Bohai Strait was 60 and 10 days, respectively, during calm weather and winter storms. The residence time in the Bohai Sea was estimated to be about 1.68 years by the LOICZ model and 1.56 years by the hydrodynamic model, and the influence of the river runoff

  8. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from the south (36.0N, 5.5W). This scene shows the actual Rock of Gibraltar under cloud cover but most of the Strait of Gibraltar, at the mouth of the Mediterranaen Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, can be seen in good detail. Despite the obliquity of the scene, much of the beauty of the Spanish and Moroccan countryside can still be appreciated.

  9. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from the south (36.0N, 5.5W). This scene shows the actual Rock of Gibraltar under cloud cover but most of the Strait of Gibraltar, at the mouth of the Mediterranaen Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, can be seen in good detail. Despite the obliquity of the scene, much of the beauty of the Spanish and Moroccan countryside can still be appreciated.

  10. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar (36.0N, 5.5W), at the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, separates Europe and Africa. On the Spanish side of the strait, the port of Cadiz and the Rota Naval Base as well as the great Andalucian city of Seville can be seen. To the south in Morocco, the coastal cities of Tangier, Tetouan and Ceuta are easily seen.

  11. Healthy People 2010 and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders: Defining a Baseline of Information

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chandak

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health lists 6 areas of disparity in minority health services: infant mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and immunizations. This study compiles existing Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) health data to establish a baseline. Methods. For federally-sponsored research (1986–2000), the Computer Retrieval of Information on Specific Projects (CRISP) database was analyzed. AAPI initiatives were divided by subpopulation and disparity area. MEDLINE articles (1966–2000) were similarly scrutinized. Results. Few federal health-related grants (0.2%) and MEDLINE articles (0.01%) mention AAPIs. For the 6 disparity areas, significant AAPI data gaps remain. Conclusions. To reach the Healthy People 2010 goals and have useful data, researchers and grant makers must focus on obtaining baseline data for disaggregated AAPI subgroups. (Am J Public Health. 2003;93:2093–2098) PMID:14652340

  12. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Whidbey Island; naval restricted areas. (a) Area No. 1. Bounded by a line commencing at latitude 48°20′57″ N., longitude 122°40′39″ W.; thence to latitude 48°20′40″ N., longitude 122°42′59″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′19″ N., longitude 122°43′02″ W.; thence to latitude 48°21′13″ N., longitude...

  16. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-370 (22 June 1973) --- Gateway to the Atlantic, since ancient times the Strait of Gibraltar (36.5N, 4.5W) is also the border between Africa and Europe. In Spain to the north, the dark area near the coast is the delta of the Guadalquivir River and the city of Seville. The small spike of land on the north side of the strait is the actual Rock of Gibraltar. On the African side, a cloud front cutting across from the coast is blowing into Europe from Morocco and Algeria. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Gateway to the Atlantic, since ancient times the Strait of Gibraltar (36.5N, 4.5W) is also the border between Africa and Europe. In Spain to the north, the dark area near the coast is the delta of the Guadalquivir River and the city of Seville. The small spike of land on the north side of the strait is the actual Rock of Gibraltar. On the African side, a cloud front cutting across from the coast is blowing into Europe from Morocco and Algeria.

  18. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Gateway to the Atlantic, since ancient times the Strait of Gibraltar (36.5N, 4.5W) is also the border between Africa and Europe. In Spain to the north, the dark area near the coast is the delta of the Guadalquivir River and the city of Seville. The small spike of land on the north side of the strait is the actual Rock of Gibraltar. On the African side, the sharp line cutting across from the coast is dust cloud blowing into Europe from Algeria.

  19. Tectonic evolution of Bransfield Strait, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel Hugh Njal

    Bransfield Strait is a young (<4 Ma?), actively extending marginal basin located between the NW Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands, in the backarc region of the South Shetland Trench. Its structural evolution is probably influenced by both subduction-related processes at the trench and the Antarctic-Scotia strike-slip plate boundary to the NE. Previous studies suggest that Bransfield Strait is floored by thinned continental crust formed by rifting of the South Shetland Islands away from the Antarctic Peninsula, with axial neovolcanism interpreted as evidence of sea-floor spreading. New deep-penetration multichannel seismic (MCS) data reveal more complexity. The basin is in a transitional stage of rifting. Basin-opening occurs by propagation of rifting from NE to SW, evidenced by changes in the neovolcanic expression along the basin axial deep and by changes in structural style along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. A phase of magmatically-induced uplift is interpreted in the earlier stage of rifting (SW), followed by subsidence and extension on low-angle, NW-dipping detachment faults (NE). Local magmatism and footwall uplift is associated with the detachments. The structural asymmetry of Bransfield Strait and identification of detachment faults suggests that the basin is opening by simple-shear lithospheric extension. Comparison with the East African Rift system, Lau Basin-Havre Trough backarc, Woodlark basin and Mesozoic-age Rocas Verdes basin supports the contention that Bransfield Strait rifting is in a transitional stage between continental/arc rifting and organized sea-floor spreading, and that it is a useful modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Furthermore, it suggests that detachment faulting may be a common feature of backarc basins. Recognition of low-angle detachment faulting and simple-shear extension is essential for estimating basin extension, and the amount of crustal shortening and thickening that may occur during inversion of a

  20. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  1. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  2. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  3. A multi-centre open-label randomised non-inferiority trial comparing watchful waiting to antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media without perforation in low-risk urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (the WATCH trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Penelope; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Leach, Amanda Jane; Askew, Deborah; Walsh, Robyn; Kong, Kelvin; Girosi, Federico; Bond, Chelsea; Morris, Peter; Lujic, Sanja; Hu, Wendy; Usherwood, Tim; Tyson, Sissy; Spurling, Geoffrey; Douglas, Markeeta; Schubert, Kira; Chapman, Shavaun; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Murray, Reeion; Rabbitt, Keitha; Porykali, Bobby; Woodall, Cheryl; Newman, Tina; Reath, Jennifer

    2016-03-03

    Treatment guidelines recommend watchful waiting for children older than 2 years with acute otitis media (AOM) without perforation, unless they are at high risk of complications. The high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities leads these children to be classified as high risk. Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are at lower risk of complications, but evidence to support the subsequent recommendation for watchful waiting in this population is lacking. This non-inferiority multi-centre randomised controlled trial will determine whether watchful waiting is non-inferior to immediate antibiotics for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children with AOM without perforation. Children aged 2 - 16 years with AOM who are considered at low risk for complications will be recruited from six participating urban primary health care services across Australia. We will obtain informed consent from each participant or their guardian. The primary outcome is clinical resolution on day 7 (no pain, no fever of at least 38 °C, no bulging eardrum and no complications of AOM such as perforation or mastoiditis) as assessed by general practitioners or nurse practitioners. Participants and outcome assessors will not be blinded to treatment. With a sample size of 198 children in each arm, we have 80 % power to detect a non-inferiority margin of up to 10 % at a significance level of 5 %, assuming clinical improvement of at least 80 % in both groups. Allowing for a 20 % dropout rate, we aim to recruit 495 children. We will analyse both by intention-to-treat and per protocol. We will assess the cost- effectiveness of watchful waiting compared to immediate antibiotic prescription. We will also report on the implementation of the trial from the perspectives of parents/carers, health professionals and researchers. The trial will provide evidence for the safety and effectiveness of watchful waiting

  4. Determining the Leisure Needs of People Having Disabilities: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Needs Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniston, Lorraine C.

    This needs assessment survey attempted to determine if community recreation programs, including school-based and college-based programs, are meeting the needs of citizens with disabilities living on the Northern Mariana Islands. The survey polled 35 people with disabilities about the effectiveness of community recreation programs and services and…

  5. Effects of tidal current phase at the junction of two straits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.; Schoellhamer, D.; Burau, J.; Schladow, G.

    2002-01-01

    Estuaries typically have a monotonic increase in salinity from freshwater at the head of the estuary to ocean water at the mouth, creating a consistent direction for the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. However, Mare Island Strait in San Francisco Bay has a local salinity minimum created by the phasing of the currents at the junction of Mare Island and Carquinez Straits. The salinity minimum creates converging baroclinic pressure gradients in Mare Island Strait. Equipment was deployed at four stations in the straits for 6 months from September 1997 to March 1998 to measure tidal variability of velocity, conductivity, temperature, depth, and suspended sediment concentration. Analysis of the measured time series shows that on a tidal time scale in Mare Island Strait, the landward and seaward baroclinic pressure gradients in the local salinity minimum interact with the barotropic gradient, creating regions of enhanced shear in the water column during the flood and reduced shear during the ebb. On a tidally averaged time scale, baroclinic pressure gradients converge on the tidally averaged salinity minimum and drive a converging near-bed and diverging surface current circulation pattern, forming a "baroclinic convergence zone" in Mare Island Strait. Historically large sedimentation rates in this area are attributed to the convergence zone. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. Objective This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. Results The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). Conclusions There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies

  7. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Lin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study is to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, and compare medicinal traditions in the study area with Li medicines (LM) and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). Ethnobotanical data were collected by 3 means: semi-structured interviews, personal conversation and guided field trips. There were 27 informants from 9 towns and 14 villages who were visited. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC, Use Value - UV, and Fidelity Level - FL) were calculated. In the present study, 264 species from 92 families and 233 genera were recorded, with Compositae (20 species), Leguminosae (19 species), Rubiaceae (12 species) and Gramineae (11 species) as predominate families. Leaves were the most frequently used parts in the preparation of local medicines. The most common preparation method was decoction (452 mentions). The plant with the highest values was Eclipta prostrata (0.46). The 6 plant species with the maximum FL (100%) were Atalantia buxifolia (Poir.) Oliv., Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth., Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Microcos paniculata L., and Psidium guajava L. In addition, 120 investigated human ailments were grouped into 10 categories, within which symptoms and signs (184 mentions), diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (139 mentions) and diseases of the digestive system (94 mentions) were the most mentioned in our investigation. The informant consensus about using medicinal plants ranged from 0.27 to 0.48, which showed a high level of agreement among the informants on symptoms and signs (0.48) and certain infectious and parasitic diseases (0.43). In comparison with TCM and LM, the results reflected a closer connection between local medicine and TCM. The information reported by Hoklos people is of great value to ethnic medicinal culture. However, this precious medicinal knowledge is at risk of being lost due to rapid

  8. Tide and tidal current observation in the Karimata Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Sulistiyo, Budi; Dwi Susanto, R.; Setiawan, Agus; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Qiao, Fangli; Fan, Bin; Li, Shujiang

    2013-04-01

    It is believed that the water exchanges between the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas are significant, and play an important role in the water mass formation and air-sea interactions of both the South China Sea and Indonesian Seas. It has also been found that the current in Sunda Strait has been obvious seasonal variation, which indicates the water exchange between West Indonesian Seas and India Ocean. In order to make quantitative evaluation of the magnitudes of the exchange, the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), China, the Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research, Indonesia, and the Lamont-Doheries Earth Observatory, USA established a collaborative program, "The South-China Sea-Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration" in 2006. And, they extend and expand the cooperation to Sunda Strait in 2008, the title of the collaborative program was changed to "The South China Sea - Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Dynamics of Sunda and Lombok Straits, and Their Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration". Till now, 12 joint cruises have been conducted since December, 2007. Ten Trawl-Resistant Bottom Mounts (TRBM) have been deployed in the Karimata and Sunda Straits. The TRBMs are equipped with ADCPs and tide gauges for measuring current profiles and sea levels, respectively. The temperature-salinity profiles were measured with ship-board CTD during the cruises. Data obtained in Karimata Strait revealed that a significant water mass transport. This indicates that the Karimata Strait throughflow can greatly impacts the circulation of both the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas. The data obtained at the 5 stations alone the two sections in the Karimata Strait were used to study the tide and tidal currents in the Karimata Strait. 2 TRBMs were deployed at Section A, as well as 3 at Section B, which lies at the southeast of Section A. Station B1 is in the Gaspar Strait between Bangka Island and Belitung Island, Stations

  9. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic separation...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic separation...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic separation...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic separation...

  13. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-151-193 (28 April-6 May 1991) --- The Strait of Gibraltar, the only outlet for the Mediterranean Sea, was photographed with a large format handheld camera by the STS-39 crew members. Scientists site evidence in Shuttle photography that the Mediterranean Sea dried up a number of times between 5 million and 20 million years ago. Sea levels, they say, dropped slightly, cutting off the Mediterranean (top right) from the Atlantic Ocean (bottom). In southern Spain, the dark area near the coast is the delta of the Guadalquivir River with the city of Seville. The Sierra Nevada range still has some snow. A small field fire near the Spanish coast has generated a conspicuous smoke plume. The small spike of land on the north side of the Strait is the Rock of Gibraltar, an outpost of the British empire. The larger spike of land on the north coast of Africa marks the border between Morocco (center foreground) and Algeria (right). The sharp line cutting across them Mediterranean (top right) marks the edge of a dust cloud blowing from Africa into Europe. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Structures and sedimentary deposition in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilohadi, Susilohadi; Gaedicke, Christoph; Djajadihardja, Yusuf

    2009-03-01

    The Sunda Strait lies between the islands of Java and Sumatra and separates the nearly orthogonal subduction along the south of Java and oblique subduction beneath Sumatra. The Sumatra fault accommodating most of the trench parallel shear of the oblique subduction initiates in the Sunda Strait. This setting implies that the Sunda Strait is an attractive area to study the geodynamic evolution of the western Indonesian region. Thirteen multichannel seismic lines acquired in the Sunda Strait have allowed a detailed study of the structure, sedimentation patterns and volcanic activities that occurred in the Sunda Strait. The Sunda Strait evolution has been strongly tied with the development of the Sumatra fault in this area. The opening of the Sunda Strait initiated in the early Late Miocene following the commencement of the Sumatra fault system in the Middle Miocene. Since then, three major graben systems have been evolved, which are referred to as the West and East Semangko Grabens, and the Krakatau Graben. These graben systems can be regarded as pull-apart basins developed within the releasing fault overstep area in between the main strand of the Sumatra fault and its relay faults south off Ujung Kulon. Prior to the Late Miocene most of the Sunda Strait and the surroundings probably developed in a non-marine environment. In Late Miocene the Sunda Strait started to open and volcanism began and has been the main source of clastics. Three major sedimentary units can be identified which represent Late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments respectively. The Late Miocene unit has been developed in the shelfal area on top of the Middle Miocene unconformity following a relative rapid sea level rise, and a subsequent highstand prior to the sea level fall at the end of Miocene. Its lower part has syn-structurally been deposited into the Late Miocene basement block faulting. The early deposition of the Pliocene unit was in response to the Pliocene sea level rise and

  15. MISR Sights the Bering Strait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-27

    This image from NASA Terra satellite, acquired on August 18, 2000 during Terra orbit 3562, show the Bering Strait, with Seward Peninsula of Alaska to the east, and Chukotskiy Poluostrov of Siberia to the west.

  16. Fram Strait sea ice outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Pang, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize 24 years (1978??2) of ice export estimates and examine, over a 9-year record, the associated variability in the time-varying upward-looking sonar (ULS) thickness distributions of the Fram Strait.

  17. Sociodemographic and lifestyle statistics of oldest old people (>80 years) living in ikaria island: the ikaria study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Skoumas, John; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-02-24

    Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica) have been named the "Blue Zones". Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the "Blue Zones". The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years) people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+) men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample). Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the "secrets" of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life.

  18. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  19. Conservation Status of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca, in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Esteban, R; Verborgh, P; Gauffier, P; Alarcón, D; Salazar-Sierra, J M; Giménez, J; Foote, A D; de Stephanis, R

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna. In summer, the whales were observed in the shallow central waters of the Strait. A relatively new feeding strategy has been observed among two of the five pods. These two pods interact with an artisanal drop-line fishery. Pods depredating the fishery had access to larger tuna in comparison with pods that were actively hunting. The Strait of Gibraltar killer whales are socially and ecologically different from individuals in the Canary Islands. Molecular genetic research has indicated that there is little or no female-mediated gene migration between these areas. Conservation threats include small population size, prey depletion, vessel traffic, and contaminants. We propose the declaration of the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales as an endangered subpopulation. A conservation plan to protect the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales is urgently needed, and we recommend implementation of a seasonal management area where activities producing underwater noise are restricted, and the promotion of bluefin tuna conservation.

  20. The vulnerability of the Strait of Georgia (Canada) to future hypoxia and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianson, Debby; Allen, Susan; Moore-Maley, Ben; Haigh, Rowan; Johannessen, Sophia; Macdonald, Robie; Krogh, Jeremy; Simpson, Eleanor; Kohfeld, Karen; Hamme, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Pacific coast is filled with fjords and islands. Circulation in the region is dynamic, so that large changes in acidity (pH) and oxygen may occur both in space and time. The Strait of Georgia (Canada) is a large (200 X 30 km) semi-enclosed basin, that has relatively low pH with respect to the adjacent outer coast and yet hosts a lucrative aquaculture industry. On the other hand this region is relatively well oxygenated due to gas exchange in the turbulent (tidal) flow in the narrow Straits with sills connecting it with the outer coast. We investigate the role that this intense gas exchange plays in protecting the Strait of Georgia from future hypoxia and ocean acidification. Finally, we contrast surface water properties (including dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity) measured on large ships with those measured nearshore and at shore-based aquaculture sites within the Strait.

  1. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupá vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carolina T; Shepard, Glenn H; Piedade, Maria T F

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape.

  2. The Floating Forest: Traditional Knowledge and Use of Matupá Vegetation Islands by Riverine Peoples of the Central Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Carolina T.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Piedade, Maria T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape. PMID:25837281

  3. Including People with Disabilities into the Workplace in the Balearic Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon, Rosa Rossello; Gelabert, Sebastia Verger

    2008-01-01

    If education is an inalienable right for children and young people with disabilities, securing employment plays a key role in their inclusion into adult life. A broad study was conducted to analyse the transition between the end of compulsory education and the beginning of employment in young people with disabilities in the Autonomous Community of…

  4. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... of Georgia WA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Angeles Point to latitude 48°21.1′ N...

  5. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... of Georgia WA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Angeles Point to latitude 48°21.1′ N...

  6. Hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer on Chongming Island, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Tu, J T; Gao, R N; Zhang, D H; Gu, B C

    1985-12-01

    Data on potential risk factors for primary liver cancer (PLC), including hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, contaminated drinking water, maize consumption, and use of tobacco and alcohol were collected from 12,222 males over 40 years of age living on Chongming Island, a high-risk area for PLC. During the first 3 years of follow-up (1980-82), 70 deaths from this disease occurred among study subjects. Preliminary results indicate that HBV carriers were 6.7 times more likely to die of PLC than were noncarriers (P less than .05). No association was found between PLC and alcohol consumption. More data are needed for evaluation of the relationships between cigarette smoking, maize consumption, contaminated drinking water, and PLC on Chongming Island.

  7. Globin genes in Micronesia: origins and affinities of Pacific Island peoples.

    PubMed Central

    O'Shaughnessy, D F; Hill, A V; Bowden, D K; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B

    1990-01-01

    DNA polymorphisms and copy-number variants of alpha-, zeta-, and gamma-globin genes have been studied in seven Micronesian island populations and have been compared with those in populations from Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Micronesians are not significantly different from Polynesians at these loci and appear to be intermediate between Southeast Asians and Melanesians. There is evidence of significant Melanesian input into the Micronesian gene pool and of substantial proto-Polynesian contact with Melanesia. PMID:1967206

  8. Two kinorhynch species (Cyclorhagida, Echinoderidae, Echinoderes) show different distribution patterns across Tsugaru Strait, Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Hiruta, Shimpei F; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Dick, Matthew H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the geographic population structures of two intertidal kinorhynch species, Echinoderes sensibilis and Echinoderes sp. A, in the vicinity of Tsugaru Strait between Honshu and Hokkaido Islands, Japan, to examine whether the distribution or connectivity of populations of either species has been constrained by the strait. For each species, we examined the geographic distribution of COI haplotypes, constructed a median-joining haplotype network, and calculated statistics of genetic variation and connectivity. Tsugaru Strait is the northern range limit for E. sensibilis, which comprises a large, evolutionarily stable metapopulation that appears to have undergone a reduction in size followed by expansion; connectivity is low among most local populations, including across Tsugaru Strait. A divergent haplotype lineage showing no variation occurred only at Horozuki, suggesting recent immigration there from outside the study area. Echinoderes sp. A underwent a severe population bottleneck followed by rapid expansion. It occurred at all sampling sites on both sides of the strait, with high connectivity between populations across the strait. There is a zone of secondary contact between moderately divergent, presumably previously allopatric lineages in eastern Hokkaido. Present-day conditions in the strait have existed only for the past 8000 years, and differences in these species' distributions and apparent connectivity across the strait may relate to conditions existing in the strait when the species underwent population expansions or shifts in range; these historical events were not necessarily concurrent between the species, and occurred more than 8000 years ago. We discuss dispersal mechanisms for kinorhynchs, which could include suspension transport or rafting.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of the physical dynamics of the Fly River plume in Torres Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Martins, Flavio; Wolanski, Eric

    2017-07-01

    The intrusion in the Torres Strait of the Fly River plume polluted by mine tailings is an international water issue. To investigate the physical mechanisms involved in the intrusion process, numerical simulations were conducted to assess the relative influence of the bathymetry and the external forcing, namely the tides, the mean sea level slope across the strait, river runoff and wind forcing. The wind data from Horn Island, the only long-term wind station in the Torres Strait, is shown to be unreliable due to orographic effects. Mean sea level data from altimetry compare well with those from tide gauges in these shallow, reef-studded waters. The wind has a dominant effect on the mean sea level at seasonal and inter-annual periods. The resulting mean sea level difference across the strait fluctuated seasonally and strongly influenced the intrusion of the Fly River plume in the Torres Strait. The 3D finite-volume MOHID model reproduced the observation that the river plume starts by being stratified in the Gulf of Papua where it originates, and it mixes vertically when it enters the Torres Strait. The MOHID and the SLIM models were applied with different resolution to the Torres Strait and responded similarly to the external forcings. The predicted and observed Fly River plume intrusion in the eastern Torres Strait agreed well with each other, including the formation of patches due to flow reversals. However, the two models predicted a widely different Fly River plume in its far field in the western Torres Strait, the differences were attributed to the different bathymetry in the Australian and British-US bathymetry data for these poorly charted waters, which demonstrated the importance of the details of the bathymetry in controlling the extent of plume intrusion.

