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Sample records for strandberg kaarel tammar

  1. The vomeronasal organ of the tammar wallaby

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Nanette Y; Fletcher, Terence P; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2008-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ is the primary olfactory organ that detects sexual pheromones in mammals. We investigated the anatomy of the vomeronasal organ of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), a small macropodid marsupial. Pheromones may be important for activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of tammar males at the start of the breeding season because plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentration in males rise concurrently with pregnancy and the post-partum ovulation in females. The gross anatomy and the connection to the brain of the vomeronasal organ were examined by light and electron microscopy in adult male and female tammars. The vomeronasal organ was well developed in both sexes. The vomeronasal organ is a tubular organ connected at the rostral end via the nasopalatine duct (incisive duct) to the mouth and nasal cavity. At the rostral end the lumen of the vomeronasal organ was crescent shaped, changing to a narrow oval shape caudally. Glandular tissue associated with the vomeronasal organ increased towards the blind end of the organ. The tammar has the typical pattern of mammalian vomeronasal organs with electron-dense supporting cells and electron-lucent receptor cells. Microvilli were present on the surface of both epithelia while cilia were only found on the surface of the non-receptor epithelium. Some non-receptor epithelial cells appeared to secrete mucus into the vomeronasal organ lumen. The vomeronasal organ shows a high degree of structural conservation compared with eutherian mammals. The degree of vomeronasal organ development makes it likely that, as in other mammals, pheromones are important in the reproduction of the tammar. PMID:19172728

  2. Unique small RNA signatures uncovered in the tammar wallaby genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Small RNAs have proven to be essential regulatory molecules encoded within eukaryotic genomes. These short RNAs participate in a diverse array of cellular processes including gene regulation, chromatin dynamics and genome defense. The tammar wallaby, a marsupial mammal, is a powerful comparative model for studying the evolution of regulatory networks. As part of the genome sequencing initiative for the tammar, we have explored the evolution of each of the major classes of mammalian small RNAs in an Australian marsupial for the first time, including the first genome-scale analysis of the newest class of small RNAs, centromere repeat associated short interacting RNAs (crasiRNAs). Results Using next generation sequencing, we have characterized the major classes of small RNAs, micro (mi) RNAs, piwi interacting (pi) RNAs, and the centromere repeat associated short interacting (crasi) RNAs in the tammar. We examined each of these small RNA classes with respect to the newly assembled tammar wallaby genome for gene and repeat features, salient features that define their canonical sequences, and the constitution of both highly conserved and species-specific members. Using a combination of miRNA hairpin predictions and co-mapping with miRBase entries, we identified a highly conserved cluster of miRNA genes on the X chromosome in the tammar and a total of 94 other predicted miRNA producing genes. Mapping all miRNAs to the tammar genome and comparing target genes among tammar, mouse and human, we identified 163 conserved target genes. An additional nine genes were identified in tammar that do not have an orthologous miRNA target in human and likely represent novel miRNA-regulated genes in the tammar. A survey of the tammar gonadal piRNAs shows that these small RNAs are enriched in retroelements and carry members from both marsupial and tammar-specific repeat classes. Lastly, this study includes the first in-depth analyses of the newly discovered crasiRNAs. These

  3. Puberty in the female tammar wallaby.

    PubMed

    Williams, S C; Fletcher, T P; Renfree, M B

    1998-05-01

    The growth and timing of female puberty in a seasonally breeding marsupial, the tammar wallaby, was examined in wild and captive animals. Puberty, defined as the time of first estrus and ovulation, can occur at any time of the year. Sixty percent of young wild females went through puberty in late October-November, 3 mo before the normal adult mating season in late January-February, but puberty was delayed in captive animals kept with a low ratio of males to females. During initial cycles, 19% of these captive animals were infertile as judged by failure to conceive. In the wild, puberty occurred well before the animals were fully grown (body weight 2.0+/-0.3 kg [mean+/-SD], n=23; adult females, 4.7+/-0.6 kg; n=34). Only 3% of animals with a body weight below 1.5 kg had ovulated. Thus, attainment of a minimum body weight was a key prerequisite associated with puberty. Progesterone concentrations in the peripheral plasma of prepubertal females were not significantly different from those of adult females during the nonbreeding season (prepubertal, 142+/-121 pg/ml, n=34; adult, 194+/-105 pg/ml, n=32, p > 0.05). However, there was a significant increase in progesterone (322+/-242 pg/ml, n=32, p < 0.05) in the postpubertal females (ovulating but still < 3.5 kg body weight) even though the corpus luteum was quiescent after its formation. There was no increase in plasma progesterone before the first estrus. These data confirm that estrus does not require a change in the progesterone:estradiol ratio, and that a "silent" ovulation does not precede the first estrus in this species, so that the onset of puberty coincides with the first behavioral estrus and ovulation, when the animals have reached a body weight of 2 kg. Although adult female tammars are strict seasonal breeders, with 6 mo of seasonal quiescence from the winter to the summer solstice, young females can go through puberty at any time of the year. The unique feature of the female tammar wallaby is that it does not

  4. Posttesticular development of spermatozoa of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

    PubMed Central

    SETIADI, DADI; LIN, MINJIE; RODGER, JOHN C.

    1997-01-01

    Tammar wallaby spermatozoa undergo maturation during transit through the epididymis. This maturation differs from that seen in eutherian mammals because in addition to biochemical and functional maturation there are also major changes in morphology, in particular formation of the condensed acrosome and reorientation of the sperm head and tail. Of spermatozoa released from the testes, 83% had a large immature acrosome. By the time spermatozoa reached the proximal cauda epididymis 100% of sperm had condensed acrosomes. Similarly 86% of testicular spermatozoa had immature thumb tack or T shape head-tail orientation while only 2% retained this immature morphology in the corpus epididymis. This maturation is very similar to that reported for the common brush tail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula. However, morphological maturation occurred earlier in epididymal transit in the tammar wallaby. By the time spermatozoa had reached the proximal cauda epididymis no spermatozoa had an immature acrosome and thumbtack orientation. Associated with acrosomal maturation was an increase in acrosomal thiols and the formation of disulphides which presumably account for the unusual stability of the wallaby sperm acrosome. The development of motility and progressive motility of tammar wallaby spermatozoa is similar to that of other marsupials and eutherian mammals. Spermatozoa are immotile in the testes and the percentage of motile spermatozoa and the strength of their motility increases during epididymal transit. During passage through the caput and corpus epididymis, spermatozoa first became weakly motile in the proximal caput and then increasingly progressively motile through the corpus epididymis. Tammar wallaby spermatozoa collected from the proximal cauda epididymis had motility not different from ejaculated spermatozoa. Ultrastructural studies indicated that acrosomal condensation involved a complex infolding of the immature acrosome. At spermiation the acrosome of tammar wallaby

  5. Posttesticular development of spermatozoa of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Setiadi, D; Lin, M; Rodger, J C

    1997-02-01

    Tammar wallaby spermatozoa undergo maturation during transit through the epididymis. This maturation differs from that seen in eutherian mammals because in addition to biochemical and functional maturation there are also major changes in morphology, in particular formation of the condensed acrosome and reorientation of the sperm head and tail. Of spermatozoa released from the testes, 83% had a large immature acrosome. By the time spermatozoa reached the proximal cauda epididymis 100% of sperm had condensed acrosomes. Similarly 86% of testicular spermatozoa had immature thumb tack or T shape head-tail orientation while only 2% retained this immature morphology in the corpus epididymis. This maturation is very similar to that reported for the common brush tail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula. However, morphological maturation occurred earlier in epididymal transit in the tammar wallaby. By the time spermatozoa had reached the proximal cauda epididymis no spermatozoa had an immature acrosome and thumbtack orientation. Associated with acrosomal maturation was an increase in acrosomal thiols and the formation of disulphides which presumably account for the unusual stability of the wallaby sperm acrosome. The development of motility and progressive motility of tammar wallaby spermatozoa is similar to that of other marsupials and eutherian mammals. Spermatozoa are immotile in the testes and the percentage of motile spermatozoa and the strength of their motility increases during epididymal transit. During passage through the caput and corpus epididymis, spermatozoa first became weakly motile in the proximal caput and then increasingly progressively motile through the corpus epididymis. Tammar wallaby spermatozoa collected from the proximal cauda epididymis had motility not different from ejaculated spermatozoa. Ultrastructural studies indicated that acrosomal condensation involved a complex infolding of the immature acrosome. At spermiation the acrosome of tammar wallaby

  6. A first-generation integrated tammar wallaby map and its use in creating a tammar wallaby first-generation virtual genome map

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The limited (2X) coverage of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) genome sequence dataset currently presents a challenge for assembly and anchoring onto chromosomes. To provide a framework for this assembly, it would be a great advantage to have a dense map of the tammar wallaby genome. However, only limited mapping data are available for this non-model species, comprising a physical map and a linkage map. Results We combined all available tammar wallaby mapping data to create a tammar wallaby integrated map, using the Location DataBase (LDB) strategy. This first-generation integrated map combines all available information from the second-generation tammar wallaby linkage map with 148 loci, and extensive FISH mapping data for 492 loci, especially for genes likely to be located at the ends of wallaby chromosomes or at evolutionary breakpoints inferred from comparative information. For loci whose positions are only approximately known, their location in the integrated map was refined on the basis of comparative information from opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and human. Interpolation of segments from the opossum and human assemblies into the integrated map enabled the subsequent construction of a tammar wallaby first-generation virtual genome map, which comprises 14336 markers, including 13783 genes recruited from opossum and human assemblies. Both maps are freely available at http://compldb.angis.org.au. Conclusions The first-generation integrated map and the first-generation virtual genome map provide a backbone for the chromosome assembly of the tammar wallaby genome sequence. For example, 78% of the 10257 gene-scaffolds in the Ensembl annotation of the tammar wallaby genome sequence (including 10522 protein-coding genes) can now be given a chromosome location in the tammar wallaby virtual genome map. PMID:21854555

  7. Urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Liptovszky, Mátyás; Sós, Endre; Bende, Balázs; Perge, Edina; Molnár, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a well-known disease of the urogenital system in domestic animals, and it has also been described in captive and free-ranging wildlife. This article reports 15 cases of urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) between 2004 and 2011. The analyzed stones were composed of pure calcium carbonate (n = 5), calcium carbonate with traces of calcium phosphate (n = 6), carbonate apatite (n = 2), and carbonate apatite mixed with calcium oxalate (n = 2). In 12 out of 15 cases uroliths were situated only in the renal pelvis; in two cases they were found in the renal pelvis and the ureter; while in one case in the ureter only. No common infectious agents were identified either by microbiological or histopathological methods. Although the exact cause remains unknown, the repetitive occurrence of calcium carbonate urolithiasis suggests husbandry-related causes. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on recurrent appearance of urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Extensive genetic differentiation detected within a model marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Notamacropus eugenii)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Emily J.; Neaves, Linda E.; Zenger, Kyall R.; Herbert, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    The tammar wallaby (Notamacropus eugenii) is one of the most intensively studied of all macropodids and was the first Australasian marsupial to have its genome sequenced. However, comparatively little is known about genetic diversity and differentiation amongst the morphologically distinct allopatric populations of tammar wallabies found in Western (WA) and South Australia (SA). Here we compare autosomal and Y-linked microsatellite genotypes, as well as sequence data (~600 bp) from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) in tammar wallabies from across its distribution. Levels of diversity at autosomal microsatellite loci were typically high in the WA mainland and Kangaroo Island (SA) populations (A = 8.9–10.6; He = 0.77–0.78) but significantly reduced in other endemic island populations (A = 3.8–4.1; He = 0.41–0.48). Autosomal and Y-linked microsatellite loci revealed a pattern of significant differentiation amongst populations, especially between SA and WA. The Kangaroo Island and introduced New Zealand population showed limited differentiation. Multiple divergent mtDNA CR haplotypes were identified within both SA and WA populations. The CR haplotypes of tammar wallabies from SA and WA show reciprocal monophyly and are highly divergent (14.5%), with levels of sequence divergence more typical of different species. Within WA tammar wallabies, island populations each have unique clusters of highly related CR haplotypes and each is most closely related to different WA mainland haplotypes. Y-linked microsatellite haplotypes show a similar pattern of divergence although levels of diversity are lower. In light of these differences, we suggest that two subspecies of tammar wallaby be recognized; Notamacropus eugenii eugenii in SA and N. eugenii derbianus in WA. The extensive neutral genetic diversity and inter-population differentiation identified within tammar wallabies should further increase the species value and usefulness as a model organism. PMID

  9. Identification of tammar wallaby SIRH12, derived from a marsupial-specific retrotransposition event

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Ryuichi; Kuroki, Yoko; Naruse, Mie; Ishii, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Sawa; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2011-01-01

    In humans and mice, there are 11 genes derived from sushi-ichi related retrotransposons, some of which are known to play essential roles in placental development. Interestingly, this family of retrotransposons was thought to exist only in eutherian mammals, indicating their significant contributions to the eutherian evolution, but at least one, PEG10, is conserved between marsupials and eutherians. Here we report a novel sushi-ichi retrotransposon-derived gene, SIRH12, in the tammar wallaby, an Australian marsupial species of the kangaroo family. SIRH12 encodes a protein highly homologous to the sushi-ichi retrotransposon Gag protein in the tammar wallaby, while SIRH12 in the South American short-tailed grey opossum is a pseudogene degenerated by accumulation of multiple nonsense mutations. This suggests that SIRH12 retrotransposition occurred only in the marsupial lineage but acquired and retained some as yet unidentified novel function, at least in the lineage of the tammar wallaby. PMID:21636603

  10. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline and penicillin G in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    McLelland, D J; Barker, I K; Crawshaw, G; Hinds, L A; Spilsbury, L; Johnson, R

    2011-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline and penicillin G was investigated in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). Groups of eight healthy tammar wallabies were administered i.v. oxytetracycline hydrochloride (40 mg/kg), i.m. long-acting-oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg), i.v. sodium penicillin G (30 mg/kg), or i.m. procaine/benzathine penicillin G (30 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those reported for eutherians of equivalent size and suggest that the practice of adjusting allometrically scaled doses to account for the lower metabolic rate of marsupials may not be valid. Long-acting oxytetracycline and penicillin G both demonstrated depot effects. However, the plasma concentrations achieved question the therapeutic efficacy of the long-acting preparations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Interactions of sperm and the reproductive ducts of the male tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii (Macropodidae: Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    Jones, R C; Clulow, J

    1994-01-01

    This review compares sperm production in the tammar wallaby and eutherian mammals, particularly the rat. The capacity of sperm to fertilize an ovum when they leave the testis and the changes they undergo in the epididymidis are considered. The structural differentiation and regulation of the extratesticular duct system is assessed and related to the reabsorption and secretion of water, inorganic ions and proteins, and the interaction of sperm and proteins synthesized and secreted by the epididymidis. Adaptations of the cauda epididymidis for storing spermatozoa are also considered. It is suggested that the tammar may be a good animal model to study the suppression of sperm motility and metabolism in the cauda epididymidis as it is possible to collect from them luminal samples of sperm which are initially immotile and then spontaneously activate during incubation in vitro.

  12. Evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby Y chromosome: Implications for sex chromosome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Murtagh, Veronica J.; O'Meally, Denis; Sankovic, Natasha; Delbridge, Margaret L.; Kuroki, Yoko; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Toyoda, Atsushi; Jordan, Kristen S.; Pask, Andrew J.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Fujiyama, Asao; Graves, Jennifer A. Marshall; Waters, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    We report here the isolation and sequencing of 10 Y-specific tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) BAC clones, revealing five hitherto undescribed tammar wallaby Y genes (in addition to the five genes already described) and several pseudogenes. Some genes on the wallaby Y display testis-specific expression, but most have low widespread expression. All have partners on the tammar X, along with homologs on the human X. Nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution ratios for nine of the tammar XY gene pairs indicate that they are each under purifying selection. All 10 were also identified as being on the Y in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii; a distantly related Australian marsupial); however, seven have been lost from the human Y. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the wallaby YX genes, with respective homologs from other vertebrate representatives, revealed that three marsupial Y genes (HCFC1X/Y, MECP2X/Y, and HUWE1X/Y) were members of the ancestral therian pseudoautosomal region (PAR) at the time of the marsupial/eutherian split; three XY pairs (SOX3/SRY, RBMX/Y, and ATRX/Y) were isolated from each other before the marsupial/eutherian split, and the remaining three (RPL10X/Y, PHF6X/Y, and UBA1/UBE1Y) have a more complex evolutionary history. Thus, the small marsupial Y chromosome is surprisingly rich in ancient genes that are retained in at least Australian marsupials and evolved from testis–brain expressed genes on the X. PMID:22128133

  13. Identification and expression of a novel marsupial cathelicidin from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Carman, Rebecca L; Old, Julie M; Baker, Michelle; Jacques, Nicholas A; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2009-02-15

    Cathelicidins are important components of the innate immune system and have been identified in skin and epithelia of a range of mammals. In this study molecular techniques, including RACE-PCR, were used to identify the full cDNA sequence of a cathelicidin gene, MaeuCath8, from the Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. This cathelicidin was not homologous to other such genes previously isolated from a tammar wallaby mammary gland EST library, however, it did contain 4 conserved cysteine residues which characterise the pre-propeptide and had 80% identity with a previously isolated bandicoot cathelicidin. Reverse transcriptase-PCR established the expression profile of MaeuCath8 in a range of tissues, including spleen, thymus, gastrointestinal tract, skin and liver, of the tammar wallaby from birth to adulthood. Expression of MaeuCath8 was observed in spleen and gastrointestinal tract of newborn animals and was observed in most tissues by 7 days post-partum. The results indicate that pouch young could synthesize their own antimicrobial peptides from an early age suggesting that this ability most likely plays a role in protecting the pouch young from infection prior to the development of immunocompetence.

  14. Identification and expression of a novel marsupial cathelicidin from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Rebecca L.; Old, Julie M.; Baker, Michelle; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Deane, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Cathelicidins are important components of the innate immune system and have been identified in skin and epithelia of a range of mammals. In this study molecular techniques, including RACE-PCR, were used to identify the full cDNA sequence of a cathelicidin gene, MaeuCath8, from the Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. This cathelicidin was not homologous to other such genes previously isolated from a tammar wallaby mammary gland EST library, however, it did contain 4 conserved cysteine residues which characterise the pre-propeptide and had 80% identity with a previously isolated bandicoot cathelicidin. Reverse transcriptase-PCR established the expression profile of MaeuCath8 in a range of tissues, including spleen, thymus, gastrointestinal tract, skin and liver, of the tammar wallaby from birth to adulthood. Expression of MaeuCath8 was observed in spleen and gastrointestinal tract of newborn animals and was observed in most tissues by 7 days post-partum. The results indicate that pouch young could synthesize their own antimicrobial peptides from an early age suggesting that this ability most likely plays a role in protecting the pouch young from infection prior to the development of immunocompetence. PMID:19046773

  15. Costs of Rearing the Wrong Sex: Cross-Fostering to Manipulate Offspring Sex in Tammar Wallabies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sex allocation theory assumes that offspring sex (son vs. daughter) has consequences for maternal fitness. The most compelling experiment to test this theory would involve manipulating offspring sex and measuring the fitness consequences of having the “wrong” sex. Unfortunately, the logistical challenges of such an experiment limit its application. In tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii), previous evidence suggests that mothers in good body condition are more likely to produce sons compared to mothers in poor condition, in support of the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis (TW) of condition-dependent sex allocation. More recently, we have found in our population of tammar wallabies that females with seemingly poor access to resources (based on condition loss over the dry summer) are more likely to produce sons, consistent with predictions from the Local Resource Competition (LRC) hypothesis, which proposes that production of sons or daughters is driven by the level of potential competition between mothers and philopatric daughters. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in free-ranging tammar wallabies to disassociate the effects of rearing and birthing offspring of each sex. This allowed us to test the prediction of the LRC hypothesis that rearing daughters reduces the future direct fitness of mothers post-weaning and the prediction of the TW hypothesis that rearing sons requires more energy during lactation. Overall, we found limited costs to the mother of rearing the “wrong” sex, with switching of offspring sex only reducing the likelihood of a mother having a pouch young the following year. Thus, we found some support for both hypotheses in that rearing an unexpected son or an unexpected daughter both lead to reduced future maternal fitness. The study suggests that there may be context-specific costs associated with rearing the “wrong” sex. PMID:26849128

  16. Characterization of the embryonic globin chains of the marsupial Tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Holland, R A; Gooley, A A

    1997-09-15

    The embryonic hemoglobins of the marsupial Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) are known to aggregate, which was shown by the finding that the Hill coefficient, h, was greater than 4.0 in the upper part of the oxygen equilibrium curve. Here, we have undertaken a detailed primary structure analysis of the Tammar wallaby pouch young hemoglobin complement, which we hoped might provide clues into the residues that cause aggregation and a high embryonic h. The Tammar wallaby embryonic hemoglobin complement is principally four major hemoglobins each with a different isoelectric point. Two early expressed hemoglobins contain the same embryonic beta-like chain, epsilon (epsilon), but two separate alpha-like chains, termed zeta and zeta prime (zeta and zeta') both of which are N-terminally blocked. The later two expressed hemoglobins contain the same adult alpha-chain, but different beta-like chains. The latest expressed hemoglobin contains the same beta-like chain, epsilon, as the two early expressed forms, but the third expressed hemoglobin contains a unique beta-like chain which we have termed omega (omega). A protein database similarity search using the first 54 N-terminal amino acids of the omega-chain showed a range of sequence identities of 57-72% to all known mammalian beta-like chains, including the other marsupial epsilon-chains. The closest identity, reflected by both the highest percentage identity and Smith-Waterman score, was with the embryonic beta-chains of the aves. While the primary structures of the hemoglobins reported here do not explain the low hemoglobin-oxygen affinity in embryonic marsupial blood, the finding of the similarity with the bird globin-like sequence with one of the marsupial chains has implications on mammalian globin evolution. How many other marsupials and placental mammals are harboring a bird-like globin in their embryos?

  17. Marsupial tammar wallaby delivers milk bioactives to altricial pouch young to support lung development.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Hinds, Lyn A; Sharp, Julie A; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2016-11-01

    Our research is exploiting the marsupial as a model to understand the signals required for lung development. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy, the mother gives birth to altricial neonate with an immature lung and the changes in milk composition during lactation in marsupials appears to provide bioactives that can regulate diverse aspects of lung development, including branching morphogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. These effects are seen with milk collected between 25 and 100days postpartum. To better understand the temporal effects of milk composition on postnatal lung development we used a cross-fostering technique to restrict the tammar pouch young to milk composition not extending beyond day 25 for 45days of its early postnatal life. These particular time points were selected as our previous study showed that milk protein collected prior to ~day 25 had no developmental effect on mouse embryonic lungs in culture. The comparative analysis of the foster group and control young at day 45 postpartum demonstrated that foster pouch young had significantly reduced lung size. The lungs in fostered young were comprised of large intermediate tissue, had a reduced size of airway lumen and a higher percentage of parenchymal tissue. In addition, expression of marker genes for lung development (BMP4, WNT11, AQP-4, HOPX and SPB) were significantly reduced in lungs from fostered young. Further, to identify the potential bioactive expressed by mammary gland that may have developmental effect on pouch young lungs, we performed proteomics analysis on tammar milk through mass-spectrometry and listed the potential bioactives (PDGF, IGFBP5, IGFBPL1 and EGFL6) secreted in milk that may be involved in regulating pouch young lung development. The data suggest that postnatal lung development in the tammar young is most likely regulated by maternal signalling factors supplied through milk.