  10. Freshwater exhange in the Sunda Strait estimated by Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, J. T.; Hacker, P. W.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific and Indian Oceans are connected at a low latitude via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Through direct observations it is now understood that approximately 10 to 15 Sv of water are transported from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. The implications of this transport, including impacts to water mass formation, heat and freshwater budgets and potential feedbacks to the atmosphere are still under investigation. One of the complexities in this region is the large number of smaller straits and passages between islands that may or may not play an important role in ITF processes. Many of these straits are more narrow than the typical resolution of ocean circulation models, and therefore are not properly simulated. For mass transport this is likely not an issue, since recent observations suggest that most of the mass transport flows via the Makassar Strait and then exits to the Indian Ocean via the Lombok, Ombai and Timor passages. This study, however, focuses on the fresh water transport between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean in particular via the Sunda Strait. There are very few direct observations of the upper ocean stratification in this region. Conversely, the recent launch of the Aquarius mission provides a unique opportunity to study the transport of fresh water, as indicated by sea surface salinity variability, between the Java Sea and the eastern Indian Ocean. Numerical model results, Argo measurements and Aquarius-derived sea surface salinity are used to examine the annual variability of fresh water exchange via the Sunda Strait. Model mass transport is typically low, averaging less than 1 Sv, but fresh water transport could have important implications for stratification along the Sumatra/Java southern coast and thus impact coastal wave propagation. The satellite derived sea surface salinity will be used to show the importance of seasonal variations in this region.

  11. EFFECTS OF TIDAL CURRENT PHASE AT THE JUNCTION OF TWO STRAITS. (R826940)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Estuaries typically have a monotonic increase in salinity from freshwater at the head of the estuary to ocean water at the mouth, creating a consistent direction for the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. However, Mare Island Strait in San Francisco Ba...

  12. EFFECTS OF TIDAL CURRENT PHASE AT THE JUNCTION OF TWO STRAITS. (R826940)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Estuaries typically have a monotonic increase in salinity from freshwater at the head of the estuary to ocean water at the mouth, creating a consistent direction for the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. However, Mare Island Strait in San Francisco Ba...

  13. Neurotoxic flying foxes as dietary items for the Chamorro people, Marianas Islands.

    PubMed

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan J; Cox, Paul Alan

    2006-06-15

    Fanihi -- flying foxes (Pteropus mariannus mariannus, Pteropodidae) -- are a highly salient component of the traditional Chamorro diet. A neurotoxic, non-protein amino acid, beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) accumulates in flying foxes, which forage on the seeds of Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) in Guam's forests. BMAA occurs throughout flying fox tissues both as a free amino acid and in a protein-bound form. It is not destroyed by cooking. Protein-bound BMAA also remains in cycad flour which has been washed and prepared by the Chamorro people as tortillas, dumplings, and thickened soups. Other animals that forage on cycad seeds may also provide BMAA inputs into the traditional Chamorro diet.

  14. Satellite estimate of freshwater exchange between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, James T.; Hacker, Peter W.; Melnichenko, Oleg; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    The straits in Indonesia allow for low-latitude exchange of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Collectively known as the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), this exchange is thought to occur primarily via the Makassar Strait and downstream via Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Timor Passage. The Sunda Strait, between the islands of Sumatra and Java, is a very narrow (≈10 km) and shallow (≈20 m) gap, but it connects the Java Sea directly to the Indian Ocean. Flow through this strait is presumed to be small, given the size of the passage; however, recent observations from the Aquarius satellite indicate periods of significant freshwater transport, suggesting the Sunda Strait may play a more important role in Pacific to Indian Ocean exchange. The nature of this exchange is short-duration (several days) bursts of freshwater injected into the eastern Indian Ocean superimposed on a mean seasonal cycle. The mean volume transport is small averaging about 0.1 Sv toward the Indian Ocean, but the freshwater transport is nonnegligible (estimated at 5.8 mSv). Transport through the strait is hydraulically controlled and directly correlates to the along-strait pressure difference. The episodic low-salinity plumes observed by Aquarius do not, however, appear to be forced by this same mechanism but are instead controlled by convergence of flow at the exit of the Strait in the Indian Ocean. Numerical model results show the fate of this freshwater plume varies with season and is either advected to the northwest along the coast of Sumatra or southerly into the ITF pathway.

  15. Estimation of strait transport in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Hirose, N.; Usui, N.; Tsujino, H.

    2010-12-01

    Volume transport through the major channels is still diverse in realistic eddy-resolving models. For instance, time-mean transport through the Tokara Strait is predicted as 16.9Sv by Maltrud and McClean (2005) or 36-72Sv by Hurlburt et al. (1996). However the difference may be decreased by constraining measurement data, i.e., data assimilation. The assimilated estimates from two different systems of Meteorological Research Institute and Kyushu University (MOVE-WNP and DREAMS_B) show realistic averages of 22-23Sv through the Tokara Strait. Inverse estimation of adjustable parameters implies that reduction of wind stress and strong vertical viscosity are crucial to prevent excessive transport and associated instabilities in a forward model. It is noted that both of the assimilated results show a deep northward flow of 3-4Sv through the Kerama Gap in Ryukyu Islands. The core depth (~500m) of this subsurface current is similar to Ryukyu Current. Further analysis shows coherent changes of Soya and Tsushima Warm Currents, which is consistent to the Okhotsk wind theory of Tsujino et al. (2008). On the other hand, the changes of Tsushima Strait transport are nearly independent from the Kuroshio or the Taiwan Warm Current.

  16. The Identification of Octocorals from the Northern Region of Straits of Malacca

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mahadi; Apandi, Zaharatul Naa’imah; Marican, Hana Abdul Wahab; Kamphol, Nadthikphorn; Mubin, Nur Ain Amani Abdul; Salleh, Sazlina; Ismail, Md Nizam

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the northern region of the Straits of Malacca have a diverse group of octocorals growing on its bed. The octocorals identified in this study are from islands along the Straits. In this study, 23 specimens were identified, belonging to 4 sub-orders, which have been subdivided into 8 families. From these 8 families, 15 different genera have been identified. The identification process for this research was conducted based on five important keys; the external form and colouration, polyps or colonial and fundamental structure of colonies, monomorphic or dimorphic, the arrangement of polyps, and the arrangement of sclerites. PMID:27965745

  17. Fram Strait sea ice outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Pang, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize 24 years of ice export estimates and examine, over a 9-year record, the associated variability in the time-varying upward-looking sonar (ULS) thickness distributions of the Fram Strait. A more thorough assessment of the PMW (passive microwave) ice motion with 5 years of synthetic aperture radar (SAR)observations shows the uncertainties to be consistent with that found by Kwok and Rothrock [1999], giving greater confidence to the record of ice flux calculations.

  18. Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    echo sounders (PIESs) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal interaction with topography in Luzon Strait (Fig. 1), and to...Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] (see Li et al. 2009). Five instruments were deployed in a pilot study and 13 were deployed at the...internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. Li Qiang & David M Farmer (2011), The Generation and

  19. Bedform facies in western Torres Strait and the influence of hydrodynamics, coastal geometry, and sediment supply on their distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-04-01

    This study uses outputs from hydrodynamic and bedload transport models combined with satellite imagery, aerial photography, and bathymetric data to understand the distributions and mechanisms maintaining six spatially extensive bedform facies in western Torres Strait. Changes in bedform morphology occur along north-south variations in coastal geometry and east-west variations in hydrodynamic regime. Numerous islands create an environment that favours the formation of banner banks in the south, while other sandbank morphologies occur on an extensive and comparatively 'flat' basement to the north. The western side of Torres Strait experiences net bedload transport that is directed to the west throughout the year and favours the formation of bedforms that prefer unidirectional bedload transport regimes (i.e. barchan-shaped sandbanks and sand ribbons). The eastern side of the strait experiences seasonal changes in the direction of net bedload transport and maintains 'S' and 'V' shaped sandbanks. Sediment availability also influences the bedform facies. Western Torres Strait experiences net westward bedload transport through the Strait. However, sandbanks (indicating high sediment availability) are found in the central shallow and high current velocity areas, while sand ribbons (indicating low sediment availability) are a distal facies on the western side of the Strait. This sequence of bedforms indicates that sediments are preferentially trapped within the central portion of the Strait and not transported further west into the Gulf of Carpentaria.

  20. Social Justice Report, 1999. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, HREOC. Report to the Attorney-General as Required by Section 46C(1)(a) of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, William

    This report examines the disadvantaged and marginalized condition of the Indigenous peoples of Australia as a human rights issue, focusing on issues concerning Indigenous young people. Permeating the report is the idea that this disadvantage arises from a history of overt and structural discrimination and that special efforts and differential…

  1. Body mass index, life-style, and healthy status in free living elderly people in Menorca Island.

    PubMed

    Ferra, A; Bibiloni, M Del Mar; Zapata, M E; Pich, J; Pons, A; Tur, J A

    2012-04-01

    To assess the BMI, life-style, and healthy status, and explore relationships between these parameters, among Menorca's free living elderly people. A cross-sectional survey carried out in Menorca Island in 2009. A random sample (n=450) of the elderly population (≥65 years) was interviewed. Anthropometric measurements and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors and health status were used. Approximately five per cent of elders were underweight and 60% overweight or obese. Underweight were positively and overweight and obesity negatively affected by age. The prevalence of central obesity, according to the WC cut-off points, was 66.8% in men and 85.1% in women. Low education, socioeconomic status and physical activity were risk factors for malnutrition and overweight/obesity. A possible cognitive impairment was found among elderly persons with BMI<22 kg/m2. A J-shaped association between BMI and hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, heart failure and other CV diseases, a U-shaped relation between BMI and diabetes mellitus, arthritis, and chronic bronchitis, and an inverted J-shape between BMI and gastric ulcer, osteoporosis and bone fractures, cancer, and prostatitis (in men) were found. Both low and high BMI are associated with a wide range of prevalent conditions and diseases in Menorca elderly men and women.

  2. Climate change and consequences in the Arctic: perception of climate change by the Nenets people of Vaigach Island.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Alexander N; Mikhailova, Galina V

    2011-01-01

    Arctic climate change is already having a significant impact on the environment, economic activity, and public health. For the northern peoples, traditions and cultural identity are closely related to the natural environment so any change will have consequences for society in several ways. A questionnaire was given to the population on the Vaigach island, the Nenets who rely to a large degree on hunting, fishing and reindeer herding for survival. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted about perception of climate change. Climate change is observed and has already had an impact on daily life according to more than 50% of the respondents. The winter season is now colder and longer and the summer season colder and shorter. A decrease in standard of living was noticeable but few were planning to leave. Climate change has been noticed in the region and it has a negative impact on the standard of living for the Nenets. However, as of yet they do not want to leave as cultural identity is important for their overall well-being.

  3. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Transport estimates in the Strait of Gibraltar with a tidal inverse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baschek, Burkard; Send, Uwe; Lafuente, Jesus Garcia; Candela, Julio

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the volume transport through the Strait of Gibraltar and to study the spatial structure of the time-variable flow, a varying number of current meter moorings were maintained at the eastern entrance of the strait between October 1994 and April 1998, and was complemented with intensive shipboard measurements during the European Union project Canary Island Azores Gibraltar Experiment (CANIGO). A tidal inverse model is used to merge these data sets in order to investigate the flow at the eastern entrance of the strait. The two-dimensional structure of the tidal flow was described by simple analytical functions. Harmonics with the seven most important tidal frequencies were used as temporal functions. With this model, the tidal currents can be predicted for any time and location at the eastern entrance of the strait, and more than 92% of the variance of the lower layer flow is explained. It was used to remove the tidal currents from the individual measurements and to calculate the mean flow through the strait from the residuals. Combined with a similar inverse model for determining the depth of the interface between Mediterranean and Atlantic water, the volume transport was estimated to be 0.81±0.07 Sv for the upper layer and -0.76±0.07 Sv for the lower layer. The correlation of the tidal currents and the fluctuations of the interface accounts for ˜7% of the transport at the eastern entrance.

  6. On Flow Variability in the Bosphorus Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-27

    Akten, 2003]. Hence, understanding of the flow dynamics in the Bosphorus is essential and appealing not only to marine scientists but also to...along-strait momentum balance is expressed as follows: du’ r drf rx -rr • T» ~ -«7 r at h ox pah (2) where u’ is the along-strait

  7. Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

  8. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  9. Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples.

    PubMed

    Mau, Marjorie K; Asao, Karynna; Efird, Jimmy; Saito, Erin; Ratner, Robert; Hafi, Muhannad; Seto, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a long term outcome of chronic methamphetamine use (MU), occurs more frequently in racial and ethnic minority populations at high risk for cardiovascular disparities. This study examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with MU among heart failure patients who are Native Hawaiians (NH) or other Pacific Island peoples (PIP). DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENT POPULATION: Cross-sectional study of NHs and PIPs with advanced heart failure enrolled in the Malama Pu'uwai Study, a randomized control trial to test an educational intervention to reduce re-hospitalization and/or death. A total of 82 participants were enrolled between 6/1/06 to 12/31/07 and met the following eligibility criteria: 1) self-identified NH or PIP, 2) Left ventricular systolic ejection fraction 50 years, OR = 0.16, 95% CI, 0.03-0.84; non-married status combined as never married OR = 8.5, CI, 1.5-47; divorced/separated OR = 11, CI 1.8-75). RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MU IN NH AND PIPS WITH HEART FAILURE INCLUDE: younger age and being divorced/separated or never married. Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs.

  10. Using paleolimnology to track the impacts of early Arctic peoples on freshwater ecosystems from southern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelutti, Neal; McCleary, Kathryn M.; Antoniades, Dermot; Sutherland, Patricia; Blais, Jules M.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2013-09-01

    Paleolimnological approaches can be used to determine the ways in which past Arctic peoples have affected the ecosystems in which they live, and simultaneously to reconstruct the climate and other aspects of the environment that may have influenced local populations. Here we analyze sediment cores from seven ponds on the south-western coast of Baffin Island, Nunavut, in order to assess the impacts of early Arctic peoples on freshwater ecosystems. Prior to the historic Inuit occupation, the study area was extensively inhabited by Thule culture Inuit (ca 1200-1600 AD) and by an earlier Arctic group, the Dorset culture Palaeo-Eskimos (ca 500 BC-1500 AD) and their predecessors from as early as 2500 BC. The study ponds were selected to cover a gradient of the intensity of human activity in their catchments. The ecological impacts of early hunting societies can be detected using paleolimnology because the butchering of marine mammals released nutrients that eutrophied nearby ponds and left distinct geochemical signals in the sediments. The degree of eutrophication in the small freshwater ponds depended on the length of the occupation, as well as the amount and type of marine mammals taken as primary prey items (eg, whales, walrus, or seals). All sediment cores were AMS 14C dated to establish their chronologies, and analyzed for diatoms and stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N). Both diatoms and sedimentary δ15N have been previously demonstrated to respond sensitively to nutrient enrichment from Inuit whalers. Our δ15N and diatom data record nutrient enrichment in lakes surrounded by either long-term Thule or Dorset settlements. The Dorset sites that were the locations of periodic seasonal gatherings did not register any evidence of eutrophication in the nearby ponds, reflecting the shorter, less intensive nature of these occupations. Similarly, nearby control ponds with no evidence of significant human activity in their catchments showed little-to-no changes in δ15N

  11. Cloud streets in Davis Strait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The late winter sun shone brightly on a stunning scene of clouds and ice in the Davis Strait in late February, 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image on February 22 at 1625 UTC. The Davis Strait connects the Labrador Sea (part of the Atlantic Ocean) in the south with Baffin Bay to the north, and separates Canada, to the west, from Greenland to the east. Strong, steady winds frequently blow southward from the colder Baffin Bay to the warmer waters of the Labrador Sea. Over ice, the air is dry and no clouds form. However, as the Arctic air moves over the warmer, open water the rising moist air and the temperature differential gives rise to lines of clouds. In this image, the clouds are aligned in a beautiful, parallel pattern. Known as “cloud streets”, this pattern is formed in a low-level wind, with the clouds aligning in the direction of the wind. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Connectivity among straits of the northwest Pacific marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yang-Ki; Seo, Gwang-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Sangil; Kim, Young-Gyu; Youn, Yong-Hoon; Dever, Edward P.

    2009-06-01

    The connectivity among straits of the northwest Pacific marginal seas is investigated with a primitive-equation ocean circulation model simulated for 10 years from 1994 to 2003. Over the simulation interval the temporal and spatial means and variations of the model sea surface temperature are comparable to those of the satellite sea surface temperature. The model transport through the straits shows good agreement with the available observations and a high seasonality in the Taiwan Strait, the Korea Strait, and the Soya Strait but relatively low seasonality in the Tsugaru Strait. The Kuroshio and Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) are two sources of water flowing through the Korea Strait. The volume transport in the Korea Strait is dominated by the Kuroshio in winter (83%) and by the TWC in summer (66%). Relative to the transport through the Korea Strait, the transport percentages of the Tsugaru Strait connecting to the northwest Pacific Ocean are 79% in winter and 65% in summer. The seasonality of the Korea Strait transport is positively correlated with the cross-strait wind stress. The drifter experiments show that it takes about 4 months for most of the drifters deployed in the Taiwan Strait to enter the Korea Strait and more than 2 months to travel from the Korea Strait to the Tsugaru and Soya straits.

  13. A history of the people of Bikini following nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: with recollections and views of elders of Bikini Atoll.

    PubMed

    Niedenthal, J

    1997-07-01

    The people of Bikini Atoll were moved from their homeland in 1946 to make way for the testing of 23 nuclear weapons by the United States government, beginning with the world's fourth atomic detonation. The subsequent half-century exodus of the Bikini people included a 2-y stay on Rongerik Atoll, where near starvation resulted, and a 6-mo sojourn on Kwajalein Atoll, where they lived in tents beside a runway used by the U.S. military. In 1948, they were finally relocated to Kili, a small, isolated, 200-acre island owned by the U.S. Trust Territory government. Numerous hardships have been faced there, not the least of which was the loss of skills required for self-sustenance. Located 425 miles south of Bikini, Kili Island is without a sheltered lagoon. Thus for six months of the year, fishing and sailing become futile endeavors. Because of the residual radioactive contamination from the nuclear testing, the majority of the Bikinian population still resides on Kili today. One attempt was made to resettle Bikini in the late 1960's when President Lyndon B. Johnson, on recommendations from the Atomic Energy Commission, declared Bikini Atoll safe for habitation. In 1978, however, it was discovered by the U.S. Department of Energy that in the span of only one year, some of the returned islanders were showing a 75% increase in their body burdens of 137Cs. In 1978, the people residing on Bikini were moved again, this time to a small island in Majuro Atoll. In the early 1980's, the Bikinians filed a class action lawsuit against the U.S. government for damages arising out of the nuclear testing program. Although the claim was dismissed, eventually a $90 million trust fund was established for their local government. Since then the leaders of the people of Bikini residing on Kili Island and Majuro Atoll have been confronted with the immense responsibility of determining how to clean their atoll while at the same time maintaining the health and welfare of their displaced

  14. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  15. Seasonal variability of water transport through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high-resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    2005-08-01

    The variability of the water transport through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica) was investigated using a high-resolution model. This model of the Mediterranean circulation was developed in the context of the Mercator project. The region of interest is the western Mediterranean between the Strait of Gibraltar and the Strait of Sicily. The major water masses and the winter convection in the Gulf of Lions were simulated. The model reproduced the meso-scale and large-scale patterns of the circulation in very good agreement with recent observations. The western and the eastern gyres of the Alboran Sea were observed but high interannual variability was noticed. The Algerian Current splits into several branches at the longitude of the Strait of Sicily level, forming the Tyrrhenian branch, and, the Atlantic Ionian Stream and the Atlantic Tunisian Current in the eastern Mediterranean. The North Current retroflexed north of the Balearic Islands and a dome structure was observed in the Gulf of Lions. The cyclonic barotropic Algerian gyre, which was recently observed during the MATER and ELISA experiment, was evidenced in the simulation. From time-series of 10-day mean transport, the three straits presented a high variability at short time-scales. The transport was generally maximum, in April for the Strait of Gibraltar, in November for the Strait of Sicily, and in January for the Strait of Corsica. The amplitudes of the transport through the Straits of Gibraltar (0.11 Sv) and Sicily (0.30 Sv) presented a weaker seasonal variability than that of the Strait of Corsica (0.70 Sv). The study of the relation between transport and wind forcing showed that the transport through the Strait of Gibraltar is dependent on local zonal wind over short time-scales (70%), which was not the case for the other straits (less than 30%). The maximum (minimum) of the transport occurred for an eastward (westward) wind stress in the strait. An interannual

  16. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  17. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  18. Population subdivision of the tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, in Taiwan Strait.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Che; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Chen, Chang-Po

    2007-03-01

    The genetic structure of the Asian tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, was investigated in three populations of Taiwan Strait using mitochondrial (mt) AT-rich region DNA sequences. We examined 23 individuals from Kinmen, an island located on the western side of Taiwan Strait, and 12 each from Tiexianwei and Dongwei near Magong Island in the Penghu Archipelago, in the middle of Taiwan Strait. DNA sequence analysis of 369 base pairs (bp) of the mt AT-rich region revealed 10 haplotypes among the 47 individuals, with a mean haplotypic diversity (h) of 0.626+/-0.075 and nucleotide diversity (pi) of 0.0039+/-0.00055. Pairwise F-statistics (F(ST)) revealed significantly high gene flow between Kinmen and Dongwei (F(ST)=-0.0351, p>0.05, N(e)m=infinity), but marked population subdivision and restricted gene flow between Kinmen and Tiexianwei (F(ST)=0.1382, p<0.05, N(e)m=3.1176). Between populations at Magong Island, gene flow was moderate (F(ST)=0.0634, p>0.05, N(e)m=7.3913). Mismatch distribution analysis indicated that the relatively low haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed in the Tiexianwei T. tridentatus population can be attributed to a recent bottleneck, probably due to isolation of Tiexianwei in semi-closed Magong Bay that prevents gene flow from neighboring populations.

  19. Gravitational circulation in a tidal strait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Burau, J.R.; Simpson, M.R.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Eight months of continuous measurements of tidal current profiles with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were made in Carquinez Strait, California, during 1988 for the purpose of estimating long-term variations in vertical profiles of Eulerian residual currents. Salinity stratification near the ADCP deployment site also was analyzed. The strength of density-driven gravitational circulation and the amount of salinity stratification in the strait varied significantly over the spring-neap tidal cycle. Density currents and stratification were greater during neap tides when vertical mixing from the tide is at a minimum. Landward residual currents along the bottom were observed only during neap tides. Simulations made with a three-dimensional model to supplement the field measurements show a significant, tidally induced lateral variation in residual currents across the strait. The Stokes drift of 1-2 cm/s in the strait is small relative to the speed of gravitational currents.

  20. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  1. Interaction between forest biodiversity and people's use of forest resources in Roviana, Solomon Islands: implications for biocultural conservation under socioeconomic changes.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Takuro; Sirikolo, Myknee Qusa; Sasaoka, Masatoshi; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2014-01-27

    In Solomon Islands, forests have provided people with ecological services while being affected by human use and protection. This study used a quantitative ethnobotanical analysis to explore the society-forest interaction and its transformation in Roviana, Solomon Islands. We compared local plant and land uses between a rural village and urbanized village. Special attention was paid to how local people depend on biodiversity and how traditional human modifications of forest contribute to biodiversity conservation. After defining locally recognized land-use classes, vegetation surveys were conducted in seven forest classes. For detailed observations of daily plant uses, 15 and 17 households were randomly selected in the rural and urban villages, respectively. We quantitatively documented the plant species that were used as food, medicine, building materials, and tools. The vegetation survey revealed that each local forest class represented a different vegetative community with relatively low similarity between communities. Although commercial logging operations and agriculture were both prohibited in the customary nature reserve, local people were allowed to cut down trees for their personal use and to take several types of non-timber forest products. Useful trees were found at high frequencies in the barrier island's primary forest (68.4%) and the main island's reserve (68.3%). Various useful tree species were found only in the reserve forest and seldom available in the urban village. In the rural village, customary governance and control over the use of forest resources by the local people still functioned. Human modifications of the forest created unique vegetation communities, thus increasing biodiversity overall. Each type of forest had different species that varied in their levels of importance to the local subsistence lifestyle, and the villagers' behaviors, such as respect for forest reserves and the semidomestication of some species, contributed to

  2. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  3. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  4. Ice-Ocean Interactions to the North-West of Greenland: Glaciers, Straits, Ice Bridges, and the Rossby Radius (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenchow, A.; Falkner, K. K.; Melling, H.; Johnson, H. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Ryan, P.; Friends Of Petermann

    2010-12-01

    Petermann Glacier at 81 N latitude is a major outlet glacier adjacent to Nares Strait. It terminates in a long (70 km), narrow (16 km) and thin (50 m) floating tongue and has a grounding line more than 500 m below sea level. A calving event in 2010 reduced the floating area by 25% and produced a single 240 km2 ice island currently moving south in Nares Strait where it will likely interact with island to potentially create a temporary polynya in Nares Strait. The 2010 calving from Petermann Glacier contributes <10% to its mass balance as more than 80% is lost due to basal melting by the ocean. Hence the largely unexplored physics at the ice-ocean interface determine how a changing climate impacts this outlet glacier. Conducting exploratory surveys inside Petermann Fjord in 2003, 2007, and 2009, we find a 1100 m deep fjord connected to Nares Strait via a sill at 350-450 m depth. The fjord receives about 3 times the amount of heat required for the basal melt rates. Furthermore, limited data and analytical modeling suggests a 3-dimensional circulation over the upper 300-m of the water column with a coastally trapped buoyant outflow. We integrate these findings with more complete oceanic time series data from an array moored in Nares Strait from 2003 through 2009 near 80.5 N. In the past Nares Strait and Petermann Fjord were covered by land fast sea ice during the 9-10 month long winter season. Archeological and remotely sensed records indicate that an ice bridge formed regularly at the southern end of Nares Strait creating the North-Water polynya near 79 N latitude. Since 2006 this ice bridge has largely failed to form, leading, perhaps, to the occasional formation of a secondary ice bridge 300 km to the north where Nares Strait connects to the Arctic Ocean. However, this ice bridge appears to form for shorter periods only. Consequently Arctic sea ice can now exit the Arctic in winter via pathways to the west of Greenland all year. We speculate that this changed ocean

  5. Arctic Outflow West Of Greenland: Nine Years Of Volume And Freshwater Transports From Observations In Davis Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, B.; Lee, C.; Petrie, B.; Moritz, R. E.; Kwok, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Arctic changes suggest alterations in the export of freshwater from the Arctic to the North Atlantic, with conceivable impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation. Approximately 50% of the Arctic outflow exits west of Greenland, traveling through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and into Baffin Bay before crossing Davis Strait. The CAA outflow contributes over 50% of the net southward freshwater outflow through Davis Strait. The remainder is deeper outflow from Baffin Bay, flow from the West Greenland Current and runoff from West Greenland and CAA glaciers. Since September 2004, an observational program in Davis Strait has quantified volume and freshwater transport variability. The year-round program includes velocity, temperature and salinity measurements from 15 moorings spanning the full width (330 km) of the strait accompanied by autonomous Seagliders surveys (average profile separation = 4 km) and autumn ship-based hydrographic sections. Over the shallow Baffin Island and West Greenland shelves, moored instrumentation provides temperature and salinity measurements near the ice-ocean interface. From 2004-2013, the average net volume and liquid freshwater transports are -1.6 ± 0.2 Sv, -94 ± 7 mSv, respectively (salinity referenced to 34.8 and negative indicates southward transport); sea ice contributes an additional -10 ± 1 mSv. Over this period, volume and liquid freshwater transports show significant interannual variability and no clear trends, but a comparison with reanalyzed 1987-90 data indicate a roughly 40% decrease in net southward liquid volume transport and a corresponding an almost 30% decrease in freshwater transport. Connections between the Arctic are also captured, e.g., a unique yearlong Davis Strait freshening event starting September 2009 that was likely driven by an earlier freshening (January 2009 - April/May 2010) in the Canadian Arctic. The Davis Strait autumn 2009 salinity minimum was fresher (by about 0

  6. The interaction of short surface waves with stratified flow in Raccoon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, T. T.; Pearman, D. W.; Herbers, T. H.; Largier, J. L.; McIntyre, S.; Jessen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Strong tidal currents and complex wave-current interaction characterize the west side of Raccoon Strait, the narrow waterway between Angel Island and the Tiburon Peninsula in San Francisco Bay. The surface and internal hydrodynamics in this area are strongly affected by the presence of a shallow sill (depth ~10m) that extends partially across the strait near the western tip of Angel Island. In this work we present observations collected during several field experiments in 2011 and 2012 in Raccoon Strait, San Francisco Bay, using shipboard ADCP, bottom mounted ADCPs, CTDs, and Wave Resolving Drifters (WRDs). By combining observations from bottom-mounted, fixed (Eulerian) instruments and newly developed Lagrangian drifters that can resolve wind wave dynamics and surface drifts, we relate the spatial structure of the stratified flow dynamics with the observed wave evolution in the area. We analyze the interaction and characteristics of the wave blocking dynamics observed near the sill, the development of a subduction zone of surface waters during flood tide, and the occurrence of an internal lee wave downstream of the sill.

  7. The role of coastal-trapped waves on the 2008 cold disaster in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Enhui; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu

    2017-05-01

    In early 2008, cold water in the Taiwan Strait (TWS) was moved sequentially by a cross-strait flow and a southward flow to the Penghu Island, causing a cold-related fish kill disaster. Except for the local wind forcing, the coastal-trapped waves (CTWs), intermittently propagating toward the TWS from north in winter, are an additional factor that could impact the flow patterns by changing cross-strait sea-level gradient during the disaster. In the first stage (January 28-February 7), the reach of a large CTW trough induced an additional northward flow, which formed a cyclone after turning around the Zhangyun Ridge. Then, the cyclone led to an additional cross flow, which enhanced an eastward (offshore) movement of cold water. In the second stage (February 7-14), the arrival of a large CTW crest triggered an additional southward flow, which intensified a southward movement of the cold water. Due to the additional eastward and southward movements caused by the CTWs, the cold water could reach Penghu Island inducing a cold disaster.

  8. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  9. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  11. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  12. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  13. Analysis of Complex Sand Waves in Raccoon Strait, San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, M. E.; Sautter, L.

    2016-02-01

    College of Charleston BEAMS (BEnthic Acoustic Mapping and Survey) students sailed aboard the eTrac, Inc. vessel S/V Pulse in December 2014 as part of a multibeam survey of Raccoon Strait, the channel separating Point Tiburon and Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. Multibeam data were processed using CARIS HIPS and SIPS 9.0, revealing complex and dynamic bathymetry of Raccoon Strait, consisting of sand waves varying significantly in length, height, and orientation. Water depths within the strait range from 8 to 65 m, and sand waves range in length from less than 5 m to more than 500 m, with several having heights exceeding 300 m. These sand waves were classified by their geomorphology, and further characterized using backscatter intensity. Wave symmetry, dimensions, and orientation were used to compare the relative ebb and flood tidal energy flowing through the channel. Raccoon Strait is known to have some of the strongest tidal currents in the San Francisco Bay, due to both the narrow 1 km channel width and its proximity to the bay's mouth. The Strait's southern margin sand waves are oriented eastward towards the inside of the bay and northern margin sand waves are oriented westward towards the bay mouth indicating forceful tidal currents in both ebb and flood directions. The distinctly different flow paths may be the result of Coriolis influence within this large estuarine bay. This study shows how high resolution bathymetry and backscatter can be used to study dynamic inshore sites. Repeated surveys of this area could be used to document migration of these large sand bodies.

  14. Sediment Distribution in Central San Francisco Bay in the Vicinity of Raccoon Strait.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, K. A.; White, L. D.; Vavro, M.; Tran, J.; Basconcillo, N.; Kheradyar, T.; Pestrong, R.

    2003-12-01

    We collected sediment grab samples from twenty-one sites distributed within a 2-km2 area in Central San Francisco Bay, including Raccoon Strait, which is located between the Tiburon Peninsula and Angel Island. We gathered these samples in May and August of 2003, dried and disaggregated them using a Gilson Sieve Tester, and analyzed the sediments by weight percent. Our purpose in monitoring sediment distributions over time in Central San Francisco Bay is to gain understanding of the oceanographic dynamics of the bay-delta estuarine system. Our initial results indicate that grain sizes range from > 2 millimeters to < 125 microns with coarser samples located at the entrance to Raccoon Strait. We anticipate collecting samples from these twenty-one sites in November of 2003, and eventually relating the sediment distribution patterns to seasonal variations in transport. This study is part of a larger-scale project involving bedform migration and current transport in Central San Francisco Bay.

  15. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  16. Tidal propagation and dissipation in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Huaming; Wang, Lu; Kuang, Liang; Wang, Hui; Ding, Yang; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lawen, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Previous research on tides and tidal dynamics in the Taiwan Strait (TS) is reviewed in this paper. Tidal dynamics, which is the basic and dominant hydrodynamics in this area, attracts much interest in the last 30 years and till now its physical mechanism is still in debate. In this study, the major research methods and findings of previous works on barotropic tides in the TS are summarized. Based on Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1) are well simulated with the mean root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 4.7, 2.0, 1.3 and 0.7 cm between the observed and simulated tidal constants, respectively. It has been proved that semi-diurnal tidal movement is mainly determined by the waves from the East China Sea (ECS), while waves from the ECS and the Luzon Strait (LS) play comparable roles in diurnal tidal movement in the TS by linear superposition and the interaction of these two waves is the main cause for the progressive diurnal tidal waves in the TS. Furthermore, energy analysis revealed that the M2 tidal wave system in the TS and its adjacent area south to the shoal is an standing wave system and the anti-node appears in the central TS while the wave node locates in the shoal area, which can be contributed to the interaction of the incident waves from the ECS and the topography step south to Taiwan island, while the shoal also has an impact on the whole semi-diurnal tidal wave system in the TS. This standing wave system is consistent with the little energy dissipation in the central TS and much energy dissipation in the southern TS, where the shallow water effect also contributes to the local dissipation to some extent.

  17. First Davis Strait discovery overcomes offshore hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.

    1982-04-01

    In spite of icebergs umpredictable currents and brief drilling seasons, the first discovery well was completed recently in the Davis Strait. The success of this well, known as Hekja 0-71, has opened the waters off the northeastern coast of Canada to more exploration. A discussion is presented of how the well was drilled, the problems encountered and how they were overcome.

  18. On the hydrography of Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropole, Dana; Pickart, Robert S.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn; Vâge, Kjetil; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Girton, James

    2017-01-01

    Using 111 shipboard hydrographic sections across Denmark Strait occupied between 1990 and 2012, we characterize the mean conditions at the sill, quantify the water mass constituents, and describe the dominant features of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). The mean vertical sections of temperature, salinity, and density reveal the presence of circulation components found upstream of the sill, in particular the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC. These correspond to hydrographic fronts consistent with surface-intensified southward flow. Deeper in the water column the isopycnals slope oppositely, indicative of bottom-intensified flow of DSOW. An end-member analysis indicates that the deepest part of Denmark Strait is dominated by Arctic-Origin Water with only small amounts of Atlantic-Origin Water. On the western side of the strait, the overflow water is a mixture of both constituents, with a contribution from Polar Surface Water. Weakly stratified "boluses" of dense water are present in 41% of the occupations, revealing that this is a common configuration of DSOW. The bolus water is primarily Arctic-Origin Water and constitutes the densest portion of the overflow. The boluses have become warmer and saltier over the 22 year record, which can be explained by changes in end-member properties and their relative contributions to bolus composition.

  19. Internal tide in the Kara Gates Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, E. G.; Kozlov, I. E.; Shchuka, S. A.; Frey, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    We observed strong internal tidal waves in the Kara Gates Strait. Internal tides are superimposed over a system of mean currents from the Barents to the Kara Sea. Field studies of internal tides in the Kara Gates were performed in 1997, 2007, and 2015. In 2015, we analyzed data from towed CTD measurements, numerical model calculations, and satellite images in the region. An internal tidal wave with a period of 12.4 h is generated due to the interaction between the currents of the barotropic tide and the bottom relief on the slopes of a ridge that crosses the strait from Novaya Zemlya to the continent. The depths of the ridge crest are 30-40 m. A constant current of relatively warm water flows from the Barents to the Kara Sea. An internal wave propagates in both directions from the ridge. In the Barents Sea, internal waves are intensified by the current from the Barents to the Kara Sea. Internal bores followed by a packet of short-period internal waves are found in both directions from the strait. Satellite images show that short-period internal waves are generated after the internal bore. A hydraulic jump was found on the eastern side of the strait. Numerical modeling agrees with the experimental results.

  20. Spring Ice Chokes the Bering Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MODIS image of the Bering Sea, Bering Straight and southern Arctic Ocean acquired 7 May 2000. Image generated from MODIS band 2 (0.85 um) at 250 m spatial resolution. Detailed structure and leads in the ice pack are apparent. Ice flow from the Bering Strait southward to the Bearing Sea is seen in great detail. George Riggs, NASA GSFC

  1. Gliders in the Fram Strait Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Schauer, Ursula; Rohr, Harald; Lee, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Variability of oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait, one of the main gateways to the Arctic Ocean, has been monitored since 1997 by the array of 16 moorings and summer hydrographic sections. The main focus is on the inflow of warm Atlantic waters from the Nordic Seas, the only source of heat for the Arctic Ocean, and on the freshwater outflow to the North Atlantic. However, spatial resolution of the moored array, which varies from 10 to 30 km, is not sufficient to resolve the mesoscale variability of the complex, topographically flow through the strait. In the recently established multidisciplinary Fram Strait Observatory a combination of oceanographic observations by moorings and gliders with acoustic tomography measurements and the eddy-resolving numerical model will provide a new tool to assess the contribution of mesoscale dynamics to the variability of oceanic fluxes through Fram Strait. Since 2007, in the framework of the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the long-term moored observations in Fram Strait have been complemented with repeated glider sections. During eight summer and autumn missions the oceanographic data with high spatial resolution were collected down to 1000 m by Seagliders profiling along the moored array. Here we report on the results from five years of gliders measurements and a comparison of glider data to observations from moorings and ship-borne CTD sections. The special attention is paid to measurements in the West Spitsbergen Current, where gliders have to operate in the strong current regime (occasional events up to 1 m/s). Spatially averaged glider data were also applied in the finite element inverse model FEMSECT and preliminary results are presented. Future plans envisage a substitution of the upper part of moored array with repeated glider sections to achieve year-round glider operations in the partially sea-ice covered region. Since 2010 the array of RAFOS sources and tomographic sources providing RAFOS signal with

  2. Quantifying submarine landslide processes driven by active tectonic forcing: Cook Strait submarine canyon, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Barnes, P. M.; Pettinga, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Cook Strait submarine canyon system is a multi-branched, deeply incised and highly sinuous feature of New Zealand's active margin, covering some 1500km2 of sea floor between the North and South Islands and spanning water depths of between 50 and 2700m. The canyon occurs at the transition from the westward dipping oblique subduction zone adjacent to the SE North Island and the zone of continental transpression in NE South Island. The recent acquisition of high resolution (5-10m) SIMRAD EM300 bathymetric data allows active tectonic and geomorphic processes to be assessed and quantified at a level of detail previously not possible. While multiple active submarine fault traces have been identified in the Cook Strait by previous studies, quantitative information on their activity has been limited. Cook Strait is structurally characterized by westward dipping thrust faults and E-W trending dextral strike slip faults. The multiple large magnitude high frequency earthquake sources define zones of very high ground shaking expected to contribute to triggering of extensive submarine slope failures. Landslide activity within the canyon system is widespread and represents the dominant mass movement process affecting canyon heads and walls, redistributing material into valley fills. Complexes of large (km3) multi-stepped, deep-seated (100m) translational bedding plane failures represented by gently sloping (<3°) evacuated slide-scar areas with associated blocky valley fill deposits are numerous. Steep catchment heads, channel walls and the leading edges of asymmetric thrust-fault driven anticlines are dominated by gulley and rill systems with associated eroded and/or incipient slump features. Large (107m3+) slide blocks are recognized in discrete failures with quantifiable displacement vectors. Tsunamigenic landslides in this environment are inevitable. This study will provide quantification of landslide models including triggering mechanisms, discrete geometries and

  3. Chlorophyll distribution in a temperate estuary: The Strait of Georgia and Juan de Fuca Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Diane; Peña, Angelica

    2009-03-01

    Data collected during 7 years of seasonal surveys are used to investigate the distribution of phytoplankton biomass within the estuarine waters of the Strait of Georgia and Juan de Fuca Strait. Variability of the chlorophyll distribution is examined in relation to the density stratification, light availability and nutrient concentration. In the Strait of Georgia, both the horizontal and vertical distribution of chlorophyll are found to be linked to the presence of a near-surface layer of increased density stratification. Despite important year-to-year variability, the seasonal cycle of chlorophyll in the Strait of Georgia is dominated every year by relatively large near-surface concentrations in the spring that are linked to the seasonal increase in solar radiation onto the stratified near-surface layer. In the vertical, a sub-surface peak is observed around 10 m depth, corresponding to the depth of maximum water column stability. Nutrients within the euphotic zone are in general abundant, with the exception of the Strait of Georgia in summer where phytoplankton growth is potentially limited by low nitrate concentration near the surface. The depth of the euphotic zone is estimated along the thalweg of the estuary from transmissometer profiles. It appears to vary relatively little within the estuary from a minimum of 20 m in spring, near the mouth of the Fraser River, to an autumnal maximum of about 30 m in the northern Strait of Georgia. Finally, the estimated self-shading contribution to light attenuation is shown to be generally significant (5-10%) in the surface waters of the Strait of Georgia, during spring and summer, reaching values as high as 35% during the spring bloom.

  4. Introduced marine species: Management arrangements of consideration for the Torres Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, Kerry M.; Hilliard, Robert; Russell, Barry; Clark, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Introduced marine species (IMS) can have significant impacts on economic, ecological, social and cultural aspects of coastal marine environments. There is, therefore, a need to minimise these impacts through the implementation of comprehensive and consistent management strategies and monitoring processes that work towards preventing introductions, detecting introductions if they were to occur and managing incursions should they be detected. There is also the need to ensure that approaches taken are comparable to provide consistency of IMS management effort, particularly across areas that are multi-jurisdictional (e.g. spanning State or Territory borders). A number of studies have examined IMS, their vectors and management arrangements for the Torres Strait region, a multi-jurisdictional area between Queensland, Australia and Papua New Guinea. This paper presents information from a baseline survey conducted in the Torres Strait for marine pests in conjunction with a synthesis of information from other studies on IMS risks, their vectors and management strategies of relevance to the Torres Strait region. A number of strengths, but also gaps, between the various jurisdictions have been identified and discussed. Processes such as the establishment of Biosecurity Queensland as a specialist group and the development of the National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions are occurring. However, the Torres Strait region is at current risk of marine pest inoculation, particularly for species such as Perna viridis, and management strategies to minimise this risk are lacking. The information presented here will assist management groups in their ability to work towards mitigating the risk of an IMS being translocated to and negatively impacting the unique and diverse ecology of the marine systems, and the industries, people and customs that rely on the coastal marine environment for food, recreation and commerce in the Torres Strait.