  18. Joint work and power associated with acceleration and deceleration in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    McGowan, C P; Baudinette, R V; Biewener, A A

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of joint work and power were determined using inverse dynamics analysis based on ground reaction force and high-speed video recordings of tammar wallabies as they decelerated and accelerated while hopping over a force platform on level ground. Measurements were obtained over a range of accelerations ranging from -6 m s(-2) to 8 m s(-2). The goal of our study was to determine which joints are used to modulate mechanical power when tammar wallabies change speed. From these measurements, we also sought to determine which hind limb muscle groups are the most important for producing changes in mechanical work. Because our previous in vivo analyses of wallaby distal muscle function indicated that these muscle-tendon units favor elastic energy savings and perform little work during steady level and incline hopping, we hypothesized that proximal muscle groups operating at the hip and knee joint are most important for the modulation of mechanical work and power. Of the four hind limb joints examined, the ankle joint had the greatest influence on the total limb work, accounting for 89% of the variation observed with changing speed. The hip and metatarsophalageal (MP) joints also contributed to modulating whole limb work, but to a lesser degree than the ankle, accounting for 28% (energy production) and -24% (energy absorption) of the change in whole limb work versus acceleration, respectively. In contrast, the work produced at the knee joint was independent of acceleration. Based on the results of our previous in vivo studies and given that the magnitude of power produced at the ankle exceeds that which these muscles alone could produce, we conclude that the majority of power produced at the ankle joint is likely transferred from the hip and knee joints via proximal bi-articular muscles, operating in tandem with bi-articular ankle extensors, to power changes in hopping speed of tammar wallabies. Additionally, over the observed range of performance, peak joint

  19. Spermiogenesis and spermiation in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

    PubMed Central

    LIN, MINJIE; HARMAN, AMANDA; RODGER, JOHN C.

    1997-01-01

    Fourteen steps of spermatid development in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), from the newly formed spermatid to the release of the spermatozoon into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, were recognised at the ultrastructural level using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. This study confirmed that although the main events are generally similar, the process of the differentiation of the spermatid in marsupials is notably different and relatively more complex than that in most studied eutherian mammals and birds. For example, the sperm head rotated twice in the late stage of spermiogenesis: the shape of the spermatid changed from a T-shape at step 10 into a streamlined shape in step 14, and then back to T-shape in the testicular spermatozoa. Some unique figures occurring during the spermiogenesis in other marsupial species, such as the presence of Sertoli cell spurs, the nuclear ring and the subacrosomal space, were also found in the tammar wallaby. However, an important new finding of this study was the development of the postacrosome complex (PAC), a special structure that was first evident as a line of electron dense material on the nuclear membrane of the step 7 spermatid. Subsequently it became a discontinuous line of electron particles, and migrated from the ventral side of the nucleus to the area just behind the posterior end of the acrosome, which was closely located to the sperm–egg fusion site proposed for Monodelphis domestica (Taggart et al. 1993). The PAC and its possible role in both American and Australian marsupials requires detailed examination. Distinct immature features were discovered in the wallaby testicular spermatozoa. A scoop shape of the acrosome was found on the testicular spermatozoa of the tammar wallaby, which was completely different to the compact button shape of acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. The fibre network found beneath the cytoplasm membrane of the midpiece of the ejaculated sperm also did not occur in

  20. The structure of the cells lining the stomach of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Gemmell, R T; Engelhardt, W V

    1977-07-01

    The stomach of the tammar may be divided into cardiac, "oesophageal", fundic and pyloric regions. In the cells of the cardiac region (which occupy 65% of the stomach) at least three types of mucous droplet are present. The stratified squamous "oesophageal" region occupies 20% of the stomach and the fundic and pyloric regions make up the remaining 15%. The cellular structure of the three last named regions seems to be similar to that described for other monogastric mammals. Endocrine cells were found in all glandular regions.

  1. The structure of the cells lining the stomach of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, R T; Engelhardt, W V

    1977-01-01

    The stomach of the tammar may be divided into cardiac, "oesophageal", fundic and pyloric regions. In the cells of the cardiac region (which occupy 65% of the stomach) at least three types of mucous droplet are present. The stratified squamous "oesophageal" region occupies 20% of the stomach and the fundic and pyloric regions make up the remaining 15%. The cellular structure of the three last named regions seems to be similar to that described for other monogastric mammals. Endocrine cells were found in all glandular regions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:885785

  2. Seasonal changes in the circadian plasma melatonin profile of the tammar, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    McConnell, S J

    1986-01-01

    The circadian plasma melatonin profile of a marsupial, the tammar, was determined at various stages of the annual reproductive cycle. At 6-14 days after each of the solstices and equinoxes, six females were exposed to a photoperiod equivalent to the natural day length at these times. Serial blood samples were taken 8 days later at 2-4-hourly intervals, and plasma melatonin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Melatonin concentrations were elevated during the dark phase of each photoperiod, and there were significant changes between the profiles in each season. The amplitude of the nocturnal rise was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) during the breeding season after the summer solstice (peak 259.5 +/- 26.8 pg/ml, mean +/- SEM) and autumnal equinox (287 +/- 53.2 pg/ml) compared to those during the nonbreeding season after the winter solstice (111.5 +/- 10.5 pg/ml) and vernal equinox (154.5 +/- 10.4 pg/ml). The duration of the nocturnal rise was significantly correlated (r=0.996, P less than 0.01) with the length of the dark phase and so was shortest after the summer solstice and longest after the winter solstice. Either of these changes in amplitude or duration might provide the photoperiodic information that regulates the annual reproductive cycle of the tammar.

  3. The tammar wallaby: A marsupial model to examine the timed delivery and role of bioactives in milk.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Wanyonyi, Stephen; Modepalli, Vengama; Watt, Ashalyn; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Hinds, Lyn A; Kumar, Amit; Abud, Helen E; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2017-04-01

    It is now clear that milk has multiple functions; it provides the most appropriate nutrition for growth of the newborn, it delivers a range of bioactives with the potential to stimulate development of the young, it has the capacity to remodel the mammary gland (stimulate growth or signal cell death) and finally milk can provide protection from infection and inflammation when the mammary gland is susceptible to these challenges. There is increasing evidence to support studies using an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), as an interesting and unique model to study milk bioactives. Reproduction in the tammar wallaby is characterized by a short gestation, birth of immature young and a long lactation. All the major milk constituents change substantially and progressively during lactation and these changes have been shown to regulate growth and development of the tammar pouch young and to have roles in mammary gland biology. This review will focus on recent reports examining the control of lactation in the tammar wallaby and the timed delivery of milk bioactivity.

  4. Immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissues of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii

    PubMed Central

    Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2002-01-01

    The lymphoid tissues of the metatherian mammal, the adult tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, were investigated using immunohistochemical techniques. Five cross-reactive antibodies previously shown to recognize surface markers in marsupial tissues and five previously untested antibodies were used. The distribution of T-cells in the tissue beds of spleen, lymph node, thymus, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was documented using antibodies to CD3 and CD5. Similarly, B-cells were identified in the same tissues using anti-CD79b. Antibodies to CD8, CD31, CD79a and CD68 failed to recognize cells in these tissue beds. In general the pattern of cellular distribution identified using these antibodies was similar to that observed in other marsupial and eutherian lymphoid tissues. This study provides further information on the commonality of lymphoid tissue structure in the two major groups of extant mammals, metatherians and eutherians. PMID:12363276

  5. The tammar wallaby major histocompatibility complex shows evidence of past genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes with a variety of roles in the innate and adaptive immune responses. MHC genes form a genetically linked cluster in eutherian mammals, an organization that is thought to confer functional and evolutionary advantages to the immune system. The tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), an Australian marsupial, provides a unique model for understanding MHC gene evolution, as many of its antigen presenting genes are not linked to the MHC, but are scattered around the genome. Results Here we describe the 'core' tammar wallaby MHC region on chromosome 2q by ordering and sequencing 33 BAC clones, covering over 4.5 MB and containing 129 genes. When compared to the MHC region of the South American opossum, eutherian mammals and non-mammals, the wallaby MHC has a novel gene organization. The wallaby has undergone an expansion of MHC class II genes, which are separated into two clusters by the class III genes. The antigen processing genes have undergone duplication, resulting in two copies of TAP1 and three copies of TAP2. Notably, Kangaroo Endogenous Retroviral Elements are present within the region and may have contributed to the genomic instability. Conclusions The wallaby MHC has been extensively remodeled since the American and Australian marsupials last shared a common ancestor. The instability is characterized by the movement of antigen presenting genes away from the core MHC, most likely via the presence and activity of retroviral elements. We propose that the movement of class II genes away from the ancestral class II region has allowed this gene family to expand and diversify in the wallaby. The duplication of TAP genes in the wallaby MHC makes this species a unique model organism for studying the relationship between MHC gene organization and function. PMID:21854592

  6. DNA fingerprinting in relation to male dominance and paternity in a captive colony of tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Ewen, K R; Temple-Smith, P D; Bowden, D K; Marinopoulos, J; Renfree, M B; Yan, H

    1993-09-01

    The tammar wallaby has a polygynous mating system in which the dominant male usually controls initial access to oestrous females by mating first and then guarding the female from the advances of other subordinate males. In this study we used DNA fingerprinting with a human 3' hypervariable region (HVR) alpha globin probe to examine the paternity of pouch young progeny from 13 female tammars that were given continual access during the breeding season to a group of four sexually mature males. Constant individual-specific DNA profiles were observed for each animal. Paternity for 22 pouch young was successfully assigned using visual and computer-based analyses. However, no statistical difference was observed between the number of young sired by any of the four males (chi 2 = 2, d.f. = 3, P > 0.1). Mate guarding by the dominant male in our captive breeding group was not, therefore, sufficient to prevent successful subsequent matings by subordinates nor to enhance the genetic contribution of this male to the next generation. In each analysis, visual and computer assignments of paternity coincided, and these concurred with the results of a relatedness test which found that a large number of DNA bands were shared by sires and their progeny. The results from this paternity study show that first mating and subsequent mate guarding by the dominant male tammar wallaby in our captive group do not significantly skew the outcome of paternity towards this male and away from other males that subsequently mate with each female.

  7. Ultrastructure of the placenta of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii: comparison with the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Claudia; Zeller, Ulrich; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2002-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the tammar placenta was studied throughout pregnancy. The uterine epithelium grows from a columnar to an enlarged, undulating epithelium between early gestation and mid-gestation when the shell coat that surrounds the marsupial conceptus ruptures. Trophectoderm and uterine epithelium do not form syncytia, nor does invasion of the endometrium occur at any stage of pregnancy. Uterine secretion is provided to both the bilaminar and the trilaminar side of the yolk sac placenta up to birth. Fenestrations, abundant vesicles and lumenal processes of maternal capillaries, as well as deep basal folds of the uterine epithelium, suggest that there is transfer of hemotrophes adjacent to both parts of the yolk sac. In contrast, in the grey short-tailed opossum, these structures are lacking. The yolk sacs of adjacent embryos fuse to form a common yolk sac cavity, thus losing most of the bilaminar yolk sac. The bilaminar and trilaminar components of the yolk sac placenta of the tammar are less different in structure and function than those of the grey short-tailed opossum, but both types are fully functional placentas. The extended secretory phase of the tammar uterus and the maternal recognition of early pregnancy appear to be derived characters of macropodid marsupials. PMID:12220120

  8. Morphology and distribution of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of the adult tammar wallaby--Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Wong, R O; Wye-Dvorak, J; Henry, G H

    1986-11-01

    The morphology of the ganglion cell layer of the adult tammar wallaby has been examined from Nissl-stained retinal flatmounts. From this material, neurons have been classed as ganglion cells or displaced amacrine cells according to the disposition of Nissl substance. A further subdivision of ganglion cells into a separate group of alphalike cells was assisted by determining the range of soma sizes in neurofibrillar-stained flatmounts, a method which, in the cat, has revealed the presence of alpha cells. Isodensity contour maps prepared from the Nissl-stained flatmounts show a well-developed visual streak and an area centralis in the total neuronal population. A similar pattern was also found in the ganglion cells, thus confirming Tancred's (J. Comp. Neurol. 196:585-603, '81) finding, and, as well, in the alphalike ganglion cells and the displaced amacrine cells. The relative proportions of ganglion cells to displaced amacrines (GC:DA) were evaluated from isodensity profiles drawn along and vertical to the visual streak for the two cell types and also from maps showing the variation in the GC:DA ratio throughout the retina. A comparison with results published for other species shows that the visual streak development in the tammar wallaby is consistent with the expectations of the "terrain" theory and that, in its relative proportion of displaced amacrines, the tammar closely resembles the rabbit but contrasts sharply with the cat, which has half as many ganglion cells and three times as many displaced amacrines as the other two species.

  9. Testicular development and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in the male tammar, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P; Fletcher, T P; Renfree, M B

    1990-03-01

    Testicular growth and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis were assessed in male tammars from 12 to 25 months of age to establish the time of sexual maturity. The testicular dimensions and body weights of 20 male tammars, approximately 12 months of age at the beginning of the study, were measured monthly for 1 year. Groups of 3 animals were castrated at 13, 19 and 25 months of age and their testes sectioned for histological examination. Testicular volume increased between 12 and 24 months of age and was highly correlated with body weight (r = 0.91). In the 13-month group the seminiferous tubules were closed with few mitotic figures. Spermatogenesis had begun in 2 of the 19-month animals. All stages of spermatogenesis were present in the other 19-month male, and in all of the 25-month males. Basal FSH concentrations increased with the age of the animal (21.0 +/- 32.48, 94.40 +/- 55.18 and 193.05 +/- 40.21 ng/ml (mean +/- s.d.) at 19, 20 and 25 months respectively) while basal LH concentrations were similar at 20 months and 25 months (0.43 +/- 0.18 and 0.58 +/- 0.25 ng/ml respectively). Basal testosterone concentrations were also similar 0.11 +/- 0.04, 0.35 +/- 0.16 and 0.22 +/- 0.10 ng/ml in 13-, 19- and 25-month-old animals. LHRH injection in tammars at 13, 19 and 25 months of age induced release of both LH and testosterone 10-30 min after injection. The hormone concentrations increased in both magnitude and duration with increasing age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Community Composition and Density of Methanogens in the Foregut of the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii)▿

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Paul N.; Hinds, Lyn A.; Sly, Lindsay I.; McSweeney, Christopher S.; Morrison, Mark; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the foregut contents of Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) was studied using 16S rRNA and methyl coenzyme reductase subunit A (mcrA) gene clone libraries. Methanogens belonging to the Methanobacteriales and a well-supported cluster of uncultivated archaeon sequences previously observed in the ovine and bovine rumens were found. Methanogen densities ranged from 7.0 × 105 and 3.9 × 106 cells per gram of wet weight. PMID:19218421

  11. Cross-fostering of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) pouch young accelerates fore-stomach maturation.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Joly H L; Iongh, Robbert De; Digby, Matthew R; Renfree, Marilyn B; Nicholas, Kevin R; Familari, Mary

    2009-01-01

    There are two phases of fore-stomach development during the first 200 days of pouch life in tammar wallaby. For the first 170 days, the mucosa displays an immature gastric glandular phenotype that changes to a cardia glandular phenotype, which remains for the rest of the animal's life. During this 200-day period after birth, the pouch young (PY) is dependent on maternal milk, which progressively changes in composition. We showed previously that PY cross-fostered to host mothers at a later stage of lactation accelerated development. In this study, we investigated whether cross-fostering and exposure to late lactation stage milk affected the transition to cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY fore-stomach, there was increased apoptosis, but no change in cell proliferation. The parietal cell population was significantly reduced, and expression of gastric glandular phenotype marker genes (ATP4A, GKN2, GHRL and NDRG2) was down-regulated, suggesting down-regulation of gastric phenotype in fostered PY fore-stomach. The expression of cardia glandular phenotype genes (MUC4, KRT20, CSTB, ITLN2 and LPLUNC1) was not changed in fostered PY. These data suggest that fore-stomach maturation proceeds via two temporally distinct processes: down-regulation of gastric glandular phenotype and initiation of cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY, these two processes appear uncoupled, as gastric glandular phenotype was down-regulated but cardia glandular phenotype was not initiated. We propose that milk from later stages of lactation and/or herbage consumed by the PY may play independent roles in regulating these two processes.

  12. Chronic treatment of female tammar wallabies with deslorelin implants during pouch life: effects on reproductive maturation.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C A; Eckery, D C; Trigg, T E; Cooper, D W

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on attempts to delay puberty in a model marsupial species using the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin. Female tammar wallaby pouch young received deslorelin (5 mg) or placebo implants (n=8/group) when they were 193±2 days old. Sexual maturity was significantly delayed in deslorelin-treated animals, with the first successful production of offspring in treated and control animals occurring at 813±62 and 430±42 days of age, respectively. This delay was associated with a period of retarded pouch and teat development. Progesterone concentrations remained at basal levels throughout the first breeding season, indicating the absence of luteal cycles in treated females. Recovery and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis was a gradual process. Treated animals failed to respond to GnRH challenge at 12 months of age and had a reduced LH response at 18 months of age, before attaining full responsiveness by 24 months of age. Despite this apparent pituitary recovery by 24 months of age, as evidenced by complete teat eversion and LH responsiveness to GnRH, the time to first parturition was significantly delayed beyond this time in three females. This suggests that there may be longer-lasting effects at the level of the ovary and/or on FSH secretion. The significant delay in the onset of sexual maturation in response to chronic GnRH agonist treatment in this model marsupial species may be of practical significance to the management of fertility in captive and semi-free range marsupial populations.

  13. Chronic treatment of male tammar wallabies with deslorelin implants during pouch life: effects on development, puberty, and reproduction in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C A; Eckery, D C; Trigg, T E; Cooper, D W

    2007-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chronic GnRH agonist (deslorelin) treatment on sexual maturation in the male tammar wallaby. Slow-release deslorelin or placebo implants were administered to male pouch young (n = 10/group) when they were between 180 and 200 days old, to determine if disruption of the pituitary-testicular axis during development altered the timing of sexual maturation or had long-term effects on adult reproductive function. Deslorelin treatment caused retardation of testicular growth and reduced the serum FSH and testosterone concentrations between 12 and 24 mo of age. Maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was also delayed in treated animals at 13 and 19 mo of age. Despite these alterations in the pattern and timing of neuroendocrine development, sexual maturation was not permanently blocked in these animals and deslorelin-treated animals reached sexual maturity at the same age as treated animals, as evidenced by a fully functional pituitary-testicular axis and proven fertility at 25 mo of age. The ability of the treated animals to reach puberty at the same time as control animals, despite delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, suggests that puberty in the male tammar wallaby is additionally regulated by other, gonadotropin-independent factors.

  14. A comparative proteomic analysis of skin secretions of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and the wombat (Vombatus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Ambatipudi, Kiran; Joss, Janice; Deane, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    The secretome of the pouch skin of the model marsupial the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii has been investigated using techniques of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in-gel trypsin digestion followed by nanoliquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Differences in the patterns of secreted proteins were observed in the female pouch at three stages of maturity - reproductively immature; reproductively mature and active and mature, postreproductively active. Skin from the underarm area of mature females had a markedly different secreted protein profile. The greatest diversity of proteins was seen in the mature reproductive pouch and from an opportunistic sample collected from the pouch another mature female marsupial, the common wombat, Vombatus ursinus. A total of 20 proteins were confidently identified from the pouch skin secretions of the tammar wallaby and wombats, whilst 20 proteins were tentatively identified. In all skin secretomes, globins were the most abundant proteins whilst the antimicrobial, dermcidin was detected in the wombat sample. Some proteins such as keratin and actin could be sourced to sloughed and degraded skin cells. A number of proteins were present at such low concentrations that confident identification was not possible. This was compounded by the lack of a comprehensive database of marsupial proteins which constrains the reliability of automated identification protocols.

  15. Developmental changes in the electroencephalogram and responses to a noxious stimulus in anaesthetized tammar wallaby joeys (Macropus eugenii eugenii).

    PubMed

    Diesch, T J; Mellor, D J; Johnson, C B; Lentle, R G

    2010-04-01

    The tammar wallaby joey is born extremely immature and most of its neurological development occurs in the maternal pouch. It is not known at what in-pouch age functions such as conscious sensory perception commence. We determined the electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to noxious stimulation in lightly anaesthetized tammar wallaby joeys. Baseline median (F50) and spectral edge (F95) frequencies, total power (Ptot) and frequency spectra between 1 and 30 Hz of the EEG power spectrum were determined. Joeys aged less than 127 days showed little or no EEG activity. Prolonged periods of spontaneous EEG activity were present by 142 days. This activity increased, as did the power in all frequencies, while the duration of any intervening isoelectric periods decreased with increasing in-pouch age. EEG responses to a noxious stimulus (toe clamping) changed with increasing in-pouch age as there was no response from joeys aged 94-127 days (no EEG), a minimal decrease in the F50 in those aged between 142 and 181 days (P = 0.052) and a greater decrease in the F50 in those aged between 187 and 261 days (P < 0.001). The pattern of these changes, which presumably reflects anatomical and functional maturation of the cerebral cortex, is similar to, but develops more slowly than, that reported in the rat. The opening of the eyes and development of the pelage are discussed as markers of when brain development may be sufficient for joeys to consciously perceive noxious sensations including pain.

  16. Analysis of the expression of immunoglobulins throughout lactation suggests two periods of immune transfer in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Daly, Kerry A; Digby, Matthew; Lefèvre, Christophe; Mailer, Sonia; Thomson, Peter; Nicholas, Kevin; Williamson, Peter

    2007-12-15

    Marsupial young are born in an under-developed state without mature immune responses. Prior to the maturation of an immune system, marsupial young are heavily reliant upon immune factors secreted in the milk to defend them against potential microbial pathogens in the environment. In this study, we identified and characterized the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant regions, light chains, polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), J chain, neonatal Fc receptor (alpha chain) (FcRn) and the chemokine CCL28 from the model marsupial species, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Low levels of conservation were seen in motifs in C alpha and C gamma associated with receptor binding and or transcytosis, and this may have potential implications for functionality. We evaluated the expression of immunoglobulin genes in the tammar mammary gland throughout lactation and found that two periods of increased expression of immunoglobulin genes occur. These two periods coincide with the birth of the young, and with its first emergence from the pouch. This increased expression may represent a strategy for maternal immunological protection of the pouch young.

  17. Effect of gonadectomy, season and the presence of female tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) on concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in the plasma of male tammar wallabies.