  5. Magnetic properties as tracers for source-to-sink dispersal of sediments: A case study in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Chorng-Shern; Huh, Chih-An

    2011-09-01

    Different lithologies between Taiwan and southeastern China lead to diverse mineralogical composition for weathering products derived from the two shores of the Taiwan Strait. Pyrrhotite and magnetite are respectively the dominant magnetic minerals associated with fluvial sediments from western Taiwan and southeastern China. While magnetite commonly co-exists with pyrrhotite in sediments sourced from Taiwan, pyrrhotite has not been found in sediments sourced from mainland China. Associated with such a distinction are vast differences in magnetic properties, including magnetic susceptibility (χ), SIRM, HIRM and the S-ratio, which can be used to study the provenances of sediments in the Taiwan Strait and adjoining marginal seas. Based on any two of these parameters, the magnetic characteristics of much of the Taiwan Strait sediment can be explained using a two-endmember mixing model. Source-to-sink dispersal of sediments in the Taiwan Strait can then be traced from the distribution of these parameters. The results not only corroborate an earlier study based on radionuclides and particle size distribution ( Huh et al., 2011) but reveal more diagnostic details. Besides spatial distribution based on a large number (216) of surface sediments, we also analyzed temporal variation of magnetic properties in six well-dated cores collected at key sites along the sediment source-to-sink pathways. From profiles of these parameters in cores from the middle of the northern Taiwan Strait, it is calculated that sediment supply from Taiwan has increased substantially in the past five decades, which may very well be related to accelerated land use and increased frequency of intense rainfalls in Taiwan during the same period. The approach described in this work may be extended to other source-to-sink systems around the world and through time, especially the mountainous islands fringing the Pacific and Indian Oceans in southeastern Asia. As with Taiwan, these islands have high

  6. Beneath Bass Strait: Linking Tasmania and Mainland Australia using Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilia, S.; Rawlinson, N.; Direen, N. G.; Reading, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most hotly debated topics in Australian geology pertains to the tectonic relationship between Tasmania and mainland Australia. Studies that attempt to link Victoria and Tasmania have been wide ranging and have undergone considerable change through time, leading to a variety of plausible tectonic models. One of the main difficulties in reconciling mainland Australian and Tasmanian tectonics is the lack of Precambrian exposure in the Lachlan Orogen (Victoria), which contrast with the West Tasmania Terrane that exhibits numerous outcrops of Proterozoic rocks, apparently excluding any tectonic affinity between them. Furthermore, the West Tasmania Terrane differs significantly from the East Tasmania Terrane in that the latter does not contain any evidence of Precambrian rocks and no evidence of a Proterozoic continental basement has been reported, either in outcrop nor inferred from geophysical surveys. Perhaps most significantly, the presence of Bass Strait and the Mesozoic and Cainozoic sedimentary and volcanic sequences that mask the older terranes, makes the link between Tasmania and southeast mainland Australia even harder to decipher. This has significantly impeded the ability of conventional surface mapping to unravel the tectonic history of this area, which remains one of the great challenges of Australian Earth sciences. The focus of this study is ambient seismic noise data from 24 broadband stations, which span northern Tasmania, several islands in Bass Strait (King Island, Deal Island and Flinders Island) and southern Victoria, thus allowing a dense coverage of surface wave paths that can be exploited to image the 3-D structure of the crust joining Tasmania and Victoria in high detail. To produce the highest quality Green's functions, careful processing of the data has been performed, after which Group and Phase velocity dispersion measurements have been carried out using a frequency-time analysis method on the symmetric component (average of the

  7. Biogeochemical cycling in the Strait of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, S C; Macdonald, R W; Burd, B; van Roodselaar, A

    2008-12-01

    The papers in this special issue present the results of a five-year project to study sedimentary biogeochemical processes in the Strait of Georgia, with special emphasis on the near-field of a large municipal outfall. Included in this special issue are overviews of the sedimentology, benthic biology, status of siliceous sponge reefs and distribution of organic carbon in the water column. Other papers address the cycling of contaminants (PCBs, PBDEs) and redox metals in the sediment, a method to map the extent of the influence of municipal effluent from staining on benthic bivalves, and the relationships among geochemical conditions and benthic abundance and diversity. The latter set of papers addresses the role of municipal effluent as a pathway of organic carbon and other contaminants into the Strait of Georgia and the effect of the effluent on benthic geochemistry and biology.

  8. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island

  9. Geoacoustic Model of the Strait of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    is rough due, in a large part, to the extensional tectonism associated with the back-arc-basin environment of the nearby Sea of Japan. Acoustic...is rough due, in a large part, to the extensional tectonism associated with the back-arc-basin environment of the nearby Sea of Japan. Acoustic...basement rock of complex tectonic history (Fig 7). The basement under the western channel of the strait is probably part of the Fukien-Reinan massif

  10. The influence of the Sunda Strait opening on paleoenvironmental changes in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonghang; Wang, Liang; Yin, Xijie; Ye, Xiang; Li, Dongyi; Liu, Shengfa; Shi, Xuefa; Troa, Rainer Arief; Zuraida, Rina; Triarso, Eko; Hendrizan, Marfasran

    2017-09-01

    With sea level rise in the early Holocene, the warm and low-salinity sea water from the Java Sea was transported into the eastern Indian Ocean after the opening of the Sunda Strait. However, the impact of this process on sediment provenance and paleoproductivity is rarely known. In this study, we analyzed the grain size, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions and biogenic elements of core CJ01-185 (1538 m water depth) in the eastern Indian Ocean off the Sunda Strait. Our new results reveal a large volcanic eruption in the west of Java at 2.1 ka, and the Krakatau eruption at 1883 CE. On the basis of the Pb isotopic compositions, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and εNd values, we infer that sediments from core CJ01-185 were derived primarily from Java Island. There is a distinct change in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments from the last glacial period to the Holocene, indicating less radiogenic Nd isotopes from the Java Sea into the eastern Indian Ocean after the opening of the Sunda Strait at ∼10 ka. Moreover, the sedimentation rate increased significantly from 6.5 cm kyr-1 during the last glacial period to 20 cm kyr-1 in the Holocene. The input of additional terrigenous nutrients from the Java Sea induced paleoproductivity with higher TOC and TN concentrations after the opening of the Sunda Strait. Our results thus suggest that the paleoproductivity was mainly influenced by terrigenous materials input in the Holocene, other than southeast monsoon or upwelling in the last glacial period.

  11. Scales of Marine Turbulence in Cook Strait (New Zealand) in the Context of Tidal Energy Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Cook Strait, the channel separating New Zealand's North and South Islands, is at it's narrowest around 22 km across with flows driven by a semidiurnal tide, wind and a baroclinic pressure gradient. Water depths are around 250-300 m in the main part of the channel, with shoals to the south and the submerged Fishermans Rock (aka pinnacle) in the centre northwest of the Strait. The substantial tidal flow speed is due to the tide being nearly out of phase comparing the ends of the strait and further enhanced by a narrowing of the strait. It has significant potential for a tidal energy resource suitable for extraction due to both its significant energy levels but also its proximity to electricity infrastructure and nationally high uptake of renewable energy in general. Here we describe recent flow and turbulence data and contextualise them in terms of scales relevant to marine energy extraction. With flow speeds reaching 3 m s-1 in a water column of > 200 m depth the setting is heuristically known to be highly turbulent. Turbulent energy dissipation rates are modest but high for oceans, around 5x10-5 W kg-1. Thorpe scales, the observed quantity representing the energy-bearing scale, are often as much as one quarter of the water depth. This means eddy sizes can potentially be larger than blade length. A boundary-layer structure was apparent but highly variable. This has implications for both operation of tidal turbines, as well as modulating their effect on the environment. Fishermans Rock itself is interesting as if can be considered a proxy for a larger array of turbines.

  12. The late Miocene Panama isthmian strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Laurel S.; Coates, Anthony G.; Berggren, William A.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Zhang, Jijun

    1996-08-01

    Miocene sediments of the Caribbean Gatun and Chagres formations, Panama Canal basin, were deposited within an archipelagic strait that connected Caribbean and Pacific waters. Shallow-water (˜ 25 m) benthic foraminifera of the Gatun Formation have a strong Caribbean affinity, indicating that a significant interoceanic, biogeographic barrier had formed at ˜ 8 Ma. However, benthic foraminifera of the overlying Chagres Formation are bathyal and markedly Pacific in affinity, indicating that at ˜ 6 Ma, waters of the Panama isthmian strait deepened to ˜ 200 500 m and Pacific bathyal waters flowed into the Caribbean. The Chagres Formation crops out at the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal in a large wedge of cross-laminated sandstone and coquina. The cross-laminations and coarse grain size indicate high-energy currents atypical of bathyal settings. We infer that a jet of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent Equatorial Undercurrent passed through the Panama isthmian strait to deposit these sediments on the Caribbean side. This later entry of Pacific taxa into the Caribbean had no apparent effect on the subsequent composition of Caribbean faunas.

  13. Backarc basin evolution and cordilleran orogenesis: Insights from new ocean-bottom seismograph refraction profiling in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel H. N.; Christeson, Gail L.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.

    2003-02-01

    Bransfield Strait, a backarc basin off the northwestern Antarctic Peninsula, is a modern analog for Cretaceous basins inverted in the compressional tectonic regime that initiated the Andean Cordillera. Eight new refraction ocean-bottom seismograph profiles in the strait demonstrate that crustal thickness in the deep central basin increases from northeast to southwest, from ˜10 km to ˜14 16 km. This confirms multichannel seismic interpretation of upper crustal structures suggesting that the Bransfield basin is opening by northeast to southwest rift propagation within arc crust of the Antarctic Peninsula, a process also recorded in the obducted Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin of the southernmost Andes. Thinning is most prominent along the axis of the strait, where the crust is ˜9 11 km thick. In contrast, thicknesses beneath the Antarctic Peninsula margin and the inactive South Shetland Islands pedestal are ˜18 km and ˜24 km, respectively. Seismic velocities and thicknesses suggest that new oceanic crust is not yet being generated. Extension is focused along the northwest margin, imparting the physiographic asymmetry to the strait. Comparing the Bransfield basin with the inverted Rocas Verdes basin and intraoceanic counterparts in the western Pacific suggests that rift propagation and trench-side focusing of extension may be fundamental features of young backarc basins. Resultant asymmetry may facilitate observed obduction of backarc basin floor and arc rocks onto continental margins during compressional orogenesis.

  14. Out-of-Africa, the peopling of continents and islands: tracing uniparental gene trees across the map

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Genetic relationships between human groups were first studied by comparisons of relative allele frequency at multiple loci. Geographical study of detailed, highly resolved trees of single, non-recombining uniparental loci (mitochondrial DNA: mtDNA and Y chromosome/non-recombining Y: NRY), following specific lineages rather than populations, then revolutionized knowledge of the peopling of the world, although, curiously, the use of geographically highly specific mutations that protect against malaria, found on individual autosomal globin genes, were first in single-locus phylogeography. mtDNA, with its high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation rates and relative ease of dating, led the way and gave stronger proof of the recent near replacement of all human species by anatomically modern humans (AMH). AMH left Africa via a single southern exit about 70 000 years ago and rapidly spread around the Indian Ocean towards the Antipodes, long before a small branch left a South Asian colony, earlier on the trail, to populate Europe. The worldwide skeleton phylogeny of mtDNA is fully resolved, but a regional analysis will continue to illuminate subsequent migrations. NRY with a lower SNP mutation rate still has a dating problem relating to use the of single tandem repeats (STRs), but has validated mtDNA results and with more geographical specificity and genomic size, as with the autosomal human genome, has much more detail to offer for the future. PMID:22312044

  15. Fall prevention services for older Aboriginal people: investigating availability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Coombes, Julieann; Keay, Lisa; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne; Broe, Tony; Lovitt, Lorraine; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-14

    , held in a familiar and culturally safe location and delivered free of cost. This study identified a gap in the availability of acceptable fall prevention programs designed for, and delivered to, older Aboriginal people in NSW. Further consultation with older Aboriginal people is necessary to determine how an appropriate and effective program can be designed and delivered. Terminology: The authors recognise the two distinctive Indigenous populations of Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Because the vast majority of the NSW Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is Aboriginal (95.4%)1, this population will be referred to as 'Aboriginal' in this manuscript.

  16. Preliminary results of receiver function analyses at three sites across the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Arévalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Almendros, J.; Aznarte, J. L.; Alguacil, G.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2008, in the framework of the International Polar Year 2008-2009 under grant POL2006-08663 of the spanish Ministry of Education, we deployed three broadband seismometers at points forming a N-S profile across the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, in the region between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. This region is very interesting from a tectonic point of view, due to the opening of the rift of the Bransfield and the presence of the South Shetland microplate. For logistic reasons, our instruments where located in the vicinity of the Antarctic bases Juan Carlos I (Livingston Island), Gabriel de Castilla (Deception Island), and Primavera (Antarctic Peninsula). Each seismic station consisted of a broad-band, three-component electrolitic seismometer equiped with a 24-bit data acquisition system. The energy was provided by wind generators and solar panels connected to a battery bank, a combination that has been able to provide enough power at all sites, even during the Antarctic winter. All components were designed to function under the extreme conditions of the Antarctic weather. The main objective of this experiment was to use receiver function techniques on teleseism data to investigate the structure of the crust under the sites, in order to compare with other studies and shed light on the structure and tectonics of the region. During this past year, we have recorded several tens of teleseisms at distances appropriate for receiver function analyses. Preliminary results will add information on critical issues regarding the structure of the Bransfield Strait region. Although the Earth models obtained will contain extra information, we are specially interested in the determination of the depth of the Moho at each site, a controversial point in this area. These results will be compared with estimates obtained by different techniques. We are also interested in the determination of the vertical extent of the magma chamber recently imaged by

  17. 78 FR 36655 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Carquinez Strait, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Carquinez Strait, Martinez, CA AGENCY... Drawbridge across the Carquinez Strait, mile 7.0 at Martinez, CA. The deviation is necessary to perform a..., at Martinez, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides 135 feet vertical clearance above Mean High...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385 Section 80.1385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of...

  19. Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca

    SciTech Connect

    Rensel, Jack; Kiefer, Dale; Forster, John R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2007-10-07

    Finfish mariculture has existed in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for over thirty years, but for the past 15 years most effort has focused on culture of Atlantic salmon in protected, inshore cage sites. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (the "Strait") is a large area with relatively sparce shoreline development and several apparent advantages for mariculture using offshore technology.

  20. Strait of Gibraltar seen from STS-66

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-11-14

    Swift currents flow through the Strait of Gibraltar, producing complicated patterns in the surface waters. Some of those patterns are highlighted in the sunglint in this photograph. The Mediterranian Sea is on the upper right, the Atlantic Ocean in in the lower left. Few features can be seen on the Mediterranian side, but current shears (straight lines coming off Spain), several sets of internal waves (impinging on the Spanish continental shelf) and ship wakes can be seen on the Atlantic side, west of Cadiz. Both Tangier and Cadiz show up in the sunglint as well.

  1. Strait of Gibraltar seen from STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Swift currents flow through the Strait of Gibraltar, producing complicated patterns in the surface waters. Some of those patterns are highlighted in the sunglint in this photograph. The Mediterranian Sea is on the upper right, the Atlantic Ocean in in the lower left. Few features can be seen on the Mediterranian side, but current shears (straight lines coming off Spain), several sets of internal waves (impinging on the Spanish continental shelf) and ship wakes can be seen on the Atlantic side, west of Cadiz. Both Tangier and Cadiz show up in the sunglint as well.

  2. Submarine geology framework of the Strait of Gibralter

    SciTech Connect

    Mrah, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Three-dimensional, computer-generated bathymetric views and high-resolution sparker profiles are presented to illustrate the geologic framework of the Strait of Gibraltar. 'The Ridge,' an apparent structural feature, divides the Strait into a deeper, more narrow eastern portion and a shallower, wider and more irregular western portion. Sparker profiles show the Moroccan and Spanish shelves to be underlain by rocks whose deformation correlates with the structural deformation of the Betic and Rif Mountains. However, a portion of the center portion of the Strait is floored with approximately 700 m of horizontal sediments despite the adjacent structural deformation and the presence of strong bottom currents. The alternating sequence of well-layered and chaotic-layered sediments suggests periods of large-scale subaqueous landslides that post-date the structural deformation of the Strait. In other areas, the Strait appears to be free of unconsolidated sediments. Large bedrock horsts modify the topography of the floor and side walls.

  3. Sedimentary constraints on the development of a narrow deep strait (São Sebastião Channel, SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Sasaki, Dalton Kei; Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch de; Taborda, Rui; de Souza, Luiz Antonio Pereira

    2017-02-01

    The São Sebastião Channel (SSC), which separates São Sebastião Island from the continent, is a deep elongated strait on the inner shelf of the São Paulo Bight (SE Brazil). The aim of this study is to explain why it is presently sediment starved, instead of forming a tombolo. Wave data were obtained from both a WW3 model database and buoy records, and wave propagation patterns from the SWAN numerical model. Grain size trend analysis of 579 surficial sediment samples from the strait and the surrounding region served to estimate the residual transport directions. Bedload sediment transport was computed considering in situ currents and bottom sediment grain size. Moreover, six seismic profiles and one gravity core were obtained in the strait in order to evaluate the hickness of the sedimentary deposits. The geometry of the SSC (X/B=0.3, where B is the breakwater or island diameter and X is its cross-shore distance to the mainland) predicts that a tombolo should be formed, and wave patterns confirm that it is a zone sheltered from both S and NE waves. Previous studies have shown that the hydrodynamics of the SSC is controlled by wind-driven currents, which are more intense in the eastern and central sectors of the strait. The western sector is currently covered by sandy mud, whereas very coarse to fine sand prevails in the deeper eastern sector. Sediment patterns show a trend to deposition of fine sediment in the western sector of the SSC and two main depocentres located at the northern limit of the study area and at the southern mouth of the strait. Sandy mud in the western sector forms a 40-m-thick deposit close to the outer limit of Araçá Bay, whereas the remainder of the SSC is covered by a very thin layer of sandy sediments. Dominance of mud in the depositional western sector suggests low availability of sand in the area. Therefore, despite the geometry and wave patterns of the SSC favouring the formation of a tombolo, the dominance of wind-driven currents

  4. Sedimentary constraints on the development of a narrow deep strait (São Sebastião Channel, SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Sasaki, Dalton Kei; Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch de; Taborda, Rui; de Souza, Luiz Antonio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    The São Sebastião Channel (SSC), which separates São Sebastião Island from the continent, is a deep elongated strait on the inner shelf of the São Paulo Bight (SE Brazil). The aim of this study is to explain why it is presently sediment starved, instead of forming a tombolo. Wave data were obtained from both a WW3 model database and buoy records, and wave propagation patterns from the SWAN numerical model. Grain size trend analysis of 579 surficial sediment samples from the strait and the surrounding region served to estimate the residual transport directions. Bedload sediment transport was computed considering in situ currents and bottom sediment grain size. Moreover, six seismic profiles and one gravity core were obtained in the strait in order to evaluate the hickness of the sedimentary deposits. The geometry of the SSC (X/B=0.3, where B is the breakwater or island diameter and X is its cross-shore distance to the mainland) predicts that a tombolo should be formed, and wave patterns confirm that it is a zone sheltered from both S and NE waves. Previous studies have shown that the hydrodynamics of the SSC is controlled by wind-driven currents, which are more intense in the eastern and central sectors of the strait. The western sector is currently covered by sandy mud, whereas very coarse to fine sand prevails in the deeper eastern sector. Sediment patterns show a trend to deposition of fine sediment in the western sector of the SSC and two main depocentres located at the northern limit of the study area and at the southern mouth of the strait. Sandy mud in the western sector forms a 40-m-thick deposit close to the outer limit of Araçá Bay, whereas the remainder of the SSC is covered by a very thin layer of sandy sediments. Dominance of mud in the depositional western sector suggests low availability of sand in the area. Therefore, despite the geometry and wave patterns of the SSC favouring the formation of a tombolo, the dominance of wind-driven currents

  5. Winds, Eddies and Flow through Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    driven origin of the Philippine dipole eddies. By contrast, in other volcanic island regions of the world (including the Hawaiian, Cabo Verde, and... volcanic island regions of the world. By contrast in the Hawaiian, Cabo Verde and Canary Islands, the driving mechanism in the eddy dynamics is...J. Aristegui, and F. Herrera (2000), Lee region of Gran Canaria , J. Geophys. Res., 105(C7), 17173-17193. Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H. Hendon

  6. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥ 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs.

  7. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Gersing, Kenneth R.; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S.; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N=4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1–90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12–17. MRs aged 35–49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  8. Nutrient intake in relation to central and overall obesity status among elderly people living in the Mediterranean islands: the MEDIS study.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, S; Psaltopoulou, T; Pounis, G; Papairakleous, N; Bountziouka, V; Zeimbekis, A; Gotsis, E; Antonopoulou, M; Metallinos, G; Polychronopoulos, E; Lionis, C; Panagiotakos, D B

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relationship between energy-generating nutrients and the presence of central and overall obesity after correcting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, among healthy elders. During 2005-2007, 553 elderly men and 637 elderly women (mean age 74±7years) from eight Mediterranean islands in Greece and Cyprus, were enrolled. The retrieved information included demographic, bio-clinical and dietary characteristics. MedDietScore assessed adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The prevalence of obesity was 27% in males and 39% in females (p<0.001), while 73% of males and 87% of females had central obesity. The prevalence of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension was higher in the obese than in the non-obese participants (p<0.01). After adjusting for various confounders, a 1% increase in carbohydrate consumption was associated with a 12% (95% CI 0.78-0.99) lower likelihood of having central obesity, while a 1% increase in carbohydrate and protein consumption was associated with a 14% (95% CI 0.78-0.95) and 16% (95% CI 0.72-0.97) lower likelihood of being obese, respectively. Vegetable protein was found to be associated with a 15% (95% CI 0.77-0.93) lower likelihood of being obese while, only low glycemic index carbohydrates seem to be associated with a 6% (95% CI 0.90-0.98) lower likelihood of having central obesity. The presented findings suggest that a diet high in carbohydrates and vegetable protein is associated with a lower likelihood of being obese and may help elderly people to preserve normal weight. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sea state indices for a coastal strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmrich, Johannes; Dewey, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Strait of Georgia at the west coast of Canada is an enclosed coastal strait, about 250km long and 25 to 50 km wide, with great socio-economic importance. Regular freighter traffic, ferry services, commercial and sport fisheries, and recreational boating, makes the area one of the busiest marine areas in the world. Waves in SoG are generally small, with the median value of the significant wave height Hs=0.3m. However, strong outflows off the mountainous terrain can generate significant wave heights Hs > 2.5m, with high spatial and temporal variability. In addition, strong tidal currents and the Fraser River outflow generate localized regions of steep and breaking waves that are of particular concern. We have implemented the Wavewatch III model at 500m-resolution, forced by Environment Canada's high resolution atmospheric model winds and currents from the UBC NEMO implementation of the Salish Sea. The final output combines GIS layers of the predicted wave field (Hs, dominant wave length and direction), the modeled wind field and currents, observed currents from a set of CODAR systems, and a sea state index that highlights regions of potentially steep and dangerous waves.

  10. Hip hopping the gap--performing arts approaches to sexual health disadvantage in young people in remote settings.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Alan; Robertson, Heather; Fagan, Patricia

    2011-07-01

    Closing the gap in Indigenous health and wellbeing in remote settings in the Torres Strait and Northern Peninsula Area of Far North Queensland (FNQ) includes addressing a well-documented sexual health disadvantage among young people. Community mobilization around the underlying risk factors influencing sexual health is required. Performing-arts-based workshops were conducted in schools and after-school venues in four remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander locations in FNQ in early 2010, to initiate consciousness-raising around the real dimensions of youth sexual health risk. Specific objectives included strengthening operational partnerships at school-level and developing ongoing consultative processes in each location for sexual health reference group development. Results include a significantly strengthened productive partnership with primary and high schools in each location and sixteen production-ready hip hop songs exploring a range of physical, emotional and sexual health themes authored by the students and recorded on site. Additional outcomes included the willingness of community councils and civil society organizations to support local sexual health reference group activity. This initiative, the Indigenous Hip Hop Project, although accompanied by opportunity costs including alternative, more core business uses of staff time and program budget, has demonstrated the power of tapping the creative energy of young people at risk and the potential for mobilizing communities to activism around sexual health disadvantage.

  11. EPA Responds to Incident that Leaves Four People Ill on St. John, EPA Working with U.S. Virgin Islands Government on Ongoing Investigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Monday, March 23, 2015) The EPA is working closely with the U.S. Virgin Island government to investigate an incident reported to the U.S. Virgin Islands government and EPA on March 20, 2015. On March 20, 2015, paramedics responded to a call that four peop

  12. The bottom water exchange between the Singapore Strait and the West Johor Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunfang; Eltahir, Elfatih; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-08-01

    As a part of the border between Singapore and Malaysia, the West Johor Strait (WJS) suffered newly from harmful algal blooms. There is no previous study showing the source of the nutrients in the WJS. This paper is investigating the possible water exchange between the water in the WJS and the bottom water in Singapore Strait. This paper adopts a two-level nesting atmosphere-ocean coupled models to downscale the global atmosphere-ocean model into the Singapore coastal water, keeping the large-scale and long-term ocean and climate circulation signals and the advantages of the high-resolution. Based on the high-resolution ocean circulation fields, a Lagrangian particle tracking model is used to trace the Singapore Strait's bottom water movement and the water mixing in the WJS. The results showed that the numerical models well resolved the Singapore coastal water regional circulation. There is a small but significant bottom water (1.25%) transport from the Singapore Strait to the WJS, which occurs from the southwest coastline of Singapore. The bottom water in the Singapore Strait prefers to enter the WJS during the spring tide and the flood period, and stay in Johor Strait for 6.4 days. The spring tide is the first-order factor for the water vertical mixing in the WJS, the wind is also very important for the vertical mixing especially in neap tide condition. An overall very important factor is the light perturbation. With the strongest vertical mixing of nutrients and bottom sediments due to the spring tide, the latter ones may inhibit the light penetration during the spring tide and reduce the algal bloom. The light penetration otherwise is greater during the neap tide, when the winds are the most important factor and hence favor the algal bloom. With the strongest wind in February and the longest permanence time in June and the sufficient nutrient supply in February and June, the most serious algal blooms may happen in February and June in the WJS.

  13. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  14. Relationship between upper ocean heat content in the Japan Sea and volume transport through the Tsushima Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Y.; Hirose, N.; Usui, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Wakamatsu, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Toyoda, T.; Nishikawa, S.; Igarashi, H.; Nishikawa, H.; Takatsuki, Y.; Kuragano, T.; Kamachi, M.

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the upper (0-300m) ocean heat content (OHC) in the Japan Sea and the volume transport of the Tsushima Warm Current passing through the Tsushima Strait to the Japan Sea. We analyze a new high-resolution long-term ocean reanalysis data named FORA-WNP30 (Four-dimensional variational Ocean ReAnalysis for the western North Pacific over 30 years), in which the realistic ocean variation is reconstructed by an eddy-resolving 4DVAR ocean data assimilation system in the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). Both the OHC and volume transports through the straits, that connect the Japan Sea to neighboring seas (the East China Sea and the Okhotsk Sea) and the Pacific Ocean, exhibit positive trends during recent 30 years. The spatial pattern of the trend in the OHC has three local maxima in the eastern part of Japan Sea, northeast of the Oki Islands in the southern part of the Japan Sea, and east of the Korea Peninsula. This feature is consistent with previous observational studies. The local maxima of the trend in the OHC are associated with changes in the flow pattern of the Japan Sea. In particular, the OHC signal at the northeast of the Oki Islands accompanies a warm eddy structure. Variation of low-pass filtered volume transport through the Tsushima Strait is largely in phase with variations of the OHC in the Japan Sea on interannual to decadal time scales, implying that the volume transport through the Tsushima Strait is one of causes for the OHC variations. However, the phase of variation of heat content at the northeast of the Oki Islands does not match with that of the volume transport well. Warm and cold eddy structures tend to appear alternately at the northeast of the Oki Islands on interannual time scale. It implies that the variation of the OHC at the northeast of the Oki Islands is affected by not only that of the volume transport but also dynamical adjustment related to the eddy structures.

  15. Systematic review of barriers and facilitators to accessing and engaging with mental health care among at-risk young people.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrienne; Rice, Simon M; Rickwood, Debra J; Parker, Alexandra G

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to review the literature on barriers and facilitators to accessing and engaging with mental health care among young people from potentially disadvantaged groups, including young people identified as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI); culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD); lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or intersex (LGBTQI); homeless; substance using; and youth residing in rural or remote areas. Fourteen databases were searched to identify qualitative and quantitative researches that examined barriers and/or facilitators to mental health care among the six groups of potentially disadvantaged young people. Out of 62 studies identified, 3 were conducted with ATSI young people, 1 with CALD young people, 4 with LGBTQI young people, 14 with homeless young people, 24 with substance-using young people, and 16 with young people residing in rural or remote areas. Findings generally confirmed barriers already established for all young people, but indicated that some may be heightened for young people in the six identified groups. Findings also pointed to both similarities and differences between these groups, suggesting that ATSI, CALD, LGBTQI, homeless, substance-using, and rural young people have some similar needs with respect to not only mental health care, but also other needs likely to reflect their individual circumstances. This systematic review highlights that young people from potentially disadvantaged groups have distinct needs that must be recognized to improve their experiences with mental health care. Future research of good methodological quality with young people is needed to increase accessibility of, and engagement with, mental health care. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Nonlinear processes generated by supercritical tidal flow in shallow straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordois, Lucie; Auclair, Francis; Paci, Alexandre; Dossmann, Yvan; Nguyen, Cyril

    2017-06-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a nonhydrostatic and non-Boussinesq regional oceanic circulation model to investigate the nonlinear processes generated by supercritical tidal flow in shallow straits. Our approach relies on idealized direct numerical simulations inspired by oceanic observations. By analyzing a large set of simulations, a regime diagram is proposed for the nonlinear processes generated in the lee of these straits. The results show that the topography shape of the strait plays a crucial role in the formation of internal solitary waves (ISWs) and in the occurrence of local breaking events. Both of these nonlinear processes are important turbulence producing phenomena. The topographic control, observed in mode 1 ISW formation in previous studies [Y. Dossmann, F. Auclair, and A. Paci, "Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Primary generation and topographic control," Phys. Fluids 25, 066601 (2013) and Y. Dossmann et al., "Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Ultrasonic probes and stereo-correlation measurements," Phys. Fluids 26, 056601 (2014)], is clearly reproducible for mode-2 ISW above shallow straits. Strong plunging breaking events are observed above "narrow" straits (straits with a width less than mode 1 wavelength) when the fluid velocity exceeds the local mode 1 wave speed. These results are a step towards future works on vertical mixing quantification and localization around complex strait areas.

  17. A new tidal current forecasting in the Kanmon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Noboru; Sasaki, Takashi; Sato, Satoshi; Horii, Ryouichi

    Kanmon Strait, where more than seven hundreds ships pass in a day, is known as one of the most difficult straits for ship navigation in Japan. This strait is narrow and the maximum velocity of tidal current is faster than ten knots in some cases. So, those who are engaged in safety navigation of this strait request more accurate forecast of tidal current in the Kanmon Strait. For this purpose, we created a new system to forecast more precisely the tidal current in the Kanmon Strait. The system is based upon a two-dimensional numerical simulation model of the whole Kanmon Strait. The goal of this system is to be able to consider the meteorological effect, which cannot be taken into account the conventional method based upon harmonic constituents, for the tidal current. Calculated tidal currents were compared with observed ones. High reliability of the tidal current simulation was confirmed to some degree. It is intended to open the result of the simulation on the Internet, so the system will have a visual presentaion function that displays tidal current vector or tidal curves on Internet browser at the PC.

  18. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  19. Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-732-072 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Three of the nineteen Galapagos Islands are visible in this image, photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The Galapagos Islands are located 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) to the west of Ecuador. The largest of the islands, Isabela, is at center (north is toward the upper right corner). The numerous circular features on the island, highlighted by clouds, are volcanoes. The Galapagos Islands owe their existence to a hot spot, or persistent heat source in the mantle, which also is located over a rift, or place where plates are separating and new crust is being created. The rift is located between the Cocos and Nazca Plates. The dark linear features on the islands are lava flows from past eruptions. The island to the left of Isabela is Fernandina, while the island to the right is San Salvador. The Galapagos Islands were visited by the English naturalist Charles Darwin in 1835.

  20. Numerical modeling of late Glacial Laurentide advance of ice across Hudson Strait: Insights into terrestrial and marine geology, mass balance, and calving flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeffer, W.T.; Dyurgerov, M.; Kaplan, M.; Dwyer, J.; Sassolas, C.; Jennings, A.; Raup, B.; Manley, W.

    1997-01-01

    A time-dependent finite element model was used to reconstruct the advance of ice from a late Glacial dome on northern Quebec/Labrador across Hudson Strait to Meta Incognita Peninsula (Baffin Island) and subsequently to the 9.9-9.6 ka 14C Gold Cove position on Hall Peninsula. Terrestrial geological and geophysical information from Quebec and Labrador was used to constrain initial and boundary conditions, and the model results are compared with terrestrial geological information from Baffin Island and considered in the context of the marine event DC-0 and the Younger Dryas cooling. We conclude that advance across Hudson Strait from Ungava Bay to Baffin Island is possible using realistic glacier physics under a variety of reasonable boundary conditions. Production of ice flux from a dome centered on northeastern Quebec and Labrador sufficient to deliver geologically inferred ice thickness at Gold Cove (Hall Peninsula) appears to require extensive penetration of sliding south from Ungava Bay. The discharge of ice into the ocean associated with advance and retreat across Hudson Strait does not peak at a time coincident with the start of the Younger Dryas and is less than minimum values proposed to influence North Atlantic thermohaline circulation; nevertheless, a significant fraction of freshwater input to the North Atlantic may have been provided abruptly and at a critical time by this event.

  1. Closing the transport budget of the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Clément; Beal, Lisa M.

    2014-04-01

    Closing the mean mass budget of the Florida Straits is fundamental to understanding the source waters of the Gulf Stream and for constraining ocean simulations and forecasts in a region of complex topography. Existing transport time series of the inflow through Yucatan Channel and the outflow at 27°N yield a 9 Sv difference in the mean, which cannot be reconciled by the two minor inflows between. Here we present a synthesis of transport estimates from throughout the Florida Straits, using velocity data collected aboard the cruise ship Explorer of the Seas. Our transports form a consistent mass budget and conform with the northern outflow from the Straits of 32.1 ± 3.3 Sv, as measured continuously by cable. In particular, we find an average of 30.0 ± 5.3 Sv for the inflow to southern Florida Straits and estimate that Old Bahama Channel contributes less than an additional 2 Sv.

  2. Magnetovariational measurements in the Cook Strait region of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, Malcolm R.

    1985-08-01

    Magnetovariational measurements have been made at 10 sites on the northern side of the Cook Strait, New Zealand. Single-station transfer functions have been calculated for the sites and indicate that the effect of induction in the shallow water of the Cook Strait is most important at around 1000 s period. At longer periods the effect of induced currents in the Pacific Ocean predominates. A two-dimensional electrical conductivity model including local conductivity structure has been shown to satisfy the measured responses at sites about 60-80 km distance from the strait. Closer to the strait the inductive process is strongly three-dimensional. A simple d.c. line current model of current flow has been shown to reproduce some of the features of the observed responses. Induction arrows indicate the existence of conductivity anomalies associated with a known lateral seismic boundary and with one of the two principal faults in the region.

  3. Generation and Evolution of Internal Waves in Luzon Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Generation and Evolution of Internal Waves in Luzon...turbulence makes this a current locus of uncertainty. For this study, our focus is on the generation, propagation, evolution , and dissipation of small...southern Luzon Strait, and 4) to measure internal tide evolution in southern Luzon Strait. Far-field Experiment One surface buoy mooring (TC1

  4. Solitary Wave Effects North of Strait of Messina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    their propagation in the Tyrrhenian Sea & subsequent shoaling in the Gulf of Gioia. The nonhydrostatic 3D EULAG model is used for the oceanographic...ocean-acoustic modeling study of solitary wave generation in the Strait of Messina, their propagation in the Tyrrhenian Sea and subsequent shoaling...data 1. Introduction The Strait of Messina connects the Tyrrhenian Sea , on the north side, and the Ionian Sea , on the south side. Fig. 1 shows the

  5. Pacific Water in the Arctic Ocean and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Blaesterdalen, Torgeir; Karcher, Michael; Stedmon, Colin

    2017-04-01

    The volume, characteristics and sources of freshwater circulating in the Arctic Ocean vary in time and are expected to change under a declining sea ice cover, influencing the physical environment and Arctic ecosystem. Here we focus on relatively fresh (S = 32) Pacific Water, which enters the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait and makes up a significant part of the freshwater exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait. More than 30 repeated sections of nutrient measurements were collected across Fram Strait between 1980 and 2015. The fraction of Pacific Water along these repeated sections can be estimated from the ratio of nitrate to phosphate together with salinity. The time-series of repeated Fram Strait sections indicates that the fraction of Pacific Water passing out of the Arctic Ocean has changed significantly over the last 30 years. Pacific water fractions remained high from 1980 to 1998, but in 1999 Pacific water almost disappeared from Fram Strait, reappearing only briefly from 2011 to 2012. Several hypotheses suggest how variations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Arctic Ocean may influence the transport and pathways of Pacific Water. Here we test those hypotheses by comparing established atmospheric indices with the long time series of repeated sections across Fram Strait. Repeated sections across Fram Strait are also compared with a simulated Pacific Water tracer in the NAOSIM numerical model to further investigate the upstream drivers of changes observed in Fram Strait. The principle aim of this work is to identify the processes causing variability in freshwater fluxes out of the Arctic Ocean so that we may better distinguish inter-annual variability from longer-term changes to the Arctic freshwater budget. However, the volume of fresh, silicate-rich Pacific water exported from the Arctic Ocean may also have implications for the ecosystem in the Nordic Seas.

  6. Typhoons enhancing northward transport through the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhou; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2013-03-01

    Volume transport in the Taiwan Strait is usually northward for most of the year and varies seasonally because of the adjustment of the East Asian monsoon. Based on model simulations, the influence on this northward transport of every typhoon formed during the period 2005-2009 was examined. The results showed that there were four typhoons which enhanced northward transport during these five years. The current measurements, obtained from a buoy deployed in the Taiwan Strait, matched these events exactly. These typhoons had special moving tracks and life histories. They traveled westward in the area south of the strait or moved northward from the south to the north. Under the influence of such a typhoon, the prophase southward atmospheric forcing in the strait was weak and the anaphase northward atmospheric forcing (mainly along-strait wind stress) was strong, which is necessary and crucial in enhancing the northward transport. The ageostrophic process, another important driving factor in transport change, was generated mainly by local atmospheric forces inside the strait under the typhoon weather conditions and its effect on transport magnitude was comparable to that of direct atmospheric forcing. It first stored some energy from the atmospheric forcing to restrain the transport change, and then released the stored energy to prolong and even to intensify the enhanced northward transport.

  7. The Andaman Islanders in a regional genetic context: reexamining the evidence for an early peopling of the archipelago from South Asia.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Endicott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands were considered by many early anthropologists to be pristine examples of a "negrito" substrate of humanity that existed throughout Southeast Asia. Despite over 150 years of research and study, questions over the extent of shared ancestry between Andaman Islanders and other small-bodied, gracile, dark-skinned populations throughout the region are still unresolved. This shared phenotype could be a product of shared history, evolutionary convergence, or a mixture of both. Recent population genetic studies have tended to emphasize long-term physical isolation of the Andaman Islanders and an affinity to ancestral populations of South Asia. We reexamine the genetic evidence from genome-wide autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for a shared history between the tribes of Little Andaman (Onge) and Great Andaman, and between these two groups and the rest of South and Southeast Asia (both negrito and non-negrito groups).

  8. Observation and modelling of turbulent mixing in the Kuril and Aleutian Straits and impact of its 18.6-year period tidal cycle on ocean and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, I.; Tanaka, Y.; Itoh, S.; Hasumi, H.; Komatsu, K.; Osafune, S.; Yagi, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kaneko, H.; Ikeya, T.; Konda, S.; Nishioka, J.; Nakatsuka, T.; Katsumata, K.; Tatebe, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Hiroe, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Direct turbulent observations in the Kuril Straits and Aleutian Straits reveal that tide-induced strong vertical mixing corresponds to strong shear of combined diurnal tidal and/or mean currents and significantly modifies the water-mass and potential vorticity distribution. Bi-decadal variability synchronized with 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle were found in various parts of the ocean and climate indices: water-mass variability in the subarctic North Pacific, especially near the strong diurnal tide regions as Kuril Straits and Aleutian Islands, and in long-term climate indices as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in proxy-reconstructed records. In low-frequency part of the PDO and SOI records, negative (positive)-PDO and positive (negative)-SOI tend to occur in the 4-6-th (10-12-th) year after the maximum diurnal tide, which is consistent with the climate model experiments with locally enhanced vertical mixing around Kuril Straits showing that tidal mixing and its variability could generate bi-decadal variability in ocean and climate. Ocean and climate model experiments with parameterized tidal mixing explain some of the water-mass modifications and bi-decadal variability of water-masses and climate.

  9. Varying sediment sources (Hudson Strait, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Bay) to the NW Labrador Sea slope between and during Heinrich events 0 to 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Barber, D.C.; Jennings, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Maclean, B.; Kirby, M.E.; Stoner, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Core HU97048-007PC was recovered from the continental Labrador Sea slope at a water depth of 945 m, 250 km seaward from the mouth of Cumberland Sound, and 400 km north of Hudson Strait. Cumberland Sound is a structural trough partly floored by Cretaceous mudstones and Paleozoic carbonates. The record extends from ∼10 to 58 ka. On-board logging revealed a complex series of lithofacies, including buff-colored detrital carbonate-rich sediments [Heinrich (H)-events] frequently bracketed by black facies. We investigate the provenance of these facies using quantitative X-ray diffraction on drill-core samples from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock from the SE Baffin Island Shelf, and on the < 2-mm sediment fraction in a transect of five cores from Cumberland Sound to the NW Labrador Sea. A sediment unmixing program was used to discriminate between sediment sources, which included dolomite-rich sediments from Baffin Bay, calcite-rich sediments from Hudson Strait and discrete sources from Cumberland Sound. Results indicated that the bulk of the sediment was derived from Cumberland Sound, but Baffin Bay contributed to sediments coeval with H-0 (Younger Dryas), whereas Hudson Strait was the source during H-events 1–4. Contributions from the Cretaceous outcrops within Cumberland Sound bracket H-events, thus both leading and lagging Hudson Strait-sourced H-events.

  10. Collection of wind-borne haematophagous insects in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    PubMed

    Johansen, C A; Farrow, R A; Morrisen, A; Foley, P; Bellis, G; Van Den Hurk, A F; Montgomery, B; Mackenzie, J S; Ritchie, S A

    2003-03-01

    Circumstantial evidence has implicated wind-borne mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the introduction of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus into Australia from the New Guinea mainland. A study was initiated on Saibai Island in the northern Torres Strait, during January and February 2000, to identify the potential source of insects collected in aerial (kytoon) and surface-level traps. Wind speed and direction were recorded to determine wind profiles during insect sampling. Northerly winds capable of carrying insects from New Guinea to Saibai Island were only present on three out of 18 nights sampled. Only three male mosquitoes, comprising two Verrallina funerea (Theobald) and one Ochlerotatus vigilax (Skuse), were collected in aerial samples, and were most likely of local origin. Culicoides midges were also collected in aerial nets and included gravid/parous C. bundyensis Lee and Reye, and one parous C. histrio Johannsen. Highest densities of arthropods (up to 1562/million m3) were on 30 January 2000 when NW winds, sustained for six hours, probably introduced midges from the New Guinea mainland. Adult mosquitoes (including three female Ve. funerea and a single female Ficalbia) and Culicoides (including two gravid C. bundyensis and one parous C. cordiger Macfie) were also collected in 2 m high mast nets during northerly surface winds. Although the results do not provide evidence that wind-blown mosquitoes introduced JE from New Guinea into Australia, they do not preclude that strong N winds associated with low pressure systems SW of the Torres Strait could have done so. However, results suggest that Culicoides were more likely than mosquitoes to reach high altitude and travel long distances during the light N winds experienced during the study.

  11. The potential impact of bedform migration on seagrass communities in Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.; Harris, Peter T.; Hughes, Michael G.; Hemer, Mark; Heap, Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass communities in the northwest of Torres Strait are known to disappear episodically over broad areas. Sediment mobility surveys were undertaken within two study areas during the monsoon and trade wind seasons, in the vicinity of Turnagain Island, to find out if the migration of bedforms could explain this disappearance. The two study areas covered sand bank and sand dune environments to compare and contrast their migration characteristics. Repeat multibeam sonar surveys were used to measure dune-crest migration during each season. Our results show that seagrass beds occur in the troughs of sediment-starved dunes, but no seagrass occurs in association with full-bedded dunes that are superimposed on large sand bank features. The coincidence of seagrass beds with the sediment-starved dunes is in spite of the fact that they migrate faster (0.59 m day -1) than full-bedded dunes (0.13 m day -1), which indicates that some other factor (other than dune migration rate) limits seagrass growth within Torres Strait. We suggest that seagrasses are unable to colonise full-bedded dunes because of the semi-continuously transported sand that characterises this environment. In contrast, the troughs of sediment-starved dunes experience only limited bedload transport and are less hostile for seagrasses. A conceptual model is presented to explain the occurrence of seagrass beds in relation to their proximity to migrating sand dunes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the widespread dieback of seagrasses documented for the Turnagain Island region was not caused by dune migration.

  12. Kerguelen Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Kerguelen Islands also known as the Desolation Islands, which are part of the French Southern and Antarctic lands. The islands are among the most isolated places on Earth.

  13. Seasonal Variability of Transport Through Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    We have investigated the transport variability through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Corsica) with a very high resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea. A numerical simulation of the Mediterranean circulation has been done with a 1/16o horizontal grid mesh, 43 vertical z-level model. Initial hydrological conditions were provided by the Mediterranean MODB5 climatology. The model has been run eleven years. It has been forced in a yearly perpetual mode by the daily sea surface fluxes from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis during the year March 1998 - February 1999. This study has been supported by the french MERCA- TOR project and SHOM. We grateful the PAM team of CERFACS (Toulouse, France). Analysis is focused on three major straits which play an important role in control- ling the circulation through mass transport exchanges. Model results are compared to recent observations and good agreement is obtained. It demonstrates advantages to improve resolution in numerical models. Gibraltar and Sicily strait transports are largely baroclinic. The transport through the Gibraltar Strait is forced by density difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic water (AW) penetrates the Mediterranean Sea while Mediterranean Outflow Water flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This transport is hy- draulically maximal, with a semi-annual signal, and its seasonal variation is weak. The Sicily Strait transport is probably first forced by the AW coming from the West rather than the density gradient between the western and eastern mediterranean seas. AW inflow (i.e. Eastern Mediterranean Overflow Water outflow) is maximum in late Fall and minimum in late Winter. In opposite to previous straits, the northward Cor- sica Strait transport presents strong seasonal variability, and thus a strong barotropic component related to the wind stress curl.