    PubMed

    Catling, P C; Sutherland, R L

    1980-07-01

    Concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone in plasma were measured in groups of adult male tammar wallabies before and after gonadectomy, and during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Gonadectomy resulted in a rapid fall in plasma testosterone to undetectable levels by day 2, and significant increases in plasma LH and FSH levels. The concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone did not change significantly between the non-breeding and breeding seasons in groups of male wallabies maintained in the absence of females. However, when male wallabies were associated with sexually mature females there were significant three- to fourfold increases in concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma at the commencement of the breeding season. The observed increases in LH and testosterone were highly synchronized in the eight animals studied and occurred approximately 2 weeks before the synchronous onset of mating. Concentrations of FSH did not change significantly at this time.

  18. Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Stephen E; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2005-11-01

    The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical stages of development accounts for the full range of sexually dimorphic urogenital traits observed at birth. Jost's concept was subsequently expanded to encompass sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Although the central focus of this review involves urogenital development, we assume that the novel mechanisms described in this article have potentially significant implications for sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, a transposition with precedent in the history of this field. Contrary to the "specific" requirements of Jost's formulation, female spotted hyenas and elephants initially develop male-type external genitalia prior to gonadal differentiation. In addition, the administration of anti-androgens to pregnant female spotted hyenas does not prevent the formation of a scrotum, pseudoscrotum, penis or penile clitoris in the offspring of treated females, although it is not yet clear whether the creation of masculine genitalia involves other steroids or whether there is a genetic mechanism bypassing a hormonal mediator. Wallabies, where sexual differentiation occurs in the pouch after birth, provide the most conclusive evidence for direct genetic control of sexual dimorphism, with the scrotum developing only in males and the pouch and mammary glands only in females, before differentiation of the gonads. The development of the pouch and mammary gland in females and the scrotum in males is controlled by genes on the X chromosome. In keeping with the "expanded" version of Jost's formulation, secretion

  19. The cone visual pigments of an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii): sequence, spectral tuning, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Samir S; Wakefield, Matthew J; Tada, Takashi; Marotte, Lauren; Yokoyama, Shozo; Marshall Graves, Jenny A

    2003-10-01

    Studies on marsupial color vision have been limited to very few species. There is evidence from behavioral, electroretinographic (ERG), and microspectrophotometric (MSP) measurements for the existence of both dichromatic and trichromatic color vision. No studies have yet investigated the molecular mechanisms of spectral tuning in the visual pigments of marsupials. Our study is the first to determine the mRNA sequence, infer the amino acid sequence, and determine, by in vitro expression, the spectra of the cone opsins of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). This yielded some information on mechanisms and evolution of spectral tuning of these pigments. The tammar wallaby retina contains only short-wavelength sensitive (SWS) and middle-wavelength sensitive (MWS) pigment mRNAs. This predicts dichromatic color vision, which is consistent with conclusions from previous behavioral studies ( Hemmi 1999). We found that the wallaby has a SWS1 class pigment of 346 amino acids. Sequence comparison with eutherian SWS pigments predicts that this SWS1 pigment absorbs maximally (lambdamax) at 424 nm and, therefore, is a blue rather than a UV pigment. This (lambdamax) is close to that of the in vitro-expressed wallaby SWS pigment (lambdamax of 420 +/- 2 nm) and to that determined behaviorally (420 nm). The difference from the mouse UV pigment (lambdamax of 359 nm) is largely accounted for by the F86Y substitution, in agreement with in vitro results comparing a variety of other SWS pigments. This suggests that spectral tuning employing F86Y substitution most likely arose independently in the marsupials and ungulates as a result of convergent evolution. An apparently different mechanism of spectral tuning of the SWS1 pigments, involving five amino acid positions, evolved in primates. The wallaby MWS pigment has 363 amino acids. Species comparisons at positions critical to spectral tuning predict a lambdamax near 530 nm, which is close to that of the in vitro

  20. Pinning down a polymorphic parasite: new genetic and morphological descriptions of Eimeria macropodis from the Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Hill, Nichola J; Richter, Carolin; Power, Michelle L

    2012-09-01

    Identification of the protozoan parasite, Eimeria has traditionally relied on oocyst morphology, host range and life-cycle attributes. However, it is increasingly recognized that Eimeria species can vary in size and shape across their host range, an attribute known as 'polymorphism' that presents a unique challenge for identification. Advances in molecular tools hold promise for characterising Eimeria that may otherwise be misclassified based on morphology. Our study used morphologic and molecular traits of the oocyst life stage to identify a polymorphic parasite, Eimeria macropodis in a captive Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) population in Australia. Molecular characterization highlighted the need to use multiple genetic markers (18S SSU and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) to accurately identify E. macropodis owing to heterozygous alleles at the 18S SSU locus. This study provided an opportunity to assess the utility and shortcomings of morphologic and molecular techniques for 'pinning down' a polymorphic species. Moreover, our study was able to place E. macropodis in an evolutionary context and enhance resolution of the under-studied marsupial clade.

  1. Four Strandberg-type polyoxometalates with organophosphine centre decorated by transition metal-2,2'-bipy/H2O complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Feng, Shu-Li; Zhu, Zai-Ming; Sang, Xiao-Jing; Su, Fang; Zhang, Lan-Cui

    2017-09-01

    Four inorganic-organic hybrid compounds composed of Strandberg-type organophosphomolybdate anion [(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15]4- (abbreviated as (PhP)2Mo5) and transition metal (TM)-2,2'-bipy/H2O complex units, namely [(TM(H2O)(bipy))2(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15]n (TM = Co, (1); Ni, (2)), [(Cu(bipy)2)2(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15]·2H2O (3) and [(Zn(bipy)(μ-OH))2(Zn(bipy)2(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15)2]·3H2O (4) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine), were successfully constructed under hydrothermal conditions, and their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and spectroscopic methods. The central heteroatoms in these polyoxometalates (POMs) are all organophosphine (RP) groups. Compound 1 and compound 2 are isostructural (PhP)2Mo5-based TM-coordination polymers with the two-dimensional layer frameworks. In compound 3, the bi-supporting structure containing one (PhP)2Mo5 unit and two [Cu(bipy)2]2+ cations. For compound 4, it can be regarded as a dimer of two bi-supporting {Zn(bipy)2(PhP)2Mo5Zn(bipy)} clusters that were connected by two μ-OH groups. The acid-catalytic activities and fluorescence properties of the four hybrids have been investigated.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a novel Strandberg-type polyoxoselenomolybdate Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Nagazi, Ichraf; Haddad, Amor

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H2O. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of the first Strandberg-type polyoxoselenomolybdate Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the novel compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chirality of the space group C2 of compound implies that it is expected to have nonlinear optical (NLO) properties -- Abstract: An inorganic compound formulated as Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (1) has been isolated by conventional solution method and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder XRD, IR, UV-vis spectra, and cyclic voltammetry measurements. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2 with unit a = 19.701 (3) Angstrom-Sign , b = 10.296 (2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 12.134 (4) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 106.96 (2) Degree-Sign and Z = 4. The crystal structure of (1) is built up from a Strandberg clusters connected through hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  3. Characterization of the antimicrobial peptide family defensins in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth A; Cheng, Yuanyuan; O'Meally, Denis; Belov, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Defensins comprise a family of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides with important roles in innate and adaptive immune defense in vertebrates. We characterized alpha and beta defensin genes in three Australian marsupials: the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and identified 48, 34, and 39 defensins, respectively. One hundred and twelve have the classical antimicrobial peptides characteristics required for pathogen membrane targeting, including cationic charge (between 1+ and 15+) and a high proportion of hydrophobic residues (>30%). Phylogenetic analysis shows that gene duplication has driven unique and species-specific expansions of devil, koala, and tammar wallaby beta defensins and devil alpha defensins. Defensin genes are arranged in three genomic clusters in marsupials, whereas further duplications and translocations have occurred in eutherians resulting in four and five gene clusters in mice and humans, respectively. Marsupial defensins are generally under purifying selection, particularly residues essential for defensin structural stability. Certain hydrophobic or positively charged sites, predominantly found in the defensin loop, are positively selected, which may have functional significance in defensin-target interaction and membrane insertion.

  4. Virilization of the male pouch young of the tammar wallaby does not appear to be mediated by plasma testosterone or dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J D; George, F W; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    1999-08-01

    Virilization of the male urogenital tract of all mammals, including marsupials, is mediated by androgenic hormones secreted by the testes. We have previously demonstrated profound sexual dimorphism in the concentrations of gonadal androgens in pouch young of the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii during the interval when the urogenital sinus virilizes. To provide insight into the mechanisms by which androgens are transported from the testes to the target tissues, we measured testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in plasma pools from tammar pouch young from the day of birth to Day 150. Plasma testosterone levels were measurable (0.5-2 ng/ml) at all times studied, but there were no differences between males and females. These low concentrations of plasma testosterone appear to be derived from the adrenal glands and not the testes. Plasma dihydrotestosterone levels in plasma pools from these animals were also low and not sexually dimorphic. We conclude that virilization of the male urogenital tract cannot be explained by the usual transport of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in plasma but may be mediated by the direct delivery of androgens to the urogenital tract via the Wolffian ducts. Alternatively, circulating prohormones may be converted to androgens in target tissues.

  5. Molecular characterisation and expression of CD4 in two distantly related marsupials: the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Louise G; Nair, Sham V; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    The gene and corresponding cDNA for CD4 in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, and the cDNA sequence for CD4 in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, have been characterised. The opossum CD4 homolog reveals conserved synteny, preserved genomic organisation and analogous structural arrangement to human and mouse CD4. Opossum and tammar CD4 exhibit typical eutherian CD4 features including the highly conserved p56(lck) binding motif in the cytoplasmic region and the invariant cysteine residues in extracellular domains 1 and 4. Interestingly, the marsupial CD4 sequences substitute a tryptophan for the first cysteine in domain 2 negating the formation of a disulphide bond as seen in other eutherian CD4 sequences except human and mouse. Overall the marsupial CD4 sequences share amino acid identity of 59% to each other and 37-41% with eutherian mammals. However, in contrast to eutherian homologs, the marsupial CD4 sequences were found to be truncated at the terminal end of the cytoplasmic tail. This is the first report confirming the presence of CD4 in a marsupial and describing its key features.

  6. The marsupial CD8 gene locus: molecular cloning and expression analysis of the alpha and beta sequences in the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Louise G; Nair, Sham V; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2009-05-15

    In eutherian mammals, CD8 is a key receptor of cytotoxic T cells and plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of infected host cells by cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Here, we report the molecular cloning and expression analysis of CD8alpha and CD8beta cDNAs in two marsupial species, the gray short-tailed opossum and the tammar wallaby. The opossum and tammar CD8 sequences share a high degree of amino acid identity of 63% (CD8alpha) and 57% (CD8beta) to each other as well as 36-45% (CD8alpha) and 38-41% (CD8beta) with their eutherian counterparts. In addition, many of the signature features of eutherian CD8alpha and CD8beta are preserved in both marsupials including the two invariant cysteines that form the intra-chain disulphide bond in the extracellular IgSfV domain and the two hinge region cysteines involved in dimerisation between the two subunits. The p56(lck) binding motif in the cytoplasmic tail of the CD8alpha subunit is also conserved. Interestingly, the opossum CD8alpha and the tammar CD8beta sequences have a truncated cytoplasmic tail. RT-PCR analysis of CD8alpha and CD8beta transcripts in the tissues of the adult opossum and tammar showed broad tissue expression with a high level of expression observed in the lymphoid tissues of both marsupials. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis of CD8alpha and CD8beta transcripts in the immune tissues of tammar young over the first 120 days of pouch life revealed a pattern of expression analogous to the maturation of the lymphoid tissues. This is the first report confirming the presence of CD8 in the tissues of a marsupial and will provide the tools to further analyse T cell subsets in this unique group of mammals.

  7. Molecular characterisation of the CD79a and CD79b subunits of the B cell receptor complex in the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii): Delayed B cell immunocompetence in marsupial neonates.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Louise; Webster, Koa; Gupta, Varun; Nair, Sham; Deane, Elizabeth

    2010-08-15

    The B cell receptor (BCR) is a multiprotein complex that is pivotal to antigen recognition and signal transduction in B cells. It consists of an antigen binding component, membrane Ig (mIg), non-covalently associated with the signaling component, a disulphide-linked heterodimer of CD79a and CD79b. In this study, the gene and corresponding cDNA for CD79a and CD79b in the gray short-tailed opossum, as well as the cDNA sequences for CD79a and CD79b in the tammar wallaby, are described. Many of the structural and functional features of CD79a and CD79b were conserved in both marsupials, including the ITAM regulatory motif in the cytoplasmic tails of both subunits. The marsupial CD79 sequences shared a high degree of amino acid identities of 76% (CD79a) and 72% (CD79b) to each other, as well as 60-61% (CD79a) and 58-59% (CD79b) with their eutherian counterparts. RT-PCR analysis of CD79a and CD79b transcripts in the immune tissues of tammar pouch young revealed CD79a transcripts in the bone marrow, cervical thymus and spleen at day 10 postpartum. CD79b transcripts were detected in the bone marrow and cervical thymus at day 10 but were not detected in the spleen until day 21 postpartum. These results suggest that a functional BCR may not be assembled until day 21 postpartum and the tammar neonate may not be capable of mounting an effective adaptive immune response until this time. The molecular information presented here will allow further investigation of the role of the CD79 subunits in marsupial B cell signaling, especially during ontogeny and disease.

  8. Crustal structure and kinematics of the TAMMAR propagating rift system on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from seismic refraction and satellite altimetry gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Richard L.; Tilmann, Frederik; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2016-08-01

    The TAMMAR segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge forms a classic propagating system centred about two degrees south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The segment is propagating to the south at a rate of 14 mm yr-1, 15 per cent faster than the half-spreading rate. Here, we use seismic refraction data across the propagating rift, sheared zone and failed rift to investigate the crustal structure of the system. Inversion of the seismic data agrees remarkably well with crustal thicknesses determined from gravity modelling. We show that the crust is thickened beneath the highly magmatic propagating rift, reaching a maximum thickness of almost 8 km along the seismic line and an inferred (from gravity) thickness of about 9 km at its centre. In contrast, the crust in the sheared zone is mostly 4.5-6.5 km thick, averaging over 1 km thinner than normal oceanic crust, and reaching a minimum thickness of only 3.5 km in its NW corner. Along the seismic line, it reaches a minimum thickness of under 5 km. The PmP reflection beneath the sheared zone and failed rift is very weak or absent, suggesting serpentinisation beneath the Moho, and thus effective transport of water through the sheared zone crust. We ascribe this increased porosity in the sheared zone to extensive fracturing and faulting during deformation. We show that a bookshelf-faulting kinematic model predicts significantly more crustal thinning than is observed, suggesting that an additional mechanism of deformation is required. We therefore propose that deformation is partitioned between bookshelf faulting and simple shear, with no more than 60 per cent taken up by bookshelf faulting.

  9. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to the cathelicidin LL37/hCAP18 in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Carman, Rebecca L; Simonian, Mary R; Old, Julie M; Jacques, Nicholas A; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2008-12-01

    Antibodies to the human cathelicidin, hCAP18 have been used to examine epithelial tissues of adult and pouch young marsupials. Immunoreactivity was observed in skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung and mammary node of adults as well as skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung and bone marrow of pouch young. The locations of expression were similar to that reported in human tissues. Although the antibody to hCAP18 is primarily directed at the C-terminal antimicrobial peptide LL37, our observations suggest recognition of a common conserved element of this cathelicidin and lead us to conclude that the epithelial tissues of marsupials are sites of production of cathelicidin. This is consistent with observations in other mammals but is the first report of expression of these compounds in marsupials.

  10. Sequencing skippy: the genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sequencing of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) reveals insights into genome evolution, and mammalian reproduction and development. See research article: http://genomebiology.com/2011/12/8/R81 PMID:21861852

  11. Isolation and characterization of marsupial IL5 genes.

    PubMed

    Hawken, R J; Maccarone, P; Toder, R; Marshall Graves, J A; Maddox, J F

    1999-10-01

    The genomic nucleotide sequence and chromosomal position of the interleukin 5 (IL5) gene has been described for the model marsupial Macropus eugenii (tammar wallaby). A 272 base pair genomic IL5 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product spanning exon 3, intron 3, and exon 4 was generated using stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura) DNA. This PCR product was used to isolate a genomic lambda clone containing the complete IL5 gene from a tammar wallaby EMBL3 lambda library. Sequencing revealed that the tammar wallaby IL5 gene consists of four exons separated by three introns. Comparison of the marsupial coding sequence with coding sequences from eutherian species revealed 61 to 69% identity at the nucleotide level and 48 to 63% identity at the amino acid (aa) level. A polymorphic complex compound microsatellite was identified within intron 2 of the tammar wallaby IL5 gene. This microsatellite was also found in other marsupials including the swamp wallaby, tree kangaroo, stripe-faced dunnart, South American opossum, brushtail possum, and koala. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using DNA from the IL5 clone on tammar wallaby chromosomes indicated that the IL5 gene is located on Chromosome 1.

  12. DDX4 (VASA) is conserved in germ cell development in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Danielle E; Frankenberg, Stephen; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2011-10-01

    DDX4 (VASA) is an RNA helicase expressed in the germ cells of all animals. To gain greater insight into the role of this gene in mammalian germ cell development, we characterized DDX4 in both a marsupial (the tammar wallaby) and a monotreme (the platypus). DDX4 is highly conserved between eutherian, marsupial, and monotreme mammals. DDX4 protein is absent from tammar fetal germ cells but is present from Day 1 postpartum in both sexes. The distribution of DDX4 protein during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in the tammar is similar to eutherians. Female tammar germ cells contain DDX4 protein throughout all stages of postnatal oogenesis. In males, DDX4 is in gonocytes, and during spermatogenesis it is present in spermatocytes and round spermatids. A similar distribution of DDX4 occurs in the platypus during spermatogenesis. There are several DDX4 isoforms in the tammar, resulting from both pre- and posttranslational modifications. DDX4 in marsupials and monotremes has multiple splice variants and polyadenylation motifs. Using in silico analyses of genomic databases, we found that these previously unreported splice variants also occur in eutherians. In addition, several elements implicated in the control of Ddx4 expression in the mouse, including RGG (arginine-glycine-glycine) and dimethylation of arginine motifs and CpG islands within the Ddx4 promoter, are also highly conserved. Collectively these data suggest that DDX4 is essential for the regulation of germ cell proliferation and differentiation across all three extant mammalian groups-eutherians, marsupials, and monotremes.

  13. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN WALLABIES (MACROPUS RUFOGRISEUS, MACROPUS EUGENII ): BLINDNESS, TREATMENT WITH ATOVAQUONE, AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Australasian marsupials, especially wallabies are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Three wallabies (1Tammar, Macropus eugenii no.1, and 2 Bennett’s, Macropus rufogriseus, no.2 and 3) imported from New Zealand to Pennsylvania were diagnosed to have toxoplasmosis after arrival in the US. ...

  14. The functional development of Leydig cells in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Butler, Christopher M; Shaw, Geoff; Clark, Joan; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2008-01-01

    Leydig cells are the major source of androgen in the male mammal. We describe here for the first time the development of the Leydig cell in a macropodid marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Leydig cells are first recognized morphologically 2 days after birth with the appearance of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of certain interstitial cells. Lipid content closely matches the steroid content of the developing testis and marks the maturation of the steroid synthesis pathway in the tammar testis. Morphologically mature Leydig cells, marked by distinct mitochondria with tubular cristae and an extensive anastomosing network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, are developed by day 10 after birth - the time of peak testosterone content in perinatal tammar testes. The volume percentage of each cell type in the testis does not change over time so the growth of each cellular component keeps pace with growth of the whole testis. There was no morphological or quantitative evidence of a change from one population of Leydig cells to another in the tammar testis as has been reported in several other species including the rat, mouse and human. Maturation of the testis is also marked by the development of tight junctions between the cell membranes of adjacent Sertoli cells. These appear around day 30 after birth and coincide with the onset of mitotic arrest in male germ cells. Overall, the development of the Leydig cell in the tammar wallaby follows a similar pattern to that seen in other mammals, although the start of Leydig cell differentiation is, like many other organ systems in marsupials, post natal, not fetal and there appears to be only a single population of Leydig cells.

  15. Ancient antimicrobial peptides kill antibiotic-resistant pathogens: Australian mammals provide new options.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianghui; Wong, Emily S W; Whitley, Jane C; Li, Jian; Stringer, Jessica M; Short, Kirsty R; Renfree, Marilyn B; Belov, Katherine; Cocks, Benjamin G

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the increasing resistance of pathogens to existing antibiotics the 10×'20 Initiative declared the urgent need for a global commitment to develop 10 new antimicrobial drugs by the year 2020. Naturally occurring animal antibiotics are an obvious place to start. The recently sequenced genomes of mammals that are divergent from human and mouse, including the tammar wallaby and the platypus, provide an opportunity to discover novel antimicrobials. Marsupials and monotremes are ideal potential sources of new antimicrobials because they give birth to underdeveloped immunologically naïve young that develop outside the sterile confines of a uterus in harsh pathogen-laden environments. While their adaptive immune system develops innate immune factors produced either by the mother or by the young must play a key role in protecting the immune-compromised young. In this study we focus on the cathelicidins, a key family of antimicrobial peptide genes. We identified 14 cathelicidin genes in the tammar wallaby genome and 8 in the platypus genome. The tammar genes were expressed in the mammary gland during early lactation before the adaptive immune system of the young develops, as well as in the skin of the pouch young. Both platypus and tammar peptides were effective in killing a broad range of bacterial pathogens. One potent peptide, expressed in the early stages of tammar lactation, effectively killed multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. Marsupial and monotreme young are protected by antimicrobial peptides that are potent, broad spectrum and salt resistant. The genomes of our distant relatives may hold the key for the development of novel drugs to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  16. A Study of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Attenuation and Dispersion in the Earth’s Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-15

    M. Greenebaum, et al Riverside Research Institute J Prepared for: A Tny Missile Command Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency 15...width estiraates19,22 were 50 percent discrepant. Based on the 1955 work of Tinkham and Strandberg21 (as cor- rected by Gebbie, et al .19 in I969...on those of Albritton, et al .26 (Ref. 5 of T-l/306-3-1^)^ in the first excited vibrational state (v = v’ = v»’ =1) of 16 O. The line-wJdchs quoted

  17. Characterization of steroidogenic factor 1 during sexual differentiation in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, D J; Pask, A J; Shaw, G; Marshall Graves, J A; Behringer, R R; Renfree, M B

    2001-10-17

    In eutherian mammals, such as mice and humans, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) plays important roles in the development of the gonad and in its steroidogenic activity. Marsupial and eutherian mammals have been evolving independently for at least 100 million years and so we were interested in comparing SF1 of a marsupial with that of eutherians. To this end, we have cloned SF1 from an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby. Although the amino acid sequence of SF1 is highly conserved among vertebrate species, tammar SF1 appears to have diverged less from the ancestral SF1 than have eutherian SF1 proteins. Tammar SF1 is expressed by both ovaries and testes on the day of birth, just prior to the onset of testicular differentiation, until at least 8 days after birth by which time the ovary also has begun to sexually differentiate. SF1 transcripts are localized predominantly to the pre-granulosa and Sertoli cells of the ovary and testis, respectively. In the testis SF1 transcripts are also present in the interstitial cells, although at a lower level than that which is observed in the Sertoli cells. SF1 is also transcribed in adult testis and ovary. In the adult ovary SF1 is expressed in the interstitial gland, and in the granulosa cells and theca interna of small to medium-sized antral follicles, but is not expressed in large antral follicles. Thus, although the structure of tammar SF1 is divergent from that of eutherians, its expression profile is similar, supporting a conserved role in gonadal development and steroidogenesis.