  14. Geodetic surveys in Messina straits area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, P.; Achilli, V.; Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.

    1983-03-01

    By using the fit of theoretical displacements on a fault according to Mindlin and Cheng (1950) dislocation theory, the vertical deformation field (maximum subsidence of 70 cm) associated to the Dec. 28 1908 Messina M=7.0 earthquake is compared to the results of a spirit levelling survey that we performed in the Messina Straits area in 1981 1982. The differences in level from the last levelling campaign in the area, completed in 1970, show that the coastlines have undergone a moderate differential subsidence of about 1 mm/year in the last decade. This is in agreement with the trend observed around 1908 and with the data of the Messina tide-gauge relative to the period 1897 1908 and 1910 1918. The lack of data in the period 1918 1970 does not allow definite conclusions about the vertical tectonic deformations in the area. Recent data on planimetric deformations have shown a South-North relative motion of Sicily. A comparison with the theoretical displacements indicates that a pure dip-slip of 4 cm on the 1908 fault system does explain the observed vertical deformation, but not the horizontal.

  15. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc

  16. Changes in the Composition of the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Granskog, Mats; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Stedmon, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Fram Strait is the largest gateway and only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar oceans. Monitoring the exchanges through Fram Strait allows us to detect and understand current changes occurring in the Arctic Ocean and to predict the effects of those changes on the Arctic and Subarctic climate and ecosystems. Polar water, recirculating Atlantic Water and deeper water masses exported from the Arctic Ocean through western Fram Strait are monitored year-round by an array of moored instruments along 78°50'N, continuously maintained by the Norwegian Polar Institute since the 1990s. Complimentary annual hydrographic sections have been repeated along the same latitude every September. This presentation will focus on biogeochemical tracer measurements collected along repeated sections from 1997-2015, which can be used to identify freshwater from different sources and reveal the causes of variations in total volume of freshwater exported e. g.: pulses of freshwater from the Pacific. Repeated tracer sections across Fram Strait reveal significant changes in the composition of the outflow in recent years, with recent sections showing positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC, suggesting that more sea ice melts back into the surface than previously. The 1997-2015 time series of measurements reveals a strong anti-correlation between run-off and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that run-off and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. While the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait typically exhibits a similar run-off to net sea ice meltwater ratio to the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, we find that the ratio of run-off to sea ice meltwater at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, suggesting an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent years. In 2014 and 2015 measurements of salinity, δ18O and total alkalinity were collected from sea ice cores as well as the

  17. 2009 Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Alaska: temporal and geographic characteristics of spread and increased risk of hospitalization among Alaska Native and Asian/Pacific Islander people.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Jay D; Castrodale, Louisa J; Bruden, Dana L; Keck, James W; Zulz, Tammy; Bruce, Michael G; Fearey, Donna A; McLaughlin, Joe; Hurlburt, Debby; Hummel, Kim Boyd; Kitka, Sassa; Bentley, Steve; Thomas, Timothy K; Singleton, Rosalyn; Redd, John T; Layne, Larry; Cheek, James E; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Alaska Native people have suffered disproportionately from previous influenza pandemics. We evaluated 3 separate syndromic data sources to determine temporal and geographic patterns of spread of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) in Alaska, and reviewed records from persons hospitalized with pH1N1 disease in 3 areas in Alaska to characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of disease in Alaskans. A wave of pH1N1 disease swept through Alaska beginning in most areas in August or early September. In rural regions, where Alaska Native people comprise a substantial proportion of the population, disease occurred earlier than in other regions. Alaska Native people and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI) were 2-4 times more likely to be hospitalized than whites. Alaska Native people and other minorities remain at high risk for early and substantial morbidity from pandemic influenza episodes. These findings should be integrated into plans for distribution and use of vaccine and antiviral agents.

  18. Crisis Management in the Taiwan Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ancient Mediterranean, the people in Athens spread the free trade system and the democratic system which we live upon today. Now, Taiwan is spreading the...unsatisfactory, but painfully acceptable to Mainland China. 4 What is the biggest concern in the Peoples ’ Republic of China(PRC) leadership? The PRC...Chinese without jobs. The CCP, the single party, and the leadership would be blamed for the failure. Angry people can not wait until the next

  19. Ellis Island: The Immigrants' Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson where the students participate in a simulation of the process at Ellis Island in order to understand the feelings people underwent during immigration. Explains that the students choose and research a character, either fictional or a relative, and act out the experience of entering Ellis Island. (CMK)

  20. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “V,” which is bounded by...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “V,” which is bounded by...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1312 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  5. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  6. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  7. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  8. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  9. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1312 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  13. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  14. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  15. STS-56 Earth observation of the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of the Strait of Gibraltar. A small bank of clouds marks the passage between Spain and Morocco at the western edge of the Mediterranean Sea. This passage, one of the two Pilars of Hercules of the Ancient Greeks, is now known as the Strait of Gibraltar. The cities of Cadiz on the Atlantic Coast of Spain and Malaga on the Mediterranean coast, as well as Tangier, Morocco (facing the strait), can be seen. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-56 photos, a subtle difference in the water color on the Atlantic side suggests that a pulse of surface water had recently flowed out of the Mediterranean into the Atlantic.

  16. STS-56 Earth observation of the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-17

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of the Strait of Gibraltar. A small bank of clouds marks the passage between Spain and Morocco at the western edge of the Mediterranean Sea. This passage, one of the two Pilars of Hercules of the Ancient Greeks, is now known as the Strait of Gibraltar. The cities of Cadiz on the Atlantic Coast of Spain and Malaga on the Mediterranean coast, as well as Tangier, Morocco (facing the strait), can be seen. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-56 photos, a subtle difference in the water color on the Atlantic side suggests that a pulse of surface water had recently flowed out of the Mediterranean into the Atlantic.

  17. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  18. Does differential particulate food supply explain the presence of mussels in Wellington Harbour (New Zealand) and their absence on neighbouring Cook Strait shores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helson, Jeremy G.; Pledger, Shirley; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2007-03-01

    Rocky intertidal reef communities in Wellington Harbour, New Zealand, are dominated by mussels (the ribbed mussel Aulacomya maoriana, the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus). Only a few kilometres away, outside the Harbour on exposed Cook Strait shores, these mussels are absent. We tested the hypothesis of bottom-up food limitation as the explanation for this distributional difference. The water column at three Harbour sites and five Cook Strait coastal sites was sampled over an 18-month period for temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total particulate matter (TPM), particulate organic matter (POM), percent organic matter (PCOM), chlorophyll a (Chl a), particle counts (number of particles mL -1 in the range 2.5-63 μm), percent carbon, percent nitrogen, and C:N ratio. Mean values of PCOM and Chl a were significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in the Harbour than in Cook Strait. On two separate occasions mussels were transferred from Wellington Harbour to the Island Bay Marine Laboratory (IBML on Cook Strait) and sampled at regular intervals to permit the determination of body condition index (CI) and mortality rate to measure their response to the coastal seston regime. On both occasions monthly CI values of all three species held at IBML decreased significantly when compared with monthly CI values of mussels collected from Harbour sites. Mortality rates at IBML exhibited consistent taxon-specific responses ( P. canaliculus > M. galloprovincialis > A. maoriana). We interpret these field-based and laboratory-based findings as providing support for the hypothesis that multi-species mussel distributions and hence intertidal community structure at Cook Strait sites are regulated at least in part by particulate food supply.

  19. Sedimentation of the mud belt along the coast of China from the mouth of the Yangtze (Changjiang) River to northern Taiwan Strait: An Source-to-Sink Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, C. C.; Liu, J. T.; Yang, R.; Huh, C. A.; Su, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    Sediments in the Taiwan Strait are originated from Mainland China and Taiwan. The China Coastal Current, influenced by the northeast monsoon in winter, becomes enhanced, which caries the sediments exported from the Yangtze River to the southern East China Sea and the Taiwan Strait along the Zhemin-Taiwan Strait mud belt. The sediment transport process is also influenced by tidal current and Kuroshio Branch Current and Taiwan Warm Current, making the seafloor sediment signals complex. This study used R/V Ocean Researcher V (Cruise 0032), to collect six box cores and three gravity cores along the Zhemin mud belt and the mud belt in northern Taiwan Strait in the winter of 2014. From the core samples, grain-size distribution, Multi-Sensor Core Logger, and 7Be activity were measured to investigate the sedimentation process along the mud belts. The box core taken at the mouth of the Changjiang- is composed of homogeneous clay and rich in shell fragments. The core off the mouth of Ou River is composed of homogeneous clay, but showing horizontal laminations. Near the Taishan Island off the coast of Zhejiang the core is consisted of a homogeneous sandy sediments that turned into clay. Off the mouth of the Min River the core consists of clay with shell fragments. Off the coast of the Wu River on the west coast of the Taiwan, the core is mainly composed of muddy sediments, which has the siltstone layers of oblique bedding. Off the mouth of Zhuoshui River in central Taiwan, the core is composed of sandy sediments. From the mouth of the Changhjiang, Zhemin mud belt, the northern Taiwan Strait mud belt, to the central Taiwan Strait, 7Be activity in the seafloor sediment indicates that the freshness of the terrigenous sediments decreased. The Mass Magnetic Susceptiblity (MSI) demonstrates that the terrigenous sediments decreased from north to south. The MSI signals in the core off the mouth of the Minjiang are different from those in the neighboring cores. This is suspected due

  20. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  1. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  2. Microbial ecological associations in the surface sediments of Bohai strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Hongmei; Tang, Haitian; Hu, Xiaoke

    2017-09-01

    Microbial communities play key roles in the marine ecosystem. Despite a few studies on marine microbial communities in deep straits, ecological associations among microbial communities in the sediments of shallow straits have not been fully investigated. The Bohai Strait in northern China (average depth less than 20 m) separates the Bohai Sea from the Yellow Sea and has organic-rich sediments. In this study, in the summer of 2014, six stations across the strait were selected to explore the taxonomic composition of microbial communities and their ecological associations. The four most abundant classes were Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Flavobacteriia. Temperature, total carbon, depth, nitrate, fishery breeding and cold water masses influenced the microbial communities, as suggested by representational difference and composition analyses. Network analysis of microbial associations revealed that key families included Flavobacteriaceae, Pirellulaceae and Piscirickettsiaceae. Our findings suggest that the families with high phylogenetic diversity are key populations in the microbial association network that ensure the stability of microbial ecosystems. Our study contributes to a better understanding of microbial ecology in complex hydrological environments.

  3. Ship collision risk assessment for the Singapore Strait.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaobo; Meng, Qiang; Suyi, Li

    2011-11-01

    The Singapore Strait is considered as the bottleneck and chokepoint of the shipping routes connecting the Indian and the Pacific Ocean. Therefore, the ship collision risk assessment is of significant importance for ships passing through the narrow, shallow, and busy waterway. In this paper, three ship collision risk indices are initially proposed to quantitatively assess the ship collision risks in the Strait: index of speed dispersion, degree of acceleration and deceleration, and number of fuzzy ship domain overlaps. These three risk indices for the Singapore Strait are estimated by using the real-time ship locations and sailing speeds provide by Lloyd's MIU automatic identification system (AIS). Based on estimation of these three risk indices, it can be concluded that Legs 4W, 5W, 11E, and 12E are the most risky legs in the Strait. Therefore, the ship collision risk reduction solutions should be prioritized being implemented in these four legs. This study also finds that around 25% of the vessels sail with a speed in excess of the speed limit, which results in higher potentials of ship collision. Analysis indicates that the safety level would be significantly improved if all the vessels follow the passage guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ripple Marks Show That Countercurrent Exists in Florida Straits.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R J; Fink, L K

    1963-02-15

    About 60 percent of the area shown in photographs taken at the axis of Florida Straits exhibits well-defined current ripple marks. These ripples indicate a flow of water of at least 0.2 to 0.6 knots from the north. This current is in the opposite direction from the surface currents of 2 to 4 or more knots.

  5. Environmental Parameters in Exuma Sound and the Straits of Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of data collected during the spring of 1983 in Exuma Sound, Bahamas, and in the Gulf Stream at the Straits of...propeller cavitation susceptibility. Examination of this data set reveals that Exuma Sound is a relatively homogeneous body of water with respect to the

  6. Strait of Gibraltar as seen by Expedition Two crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-23

    ISS002-E-5623 (23 April 2001) --- The Strait of Gibraltar, with part of Spain and all of Gibraltar at upper left and upper center, respectively, and portions of Morocco at bottom, was photographed with a digital still camera by the Expedition Two crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  7. Classification properties of Holocene sediment in Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A textural sorting pattern is evident, with pronounced and regular changes in sand content throughout the strait but with consistent separation of silt from clay only at the lowest sand contents. Vane shear strength values fall in the very soft to medium range. They are best predicted by the amount of silt-size grains (an indicator of mean grain size). -from Author

  8. Reconstructing palaeo-volcanic geometries using a Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM): Application to Deception Island volcano (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas, C.; Berrocoso, M.; Felpeto, A.; Torrecillas, M. D.; Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a reconstruction made of the palaeo-volcanic edifice on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) prior to the formation of its present caldera. Deception Island is an active Quaternary volcano located in the Bransfield Strait, between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The morphology of the island has been influenced mainly by the volcanic activity but geodynamics and volcanic deformation have also contributed. A volcanic reconstruction method, the Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM), which includes a terrain deformation factor, is proposed. In the case of Deception Island, the directions of this deformation are NW-SE and NE-SW, and match both the observed deformation of the Bransfield Strait and the volcanic deformation monitored over the last 20 years in the island, using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques. Based on these data, possible volcanic deformation values of 5-15 mm/yr in these directions have been derived. A possible coastline derived from a current bathymetry is transformed, according to values for the chosen date, to obtain the palaeo-coastline of Deception Island of 100 k years ago. Topographic, geomorphologic, volcanological and geological data in a GIS system have been considered, for computation of the outside caldera slope, palaeo-coastline, palaeo-summit height and palaeo digital elevation model (DEM). The result is a 3D palaeo-geomorphological surface model of a volcano, reaching 640 m in height, with an increase of 4 km3 in volume compared to the current edifice, covering 4 km2 more surface area and the method reveals the previous existence of parasite volcanoes. Two photorealistic images of the island are obtained by superposition of textures extracted from a current Quick Bird satellite image also. This technique for reconstructing the terrain of an existing volcano could be useful for analysing the past and future geomorphology of this island and similar locations.

  9. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Singapore Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Sea level in Singapore Strait is governed by various scale phenomena, from global to local. Global signals are dominated by the climate change and multi-decadal variability and associated sea level rise; at regional scale seasonal sea level variability is caused by ENSO-modulated monsoons; locally, astronomic tides are the strongest force. Tide gauge records in Singapore Strait are analyzed to derive local sea level trend, and attempts are made to attribute observed sea level variability to phenomena at various scales, from global to local. It is found that at annual scale, sea level anomalies in Singapore Strait are quasi-periodic, of the order of ±15 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level falls are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are related to La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±9 cm. At multi-decadal scale, sea level in Singapore Strait has been rising at the rate 1.2-1.9 mm/year for the period 1975-2009, 2.0±0.3 mm/year for 1984-2009, and 1.3-4.7 mm/year for 1993-2009. When compared with the respective global trends of 2.0±0.3, 2.4, and 2.8±0.8 mm/year, Singapore Strait sea level rise trend was weaker at the earlier period and stronger at the recent decade.

  10. Modeling the biogeochemical seasonal cycle in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Romero, E.; Vichi, M.; Castro, M.; Macías, J.; Macías, D.; García, C. M.; Bruno, M.

    2014-11-01

    A physical-biological coupled model was used to estimate the effect of the physical processes at the Strait of Gibraltar over the biogeochemical features of the Atlantic Inflow (AI) towards the Mediterranean Sea. This work was focused on the seasonal variation of the biogeochemical patterns in the AI and the role of the Strait; including primary production and phytoplankton features. As the physical model is 1D (horizontal) and two-layer, different integration methods for the primary production in the Biogeochemical Fluxes Model (BFM) have been evaluated. An approach based on the integration of a production-irradiance function was the chosen method. Using this Plankton Functional Type model (BFM), a simplified phytoplankton seasonal cycle in the AI was simulated. Main results included a principal bloom in spring dominated by nanoflagellates, whereas minimum biomass (mostly picophytoplankton) was simulated during summer. Physical processes occurring in the Strait could trigger primary production and raise phytoplankton biomass (during spring and autumn), mainly due to two combined effects. First, in the Strait a strong interfacial mixing (causing nutrient supply to the upper layer) is produced, and, second, a shoaling of the surface Atlantic layer occurs eastward. Our results show that these phenomena caused an integrated production of 105 g C m- 2 year- 1 in the eastern side of the Strait, and would also modify the proportion of the different phytoplankton groups. Nanoflagellates were favored during spring/autumn while picophytoplankton is more abundant in summer. Finally, AI could represent a relevant source of nutrients and biomass to Alboran Sea, fertilizing the upper layer of this area with 4.95 megatons nitrate year- 1 (79.83 gigamol year- 1) and 0.44 megatons C year- 1. A main advantage of this coupled model is the capability of solving relevant high-resolution processes as the tidal forcing without expensive computing requirements, allowing to assess the

  11. A subglacial landform assemblage on the outer-shelf of M'Clure Strait, Canadian Arctic, ploughed by deglacial iceberg keels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Christine; Dowdeswell, Julian; Dowdeswell, Evelyn; Todd, Brian

    2015-04-01

    stream. The subglacial landforms and sediments in M'Clure Strait were subsequently traversed and reworked by the keels of deep-drafted icebergs (up to 280 m thick) during deglaciation. Groups of parallel to subparallel iceberg ploughmarks indicate a uniform pattern of iceberg drift to the west and northwest during deglaciation. The ploughmarks were formed either by large individual icebergs with wide and uneven keels, or by several deep-keeled icebergs drifting uniformly while trapped within a thick multi-year sea-ice floe. It is possible that multi-year sea-ice cover developed in the relatively protected setting between the islands that flank M'Clure Strait. The iceberg keels which formed the parallel to subparallel ploughmarks also dissected some of the esker-like ridges, redistributing the sediment from the ridges across the seafloor. Isolated linear to curvilinear ploughmarks with highly-irregular orientations record the grounding of individual iceberg keels in seafloor sediments during the later stages of deglaciation.

  12. New evidence from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago for the resubmergence of Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, John H.; Furze, Mark F. A.

    2008-07-01

    Widespread molluscan samples were collected from raised marine sediments to date the last retreat of the NW Laurentide Ice Sheet from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. At the head of Mercy Bay, northern Banks Island, deglacial mud at the modern coast contains Hiatella arctica and Portlandia arctica bivalves, as well as Cyrtodaria kurriana, previously unreported for this area. Multiple H. arctica and C. kurriana valves from this site yield a mean age of 11.5 14C ka BP (with 740 yr marine reservoir correction). The occurrence of C. kurriana, a low Arctic taxon, raises questions concerning its origin, because evidence is currently lacking for a molluscan refugium in the Arctic Ocean during the last glacial maximum. Elsewhere, the oldest late glacial age available on C. kurriana comes from the Laptev Sea where it is < 10.3 14C ka BP and attributed to a North Atlantic source. This is 2000 cal yr younger than the Mercy Bay samples reported here, making the Laptev Sea, ~ 3000 km to the west, an unlikely source. An alternate route from the North Atlantic into the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was precluded by coalescent Laurentide, Innuitian and Greenland ice east of Banks Island until ~ 10 14C ka BP. We conclude that the presence of C. kurriana on northern Banks Island records migration from the North Pacific. This requires the resubmergence of Bering Strait by 11.5 14C ka BP, extending previous age determinations on the reconnection of the Pacific and Arctic oceans by up to 1000 yr. This renewed ingress of Pacific water likely played an important role in re-establishing Arctic Ocean surface currents, including the evacuation of thick multi-year sea ice into the North Atlantic prior to the Younger Dryas geochron.

  13. Aleutian Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Remote, rugged and extraordinarily beautiful, Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are best known for wildlife reserves, military bases, fishing, furs and fog. The sprawling volcanic archipelago was brought into the spotlight by the Russian-supported expedition of Alexey Chirikov and Vitus Bering in 1741, and soon became controlled by the Russian-American Fur Company. In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, from Russia. By 1900 the port in Unalaska was well established as a shipping port for Alaska gold. The archipelago sweeps about 1,200 miles (1,800 km) from the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu, the most westward island. Four major island groups hold 14 large islands, about 55 smaller islands, and a large number of islets, adding up to roughly 150 islands/islets in total. This chain separates the Bering Sea (north) from the Pacific Ocean (south) and the islands are connected by the Marine Highway Ferry – at least as far as Unalaska. For the most remote islands, such as birding paradise of Attu, the western-most Aleutian Island, travel becomes trickier and relies primarily on custom charter. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flew over the region and captured this spectacular true-color image of the eastern Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014. In this image, the Alaskan Peninsula protrudes from the mainland and sweeps to the southwest. The first set of islands are called the Fox Island group. Unalaska Island is part of this group and can be identified, with some imagination, as an island formed in the shape of a flying cherub, with two arms (peninsulas) outstretched towards the northeast, seemingly reaching for the round “balls” of Akutan and Akun Islands. The smallest islands in the west of the image belong to the group known as the Islands of Four Mountains. The Aleutians continue far to the west of this image. Fog surrounds the Aleutians, stretching from just off the southwestern Alaska mainland to the

  14. Bio-optical characteristics along the Straits of Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Vivian; Frouin, Robert; Negri, Rubén; Silva, Ricardo; Pompeu, Mayza; Rudorff, Natalia; Cabral, Anderson; Dogliotti, Ana; Martinez, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    The Straits of Magallanes at the tip of South America connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The variability in the absorption characteristics by phytoplankton (aph(440)), non-pigmented particles, NPP (aNPP(440)), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter, CDOM (ay(440)), measured along the Straits in late summer 2011 (R/V Melville MV1102 cruise), was analyzed. Satellite-derived monthly PAR data showed that at the time of the cruise the western sector was exposed to a low-light environment (~ 16 mol quanta m-2d-1) while the eastern sector received higher irradiance (~ 28 mol quanta m-2d-1). In the Patagonian Shelf total absorption was dominated by phytoplankton (up to 76%; aph(440)=0.265 m-1), while in the Atlantic Sector of the Straits, the major contributor was NPP (up to 42%; aNPP(440)=0.138 m-1), and in the Pacific Sector of the Straits CDOM contributed up to 80% of the total absorption (ay(440)=0.232 m-1). These changes could be related in part to the input of fresh water from glacier melting and rain in the Pacific Sector (ay(440) vs salinity rs=-0.98). The carbon biomass (C) was composed in its majority by pico-phytoplankton and secondly by nano-phytoplankton, with exception of the Atlantic Sector where the micro-phytoplankton dominated. Carbon to chlorophyll-a ratios (C:Chla) were very low throughout the Straits (average of ~ 6) because of photoacclimation to the extremely low light. Complementary pigments data obtained in spring 2003 by the BEAGLE expedition indicated the predominance of diatoms all along the Straits, but the bio-optical trend resembled the one found in late summer 2011, i.e., NPP dominated the absorption in the well mixed Atlantic Sector, phytoplankton in the Middle Sector, and CDOM in the Pacific Sector. These results emphasize that underwater light is the major factor affecting phytoplankton growth and physiology, and that prevalent physical and geochemical conditions play an important role regulating the bio-optical properties in

  15. Human genetic differentiation across the Strait of Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Strait of Gibraltar is a crucial area in the settlement history of modern humans because it represents a possible connection between Africa and Europe. So far, genetic data were inconclusive about the fact that this strait constitutes a barrier to gene flow, as previous results were highly variable depending on the genetic locus studied. The present study evaluates the impact of the Gibraltar region in reducing gene flow between populations from North-Western Africa and South-Western Europe, by comparing formally various genetic loci. First, we compute several statistics of population differentiation. Then, we use an original simulation approach in order to infer the most probable evolutionary scenario for the settlement of the area, taking into account the effects of both demography and natural selection at some loci. Results We show that the genetic patterns observed today in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar may reflect an ancient population genetic structure which has not been completely erased by more recent events such as Neolithic migrations. Moreover, the differences observed among the loci (i.e. a strong genetic boundary revealed by the Y-chromosome polymorphism and, at the other extreme, no genetic differentiation revealed by HLA-DRB1 variation) across the strait suggest specific evolutionary histories like sex-mediated migration and natural selection. By considering a model of balancing selection for HLA-DRB1, we here estimate a coefficient of selection of 2.2% for this locus (although weaker in Europe than in Africa), which is in line with what was estimated from synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates. Selection at this marker thus appears strong enough to leave a signature not only at the DNA level, but also at the population level where drift and migration processes were certainly relevant. Conclusions Our multi-loci approach using both descriptive analyses and Bayesian inferences lead to better characterize the role of

  16. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  17. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and other Pacific Islands. This small population often is grouped with Asians ... Islanders often have unmet health needs and face barriers to good health. This group is more likely ...

  18. Middle pleistocene mollusks from St. Lawrence Island and their significance for the paleo-oceanography of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Patton, W.W.

    1972-01-01

    Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression. A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait. ?? 1972.

  19. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

  2. Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

  3. Electromagnetic induction in the New Zealand South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Dosso, H. W.; Ingham, M.

    1993-12-01

    Laboratory magnetic field measurements for a scaled analogue model of New Zealand and the surrounding oceans are used to provide induction arrows for simulated geomagnetic variations of 5-120 min periods for a series of traverses over the South Island. As the island is relatively narrow, the field responses for all on-land locations show significant effects of the surrounding oceans. The model simulates a uniformly resistive island, the oceans, and a conductive asthenosphere at depth, and thus discrepancies between the model and field results for sites on the island are attributed to anomalous geological structures not simulated in the model. Removing the coast effects before interpretation, by subtracting the model induction arrows from the field site arrows at Eyrewell permits an obvious reinterpretation that attributes a significant component of the field responses to the nearby Alpine and Marlborough Faults, rather than to the channelled current in Cook Strait.

  4. Management and control of pollution in Inner Johore Strait.

    PubMed

    Koh, H L; Lim, P E; Midun, Z

    1991-10-01

    Coastal waters in South Johore, Malaysia are polluted to various degrees. The major pollution sources are domestric wastes from human settlements, agro-based wastes from palm oil mills and rubber processing factories, industrial effluents from industrial estates and discharges from animal farms. These pollution problems have adversely affected resources such as fisheries, recreational potential as well as the general aesthetic quality of the coastal environment particularly the Inner Johore Strait. Hence proper management and control measures are urgently needed to protect and further enhance the water quality to ensure environmentally sustainable development. This study examines various management options to control the pollution in the Inner Johore Strait. The options involve partial opening as well as complete removal of the Causeway to improve the tidal flow for more effective dilution and dispersion of pollutants. Computer simulation models are used to assess the impacts of the proposed options.

  5. Distribution and population structures of immature and adult Euphausia superba in the western Bransfield Strait region during the 1986-87 summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Edward

    Interrelationships among body size, maturity state and spatial distribution in immature and adult Euphausia superba were examined through the course of the 1986-87 reproductive season in a region centered in western Bransfield Strait and extending northward into Drake Passage and southward into Gerlache Strait. During an initial (December to January) peak in production to phytoplankton and krill larvae in Gerlache Strait and adjacent parts of Bransfield Strait, so few post-larvae and adults were caught that the parent stock of those larvae could not be identified with certainty. However, small adults of 36-42 mm body length were caught in abundance later in the summer (February to March), after larval recruitment in and near Gerlache Strait had ceased. Many of these small adults then appeared to be post-reproductive. In Bransfield Strait during late summer (late February to March) there was a nearly equal mixture of small adults (which dominated in Gerlache Strait) and large adults (>42 mm): the large adults showed most evidence of recent reproductive activity and could have been responsible for much of the late summer larval recruitment in Bransfield Strait. In Drake Passage, large adults were usually dominant; the few caught in December were undergoing maturation near the South Shetlands, and in January they were reproductive and dispersed in more offshore oceanic waters. During late February to March, krill became more available in Drake Passage with many having reassembled in aggregations near Livingston Island (South Shetlands). By then, not only small adults but also large adults appeared post-reproductive in all areas. Evidence relating to growth rate in adults was obscured by erratic variations in ratios of body-length classes, month-to-month, considered artifacts on sampling. However, adult growth appeared negligible during January to March. After midsummer (January) there were distinct changes in relative abundances of males to females of >42 mm: within

  6. The Straits of Malacca and Singapore, the Neglected Choke Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Product JDW Jane’s Defense Weekly LOS Law of the Sea MADGE Malaysian Air Defense System MCM Mine Countermeasures NEP New Economic Program PDR Pacific...Defense Reporter . RMAF Royal Malaysian Air Force * RMN Royal Malaysian Navy SAM Surface to Air Missile SSM Surface to Surface Missile O TSS Traffic...The English retained control of the Malay peninsula and what became the Straits settlements. Penang , Malacca and Singapore were valued for their

  7. Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia - Controlling the Malacca Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    RESTRICTING THE MALACCA STRAITS..73 A. UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA III (UNCLOS) ....................... 73 B. POLLUTION ...ship missiles, which are installed on an equally large number of frigates, corvettes, and patrol craft. They have also developed extensive air forces...qualitative superiority in large modern warships, the naval balance is inclined toward the littoral states because of the quantitatively superior air

  8. Generation and Evolution of Internal Waves in Luzon Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    internal tides, inertial waves, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs), and turbulence mixing––in the ocean and thereby help develop improved parameterizations of...mixing for ocean models. Mixing within the stratified ocean is a particular focus as the complex interplay of internal waves from a variety of...the vicinity of Luzon Strait, 2) the energy flux of NLIWs and internal tides into the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea (SCS), 3) the effects of the

  9. Iran’s Threat to the Strait of Hormuz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-23

    the Strait of Hormuz Source: Jacqueline Nolan, Library of Congress, with data from Petroleum Economist, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...continued) more than three to five boats together. The machine guns and rocket launchers deployed on its small-boat fleet remain highly...conventional combatants such as the cruiser Vincennes, in its firefight with Iranian small boats in July 1988, showed that the five-inch guns could

  10. Hydrographic Measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar, June 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    DATE OF REPORT (Yr., Mo., Day) April 1987 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Planning Systems, Inc. 15. PAGE COUNT 14 COSATI CODES GROUP 18. SUBJECT...hydrographic cruise form part of a broad study of the dynamics and kinematics of the Strait of Gibraltar. The station plan was chosen to resolve the...Kinder t^ ^^u*-. Donald A. Burns Oceanography Division Ocean Science Directorate Michael R. Wilcox Planning Systems, Inc. Slidell, Louisiana

  11. Generation and Evolution of Internal Waves in Luzon Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Distribution approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Generation and Evolution of Internal Waves in...turbulence makes this a current locus of uncertainty. For this study, our focus is on generation , propagation, evolution, and dissipation of small-scale...The primary objectives of this observational program are to quantify 1) the generation of NLIWs and internal tides in the vicinity of Luzon Strait

  12. Observed Volume Fluxes and Mixing in the Dardanelles Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-04

    there was a net low-salinity water outflow to the Aegean Sea, and that they varied weakly on longer time scales (monthly to seasonal). High-salinity... water fluxes (>= 39 psu) were used to calculate strait-averaged vertical eddy diffusivities which ranged between ICT" and 10Ŗ m2 sŕ. Additionally...net low-salinity water outflow to the Aegean Sea, and that they varied weakly on longer time scales (monthly to seasonal). High- salinity water

  13. Maritime Security and the Strait of Malacca: A Strategic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    Association, advisors to the Lloyds of London insurance underwriters, has recently declared the Strait a “war risk zone” based on piracy and terrorism...current interactions, realizing that one might misjudge others’ actions based on learned expectations.9 These states are extremely diverse and...the diversity in the national interests of each nation. Singapore’s established, global- based economy relies on stability within the region to ensure

  14. Internal Waves in Straits (IWISE): Observations of Wave Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    deployment of a 2-D array of pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal...east of the strait to the westernmost deployments. Fig. 1 Deployment locations of Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] in South...measurements of nonlinear internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. David M Farmer, Li, Qiang & Jae-Hun

  15. Glacial-interglacial organic carbon record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia: Implications for regional changes in continental vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visser, K.; Thunell, R.; Goni, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies convincingly show that climate in the Western Pacific Warm Pool and other equatorial/tropical regions was significantly colder (by ???3-4??C) during glacial periods, prompting a reexamination of the late Pleistocene paleoenvironments of these regions. This study examines changes in continental vegetation during the last two deglaciations (Terminations I and II) using a sediment core (MD9821-62) recovered from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia. Evidence based on the lignin phenol ratios suggests that vegetation on Borneo and other surrounding islands did not significantly change from tropical rainforest during the last two glacial periods relative to subsequent interglacial periods. This supports the hypothesis that the winter monsoon increased in strength during glacial periods, allowing Indonesia to maintain high rainfall despite the cooler conditions. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: A Problem Solved

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    six hundred nau-tical miles from the Andaman Sea to the South China Sea, between Malaysia and Indonesia. The strait provides a vital shipping lane for...on In- donesia and Malaysia , to address the problem of piracy.13 This effort began in 2000, when piracy attacks peaked in the Malacca Strait , and...that real steps toward secur- ing the strait were made. There were several stumbling blocks. Malaysia and Indonesia saw the issue of piracy purely as

  17. Australian Diabetes Foot Network: practical guideline on the provision of footwear for people with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Trauma, in the form of pressure and/or friction from footwear, is a common cause of foot ulceration in people with diabetes. These practical recommendations regarding the provision of footwear for people with diabetes were agreed upon following review of existing position statements and clinical guidelines. The aim of this process was not to re-invent existing guidelines but to provide practical guidance for health professionals on how they can best deliver these recommendations within the Australian health system. Where information was lacking or inconsistent, a consensus was reached following discussion by all authors. Appropriately prescribed footwear, used alone or in conjunction with custom-made foot orthoses, can reduce pedal pressures and reduce the risk of foot ulceration. It is important for all health professionals involved in the care of people with diabetes to both assess and make recommendations on the footwear needs of their clients or to refer to health professionals with such skills and knowledge. Individuals with more complex footwear needs (for example those who require custom-made medical grade footwear and orthoses) should be referred to health professionals with experience in the prescription of these modalities and who are able to provide appropriate and timely follow-up. Where financial disadvantage is a barrier to individuals acquiring appropriate footwear, health care professionals should be aware of state and territory based equipment funding schemes that can provide financial assistance. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and people living in rural and remote areas are likely to have limited access to a broad range of footwear. Provision of appropriate footwear to people with diabetes in these communities needs be addressed as part of a comprehensive national strategy to reduce the burden of diabetes and its complications on the health system. PMID:23442978

  18. A Glacial Chronology of the Strait of Magellan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, C.; Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Soteres, R.; Sagredo, E. A.; Aravena, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to address the fundamental question of when and why Ice Age climates begin and end in South America and the Southern Hemisphere, robust glacial chronologies are needed. As previous studies have demonstrated, well-preserved glacial deposits left by large ice sheet lobes adjacent to the Strait of Magellan (52°S; Chile) in southernmost South America provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct the timing and structure of at least the last two glaciations and terminations. We apply precise 10Be surface exposure dating of glacially deposited moraine boulders, along with detailed geomorphic mapping of the area. Here we present new results for a sequence of six moraine sets at the Strait of Magellan that span 18-28 ka and 60-70 ka showing that boulders from the outermost moraine ridge dated thus far are marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 in age. This coincides with a glacial maximum in New Zealand's Southern Alps (44°S), providing evidence for a hemispheric-scale full glacial maximum during MIS-4, similar in size to MIS-2. Inboard the MIS-4 moraine, mapping and dating of several moraines fringing the Strait of Magellan area will afford us insight into the fine structure of the local Last Glacial Maximum and its regional, hemispheric and inter-hemispheric significance. Establishment of such detailed glacier records in southernmost South America and throughout the Southern Hemisphere will help to test proposed mechanisms for the last two glacial maxima and their terminations.

  19. Formation of wind-driven ice bridges in narrow straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Zheng, Zhong; Winton, Michael; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-11-01

    An ice bridge is a static arch made of tightly packed ice that can be formed when sea ice flows through a narrow strait between landmasses. The formation of a stable ice arch prevents the further flow of sea ice into warmer oceans, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of the local climate and ecology and to an extent, the mass balance of Arctic ice. While ice bridges are a seasonal phenomenon in many parts of the Canadian Archipelago, the process of their formation and breakup is poorly understood. Using thin-layer theory along with dynamic sea ice models widely used in climate modeling, we develop a reduced-order description of wind-driven ice bridge formation in long, narrow straits. Our theory predicts a critical static condition for arrested flow that involves the ice properties (thickness and compactness), the geometry of the channel, and the magnitude of the wind stress. Further, we show that in a channel of varying shape and under a constant wind stress, a spatially uniform ice field evolves towards a steady state with discontinuities in its properties, consistent with observed mechanisms of ice bridge formation. The reduced-order model thus provides a predictive tool for the flow and stoppage of sea ice in straits.

  20. Temporal and spatial variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) represents about half of the export of dense waters formed in the Nordic Seas to the deep circulation in the North Atlantic. The passage connecting the two is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation, and highly variable meso-scale current fluctuations are observed in the overflow. In the summer of 2014, the mooring array used for monitoring the Denmark Strait Overflow was expanded from two to five moorings in order to better resolve its spatial variability. Continuous measurements of the velocity field were made using four acoustic profilers (ADCP) and one point current meter (RCM). The instruments were deployed along the sill between the deepest point and 33 km westward of it, towards the Greenland shelf. A descriptive analysis of the structure of the velocity field at the Denmark Strait sill is presented, along with its spatial and temporal variability. The fluctuations are dominated by passing meso-scale vortices, pulsating changes in the strength of the overflow and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. These changes and their respective contribution to the variability of the flow field are discussed with relation to the different source water masses for the DSO. The relationship between spatial coherence and temporal variability on daily to monthly time scales is explored, and the influence of meso-scale eddies on daily to weekly transport estimates is quantified. The results of the analysis are used to develop a measurement strategy for unbiased DSO transport estimates.

  1. Biogeochemical fluxes through the Strait of Otranto (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, G.; Gačić, M.; Vetrano, A.; Boldrin, A.; Bregant, D.; Rabitti, S.; Souvermezoglou, E.

    1998-06-01

    A series of seasonal cruises and Eulerian current measurements in the Otranto Strait were carried out to study the biogeochemical characteristics of the strait and to estimate the exchange of water, dissolved and particulate matter between the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea. Analysis of data shows that on an annual scale, the Adriatic Sea exports dissolved nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) to the Ionian, and imports particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. Estimate of the mean annual water flux for the first time based on direct Eulerian current measurements gives value of 0.9 Sv that is appreciably higher than those found in literature. Calculations of the ratio of new and total primary production based on an annual phosphate subsurface export suggest that the trophic status of the Adriatic Sea on the whole is close to that of an oligotrophic sea. From the biogeochemical distributions obtained, an active role for the Adriatic in supporting the well-known N:P ratio anomaly of the Mediterranean is hy pothesized. Further studies are needed to estimate the contribution of the dissolved organic forms to the nutrient exchanges through the strait, and to establish the total budget of N and P in the Adriatic Sea.

  2. Tidal energy resource complexity in a large strait: The Karori Rip, Cook Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. L.; Smith, M. J.; Grant, B.; Stewart, C. L.; Divett, T.

    2012-02-01

    Successful extraction of tidal stream energy will require a good understanding of flow at a range of scales, including those relating to average energy, variability in energy supply and fatigue. Current and turbulence measurements from the Karori Rip area of Cook Strait, the prime focal region of open-water tidal stream electricity generation in New Zealand, are described. A key issue is that a significant portion of the energy is contained in waters deeper than normally considered for energy extraction. Here we compare shallow and deep sites. Velocity data were derived from acoustic Doppler current profiler moorings, as well as spatial surveys and show flow magnitudes reaching 3.4 m s -1 in the shallow regions. The maximum speeds in both shallow and deep sites were typically located in the upper part of the measured water column although moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations showed some complexity in this regard. Benthic boundary-layers were resolved in the bottom ˜20 m of the water column. Measured turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates ɛ exceeded 10 -5 m 2 s -3 and estimated maximum ɛ is a factor of 10 greater. This was not distributed evenly through the water column, with stratification and velocity shear clearly persisting, especially around the turn of the tide. The implications for tidal stream energy are that (i) there is sufficient energy resource in the region for a moderate sized array of turbines, (ii) the vertical variability in the flow speed suggests turbines that can operate near the surface would be more effective at accessing the resource, (iii) stratification may persist and influence the scales of turbulence and (iv) wave-current interaction effects will influence any near-surface structure as well as vessel operations.

  3. The Observation of SAR, Optical and Altimeter Data to Study the Generation of Internal Wave in Tsushima Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvelyna, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2006-07-01

    This study proposes D iscr eet Mey er wavelet tr ansform and spectr al reflectan ce analysis for internal w ave detection in ERS1/2 and ASTER imag es data over the Tsushima Strait, Jap an, during 1993-2004 period. The wavelet tr ansform of imag e w as successfully der ived the intern al wav e f eature with h igher w avelet coeff icien t than sea surf ace, i.e. between 2-4.59 times, on horizon tal and vertical d etail coefficient at level 2-5, incr eased the detection probability over 80%. The intern al w ave is modeled using Co mbined Korteweg the Vries (combKdV) model. Non linier speed of in ternal wave is calculated about 85 cm-1. Th e altimetry data products from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 data are used to predict th e internal wav e gener ation. Th e observation results show th e propagation of in ternal w aves wer e varied between N W-SW at eastern channel and N-SW at western channel of Tsush ima Strait, p arallel to the direction of the geostrophic curren t. A t NE coast off Tsushima Island, the direction is on S/SE dir ection. I t is suggested th at th e internal wav es w ere sourced from south co ast off Tsush ima Island and south coast off the Japan Sea. They w ere possib ly tid ally gen erated and formed due to bathymetr ic change.

  4. The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: Extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Seas and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus (heterococcolith-bearing phase) in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects crossing Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Iceland Sea, respectively, each conducted during both July 2011 and September-October 2007. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles were used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water and surface mixed layer at the time of sampling. Strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks characterized the northern and southern transects, where the maximum values of 53×103 cells/l (fall) and 70×103 cells/l (summer), respectively, were essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This pattern confirms previous findings of a summer to fall northwestward shift in peak coccolithophore cell densities within the Nordic Seas. While depicting an overall zonal shift in high cell densities between the summer (Norwegian Sea) and fall (northern Iceland Sea) conditions, the southern transects were additionally characterized by local peak coccolithophore concentrations associated with a geographically and temporally restricted convective process (Lofoten Gyre, summer), as well as an island mass effect (in the vicinity of Jan Mayen Island, fall). Maximum coccolithophore abundances within Fram Strait were found during both seasons close to the western frontal zone (Polar and Arctic Fronts) an area of strong density gradients where physical and chemical properties of the surface mixed layer are prone to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Here, changes in species dominance from E. huxleyi in summer, to C. pelagicus in fall, were related to the strengthened influence during summer, of surface AW, as well as to high July solar irradiance, within an area usually characterized by C. pelagicus-dominated low density populations.