  18. Inducing sex reversal of the urogenital system of marsupials.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Marsupials differ from eutherian mammals in their reproductive strategy of delivering a highly altricial young after a short gestation. The young, with its undeveloped organ systems completes its development post-natally, usually within a pouch. The young is dependent on milk with a composition that varies through lactation to support its growth and changing needs as it matures over a lengthy period. Gonadal differentiation occurs after birth, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effects of hormonal manipulations on its sexual differentiation of the highly accessible young. In marsupials a difference in the migration of the urinary ducts around the genital ducts from eutherian mammals results in the unique tammar reproductive tract which has three vaginae and two cervices, and two distinctly separate uteri. In the tammar wallaby, a small member of the kangaroo family, we showed that virilisation of the Wolffian duct, prostate and phallus depends on an alternate androgen pathway, which has now been shown to be important for virilisation in humans. Through hormonal manipulations over differing time periods we have achieved sex reversal of both ovaries and testes, germ cells, genital ducts, prostate and phallus. Whilst we understand many of the mechanisms behind sexual differentiation there are still many lessons to be learned from understanding how sex reversal is achieved by using a model such as the tammar wallaby. This will help guide investigations into the major questions of how and why sex determination is achieved in other species. This review discusses the control and development of the marsupial urogenital system, largely drawn from our studies in the tammar wallaby and our ability to manipulate this system to induce sex reversal.

  19. Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We present the genome sequence of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, which is a member of the kangaroo family and the first representative of the iconic hopping mammals that symbolize Australia to be sequenced. The tammar has many unusual biological characteristics, including the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal, extremely synchronized seasonal breeding and prolonged and sophisticated lactation within a well-defined pouch. Like other marsupials, it gives birth to highly altricial young, and has a small number of very large chromosomes, making it a valuable model for genomics, reproduction and development. Results The genome has been sequenced to 2 × coverage using Sanger sequencing, enhanced with additional next generation sequencing and the integration of extensive physical and linkage maps to build the genome assembly. We also sequenced the tammar transcriptome across many tissues and developmental time points. Our analyses of these data shed light on mammalian reproduction, development and genome evolution: there is innovation in reproductive and lactational genes, rapid evolution of germ cell genes, and incomplete, locus-specific X inactivation. We also observe novel retrotransposons and a highly rearranged major histocompatibility complex, with many class I genes located outside the complex. Novel microRNAs in the tammar HOX clusters uncover new potential mammalian HOX regulatory elements. Conclusions Analyses of these resources enhance our understanding of marsupial gene evolution, identify marsupial-specific conserved non-coding elements and critical genes across a range of biological systems, including reproduction, development and immunity, and provide new insight into marsupial and mammalian biology and genome evolution. PMID:21854559

  20. ARX/Arx is expressed in germ cells during spermatogenesis in both marsupial and mouse.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongshi; Pask, Andrew J; Hu, Yanqiu; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2014-03-01

    The X-linked aristaless gene, ARX, is essential for the development of the gonads, forebrain, olfactory bulb, pancreas, and skeletal muscle in mice and humans. Mutations cause neurological diseases, often accompanied by ambiguous genitalia. There are a disproportionately high number of testis and brain genes on the human and mouse X chromosomes. It is still unknown whether the X chromosome accrued these genes during its evolution or whether genes that find themselves on the X chromosome evolve such roles. ARX was originally autosomal in mammals and remains so in marsupials, whereas in eutherian mammals it translocated to the X chromosome. In this study, we examined autosomal ARX in tammars and compared it with the X-linked Arx in mice. We detected ARX mRNA in the neural cells of the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, and olfactory bulbs in developing tammars, consistent with the expression in mice. ARX was detected by RT-PCR and mRNA in situ hybridization in the developing tammar wallaby gonads of both sexes, suggestive of a role in sexual development as in mice. We also detected ARX/Arx mRNA in the adult testis in both tammars and mice, suggesting a potential novel role for ARX/Arx in spermiogenesis. ARX transcripts were predominantly observed in round spermatids. Arx mRNA localization distributions in the mouse adult testis suggest that it escaped meiotic sex chromosome inactivation during spermatogenesis. Our findings suggest that ARX in the therian mammal ancestor already played a role in male reproduction before it was recruited to the X chromosome in eutherians.

  1. Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Deakin, Janine E; Lindsay, James; Heider, Thomas; Belov, Katherine; Rens, Willem; Waters, Paul D; Pharo, Elizabeth A; Shaw, Geoff; Wong, Emily S W; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Kuroki, Yoko; Wakefield, Matthew J; Zenger, Kyall R; Wang, Chenwei; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Nicholas, Frank W; Hickford, Danielle; Yu, Hongshi; Short, Kirsty R; Siddle, Hannah V; Frankenberg, Stephen R; Chew, Keng Yih; Menzies, Brandon R; Stringer, Jessica M; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Hore, Timothy A; Delbridge, Margaret L; Patel, Hardip R; Mohammadi, Amir; Schneider, Nanette Y; Hu, Yanqiu; O'Hara, William; Al Nadaf, Shafagh; Wu, Chen; Feng, Zhi-Ping; Cocks, Benjamin G; Wang, Jianghui; Flicek, Paul; Searle, Stephen M J; Fairley, Susan; Beal, Kathryn; Herrero, Javier; Carone, Dawn M; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Shinji; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tatsumoto, Shoji; Mandiou, Ion; Hsu, Arthur; McColl, Kaighin A; Lansdell, Benjamin; Weinstock, George; Kuczek, Elizabeth; McGrath, Annette; Wilson, Peter; Men, Artem; Hazar-Rethinam, Mehlika; Hall, Allison; Davis, John; Wood, David; Williams, Sarah; Sundaravadanam, Yogi; Muzny, Donna M; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Lewis, Lora R; Morgan, Margaret B; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Ruiz, San Juana; Santibanez, Jireh; Nazareth, Lynne; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, Gerald; Kovar, Christie L; Dinh, Huyen H; Joshi, Vandita; Jing, Chyn; Lara, Fremiet; Thornton, Rebecca; Chen, Lei; Deng, Jixin; Liu, Yue; Shen, Joshua Y; Song, Xing-Zhi; Edson, Janette; Troon, Carmen; Thomas, Daniel; Stephens, Amber; Yapa, Lankesha; Levchenko, Tanya; Gibbs, Richard A; Cooper, Desmond W; Speed, Terence P; Fujiyama, Asao; Graves, Jennifer A M; O'Neill, Rachel J; Pask, Andrew J; Forrest, Susan M; Worley, Kim C

    2011-08-29

    We present the genome sequence of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, which is a member of the kangaroo family and the first representative of the iconic hopping mammals that symbolize Australia to be sequenced. The tammar has many unusual biological characteristics, including the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal, extremely synchronized seasonal breeding and prolonged and sophisticated lactation within a well-defined pouch. Like other marsupials, it gives birth to highly altricial young, and has a small number of very large chromosomes, making it a valuable model for genomics, reproduction and development. The genome has been sequenced to 2 × coverage using Sanger sequencing, enhanced with additional next generation sequencing and the integration of extensive physical and linkage maps to build the genome assembly. We also sequenced the tammar transcriptome across many tissues and developmental time points. Our analyses of these data shed light on mammalian reproduction, development and genome evolution: there is innovation in reproductive and lactational genes, rapid evolution of germ cell genes, and incomplete, locus-specific X inactivation. We also observe novel retrotransposons and a highly rearranged major histocompatibility complex, with many class I genes located outside the complex. Novel microRNAs in the tammar HOX clusters uncover new potential mammalian HOX regulatory elements. Analyses of these resources enhance our understanding of marsupial gene evolution, identify marsupial-specific conserved non-coding elements and critical genes across a range of biological systems, including reproduction, development and immunity, and provide new insight into marsupial and mammalian biology and genome evolution.

  2. SOX9 has both conserved and novel roles in marsupial sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Harry, Jenny L; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; O'Neill, Rachel J Waugh; Layfield, Sharon L; Shaw, Geoffrey; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2002-07-01

    In addition to an essential role in chondrogenesis, SOX9 is a highly conserved and integral part of the testis determining pathway in human and mouse. To determine whether SOX9 is involved in sex determination in noneutherian mammals we cloned a marsupial orthologue and studied its expression. The tammar wallaby SOX9 gene proved to be highly conserved, and maps to a region of the tammar genome syntenic to human chromosome 17. Marsupial SOX9 transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in the developing limb buds and both the developing ovary and testis from the first sign of gonadal development through to adulthood. Northern blot, in situ hybridisation, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that SOX9 reaches high levels of expression in the developing testis, where it is confined to the Sertoli cell nuclei, and the brain. This is similar to the expression pattern seen in human and mouse embryos and is consistent with a conserved role for SOX9 in vertebrate brain, skeletal, and gonadal development. In addition, SOX9 was expressed in the developing scrotum and mammary gland primordium regions of the tammar up to the time of birth. SOX9 protein was also detected in the developing Wolffian duct epithelium in the male mesonephros. These previously undescribed locations of SOX9 expression suggest that SOX9 may play additional roles in the differentiation of the marsupial reproductive system.

  3. Seminiferous cord formation is regulated by hedgehog signaling in the marsupial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin Wei; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2012-03-01

    The signaling molecule DHH, secreted by Sertoli cells, has essential regulatory functions in testicular differentiation. DHH is required for the differentiation of peritubular myoid cells that line the seminiferous cords and steroidogenic Leydig cells. The testicular cords in Dhh-null male mice lack a basal lamina and develop abnormally. To date, the DHH-signaling pathway has never been examined outside of any eutherian mammals. This study examined the effects of inhibition of DHH signaling in a marsupial mammal, the tammar wallaby, by culturing gonads in vitro in the presence of the hedgehog-signaling inhibitors cyclopamine and forskolin. Disruption of hedgehog signaling in the tammar testes caused highly disorganized cord formation. SOX9 protein remained strongly expressed in Sertoli cells, laminin distribution was highly fragmented, and germ cells were distributed around the cortical regions of treated testes in an ovarianlike morphology. This suggests that hedgehog signaling regulates cord formation in the tammar wallaby testis as it does in eutherian mammals. These data demonstrate that the hedgehog pathway has been highly conserved in mammals for at least 160 million years.

  4. The subventricular zone is the developmental milestone of a 6-layered neocortex: comparisons in metatherian and eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Amanda F P; Kondo, Shinichi; Abdel-Mannan, Omar; Chodroff, Rebecca A; Sirey, Tamara M; Bluy, Lisa E; Webber, Natalie; DeProto, Jamin; Karlen, Sarah J; Krubitzer, Leah; Stolp, Helen B; Saunders, Norman R; Molnár, Zoltán

    2010-05-01

    The major lineages of mammals (Eutheria, Metatheria, and Monotremata) diverged more than 100 million years ago and have undergone independent changes in the neocortex. We found that adult South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) possess a significantly lower number of cerebral cortical neurons compared with the mouse (Mus musculus). To determine whether the difference is reflected in the development of the cortical germinal zones, the location of progenitor cell divisions was examined in opossum, tammar wallaby, and rat. The basic pattern of the cell divisions was conserved, but the emergence of a distinctive band of dividing cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) occurred relatively later in the opossum (postnatal day [P14]) and the tammar wallaby (P40) than in rodents. The planes of cell divisions in the ventricular zone (VZ) were similar in all species, with comparable mRNA expression patterns of Brn2, Cux2, NeuroD6, Tbr2, and Pax6 in opossum (P12 and P20) and mouse (embryonic day 15 and P0). In conclusion, the marsupial neurodevelopmental program utilizes an organized SVZ, as indicated by the presence of intermediate (or basal) progenitor cell divisions and gene expression patterns, suggesting that the SVZ emerged prior to the Eutherian-Metatherian split.

  5. Molecular evolution of a novel marsupial S100 protein (S100A19) which is expressed at specific stages of mammary gland and gut development.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Joly H L; Wynne, Alicia; Lefèvre, Christophe; Familari, Mary; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2013-10-01

    S100 proteins are calcium-binding proteins involved in controlling diverse intracellular and extracellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and antimicrobial function. We recently identified a S100-like cDNA from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) stomach. Phylogentic analysis shows wallaby S100A19 forms a new clade with other marsupial and monotreme S100A19, while this group shows similarity to eutherian S100A7 and S100A15 genes. This is also supported by amino acid and domain comparisons. We show S100A19 is developmentally-regulated in the tammar wallaby gut by demonstrating the gene is expressed in the forestomach of young animals at a time when the diet consists of only milk, but is absent in older animals when the diet is supplemented with herbage. During this transition the forestomach phenotype changes from a gastric stomach into a fermentation sac and intestinal flora changes with diet. We also show that S100A19 is expressed in the mammary gland of the tammar wallaby only during specific stages of lactation; the gene is up-regulated during pregnancy and involution and not expressed during the milk production phase of lactation. Comparison of the tammar wallaby S100A19 protein sequence with S100 protein sequences from eutherian, monotreme and other marsupial species suggest the marsupial S100A19 has two functional EF hand domains, and an extended His tail. An evolutionary analysis of S100 family proteins was carried out to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the S100 family member functions. We propose that S100A19 gene/protein is the ancestor of the eutherian S100A7 gene/protein, which has subsequently modified its original function in eutherians. This modified function may have arisen due to differentiation of evolutionary pressures placed on gut and mammary gland developmental during mammal evolution. The highly regulated differential expression patterns of S100A19 in the tammar wallaby suggests that S100A19 may play

  6. Fetal control of parturition in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2001-01-01

    Among marsupials, the control of birth is best understood in the tammar wallaby. The young is tiny relative to the mother and is highly altricial. Adult female tammar wallabies weigh 5 kg, whereas the neonate weighs about 400 mg. However, despite this small size, there is clear evidence that the fetus provides the signal that sets the timing of birth through several mechanisms. A fetal signal activates a nitric oxide-guanylate cyclase system in the myometrium that may maintain myometrial inactivity, and this is down-regulated at term. There is also up-regulation of prostaglandin (PG) production in the gravid endometrium during the last two days of gestation that parallels increased placental PG synthesis, and a pregnancy-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptors in the gravid myometrium that increases the responsiveness of the gravid uterus to mesotocin. These changes facilitate parturition, but an acute fetus-derived signal appears to trigger parturition. The fetal signal is probably related to glucocorticoid production. The fetal adrenal matures and is able to synthesize cortisol by Day 22 of the 26-day gestation. The fetal adrenals double in size between Day 24 and term, and their cortisol content increases over 10-fold. The pituitary of the neonate contains presumptive corticotrophs, and the adrenals increase cortisol production in response to adrenocorticotrophin. Prostaglandin E2, which is produced by the placenta, is also a potent stimulant of fetal adrenal cortisol synthesis. Treatment of tammars in late gestation with the cortisol agonist, dexamethasone, triggers birth around 23 h later. There is thus a strong case that fetal adrenal cortisol plays a key role in the preparation for birth and the timing of it. Further studies are in progress to more clearly define the mechanisms behind these actions of cortisol.

  7. The development of the olfactory organs in newly hatched monotremes and neonate marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Nanette Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory cues are thought to play a crucial role in the detection of the milk source at birth in mammals. It has been shown that a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, can detect olfactory cues from its mother's pouch at birth. This study investigates whether the main olfactory and accessory olfactory system are similarly well developed in other marsupials and monotremes at birth/hatching as in the tammar. Sections of the head of various marsupial and two monotreme species were investigated by light microscopy. Both olfactory systems were less well developed in the kowari and Eastern quoll. No olfactory or vomeronasal or terminal nerves could be observed; the main olfactory bulb (MOB) had only two layers while no accessory olfactory bulb or ganglion terminale were visible. All other investigated marsupials and monotremes showed further developed olfactory systems with olfactory, vomeronasal and terminal nerves, a three-layered MOB, and in the marsupials a prominent ganglion terminale. The main olfactory system was further developed than the accessory olfactory system in all species investigated. The olfactory systems were the least developed in species in which the mother's birth position removed most of the difficulty in reaching the teat, placing the neonate directly in the pouch. In monotremes they were the furthest developed as Bowman glands were found underlying the main olfactory epithelium. This may reflect the need to locate the milk field each time they drink as they cannot permanently attach to it, unlike therian mammals. While it still needs to be determined how an odour signal could be further processed in the brain, this study suggests that marsupials and monotremes possess well enough developed olfactory systems to be able to detect an odour cue from the mammary area at birth/hatching. It is therefore likely that neonate marsupials and newly hatched monotremes find their way to the milk source using olfactory cues, as has been previously suggested for the

  8. The development of the olfactory organs in newly hatched monotremes and neonate marsupials.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nanette Yvette

    2011-08-01

    Olfactory cues are thought to play a crucial role in the detection of the milk source at birth in mammals. It has been shown that a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, can detect olfactory cues from its mother's pouch at birth. This study investigates whether the main olfactory and accessory olfactory system are similarly well developed in other marsupials and monotremes at birth/hatching as in the tammar. Sections of the head of various marsupial and two monotreme species were investigated by light microscopy. Both olfactory systems were less well developed in the kowari and Eastern quoll. No olfactory or vomeronasal or terminal nerves could be observed; the main olfactory bulb (MOB) had only two layers while no accessory olfactory bulb or ganglion terminale were visible. All other investigated marsupials and monotremes showed further developed olfactory systems with olfactory, vomeronasal and terminal nerves, a three-layered MOB, and in the marsupials a prominent ganglion terminale. The main olfactory system was further developed than the accessory olfactory system in all species investigated. The olfactory systems were the least developed in species in which the mother's birth position removed most of the difficulty in reaching the teat, placing the neonate directly in the pouch. In monotremes they were the furthest developed as Bowman glands were found underlying the main olfactory epithelium. This may reflect the need to locate the milk field each time they drink as they cannot permanently attach to it, unlike therian mammals. While it still needs to be determined how an odour signal could be further processed in the brain, this study suggests that marsupials and monotremes possess well enough developed olfactory systems to be able to detect an odour cue from the mammary area at birth/hatching. It is therefore likely that neonate marsupials and newly hatched monotremes find their way to the milk source using olfactory cues, as has been previously suggested for the

  9. Sex determination in marsupials: evidence for a marsupial-eutherian dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Renfree, M B; Short, R V

    1988-12-01

    In this paper, we review briefly the current state of knowledge about sexual differentiation in eutherian mammals, and then describe the situation in detail in two marsupial species: the North American opossum and the tammar wallaby. The conventional explanation for the genesis of all male somatic sexual dimorphisms in mammals is that they are a consequence of the systemic action of testicular hormones. In the absence of testes, the embryo will develop a female phenotype. We present evidence for the tammar wallaby that calls into question the universal applicability of this hormonal theory of mammalian sexual differentiation. We have shown that extensive somatic sexual dimorphisms precede by many days the first morphological evidence of testicular formation, which does not occur until around the third day of pouch life. Male foetuses, and pouch young on the day of birth, already have a well-developed gubernaculum and processus vaginalis, paired scrotal anlagen, and a complete absence of mammary anlagen, whereas female foetuses and newborn pouch young have a poorly developed gubernaculum and processus vaginalis, no scrotal anlagen, and well-developed mammary anlagen. Because it seems unlikely that the male gonad could begin hormone secretion until after the Sertoli and Leydig cells are developed, our results strongly suggest that some sexually dimorphic somatic characteristics develop autonomously, depending on their genotype rather than the hormonal environment to which they are exposed. We have been able to confirm the hormonal independence of the scrotum, pouch and mammary gland by administering testosterone propionate daily by mouth to female pouch young from the day of birth; although the Wolffian duct was hyperstimulated, there was no sign of scrotal development, or pouch or mammary inhibition. When male pouch young were treated with oestradiol benzoate in a similar fashion, there was hyperstimulation of the Müllerian duct and inhibition of testicular

  10. Snorkeling of lysine side chains in transmembrane helices: how easy can it get?

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Erik; Killian, J Antoinette

    2003-06-05

    Transmembrane segments of proteins are often flanked by lysine residues. The side chains of these residues may snorkel, i.e. they may bury themselves with their aliphatic part in the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer, while positioning the charged amino group in the more polar interface. Here we estimate the free energy cost of snorkeling from thermodynamical calculations based on studies with synthetic transmembrane peptides [Strandberg et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 7190-7198]. The value is estimated to be between 0.07 and 0.7 kcal mol(-1) for a lysine side chain. This very low value indicates that snorkeling may be a common process, which should be taken into consideration both in experimental and in theoretical studies on protein-lipid interactions.

  11. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyoxometalates incorporating with anilinium cations and facile preparation of hybrid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, Keisuke; Srifa, Atthapon; Isikawa, Eri; Naruke, Haruo

    2010-08-01

    The self-assembly reaction of tungstate and copper(II) in the presence of aniline (ANI) and phosphoric acid led to the formation of an anilinium (ANIH +) salt of mono-substituted Keggin-type polyoxotungstophosphate (ANIH) 5[PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39](ANI)·8H 2O ( 1), while the reaction of heptamolybdate in the coexistence of copper(II), phosphoric acid and ANI yielded an ANIH + salt of Strandberg-type pentamolybdodiphosphate, (ANIH) 2[(PO 4) 2Mo 5O 15{Cu(ANI) 2(H 2O)} 2](ANI)·2H 2O ( 2). These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray single-crystal analysis. The compound 1, crystallizing in trigonal, P3¯,a = 13.883(4), c = 10.187(3) Å, Z = 1, consists of copper mono-substituted Keggin-typed [PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39] 5- anion surrounded by six ANI molecules, of which five are protonated (ANIH +). The compound 2, crystallizing in triclinic, P1¯,a = 13.98(2), b = 14.73(1), c = 16.24(1) Å, α = 111.27(3), β = 97.42(3), γ = 99.54(4)°, Z = 2, consists of Strandberg-type pentamolybdodiphospate [(PO 4) 2Mo 5O 15] 6- anions interconnected by two Cu(ANI) 2(H 2O) linkers to form a 1D-chain structure. A potentiostatic electrolysis of 1 in aqueous solution gave rise to electropolymerization of the ANIH + cations (and ANI) and deposition with the [PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39] 5- anion on an ITO electrode, forming a nano-structured polyaniline/[PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39] 5- hybrid thin film.

  12. Ozone tropospheric and stratospheric trends (1995-2008) over Western Europe from ground-based FTIR network observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigouroux, Corinne; Demoulin, Philippe; Blumenstock, Thomas; Schneider, Matthias; Klyft, Jon; Palm, Mathias; Gardiner, Tom

    2010-05-01

    Five ground-based stations in Western Europe, from 79°N to 28°N, all part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), have joined their efforts to homogenize and optimize the retrievals of ozone profiles from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) solar absorption spectra. Using the optimal estimation method, distinct vertical information can be obtained in four layers: ground--10 km, 10--18 km, 18--27 km, and 27--42 km, in addition to total column amounts. A bootstrap resampling method has been implemented to determine annual partial and total column trends1. Vigouroux et al. (2008)2 applied this method to the ozone data and discussed the trends of the total columns and of the partial columns in the above four layers, over the period 1995-2004. Here, we present and discuss an update of this analysis for the 1995-2008 period. We obtain, among others, that at all the stations, the ozone total columns trends are non significant while the trends in the upper stratospheric layer (27-42 km) are significantly positive. 1 Gardiner, T., Forbes, A., Woods, P., De Mazière, M., Vigouroux, C., Mahieu, E., Demoulin, P., Velazco, V., Notholt, J., Blumenstock, T., Hase, F., Kramer, I., Sussmann, R., Stremme, W., Mellqvist, J., Strandberg, A., Ellingsen, K., and Gauss, M.: Method for evaluating trends in greenhouse gases from ground-based remote FTIR measurements over Europe, ACP, 8, 6719-6727, 2008. 2 Vigouroux, C., De Mazière, M., Demoulin, P., Servais, C., Hase, F., Blumenstock, T., Kramer, I., Schneider, M., Mellqvist, J., Strandberg, A., Velazco, V., Notholt, J., Sussmann, R., Stremme, W., Rockmann, A., Gardiner, T., Coleman, M., and Woods, P. : Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone trends over Western Europe from ground-based FTIR network observations, ACP, 8, 6865-6886, 2008.

  13. Dichromatic colour vision in wallabies as characterised by three behavioural paradigms.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Wiebke; Hemmi, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Despite lacking genetic evidence of a third cone opsin in the retina of any Australian marsupial, most species tested so far appear to be trichromatic. In the light of this, we have re-examined colour vision of the tammar wallaby which had previously been identified as a dichromat. Three different psychophysical tests, based on an operant conditioning paradigm, were used to confirm that colour perception in the wallaby can be predicted and conclusively explained by the existence of only two cone types. Firstly, colour-mixing experiments revealed a Confusion Point between the three primary colours of a LCD monitor that can be predicted by the cone excitation ratio of the short- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones. Secondly, the wavelength discrimination ability in the wallaby, when tested with monochromatic stimuli, was found to be limited to a narrow range between 440 nm and 500 nm. Lastly, an experiment designed to test the wallaby's ability to discriminate monochromatic lights from a white light provided clear evidence for a Neutral Point around 485 nm where discrimination consistently failed. Relative colour discrimination seemed clearly preferred but it was possible to train a wallaby to perform absolute colour discriminations. The results confirm the tammar wallaby as a dichromat, and so far the only behaviourally confirmed dichromat among the Australian marsupials.

  14. Identification of a Novel PNMA-MS1 Gene in Marsupials Suggests the LTR Retrotransposon-Derived PNMA Genes Evolved Differently in Marsupials and Eutherians

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological functions and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. Here, we identified two novel candidate PNMA genes, PNMA-MS1 and -MS2 in marsupials. Like all eutherian-specific PNMA genes, they exhibit the highest homology to a Gypsy12_DR (DR, Danio rerio) Gag protein. PNMA-MS1 is conserved in both Australian and South American marsupial species, the tammar wallaby and grey short-tailed opossum. However, no PNMA-MS1 orthologue was found in eutherians, monotremes or non-mammalian vertebrates. PNMA-MS1 was expressed in the ovary, mammary gland and brain during development and growth in the tammar, suggesting that PNMA-MS1 may have acquired a marsupial-specific function. However, PNMA-MS2 seems to be a pseudogene. The absence of marsupial orthologues of eutherian PNMA genes suggests that the retrotransposition events of the Gypsy12_DR-related retrotransposons that gave rise to the PNMA family occurred after the divergence of marsupials and eutherians. PMID:23704700

  15. Identification of a novel PNMA-MS1 gene in marsupials suggests the LTR retrotransposon-derived PNMA genes evolved differently in marsupials and eutherians.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2013-10-01

    Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological functions and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. Here, we identified two novel candidate PNMA genes, PNMA-MS1 and -MS2 in marsupials. Like all eutherian-specific PNMA genes, they exhibit the highest homology to a Gypsy12_DR (DR, Danio rerio) Gag protein. PNMA-MS1 is conserved in both Australian and South American marsupial species, the tammar wallaby and grey short-tailed opossum. However, no PNMA-MS1 orthologue was found in eutherians, monotremes or non-mammalian vertebrates. PNMA-MS1 was expressed in the ovary, mammary gland and brain during development and growth in the tammar, suggesting that PNMA-MS1 may have acquired a marsupial-specific function. However, PNMA-MS2 seems to be a pseudogene. The absence of marsupial orthologues of eutherian PNMA genes suggests that the retrotransposition events of the Gypsy12_DR-related retrotransposons that gave rise to the PNMA family occurred after the divergence of marsupials and eutherians.

  16. Growth axis maturation is linked to nutrition, growth and developmental rate.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Jennifer A; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoffrey; Rao, Alexandra; Clarke, Iain J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2015-08-15

    Maturation of the mammalian growth axis is thought to be linked to the transition from fetal to post-natal life at birth. However, in an altricial marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), this process occurs many months after birth but at a time when the young is at a similar developmental stage to that of neonatal eutherian mammals. Here we manipulate growth rates and demonstrate in slow, normal and fast growing tammar young that nutrition and growth rate affect the time of maturation of the growth axis. Maturation of GH/IGF-I axis components occurred earlier in fast growing young, which had significantly increased hepatic GHR, IGF1 and IGFALS expression, plasma IGF-I concentrations, and significantly decreased plasma GH concentrations compared to age-matched normal young. These data support the hypothesis that the time of maturation of the growth axis depends on the growth rate and maturity of the young, which can be accelerated by changing their nutritional status.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor-9 in marsupial testicular development.

    PubMed

    Chung, J W; Pask, A J; Yu, H; Renfree, M B

    2011-01-01

    FGF9 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and is critical for early testicular development and germ cell survival in the mouse. Fgf9 reinforces the testis determinant Sox9 and antagonizes Wnt4, an ovarian factor. To determine whether FGF9 has a conserved role in the mammalian gonad, we examined its expression in the gonads of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii, and compared it to WNT4 expression. Marsupial FGF9 is highly conserved with orthologues from eutherian mammals, including humans. FGF9 protein was detected in both the testis and ovary before sexual differentiation, but it subsequently became sexually dimorphic during the period of testicular differentiation. The protein was specifically enriched in the seminiferous cords of the developing testis in the Sertoli and germ cells. FGF9 mRNA expression was upregulated in the tammar testis at the time of seminiferous cord formation and downregulated in the developing ovary in an opposite profile to that of marsupial WNT4. These observations suggest that FGF9 promotes male fate in the early gonad of marsupials through an antagonistic relationship with WNT4 as it does in eutherian mammals.

  18. Lactation transcriptomics in the Australian marsupial, Macropus eugenii: transcript sequencing and quantification

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christophe M; Digby, Matthew R; Whitley, Jane C; Strahm, Yvan; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Background Lactation is an important aspect of mammalian biology and, amongst mammals, marsupials show one of the most complex lactation cycles. Marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) give birth to a relatively immature newborn and progressive changes in milk composition and milk production regulate early stage development of the young. Results In order to investigate gene expression in the marsupial mammary gland during lactation, a comprehensive set of cDNA libraries was derived from lactating tissues throughout the lactation cycle of the tammar wallaby. A total of 14,837 express sequence tags were produced by cDNA sequencing. Sequence analysis and sequence assembly were used to construct a comprehensive catalogue of mammary transcripts. Sequence data from pregnant and early or late lactating specific cDNA libraries and, data from early or late lactation massively parallel sequencing strategies were combined to analyse the variation of milk protein gene expression during the lactation cycle. Conclusion Results show a steady increase in expression of genes coding for secreted protein during the lactation cycle that is associated with high proportion of transcripts coding for milk proteins. In addition, genes involved in immune function, translation and energy or anabolic metabolism are expressed across the lactation cycle. A number of potential new milk proteins or mammary gland remodelling markers, including noncoding RNAs have been identified. PMID:17997866

  19. Promoter-specific expression and imprint status of marsupial IGF2.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Jessica M; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2012-01-01

    In mice and humans, IGF2 has multiple promoters to maintain its complex tissue- and developmental stage-specific imprinting and expression. IGF2 is also imprinted in marsupials, but little is known about its promoter region. In this study, three IGF2 transcripts were isolated from placental and liver samples of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Each transcript contained a unique 5' untranslated region, orthologous to the non-coding exons derived from promoters P1-P3 in the human and mouse IGF2 locus. The expression of tammar IGF2 was predominantly from the P2 promoter, similar to humans. Expression of IGF2 was higher in pouch young than in the adult and imprinting was highly tissue and developmental-stage specific. Interestingly, while IGF2 was expressed throughout the placenta, imprinting seemed to be restricted to the vascular, trilaminar region. In addition, IGF2 was monoallelically expressed in the adult mammary gland while in the liver it switched from monoalleleic expression in the pouch young to biallelic in the adult. These data suggest a complex mode of IGF2 regulation in marsupials as seen in eutherian mammals. The conservation of the IGF2 promoters suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians, and have been selectively maintained for at least 160 million years.

  20. Promoter-Specific Expression and Imprint Status of Marsupial IGF2

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Jessica M.; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pask, Andrew J.; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2012-01-01

    In mice and humans, IGF2 has multiple promoters to maintain its complex tissue- and developmental stage-specific imprinting and expression. IGF2 is also imprinted in marsupials, but little is known about its promoter region. In this study, three IGF2 transcripts were isolated from placental and liver samples of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Each transcript contained a unique 5' untranslated region, orthologous to the non-coding exons derived from promoters P1–P3 in the human and mouse IGF2 locus. The expression of tammar IGF2 was predominantly from the P2 promoter, similar to humans. Expression of IGF2 was higher in pouch young than in the adult and imprinting was highly tissue and developmental-stage specific. Interestingly, while IGF2 was expressed throughout the placenta, imprinting seemed to be restricted to the vascular, trilaminar region. In addition, IGF2 was monoallelically expressed in the adult mammary gland while in the liver it switched from monoalleleic expression in the pouch young to biallelic in the adult. These data suggest a complex mode of IGF2 regulation in marsupials as seen in eutherian mammals. The conservation of the IGF2 promoters suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians, and have been selectively maintained for at least 160 million years. PMID:22848567

  1. Dichromatic Colour Vision in Wallabies as Characterised by Three Behavioural Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Wiebke; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite lacking genetic evidence of a third cone opsin in the retina of any Australian marsupial, most species tested so far appear to be trichromatic. In the light of this, we have re-examined colour vision of the tammar wallaby which had previously been identified as a dichromat. Three different psychophysical tests, based on an operant conditioning paradigm, were used to confirm that colour perception in the wallaby can be predicted and conclusively explained by the existence of only two cone types. Firstly, colour-mixing experiments revealed a Confusion Point between the three primary colours of a LCD monitor that can be predicted by the cone excitation ratio of the short- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones. Secondly, the wavelength discrimination ability in the wallaby, when tested with monochromatic stimuli, was found to be limited to a narrow range between 440 nm and 500 nm. Lastly, an experiment designed to test the wallaby’s ability to discriminate monochromatic lights from a white light provided clear evidence for a Neutral Point around 485 nm where discrimination consistently failed. Relative colour discrimination seemed clearly preferred but it was possible to train a wallaby to perform absolute colour discriminations. The results confirm the tammar wallaby as a dichromat, and so far the only behaviourally confirmed dichromat among the Australian marsupials. PMID:24489742

  2. GNSS as a sea ice sensor - detecting coastal freeze states with ground-based GNSS-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandberg, Joakim; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Based on the idea of using freely available signals for remote sensing, ground-based GNSS-reflectometry (GNSS-R) has found more and more applications in hydrology, oceanography, agriculture and other Earth sciences. GNSS-R is based on analysing the elevation dependent SNR patterns of GNSS signals, and traditionally only the oscillation frequency and phase have been studied to retrieve parameters from the reflecting surfaces. However, recently Strandberg et al. (2016) developed an inversion algorithm that has changed the paradigms of ground-based GNSS-R as it enables direct access to the radiometric properties of the reflector. Using the signal envelope and the rate at which the magnitude of the SNR oscillations are damped w.r.t. satellite elevation, the algorithm retrieves the roughness of the reflector surface amongst other parameters. Based on this idea, we demonstrate for the first time that a GNSS installation situated close to the coastline can detect the presence of sea-ice unambiguously. Using data from the GTGU antenna at the Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden, the time series of the derived damping parameter clearly matches the occurrence of ice in the bay where the antenna is situated. Our results were validated against visual inspection logs as well as with the help of ice charts from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Our method is even sensitive to partial and intermediate ice formation stages, with clear difference in response between frazil ice and both open and solidly frozen water surfaces. As the GTGU installation is entirely built with standard geodetic equipment, the method can be applied directly to any coastal GNSS site, allowing analysis of both new and historical data. One can use the method as an automatic way of retrieving independent ground truth data for ice extent measurements for use in hydrology, cryosphere studies, and even societal interest fields such as sea transportation. Finally, the new method opens up for

  3. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain.

  4. Artificial light at night desynchronizes strictly seasonal reproduction in a wild mammal

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Kylie A.; Lesku, John A.; Partecke, Jesko; Chambers, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Change in day length is an important cue for reproductive activation in seasonally breeding animals to ensure that the timing of greatest maternal investment (e.g. lactation in mammals) coincides with favourable environmental conditions (e.g. peak productivity). However, artificial light at night has the potential to interfere with the perception of such natural cues. Following a 5-year study on two populations of wild marsupial mammals exposed to different night-time levels of anthropogenic light, we show that light pollution in urban environments masks seasonal changes in ambient light cues, suppressing melatonin levels and delaying births in the tammar wallaby. These results highlight a previously unappreciated relationship linking artificial light at night with induced changes in mammalian reproductive physiology, and the potential for larger-scale impacts at the population level. PMID:26423847

  5. Prostate formation in a marsupial is mediated by the testicular androgen 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Renfree, M B; Leihy, M W; Shackleton, C H; Roitman, E; Wilson, J D

    2000-10-24

    Development of the male urogenital tract in mammals is mediated by testicular androgens. It has been tacitly assumed that testosterone acts through its intracellular metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to mediate this process, but levels of these androgens are not sexually dimorphic in plasma at the time of prostate development. Here we show that the 3 alpha-reduced derivative of DHT, 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (5 alpha-adiol), is formed in testes of tammar wallaby pouch young and is higher in male than in female plasma in this species during early sexual differentiation. Administration of 5 alpha-adiol caused formation of prostatic buds in female wallaby pouch young, and in tissue minces of urogenital sinus and urogenital tubercle radioactive 5 alpha-adiol was converted to DHT, suggesting that circulating 5 alpha-adiol acts through DHT in target tissues. We conclude that circulating 5 alpha-adiol is a key hormone in male development.

  6. Sex determining genes and sexual differentiation in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Pask, A; Renfree, M B

    2001-11-01

    The role of genes in the differentiation of the testis and ovary has been extensively studied in the human and the mouse. Despite over a decade of investigations, the precise roles of genes and their interactions in the pathway of sex determination are still unclear. We have chosen to take a comparative look at sex determination and differentiation to gain insights into the evolution and the conserved functions of these genes. To achieve this, we have examined a wide variety of eutherian sex determining genes in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, to determine which genes have a conserved and fundamental mammalian sex determining role. These investigations have provided many unique insights. Here, we review the recent molecular and endocrine investigations into sexual development in marsupials, and highlight how these studies have shed light on the roles of genes and hormones in mammalian sex determination and differentiation.

  7. Changes in milk carbohydrates during lactation in the common brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula (Marsupialia:Phalangeridae).

    PubMed

    Crisp, E A; Cowan, P E; Messer, M

    1989-01-01

    Milk samples (186) were obtained at various stages of lactation from 27 common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). Qualitative and quantitative changes in the milk carbohydrates during early and mid-lactation were similar to those previously seen in other marsupials; the principal carbohydrate was lactose early in lactation and higher oligosaccharides in mid-lactation, and the hexose concentration reached a peak during mid-lactation. However, the late-lactation milk was unusual in that the carbohydrate was mainly lactose and its concentration remained relatively high (3.5 to 5.5%). In contrast to earlier findings on the milk of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), little or no nucleotide pyrophosphatase, beta-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase activities were detected late in lactation.

  8. Comparative modeling of marsupial MHC class I molecules identifies structural polymorphisms affecting functional motifs.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kerry; Church, W Bret; Nicholas, Kevin; Williamson, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins that present antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells and are subsequently important for the initiation of an immune response. In this study novel MHC class I sequences from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) have been characterized. Analysis and comparative modeling of these and existing marsupial molecules reveals potential functional polymorphisms within peptide-binding grooves, MHC assembly motifs and the T cell receptor recognition interface. In addition, we show that a previously identified marsupial-specific insertion is within a region, which is known as a putative NK cell receptor (Ly49A) binding site in the mouse, suggesting that this site may be functionally active in marsupials. Further, the analysis highlighted differences in structural and sequence based grouping of marsupial MHC class I molecules. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Antibodies to the Ross River virus in captive marsupials in urban areas of eastern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples collected from 224 tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) in two captive populations in urban areas in eastern New South Wales Australia, between December 1999 and May 2004, were tested for antibodies to Ross River virus (RRV). In one population in northwest Sydney, 21 animals (11%) tested positive, and in another population in Newcastle, New South Wales, thirteen (33%) of the animals were positive. Antibodies were detected in four of 11 wallaroos (Macropus robustus) (36%) but not in parma wallabies (Macropus parma) (n=5), koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) (n=12) and southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) (n=2) from the Sydney area. These data support the possible role of marsupials as urban amplifying hosts for RRV.

  10. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R.; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch. PMID:23492830

  11. Artificial light at night desynchronizes strictly seasonal reproduction in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Robert, Kylie A; Lesku, John A; Partecke, Jesko; Chambers, Brian

    2015-10-07

    Change in day length is an important cue for reproductive activation in seasonally breeding animals to ensure that the timing of greatest maternal investment (e.g. lactation in mammals) coincides with favourable environmental conditions (e.g. peak productivity). However, artificial light at night has the potential to interfere with the perception of such natural cues. Following a 5-year study on two populations of wild marsupial mammals exposed to different night-time levels of anthropogenic light, we show that light pollution in urban environments masks seasonal changes in ambient light cues, suppressing melatonin levels and delaying births in the tammar wallaby. These results highlight a previously unappreciated relationship linking artificial light at night with induced changes in mammalian reproductive physiology, and the potential for larger-scale impacts at the population level.

  12. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero.

    PubMed

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch.

  13. Sexual differentiation of oestradiol-LH positive feedback in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Rudd, C D; Short, R V; McFarlane, J R; Renfree, M B

    1999-03-01

    The surge of LH that induces ovulation in mammals showing spontaneous ovulation is precipitated by the positive feedback of increasing oestrogens from the developing follicles in the ovary. In eutherians, exogenous oestrogens can mimic this effect by eliciting an LH surge in females, but not usually in males. The absence of a positive LH response to eutherian males is either due to an acute suppression by the secretory products of the testes during adulthood or the permanent disabling of the system by testosterone during early development. This phenomenon is examined in tammar wallabies, Macropus eugenii. The results show that the oestradiol-LH positive feedback response is sexually dimorphic in this marsupial. A surge in plasma LH occurred between 15 and 28 h after injection of 2.5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate kg-1 in 13 of 16 intact females and 4 of 4 ovariectomized females, but in none of 11 intact males. Five females each implanted with a 100 mg testosterone pellet 3 months earlier failed to produce an LH surge. Four males castrated in adulthood and three adult males castrated before puberty also failed to show an LH surge. However, three males castrated 24-26 days after birth showed an unambiguous LH surge when challenged with oestradiol benzoate during adulthood. Thus, in tammar wallabies, the ability to generate an LH surge to oestradiol is a sexually dimorphic response that is suppressed in the male by the organizational effects of the testes in early life and presumably supplemented by an inhibitory effect of circulating testosterone in adulthood.

  14. Kallmann syndrome 1 gene is expressed in the marsupial gonad.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanqiu; Yu, Hongshi; Shaw, Geoff; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2011-03-01

    Kallmann syndrome is characterized by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and anosmia. The syndrome can be caused by mutations in several genes, but the X-linked form is caused by mutation in the Kallmann syndrome 1 (KAL1). KAL1 plays a critical role in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal migration that is essential for the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Interestingly, KAL1 appears to be missing from the rodent X, and no orthologue has been detected as yet. We investigated KAL1 during development and in adults of an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Marsupial KAL1 maps to an autosome within a group of genes that was added as a block to the X chromosome in eutherian evolution. KAL1 expression was widespread in embryonic and adult tissues. In the adult testis, tammar KAL1 mRNA and protein were detected in the germ cells at specific stages of differentiation. In the adult testis, the protein encoded by KAL1, anosmin-1, was restricted to the round spermatids and elongated spermatids. In the adult ovary, anosmin-1 was not only detected in the oocytes but was also localized in the granulosa cells throughout folliculogenesis. This is the first examination of KAL1 mRNA and protein localization in adult mammalian gonads. The protein localization suggests that KAL1 participates in gametogenesis not only through the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by activation of GnRH neuronal migration, but also directly within the gonads themselves. Because KAL1 is autosomal in marsupials but is X-linked in eutherians, its conserved involvement in gametogenesis supports the hypothesis that reproduction-related genes were actively recruited to the eutherian X chromosome.

  15. Distribution of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide in mature and developing marsupial brain.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S; Mai, J K

    2010-01-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a neuromodulator involved in feeding, drug reward, stress and cardiovascular function. We have immunohistochemically studied the distribution of the CART peptide in the brains of two adult marsupial species: the brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii) as a representative of polyprotodont marsupials and the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a representative of diprotodont marsupials. We have also examined the distribution of CART during postnatal development in the tammar wallaby. There were similarities and differences both between the two marsupial species and between the marsupials and eutherians in CART distribution. Both marsupials showed immunoreactivity to CART in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, extended amygdala, the supraoptic, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, somatosensory and auditory nuclei of the brainstem, vagal/solitary complex, raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus and presumptive presympathetic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla, as has been seen in eutherians. On the other hand, immunoreactivity to CART was weak in or absent from isocortical areas, and immunoreactivity to CART was poor or minimal in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of both species; regions where immunoreactivity to CART is very strong in the brains of eutherians. During development, CART was present at birth (P0) in the lateral trigeminal ganglion, spinal trigeminal tract and the vagal sensorimotor complex, but did not appear in mid- or forebrain regions until much later (from P37). These anatomical findings indicate that although CART is likely to serve very similar functions in both eutherians and marsupials, there are potentially functionally significant differences between the two mammalian groups.

  16. Desert hedgehog is a mammal-specific gene expressed during testicular and ovarian development in a marsupial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Desert hedgehog (DHH) belongs to the hedgehog gene family that act as secreted intercellular signal transducers. DHH is an essential morphogen for normal testicular development and function in both mice and humans but is not present in the avian lineage. Like other hedgehog proteins, DHH signals through the patched (PTCH) receptors 1 and 2. Here we examine the expression and protein distribution of DHH, PTCH1 and PTCH2 in the developing testes of a marsupial mammal (the tammar wallaby) to determine whether DHH signalling is a conserved factor in gonadal development in all therian mammals. Results DHH, PTCH1 and PTCH2 were present in the marsupial genome and highly conserved with their eutherian orthologues. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that DHH has recently evolved and is a mammal-specific hedgehog orthologue. The marsupial PTCH2 receptor had an additional exon (exon 21a) not annotated in eutherian PTCH2 proteins. Interestingly we found evidence of this exon in humans and show that its translation would result in a truncated protein with functions similar to PTCH1. We also show that DHH expression was not restricted to the testes during gonadal development (as in mice), but was also expressed in the developing ovary. Expression of DHH, PTCH1 and PTCH2 in the adult tammar testis and ovary was consistent with findings in the adult mouse. Conclusions These data suggest that there is a highly conserved role for DHH signalling in the differentiation and function of the mammalian testis and that DHH may be necessary for marsupial ovarian development. The receptors PTCH1 and PTCH2 are highly conserved mediators of hedgehog signalling in both the developing and adult marsupial gonads. Together these findings indicate DHH is an essential therian mammal-specific morphogen in gonadal development and gametogenesis. PMID:22132805

  17. Acid-base balance in the developing marsupial: from ectotherm to endotherm.

    PubMed

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Cummings, Kevin J; Frappell, Peter B

    2014-05-01

    Marsupial joeys are born ectothermic and develop endothermy within their mother's thermally stable pouch. We hypothesized that Tammar wallaby joeys would switch from α-stat to pH-stat regulation during the transition from ectothermy to endothermy. To address this, we compared ventilation (Ve), metabolic rate (Vo2), and variables relevant to blood gas and acid-base regulation and oxygen transport including the ventilatory requirements (Ve/Vo2 and Ve/Vco2), partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2), carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pHa, and oxygen content (CaO2) during progressive hypothermia in ecto- and endothermic Tammar wallabies. We also measured the same variables in the well-studied endotherm, the Sprague-Dawley rat. Hypothermia was induced in unrestrained, unanesthetized joeys and rats by progressively dropping the ambient temperature (Ta). Rats were additionally exposed to helox (80% helium, 20% oxygen) to facilitate heat loss. Respiratory, metabolic, and blood-gas variables were measured over a large body temperature (Tb) range (∼15-16°C in both species). Ectothermic joeys displayed limited thermogenic ability during cooling: after an initial plateau, Vo2 decreased with the progressive drop in Tb. The Tb of endothermic joeys and rats fell despite Vo2 nearly doubling with the initiation of cold stress. In all three groups the changes in Vo2 were met by changes in Ve, resulting in constant Ve/Vo2 and Ve/Vco2, blood gases, and pHa. Thus, although thermogenic capability was nearly absent in ectothermic joeys, blood acid-base regulation was similar to endothermic joeys and rats. This suggests that unlike some reptiles, unanesthetized mammals protect arterial blood pH with changing Tb, irrespective of their thermogenic ability and/or stage of development.

  18. Early onset of ghrelin production in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Fletcher, Terry P; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2009-02-27

    Ghrelin regulates appetite in mammals and can stimulate growth hormone (GH) release from the pituitary. In rats and humans, ghrelin cells appear in the stomach during late fetal life. Nevertheless, the role of ghrelin in early mammalian development is not well understood. Marsupials deliver highly altricial young that weigh less than 1g so they must feed and digest milk at a comparatively immature stage of development. Since they complete their growth and differentiation while in the pouch, they are accessible models in which to determine the time course of ghrelin production during development. We examined the distribution of gastric ghrelin cells, plasma ghrelin concentrations and pituitary expression of the ghrelin receptor (ghsr-1alpha) and GH in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. There were ghrelin immunopositive cells in the developing mesenchyme of the stomach from day 10 post partum (pp) to day 150pp. Subsequently ghrelin protein in the fore-stomach declined and was absent by day 250pp but remained in the gastric cells of the hind-stomach. Ghrelin was detected in the developing pancreas from day 10pp but was absent by day 150pp and in the adult. Pituitary ghsr-1alpha expression and plasma concentrations of ghrelin increased significantly up to day 70-120pp while GH expression was also elevated, declining with GH to reach adult levels by day 180pp. These results demonstrate an early onset of gastric ghrelin expression in the tammar in concert with a functional stomach at a relatively earlier stage than that of developmentally more mature eutherian young.

  19. Molecular evolution of monotreme and marsupial whey acidic protein genes.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Lefèvre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP), a major whey protein present in milk of a number of mammalian species has characteristic cysteine-rich domains known as four-disulfide cores (4-DSC). Eutherian WAP, expressed in the mammary gland throughout lactation, has two 4-DSC domains, (DI-DII) whereas marsupial WAP, expressed only during mid-late lactation, contains an additional 4-DSC (DIII), and has a DIII-D1-DII configuration. We report the expression and evolution of echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and platypus (Onithorhynchus anatinus) WAP cDNAs. Predicted translation of monotreme cDNAs showed echidna WAP contains two 4-DSC domains corresponding to DIII-DII, whereas platypus WAP contains an additional domain at the C-terminus with homology to DII and has the configuration DIII-DII-DII. Both monotreme WAPs represent new WAP protein configurations. We propose models for evolution of the WAP gene in the mammalian lineage either through exon loss from an ancient ancestor or by rapid evolution via the process of exon shuffling. This evolutionary outcome may reflect differences in lactation strategy between marsupials, monotremes, and eutherians, and give insight to biological function of the gene products. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (WFDC2) proteins were also identified in echidna, platypus and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) lactating mammary cells. WFDC2 proteins are secreted proteins not previously associated with lactation. Mammary gland expression of tammar WFDC2 during the course of lactation showed WFDC2 was elevated during pregnancy, reduced in early lactation and absent in mid-late lactation.

  20. Formation of 5alpha-reduced androgens in the testes and urogenital tract of the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jean D; Renfree, Marilyn B; Auchus, Richard J; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Testicular 5alpha-reduced androgens, largely 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (androstanediol), are responsible for virilisation of pouch young in one marsupial (the tammar wallaby), but are not formed until later in development in another marsupial (the brushtail possum) and in rodents. Because the mechanism of virilisation of the urogenital tract in the grey short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica has never been defined, androgen formation and metabolism were investigated in this species. Testis fragments from grey short-tailed opossums of a wide range of ages were incubated with [3H]-progesterone and the metabolites were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The only 19-carbon metabolites identified in the youngest ages (5-26 days) and the major metabolites in adult testes were testosterone and androstenedione. At 30, 42 and 49 days of age, dihydrotestosterone and small amounts of androstanediol were present. Time-sequence studies indicated that dihydrotestosterone and androstanediol were formed from the 5alpha-reduction (and 3-keto reduction) of testosterone. In a second series of experiments, tissue fragments of a variety of urogenital tract tissues were incubated with [3H]-testosterone and the metabolites separated by HPLC. During the interval in which male urogenital tract differentiation takes place in this species (between Days 15 and 28), the major metabolite identified was dihydrotestosterone. We conclude that the timing of 5alpha-reductase expression in the testes of the grey short-tailed possum resembles that of rodents and the brushtail possum rather than that of the tammar wallaby and that dihydrotestosterone is probably the intracellular androgen responsible for virilisation of the urogenital tract in this species.

  1. Reconstruction of the ancestral marsupial karyotype from comparative gene maps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing number of assembled mammalian genomes makes it possible to compare genome organisation across mammalian lineages and reconstruct chromosomes of the ancestral marsupial and therian (marsupial and eutherian) mammals. However, the reconstruction of ancestral genomes requires genome assemblies to be anchored to chromosomes. The recently sequenced tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) genome was assembled into over 300,000 contigs. We previously devised an efficient strategy for mapping large evolutionarily conserved blocks in non-model mammals, and applied this to determine the arrangement of conserved blocks on all wallaby chromosomes, thereby permitting comparative maps to be constructed and resolve the long debated issue between a 2n = 14 and 2n = 22 ancestral marsupial karyotype. Results We identified large blocks of genes conserved between human and opossum, and mapped genes corresponding to the ends of these blocks by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A total of 242 genes was assigned to wallaby chromosomes in the present study, bringing the total number of genes mapped to 554 and making it the most densely cytogenetically mapped marsupial genome. We used these gene assignments to construct comparative maps between wallaby and opossum, which uncovered many intrachromosomal rearrangements, particularly for genes found on wallaby chromosomes X and 3. Expanding comparisons to include chicken and human permitted the putative ancestral marsupial (2n = 14) and therian mammal (2n = 19) karyotypes to be reconstructed. Conclusions Our physical mapping data for the tammar wallaby has uncovered the events shaping marsupial genomes and enabled us to predict the ancestral marsupial karyotype, supporting a 2n = 14 ancestor. Futhermore, our predicted therian ancestral karyotype has helped to understand the evolution of the ancestral eutherian genome. PMID:24261750

  2. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and skin: Clinical manifestations, histopathology, pathomechanism, perspectives of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Barbara; Bobyr, Ivan; Campanati, Anna; Molinelli, Elisa; Consales, Veronica; Brisigotti, Valerio; Scarpelli, Marina; Racchini, Stefano; Offidani, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pseudoxantoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Groenblad-Strandberg syndrome, is a rare heritable disease with an estimated prevalence of 1:50,000 in the general population. PXE is considered a prototype of multisystem ectopic mineralization disorders and it is characterized by aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissue with degeneration of the elastic fibers, involving primarily the eyes, the cardiovascular system, and the skin. Cutaneous lesions consist of small, asymptomatic, yellowish papules or larger coalescent plaques, typically located on the neck and the flexural areas. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6) gene that encodes a transmembrane ATP binding efflux transporter, normally expressed in the liver and the kidney; however, the exact mechanism of ectopic mineralization remains largely unknown. The histological examination of cutaneous lesions, revealing accumulation of pleomorphic elastic structures in middermis, is essential for the definitive diagnosis of PXE, excluding PXE-like conditions. PXE is currently an intractable disease; although the cutaneous findings primarily present a cosmetic problem, they signify the risk for development of ocular and cardiovascular complications associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of this rare form of hereditary connective tissue disorders, focus on the pathogenesis, the clinical manifestation, and the differential diagnosis of PXE. Emphasis is also placed on the management of cutaneous lesions and treatment perspectives of PXE. PMID:26361562

  3. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and skin: Clinical manifestations, histopathology, pathomechanism, perspectives of treatment.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Barbara; Bobyr, Ivan; Campanati, Anna; Molinelli, Elisa; Consales, Veronica; Brisigotti, Valerio; Scarpelli, Marina; Racchini, Stefano; Offidani, Annamaria

    2015-08-01

    Pseudoxantoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Groenblad-Strandberg syndrome, is a rare heritable disease with an estimated prevalence of 1:50,000 in the general population. PXE is considered a prototype of multisystem ectopic mineralization disorders and it is characterized by aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissue with degeneration of the elastic fibers, involving primarily the eyes, the cardiovascular system, and the skin. Cutaneous lesions consist of small, asymptomatic, yellowish papules or larger coalescent plaques, typically located on the neck and the flexural areas. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6) gene that encodes a transmembrane ATP binding efflux transporter, normally expressed in the liver and the kidney; however, the exact mechanism of ectopic mineralization remains largely unknown. The histological examination of cutaneous lesions, revealing accumulation of pleomorphic elastic structures in middermis, is essential for the definitive diagnosis of PXE, excluding PXE-like conditions. PXE is currently an intractable disease; although the cutaneous findings primarily present a cosmetic problem, they signify the risk for development of ocular and cardiovascular complications associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of this rare form of hereditary connective tissue disorders, focus on the pathogenesis, the clinical manifestation, and the differential diagnosis of PXE. Emphasis is also placed on the management of cutaneous lesions and treatment perspectives of PXE.

  4. General Aviation Pilots Over 70 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Asmayawati, Saryani; Budowle, Bruce; Griffiths, Robin; Strandberg, Timo; Kuoppala, Jaana; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-02-01

    Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilots. Accident rates, medical parameters, autopsy findings, and toxicological findings from the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) general aviation (GA) accident database were analyzed to assess potential risk factors with accident outcomes. During 2003-2012, there were 114 (113 men, 1 woman) general aviation fatal accidents involving pilots ages 70 to 92 yr. A combination of 3 or more drugs were found in 13 (13%) of deceased pilots. The most frequent drugs were first generation antihistamines and antidepressants represented the next highest proportion of possible performance-affecting medications. This study indicates that there are critical medical factors that may contribute to fatal accidents among elderly pilots. Polypharmacy use should be taken into consideration, especially during periodic health examinations and fatal aviation investigations involving elderly pilots.Vuorio A, Asmayawati S, Budowle B, Griffiths R, Strandberg T, Kuoppala J, Sajantila A. General aviation pilots over 70 years old. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):142-145.

  5. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Rino; Nakamura, Tadashi; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Previous structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides had been performed in only two macropod species, the tammar wallaby and the red kangaroo. To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupial species, which could provide information on their evolution, the oligosaccharides of the koala milk carbohydrate fraction were characterized in this study. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were separated from the carbohydrate fraction of milk of the koala, a non-macropod marsupial, and characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the neutral saccharides were found to be Gal(β1-4)Glc (lactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3',3″-digalactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I) and Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (fucosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I), while those of the acidic saccharides were Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-SL), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Gal (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose b), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose c), and Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (fucosyl sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a). The neutral oligosaccharides, other than fucosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I, a novel hexasaccharide, had been found in milk of the tammar wallaby, a macropod marsupial, while the acidic oligosaccharides, other than fucosyl sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a had been identified in milk carbohydrate of the red kangaroo. The presence of fucosyl oligosaccharides is a significant feature of koala milk, in which it differs from milk of the tammar wallaby and the red kangaroo.

  6. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  7. Quantitative land-cover change in space and time over the last 11 000 years in the Baltic Sea catchment area and Norway - implications for studies on vegetation-climate interactions and land-use as a forcing of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trondman, Anna-Kari; Gaillard, Marie-José; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Shinya, Sugita; John, Birks; Anne, Bjune; Mihkel, Kangur; Per, Lagerås; Malgorzata, Latalowa; Matts, Lindbladh; Anneli, Poska; Siim, Veski

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of the effect of human-induced land-cover change (land-use) on climate in the past is still a subject of debate. Although we know that both biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes between the land surface and the atmosphere due to anthropogenic land-cover change lead to significant effects on climate, we still know little on the net effect of both types of processes. For instance climate modelling studies have shown that the extent of deforestation in Europe between 6k and 0.2k - as proposed by the KK scenarios of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change (ALCC) of Kaplan et al (2009) - has either warming or cooling biogeophysical effects on the geographical location (Strandberg et al., 2014). Further progress in our understanding of the effects of land-use change on climate greatly depends on the availability of reliable, empirical data on past land-use changes in quantitative terms. We present here pollen-based estimates of regional vegetation cover over the Holocene in the catchment of the Baltic Sea and in Norway. The regional abundance of individual plant species, genus, and groups of taxa were estimated at a 0.5k - to 0.1k - calender year time resolution using 339 pollen records and the REVEALS model (Sugita, 2007). Although there are very large differences between pollen percentages and REVEALS estimates of plant cover in terms of percentage values, the general trends in relative changes of the large landscape units (coniferous trees, deciduous trees, and open land) over time are comparable between the two. However, the ages obtained for the establishment of all tree taxa using a "REVEALS estimate threshold" of 1% are almost all older (by 0.5k years or more) than the ages inferred earlier from pollen percentages, and the times of maximum abundances of the tree taxa, as well as the relationships trees/openland and coniferous/deciduous are different between pollen percentages and plant cover. The pollen-based REVEALS cover of open land confirms the

  8. Troposphere delays from ground-based GNSS-R - self-calibration and new possibilites for atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Strandberg, Joakim; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Ground-based GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) has been proven to be a useful tool for a variety of geophysical applications. In particular, the fact that in most cases existing GNSS sites can be used for reflectometry purposes makes this concept very appealing. Successful ground-based GNSS-R applications include sea-level monitoring, soil moisture , snow or vegetation. By a recent approach by Strandberg et al. (2016) it was demonstrated that it is feasible to carry out rigorous inverse modeling of signal to noise ratio (SNR) data in order to improve the retrieved parameters concerning accuracy and precision. Based on the concept of inverse modelling, as we discuss in this paper, it can be shown that it is possible to account for troposphere delays by means of self-calibration which means that target parameters will not be biased by unmodeled atmosphere excess path delays. This implies that also troposphere delay information can be deduced from the SNR pattern that is related to multi-path interference. Thus, we can access troposphere information related to domains which are below the antenna and laterally offset and thus are not sensed with classical GNSS applications. In order to motivate this new concept, we will discuss the idea of troposphere self-calibration in GNSS-R processing and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach concerning accuracy and precision of the target parameters. It will be shown how troposphere contributions need to be considered in inverse modeling and a thorough interpretation of the obtained troposphere parameters will be given. We will also provide an outlook concerning the question how and to which extent ground-based GNSS-R observations could contribute to atmosphere research and which novel applications could emerge.

  9. Chapter 1: building the ground for the first two protein structures: myoglobin and haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Bror

    2009-09-11

    Fifty years ago, Max Perutz and John Kendrew at Cambridge University achieved something that many people at the time considered impossible: they were the first to use x-ray crystallography to decipher the molecular structures of proteins: haemoglobin and myoglobin. They found that both molecules were built from Linus Pauling's alpha helices, but folded and packed together in a complicated manner that never could have been deciphered by any other technique.With structure information in hand they could then explain how haemoglobin in the bloodstream binds and releases oxygen on cue, how it passes its cargo on to the related storage protein myoglobin, and how a single amino acid mutation can produce the catastrophe known as sickle-cell anemia. Perutz and Kendrew also observed that the folding of helices was identical in myoglobin and the two chains of haemoglobin, and this along with the simultaneously evolving new technique of amino acid sequence analysis established for the first time the concept of molecular evolution. The crystallographic puzzle was "cracked" by Perutz when he demonstrated that the binding of only two heavy metal atoms to horse haemoglobin changed the x-ray pattern enough to allow him to solve the "phase problem" and circumvent the main obstacle to protein crystal structure analysis. Because myoglobin has a single chain whereas haemoglobin has four, Kendrew's work with myoglobin progressed more rapidly; a low resolution structure appeared in 1956 and the high resolution structure in 1959. That same year saw the low resolution picture of haemoglobin, and the high resolution structure followed shortly thereafter. Much of the work in structure analysis was carried out by visiting postdoctoral fellows and technicians, under the watchful eye of Perutz and Kendrew. This celebratory review has been written by three of those former postdoctorals: Strandberg and Dickerson from the myoglobin project, and Rossmann from the haemoglobin.

  10. Influence of pH and organic ligands on the supramolecular network based on molybdenum phosphate/strontium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Zhou, Bai-Bin; Yu, Yang; Su, Zhan-Hua; Wang, Hai-yan; Wang, Chun-mei; Wang, Chun-xiao

    2012-09-07

    Three supramolecular materials based on different poly(oxomolybdophosphate) clusters, (H(2)imi)(6)(Himi)(4)[{Sr(H(2)O)(4)}(2){Sr ⊂ P(6)Mo(4)(V)Mo(14)(VI)O(73)}(2)]·17H(2)O (1), (H(2)(4,4'-bpy))(2)[Cu(2)Sr(2)Mo(12)O(24)·(OH)(6)(H(2)O)(6)(H(2)PO(4))(2)(HPO(4))(2)(PO(4))(4)]·5H(2)O (2), and (H(2)bim)(H(2)bim)[SrP(2)Mo(5)O(23)(H(2)O)(3)]·2H(2)O (3) (imi = imidazole, 4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, and bim = 2,2'-biimidazole), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV-vis, XPS and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is made up of unusual basket-shape [Sr ⊂ P(6)Mo(18)O(73)](10-) cages linked by [Sr(H(2)O)(4)](2+) fragments to yield unprecedented dimeric chains, which represent the first 1-D assemblies of basket-type POMs. Compound 2 exhibits a novel string constructed from sandwich-like [Cu(P(4)Mo(6)O(31))(2)] units and {Sr(2)Cu} trinuclear linkers. Compound 3 is the first chain of Strandberg-type polyoxoanions connected by Sr(2+) cations. All the 1-D chains are further packed into various 3-D supramolecular assemblies via strong hydrogen-bonding interactions. The electrochemical and electrocatalysis behavior of 1, 2, and 3-CPE have been investigated in detail.

  11. Early cell lineage specification in a marsupial: a case for diverse mechanisms among mammals.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Stephen; Shaw, Geoff; Freyer, Claudia; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-03-01

    Early cell lineage specification in eutherian mammals results in the formation of a pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast. By contrast, marsupials have no ICM. Here, we present the first molecular analysis of mechanisms of early cell lineage specification in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby. There was no overt differential localisation of key lineage-specific transcription factors in cleavage and early unilaminar blastocyst stages. Pluriblast cells (equivalent to the ICM) became distinguishable from trophoblast cells by differential expression of POU5F1 and, to a greater extent, POU2, a paralogue of POU5F1. Unlike in the mouse, pluriblast-trophoblast differentiation coincided with a global nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transition of CDX2 localisation. Also unlike in the mouse, Hippo pathway factors YAP and WWTR1 showed mutually distinct localisation patterns that suggest non-redundant roles. NANOG and GATA6 were conserved as markers of epiblast and hypoblast, respectively, but some differences to the mouse were found in their mode of differentiation. Our results suggest that there is considerable evolutionary plasticity in the mechanisms regulating early lineage specification in mammals.

  12. Diversity of Color Vision: Not All Australian Marsupials Are Trichromatic

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Wiebke; Natoli, Riccardo C.; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    Color vision in marsupials has recently emerged as a particularly interesting case among mammals. It appears that there are both dichromats and trichromats among closely related species. In contrast to primates, marsupials seem to have evolved a different type of trichromacy that is not linked to the X-chromosome. Based on microspectrophotometry and retinal whole-mount immunohistochemistry, four trichromatic marsupial species have been described: quokka, quenda, honey possum, and fat-tailed dunnart. It has, however, been impossible to identify the photopigment of the third cone type, and genetically, all evidence so far suggests that all marsupials are dichromatic. The tammar wallaby is the only Australian marsupial to date for which there is no evidence of a third cone type. To clarify whether the wallaby is indeed a dichromat or trichromatic like other Australian marsupials, we analyzed the number of cone types in the “dichromatic” wallaby and the “trichromatic” dunnart. Employing identical immunohistochemical protocols, we confirmed that the wallaby has only two cone types, whereas 20–25% of cones remained unlabeled by S- and LM-opsin antibodies in the dunnart retina. In addition, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the rod photopigment (rod opsin) is expressed in cones which would have explained the absence of a third cone opsin gene. Our study is the first comprehensive and quantitative account of color vision in Australian marsupials where we now know that an unexpected diversity of different color vision systems appears to have evolved. PMID:21151905

  13. The candidate sex-reversing DAX1 gene is autosomal in marsupials: implications for the evolution of sex determination in mammals.

    PubMed

    Pask, A; Toder, R; Wilcox, S A; Camerino, G; Graves, J A

    1997-05-01

    The human X-linked DAX1 gene was cloned from the region of the short arm of the human X found in duplicate in sex-reversed Xdup Y females (E. Zanaria et al., 1994, Nature 372: 635-641). DAX1 is suggested to be required for ovarian differentiation and to play an important role in mammalian sex determination or differentiation pathways. Its proposed dose-dependent effect on sexual development suggests that DAX1 could represent an evolutionary link with an ancestral sex-determining mechanism that depended on the dosage of an X-linked gene. Furthermore, DAX1 could also represent the putative X-linked switch gene, which independently controls sexual dimorphisms in marsupial mammals in an X-dose-dependent manner (D.W. Cooper et al., 1993, Semin. Dev. 4: 117-128). If DAX1 has a present role in marsupial sexual differentiation or had an ancestral role in mammalian sex determination, it would be expected to lie on the marsupial X chromosome, despite the autosomal localization of other human Xp genes. We therefore cloned and mapped the DAX1 gene in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). DAX1 was located on wallaby chromosome 5p near other human Xp genes, indicating that it was originally autosomal and that it is not involved in X-linked dose-dependent sex determination in an ancestral mammal nor in marsupial sexual differentiation.

  14. Backdoor pathway for dihydrotestosterone biosynthesis: implications for normal and abnormal human sex development.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Maki; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-04-01

    We review the current knowledge about the "backdoor" pathway for the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). While DHT is produced from cholesterol through the conventional "frontdoor" pathway via testosterone, recent studies have provided compelling evidence for the presence of an alternative "backdoor" pathway to DHT without testosterone intermediacy. This backdoor pathway is known to exist in the tammar wallaby pouch young testis and the immature mouse testis, and has been suggested to be present in the human as well. Indeed, molecular analysis has identified pathologic mutations of genes involved in the backdoor pathway in genetic male patients with undermasculinized external genitalia, and urine steroid profile analysis has argued for the relevance of the activated backdoor pathway to abnormal virilization in genetic females with cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and 21-hydroxylase deficiency. It is likely that the backdoor pathway is primarily operating in the fetal testis in a physiological condition to produce a sufficient amount of DHT for male sex development, and that the backdoor pathway is driven with a possible interaction between fetal and permanent adrenals in pathologic conditions with increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. These findings provide novel insights into androgen biosynthesis in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Expression of DMRT1 in the mammalian ovary and testis--from marsupials to mice.

    PubMed

    Pask, A J; Behringer, R R; Renfree, M B

    2003-01-01

    Doublesex and mab3 related transcript (DMRT1) was identified as a candidate gene for human 9p24.3 associated sex reversal. DMRT1 orthologues have highly conserved roles in sexual differentiation from flies and worms to humans. A DMRT1 orthologue was isolated from a marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii. The wallaby gene is highly conserved with other vertebrate DMRT1 genes, especially within the P/S and DM domains. It is expressed in the differentiating testis from the late fetus, during pouch life and in the adult. As in eutherian mammals, DMRT1 protein was localized in the germ cells and the Sertoli cells of the testis, but in addition it was detected in the Leydig cells, peri-tubular myoid cells and within the acrosome of the sperm heads. DMRT1 protein was also detected in the fetal and adult ovary pre-granulosa, granulosa and germ cells. Similarly, we also detected DMRT1 in the granulosa cells of all developing follicles in the adult mouse ovary. This is the first report of DMRT1 expression in the adult mammalian ovary, and suggests a wider role for this gene in mammals, in both the testis and ovarian function.

  16. Marsupial Genome Sequences: Providing Insight into Evolution and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deakin, Janine E.

    2012-01-01

    Marsupials (metatherians), with their position in vertebrate phylogeny and their unique biological features, have been studied for many years by a dedicated group of researchers, but it has only been since the sequencing of the first marsupial genome that their value has been more widely recognised. We now have genome sequences for three distantly related marsupial species (the grey short-tailed opossum, the tammar wallaby, and Tasmanian devil), with the promise of many more genomes to be sequenced in the near future, making this a particularly exciting time in marsupial genomics. The emergence of a transmissible cancer, which is obliterating the Tasmanian devil population, has increased the importance of obtaining and analysing marsupial genome sequence for understanding such diseases as well as for conservation efforts. In addition, these genome sequences have facilitated studies aimed at answering questions regarding gene and genome evolution and provided insight into the evolution of epigenetic mechanisms. Here I highlight the major advances in our understanding of evolution and disease, facilitated by marsupial genome projects, and speculate on the future contributions to be made by such sequences. PMID:24278712

  17. A dual role for SHH during phallus development in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Chew, K Y; Pask, A J; Hickford, D; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian phallus arises from identical primordia in both sexes and is patterned in part by the key morphogen Sonic hedgehog (SHH). We have investigated SHH and other morphogens during phallus development in the tammar wallaby. In this marsupial, testis differentiation and androgen production occurs just after birth, but it takes a further 50-60 days before the phallus becomes sexually dimorphic. One day before birth, SHH was expressed in both sexes in the urethral epithelium. In males, there was a marked upregulation of SHH, GLI2, and AR at day 50 postpartum, a time when testicular androgen production falls. SHH, GLI2, and AR were downregulated in female pouch young treated with androstanediol from days 24-50, but not when treatments were begun at day 29, suggesting an early window of androgen sensitivity. SHH, GLI2, and AR expression in the phallus of males castrated at day 23 did not differ from controls, but there was an increase in SHH and GLI2 and a decrease in FGF8 and BMP4 expression when the animals were castrated at day 29. These results suggest that the early patterning by SHH is androgen-independent followed by an androgen-dependent window of sensitivity and a sharp rise in SHH expression after androgen withdrawal at day 50.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of three lipocalin-like proteins present in the milk of Trichosurus vulpecula (Phalangeridae, Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    Piotte, C P; Hunter, A K; Marshall, C J; Grigor, M R

    1998-03-01

    Three proteins have been identified in the milk of the common brush tail possum. Trichosurus vulpecula that from sequence analysis are members of the lipocalin family. They include beta-lactoglobulin, which appears to have two forms; a homologue to the late-lactation protein found in tammar, Macropus eugenii; milk; and a novel protein termed trichosurin. Whereas beta-lactoglobulin and trichosurin are both expressed throughout lactation, the late-lactation protein is not detected in samples taken before days 100-110 of lactation. The cDNAs encoding each of these proteins have been isolated from cDNA libraries prepared using possum mammary mRNA and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. vulpecula beta-lactoglobulin, along with two other macropod beta-lactoglobulins, forms a subclass of beta-lactoglobulins distinct from those for eutherian mammals; both marsupial late-lactation proteins appear to have similarities to a family of odorant-binding proteins, whereas trichosurin has similarities to the major urinary proteins of rodents.

  19. Collision-based mechanics of bipedal hopping.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Anne K; Lee, David V; McGowan, Craig P

    2013-08-23

    The muscle work required to sustain steady-speed locomotion depends largely upon the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass and the degree to which this energy can be stored and returned elastically. Previous studies have found that large bipedal hoppers can elastically store and return a large fraction of the energy required to hop, whereas small bipedal hoppers can only elastically store and return a relatively small fraction. Here, we consider the extent to which large and small bipedal hoppers (tammar wallabies, approx. 7 kg, and desert kangaroo rats, approx. 0.1 kg) reduce the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass by reducing collisions. We hypothesize that kangaroo rats will reduce collisions to a greater extent than wallabies since kangaroo rats cannot elastically store and return as high a fraction of the mechanical energy of hopping as wallabies. We find that kangaroo rats use a significantly smaller collision angle than wallabies by employing ground reaction force vectors that are more vertical and center of mass velocity vectors that are more horizontal and thereby reduce their mechanical cost of transport. A collision-based approach paired with tendon morphometry may reveal this effect more generally among bipedal runners and quadrupedal trotters.

  20. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home.

  1. Collision-based mechanics of bipedal hopping

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Anne K.; Lee, David V.; McGowan, Craig P.

    2013-01-01

    The muscle work required to sustain steady-speed locomotion depends largely upon the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass and the degree to which this energy can be stored and returned elastically. Previous studies have found that large bipedal hoppers can elastically store and return a large fraction of the energy required to hop, whereas small bipedal hoppers can only elastically store and return a relatively small fraction. Here, we consider the extent to which large and small bipedal hoppers (tammar wallabies, approx. 7 kg, and desert kangaroo rats, approx. 0.1 kg) reduce the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass by reducing collisions. We hypothesize that kangaroo rats will reduce collisions to a greater extent than wallabies since kangaroo rats cannot elastically store and return as high a fraction of the mechanical energy of hopping as wallabies. We find that kangaroo rats use a significantly smaller collision angle than wallabies by employing ground reaction force vectors that are more vertical and center of mass velocity vectors that are more horizontal and thereby reduce their mechanical cost of transport. A collision-based approach paired with tendon morphometry may reveal this effect more generally among bipedal runners and quadrupedal trotters. PMID:23843217

  2. A centromere-specific retroviral element associated with breaks of synteny in macropodine marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, G C; Marzelli, M; Rens, W; O'Neill, R J

    2004-01-01

    Studies of chromosome evolution have focused heavily on the evolution of conserved syntenic, gene-rich domains. It is obvious, however, that the centromere plays an equally important role in chromosome evolution, through its involvement in fissions, centric fusions, translocations, inversions and centric shifts. It is unclear how the centromere, either as a functioning unit of the chromosome or as a DNA sequence motif, has been involved in these processes. Marsupials of the family Macropodidae (kangaroos, wallabies, rat kangaroos and potoroos) offer unique insights into current theories expositing centromere emergence during karyotypic diversification and speciation. Tracing the genomic distribution of centromeric sequences in a model macropodine (subfamily Macropodinae: kangaroos and wallabies) species, Macropus eugenii (tammar wallaby), indicates these sequences have played an important role in chromosome evolution through possible segmental duplications associated with phylogenetically conserved breaks of synteny, pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. Hybrids between different kangaroo species provide evidence that the centromere is unstable within this group of mammals and is involved in a large number of chromosome aberrations. A better understanding of the genetic and epigenetic factors that define centromeres and how centromeres may mediate changes in chromosome architecture are critical not only to our understanding of basic cellular functioning but also to our understanding of the process of speciation. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Comparative analysis of ATRX, a chromatin remodeling protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Daniel J; Pask, Andrew J; Huynh, Kim; Renfree, Marilyn B; Harley, Vincent R; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2004-09-15

    The ATRX protein, associated with X-linked alpha-thalassaemia, mental retardation and developmental abnormalities including genital dysgenesis, has been proposed to function as a global transcriptional regulator within a multi-protein complex. However, an understanding of the composition and mechanics of this machinery has remained elusive. We applied inter-specific comparative analysis to identify conserved elements which may be involved in regulating the conformation of chromatin. As part of this study, we cloned and sequenced the entire translatable coding region (7.4 kb) of the ATRX gene from a model marsupial (tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii). We identify an ATRX ancestral core, conserved between plants, fish and mammals, comprising the cysteine-rich and SWI2/SNF2 helicase-like regions and protein interaction domains. Our data are consistent with the model of the cysteine-rich region as a DNA-binding zinc finger adjacent to a protein-binding (plant homeodomain-like) domain. Alignment of vertebrate ATRX sequences highlights other conserved elements, including a negatively charged mammalian sequence which we propose to be involved in binding of positively charged histone tails.

  4. Plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant female rat-kangaroo (Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Rose, R W

    1992-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels were measured in female bettongs (small macropodid marsupials) under two natural regimes: (1) during "delayed" gestation (initiated by removal of pouch young, RPY) and (2) during the pregnancy prior to pouch vacation when a young still occupies the pouch (i.e., during lactation). Basal levels of progesterone were 0.15-0.5 ng/ml. There was a transient peak of progesterone (0.7 ng/ml) early in gestation at Day 4 RPY. After Day 6 RPY, progesterone levels remained elevated (1.2-1.5 ng/ml) until they dropped sharply to basal levels on the day of birth. This pattern of progesterone secretion during delayed gestation is similar to that seen in other marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby. There was no significant difference between the progesterone profiles of the two experimental groups. We deduce, then, that lactation had no effect on corpus luteum function (as assessed by plasma progesterone levels) in the pregnant bettong.

  5. Evidence for local relaxin ligand-receptor expression and function in arteries.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jacqueline; Parry, Laura J; Matthews, Julianna E; Kerchner, Laurie J; Indovina, Kimberly; Hanley-Yanez, Karen; Doty, Ketah D; Debrah, Dan O; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Conrad, Kirk P

    2006-11-01

    Relaxin is a 6 kDa protein hormone produced by the corpus luteum and secreted into the blood during pregnancy in rodents and humans. Growing evidence indicates that circulating relaxin causes vasodilatation and increases in arterial compliance, which may be among its most important actions during pregnancy. Here we investigated whether there is local expression and function of relaxin and relaxin receptor in arteries of nonpregnant females and males. Relaxin-1 and its major receptor, Lgr7, mRNA are expressed in thoracic aortas, small renal and mesenteric arteries from mice and rats of both sexes, as well as in small renal arteries from female tammar wallabies (an Australian marsupial). Using available antibodies for rat and mouse Lgr7 receptor and rat relaxin, we also identified protein expression in arteries. Small renal arteries isolated from relaxin-1 gene-deficient mice demonstrate enhanced myogenic reactivity and decreased passive compliance relative to wild-type (WT) and heterozygous mice. Taken together, these findings reveal an arterial-derived, relaxin ligand-receptor system that acts locally to regulate arterial function.

  6. Further characterisation of two Eimeria species (Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (Setonix brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Austen, J M; Friend, J A; Yang, R; Ryan, U M

    2014-03-01

    The identification and characterisation of novel Eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. Variation in the size and shape of Eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. The use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise Eimeria species and has recently been applied to understand evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species from Australian marsupials. In the present study, Eimeria species isolated from quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) captured from Two Peoples Bay, Bald Island and Rottnest Island, Western Australia, were morphologically identified as Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis. Both Eimeria species were identified as being polymorphic in nature with regards to sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphometrics. Phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) genes, grouped E. quokka and E. setonicis within the Eimeria marsupial clade together with Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums, Eimeria macropodis from tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and several unidentified macropod Eimeria species from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). This study is the first to characterise E. quokka and E. setonicis by molecular analysis, enabling more extensive resolution of evolutionary relationships among marsupial-derived Eimeria species.

  7. The candidate sex-reversing DAX1 gene is autosomal in marsupials: Implications for the evolution of sex determination in mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Pask, A.; Toder, R.; Wilcox, S.A.

    1997-05-01

    The human X-linked DAX1 gene was cloned from the region of the short arm of the human X found in duplicate in sex-reversed X{sub dup}Y females. DAX1 is suggested to be required for ovarian differentiation and to play an important role in mammalian sex determination or differentiation pathways. Its proposed dose-dependent effect on sexual development suggests that DAX1 could represent an evolutionary link with an ancestral sex-determining mechanism that depended on the dosage of an X-linked gene. Furthermore, DAX1 could also represent the putative X-linked switch gene, which independently controls sexual dimorphisms in marsupial mammals in an X-dose-dependent manner. If DAX1 has a present role in marsupial sexual differentiation or had an ancestral role in mammalian sex determination, it would be expected to lie on the marsupial X chromosome, despite the autosomal localization of other human Xp genes. We therefore cloned and mapped the DAX1 gene in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). DAX1 was located on wallaby chromosome 5p near other human Xp genes, indicating that it was originally autosomal and that it is not involved in X-linked dose-dependent sex determination in an ancestral mammal nor in marsupial sexual differentiation. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (<70 days) plasma progesterone concentrations were <189 pg/ml (n= 41). This value increased to >600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to <300 pg/ml (n= 29) during dual lactation when females were suckling a neonate and a young at foot. Concentrations of prolactin during Phase 2a were <6 ng/ml (n= 17). Coincident with the period of reactivation of the diapausing blastocyst (181 to 235 days), plasma prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  9. Has anthropogenic land-cover change been a significant climate forcing in the past? - An assessment for the Baltic Sea catchment area based on a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kleinen, Thomas; Brigitte Nielsen, Anne; Poska, Anneli; Samuelsson, Patrick; Strandberg, Gustav; Trondman, Anna-Kari

    2015-04-01

    still an urgent need to better understand the biogeophysical effects on regional and continental climate of afforestation in the hemiboreal and boreal regions, and their significance in relation to the biogeochemical effects. (1) Trondman, A.-K. et al. (2014) Global Change Biology (2014), doi: 10.1111/gcb.12737 (2) Strandberg, G. et al. (2014) Climate of the Past 10, 661-680.

  10. Ozone tropospheric and stratospheric trends (1995-2012) at six ground-based FTIR stations (28°N to 79°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigouroux, Corinne; De Mazière, Martine; Demoulin, Philippe; Servais, Christian; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Schneider, Matthias; Kohlepp, Regina; Barthlott, Sabine; García, Omaira; Mellqvist, Johan; Persson, Glenn; Palm, Mathias; Notholt, Justus; Hannigan, James; Coffey, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), contributing ground-based stations have joined their efforts to homogenize and optimize the retrievals of ozone profiles from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) solar absorption spectra. Using the optimal estimation method, distinct vertical information can be obtained in four layers: ground-10 km, 10-18 km, 18-27 km, and 27-42 km, in addition to total column amounts. In a previous study, Vigouroux et al. (2008)1 applied a bootstrap resampling method to determine the trends of the ozone total and four partial columns, over the period 1995-2004 at Western European stations. The updated trends for the period 1995-2009 have been published in the WMO 2010 report2. Here, we present the updated trends and their uncertainties, for the 1995-2012 period, for the different altitude ranges, above five European stations (28°N-79°N) and above the station Thule, Greenland (77°N). In this work, the trends have been estimated using a multiple regression model including some explanatory variables responsible for the ozone variability, such as the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the solar flux, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). A major result is the significant positive trend of ozone in the upper stratosphere, observed at the Jungfraujoch (47°N), which is a typical mid-latitude site, as well as at the high latitude stations. This positive trend in the upper stratosphere at Jungfraujoch provides a sign of ozone recovery at mid-latitudes. 1 Vigouroux, C., De Mazière, M., Demoulin, P., Servais, C., Hase, F., Blumenstock, T., Kramer, I., Schneider, M., Mellqvist, J., Strandberg, A., Velazco, V., Notholt, J., Sussmann, R., Stremme, W., Rockmann, A., Gardiner, T., Coleman, M., and Woods, P. : Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone trends over Western Europe from ground-based FTIR network observations, ACP, 8, 6865-6886, 2008. 2 Douglass, A., and

  11. On seasonality of the indirect greenhouse gas CO above Europe: an altitude-resolved picture from long-term FTIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussmann, Ralf; Rettinger, Markus; Borsdorff, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    , F., Kramer, I., Mahieu, E., Mellqvist, J., Notholt, J., Novelli. P. C., Rockmann, A., Scheel, H. E., Schneider, M., Schulz, A., Strandberg, A., Sussmann, R., Tanimoto, H., Velazco, V., Drummond, J. R., and Gille, J. C.: Increased Northern Hemispheric carbon monoxide burden in the troposphere in 2002 and 2003 detected from the ground and from space, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 563-573, 2005.

  12. Chemical characterization of acidic oligosaccharides in milk of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Anraku, Tatsuro; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Urashima, Tadasu

    2012-04-01

    In the milk of marsupials, oligosaccharides usually predominate over lactose during early to mid lactation. Studies have shown that tammar wallaby milk contains a major series of neutral galactosyllactose oligosaccharides ranging in size from tri- to at least octasaccharides, as well as β(1-6) linked N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides as a minor series. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides were purified from red kangaroo milk and characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, to be as follows: Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-SL), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose b), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc. These acidic oligosaccharides were shown to be sialylated or sulfated in the non-reducing ends to the major linear and the minor branched series of neutral oligosaccharides of tammar wallaby milk.

  13. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  14. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of macropodid marsupials: cytoarchitecture and retinal projections.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, K J; Haight, J R; Pettigrew, J D

    1984-03-20

    The anatomy of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) is described in five macropodid species, including two rat kangaroos (bettong and potoroo), two wallabies (pademelon and tammar), and the large grey kangaroo. The distribution of retinal terminals in the LGd was examined following intraocular injections of tritiated amino acids. There are considerable differences in both LGd cytoarchitecture and the patterns of retinal terminations among the five species. Cytoarchitecture in the bettong LGd is relatively simple, displaying a minimal regional differentiation. In contrast, the potoroo LGd is quite complex and displays several well-defined cell laminae, each of which is associated with input from a single eye. Both rat kangaroos display the same basic pattern of retinal termination with three bands of terminals from the contralateral eye and four from the ipsilateral eye. The bands are less sharply defined in the bettong, in which terminals from each eye overlap to a greater extent than is seen in the potoroo. The wallabies and kangaroos display a more complex LGd architecture and patterning of retinal terminal bands. Bilateral retinal projections within the same LGd lamina are unusual in these large macropodids. The number of terminal bands reaches ten in the grey kangaroo--four from the contralateral eye and six from the ipsilateral eye. The pademelon LGd is unusual in that it shows intraspecies variation with some animals displaying five ipsilateral terminal bands and others only four. The results are discussed in comparison with the patterns of LGd organisation observed in other mammalian lines, placental and marsupial. We conclude that LGd lamination and the segregation of retinal inputs to the LGd in marsupials are likely to be the result of evolutionary factors which differ from those which have produced ocular segregation and complex lamination in several lines of placental mammals.

  15. Marsupial anti-Mullerian hormone gene structure, regulatory elements, and expression.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Whitworth, Deanne J; Mao, Chai-An; Wei, Ke-Jun; Sankovic, Natasha; Graves, Jennifer A M; Shaw, Geoffrey; Renfree, Marilyn B; Behringer, Richard R

    2004-01-01

    During male sexual development in reptiles, birds, and mammals, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) induces the regression of the Müllerian ducts that normally form the primordia of the female reproductive tract. Whereas Müllerian duct regression occurs during fetal development in eutherian mammals, in marsupial mammals this process occurs after birth. To investigate AMH in a marsupial, we isolated an orthologue from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and characterized its expression in the testes and ovaries during development. The wallaby AMH gene is highly conserved with the eutherian orthologues that have been studied, particularly within the encoded C-terminal mature domain. The N-terminus of marsupial AMH is divergent and larger than that of eutherian species. It is located on chromosome 3/4, consistent with its autosomal localization in other species. The wallaby 5' regulatory region, like eutherian AMH genes, contains binding sites for SF1, SOX9, and GATA factors but also contains a putative SRY-binding site. AMH expression in the developing testis begins at the time of seminiferous cord formation at 2 days post partum, and Müllerian duct regression begins shortly afterward. In the developing testis, AMH is localized in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells but is lost by adulthood. In the developing ovary, there is no detectable AMH expression, but in adults it is produced by the granulosa cells of primary and secondary follicles. It is not detectable in atretic follicles. Collectively, these studies suggest that AMH expression has been conserved during mammalian evolution and is intimately linked to upstream sex determination mechanisms.

  16. The evolution of epigenetic regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in amniotes.

    PubMed

    Hore, Timothy A; Deakin, Janine E; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2008-08-29

    CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, giving rise to a paralogue called "brother of regulator of imprinted sites" (BORIS or CTCFL) with DNA binding capabilities similar to CTCF, but testis-specific expression in humans and mice. CTCF and BORIS have opposite regulatory effects on human cancer-testis genes, the anti-apoptotic BAG1 gene, the insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 imprint control region (IGF2/H19 ICR), and show mutually exclusive expression in humans and mice, suggesting that they are antagonistic epigenetic regulators. We discovered orthologues of BORIS in at least two reptilian species and found traces of its sequence in the chicken genome, implying that the duplication giving rise to BORIS occurred much earlier than previously thought. We analysed the expression of CTCF and BORIS in a range of amniotes by conventional and quantitative PCR. BORIS, as well as CTCF, was found widely expressed in monotremes (platypus) and reptiles (bearded dragon), suggesting redundancy or cooperation between these genes in a common amniote ancestor. However, we discovered that BORIS expression was gonad-specific in marsupials (tammar wallaby) and eutherians (cattle), implying that a functional change occurred in BORIS during the early evolution of therian mammals. Since therians show imprinting of IGF2 but other vertebrate taxa do not, we speculate that CTCF and BORIS evolved specialised functions along with the evolution of imprinting at this and other loci, coinciding with the restriction of BORIS expression to the germline and potential antagonism with CTCF.

  17. Sequencing and mapping hemoglobin gene clusters in the australian model dasyurid marsupial sminthopsis macroura

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, A.A.; Wheeler, D.; Lefevre, C.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Hope, R.; Kuliwaba, J.; Nicholas, K.R.; Westermanc, M.; Graves, J.A.M.

    2004-07-26

    Comparing globin genes and their flanking sequences across many species has allowed globin gene evolution to be reconstructed in great detail. Marsupial globin sequences have proved to be of exceptional significance. A previous finding of a beta-like omega gene in the alpha cluster in the tammar wallaby suggested that the alpha and beta cluster evolved via genome duplication and loss rather than tandem duplication. To confirm and extend this important finding we isolated and sequenced BACs containing the alpha and beta loci from the distantly related Australian marsupial Sminthopsis macroura. We report that the alpha gene lies in the same BAC as the beta-like omega gene, implying that the alpha-omega juxtaposition is likely to be conserved in all marsupials. The LUC7L gene was found 3' of the S. macroura alpha locus, a gene order shared with humans but not mouse, chicken or fugu. Sequencing a BAC contig that contained the S. macroura beta globin and epsilon globin loci showed that the globin cluster is flanked by olfactory genes, demonstrating a gene arrangement conserved for over 180 MY. Analysis of the region 5' to the S. macroura epsilon globin gene revealed a region similar to the eutherian LCR, containing sequences and potential transcription factor binding sites with homology to eutherian hypersensitive sites 1 to 5. FISH mapping of BACs containing S. macroura alpha and beta globin genes located the beta globin cluster on chromosome 3q and the alpha locus close to the centromere on 1q, resolving contradictory map locations obtained by previous radioactive in situ hybridization.

  18. Expression analysis of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 in a marsupial, the stripe-faced dunnart, during early development.

    PubMed

    Familari, Mary; Au, Phil Chi Khang; de Iongh, Robb U; Cruz, Yolanda; Selwood, Lynne

    2016-02-01

    The first lineage allocation during mouse development forms the trophectoderm and inner cell mass, in which Cdx2 and Pou5f1 display reciprocal expression. Yet Cdx2 is not required for trophectoderm specification in other mammals, such as the human, cow, pig, or in two marsupials, the tammar and opossum. The role of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 in the first lineage allocation of Sminthopsis macroura, the stripe-faced dunnart, is unknown. In this study, expression of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 during oogenesis, development from cleavage to blastocyst stages, and in the allocation of the first three lineages was analyzed for this dunnart. Cdx2 mRNA was present in late antral-stage oocytes, but not present again until Day 5.5. Pou5f1 mRNA was present from primary follicles to zygotes, and then expression resumed starting at the early unilaminar blastocyst stage. All cleavage stages and the pluriblast and trophoblast cells co-expressed CDX2 and POU5F1 proteins, which persisted until early stages of hypoblast formation. Hypoblast cells also show co-localisation of POU5F1 and CDX2 once they were allocated, and this persisted during their division and migration. Our studies suggest that CDX2, and possibly POU5F1, are maternal proteins, and that the first lineage to differentiate is the trophoblast, which differentiates to trophectoderm after shell loss one day before implantation. In the stripe-faced dunnart, cleavage cells, as well as trophoblast and pluriblast cells, are polarized, suggesting the continued presence of CDX2 in both lineages until late blastocyst stages may play a role in the formation and maintenance of polarity.

  19. The Evolution of Epigenetic Regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in Amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Hore, Timothy A.; Deakin, Janine E.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, giving rise to a paralogue called “brother of regulator of imprinted sites” (BORIS or CTCFL) with DNA binding capabilities similar to CTCF, but testis-specific expression in humans and mice. CTCF and BORIS have opposite regulatory effects on human cancer-testis genes, the anti-apoptotic BAG1 gene, the insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 imprint control region (IGF2/H19 ICR), and show mutually exclusive expression in humans and mice, suggesting that they are antagonistic epigenetic regulators. We discovered orthologues of BORIS in at least two reptilian species and found traces of its sequence in the chicken genome, implying that the duplication giving rise to BORIS occurred much earlier than previously thought. We analysed the expression of CTCF and BORIS in a range of amniotes by conventional and quantitative PCR. BORIS, as well as CTCF, was found widely expressed in monotremes (platypus) and reptiles (bearded dragon), suggesting redundancy or cooperation between these genes in a common amniote ancestor. However, we discovered that BORIS expression was gonad-specific in marsupials (tammar wallaby) and eutherians (cattle), implying that a functional change occurred in BORIS during the early evolution of therian mammals. Since therians show imprinting of IGF2 but other vertebrate taxa do not, we speculate that CTCF and BORIS evolved specialised functions along with the evolution of imprinting at this and other loci, coinciding with the restriction of BORIS expression to the germline and potential antagonism with CTCF. PMID:18769711

  20. Transcriptome analysis of mammary epithelial cell gene expression reveals novel roles of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Wanyonyi, Stephen S; Kumar, Amit; Du Preez, Ryan; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2017-12-01

    The unique lactation strategy of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugeni) has been invaluable in evaluating the role of lactogenic hormones and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the local control of mammary gland function. However molecular pathways through which hormones and ECM exert their effect on wallaby mammary gland function remain unclear. This study undertakes transcriptome analysis of wallaby mammary epithelial cells (WallMEC) following treatment with mammary ECM from two distinct stages of lactation. WallMEC from MID lactation mammary glands were cultured on ECM from MID or LATE lactation and treated for 5 days with 1 μg/ml cortisol, 1 μg/ml insulin, 0.2 µg/ml prolactin, 650 pg/ml triodothyronine and 1 pg/ml estradiol to induce lactation. WallMEC RNA from triplicate ECM treatments was used to perform RNAseq. ECM from MID and LATE lactation differentially regulated key genes in sugar and lipid metabolism. Seven pathways including galactose metabolism, lysosome, cell adhesion molecules (CAM), p53 signaling, the complement and coagulation and Nod-like receptor signaling pathways were only significantly responsive to ECM in the presence of hormones. The raw RNA-seq data for this project are available on the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) browser (accession number GSE81210). A potential role of ECM in regulation of the caloric content of milk, among other functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation has been identified. This study has used a non-eutherian lactation model to demonstrate the synergy between ECM and hormones in the local regulation of mammary function.

  1. Retroviral envelope gene captures and syncytin exaptation for placentation in marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Carradec, Quentin; Souquere, Sylvie; Mulot, Baptiste; Catzeflis, François; Nilsson, Maria A.; Menzies, Brandon R.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Pierron, Gérard; Zeller, Ulrich; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Syncytins are genes of retroviral origin captured by eutherian mammals, with a role in placentation. Here we show that some marsupials—which are the closest living relatives to eutherian mammals, although they diverged from the latter ∼190 Mya—also possess a syncytin gene. The gene identified in the South American marsupial opossum and dubbed syncytin-Opo1 has all of the characteristic features of a bona fide syncytin gene: It is fusogenic in an ex vivo cell–cell fusion assay; it is specifically expressed in the short-lived placenta at the level of the syncytial feto–maternal interface; and it is conserved in a functional state in a series of Monodelphis species. We further identify a nonfusogenic retroviral envelope gene that has been conserved for >80 My of evolution among all marsupials (including the opossum and the Australian tammar wallaby), with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of a canonical immunosuppressive domain, but with only limited expression in the placenta. This unusual captured gene, together with a third class of envelope genes from recently endogenized retroviruses—displaying strong expression in the uterine glands where retroviral particles can be detected—plausibly correspond to the different evolutionary statuses of a captured retroviral envelope gene, with only syncytin-Opo1 being the present-day bona fide syncytin active in the opossum and related species. This study would accordingly recapitulate the natural history of syncytin exaptation and evolution in a single species, and definitely extends the presence of such genes to all major placental mammalian clades. PMID:25605903

  2. Steroidogenesis of the testis -- new genes and pathways.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V

    2014-05-01

    Defects of androgen biosynthesis cause 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). All steroids are produced from cholesterol and the early steps of steroidogenesis are common to mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and sex steroid production. Genetic mutations in enzymes and proteins supporting the early biosynthesis pathways cause adrenal insufficiency (AI), DSD and gonadal insufficiency. The classic androgen biosynthesis defects with AI are lipoid CAH, CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 deficiencies. Deficiency of CYP17A1 rarely causes AI, and HSD17B3 or SRD5A2 deficiencies only cause 46,XY DSD and gonadal insufficiency. All androgen biosynthesis depends on 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1 which is supported by P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5). Therefore 46,XY DSD with apparent 17,20 lyase deficiency may be due to mutations in CYP17A1, POR or CYB5. Illustrated by patients harboring mutations in SRD5A2, normal development of the male external genitalia depends largely on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is converted from circulating testicular testosterone (T) through SRD5A2 in the genital skin. In the classic androgen biosynthetic pathway, T is produced from DHEA and androstenedione/-diol in the testis. However, recently found mutations in AKR1C2/4 genes in undervirilized 46,XY individuals have established a role for a novel, alternative, backdoor pathway for fetal testicular DHT synthesis. In this pathway, which has been first elucidated for the tammar wallaby pouch young, 17-hydroxyprogesterone is converted directly to DHT by 5α-3α reductive steps without going through the androgens of the classic pathway. Enzymes AKR1C2/4 catalyse the critical 3αHSD reductive reaction which feeds 17OH-DHP into the backdoor pathway. In conclusion, androgen production in the fetal testis seems to utilize two pathways but their exact interplay remains to be elucidated.

  3. Distinct retroelement classes define evolutionary breakpoints demarcating sites of evolutionary novelty

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Mark S; Carone, Dawn M; Green, Eric D; O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2009-01-01

    Background Large-scale genome rearrangements brought about by chromosome breaks underlie numerous inherited diseases, initiate or promote many cancers and are also associated with karyotype diversification during species evolution. Recent research has shown that these breakpoints are nonrandomly distributed throughout the mammalian genome and many, termed "evolutionary breakpoints" (EB), are specific genomic locations that are "reused" during karyotypic evolution. When the phylogenetic trajectory of orthologous chromosome segments is considered, many of these EB are coincident with ancient centromere activity as well as new centromere formation. While EB have been characterized as repeat-rich regions, it has not been determined whether specific sequences have been retained during evolution that would indicate previous centromere activity or a propensity for new centromere formation. Likewise, the conservation of specific sequence motifs or classes at EBs among divergent mammalian taxa has not been determined. Results To define conserved sequence features of EBs associated with centromere evolution, we performed comparative sequence analysis of more than 4.8 Mb within the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, derived from centromeric regions (CEN), euchromatic regions (EU), and an evolutionary breakpoint (EB) that has undergone convergent breakpoint reuse and past centromere activity in marsupials. We found a dramatic enrichment for long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE1s) and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and a depletion of short interspersed nucleotide elements (SINEs) shared between CEN and EBs. We analyzed the orthologous human EB (14q32.33), known to be associated with translocations in many cancers including multiple myelomas and plasma cell leukemias, and found a conserved distribution of similar repetitive elements. Conclusion Our data indicate that EBs tracked within the class Mammalia harbor sequence features retained since the divergence of marsupials

  4. Seroprevalence of retrovirus in North American captive macropodidae.

    PubMed

    Georoff, Timothy A; Joyner, Priscilla H; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. Serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 North American captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, and among animals with identified parentage was examined by nonparametric statistical analyses. Median age of animals at time of sample collection was 36 mo (range 2-201 mo). Total percentage seropositive was 20.4%. Serum antibody was detected in 31 of 47 (66.0%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), nine of 24 (37.5%) yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus), four of 11 (36.4%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 10 of 80 (12.5%) red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), and one of 54 (1.9%) parma wallaby (Macropus parma). No individuals of western gray kangaroo (n=3) (Macropus fuliginosus), eastern gray kangaroo (n=19) (Macropus giganteus), common wallaroo (n=6) (Macropus robustus), red kangaroo (n=11) (Macropus rufus), or Matschie's tree kangaroo (n=14) (Dendrolagus matschiei) were positive for retrovirus antibody. These results demonstrate that five species of captive macropods have a history of exposure to retrovirus, with the highest percentage seropositive and highest statistical correlation in M. eugenii (pair-wise Fisher's exact test, alpha = 0.05). Additionally, one wild-caught M. eugenii was confirmed seropositive during quarantine period, indicating that retrovirus exposure may exist in wild populations.

  5. A transcriptome resource for the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): insights into koala retrovirus transcription and sequence diversity.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Matthew; Pavasovic, Ana; King, Andrew G; Prentis, Peter J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Chen, Zhiliang; Colgan, Donald J; Polkinghorne, Adam; Wilkins, Marc R; Flanagan, Cheyne; Gillett, Amber; Hanger, Jon; Johnson, Rebecca N; Timms, Peter

    2014-09-11

    The koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, is a biologically unique and evolutionarily distinct Australian arboreal marsupial. The goal of this study was to sequence the transcriptome from several tissues of two geographically separate koalas, and to create the first comprehensive catalog of annotated transcripts for this species, enabling detailed analysis of the unique attributes of this threatened native marsupial, including infection by the koala retrovirus. RNA-Seq data was generated from a range of tissues from one male and one female koala and assembled de novo into transcripts using Velvet-Oases. Transcript abundance in each tissue was estimated. Transcripts were searched for likely protein-coding regions and a non-redundant set of 117,563 putative protein sequences was produced. In similarity searches there were 84,907 (72%) sequences that aligned to at least one sequence in the NCBI nr protein database. The best alignments were to sequences from other marsupials. After applying a reciprocal best hit requirement of koala sequences to those from tammar wallaby, Tasmanian devil and the gray short-tailed opossum, we estimate that our transcriptome dataset represents approximately 15,000 koala genes. The marsupial alignment information was used to look for potential gene duplications and we report evidence for copy number expansion of the alpha amylase gene, and of an aldehyde reductase gene.Koala retrovirus (KoRV) transcripts were detected in the transcriptomes. These were analysed in detail and the structure of the spliced envelope gene transcript was determined. There was appreciable sequence diversity within KoRV, with 233 sites in the KoRV genome showing small insertions/deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms. Both koalas had sequences from the KoRV-A subtype, but the male koala transcriptome has, in addition, sequences more closely related to the KoRV-B subtype. This is the first report of a KoRV-B-like sequence in a wild population. This transcriptomic

  6. Scaling of the spring in the leg during bouncing gaits of mammals.

    PubMed

    Lee, David V; Isaacs, Michael R; Higgins, Trevor E; Biewener, Andrew A; McGowan, Craig P

    2014-12-01

    Trotting, bipedal running, and especially hopping have long been considered the principal bouncing gaits of legged animals. We use the radial-leg spring constant [Formula: see text] to quantify the stiffness of the physical leg during bouncing gaits. The radial-leg is modeled as an extensible strut between the hip and the ground and [Formula: see text] is determined from the force and deflection of this strut in each instance of stance. A Hookean spring is modeled in-series with a linear actuator and the stiffness of this spring [Formula: see text] is determined by minimizing the work of the actuator while reproducing the measured force-deflection dynamics of an individual leg during trotting or running, and of the paired legs during hopping. Prior studies have estimated leg stiffness using [Formula: see text], a metric that imagines a virtual-leg connected to the center of mass. While [Formula: see text] has been applied extensively in human and comparative biomechanics, we show that [Formula: see text] more accurately models the spring in the leg when actuation is allowed, as is the case in biological and robotic systems. Our allometric analysis of [Formula: see text] in the kangaroo rat, tammar wallaby, dog, goat, and human during hopping, trotting, or running show that [Formula: see text] scales as body mass to the two-third power, which is consistent with the predictions of dynamic similarity and with the scaling of [Formula: see text]. Hence, two-third scaling of locomotor spring constants among mammals is supported by both the radial-leg and virtual-leg models, yet the scaling of [Formula: see text] emerges from work-minimization in the radial-leg model instead of being a defacto result of the ratio of force to length used to compute [Formula: see text]. Another key distinction between the virtual-leg and radial-leg is that [Formula: see text] is substantially greater than [Formula: see text], as indicated by a 30-37% greater scaling coefficient for [Formula

  7. Identification and transcript analysis of a novel wallaby (Macropus eugenii) basal-like breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Julie A; Mailer, Sonia L; Thomson, Peter C; Lefèvre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    Background A wide variety of animal models have been used to study human breast cancer. Murine, feline and canine mammary tumor cell lines have been studied for several decades and have been shown to have numerous aspects in common with human breast cancer. It is clear that new comparative approaches to study cancer etiology are likely to be productive. Results A continuous line of breast carcinoma cells (WalBC) was established from a primary breast cancer that spontaneously arose in a female tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). The primary tumor was 1.5 cm3 and although large, did not appear to invade the stroma and lacked vimentin expression. The WalBC cell line was cultured from the primary tumor and passaged for 22 months. WalBC cells displayed an epithelial morphology when grown on plastic, were not EGF responsive, stained strongly for cyto-keratin and negatively for vimentin. WalBC cells were shown to be non-invasive within a Matrigel invasion assay and failed to produce tumors following transplantation into nude mice. Gene expression profiling of WalBC cells was performed using a cDNA microarray of nearly 10,000 mammary gland cDNA clones and compared to normal primary mammary cells and profiles of human breast cancer. Seventy-six genes were down-regulated and sixty-six genes were up-regulated in WalBC cells when compared to primary mammary cells. WalBC cells exhibited expression of known markers of basal invasive human breast cancers as well as increased KRT17, KRT 14 and KRT 19, DSP, s100A4, NDRG-1, ANXA1, TK1 and AQP3 gene expression and decreased gene expression of TIMP3, VIM and TAGLN. New targets for breast cancer treatment were identified such as ZONAB, PACSIN3, MRP8 and SUMO1 which have human homologues. Conclusion This study demonstrates how novel models of breast cancer can provide new fundamental clues regarding cancer etiology which may lead to new human treatments and therapies. PMID:18179684

  8. Paternal X inactivation does not correlate with X chromosome evolutionary strata in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Delgado, Claudia L; Waters, Shafagh A; Waters, Paul D

    2014-12-24

    X chromosome inactivation is the transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome in the somatic cells of female mammals. In eutherian mammals (e.g. humans) one of the two X chromosomes is randomly chosen for silencing, with about 15% (usually in younger evolutionary strata of the X chromosome) of genes escaping this silencing. In contrast, in the distantly related marsupial mammals the paternally derived X is silenced, although not as completely as the eutherian X. A chromosome wide examination of X inactivation, using RNA-seq, was recently undertaken in grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain and extraembryonic tissues. However, no such study has been conduced in Australian marsupials, which diverged from their American cousins ~80 million years ago, leaving a large gap in our understanding of marsupial X inactivation. We used RNA-seq data from blood or liver of a family (mother, father and daughter) of tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii), which in conjunction with available genome sequence from the mother and father, permitted genotyping of 42 expressed heterozygous SNPs on the daughter's X. These 42 SNPs represented 34 X loci, of which 68% (23 of the 34) were confirmed as inactivated on the paternally derived X in the daughter's liver; the remaining 11 X loci escaped inactivation. Seven of the wallaby loci sampled were part of the old X evolutionary stratum, of which three escaped inactivation. Three loci were classified as part of the newer X stratum, of which two escaped inactivation. A meta-analysis of previously published opossum X inactivation data revealed that 5 of 52 genes in the old X stratum escaped inactivation. We demonstrate that chromosome wide inactivation of the paternal X is common to an Australian marsupial representative, but that there is more escape from inactivation than reported for opossum (32% v 14%). We also provide evidence that, unlike the human X chromosome, the location of loci within the oldest evolutionary stratum on

  9. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus).

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Sun, Yiliang; Fukuda, Kenji; Hirayama, Kentaro; Taufik, Epi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Saito, Tadao; Merchant, Jim; Green, Brian; Messer, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides have been performed in four species to date: the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupials, the oligosaccharides in the carbohydrate fraction of eastern quoll milk were characterized in this study. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were separated and characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The structures of the neutral oligosaccharides were Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3",3'-digalactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (galactosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (galactosyl lacto-N-novopentaose II), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (galactosyl lacto-N-novopentaose III) and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novooctaose). The structures of the acidic oligosaccharides detected are Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose), Gal(β1-3)(O-3-sulfate)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I sulfate a), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)(O-3-sulfate)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I sulfate b), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose c), Neu5Ac(α2-3) Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc with an α(2

  10. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Fujita, Saori; Fukuda, Kenji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Saito, Tadao; Cowan, Phil; Messer, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides have been performed in only three species: the tammar wallaby, the red kangaroo and the koala. To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupials, 21 oligosaccharides of the milk carbohydrate fraction of the common brushtail possum were characterized in this study. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were separated from the carbohydrate fraction of mid-lactation milk and characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The structures of the 7 neutral oligosaccharides were Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3", 3'-digalactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (galactosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (galactosyl lacto-N-novopentaose II). The structures of the 14 acidic oligosaccharides detected were Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)(O-3-sulfate)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I sulfate a) Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)(O-3-sulfate)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I sulfate b), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)(-3-O-sulfate)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose b), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulphate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2