  5. A Strait Comparison: Lessons Learned from the 1915 Dardanelles Campaign in the Context of a Strait of Hormuz Closure Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    the Dardanelles through the lens of such an event, distill a number of recommendations for the United States and its Coalition partners relevant to...knots going against the current of the Straits, were to steam past the minefields, turn, and sweep them coming back downstream. Seven trawlers set...principle, be increased to 11 MBD using drag -reducing agents [23]. 37 Saudi Arabia and the UAE, and Iran has a large, restive population that, in

  6. Glacimarine sedimentation in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait, NW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Kelly; Jakobsson, Martin; Mayer, Larry; Mix, Alan; Nielsen, Tove; Kamla, Elina; Reilly, Brendan; Heirman, Katrina An; Stranne, Christian; Mohammed, Rezwan; Eriksson, Bjorn; Jerram, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Here we build on preliminary results from 6500 line-km of high-resolution chirp sub-bottom profiles (2-7 kHz) acquired in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait during the Petermann 2015 Expedition of the Swedish icebreaker Oden. We map the unlithified sediment cover in Peterman Fjord, which consists of up to 3 conformable "drape" units and calculate volumes of this assumed "post-glacial" fill. In Nares Strait we have mapped sediment volumes in local basins just beyond the sill at the Petermann Fjord-mouth: do these sediments represent material flushed out from the grounding zone of Petermann Glacier when it was grounded at the sill? In this vein, and interestingly, some of the thickest sediments that we observe are found close to a grounding-zone wedge (GZW) in Nares Strait that represents a former grounding zone of ice retreating southwards through the strait. We also map conformable units across Nares Strait and consider the similarities between these and the sediment units in the fjord. Do the strong reflections between the units represent the same climatic, oceanographic or process-shift both inside and outside the fjord? We also aim to tie our new acoustic stratigraphy to sediment-core data (lithofacies, dates) and, therefore, to comment on the age of the mapped sediment units and present ideas on the glacimarine flux of material to the Petermann-Nares system. Primary sediment delivery to the seafloor in this environment is thought to be predominantly through sedimentation from meltwater plumes but also of iceberg-rafted debris (IRD). However, sediment redeposition by slope failures on a variety of scales also occurs and has focussed sediments into discrete basins where the seafloor is rugged. This work - which aims to relate past sediment, meltwater and iceberg fluxes to changes in climate - will help us to identify how the system has responded to a past global warming event, namely the last deglaciation. This is particularly relevant in light of the recent

  7. Strait of Gibraltar as seen from STS-60

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-09

    STS060-88-070 (3-11 Feb 1994) --- This view shows sunglint in the Strait of Gibralter. In this photograph a high pressure atmospheric system over the Iberian Peninsula has set the conditions for seeing a plankton bloom along the Moroccan coast in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) coastal counter current as well as illumining the influence of winds in the sunglint pattern near the Strait of Gibraltar. Where the water is ruffled from a wind gust, such as off Cadiz, Spain, the surface is less reflective and thus appears dark. A combination of the effects of the tide and the surface winds through the Strait of Gibraltar have created a unique sunglint pattern at the entrance of the Mediterranean. The Atlantic Ocean waters are flowing with the tide through the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea and are probably smoothing out some of the smaller waves at the surface. The incoming tide generates internal waves as can be faintly seen in this photograph. The incoming relatively cooler, less dense Atlantic water flows over the warm, more saline Mediterranean water. As the tide moves into the Strait of Gibraltar it encounters the Camarinal Sill, which is like a cliff under the water, south of Camarinal Point, Spain. Internal waves are generated at this sill and they travel along the density boundary between the Atlantic water and the Mediterranean water masses. There is little evidence of the internal waves at the surface of the ocean. We can see them in spacecraft photography because of the sunglint which reflects off the different water layers in differential patterns. The internal waves also smooth out some of the bands of capillary waves at the surface. That is, the sun reflects more brightly from these smooth areas, showing the pattern of the underwater waves more prominently than do the surface waves. The Bay of Cadiz on the southwest coast of Spain, the Rock of Gibraltar, and the Moroccan coast are also beautifully illustrated in this photography. The

  8. Variability of Fram Strait Ice Flux and North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ron

    1999-01-01

    An important term in the mass balance of the Arctic Ocean sea ice is the ice export. We estimated the winter sea ice export through the Fram Strait using ice motion from satellite passive microwave data and ice thickness data from moored upward looking sonars. The average winter area flux over the 18-year record (1978-1996) is 670,000 square km, approximately 7% of the area of the Arctic Ocean. The winter area flux ranges from a minimum of 450,000 sq. km in 1984 to a maximum of 906,000 sq km in 1995. The daily, monthly and interannual variabilities of the ice area flux are high. There is an upward trend in the ice area flux over the 18-year record. The average winter volume flux over the winters of October 1990 through May 1995 is 1745 cubic km ranging from a low of 1375 cubic km in 1990 to a high of 2791 cubic km in 1994. The sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait explains more than 80% of the variance in the ice flux over the 18-year record. We use the coefficients from the regression of the time-series of area flux versus pressure gradient across the Fram Strait and ice thickness data to estimate the summer area and volume flux. The average 12-month area flux and volume flux are 919,000 sq km and 2366 cubic km. We find a significant correlation (R =0.86) between the area flux and positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index over the months of December through March. Correlation between our six years of volume flux estimates and the NAO index gives R =0.56. During the high NAO years, a more intense Icelandic low increases the gradient in the sea-level pressure by almost 1 mbar across the Fram Strait thus increasing the atmospheric forcing on ice transport. Correlation is reduced during the negative NAO years because of decreased dominance of this large-scale atmospheric pattern on the sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait. Additional information is contained in the original.

  9. Transitional care coordination in New York City jails: facilitating linkages to care for people with HIV returning home from Rikers Island.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Alison O; Cohen, Louise R; Harriman, Graham; Teixeira, Paul A; Cruzado-Quinones, Jacqueline; Venters, Homer

    2013-10-01

    New York City (NYC) jails are the epicenter of an epidemic that overwhelmingly affects Black and Hispanic men and offer a significant opportunity for public health intervention. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene instituted population based approaches to identify the HIV-infected, initiate discharge planning at jail admission, and facilitate post-release linkages to primary care. Using a caring and supportive 'warm transitions' approach, transitional care services are integral to continuity of care. Since 2010, over three-quarters of known HIV-infected inmates admitted to jails received discharge plans; 74 % of those released were linked to primary care. The EnhanceLink initiative's new Health Liaison, a lynchpin role, facilitated 250 court-led placements in medical alternatives to incarceration. Transitional care coordination programs are critical to facilitate continuity of care for people with chronic health conditions including the HIV-infected returning home from jail and for the public health of the communities to which they return.

  10. Low-frequency variability of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar during CANIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Delgado, Javier; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Vargas, Manuel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek

    Time series of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar at the eastern section have been estimated from current-meter observations taken between October 1995 and May 1998 within the Canary Islands Azores Gibraltar Observations (CANIGO) project. The inflow exhibits a clear annual signal that peaks in late summer simultaneously with a deepening of the interface. The cycle seems to be driven by the seasonal signal of the density contrast between the surface Atlantic water that forms the inflow and the deep Mediterranean water of the outflow. The outflow and the depth of the interface have predominant semiannual signals and a smaller annual one whose phase agrees with that of the density contrast as well. Local wind stress and atmospheric pressure difference between the Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean to less extent have clear semiannual signal, so that the possibility that the semiannual cycle of the outflow and of the depth of the interface are forced by them was analyzed. The composite Froude number in this section is well below the critical value, suggesting submaximal exchange. Therefore, the conditions in the Alboran basin influence the exchange and some evidence that the size and location of the Western Alboran Gyre contribute to the observed signals, both annual and semiannual, is provided.

  11. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  12. Tectonomagmatic activity and ice dynamics in the Bransfield Strait back-arc basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, Robert P.; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Matsumoto, Haru; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R.; Haxel, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    An array of moored hydrophones was used to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes and ice-generated sounds within the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. During a 2 year period, a total of 3900 earthquakes, 5925 icequakes and numerous ice tremor events were located throughout the region. The seismic activity included eight space-time earthquake clusters, positioned along the central neovolcanic rift zone of the young Bransfield back-arc basin. These sequences of small magnitude earthquakes, or swarms, suggest ongoing magmatic activity that becomes localized along isolated volcanic features and fissure-like ridges in the southwest portion of the basin. A total of 122 earthquakes were located along the South Shetland trench, indicating continued deformation and possibly ongoing subduction along this margin. The large number of icequakes observed show a temporal pattern related to seasonal freeze-thaw cycles and a spatial distribution consistent with channeling of sea ice along submarine canyons from glacier fronts. Several harmonic tremor episodes were sourced from a large (˜30 km2) iceberg that entered northeast portion of the basin. The spectral character of these signals suggests they were produced by either resonance of a small chamber of fluid within the iceberg, or more likely, due to periodicity of discrete stick-slip events caused by contact of the moving iceberg with the seafloor. These pressure waves appear to have been excited by abrasion of the iceberg along the seafloor as it passed Clarence and Elephant Islands.

  13. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  14. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  15. Carers' perspectives on an effective Indigenous health model for childhood asthma in the Torres Strait.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Whop, Lisa J; Morseu-Diop, Noritta; Garvey, Gail; Masters, Ian B; Chang, Anne B

    2016-06-01

    To describe parents'/carers' views of the characteristics of a clinical service model shown to improve asthma outcomes. A randomised controlled study on education intervention for childhood asthma by Indigenous health care workers. Thursday Island, Horn Island and Bamaga. Thirty-five children received the intervention and 53 were in the control group. At the last study visit 12 months after enrolment, carers were asked to give feedback about the clinical service delivered by paediatric respiratory physicians and the asthma education intervention. Additional asthma education. Carers' responses to the open-ended questions were analysed separately by three Indigenous investigators who assigned codes and developed the themes. These were then cross-checked and combined to develop an overall interpretation of the data. The carers (n = 81) of 88 children in the Torres Strait region of North Queensland reported positively to the clinical service delivery. Service was rated as excellent = 26.8%, very good = 51.2%, good = 19.5% and poor = 2.4%. Parents'/carers' views about the clinical service model were grouped into seven themes: clear communication by health professionals, service delivery, professional approach, clear transfer of knowledge and education/clinical knowledge of asthma, established rapport/caregiver satisfaction, importance of coming into the local community, and areas of concern for the carers/parents. Community-based perspectives of an effective health service model include empowered Indigenous health care workers currently attached to the medical specialist service with elements of high expertise and appropriate cultural awareness that enabled clear communication and transfer of knowledge. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Belcher Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Belcher Islands - September 21st, 2001 Description: Like sweeping brushstrokes of pink and green, the Belcher Islands meander across the deep blue of Canada's Hudson Bay. The islands' only inhabitants live in the small town of Sanikiluaq, near the upper end of the middle island. Despite the green hues in this image, these rocky islands are too cold to sustain more than a smattering of low-growing vegetation. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  17. One size fits all? The discursive framing of cultural difference in health professional accounts of providing cancer care to Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Newman, Christy E; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, L Clair; Johnson, Priscilla; Saunders, Veronica; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Treloar, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second biggest killer of Aboriginal Australians. For some cancers, the mortality rate is more than three times higher in Aboriginal people than for non-Aboriginal people. The Aboriginal Patterns of Cancer Care Study explored barriers to and facilitators of cancer diagnosis and treatment among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in New South Wales. Our team--which includes both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers--conducted in-depth interviews between 2009 and 2010 with Aboriginal people with cancer, their carers and health professionals who care for them. In this paper, we identify recurrent patterns of 'discursive framing' in the 16 interviews with health care professionals. We are particularly interested in how these frames assisted participants in constructing a professional position on what 'cultural difference' means for the design and delivery of cancer care services to Aboriginal people. Despite geographical, organisational, disciplinary and cultural diversity, these interview participants consistently drew upon six discursive frames, which we have interpreted as either eliding a discussion of difference ('everyone is the same' and 'everyone is different') or facilitating that discussion ('different priorities,' 'different practices' and 'making difference safe'). An additional strategy appeared to actively resist either of these positions but then tended to ultimately prioritise the eliding frames. While none of our participants were dismissive of the idea that cultural identity might matter to Aboriginal people, their reliance upon familiar narratives about what that means for cancer care services has the potential to both symbolically and practically exclude the voices of a group of people who may already feel disenfranchised from the mainstream health care system. Critically unpacking the 'taken for granted' assumptions behind how health care professionals make sense of cultural difference can enrich our understanding of and

  18. Strong Phylogeographic Structure in a Sedentary Seabird, the Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus)

    PubMed Central

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Till, Charlotte E.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Collins, Catherine J.; Lalas, Chris; Loh, Graeme; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Waters, Jonathan M.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Kennedy, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus) comprises two regional groups (Otago and Foveaux Strait) that show consistent differentiation in relative frequencies of pied versus dark-bronze morphotypes, the extent of facial carunculation, body size and breeding time. We used modern and ancient DNA (mitochondrial DNA control region one), and morphometric approaches to investigate the phylogeography and taxonomy of L. chalconotus and its closely related sister species, the endemic Chatham Island Shag (L. onslowi). Our analysis shows Leucocarbo shags in southern New Zealand comprise two well-supported clades, each containing both pied and dark-bronze morphs. However, the combined monophyly of these populations is not supported, with the L. chalconotus Otago lineage sister to L. onslowi. Morphometric analysis indicates that Leucocarbo shags from Otago are larger on average than those from Foveaux Strait. Principal co-ordinate analysis of morphometric data showed substantial morphological differentiation between the Otago and Foveaux Strait clades, and L. onslowi. The phylogeographic partitioning detected within L. chalconotus is marked, and such strong structure is rare for phalacrocoracid species. Our phylogenetic results, together with consistent differences in relative proportions of plumage morphs and facial carunculation, and concordant differentiation in body size and breeding time, suggest several alternative evolutionary hypotheses that require further investigation to determine the level of taxonomic distinctiveness that best represents the L. chalconotus Otago and Foveaux Strait clades. PMID:24614677

  19. Hydroclimatic variations in the Makassar Strait over the past 5000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, C.; Mohtadi, M.; Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Hebbeln, D.; Mulitza, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is the only low-latitude connection between two oceans and an important part of the global conveyor belt influencing global climate. About 80% of the ITF flows through the Makassar Strait between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi and can be modified by the complex climate system over the Maritime continent characterized by interacting climate phenomena like e.g. El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Australasian monsoon system. To assess changes in the hydroclimate of the Makassar Strait in relation to dominant climatic forcing over the past 5,000 years, sediment core SO 217-18517 (1°32.198' S 117°33.756' E, 698 m water depth) collected off the Mahakam Delta, eastern Borneo, was studied. We use shell Mg/Ca ratio in planktic foraminifera to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), sedimentation rates and Ti/Ca ratios to reconstruct changes in terrigenous runoff, and seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) as a measure of past changes in sea surface salinity. Zr/Rb ratios are interpreted to indicate changes in grain size distribution. SST shows small-scale variations around 28.5°C during the mid Holocene, a decreasing trend between 3,000 and 1,700 years BP, and thereafter minor variations around 27.5°C. Sedimentation rates were higher between 3,400 and 1,000 years BP. Runoff increased during the past 5,000 years while our data indicate no change in sea surface salinity from mid to late Holocene. Grain size decreased until 1,700 years BP, and remained stable thereafter towards the present. The partly inconsistent timing and pattern of our data indicate the different degree to which our proxies are influenced by different forcings. We will explore the complex connection between local insolation and climate phenomena such as ENSO, dynamic and thermodynamic changes in ITCZ and monsoonal rainfall, their possible relation to high-latitude forcing including an (inter)hemispheric insolation gradient.

  20. 75 FR 53870 - Security Zone, Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Security Zone, Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan AGENCY... Mackinac Bridge Walk security zone on the Straits of Mackinac from 6 a.m. through 11:59 p.m. on September 6... intentional allision between a vessel and the bridge. During the enforcement period, navigational and...

  1. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated Areas...

  2. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated Areas...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  5. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  6. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  9. Bio-Optical Response and Coupling with Physical Processes in the Lombok Strait Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    in the Lombok Strait Region Burton H. Jones Department of Biological Sciences University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0371...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bio-Optical Response and Coupling with Physical Processes in the Lombok Strait Region 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Bio-Optical Response and Coupling with Physical Processes in the Lombok Strait Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    Bio-Optical Response and Coupling with Physical Processes in the Lombok Strait...The Lombok Strait Region 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  11. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  16. 76 FR 23191 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 RIN 1625-AA48 Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de... without change its November 19, 2010, interim rule codifying traffic separation schemes in the Strait of..., and the Strait of Georgia. The Coast Guard established these traffic separation schemes...

  17. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Straits of Florida and Florida... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training...) The danger zones—(1) Operational training area. Waters of the Straits of Florida and Gulf of Mexico...

  18. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Straits of Florida and Florida... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training...) The danger zones—(1) Operational training area. Waters of the Straits of Florida and Gulf of Mexico...

  19. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Straits of Florida and Florida... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training...) The danger zones—(1) Operational training area. Waters of the Straits of Florida and Gulf of Mexico...

  20. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Straits of Florida and Florida... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training...) The danger zones—(1) Operational training area. Waters of the Straits of Florida and Gulf of Mexico...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  5. 75 FR 70818 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... sight-obscured, right-angle turn in the presence of strong currents and numerous small craft. 7... Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and Its Approaches; and in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the... Strait of Juan de Fuca and its approaches, in Puget Sound and its approaches, and in Haro Strait...

  6. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  7. Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.

    2017-04-01

    The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the

  8. Numerical Modelling of Circulation and Exchange through Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, M.; Chua, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation in the Singapore coastal region is complicated and influenced by the combination of tidal forcing of the surrounding seas, complex bathymetry, irregular coastlines, and seasonal monsoon and local winds. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator) model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow in Singapore coastal waters. The unstructured-grid has an average resolution of 50 - 100 m around Singapore and in areas close to the shoreline, while a coarse grid resolution is employed in the open waters. The model is tidally forced at the three open boundaries, located to the west, south and east of Singapore, using the 8 main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS). A detailed calibration is performed, and the model-predicted water levels and currents compare well with observed data throughout the model domain. We examine the individual and combined effects of tidal and wind forcing by performing simulations with (1) tides only, (2) winds only and (3) both tides and wind. The exchange through Singapore Strait is investigated by computing volume fluxes and transport pathways at four transects, namely the Malacca Strait, Java Sea, South China Sea and Singapore transects. The transport pathways are computed by releasing particles on each side of the transects, and identifying the spatial distribution of the particles over one tidal cycle. Our results show that tidal forcing is predominant in Singapore Strait, and wind forcing is an important mechanism during the monsoon season. The residual effects, attributed to nonlinear interactions between tidal and wind forcing, is dominant during the inter-monsoon season.

  9. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  10. Observations of velocity divergence in Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. K.; Stabeno, P. J.

    1993-02-01

    Direct observations of horizontal velocity divergence and relative vorticity were made in Shelikof Strait, Alaska during May 1990 with Loran-C buoys and satellite-tracked drifters. These kinematic properties typically had values of 2 × 10 -5s -1. Some of the observations indicated a cyclic divergence which appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the pycnocline driven by an internal, semidaily tide. The data also suggested that the net divergence over several days was quite small; thus larval concentration models can ignore this effect.

  11. Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-24

    This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left. The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate. This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (99

  12. Atlantic to Mediterranean Sea Level Difference Driven by Winds near Gibraltar Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menemenlis, Dimitris; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong

    2006-01-01

    Observations and numerical simulations show that winds near Gibraltar Strait cause an Atlantic Ocean to Mediterranean Sea sea level difference of 20 cm peak to peak with a 3-cm standard deviation for periods of days to years. Theoretical arguments and numerical experiments establish that this wind-driven sea level difference is caused in part by storm surges due to alongshore winds near the North African coastline on the Atlantic side of Gibraltar. The fraction of the Moroccan coastal current offshore of the 284-m isobath is deflected across Gibraltar Strait, west of Camarinal Sill, resulting in a geostrophic surface pressure gradient that contributes to a sea level difference at the stationary limit. The sea level difference is also caused in part by the along-strait wind setup, with a contribution proportional to the along-strait wind stress and to the length of Gibraltar Strait and adjoining regions and inversely proportional to its depth.

  13. Atlantic to Mediterranean Sea Level Difference Driven by Winds near Gibraltar Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menemenlis, Dimitris; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong

    2006-01-01

    Observations and numerical simulations show that winds near Gibraltar Strait cause an Atlantic Ocean to Mediterranean Sea sea level difference of 20 cm peak to peak with a 3-cm standard deviation for periods of days to years. Theoretical arguments and numerical experiments establish that this wind-driven sea level difference is caused in part by storm surges due to alongshore winds near the North African coastline on the Atlantic side of Gibraltar. The fraction of the Moroccan coastal current offshore of the 284-m isobath is deflected across Gibraltar Strait, west of Camarinal Sill, resulting in a geostrophic surface pressure gradient that contributes to a sea level difference at the stationary limit. The sea level difference is also caused in part by the along-strait wind setup, with a contribution proportional to the along-strait wind stress and to the length of Gibraltar Strait and adjoining regions and inversely proportional to its depth.

  14. Ice Island Calves off Petermann Glacier

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired August 11, 2010. After breaking off the Petermann Glacier on August 5, 2010, a massive ice island floated slowly down the fjord toward the Nares Strait. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this false-color image of the ice island on August 11, 2010. In this image, ice is light blue, water is nearly black, and clouds are nearly white. Although a bank of thin clouds hovers over the fjord, the southernmost margin of the ice island is still visible. Toward the north, the leading edge of the ice island retains the same shape it had days earlier, at the time of the initial calving. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Terra - ASTER To see more images from of the glacier go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=45116 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  15. Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-15

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a streamlined island in a broad channel in Chryse Planitia. The channel is part of the outflow region of Lobo Vallis, a northern branch of Kasei Valles.

  16. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  17. Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Bakar, R.A.; Woon, W.C.

    1996-07-01

    The Straits of Johor is a narrow stretch of water separating Peninsular Malaysia from Singapore. The two land masses bordering the Straits of Johor are characterized by a wide range of landscapes and activities. On the Malaysian side, which constitutes the state of Johor, lies the state capital as well as a rapidly developing international seaport, in the vicinity of a major industrial area. The eastern portion of the state bordering the straits is relatively undeveloped, comprising of wetland forests. On the Singapore side, apart from a power-generating facility, much of northern Singapore which borders the straits is undeveloped. The Straits of Johor and nearby-waters also represent an important area for fishing and aquaculture activities. Fish traps are a common sight along the length of the straits. Oil pollution has been identified as the major contribution to the deterioration of the marine water quality in the Straits of Johor. Shipping activities involving tankers and other vessels plying the Straits of Malacca, have been recognized as a source of petroleum hydrocarbons in these waters. Land-based industrial and urban sources also contribute to the overall oil pollution load in these waters. In recognizing the need for baseline data in assessing environmental pollution, the Department of Environment has been conducting pollution monitoring programs since 1976, at numerous sampling stations situated in the major river systems of the nation, as well as coastal areas,. including the Straits of Johor. However, as far as oil pollution is concerned, these programs have been restricted to measuring oil and grease. The present study was undertaken to determine petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as oil and grease in water and sediments along the near- coastal areas of the Straits of Johor and near-by waters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The Flores Island tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  19. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  20. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: <1.0 mmol/L. Analyses of primary data associating measures of HDL-C with other CVD risk factors were also performed. Results Fifteen of 93 retrieved studies were identified for inclusion. These provided 58 mean HDL-C levels; 29 for each sex, most obtained in rural/regional (20%) or remote settings (60%) and including 51–1641 participants. For Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P < 0.05). Thirty-four per cent of studies reported lower mean HDL-C levels in females than in males. Conclusions Very low mean HDL-C levels are common in Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes