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Sample records for stratospheric warmings ssws

  1. Defining Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.

  2. Comparing Sudden Stratospheric Warming Definitions in Reanalysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeiro, Froila M.; Barriopedro, David; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Calvo, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are the main source of variability in the northern hemisphere polar stratosphere during winter. They are characterized by a dramatic warming of the polar stratosphere and weakening of the polar vortex circulation. SSWs can have an impact on surface weather, which makes them a potential tool for seasonal prediction. However, there is no consensus on the definition of SSWs, and multiple methods exist in the literature, yielding discrepancies on the detected events. In this presentation we compare the SSWs signatures of eight representative definitions for the 1958-2009 period and using three different reanalysis data (ERA, NCEP and JRA). The monthly distribution of SSWs is indistinguishable across definitions, with a common peak in January. However, the multi-decadal variability is method-dependent, with only three definitions displaying minimum frequencies in the 1990s. Comparison of several SSW benchmarks reveals negligible differences among methods due to the large case-to-case variability of events within a given definition. In the troposphere, the most robust signals across definitions before and after events are dominated by major SSWs, which are detected by most methods. Interestingly, minor SSWs represent the largest source of discrepancy in the surface signals of SSWs across definitions. Therefore, our results indicate that only major SSWs should be considered in future studies if robust tropospheric signals of SSWs want to be obtained regardless of the chosen method.

  3. A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Andrew J.; Polvani, Lorenza M.; Perlwitz, Judith; Sassi, Fabrizio; Manzini, Elisa; Shibata, Kiyotaka; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rind, David

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs, based on the dynamical characteristics of the events. First, the number, type, and temporal distribution of SSW events are evaluated. Most of the models show a lower frequency of SSW events than the climatology, which has a mean frequency of 6.0 SSWs per decade. Statistical tests show that three of the six models produce significantly fewer SSWs than the climatology, between 1.0 and 2.6 SSWs per decade. Second, four process-based diagnostics are calculated for all of the SSW events in each model. It is found that SSWs in the GCMs compare favorably with dynamical benchmarks for SSW established in the first part of the study. These results indicate that GCMs are capable of quite accurately simulating the dynamics required to produce SSWs, but with lower frequency than the climatology. Further dynamical diagnostics hint that, in at least one case, this is due to a lack of meridional heat flux in the lower stratosphere. Even though the SSWs simulated by most GCMs are dynamically realistic when compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the reasons for the relative paucity of SSWs in GCMs remains an important and open question.

  4. Comparison of Stratospheric Sudden Warming definitions in reanalysis data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeiro, Froila M.; Barriopedro, David; Calvo, Natalia; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Stratospheric Sudden Warmings (SSWs) are characterized by a weakening of the polar vortex and a pronounced rise of the stratospheric polar temperature during the winter season. However, multiple definitions and climatic variables have been used in the literature to diagnose the occurrence of SSWs, yielding discrepancies in the detection of the events. Since SSWs are rare events, the lack of consensus in the definition is expected to cause changes among the resulting SSW climatologies. In this study, we have identified the occurrence of SSWs for the extended-winter season of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim Reanalysis period (1958-2013) according to a suite of representative definitions. Some of them are based exclusively on the zonal-mean zonal wind, while others also include the zonal-mean temperature latitudinal gradient. SSWs can be also defined attending to certain indices such as the northern annular mode (NAM) or the stratospheric zonal index (SZI). Following the original definitions given in the literature, different thresholds and criteria (e.g., latitudinal averages, pressure levels) have been demanded across definitions. We have analyzed the influence of the detecting method on several parameters associated with SSWs, such as frequency, temporal distribution, or the impact on tropospheric climate. The results show strong differences in the climatological mean winter frequency among certain detection methods. The evolution of the SSW parameters and the downward propagation of the anomalies from the stratosphere to the troposphere are also method-dependent. In particular, certain methods are not able to capture the tropospheric response following the SSW occurrence. Our results provide a guide to select the most representative definitions, avoiding redundancies, for constructing a SSW catalogue from reanalysis data and/or climatic model simulations.

  5. The western Pacific pattern bridging stratospheric sudden warming and ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ying; Tan, Benkui

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies show that the stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are closely linked to the low height anomalies (LHAs) over the North Pacific and the presence of the LHAs is independent of the phases of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Based on the wintertime daily reanalysis data from 1958 to 2013, this study demonstrates that most of the LHAs which are linked to SSWs are the footprints left by the western Pacific patterns (WPs), few of them by the Pacific-North American patterns (PNAs), or by mixed WP-PNA patterns. This study also demonstrates that the WPs' LHAs, and therefore the SSWs, are strongly modulated by ENSO and the modulation effects changed over 1958-2013: before 1980, the WPs' LHAs have stronger intensity and longer duration in El Nino winters (EN) than La Nina winters (LN) and ENSO neutral winters (ENSON), and the SSWs occur twice as often during EN, compared to LN and ENSON. After 1980, the WPs' LHAs have stronger intensity in EN and larger frequency during LN than ENSON. Consistently, the SSWs occur nearly twice as often during both EN and LN for this period, compared to ENSON.

  6. Global Responses of Gravity Waves to Planetary Wave Variations during Stratospheric Sudden Warming Observed by SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, C. Y.; England, S.; Immel, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the global responses of observed gravity waves (GWs) to winter planetary wave (PW) variations during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) using TIMED-SABER temperature measurements. GWs affect the ionosphere and thermosphere, and it is important to understand global variations of GWs from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere during SSWs in order to advance our understanding of vertical coupling. The responses of GWs to SSWs are shown by calculating correlations between vertical components of Eliassen-Palm (EP) fluxes in the winter polar stratosphere and global GW temperature amplitudes derived from SABER observations. Consistent with previous ground-based and satellite observations, winter EP fluxes show positive correlations with GWs in the winter hemisphere. More interestingly, winter stratospheric EP fluxes are positively correlated with GWs in the tropics and in the summer mesosphere, indicating global variations of GWs in response to PW variations in the winter hemisphere. To study the mechanism of GW response to SSWs, global wind simulations from SD-WACCM are used. Zonal wind anomalies (differences in the wind before and during SSWs) extend from the winter stratosphere to the summer mesosphere. By comparing anomalies in background winds to the observed patterns in the correlations between GWs and winter EP fluxes, we find that regions of positive correlation follow change in background winds and zero-wind lines. The results indicate that responses of SABER GWs in the summer hemisphere to winter PW variations during SSWs are likely caused by changes in GW propagation due to the changes in atmospheric circulation. These observed changes in global GWs during SSWs can affect the ionosphere and thermosphere, and studying global GW variation during SSWs is important for understanding mechanisms of vertical coupling.

  7. Role of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings on the response to Central Pacific El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iza, Maddalen; Calvo, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Hemisphere polar stratospheric response to Central Pacific El Niño (CP El Niño) remains unclear. Contradictory results have been found on its resemblance with the canonical East Pacific El Niño (EP El Niño), depending on the index used to characterize these events or the number of cases. Some studies found a stronger and colder polar vortex while others displayed a weaker and warmer polar stratosphere. Our results, based on reanalysis data, show that Stratospheric Sudden Warmings (SSWs) occurrence dominates the CP El Niño response in the Northern Hemisphere. A robust CP El Niño signal is observed when the events are classified according to the presence or absence of SSWs. CP El Niño winters without SSWs show significant cold anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar stratosphere in early winter. In contrast, CP El Niño winters with SSWs are associated with significant warm anomalies, which are in fact related to SSWs. Therefore, the polar stratospheric response to CP El Niño events is significant and opposite during winters with and without SSWs. In addition, and contrary to previous studies, CP and EP El Niño polar stratospheric responses are clearly distinguishable in early winter in the absence of SSWs. The analysis of the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern and the tropospheric wave anomalies entering the stratosphere support the observed stratospheric signals. In the absence of SSWs, EP El Niño winters are characterized by a strengthened PNA pattern and enhanced propagation of planetary wave number 1 into the stratosphere, while during CP El Niño winters a weakened PNA pattern is resembled, related to inhibited upward wave propagation. This is consistent with a weaker polar vortex in EP El Niño winters and a stronger vortex in CP El Niño winters. Results are robust regardless of the CP El Niño definition or the size of the composite used. Similar conclusions are reached in CMIP5 historical simulations. Hence, our study reveals

  8. Circulation Changes in the Mesosphere and the Lower Thermosphere Associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirooka, Toshihiko; Iwao, Koki

    2016-07-01

    Influences of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) reach the mesosphere and the thermosphere. Recently, significant global cooling during SSWs in the thermosphere have been reported on the basis of numerical simulations. However, observational studies are insufficient for the region, so that detailed 3-dimendional structure and the dynamical mechanism are still unclear. Hence, we investigate circulation changes in the mesosphere and thermosphere along with in the stratosphere during SSWs by using TIMED/SABER satellite data and radar data. The SABER observes the atmospheric temperature field in high altitudes up to the lower thermosphere (~120km). Time series of the SABER data includes tidal components, because the satellite orbit is not sun-synchronous and the local time of observation gradually decreases at a specific latitude. The perfect separation of the time series data into tidal and daily changes is difficult especially when diurnal components are amplified. Therefore, we additionally analyze the radar data at some selected stations. Resultantly, north polar temperatures during SSWs show lower thermosphere warming and mesospheric cooling along with the anti-correlated temperature changes in the wide region except over the north pole. In the presentation, we discuss further detailed features of circulation changes associated with SSWs.

  9. Stratospheric Sudden Warmings in the ECHAM5/MESSy CCMVal Ref.1 Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayarzagüena, B.; Langematz, U.; Kubin, A.; Brühl, C.; Baumgärtner, A.; Serrano, E.

    2009-04-01

    The northern stratosphere in wintertime is characterized by a large interannual variability, particularly the occurrence of large stratospheric warmings. This phenomenon consists of a rapid increase of temperature in the polar stratosphere, which leads to an abrupt weakness of the intensity of the stratospheric polar vortex (cyclonic circulation in polar latitudes) and occasionally even the reversal of the westerly circulation. In this study, we assess the ability of the chemistry-climate model ECHAM5/MESSy to simulate the northern stratospheric variability in the CCMVal Ref1 simulation of the years 1960 to 2000. An analysis of the stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) has been carried out by examining for example the intensity and seasonal distribution. Moreover, possible trends in the wintertime polar stratosphere, such as intensity and lifetime of the polar vortex, have been studied. Preliminary results show an agreement between the model simulation and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In fact, ECHAM5/MESSy seems to be able to simulate quite accurately SSWs events but with some deficiencies in, for example, the distribution of vortex displacement and splits (bias towards displacement) and the seasonal distribution (too many SSWs in early winter). On the other hand, the modeled polar vortex tends to have a longer lifetime, being weaker in mid-winter and stronger in March, than in the reanalysis. However, all these tendencies are not statistically significant.

  10. Properties of stratospheric warming events during northern winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, Pauline; Claud, Chantal; Manzini, Elisa; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    During wintertime the polar mid-stratosphere is characterized by the setting up of westerly winds around the pole; the so-called polar vortex. The polar vortex is one of the most variable features of the zonal-mean circulation of the earth atmosphere, due to a highly non linear interaction between planetary-scale Rossby waves and the zonal flow. Indeed, the interaction between the upward tropospheric propagating waves and the polar vortex leads to a zonal flow weakening, implying a large day to day vortex variability. In the most dramatic cases the polar vortex breaks down, the stratospheric polar flow can reverse its direction and the temperatures can rise locally by more than 50K in a span of a few days. Such phenomena are known as Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) and constitute, since their discovery, the most impressive dynamical events in the physical climate system. There are however situations where the polar vortex does not break down, but temperatures increase dramatically. In this study, we propose a global characterization of stratospheric warmings situations based on a temperature threshold in the 50-10hPa layer, in order to assess the properties of daily stratospheric temperature variability during the northern winter. The originality of this approch consists in evaluating the wintertime positive temperature anomalies in terms of intensity and duration. We will show that there is a wide spectrum of warming types. The major SSWs are the most extreme, but there are other events that share some common properties with the major ones. Though neglected, these latter warmings may play a key role in the coupling of the stratosphere-troposphere system.

  11. Global responses of gravity waves to planetary waves during stratospheric sudden warming observed by SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, Chihoko Y.; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the global responses of observed gravity waves (GWs) to winter planetary wave (PW) variations during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) using TIMED-SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) temperature measurements. Previous studies have shown responses of atmospheric temperature and parameterized GW drag to SSWs; however, the responses of global GW observations to SSWs have not been presented before. The responses are shown by calculating correlations between vertical components of Eliassen-Palm (EP) fluxes in the winter polar stratosphere and global GW temperature amplitudes derived from SABER observations. Consistent with previous ground-based and satellite observations, winter EP fluxes show positive correlations with GWs in the winter hemisphere. More interestingly, winter stratospheric EP fluxes are positively correlated with GWs in the tropics and in the summer mesosphere, indicating global variations of GWs in response to PW variations in the winter hemisphere. To study the mechanism of GW response to SSWs, global wind simulations from Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model are used. Zonal wind anomalies (differences in the wind before and during SSWs) extend from the winter stratosphere to the summer mesosphere. By comparing anomalies in background winds to the observed patterns in the correlations between GWs and winter EP fluxes, we find that regions of positive correlation follow changes in background winds and zero-wind lines. The results indicate that responses of SABER GWs in the summer hemisphere to winter PW variations during SSWs are likely caused by changes in GW propagation due to the changes in winds and atmospheric circulation.

  12. Ionospheric reaction on sudden stratospheric warming events in Russiás Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, Anna; Perevalova, Natalya; Chernigovskaya, Marina

    2015-12-01

    The response of the ionosphere to sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) in the Asian region of Russia is studied. Two SSW events observed in 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 winter periods of extreme solar minimum and moderate solar maximum are considered. To detect the ionospheric effects caused by SSWs, we carried out a joint analysis of global ionospheric maps (GIM) of the total electron content (TEC), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, EOS Aura) measurements of temperature vertical profiles, as well as NCEP/NCAR and UKMO Reanalysis data. For the first time, it was found that during strong SSWs, in the mid-latitude ionosphere the amplitude of diurnal TEC variation decreases nearly half compared to quiet days. At the same time, the intensity of TEC deviations from the background level increases. It was also found that at SSW peak the midday TEC maximum decreases, and night/morning TEC values increase compared to quiet days. It was shown that during SSWs, TEC dynamics was identical for different geophysical conditions.The response of the ionosphere to sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) in the Asian region of Russia is studied. Two SSW events observed in 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 winter periods of extreme solar minimum and moderate solar maximum are considered. To detect the ionospheric effects caused by SSWs, we carried out a joint analysis of global ionospheric maps (GIM) of the total electron content (TEC), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, EOS Aura) measurements of temperature vertical profiles, as well as NCEP/NCAR and UKMO Reanalysis data. For the first time, it was found that during strong SSWs, in the mid-latitude ionosphere the amplitude of diurnal TEC variation decreases nearly half compared to quiet days. At the same time, the intensity of TEC deviations from the background level increases. It was also found that at SSW peak the midday TEC maximum decreases, and night/morning TEC values increase compared to quiet days. It was shown that during SSWs, TEC dynamics was

  13. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Links between the upper atmosphere and the stratosphere were studied to explain stratospheric warmings, and to correlate the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena. Physical mechanisms for warming, or which may act as a trigger are discussed along with solar and geophysical indices. Two stratospheric warming cases are analyzed.

  14. Temperature Deviations in the Midlatitude Mesosphere During Stratospheric Warmings as Measured with Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sox, Leda; Wickwar, Vincent; Fish, Chad; Herron, Joshua P.

    2016-06-01

    While mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The original Rayleigh-scatter lidar that operated at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) in the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU) collected an extensive set of temperature data for 11 years in the 45-90 km altitude range. This work focuses on the extensive Rayleigh lidar observations made during six major SSW events that occurred between 1993 and 2004, providing a climatological study of the midlatitude mesospheric temperatures during these SSW events. An overall disturbance pattern was observed in the mesospheric temperatures during these SSWs. It included coolings in the upper mesosphere, comparable to those seen in the polar regions during SSW events, and warmings in the lower mesosphere.

  15. Ionosphere variability at mid latitudes during sudden stratosphere warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Maute, A. I.; Maruyama, N.

    2015-12-01

    Variability of the mid latitude ionosphere and thermosphere during the 2009 and 2013 sudden stratosphere warmings (SSWs) is investigated in the present study using a combination of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) observations and model simulations. The simulations are performed using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) and Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (IPE) model. Both the COSMIC observations and TIME-GCM simulations reveal perturbations in the F-region peak height (hmF2) at Southern Hemisphere mid latitudes during SSW time periods. The perturbations are ~20-30 km, which corresponds to 10-20% variability in hmF2. The TIME-GCM simulations and COSMIC observations of the hmF2 variability are in overall good agreement, and the simulations can thus be used to understand the physical processes responsible for the hmF2 variability. The simulation results demonstrate that the mid lattiude hmF2 variability is primarily driven by the propagation of the migrating semidiurnal lunar tide (M2) into the thermosphere where it modulates the field aligned neutrals winds, which in-turn raise and lower the F-region peak height. The importance of the thermosphere neutral winds on generating the ionosphere variability at mid latitudes during SSWs is supported by IPE simulations performed both with and without the neutral wind variability. Though there are subtle differences, the consistency of the behavior between the 2009 and 2013 SSWs suggests that variability in the Southern Hemisphere mid latitude ionosphere and thermosphere is a consistent feature of the SSW impact on the upper atmosphere.

  16. Sudden stratospheric warmings and tropospheric blockings in a multi-century simulation of the IPSL-CM5A coupled climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Jessica; Osborn, Tim J.; Lott, François

    2013-05-01

    The relation between sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) and blocking events is analyzed in a multi-centennial pre-industrial simulation of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace coupled model (IPSL-CM5A), prepared for the fifth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project. The IPSL model captures a fairly realistic distribution of both SSWs and tropospheric blocking events, albeit with a tendency to overestimate the frequency of blocking in the western Pacific and underestimate it in the Euro-Atlantic sector. The 1000-year long simulation reveals statistically significant differences in blocking frequency and duration over the 40-day periods preceding and following the onset of SSWs. More specifically, there is an enhanced blocking frequency over Eurasia before SSWs, followed by an westward displacement of blocking anomalies over the Atlantic region as SSWs evolve and then decline. The frequency of blocking is reduced over the western Pacific sector during the life-cycle of SSWs, while the model simulates no significant relationship with eastern Pacific blocks. Finally, these changes in blocking frequency tend to be associated with a shift in the distribution of blocking lifetime toward longer-lasting blocking events before the onset of SSWs and shorter-lived blocks after the warmings. This study systematically verifies that the results are consistent with the two pictures that (1) blockings produce planetary scale anomalies that can force vertically propagating Rossby waves and then SSWs when the waves break and (2) SSWs affect blockings in return, for instance via the effect they have on the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  17. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The details of the stratospheric warming processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric warmings.

  18. TEC disturbances during major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings in the mid-latitude ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, Anna; Voeykov, Sergey; Chernigovskaya, Marina; Perevalova, Natalia

    Using total electron content (TEC) global ionospheric maps, dual-frequency GPS receivers TEC data and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, EOS Aura) atmospheric temperature data the ionospheric disturbances during the strong sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) of 2008/2009 and 2012/2013 winters are investigated in Russia's Asia region. It is established that during the SSW maximum the midday TEC decrease and the night/morning TEC increase compared to quiet days are observed in the mid-latitude ionosphere. As a result it caused the decrease of the diurnal TEC variations amplitude of about two times in comparison with the undisturbed level. The analysis of TEC deviations from the background level during the SSWs has shown that deviations dynamics vary depending on the observation point position. Negative deviations of TEC are registered in the ionosphere above the region of maximum stratosphere heating (the region of the stratospheric circulation change) as well as above the anticyclone. On the contrary, TEC values increase compared to the quiet day's values above the stratosphere cyclone. It is shown that during maximum phase of a warming, and within several days after it the amplification of wave TEC variations intensity with periods of up to 60 min is registered in ionosphere. The indicated effects may be attributed to the vertical transfer of molecular gas from a stratospheric heating region to the thermosphere as well as to the increase in activity of planetary and gravity waves which is usually observed during strong SSWs. The study is supported by the RF President Grant of Public Support for RF Leading Scientific Schools (NSh-2942.2014.5), the RF President Grant No. MK-3771.2012.5 and RFBR Grant No. 12-05-00865_а.

  19. Stratospheric sudden warming and lunar tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A stratospheric sudden warming is a large-scale disturbance in the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that the effect of stratospheric sudden warnings extends well into the upper atmosphere. A stratospheric sudden warming is often accompanied by an amplification of lunar tides in the ionosphere/theremosphere. However, there are occasionally winters when a stratospheric sudden warming occurs without an enhancement of the lunar tide in the upper atmosphere, and other winters when large lunar tides are observed without a strong stratospheric sudden warming. We examine the winters when the correlation breaks down and discuss possible causes.

  20. Isolating Stratospheric Warmings -- Mesosphere to Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, K.

    Stratospheric Warming events exhibit the most drastic changes seen in the stratosphere and yet the categorization of these events continues to be adhoc Understandably the definitions of major warming minor warmings and or Canadian warmings often depend on the scientific problem at hand And yet we show here that these events are statistically separated from the rest of the days in the winter stratosphere We show how warmings can be isolated and defined in a objective manner Furthermore we are then able to show the effect of these warmings from the mesosphere down to the troposphere

  1. Gravity waves in the thermosphere during a sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, E.; Medvedev, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    For the first time, the propagation and dissipation of internal gravity waves (GWs) of lower atmospheric origin to the thermosphere above the turbopause (~105 km) during a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) are examined. The study is performed with a general circulation model (GCM) coupling the lower atmosphere with the thermosphere and the implemented spectral nonlinear extended GW parameterization of Yigit et al. (2008). The Yigit et al. (2008) extended GW parameterization calculates the propagation and dissipation of small-scale GWs in the whole atmosphere system by physically taking into account ion drag, molecular viscosity and thermal conduction, eddy viscosity, nonlinear diffusion, and radiative damping in form of Newtonian cooling. Model simulations reveal a strong modulation by SSWs of GW activity, momentum deposition rates, and the circulation feedbacks at heights up to F region altitudes (~270 km). Wave-induced root mean square wind fluctuations increase several times during the warming in the thermosphere above the turbopause. This occurs mainly due to a reduction of filtering eastward traveling GWs by the weaker stratospheric jet. These waves propagate higher under the favorable conditions, grow in amplitude, and produce stronger forcing on the mean flow, compared to pre-warming period, when they are dissipated in the thermosphere. The evolution of stratospheric and mesospheric winds during an SSW life-cycle creates a robust and distinctive response in GW activity and mean fields deeply in the thermosphere. Yigit, E., A.~D. Aylward, and A.~S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.

  2. Impact of semidiurnal tidal variability during SSWs on the mean state of the ionosphere and thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Richmond, A. D.; Maute, A.; Liu, H.-L.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites reveal a global reduction in the zonal and diurnal mean F region peak electron density (NmF2) during sudden stratosphere warmings (SSWs). The present study investigates the source of the global NmF2 decrease by performing numerical experiments with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. The simulations reveal that the NmF2 reduction coincides with a depletion of thermospheric [O]/[N2], indicating that the NmF2 depletion is related to changes in thermospheric composition during SSWs. Numerical experiments further illustrate that the short-term (˜10 day) enhancement of the migrating semidiurnal solar tide (SW2) during SSWs is the source of the variability in thermospheric composition. In particular, the enhancement of the SW2 during SSWs alters the lower thermosphere zonal mean circulation, leading to a reduction in atomic oxygen in the lower thermosphere. The atomic oxygen reduction propagates into the upper thermosphere through molecular diffusion, leading to a decrease in [O]/[N2] throughout the low- to middle-latitude thermosphere. It is anticipated that the effects of the SW2 on the ionosphere and thermosphere investigated herein will be modulated by SSW related enhancements of the migrating semidiurnal lunar tide (M2). The magnitude of the combined impact of the SW2 and M2 on the ionosphere-thermosphere mean state will depend on the relative phasing of the solar and lunar tides. The results demonstrate that in addition to modulating the low-latitude electrodynamics, tidal variability during SSWs can significantly impact the mean state of the ionosphere and thermosphere.

  3. Satellite observations of middle atmosphere gravity wave absolute momentum flux and of its vertical gradient during recent stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Trinh, Quang Thai; Kaufmann, Martin; Krisch, Isabell; Preusse, Peter; Ungermann, Jörn; Zhu, Yajun; Gille, John C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III; Schwartz, Michael J.; Riese, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are circulation anomalies in the polar region during winter. They mostly occur in the Northern Hemisphere and affect also surface weather and climate. Both planetary waves and gravity waves contribute to the onset and evolution of SSWs. While the role of planetary waves for SSW evolution has been recognized, the effect of gravity waves is still not fully understood, and has not been comprehensively analyzed based on global observations. In particular, information on the gravity wave driving of the background winds during SSWs is still missing.We investigate the boreal winters from 2001/2002 until 2013/2014. Absolute gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave dissipation (potential drag) are estimated from temperature observations of the satellite instruments HIRDLS and SABER. In agreement with previous work, we find that sometimes gravity wave activity is enhanced before or around the central date of major SSWs, particularly during vortex-split events. Often, SSWs are associated with polar-night jet oscillation (PJO) events. For these events, we find that gravity wave activity is strongly suppressed when the wind has reversed from eastward to westward (usually after the central date of a major SSW). In addition, gravity wave potential drag at the bottom of the newly forming eastward-directed jet is remarkably weak, while considerable potential drag at the top of the jet likely contributes to the downward propagation of both the jet and the new elevated stratopause. During PJO events, we also find some indication for poleward propagation of gravity waves. Another striking finding is that obviously localized gravity wave sources, likely mountain waves and jet-generated gravity waves, play an important role during the evolution of SSWs and potentially contribute to the triggering of SSWs by preconditioning the shape of the polar vortex. The distribution of these hot spots is highly variable and strongly depends on the zonal and

  4. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Investigations involved a search through existing literature and data to obtain case histories for the six or more stratospheric warmings that occurred in April - May 1969, June - July 1969, August 1969, December 1969 - January 1970, December 1970 - January 1971, and January 1973 - February 1973. For each of these warmings the following steps have been taken in preparation for analysis: (1) defining the nature of the problem; (2) literature search of stratwarmings and solar-terrestrial phenomens; and (3) file of data sources, especially stratospheric temperatures (radiances) and geophysical indices.

  5. Variability of upper tropospheric clouds in the polar region during stratospheric sudden warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohma, Masashi; Sato, Kaoru

    2014-09-01

    The variability of upper tropospheric clouds during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in 2009, 2010, and 2012 in the Northern Hemisphere is examined using satellite observations and reanalysis data. It is shown that the zonal mean cloud frequency decreases in the altitude range of 8-12 km, and the mean cloud top height descends soon after an SSW. Following a sudden decrease in upper tropospheric cloud frequency, an increase in temperature and static stability around the tropopause and a downward shift of the tropopause height are simultaneously observed. These changes in the upper troposphere are observed when the downward residual mean flow associated with an SSW becomes stronger around the tropopause level. By means of analyses based on a recent theory of three-dimensional residual mean flow, it is shown that the horizontal structure of the vertical flow is consistent with the geographical distribution of clouds in the altitude range of 9-11 km. Another interesting feature is that the low cloud frequency in the upper troposphere that starts after an SSW continues for more than 1 month. Possible reasons are discussed in terms of a long radiative relaxation time and a change in the tropospheric wave activity. These findings indicate that SSWs can affect the tropospheric radiative budget through the modification of cloud frequency and cloud top heights.

  6. ODIN/SMR Observations Of A Particularly Strong Midwinter Stratospheric Sudden Warming In Early 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, Kristell; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal

    2013-12-01

    The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR), on board the Odin satellite, observed a major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in the northern hemisphere in early January 2013. The provided measurements have been used to identify and characterize this event which seems to be the strongest of that kind in recent years. This paper is based on a comparison with the 2009 SSW which was so far considered as a record-breaking event. SSWs are an important manifestation of the coupling phenomena between the mesosphere / lower thermosphere and the lower atmospheric layers and can strongly affect the middle atmospheric composition. It is crucial to study these events in order to get a better understanding of the dynamical and chemical mechanisms that control this part of the atmosphere.

  7. Variations of Kelvin waves around the TTL region during the stratospheric sudden warming events in the Northern Hemisphere winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yue; Zhang, Shao Dong; Yi, Fan; Huang, Chun Ming; Huang, Kai Ming; Gong, Yun; Gan, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variabilities of Kelvin waves during stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events are investigated by the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and the results are validated by the COSMIC temperature data. A case study on an exceptionally large SSW event in 2009, and a composite analysis comprising 18 events from 1980 to 2013 are presented. During SSW events, the average temperature increases by 20 K in the polar stratosphere, while the temperature in the tropical stratosphere decreases by about 4 K. Kelvin wave with wave numbers 1 and 2, and periods 10-20 days, clearly appear around the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) during SSWs. The Kelvin wave activity shows obvious coupling with the convection localized in the India Ocean and western Pacific (Indo-Pacific) region. Detailed analysis suggests that the enhanced meridional circulation driven by the extratropical planetary wave forcing during SSW events leads to tropical upwelling, which further produces temperature decrease in the tropical stratosphere. The tropical upwelling and cooling consequently result in enhancement of convection in the equatorial region, which excites the strong Kelvin wave activity. In addition, we investigated the Kelvin wave acceleration to the eastward zonal wind anomalies in the equatorial stratosphere during SSW events. The composite analysis shows that the proportion of Kelvin wave contribution ranges from 5 to 35 % during SSWs, much larger than in the non-SSW mid-winters (less than 5 % in the stratosphere). However, the Kelvin wave alone is insufficient to drive the equatorial eastward zonal wind anomalies during the SSW events, which suggests that the effects of other types of equatorial waves may not be neglected.

  8. The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings.

    PubMed

    de Laat, A T J; van Weele, M

    2011-01-01

    Satellite observations show that the 2010 Antarctic ozone hole is characterized by anomalously small amounts of photochemical ozone destruction (40-60% less than the 2005-2009 average). Observations from the MLS instrument show that this is mainly related to reduced photochemical ozone destruction between 20-25 km altitude. Lower down between 15-20 km the atmospheric chemical composition and photochemical ozone destruction is unaffected. The modified chemical composition and chemistry between 20-25 km altitude in 2010 is related to the occurrence of a mid-winter minor Antarctic Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW). The measurements indicate that the changes in chemical composition are related to downward motion of air masses rather than horizontal mixing, and affect stratospheric chemistry for several months. Since 1979, years with similar anomalously small amounts of ozone destruction are all characterized by either minor or major SSWs, illustrating that their presence has been a necessary pre-condition for reduced Antarctic stratospheric ozone destruction. PMID:22355557

  9. Observations of Enhanced Semi Diurnal Lunar Tides in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere at Mid and High Northern Latitudes during Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Hoffmann, P.; Pedatella, N. M.; Matthias, V.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, there have been a series of reported ground- and satellite-based observations of lunar tide signatures in the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere around sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. More recently, Pedatella et al. [2014], using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model Extended version (WACCM-X) and the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) has demonstrated that the semi-diurnal lunar tide (M2) is an important contributor to the ionosphere variability during the 2009 SSW. Although the model results were focused on the low-latitude ionosphere and compare with Jicamarca electric fields, Pedatella et al. [2014] also reported that the M2 was enhanced in the northern mid and high latitudes (between 30 and 70oN) at mesospheric and lower thermospheric altitudes during the 2009 SSW. Motivated by this finding, we have analyzed winds from 80 to 100 kms obtained with meteor radars from Juliusruh (54oN) and Andøya (69oN) stations during five SSWs (2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, and 2013). By fitting the usual solar components (diurnal and semidiurnal and M2, we have been able to identify clearly the enhancement of the M2 as well as the semi diurnal solar tide during all these SSWs. The qualitative agreement with the Pedatella et al. [2014] simulations is very good, i.e., stronger signature at 54oN than at 69oN and enhanced around SSW. The analysis of other SSWs not only show the clear relationship with SSWs, but also the different behaviors in strength, time of occurrence, duration, etc., that appear to be associated to the mean wind dynamics as well as the stratospheric planetary wave characteristics.

  10. Impact of the semidiurnal lunar tide on the midlatitude thermospheric wind and ionosphere during sudden stratosphere warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Maute, A.

    2015-12-01

    Variability of the midlatitude ionosphere and thermosphere during the 2009 and 2013 sudden stratosphere warmings (SSWs) is investigated in the present study using a combination of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) observations and thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) simulations. Both the COSMIC observations and TIME-GCM simulations reveal perturbations in the F region peak height (hmF2) at Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes during SSW time periods. The perturbations are ˜20-30 km, which corresponds to 10-20% variability of the background mean hmF2. The TIME-GCM simulations and COSMIC observations of the hmF2 variability are in overall good agreement, and the simulations can thus be used to understand the physical processes responsible for the hmF2 variability. Through comparison of simulations with and without the migrating semidiurnal lunar tide (M2), we conclude that the midlatitude hmF2 variability is primarily driven by the propagation of the M2 into the thermosphere where it modulates the field-aligned neutral winds, which in turn raise and lower the F region peak height. Though there are subtle differences, the consistency of the behavior between the 2009 and 2013 SSWs suggests that variability in the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ionosphere and thermosphere is a consistent feature of the SSW impact on the upper atmosphere.

  11. Middle-atmospheric Ozone and HCl anomalies during the polar stratospheric warming 2010 observed by JEM/SMILES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili Mahani, M.; Kreyling, D.; Sagawa, H.; Murata, I.; Kasaba, Y.; Kasai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we focused on investigating ozone and HCl variations and anomalies in the middle atmosphere due to the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) event of Arctic winter 2009-2010 using JEM/SMILES data. HCl anomalies in evolution of a SSW have been studied for the first time. SSWs are dramatic events in the winter stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere where the deceleration or reversal of the eastward winds is accompanied by an increase of temperature by several tens of degrees. The main cause of this phenomenon is known to be the interaction of zonal mean flow with upward propagating transient planetary waves from the troposphere in mid-winter leading to a vortex displacement or break down. SSWs are dynamical disturbances found to affect both dynamics and chemical compositions of the middle atmosphere still having several different atmospheric features and behaviors to be studied. The Superconducting sub-Millimeter Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) is a highly sensitive radiometer to observe various atmospheric compositions from upper troposphere to the mesosphere. SMILES was developed by the Japanese Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Communications and Technology (NICT) located at the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on board the International Space Station (ISS). From October 2009 to April 2010, SMILES has accurately measured the vertical distributions and the diurnal variations of for example ozone and HCl with the accuracy of less than 8% and 5% in the middle atmosphere respectively. By using SMILES data the SSW event of 2010 was confirmed on 25-January categorized as a major, vortex displacement warming. After the SSW, ozone values enhanced up to 15-20% in mid-stratosphere due to the meridional transport from lower latitudes and weakening of the polar vortex. The mesospheric ozone response will also be demonstrated and discussed. For HCl, the total increase of 10% in Upper Stratosphere Lower Mesosphere (USLM) before the

  12. Meridional heat transport at the onset of winter stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conte, M.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous vertical flow of energy toward high altitude was verified. This process produced a dynamic instability of the stratospheric polar vortex. A meridional heat transport ws primed toward the north, which generated a warming trend.

  13. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-Breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Krueger, Kirstin; Santee, Michelle L.; Pawson, Steven; Lee, Jae N.; Daffer, William H.; Fuller, Ryan A.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in January 2009 was the strongest and most prolonged on record. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations are used to provide an overview of dynamics and transport during the 2009 SSW, and to compare with the intense, long-lasting SSW in January 2006. The Arctic polar vortex split during the 2009 SSW, whereas the 2006 SSW was a vortex displacement event. Winds reversed to easterly more rapidly and reverted to westerly more slowly in 2009 than in 2006. More mixing of trace gases out of the vortex during the decay of the vortex fragments, and less before the fulfillment of major SSW criteria, was seen in 2009 than in 2006; persistent well-defined fragments of vortex and anticyclone air were more prevalent in 2009. The 2009 SSW had a more profound impact on the lower stratosphere than any previously observed SSW, with no significant recovery of the vortex in that region. The stratopause breakdown and subsequent reformation at very high altitude, accompanied by enhanced descent into a rapidly strengthening upper stratospheric vortex, were similar in 2009 and 2006. Many differences between 2006 and 2009 appear to be related to the different character of the SSWs in the two years.

  14. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  15. Effects of stratospheric variability on El Niño teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, J. H.; Deser, C.; Sun, L.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the tropical Pacific El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon are communicated to the rest of the globe via atmospheric teleconnections. Traditionally, ENSO teleconnections have been viewed as tropospheric phenomena, propagating to higher latitudes as Rossby waves. Recent studies, however, suggest an influence of the stratosphere on extra-tropical ENSO teleconnections. The stratosphere is highly variable: in the tropics, the primary mode of variability is the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and in the extra-tropics sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) regularly perturb the mean state. Here, we conduct a 10-member ensemble of simulations with a stratosphere-resolving atmospheric general circulation model forced with the observed evolution of sea surface temperatures during 1952-2001 to examine the effects of the QBO and SSWs on the zonal-mean circulation and temperature response to El Niño, with a focus on the northern extra-tropics during winter. We find that SSWs have a larger impact than the QBO on the composite El Niño responses. During El Niño winters with SSWs, the polar stratosphere shows positive temperature anomalies that propagate downward to the surface where they are associated with increased sea-level pressure over the Arctic. During El Niño winters without SSWs, the stratosphere and upper troposphere show negative temperature anomalies but these do not reach the surface. The QBO modulates the El Niño teleconnection primarily in winters without SSWs: the negative temperature anomalies in the polar stratosphere and upper troposphere are twice as large during QBO West compared to QBO East years. In addition, El Niño winters that coincide with the QBO West phase show stronger positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the eastern Atlantic and Northern Europe than those in the QBO East phase. The results imply that the stratosphere imparts considerable variability to ENSO teleconnections.

  16. Infrasonic signature of the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, L. G.; Siegmund, P.

    2009-12-01

    The study of infrasound is experiencing a renaissance since it was chosen as a verification technique for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The success of the verification technique strongly depends on knowledge of upper atmospheric processes. The ability of infrasound to probe the upper atmosphere starts to be exploited, taking the field beyond its monitoring application. Processes in the stratosphere couple to the troposphere and influence our daily weather and climate. Infrasound delivers actual observations on the state of the stratosphere with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Here we show the infrasonic signature, passively obtained, of a drastic change in the stratosphere due to the major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) of January 2009. With this study, we infer the enormous capacity of infrasound in acoustic remote sensing of stratospheric processes on a global scale with surface based instruments.

  17. Is there a stratospheric radiative feedback in global warming simulations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Zhang, Minghong; Xia, Yan; Hu, Yongyun; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The radiative impacts of the stratosphere in global warming simulations are investigated using abrupt CO2 quadrupling experiments of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), with a focus on stratospheric temperature and water vapor. It is found that the stratospheric temperature change has a robust bullhorn-like zonal-mean pattern due to a strengthening of the stratospheric overturning circulation. This temperature change modifies the zonal mean top-of-the-atmosphere energy balance, but the compensation of the regional effects leads to an insignificant global-mean radiative feedback (-0.02 ± 0.04 W m-2 K-1). The stratospheric water vapor concentration generally increases, which leads to a weak positive global-mean radiative feedback (0.02 ± 0.01 W m-2 K-1). The stratospheric moistening is related to mixing of elevated upper-tropospheric humidity, and, to a lesser extent, to change in tropical tropopause temperature. Our results indicate that the strength of the stratospheric water vapor feedback is noticeably larger in high-top models than in low-top ones. The results here indicate that although its radiative impact as a forcing adjustment is significant, the stratosphere makes a minor contribution to the overall climate feedback in CMIP5 models.

  18. Simulation of the December 1998 Stratospheric Major Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Lahoz, W. A.; Swinbank, R.; ONeill, A.; Connew, P. M.; Zurek, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to 1991, major warmings (defined by increasing zonal mean temperatures and zonal mean easterly winds from 60degN to the pole at 10 hPa) typically occurred approximately once every two Arctic winters; a major warming in mid-Dec. 1998 was the first since Feb. 1991. The Dec. 1998 warming was also the second earliest on record. The earliest, and the only other major warming on record before the end of Dec. was in early Dec 1987; prior to that, the earliest was in late Dec./early Jan. 1984-85. The 1984-85 and 1987 warmings resulted in the warmest and weakest lower stratospheric polar vortices in the 20 years before 1998-99. Fig. 1 compares temperatures and vortex strength in 1998-99 with those in the previous 20 years, using the US National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) record; 1987-88 and 1984-85 are also highlighted. The Dec. 1998 warming had a more pronounced effect on mid-stratospheric temperatures than the Dec. 1987 warming (Fig. 1a), although smaller than that of warmings later in winter (e.g., 1984-85). 10-hPa temperatures fell well below average again in late Jan. 1999 and remained unusually low until an early final warming began in late Feb. 840 K PV gradients (Fig. 1c) set a record minimum in Jan. 1999, but were near average in Feb before the final warming. The effect of the Dec. 1998 warming on lower stratospheric temperatures was comparable to that of other major warmings; there was a brief period of record-high minimum 46-hPa temperatures in early Jan 1999 (Fig. 1b), and temperatures then fell to near average for a short period in mid-Feb. Lower stratospheric PV gradients were the weakest on record during the 1998-99 winter (Fig. 1d). The evolution of the vortex and minimum temperatures during 1998-99 was remarkably similar to that during 1987-88, the only previous year when a major warming was observed before the end of Dec.

  19. Stratospheric warmings: Synoptic, dynamic and general-circulation aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinturff, R. M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic descriptions consist largely of case studies, which involve a distinction between major and minor warmings. Results of energetics studies show the importance of tropospheric-stratospheric interaction, and the significance of the pressure-work term near the tropopause. Theoretical studies have suggested the role of wave-zonal flow interaction as well as nonlinear interaction between eddies, chemical and photochemical reactions, boundary forcing, and other factors. Numerical models have been based on such considerations, and these are discussed under various categories. Some indication is given as to why some of the models have been more successful than others in simulating warnings. The question of ozone and its role in warmings is briefly discussed. Finally, a broad view is taken of stratospheric warmings in relation to man's activities.

  20. Upper mesospheric lunar tides over middle and high latitudes during sudden stratospheric warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Hoffmann, P.; Pedatella, N. M.; Matthias, V.; Stober, G.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there have been a series of reported ground- and satellite-based observations of lunar tide signatures in the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere/thermosphere around sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. This lower atmosphere/ionosphere coupling has been suggested to be via the E region dynamo. In this work we present the results of analyzing 6 years of hourly upper mesospheric winds from specular meteor radars over a midlatitude (54°N) station and a high latitude (69°N) station. Instead of correlating our results with typical definitions of SSWs, we use the definition of polar vortex weaking (PVW) used by Zhang and Forbes. This definition provides a better representation of the strength in middle atmospheric dynamics that should be responsible for the waves propagating to the E region. We have performed a wave decomposition on hourly wind data in 21 day segments, shifted by 1 day. In addition to the radar wind data, the analysis has been applied to simulations from Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model Extended version and the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model. Our results indicate that the semidiurnal lunar tide (M2) enhances in northern hemispheric winter months, over both middle and high latitudes. The time and magnitude of M2 are highly correlated with the time and associated zonal wind of PVW. At middle/high latitudes, M2 in the upper mesosphere occurs after/before the PVW. At both latitudes, the maximum amplitude of M2 is directly proportional to the strength of PVW westward wind. We have found that M2 amplitudes could be comparable to semidiurnal solar tide amplitudes, particularly around PVW and equinoxes. Besides these general results, we have also found peculiarities in some events, particularly at high latitudes. These peculiarities point to the need of considering the longitudinal features of the polar stratosphere and the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere regions. For

  1. Discrimination of a major stratospheric warming event in February-March 1984 from earlier minor warmings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. W.; Quiroz, R. S.; Gelman, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    As part of its responsibility for stratospheric monitoring, the Climate Analysis Center derives time trends of various dynamic parameters from NMC stratospheric analyses. Selected figures from this stratospheric monitoring data base are published in Climate Diagnostics Bulletin in March and October, after each hemispheric winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter of December 1983-February 1984 several warming events may be seen in the plot of 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures for 10 mb. Minor warmings may be noted in early December, late December, mid January and early February. A major warming with the 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures reaching -40C is observed in late February, associated with a circulation reversal. In all of the minor warming episodes, there is a polarward movement of the Aleutian anticyclone; however, at 10 mb the North Pole remains in the cyclonic circulation of the stratospheric vortex which is not displaced far from its usual position. In the case of the later February major warming, the 10 mb circulation pattern over the North Pole is anticyclonic, and the cyclonic circulation has moved to the south and east with a considerable elongation. Cross sections of heat transport and momentum transport are not dramatically different for the minor and major warming episodes.

  2. Characterizing Middle Atmospheric Dynamical Variability and its Impact on the Thermosphere/Ionosphere System During Recent Stratospheric Sudden Warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, J. P.; Sassi, F.; Hoppel, K.; Ma, J.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of neutral atmospheric dynamics in the 10-100 km altitude range before, during, and after recent stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) using a prototype high-altitude version of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), which combines a 4-dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system with a 3-time-level semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit global forecast model. In addition to assimilating conventional meteorological observations, NAVGEM also assimilates middle atmospheric temperature and constituent observations from both operational and research satellite platforms to provide global synoptic meteorological analyses of winds, temperatures, ozone, and water vapor from the surface to ~90 km. In this study, NAVGEM analyses are used to diagnose the spatial and temporal evolution of the main dynamical drivers in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) before, during, and after specific SSW events during the 2009-2013 period when large disturbances were observed in the thermosphere/ionosphere (TI) region. Preliminary findings show strong modulation of the semidiurnal tide in the MLT during the onset of an SSW. To assess the impact of the neutral atmosphere dynamical variability on the TI system, NAVGEM analyses are used to constrain simulations of select SSW events using the specified dynamics (SD) configuration of the extended Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM-X).

  3. The infrasonic signature of the 2009 major Sudden Stratospheric Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, L.; Siegmund, P.

    2009-12-01

    The study of infrasound is experiencing a renaissance since it was chosen as a verification technique for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The success of the verification technique strongly depends on knowledge of upper atmospheric processes. The ability of infrasound to probe the upper atmosphere starts to be exploited, taking the field beyond its monitoring application. Processes in the stratosphere couple to the troposphere and influence our daily weather and climate. Infrasound delivers actual observations on the state of the stratosphere with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Here we show the infrasonic signature, passively obtained, of a drastic change in the stratosphere due to the major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) of January 2009. A major SSW started around January 15. At the altitude of 30 km, the average temperature to the north of 65N increased in one week by more than 50 deg C, leading to exceptionally high temperatures of about -20 deg C. Simultaneously, the polar vortex reversed direction from eastward to westward. The warming was accompanied by a split-up of the polar vortex and an increased amplitude of the zonal wavenumber number 2 planetary waves. Infrasound recordings on the Northern Hemisphere have been analysed. These arrays are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the CTBT. Interacting oceanic waves are almost continuously emitting infrasound, where the whole atmospheric wind and temperature structure determines the detectability of these so-called microbaroms. Changes in this detectability have been associated to wind and temperatures changes around 50 km altitude due to the major SSW. With this study, we infer the enormous capacity of infrasound in passive acoustic remote sensing of stratospheric processes on a global scale with surface based instruments.

  4. Future Changes in Major Stratospheric Warmings in CCMI Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayarzaguena, B.; Langematz, U.; Polvani, L. M; Abalichin, J.; Akiyoshi, H.; Klekociuk, A.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Oman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Major stratospheric warmings (MSWs) are one of the most important phenomena of wintertime Arctic stratospheric variability. They consist of a warming of the Arctic stratosphere and a deceleration of the polar night jet, triggered by an anomalously high injection of tropospheric wave activity into the stratosphere. Due to the relevance and the impact of MSWs on the tropospheric circulation, several model studies have investigated their potential responses to climate change. However, a wide range of results has been obtained, extending from a future increase in the frequency of MSWs to a decrease. These discrepancies might be explained by different factors such as a competition of radiative and dynamical contributors with opposite effects on the Arctic polar vortex, biases of models to reproduce the related processes, or the metric chosen for the identification of MSWs. In this study, future changes in wintertime Arctic stratospheric variability are examined in order to obtaina more precise picture of future changes in the occurrence of MSWs. In particular, transient REFC2 simulations of different CCMs involved in the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) are used. These simulations extend from 1960 to 2100 and include forcings by halogens and greenhouse gases following the specifications of the CCMI-REF-C2 scenario. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea-ice distributions are either prescribed from coupled climate model integrations or calculated internally in the case of fully coupled atmosphere-ocean CCMs. Potential changes in the frequency and main characteristics of MSWs in the future are investigated with special focus on the dependence of the results on the criterion for the identification of MSWs and the tropospheric forcing of these phenomena.

  5. Semi diurnal lunar tides in the MLT at mid and high northern and southern latitudes during major sudden stratospheric warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Hoffmann, P.; Pedatella, N. M.; Janches, D.; Murphy, D. J.; Stober, G.

    2015-12-01

    From recent ground- and satellite-based observations as well as from model results, it is well known that lunar tide signatures are amplified significantly during northern hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming events (SSWs). Such signatures have been observed in the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere and mesosphere, and at the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) at the northern mid and high latitude mesosphere. More recently, ionospheric signatures at mid-latitudes have been also observed in satellite instruments and such observations are corroborated with model results when the lunar tides are included. From these results (N. Pedatella, personal communication), there is a strong hemispheric asymmetry, where ionospheric perturbations occur primarily in the southern hemisphere. Motivated by these results, in this work we compare the tidal signatures in the MLT region at mid and high latitudes in both hemispheres. We make use of MLT winds obtained with specular meteor radars (SMR) at Juliusruh (54oN), Andøya (69oN), Rio Grande (54oS), and Davis (69oS) around the 2009 and 2013 major SSWs. In addition we complement our studies, with model results from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model Extended version (WACCM-X) combined with the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) and the inclusions of lunar tides. Besides these results, we present a brief description and preliminary results of our new approach to derive wind fields in the MLT region using multi-static, multi-frequency specular meteor radars, called MMARIA.

  6. A study of the stratospheric final warming of 1982 in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechoso, C. R.; Farrara, J. D.; O'Neill, A.; Pope, V. D.

    1988-01-01

    Data obtained from stratospheric sounding units on board the NOAA-6 satellite were used to investigate the three-dimensional evolution of the final warming that takes place in the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere during spring, with particular attention given to the events of spring 1982. Evidence is presented for a strong influence of the topography of the Southern Hemisphere on the evolution of the final warming. An association was found between the location of anticylones in the upper stratosphere, warm pools of air in the lower stratosphere, and a climatological split of the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere.

  7. Large stratospheric sudden warming in Antarctic late winter and shallow ozone hole in 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzawa, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Sadao )

    1990-01-01

    There occurred a large stratospheric sudden warming in the southern hemisphere in late winter of 1988 which competes in suddenness and size with major mid-winter warmings in the northern hemisphere. Associated with the dynamical phenomenon of the sudden warming, total ozone increased over the eastern hemispheric part of Antarctica. The sudden warming as well as other warmings which followed it made the 1988 Antarctic ozone hole shallow in depth and small in area.

  8. Simulations of the February 1979 stratospheric sudden warming: Model comparisons and three-dimensional evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Manney, G.L. ); Farrara, J.D.; Mechoso, C.R. )

    1994-06-01

    The evolution of the stratospheric flow during the major stratospheric sudden warming of February 1979 is studied using two primitive equation models of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The United Kingdom Meteorological Office Stratosphere-Mesosphere Model (SMM) uses log pressure as a vertical coordinate. A spectral, entropy coordinate version of the SMM (entropy coordinate model, or ECM) that has recently been developed is also used. The ECM produces a more realistic recombination and recovery of the polar vortex in the midstratosphere after the warming. Comparison of SMM simulations with forecasts performed using the University of California, Los Angeles general circulation model confirms the previously noted sensitivity of stratospheric forecasts to tropospheric forecast and emphasizes the importance of adequate vertical resolution in modeling the stratosphere. The ECM simulations provide a schematic description of the three-dimensional evolution of the polar vortex and the motion of air through it. During the warming, the two cyclonic vortices tilt westward and equatorward with height. Strong upward velocities develop in the lower stratosphere on the west (cold) side of a baroclinic zone as it forms over Europe and Asia. Strong downward velocities appear in the upper stratosphere on the east (warm) side, strengthening the temperature gradients. After the peak of the warming, vertical velocities decrease, downward velocities move into the lower stratosphere, and upward velocities move into the upper stratosphere. Transport calculations show that air with high ozone mixing ratios is advected toward the pole from low latitudes during the warming, and air with low ozone mixing ratios is transported to the midstratosphere from both higher and lower altitudes along the baroclinic zone in the polar regions. 32 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A review of vertical coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere system: Effects of waves, sudden stratospheric warmings, space weather, and of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiğit, Erdal; Koucká Knížová, Petra; Georgieva, Katya; Ward, William

    2016-04-01

    This brief introductory review of some recent developments in atmosphere-ionosphere science is written for the "Vertical Coupling Special Issue" that is motivated by the 5th IAGA/ICMA/SCOSTEP Workshop on Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System. Basic processes of vertical coupling in the atmosphere-ionosphere system are discussed, focusing on the effects of internal waves, such as gravity waves and solar tides, sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs), and of solar activity on the structure of the atmosphere. Internal waves play a crucial role in the current state and evolution of the upper atmosphere-ionosphere system. SSW effects extend into the upper atmosphere, producing changes in the thermospheric circulation and ionospheric disturbances. Sun, the dominant energy source for the atmosphere, directly impacts the upper atmosphere and modulates wave-induced coupling. The emphasis is laid on the most recent developments in the field, while giving credits to older works where necessary. Various international activities in atmospheric vertical coupling, such as SCOSTEP's ROSMIC project, and a brief contextual discussion of the papers published in the special issue are presented.

  10. The role of wave-wave interaction during stratospheric splits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andreas; Plumb, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are the most studied example of troposphere-stratosphere coupling. They are often categorized as either splits (dominated by wavenumber 2) or displacements (wavenumber 1) and many studies (e.g. Charlton and Polvani (2007)) found statistically significant differences between the zonal wind fields and associated momentum fluxes. These differences are observed from the stratosphere to the surface. Our study focuses on how wave-wave interactions within the stratosphere can determine the type of SSW. We derive an energy budget for each wavenumber that allows us to quantify the major stratospheric processes within each wavenumber as well as the energy transfer from one wavenumber into another. Calculating these budgets, using MERRA reanalysis data, we find that for many split events the energy flux into the stratosphere is predominantly in wavenumber one. Thus, wave-wave interactions within the stratosphere, which can flux energy between wavenumbers, play a key role in splitting the polar stratospheric vortex. However, the signal is weak when we calculate composites over all splits as the timing of wave-wave interactions is unrelated to classic definitions (e.g. central date) highlighting the need for a dynamically more meaningful definition of SSWs. In order to better understand the role of wave-wave interactions, we employ GFDL's FMS shallow water model to simulate the stratospheric vortex under idealized forcings (similar to Polavani et al. (1994)). Contrary to many other idealized experiments, we are able to simulate both types of warmings with pure wavenumber one or two forcings. We further explore the strength of the necessary forcing to cause stratospheric splits in relation to the state of of the polar vortex. These results are compared to the work of Matthewman and Esler (2011) on splits being a result of resonance. We finally use the energy budget described above to determine the importance of wave-wave interaction in this

  11. A New Connection Between Greenhouse Warming and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R.

    1998-01-01

    The direct radiative effects of the build-up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have led to a gradual cooling of the stratosphere with largest changes in temperature occurring in the upper stratosphere, well above the region of peak ozone concentration.

  12. Ionospheric signatures of non-migrating tides and stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, Hermann; Stolle, Claudia; Häusler, Kathrin

    2010-05-01

    Observational data bases from recent years provided more and more evidence that climate and weather phenomena influence the dynamics of the high atmosphere. In the first part of this presentation we will address the dynamical interaction caused by non-migrating tides. Several of these tidal modes are generated in the lower atmosphere and are believed to propagate all the way up to the exosphere. Quantities that reflect the characteristics of the tides very well, are thermospheric temperature and wind. The dynamics of the neutrals is partly transferred to charged particles in the ionospheric E-layer. For that reason tidal signals are also present in the ionospheric E and F region. We show, as examples, the effect on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), vertical plasma drift and F region electron density. Since the coupling conditions and strength between neutral and charged particles vary over the course of a day (a year, a solar cycle), the recovery of the complete ionospheric tidal signals is complex. We will present the amplitude and annual variation for the most prominent tidal components. A very recent topic of vertical coupling is the influence of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) on the ionospheric electrodynamics. SSW has been shown to modify among others the diurnal variation of the vertical plasma drift and the electric field at equatorial latitudes. We will present global observations of the EEJ and its response to SSW events in 2002/2003. A typical feature is an enhancement of the EEJ intensity in the pre-noon hours and a reduction in the afternoon. Possible mechanisms causing these modifications will be discussed.

  13. Signature of a sudden stratospheric warming in the near-ground 7Be flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacini, A. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Mursula, K.; Echer, E.; Evangelista, H.

    2015-07-01

    We present here an evidence that cosmogenic 7Be isotopes produced in the lower stratosphere were measured in near-ground air at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after the southern hemispheric Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) of 2002. The analysis presented here is based on a comparison of 7Be data measured around Angra Nuclear Power Station (23°S 44°W) during the last three decades and a model estimate of the near-ground air 7Be concentration using the CRAC:7Be model of cosmogenic production together with a simplified model for atmospheric 7Be deposition that assimilates the regional precipitation data. Our results indicate that an anomalous stratosphere-troposphere coupling associated to the unique SSW of 2002 allowed stratospheric aerosols carrying 7Be to reach the ground level very quickly. This methodology points to an important use of 7Be as a quantitative tracer for stratospheric influence on near-ground air patterns.

  14. Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Warm Pool EI Nino Events in the GEOS CCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Song, In-Sun; Oman, Luke D.; Newman, Paul A.; Molod, Andrea M.; Frith, Stacey M.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new type of EI Nino event has been identified in the last decade. During "warm pool" EI Nino (WPEN) events, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central equatorial Pacific are warmer than average. The EI Nino signal propagates poleward and upward as large-scale atmospheric waves, causing unusual weather patterns and warming the polar stratosphere. In austral summer, observations show that the Antarctic lower stratosphere is several degrees (K) warmer during WPEN events than during the neutral phase of EI Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Furthermore, the stratospheric response to WPEN events depends of the direction of tropical stratospheric winds: the Antarctic warming is largest when WPEN events are coincident with westward winds in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere i.e., the westward phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Westward winds are associated with enhanced convection in the subtropics, and with increased poleward wave activity. In this paper, a new formulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, Version 2 (GEOS V2 CCM) is used to substantiate the observed stratospheric response to WPEN events. One simulation is driven by SSTs typical of a WPEN event, while another simulation is driven by ENSO neutral SSTs; both represent a present-day climate. Differences between the two simulations can be directly attributed to the anomalous WPEN SSTs. During WPEN events, relative to ENSO neutral, the model simulates the observed increase in poleward planetary wave activity in the South Pacific during austral spring, as well as the relative warming of the Antarctic lower stratosphere in austral summer. However, the modeled response to WPEN does not depend on the phase of the QBO. The modeled tropical wind oscillation does not extend far enough into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, likely explaining the model's insensitivity to the phase of the QBO during WPEN events.

  15. Dynamical amplification of the stratospheric solar response simulated with the Chemistry-Climate Model LMDz-Reprobus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, M.; Keckhut, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Claud, C.; Cugnet, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Lefèvre, F.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; Jumelet, J.; Lott, F.; Hourdin, F.; Thuillier, G.; Poulain, V.; Bossay, S.; Lemennais, P.; David, C.; Bekki, S.

    2012-02-01

    The impact of the 11-year solar cycle on the stratosphere and, in particular, on the polar regions is investigated using simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model (CCM) LMDz-Reprobus. The annual solar signal clearly shows a stratospheric response largely driven by radiative and photochemical processes, especially in the upper stratosphere. A month-by-months analysis suggests that dynamical feedbacks play an important role in driving the stratospheric response on short timescales. CCM outputs on a 10 days frequency indicate how, in the northern hemisphere, changes in solar heating in the winter polar stratosphere may influence the upward propagation of planetary waves and thus their deposition of momentum, ultimately modifying the strength of the mean stratospheric overtuning circulation at middle and high latitudes. The model results emphasize that the main temperature and wind responses in the northern hemisphere can be explained by a different timing in the occurrence of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) that are caused by small changes in planetary wave propagation depending on solar conditions. The differences between simulations forced by different solar conditions indicate successive positive and negative responses during the course of the winter. The solar minimum simulation generally indicates a slightly stronger polar vortex early in the winter while the solar maximum simulation experiences more early SSWs with a stronger wave-mean flow interaction and reduced zonal wind at mid-latitudes in the upper stratosphere. The opposite response is observed during mid-winter, in February, with more SSWs simulated for solar minimum conditions while solar maximum conditions are associated with a damped planetary wave activity and a reinforced vortex after the initial stratospheric warming period. In late winter, the response is again reversed, as noticed in the temperature differences, with major SSW mostly observed in the solar maximum simulation and less

  16. Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Rosenlof, Karen H; Portmann, Robert W; Daniel, John S; Davis, Sean M; Sanford, Todd J; Plattner, Gian-Kasper

    2010-03-01

    Stratospheric water vapor concentrations decreased by about 10% after the year 2000. Here we show that this acted to slow the rate of increase in global surface temperature over 2000-2009 by about 25% compared to that which would have occurred due only to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. More limited data suggest that stratospheric water vapor probably increased between 1980 and 2000, which would have enhanced the decadal rate of surface warming during the 1990s by about 30% as compared to estimates neglecting this change. These findings show that stratospheric water vapor is an important driver of decadal global surface climate change.

  17. The influence of climate change and the timing of stratospheric warmings on Arctic ozone depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.; Butchart, N.

    1994-01-20

    A three-dimensional model is presented to evaluate the influence of climatic change and increased carbon dioxide concentrations on ozone depletion in the Arctic region. Satellite data showing the time of stratospheric warmings during the winters of 1979-1992 is used in a series of idealized experiments where the timing of the warmings is varied by using different geopotential wave amplitudes. Results of the experiments indicate that for doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, an ozone hole in the Arctic is more likely to develop during years where late stratospheric warming has occurred after a relatively quiescent winter. The validity of this model is dependent on the future composition and temperature of the stratosphere. 43 refs., 21 figs.

  18. A comparison of observed and simulated properties of sudden stratospheric warmings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.; Miller, A. J.; Nagatani, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Review of observational data and dynamical numerical simulations of stratospheric warmings. Classes of warmings, major and minor (major if poleward movement of planetary-scale thermal systems entails reversal of polar circulation at 10 mb or below), trajectories of warm cells, vertical and horizontal scale of warm-air systems, the time-scale of warming, initial zonal flow conditions prior to a warming, circulation reversals, and details of the energy budget before and after a warming are discussed. The 1963 and 1973 types of warmings are contrasted: the strong baroclinic conversion of eddy potential to eddy kinetic energy was not repeated in the latter, but both events were preceded by very large fluxes from the troposphere. Numerical model simulations by various authors are compared and evaluated.

  19. Warming of the Arctic Lower Stratosphere by Light Absorbing Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Kok, G.; Anderson, B.

    2003-12-01

    Light absorption by particles such as soot and dust change the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere and contribute to regional and global climate change. The lower stratosphere is particularly sensitive to the presence of light absorbing particles (LAP) since particles in this region can reside from months to years, in contrast to upper tropospheric lifetimes of days to weeks. The source of particles in the lower stratosphere may be aircraft, meteorites or transport from tropospheric sources. There is a serious deficiency of accurate and quantitative measurements of these particles that limits our understanding of the origin and lifetime of aerosols in this region of the atmosphere and how their presence alters radiative fluxes that lead to climate change. Here we present measurements in the Arctic lower stratosphere with a new, single particle soot photometer (SP2) that has detected black carbon (BC) mass concentrations of 20-1000 ng m-3. These concentrations are 10-1000 times larger than those reported in previous experimental studies and are at least 30 times larger than predictions based on fuel consumption by commercial aircraft. The comparison of the measurements of BC with published 3D model predictions suggests that particles transported from the troposphere are the likely source of LAP in the Arctic lower stratosphere. Radiative transfer calculations that include the presence of a layer of LAP between 9 and 12 km, indicate an increase in the localised heating of this layer by approximately 25%.

  20. Vortex dynamics of stratospheric sudden warmings: a reanalysis data study using PV contour integral diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Robin; Thuburn, John; Kwasniok, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of the polar vortex behind stratospheric sudden warming events is investigated in a data-based study. Potential vorticity contour integral diagnostics of mass and circulation are calculated from ERA-40 reanalysis data for the stratosphere. The edge of the vortex is easily identifiable in these diagnostics as a high gradient of potential vorticity, and the warming events are clearly visible. The amount of air stripped from the vortex as part of a preconditioning leading up to the warming events is determined using the balance equation of the mass integral. Significant persistent removal of mass from the vortex is found, with several such stripping events identifiable through the winter, especially in those during which a major sudden warming event occurred. These stripping episodes are visible in corresponding potential vorticity maps, where tongues of potential vorticity can be seen to be stripped from the vortex and mixed into the sorrounding surf zone of turbulent air.

  1. Warming of the Arctic lower stratosphere by light absorbing particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Kok, G.; Raga, G.

    2004-03-01

    Recent measurements of light absorbing particles in the Arctic lower stratosphere show significantly higher mass concentrations of black carbon than were measured in 1992. The difference is primarily a result of measurements with a more quantitative and accurate technique than was previously used. We attribute the large amount of light absorbing material to transport from lower latitude, tropospheric sources rather than increases in aircraft emissions. The calculated heating rate in this aerosol layer, as compared to an atmosphere consisting of only gases, increases by 12% during the winter. This is a result of light absorption by the particles and could perturb the altitude of the local tropopause and affect tropospheric/stratospheric exchange processes.

  2. Global warming mitigation by sulphur loading in the stratosphere: dependence of required emissions on allowable residual warming rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.; Chernokulsky, Alexandr V.; Karpenko, Andrey A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2010-07-01

    An approach to mitigate global warming via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied, employing a large ensemble of numerical experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity IAP RAS CM. The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenic greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the twenty-first century. Different ensemble members are constructed by varying values of the parameters governing mass, horizontal distribution and radiative forcing of the stratospheric sulphates. It is obtained that, given a global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, among those studied in this paper latitudinal distributions of geoengineering aerosols, the most efficient one at the global basis is that peaked between 50° N and 70° N and with a somewhat smaller burden in the tropics. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is a little less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount to more than 10 TgS/year in the year 2100. These emissions may be reduced if some warming is allowed to occur in the twenty-first century. For instance, if the global temperature trend S g in every decade of this century is limited not to exceed 0.10 K/decade (0.15 K/decade), geoengineering emissions of 4-14 TgS/year (2-7 TgS/year) would be sufficient. Even if the global warming is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, for the stabilised global mean surface air temperature, global precipitation decreases by about 10%. If geoengineering emissions are stopped after several decades of implementation, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air

  3. On the composite response of the MLT to major sudden stratospheric warming events with elevated stratopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpasuvan, Varavut; Orsolini, Yvan J.; Chandran, Amal; Garcia, Rolando R.; Smith, Anne K.

    2016-05-01

    Based on a climate-chemistry model (constrained by reanalyses below ~50 km), the zonal-mean composite response of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) to major sudden stratospheric warming events with elevated stratopauses demonstrates the role of planetary waves (PWs) in driving the mean circulation in the presence of gravity waves (GWs), helping the polar vortex recover and communicating the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) impact across the equator. With the SSW onset, strong westward PW drag appears above 80 km primarily from the dissipation of wave number 1 perturbations with westward period of 5-12 days, generated from below by the unstable westward polar stratospheric jet that develops as a result of the SSW. The filtering effect of this jet also allows eastward propagating GWs to saturate in the winter MLT, providing eastward drag that promotes winter polar mesospheric cooling. The dominant PW forcing translates to a net westward drag above the eastward mesospheric jet, which initiates downwelling over the winter pole. As the eastward polar stratospheric jet returns, this westward PW drag persists above 80 km and acts synergistically with the return of westward GW drag to drive a stronger polar downwelling that warms the pole adiabatically and helps reform the stratopause at an elevated altitude. With the polar wind reversal during the SSW onset, the westward drag by the quasi-stationary PW in the winter stratosphere drives an anomalous equatorial upwelling and cooling that enhance tropical stratospheric ozone. Along with equatorial wind anomalies, this ozone enhancement subsequently amplifies the migrating semidiurnal tide amplitude in the winter midlatitudes.

  4. The Remarkable 2003--2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Kruger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the approximately 50-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly 2 months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with 2 previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged midwinter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over 2 standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (7 in the past 6 years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during 6 of the past 7 years, with 5 having much lower than usual potential for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of 5 of the last 7 years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  5. The Remarkable 2003-2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Krueger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the 40-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly two months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with two previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged mid-winter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over two standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (seven in the past six years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during six of the past seven years, with five having much lower than usual potential for PSC formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of five of the last seven years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every approximately 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  6. Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled Chemistry-Climate Interactions: From Global Warming Projections to Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Maycock, A. C.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in stratospheric composition can affect tropospheric composition and vice versa. Of particular interest are trace gas concentrations at the interface between these two atmospheric layers in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This is due to the crucial importance of composition changes in the UTLS for the global energy budget. In a recent study (Nowack et al., 2015), we provided further evidence that composition changes in the tropical UTLS can significantly affect global warming projections. Using a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we found a ~20% smaller global warming in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing if composition feedbacks were included in the calculations as compared to simulations in which composition feedbacks were not considered. We attributed this large difference in surface warming mainly to circulation-driven decreases in tropical UTLS ozone and related changes in stratospheric water vapor, partly counteracted by simultaneous changes in ice clouds. Here, we explain why this result is expected to differ between models and how, inter alia, tropospheric chemical mechanisms can contribute to this uncertainty. We highlight that improving our understanding of processes in the tropical UTLS and their representation in Earth system models remains a key challenge in climate research.Finally, taking geoengineering as a new example, we show that changes in the stratosphere can have an impact on air quality in the troposphere. In particular, we explain for a simple solar radiation management scenario how changes in surface ozone can be linked to changes in meteorology and composition in the troposphere and stratosphere. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of considering air quality impacts when evaluating a variety of geoengineering scenarios. Reference: Nowack, P.J., Abraham, N.L., Maycock, A.C., Braesicke, P., Gregory, J.M., Joshi, M.M., Osprey, A., and Pyle, J.A. Nature Climate Change 5, 41

  7. Behavior of the sodium and hydroxyl nighttime emissions during a stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. D.; Reed, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    The behavior of the sodium and hydroxyl nighttime emissions during a stratospheric warming has been studied principally by use of data from the airglow photometers on the OGO-4 satellite. It was found that during the late stages of a major warming, both emissions increase appreciably, with the sodium emission returning to normal levels prior to the decrease in hydroxyl emission. The emission behaviors are attributed to temperature and density variations from 70 to 94 km, and a one-dimensional hydrostatic model for that altitude range is used to calculate the effects on the emissions and on the mesospheric ozone densities.

  8. Changes in the composition of the northern polar upper stratosphere in February 2009 after a sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Alessandro; Funke, Bernd; López Puertas, Manuel; Gardini, Angela; Clarmann, Thomas; Santee, Michelle L.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Cordero, Raul R.

    2014-10-01

    Variability in the chemistry of the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere region has been analyzed focusing on high latitudes during the boreal winter in 2009 characterized by the strong sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) on 24 January. Data from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding aboard Envisat and the Microwave Limb Sounder on Aura have been used to exemplify these changes. Record high (low) values of O3 and ClO (temperature and HCl) for the winters of 2005-2012, coupled with a simultaneous enhancement of ClONO2, have been observed in February 2009. This suggests that the very low temperatures favor a more effective ozone production and a greater O3/O ratio. The latter is the main factor controlling active chlorine partitioning. Increases of ClO lead to high ClONO2 concentrations in the upper stratosphere at high latitudes, where its photodissociation rate is smaller. Since this increase of ClONO2 happens at the expense of HCl, the region of high ClONO2 roughly coincides with the region of low HCl. Although this period was characterized by an elevated stratopause event, the investigated region was not influenced by the descent of mesospheric air rich in NOx. Some limited enhancements in NOx at ~1 hPa occurred at latitudes greater than 80°N after about 20 February, but they became consistent only in March. Intrusion of midlatitude air mostly occurred between the SSW and early February. Then, the sum of volume mixing ratios of ClONO2 + ClO + HCl remained approximately constant and close to the values of the other years. In contrast, it was up to 0.2 ppbv lower during the SSW period. These atypical chemical conditions occurred also in February 2006, but 2009 stands out for its long-lasting effects, which persisted until late March.

  9. Rapid increases of CO and H2O in the tropical lower stratosphere during January 2010 stratospheric sudden warming event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Nawo; Kodera, Kunihiko; Ueyama, Rei; Li, Qian

    2014-05-01

    A potential transport mechanism of various tracers from the tropical troposphere to the lower stratosphere (LS) across the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is the overshooting convective clouds which inject air with tropospheric characteristics (high CO, high H2O, low O3) into the LS over a period of a few days. Evidence of such convective intrusions extending up to the 90 hPa level are observed over the southern African continent at the end of January 2010 in MLS and CALIOP satellite measurements. Rapid increases of CO and water vapor concentrations over Africa are associated with increased convective activity over the region a few days prior to the onset of stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event and contribute to enhancements in their zonal tropical mean concentrations during January and February 2010. The modulation of tropical upwelling by SSW appears to force stronger and deeper tropical convection, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere tropics. The January 2010 SSW event induced the lowest recorded LS temperature in MLS history (2004-13), allowing an unprecedented clear detection of stratosphere-troposphere exchange process by way of CO, H2O and O3 intrusions. The present study suggests that short duration, overshooting clouds can have a large impact on the zonally averaged fields of LS composition (zonally-averaged tracer fields in the tropical LS). In this presentation, we present the simulated CO, water vapor and ozone mixing ratios during Jan 2010 SSW using GEOS-Chem model. We further investigate the transport pathways based on trajectory analysis of air parcels in convective regions of the tropics.

  10. Forecasting the dynamic and electrodynamic response to the January 2009 sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Wang, Houjun; Akmaev, Rashid; Wu, Fei; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Iredell, Mark; Richmond, Arthur

    2011-07-01

    A whole atmosphere model has been used to simulate the changes in the global atmosphere dynamics and electrodynamics during the January 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW). In a companion paper, it has been demonstrated that the neutral atmosphere response to the 2009 warming can be simulated with high fidelity and can be forecast several days ahead. The 2009 warming was a major event with the polar stratospheric temperature increasing by 70 K. The neutral dynamics from the whole atmosphere model (WAM) was used to drive the response of the electrodynamics. The WAM simulation predicted a substantial increase in the amplitude of the 8-hour terdiurnal tide in the lower thermosphere dynamo region in response to the warming, at the expense of the more typical semidiurnal tides. The increase in the terdiurnal mode had a significant impact on the diurnal variation of the electrodynamics at low latitude. The changes in the winds in the dayside ionospheric E region increased the eastward electric field early in the morning, and drove a westward electric field in the afternoon. The initial large increase in upward drifts gradually moved to later local times, and decreased in magnitude. The change in the amplitude and phase of the electrodynamic response to the SSW is in good agreement with observations from the Jicamarca radar. The agreement with observations serves to validate the whole atmosphere dynamic response. Since WAM can forecast the neutral dynamics several days ahead, the simulations indicate that the electrodynamic response can also be predicted.

  11. Large-scale stirring in the southern stratospheric polar vortex during the final warming of 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Camara, Alvaro; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Ide, Kayo; Walterscheid, Richard; Schubert, Gerard

    2010-05-01

    The present work examines the large-scale stirring during the final warming of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere in the spring of 2005. A unique set of in situ observations collected by 27 superpressure balloons (SPBs) is used. The balloons, which were launched from McMurdo, Antarctica, by the Stratéole/VORCORE project, drifted for several weeks o tow different isopycnic levels in the lower stratosphere. To gain insight on the mechanisms responsible for the horizontal transport of air inside and outside the well-isolated vortex we examine the balloon trajectories in the framework of Lagrangian properties of the stratospheric flow. An approximation to coherent structures of the flow are visualized by computing finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). A combination of isentropic analysis and distributions of FTLE maxima reveals that air is stripped away from the vortex's interior as stable manifolds eventually cross the vortex's edge. It is shown that two SPBs escaped from the vortex within high potential vorticity tongues that developed in association with wave breaking at locations along the vortex's edge where forward and backward FTLE maxima approximately intersect. The trajectories of three SPBs flying as a group at the same isopycnic surface are examined and their behavior is interpreted in reference to the FTLE field. These results support the concept of stable and unstable manifolds governing transport of air masses across the periphery of the stratospheric polar vortex.

  12. Solar quiet current response in the African sector due to a 2009 sudden stratospheric warming event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, O. S.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Owolabi, O. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Rabiu, A. B.; Okoh, D.; Fujimoto, A.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Seemala, G. K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Onanuga, O. K.

    2016-08-01

    We present solar quiet (Sq) variation of the horizontal (H) magnetic field intensity deduced from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) records over Africa during an unusual strong and prolonged 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. A reduction in the SqH magnitude that enveloped the geomagnetic latitudes between 21.13°N (Fayum FYM) in Egypt and 39.51°S (Durban DRB) in South Africa was observed, while the stratospheric polar temperature was increasing and got strengthened when the stratospheric temperature reached its maximum. Another novel feature associated with the hemispheric reduction is the reversal in the north-south asymmetry of the SqH, which is indicative of higher SqH magnitude in the Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere during SSW peak phase. The reversal of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) or the counter electrojet (CEJ) was observed after the polar stratospheric temperature reached its maximum. The effect of additional currents associated with CEJ was observed in the Southern Hemisphere at middle latitude. Similar changes were observed in the EEJ at the South America, Pacific Ocean, and Central Asia sectors. The effect of the SSW is largest in the South American sector and smallest in the Central Asian sector.

  13. Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) and its immediate and broader influence on tropical dynamics using COSMIC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaka, Surendra

    2016-07-01

    We have analyzed temperature changes in troposphere and stratosphere from polar to tropical region during major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) using data derived from COSMIC over a period of 2007-2014. During peak period of SSW, a large variability noted in temperature structure, rise in temperature occurred down to the tropopause height (~8 km height) in polar region. At around 40 km altitudes (as data is available to this height), temperature increased by several tens of degrees within few days of SSW. After SSW termination, temperature decreased up to ~ 80°C in strong SSW cases. After about a week of SSW event, descending cold anomalies emerged at polar region. These features are emerging normally known as polar night jet oscillations (PJO). The cooling phase was much longer along with large spatial coverage than the warm phase. Due to SSW, polar T-CPT and H-CPT alter significantly. As a consequence of SSW, bottom of stratospheric region expands and hence the tropospheric region shrunk by the same height. A rapid atmospheric response is identified between polar and tropical region possibly through set up of strong meridional circulation. During occurrence of SSW, at 40 km altitude in polar region, large increase in temperature noted, while in the tropics temperature dropped at similar heights. After termination of SSW, descending warm anomalies observed over the tropical region for a longer duration, while the long cold phase persisted at the polar region. These warm anomalies at tropical region are much longer and deeper in comparison to those of the cold anomalies. It is concluded that SSW event at polar region connects to the entire tropical tropopause region across the equator in SH up to 40° S. Hence these processes need to be understood thoroughly to contribute to the temperature change.

  14. Equatorial ionization anomaly variability over the Brazilian region during boreal sudden stratospheric warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes, R. R.; Batista, I. S.; Candido, C. M. N.; Jonah, O. F.; Santos, P. C. P.

    2014-09-01

    This study refers to the connection between the stratosphere and ionosphere, investigating, specifically, the behavior of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and ionospheric effects over the Brazilian region during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. We studied three major warmings that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere winter 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 and a minor warming that occurred in 2010-2011. The solar activity was low for the first two cases and relatively moderate for the last two. In this study the EIA behavior was investigated using the ΔTEC (total electron content) parameter, which expresses the EIA relative intensity for the Brazilian sector. The results for the Brazilian region show, mainly after SSW temperature peak, an increase in the EIA intensity in the morning, followed by a decrease in the afternoon. As identified through ΔTEC signatures and consistently confirmed through wavelet power spectra analysis, this semidiurnal behavior is preserved for a number of days equal to the polar region thermal stabilization phase and it is very similar to the results obtained in pioneer studies in the Peruvian sector, in which TEC data was also used. In some cases the TEC negative variation is stronger than the positive, being noticeably more intense around the prereversal enhancement time, when the EIA is strongly suppressed in the Brazilian sector.

  15. A comparison of SAGE I data during the stratospheric warming of February-March, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagatani, R. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The fine scale vertical structure of SAGE I ozone and aerosol data during a stratospheric warming is investigated using meteorological and SBUV ozone data. By stratifying the ozone and aerosol data for a limited time period, a comparison of the structure of profiles becomes possible under different meteorological conditions. For example, the cold air region shows more laminated structures than the other regions. In addition, vertical motions calculated at the same locations as the SAGE profiles show that they are consistent with variances found in the ozone and aerosol data.

  16. A Lagrangian analysis of a sudden stratospheric warming - Comparison of a model simulation and LIMS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. B.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Fairlie, T. D.; Blackshear, W. T.; Grose, William L.; Turner, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Lagrangian area diagnostics and trajectory techniques are used to investigate the radiative and dynamical characteristics of a spontaneous sudden warming which occurred during a 2-yr Langley Research Center model simulation. The ability of the Langley Research Center GCM to simulate the major features of the stratospheric circulation during such highly disturbed periods is illustrated by comparison of the simulated warming to the observed circulation during the LIMS observation period. The apparent sink of vortex area associated with Rossby wave-breaking accounts for the majority of the reduction of the size of the vortex and also acts to offset the radiatively driven increase in the area occupied by the 'surf zone'. Trajectory analysis of selected material lines substantiates the conclusions from the area diagnostics.

  17. Estimating efficiency of the controlled sulphur emissions in the stratosphere to mitigate global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Chernokulsky, A. V.; Karpenko, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    An attempt is made to estimate an efficiency of sulphur loading in the stratosphere to mitigate global warming employing a large ensemble of numerical experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS (IAP RAS CM). In this ensemble, the model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenical greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860--2100 with an additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere started in 2012. Different ensemble members were constructed by varying emission intensity, residence time and optical properites of stratospheric sulphur. Given global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, at the global basis the most efficient latitudinal distribution of geoengineering aerosols is that peaked between 50° N and 70° N. At regional scale other latitudinal distributions may be superior. In particular, the distributions peaked in the tropics are the most efficient to reduce warming in the subtropics and the distrbutions peaked at 50° N is the superior to mitigate annual warming in Siberia. However, an approach of geoengineering has inherent flaws. First, it results in a widespread dryness. The second, and perhaps more dangerous, issue is due to the fast removal of geoengineering climatic effect if the corresponding emissions are stopped. After this stop, climate trajectory returns to the non--mitigated one within few decades. This results in a necessity to continue a geoengineering mitigation very long in future. Third, estimated sulphur emissions amount 5-10 TgS/yr in 2050 and 10-14 TgS/yr in 2100 which is not a small part of the current emissions of tropospheric sulphates. The latter may lead to marked enhancement of the tropospheric sulphates pollution. The results obtained with the IAP RAS CM are further interpreted by making use of an energy--balance climate model. As a whole, the results obtained with this simpler model support conclusions made on

  18. Equatorial Circulation Changes up to the Mesosopause during Stratospheric Sudden Warming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirooka, T.; Ohata, T.; Eguchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Significant general circulation changes are brought about in the equatorial region as well as in the polar region during stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events. Many studies have been devoted for the region up to the stratopause level from both observational and theoretical aspects. However, observational evidence is still fragmentary in the region above the stratopause, because global data capable of comprehensive analyses are still insufficient for the region. In this study, we make global gridpoint data derived from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations for geopotential and temperature fields up to the mesopause level. Using these data, we make dynamical analyses for equatorial zonal wind and temperature changes since June 2004 to present. During SSW events, poleward flows of the residual mean meridional circulation are enhanced to lead to equatorial temperature perturbations consisting of a cooling in the upper stratosphere and a warming in the lower mesosphere. These temperature perturbations are found to strengthen the equatorial semiannual oscillation (SAO) with two separate out-of-phase amplitude maxima centered near the stratopause (SSAO) and the middle mesosphere (MSAO) through the thermal wind balance at the equator. In particular, the large amplification of the SAO is clearly observed during mid-winter SSW events when the SSAO and the MSAO have eastely and westerly maxima respectively. Moreover, we compare the results with simulated ones by a general circulation model.

  19. Effects of Geomagnetic Storms and Sudden Stratospheric Warmings on Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Gablehouse, R. D.; Gell, D. A.; Johnson, R. M.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Killeen, T. L.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Ortland, D. A.; Skinner, W. R.; Solomon, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Neutral winds in the MLT region are affected by dynamical influences from above and below. This is particular true at high latitudes, where solar forcing of the migrating tide may be smaller but other forcings play a big role. During geomagnetic storms, MLT neutral winds can be driven by magnetospheric convection through ion-neutral interactions. This is imparted onto the ionosphere as a cross polar cap potential forming an anti-sunward two-cell ion convection pattern which in turn drives the neutral winds in the polar MLT region. The question has always been how deep into the atmosphere the ion drift can affect the neutral wind. Scarcity of high-latitude data has hampered further understanding of the problem. Also, in the winter polar regions, the stratosphere from time to time experiences sudden warming events. While it is generally understood that these warmings are caused by troposphere planetary wave activity, there are still many unknown aspects to their excitation and propagation. There are also changes in the MLT region associated with these warming events. Moreover, this phenomena, although usually confined to the northern hemisphere, occurred in the southern hemisphere in 2002. We will use TIDI data to examine MLT neutral winds during the recent geomagnetic storm events in 2002 and 2003, and present data during the recent 2002 southern hemisphere warming event.

  20. Towards a physical understanding of stratospheric cooling under global warming through a process-based decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Ren, R.-C.; Cai, Ming

    2016-02-01

    The stratosphere has been cooling under global warming, the causes of which are not yet well understood. This study applied a process-based decomposition method (CFRAM; Coupled Surface-Atmosphere Climate Feedback Response Analysis Method) to the simulation results of a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) model (CCSM4; Community Climate System Model, version 4), to demonstrate the responsible radiative and non-radiative processes involved in the stratospheric cooling. By focusing on the long-term stratospheric temperature changes between the "historical run" and the 8.5 W m-2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5) scenario, this study demonstrates that the changes of radiative radiation due to CO2, ozone and water vapor are the main divers of stratospheric cooling in both winter and summer. They contribute to the cooling changes by reducing the net radiative energy (mainly downward radiation) received by the stratospheric layer. In terms of the global average, their contributions are around -5, -1.5, and -1 K, respectively. However, the observed stratospheric cooling is much weaker than the cooling by radiative processes. It is because changes in atmospheric dynamic processes act to strongly mitigate the radiative cooling by yielding a roughly 4 K warming on the global average base. In particular, the much stronger/weaker dynamic warming in the northern/southern winter extratropics is associated with an increase of the planetary-wave activity in the northern winter, but a slight decrease in the southern winter hemisphere, under global warming. More importantly, although radiative processes dominate the stratospheric cooling, the spatial patterns are largely determined by the non-radiative effects of dynamic processes.

  1. Stratospheric Impacts on Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Long-term circulation change in the stratosphere can have substantial effects on the oceans and their circulation. In this study we investigate whether and how sea ice at the ocean surface responds to intraseasonal stratospheric variability. Our main question is whether the surface impact of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) is strong and long enough to affect sea ice. A related question is whether the increased frequency of SSWs during the 2000s contributed to the rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice during this time. To this end we analyze observations of sea ice, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and a long control integration with a stratospherically-enhanced version of the GFDL CM2.1 climate model. From both observations and the model we find that stratospheric extreme events have a demonstrable impact on the distribution of Arctic sea ice. The areas most affected are near the edge of the climatological ice line over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean. The absolute changes in sea ice coverage amount to +/-10 %. Areas and magnitudes of increase and decrease are about the same. It is thus unlikely that the increased SSW frequency during the 2000s contributed to the decline of sea ice during that period. The sea ice changes are consistent with the impacts of a negative NAO at the surface and can be understood in terms of (1) dynamical change due to altered surface wind stress and (2) thermodynamical change due to altered temperature advection. Both dynamical and thermodynamical change positively reinforce each other in producing sea change. A simple advection model is used to demonstrate that most of the sea ice change can be explained from the sea ice drift due to the anomalous surface wind stress. Changes in the production or melt of sea ice by thermodynamical effects are less important. Overall, this study adds to an increasing body of evidence that the stratosphere not only impacts weather and climate of the atmosphere but also the surface and

  2. Behavior of zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio and its relationship with zonal mean temperature during the winter 1978-1979 stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.-H.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio in the lower stratosphere near 75 deg N and its relationship with the zonal mean temperature during the January-February 1979 stratospheric sudden warming have been investigated based on the satellite sensor SAM II (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement) and auxiliary meteorological measurements. The results indicate that distinct changes in the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio occurred during this stratospheric sudden warming. It is also found that horizontal eddy transport due to planetary waves may have played a significant role in determining the distribution of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio.

  3. Structure and Evolution of Singular Vectors in a Global Forecast Model during the January 2009 Stratospheric Sudden Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckermann, S. D.; Reynolds, C. A.; Coy, L.

    2012-12-01

    Singular vectors (SV) of a global forecast model are computed over deep domains of the Northern Hemisphere throughout January 2009 to investigate rapidly-growing perturbations and troposphere-stratosphere predictability. In early-to-mid January, when the stratospheric vortex was relatively undisturbed, the fastest growing stratospheric SV perturbations form initially on the equatorward flanks of the vortex jet as isolated tilted packet-like structures that grow rapidly in energy and horizontal scale, propagate into the core of the vortex jet and self-organize into quasi-barotropic Rossby-wave trains. From 22-28 January, a period characterized by a major wave-2 stratospheric sudden warming (SSW), stratospheric SV structure and evolution change dramatically. SV energy growth increases and the leading stratospheric SV (SV1) assumes an hemispheric geopotential height structure closely resembling a negative anomaly in the northern annular mode (NAM). Forecasts with atmospheric initial conditions perturbed with initial ±SV1 perturbations produce rapid growth of this hemispheric annular perturbation, which in turn either enhances or suppresses the forecast strength of the SSW. Relative to a control forecast, +SV1-perturbed forecasts increase the strength of the forecast SSW, as reflected in the rate and degree of vortex splitting, the magnitude of forced mean stratospheric easterlies and the descent rate of easterly shear zones, leading to mean easterlies in the high-latitude troposphere and stratosphere after 3-4 days. Conversely, -SV1-perturbed forecasts weaken and then halt the warming, yielding a minor SSW with mean westerlies throughout the high-latitude troposphere and stratosphere after ~4 days.This forecast SSW sensitivity to growing ±SV1 perturbations arises in each case as a positive feedback driven by large reinforcing changes in planetary-wave Eliassen-Palm (EP) fluxes, with +SV1-perturbed forecasts increasing poleward EP fluxes and -SV1-perturbed forecasts

  4. The Plunger Hypothesis: an overview of a new theory of stratosphere-troposphere dynamic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S.; Baldwin, M. P.; Stephenson, D.

    2015-12-01

    I will demonstrate the advantages of a new method of quantifying polar stratosphere-troposphere coupling by considering large-scale movements of mass into and out of the polar stratosphere. This project aims to use these mass movements to explain pressure and temperature anomalies throughout the polar troposphere and lower stratosphere in the aftermath of extreme stratospheric events. We hypothesise that these mass movements are induced by deposition of momentum by breaking waves in the stratosphere, slowing the wintertime polar vortex, and so are associated with sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). Such a mass movement in the upper stratosphere acts to compress the polar atmosphere below it in the manner of a plunger. In this way the pressure anomaly in the upper polar stratosphere 'controls' the pressure and temperature anomalies below by adiabatic compression of the polar atmospheric column. Better understanding this method of control will allow us to use stratospheric data to improve medium-range forecasting ability in the troposphere. One of the key innovations featured in this project is considering pressure and temperature fields at fixed geopotential surfaces, allowing for the easy observation of mass movement into and out of a polar cap region (which we have defined as north of 65N) as a function of altitude. Reanalysis data considered in this manner demonstrates a relationship between tropospheric pressure anomalies and stratospheric anomalies in the polar cap, and so a way to predict tropospheric variability given stratospheric information. This work forms part of a three and a half year PhD project.

  5. Lunar tidal effects during the 2013 stratospheric sudden warming as simulated by the TIME-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A. I.; Forbes, J. M.; Zhang, X.; Fejer, B. G.; Yudin, V. A.; Pedatella, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric Sudden Warmings (SSW) are associated with strong planetary wave activity in the winterpolar stratosphere which result in a very disturbed middle atmosphere. The changes in the middle atmospherealter the propagation conditions and the nonlinear interactions of waves and tides, and result in SSW signals in the upper atmosphere in e.g., neutral winds, electric fields, ionospheric currents and plasma distribution. The upper atmosphere changes can be significant at low-latitudes even during medium solar flux conditions. Observationsalso reveal a strong lunar signal during SSW periods in the low latitude vertical drifts and in ionospheric quantities. Forbes and Zhang [2012] demonstrated that during the 2009 SSW period the Pekeris resonance peak of the atmosphere was altered such that the M2 and N2 lunar tidal componentsgot amplified. This study focuses on the effect of the lunar tidal forcing on the thermosphere-ionosphere system during theJanuary 2013 SSW period. We employthe NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM)with a nudging scheme using the Whole-Atmosphere-Community-Climate-Model-Extended (WACCM-X)/Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS5) results to simulate the effects of meteorological forcing on the upper atmosphere. Additionally lunar tidal forcingis included at the lower boundary of the model. To delineate the lunar tidal effects a base simulation without lunar forcingis employed. Interestingly, Jicamarca observations of that period reveal a suppression of the daytime vertical drift before and after the drift enhancement due the SSW. The simulation suggests that the modulation of the vertical driftmay be caused by the interplay of the migrating solar and lunar semidiurnal tide, and therefore can only be reproduced by the inclusion of both lunar and solar tidal forcings in the model. In this presentation the changes due to the lunar tidal forcing will be quantified, and compared

  6. Subtropical influence on January 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event: diagnostic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidereit, Andrea; Peters, Dieter; Grams, Christian; Wolf, Gabriel; Riemer, Michael; Gierth, Franziska; Quinting, Julian; Keller, Julia; Martius, Olivia

    2015-04-01

    In January 2009 a major sudden stratospheric warming (MSSW) event occurred with the strongest NAM anomaly ever observed at 10 hPa. Also stratospheric Eliassen-Palm flux convergence and zonal mean eddy heat fluxes of ultra-long waves at 100 hPa layer were unusually strong in the mid-latitudes just before and after the onset of the MSSW. Beside internal interactions between the background flow and planetary waves and between planetary waves among themselves the subtropical tropospheric forcing of these enhanced heat fluxes is still an open question. This study investigates in more detail the dynamical reasons for the pronounced heat fluxes based on ERA-Interim re-analysis data. Investigating the regional contributions of the eddy heat flux to the northern hemispheric zonal mean revealed a distinct spatial pattern with maxima in the Eastern Pacific/North America and the Eastern North Atlantic/ Europe in that period. The first region is related with an almost persistent tropospheric blocking high (BH) over the Gulf of Alaska dominating the upper-level flow and the second region with a weaker BH over Northern Europe. The evolution of the BH over the Gulf of Alaska can be explained by a chain of tropospheric weather events linked to and maintained by subtropical and tropical influences: MJO (phase 7-8) and the developing cold phase of ENSO (La Niña), which are in coherence over the Eastern Pacific favor enhanced subtropical baroclinicity. In turn extratropical cyclone activity increases and shifts more poleward associated with an increase of the frequency of warm conveyor belts (WCB). These WCBs support enhanced poleward directed eddy heat fluxes in Eastern Pacific/North-American region. The Eastern North Atlantic/European positive heat flux anomaly is associated with a blocking high over Scandinavia. This BH is maintained by an eastward propagating Rossby wave train, emanating from the block over the Gulf of Alaska. Eddy feedback processes support this high pressure

  7. Response of the Antarctic stratosphere to warm pool El Niño Events in the GEOS CCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Song, I.-S.; Oman, L. D.; Newman, P. A.; Molod, A. M.; Frith, S. M.; Nielsen, J. E.

    2011-09-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, Version 2 (GEOS V2 CCM) is used to investigate the response of the Antarctic stratosphere to (1) warm pool El Niño (WPEN) events and (2) the sensitivity of this response to the phase of the QBO. A new formulation of the GEOS V2 CCM includes an improved general circulation model and an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Two 50-yr time-slice simulations are forced by repeating annual cycles of sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations composited from observed WPEN and neutral ENSO (ENSON) events. In these simulations, greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance concentrations represent the present-day climate. The modelled responses to WPEN, and to the phase of the QBO during WPEN, are compared with NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis. WPEN events enhance poleward tropospheric planetary wave activity in the central South Pacific region during austral spring, leading to relative warming of the Antarctic lower stratosphere in November/December. During the easterly phase of the QBO (QBO-E), the GEOS V2 CCM reproduces the observed 4-5 K warming of the polar region at 50 hPa, in the WPEN simulation relative to ENSON. In the recent past, the response to WPEN events was sensitive to the phase of the QBO: the enhancement in planetary wave driving and the lower stratospheric warming signal were mainly associated with WPEN events coincident with QBO-E. In the GEOS V2 CCM, however, the Antarctic response to WPEN events is insensitive to the phase of the QBO: the modelled response is always easterly QBO-like. The QBO signal does not extend far enough into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere to modulate convection and thus planetary wave activity in the south central Pacific.

  8. Influence of the sudden stratospheric warming on quasi-2-day waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) on a quasi-2-day wave (QTDW) with westward zonal wave number 3 (W3) is investigated using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). The summer easterly jet below 90 km is strengthened during an SSW, which results in a larger refractive index and thus more favorable conditions for the propagation of W3. In the winter hemisphere, the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux diagnostics indicate that the strong instabilities at middle and high latitudes in the mesopause region are important for the amplification of W3, which is weakened during SSW periods due to the deceleration or even reversal of the winter westerly winds. Nonlinear interactions between the W3 and the wave number 1 stationary planetary wave produce QTDW with westward zonal wave number 2 (W2). The meridional wind perturbations of the W2 peak in the equatorial region, while the zonal wind and temperature components maximize at middle latitudes. The EP flux diagnostics indicate that the W2 is capable of propagating upward in both winter and summer hemispheres, whereas the propagation of W3 is mostly confined to the summer hemisphere. This characteristic is likely due to the fact that the phase speed of W2 is larger, and therefore its waveguide has a broader latitudinal extension. The larger phase speed also makes W2 less vulnerable to dissipation and critical layer filtering by the background wind when propagating upward.

  9. The Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming of January 2013: Analyses and Forecasts in the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, Lawrence; Pawson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We examine the major stratosphere sudden warming (SSW) that occurred on 6 January 2013, using output from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) GEOS-5 (Goddard Earth Observing System) near-real-time data assimilation system (DAS). Results show that the major SSW of January 2013 falls into the vortex splitting type of SSW, with the initial planetary wave breaking occurring near 10 hPa. The vertical flux of wave activity at the tropopause responsible for the SSW occurred mainly in the Pacific Hemisphere, including the a pulse associated with the preconditioning of the polar vortex by wave 1 identified on 23 December 2012. While most of the vertical wave activity flux was in the Pacific Hemisphere, a rapidly developing tropospheric weather system over the North Atlantic on 28 December is shown to have produced a strong transient upward wave activity flux into the lower stratosphere coinciding with the peak of the SSW event. In addition, the GEOS-5 5-day forecasts accurately predicted the major SSW of January 2013 as well as the upper tropospheric disturbances responsible for the warming. The overall success of the 5-day forecasts provides motivation to produce regular 10-day forecasts with GEOS-5, to better support studies of stratosphere-troposphere interaction.

  10. Vertical and Horizontal Coupling of Atmospheres During Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Fazlul; Pallamraju, Duggirala; Chau, Jorge L.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of neutral behavior over low- mid- and high-latitudes and electrodynamic behavior over low-latitude middle and upper atmosphere during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events have been investigated in this study. Over a decade long datasets of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and total electron content (TEC) from Indian longitudes at low-latitudes have been used for studying the electrodynamical behavior. From the amplitudes of quasi-16 day waves in these two datasets it has been observed that the vertical coupling is stronger during strong major SSW events and weaker but significant for the minor SSW events. The neutral dynamical behavior has been investigated using both optical and radio measurements. The oxygen dayglow emission intensities from low-latitudes showed enhancements in and around the duration of SSW occurrences. Evidences of equatorward winds at mesosphere lower thermosphere altitude from TIMED-TIDI and lower-thermospheric temperature enhancements from TIMED-SABER are observed in the duration of enhancement in dayglow emission intensities. The results from these three independent datasets and discrete results from earlier modeling and observational studies suggest that an equatorward circulation in the winds is set up in the MLT-region during SSW. The low-latitude oxygen intensity enhancements during SSW are attributed to be due to the transport of oxygen from high- to low-latitudes. Enhanced semi-diurnal tides are also observed during the SSW events in the low-latitude dayglow emission intensities and specular meteor radar-based mid- and high-latitude horizontal winds. These results will be presented in the context of neutral and wave dynamics of the mesosphere-thermosphere region during SSW events.

  11. Multimodel comparison of the ionosphere variability during the 2009 sudden stratosphere warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Fang, T.-W.; Jin, H.; Sassi, F.; Schmidt, H.; Chau, J. L.; Siddiqui, T. A.; Goncharenko, L.

    2016-07-01

    A comparison of different model simulations of the ionosphere variability during the 2009 sudden stratosphere warming (SSW) is presented. The focus is on the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere simulated by the Ground-to-topside model of the Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy (GAIA), Whole Atmosphere Model plus Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere (WAM+GIP), and Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model eXtended version plus Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (WACCMX+TIMEGCM). The simulations are compared with observations of the equatorial vertical plasma drift in the American and Indian longitude sectors, zonal mean F region peak density (NmF2) from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites, and ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) total electron content (TEC) at 75°W. The model simulations all reproduce the observed morning enhancement and afternoon decrease in the vertical plasma drift, as well as the progression of the anomalies toward later local times over the course of several days. However, notable discrepancies among the simulations are seen in terms of the magnitude of the drift perturbations, and rate of the local time shift. Comparison of the electron densities further reveals that although many of the broad features of the ionosphere variability are captured by the simulations, there are significant differences among the different model simulations, as well as between the simulations and observations. Additional simulations are performed where the neutral atmospheres from four different whole atmosphere models (GAIA, HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere), WAM, and WACCMX) provide the lower atmospheric forcing in the TIME-GCM. These simulations demonstrate that different neutral atmospheres, in particular, differences in the solar migrating semidiurnal tide, are partly responsible for the differences in the simulated

  12. Worldwide impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings on the ionosphere and thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharenko, Larisa; Coster, Anthea; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Erickson, Phillip; Aponte, Nestor; Harvey, V. Lynn; Pedatella, Nicholas; Maute, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated large variations in the low-latitude ionosphere during strong, persistent meteorological disturbances known as sudden stratospheric warmings. Several possible lower/upper atmosphere coupling mechanisms were identified, including changes in the dynamics of the background neutral atmosphere, modification of solar and lunar tides, and subsequent variations in electric field. We extend these studies using observations by GNSS TEC receivers, by several ionosondes located at low, middle, and high latitudes, and by Jicamarca, Arecibo and Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radars to investigate large-scale ionospheric disturbances for several SSW events. To separate ionospheric anomalies associated with SSW from regular ionospheric behavior, we develop an empirical model of ionospheric parameters (TEC, NmF2) using available long-term data records (10-40 years of data depending on the instrument). The models describe variations in parameters for each longitude/latitude bin (or ionosonde location) as a function of solar activity, geomagnetic activity, day of year, and local time. Ionospheric anomalies are obtained as the difference between the observations and the empirical model. Ionospheric anomalies are observed for both major and minor SSW events, reaching 50-100% variation from expected seasonal behavior for major SSW events and 30-60% variation for minor SSW events. The largest variations in the daytime TEC and NmF2 are observed both in the crests of equatorial ionization anomaly and at 40-60S (geodetic). Recent expansion of GNSS TEC receiver network to high latitudes in the southern hemisphere indicates that SSW anomalies are communicated across the globe and associated with ionospheric disturbances even over Antarctica. Observational studies focused on SSW events present an important opportunity to better understand processes governing the behavior of the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. We use examples of observations from

  13. Ionospheric variability over Indian low latitude linked with the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Amit; Alex, Sobhana; Samireddipalle, Sripathi; Peddapati, PavanChaitanya

    In this paper, we analyze radar observations of ExB drift and plasma irregularities, ionosonde observations of E- and F-layer parameters including spread F, and magnetic field observations made from Indian low latitudes linked with the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. ExB drift variations presented here are the first of their kind from the Indian sector as far as the effect of SSW is concerned. Difference of magnetic fields observed from the equator and low latitude (∆H) and ExB drift show linear relation and both show remarkably large positive values in the morning and negative values in the afternoon exhibiting semidiurnal behavior. Remarkable changing patterns in the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2) and F3 layer (foF3) were observed after the occurrence of SSW. Large variations with quasi-16-day periodicity were observed in ∆H, foF2 and foF3. Both semidiurnal and quasi-16-day wave modulation observed after the 2009 SSW event are consistent with those reported earlier. We also noted quasi-6 day variations in ∆H and foF2 soon after the SSW commencement, not much reported before. During the counter-electrojet events linked with the SSW event, while equatorial Es (Esq) disappeared as expected, there were no blanketing Es (Esb), a finding not reported and discussed earlier. Esb was also not formed at the off-equatorial location, indicating the absence of required vertical wind shear, but E region plasma irregularities were observed by the ionosonde and radar with a close relationship between the two. Weak F region irregularities were observed in the post-midnight hours and case studies suggest the possible role of SSW related background electric field in the manifestation of post-midnight F region irregularities.

  14. Ionospheric variability over Indian low latitude linked with the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, A. K.; Pavan Chaitanya, P.; Sripathi, S.; Alex, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze radar observations of E × B drift and plasma irregularities, ionosonde observations of E and F layer parameters including spread F, and magnetic field observations made from Indian low latitudes linked with the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. E × B drift variations presented here are the first of their kind from the Indian sector as far as the effect of SSW is concerned. Difference of magnetic fields observed from the equator and low-latitude (∆H) and E × B drift show linear relation, and both show remarkably large positive values in the morning and negative values in the afternoon exhibiting semidiurnal behavior. Remarkable changing patterns in the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2) and F3 layer (foF3) were observed after the occurrence of SSW. Large variations with quasi 16 day periodicity were observed in ∆H, foF2, and foF3. Both semidiurnal and quasi 16 day wave modulation observed after the 2009 SSW event are consistent with those reported earlier. We also noted quasi 6 day variations in ∆H and foF2 soon after the SSW commencement, not much reported before. During the counterelectrojet events linked with the SSW event, while equatorial Es (Esq) disappeared as expected, there were no blanketing Es (Esb), a finding not reported and discussed earlier. Esb was also not formed at the off-equatorial location, indicating the absence of required vertical wind shear, but E region plasma irregularities were observed by the ionosonde and radar with a close relationship between the two. Weak F region irregularities were observed in the postmidnight hours, and case studies suggest the possible role of SSW-related background electric field in the manifestation of postmidnight F region irregularities.

  15. The Tropospheric cooling and the Stratospheric warming at Tirunelveli during the Annular Solar Eclipse of 15 January, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelli, Narendra Reddy; Choudhary, Raj Kumar; Rao, Kusuma

    The UTLS region, a transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere is of concern to climate scientists as its temperature variations are crucial in determining the water vapour and the other trace gases transport between the two regions, which inturn determine the radiative warming and cooling of the troposphere and the stratosphere. To examine, the temperature variations from surface to lower stratosphere,a major experiment facility was set up for upper air and surface measurements during the Annular Solar Eclipse (ASE) of January 15, 2010 at Tirunelveli (8.72 N, 77.81 E) located in 94% eclipse path in the southern peninsular India. The instruments,namely, 1. high resolution GPS radiosonde system, 2. an instrumented 15 m high Mini Boundary Layer Mast, 3. an instrumented 1 m high Near Surface Mast (NSM), radiation and other ground sensors were operated during the period 14-19 Jan, 2010. The ASE of January 15, 2010 was unique being the longest in duration (9 min, 15.3 sec) among the similar ones that occurred in the past. The major inference from an analysis of surface and upper air measurements is the occurrence of troposphere cooling during the eclipse with the peak cooling of 5 K at 15 km height with respect to no-eclispe conditions. Also, intense warming in the stratosphere is observed with the peak warming of 7 K at 19 km height.Cooling of the Troposphere as the eclipse advanced and the revival to its normal temperature is clearly captured in upper air measurements. The downward vertical velocities observed at 100 hPa in NCEP Re-analyses, consistent with the tropospheric cooling during the ASE window, may be causing the stratospheric warming. Partly, these vertical velocities could be induced by the mesoscale circulation associated with the mesoscale convective system that prevailed parallel to the eclipse path as described in METEOSAT imageries of brightness temperatures from IR channel. Further analysis is being carried out to quantify the

  16. Gravity wave effects in the thermosphere during sudden stratospheric warmings and vertical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves are primarily generated in the lower atmosphere, propagate upward, and have profound effects not only in the middle atmosphere but also at much higher altitudes. However, their effects in the upper atmosphere beyond the turbopause ( 105 km) have not been sufficiently studied. Using a general circulating model extending from the lower atmosphere to upper thermosphere and incorporating a whole atmosphere nonlinear parameterization of small-scale GWs developed by Yiǧit et al. (2008)}, we demonstrate that not only GWs penetrate into the thermosphere above the turbopause but also produce substantial dynamical and thermal effects that are comparable to ion drag and Joule heating. During sudden stratospheric warmings, GW propagation in the thermosphere is enhanced by more than a factor of three (Yiǧit and Medvedev, 2012)}, producing appreciable body forcing of up to 600 m s^{-1} day^{-1} around 250-300 km. The resultant impact on the variability of the thermospheric circulation can exceed ± 50% depending on the phase of the sudden warming (Yiǧit et al., 2014)}. References: Yiǧit, E., and A. S. Medvedev (2012), Gravity waves in the thermosphere during a sudden stratospheric warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L21101, doi:10.1029/2012GL053812. Yiǧit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135. Yiǧit, E., A. S. Medvedev, S. L. England, and T. J. Immel (2014), Simulated vari- ability of the high-latitude thermosphere induced by small-scale gravity waves during a sudden stratospheric warming, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JA019283.

  17. Definition of Stratospheric Sudden Warming Events for Multi-Model Analysis and Its Application to the CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junsu; Son, Seok-Woo; Park, Hyo-Seok

    2015-04-01

    The onset of major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events has been often defined as the date when the westerly at 10 hPa and 60°N turns to easterly during winter, corresponding to warmer polar stratosphere than mid latitudes. This simple definition effectively detects the observed characteristics of SSW, but its application to climate models, which have different background flow and temporal variability, is often challenging. For example, the model whose stratospheric mean wind is too weak tends to overestimate the frequency of zonal-wind reversal and SSW events. In this study we propose a simple definition of major SSW events that is applicable to multi-model analysis. Specifically, SSW events are defined when the tendency of zonal-mean zonal wind at 10 hPa at 60°N crosses -1 m/s/day within 30 to 40 days while growing in magnitude. This tendency-based definition, which is independent of mean wind, is applied to both ERA40 reanalysis and CMIP5 models. The models are further grouped into the high-top models with a well-resolved stratosphere and low-top models with a relatively simple stratosphere. A new definition successfully reproduces the mean frequency of SSW events that is identified by wind reversal approach, i.e., about 6 events per decade in ERA40. High-top models well capture this frequency. Although low-top models underestimate the frequency, in contrast to previous studies, the difference to high-top models is not statistically significant. Likewise, no significant difference is found in the downward coupling in the high-top and low-top models. These results indicate that model vertical resolution itself may not be a key factor in simulating SSW events and the associated downward coupling.

  18. Total Electron Content (TEC) disturbances over Brazilian region during the minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW 2012) event of January 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Francisco; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gil Pillat, Valdir

    2016-07-01

    The effects of Sudden Stratospheric Warming on ionosphere have been investigated by several scientists, using different observational techniques and model simulations. However, the 2011-2012 minor event is one of those that are less studied. Since, the zonal westward wind is slowed without reversing to eastward, this SSW was consider as a minor event. The stratospheric temperature started increasing on December 26, 2011, reached its peak on January 18, 2012, and afterwards started decreasing slowly. In addition, there was moderate geomagnetic storm on January 22-25, 2012, after the SSW temperature peak. In the present study, the GPS-TEC measurements from a network of 72 receivers over the Brazilian region are considered. This network of 72 GPS-TEC locations lies between 5 N and 30 S (35 degrees) latitudes and 35 W and 65 W (30 degrees) longitudes. Further, two chains of GPS receivers are used to study the response of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) changes in the Brazilian East and West sectors, as well as its day-to-day variability before and during the SSW2012. It was noted that the TEC is depleted to the order of 30% all over the Brazilian region, from equator to beyond the EIA regions and from East to West sectors. It is also noticed that the EIA strengths at East and West sectors were suppressed after the stratospheric temperature peak. However, the Brazilian West sector was found to be more disturbed compared to the East sector during this SSW event.

  19. Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its impact on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary wave reflection.

    PubMed

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke

    2016-04-07

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of stratospheric planetary wave reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb wave activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of wave propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary waves, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant impact on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these waves appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The wave packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. Waves that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013.

  20. Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its impact on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary wave reflection

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of stratospheric planetary wave reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb wave activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of wave propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary waves, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant impact on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these waves appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The wave packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. Waves that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013. PMID:27051997

  1. HALO aircraft measurements of East Asian anthropogenic SO2 import into the lower stratosphere by a warm conveyor belt uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Pirjola, L.; Roiger, A.; Sailer, T.; Wirth, M.; Schumann, U.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a case study of anthropogenic SO2 pollution transport into the lower stratosphere from East Asian source regions. The pollution layer was observed over Central Europe by measurements from the new German research aircraft HALO. The layer contained enhanced SO2, HNO3 and water vapor and caused increased Lidar backscatter radiation. Meteorological analysis and air mass transport and dispersion model simulations reveal that the detected pollutants were released from ground-based sources in East-China, South-Korea, and Japan. The pollution plume was uplifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with a West-Pacific cyclone and finally injected into the lower stratosphere. Our HALO measurements were performed 5 days after the air mass uplift event, when significant parts of the Northern Hemisphere were already covered by the pollution plume. Accompanying trajectory chemistry and aerosol box model simulations indicate that H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets were generated in the SO2-rich plume and grew to sizes large enough to explain the observed increased Lidar backscatter signal. Implications of the SO2 transport pathway into the lower stratosphere presented in this study will be discussed.

  2. Tidal variability during stratospheric sudden warming in 2009: Comparison between GAIA model and COSMIC and TIMED/SABER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hidekatsu; Miyoshi, Yasunobu; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Pancheva, Dora; Mukhtarov, Plamen

    2012-07-01

    We compare results from a whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model, GAIA, and from the COSMIC and TIMED/SABER observations during 2008/2009 northern winter season. The GAIA model has assimilated meteorological reanalysis data by a nudging method. The comparison shows excellent agreements in the major features from the stratosphere to the ionosphere including the growth and decay of the major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event in 2009. During the major SSW period, a pronounced semidiurnal variation in the F-region electron density and its local-time phase shift similar to the previous observations are reproduced by the model and COSMIC observation. The model suggests that the TEC variation is caused by an enhanced semidiurnal variation in the EXB drift, which is probably related to an amplified semidiurnal migrating tide (SW2) in the lower thermosphere. The model and TIMED/SABER observation show that the SW2 tide amplifies at low latitudes from the stratosphere to the thermosphere as well as the phase variation. Possible mechanisms will be discussed in the presentation.

  3. Stratospheric Sudden Warming Effects on the Ionospheric Migrating Tides during 2008-2010 observed by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Lin, C.; Chang, L. C.; Liu, H.; Chen, W.; Chen, C.; Liu, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, ionospheric electron densities obtained from radio occultation soundings of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC are decomposed into their various constituent tidal components for studying the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) effects on the ionosphere during 2008-2010. The tidal analysis indicates that the amplitudes of the zonal mean and major migrating tidal components (DW1, SW2 and TW3) decrease around the time of the SSW, with phase/time shifts in the daily time of maximum around EIA and middle latitudes. Meanwhile consistent enhancements of the SW2 and nonmigrating SW1 tides are seen after the stratospheric temperature increase. In addition to the amplitude changes of the tidal components, well matched phase shifts of the ionospheric migrating tides and the stratospheric temperatures are found for the three SSW events, suggesting a good indicator of the ionospheric response. Although the conditions of the planetary waves and the mean winds in the middle atmosphere region during the 2008-2010 SSW events may be different, similar variations of the ionospheric tidal components and their associated phase shifts are found. Futher, these ionospheric responses will be compared with realistic simulations of Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesophere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) by nudging Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data.

  4. Can the GEOS CCM Simulate the Temperature Response to Warm Pool El Nino Events in the Antarctic Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Song, I.-S.; Oman, L. D.; Newman, P. A.; Molod, A. M.; Frith, S. M.; Nielsen, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    "Warm pool" (WP) El Nino events are characterized by positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific. During austral spring, WP El Nino events are associated with an enhancement of convective activity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone, provoking a tropospheric planetary wave response and thus increasing planetary wave driving of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. These conditions lead to higher polar stratospheric temperatures and to a weaker polar jet during austral summer, as compared with neutral ENSO years. Furthermore, this response is sensitive to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO): a stronger warming is seen in WP El Nino events coincident with the easterly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) as compared with WP El Nino events coincident with a westerly or neutral QBO. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) is used to further explore the atmospheric response to ENSO. Time-slice simulations are forced by composited SSTs from observed NP El Nino and neutral ENSO events. The modeled eddy heat flux, temperature and wind responses to WP El Nino events are compared with observations. A new gravity wave drag scheme has been implemented in the GEOS CCM, enabling the model to produce e realistic, internally generated QBO. By repeating the above time-slice simulations with this new model version, the sensitivity of the WP El Nino response to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation QBO is estimated.

  5. Can the GEOS CCM Simulate the Temperature Response to Warm Pool El Nino Events in the Antarctic Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Song, I.-S.; Oman, L. D.; Newman, P. A.; Molod, A. M.; Frith, S. M.; Nielsen, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    "Warm pool" (WP) El Nino events are characterized by positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific. During austral spring. WP El Nino events are associated with an enhancement of convective activity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone, provoking a tropospheric planetary wave response and thus increasing planetary wave driving of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. These conditions lead to higher polar stratospheric temperatures and to a weaker polar jet during austral summer, as compared with neutral ENSO years. Furthermore, this response is sensitive to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO): a stronger warming is seen in WP El Nino events coincident with the easterly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) as compared with WP El Nino events coincident with a westerly or neutral QBO. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) is used to further explore the atmospheric response to ENSO. Time-slice simulations are forced by composited SSTs from observed WP El Nino and neutral ENSO events. The modeled eddy heat flux, temperature and wind responses to WP El Nino events are compared with observations. A new gravity wave drag scheme has been implemented in the GEOS CCM, enabling the model to produce a realistic, internally generated QBO. By repeating the above time-slice simulations with this new model version, the sensitivity of the WP El Nino response to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation QBO is estimated.

  6. Mesoscale Simulations of Gravity Waves During the 2008-2009 Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limpasuvan, Varavut; Alexander, M. Joan; Orsolini, Yvan J.; Wu, Dong L.; Xue, Ming; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Yamashita, Chihoko

    2011-01-01

    A series of 24 h mesoscale simulations (of 10 km horizontal and 400 m vertical resolution) are performed to examine the characteristics and forcing of gravity waves (GWs) relative to planetary waves (PWs) during the 2008-2009 major stratospheric sudden wam1ing (SSW). Just prior to SSW occurrence, widespread westward propagating GWs are found along the vortex's edge and associated predominantly with major topographical features and strong near-surface winds. Momentum forcing due to GWs surpasses PW forcing in the upper stratosphere and tends to decelerate the polar westerly jet in excess of 30 m/s/d. With SSW onset, PWs dominate the momentum forcing, providing decelerative effects in excess of 50 m/s/d throughout the upper polar stratosphere. GWs related to topography become less widespread largely due to incipient wind reversal as the vortex starts to elongate. During the SSW maturation and early recovery, the polar vortex eventually splits and both wave signatures and forcing greatly subside. Nonetheless, during SSW, westward and eastward propagating GWs are found in the polar region and may be generated in situ by flow adjustment processes in the stratosphere or by secondary GW breaking. The simulated large-scale features agree well with those resolved in satellite observations and analysis products.

  7. A global non-hydrostatic model study of a downward coupling through the tropical tropopause layer during a stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Kodera, K.; Nasuno, T.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical coupling process between the stratosphere and troposphere in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) during a~stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in boreal winter was investigated using simulation data from a global non-hydrostatic model (NICAM) that does not use cumulus parameterization. The model reproduced well the observed tropical tropospheric changes during the SSW, including the enhancement of convective activity following the amplification of planetary waves. Deep convective activity was enhanced in the latitude zone 20-10° S, in particular over the southwest Pacific and southwest Indian Ocean. Although the upwelling in the TTL was correlated with that in the stratosphere, the temperature tendency in the TTL changed little due to a compensation by diabatic heating originating from cloud formation. This result suggests that the stratospheric meridional circulation affects cloud formation in the TTL.

  8. A global non-hydrostatic model study of a downward coupling through the tropical tropopause layer during a stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Kodera, K.; Nasuno, T.

    2014-03-01

    The dynamical coupling process between the stratosphere and troposphere in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) during a stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in boreal winter was investigated using simulation data from a global non-hydrostatic model (NICAM) that does not use cumulus parameterization. The model reproduced well the observed tropical tropospheric changes during the SSW including the enhancement of convective activity following the amplification of planetary waves. Deep convective activity was enhanced in the latitude zone 20-10° S, in particular over the southwest Pacific and southwest Indian Ocean. Although the upwelling in the TTL was correlated with that in the stratosphere, the temperature tendency in the TTL was mainly controlled by diabatic heating originating from cloud formation. This result suggests that the stratospheric meridional circulation affects cloud formation in the TTL.

  9. Finding of the key formation mechanisms of the ionospheric response to sudden stratospheric warming using GSM TIP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, Vladimir; Klimenko, Maxim; Bessarab, Fedor; Korenkov, Yurij; Karpov, Ivan

    The Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) is a large-scale phenomenon, which response is detected in the mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere. SSW ionospheric effects are studied using multi-instrumental satellites and by ground-based measurements. We report a brief overview of the observational and theoretical results of the global ionospheric response and its formation mechanisms during Sudden Stratospheric Warming. We also present the results of our investigation of thermosphere-ionosphere response to the SSW obtained within the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Protonosphere (GSM TIP). The SSW effects were modeled by specifying various boundary conditions at the height of 80 km in the GSM TIP model: (1) by setting the stationary perturbations s = 1 of the temperature and density at high latitudes; (2) by setting the global distribution of the neutral atmosphere parameters, calculated in the TIME-GCM and CCM SOCOL models for the conditions of the SSW 2009 event. It has been shown that the selected low boundary conditions do not allow to fully reproduce the observed variation in the ionospheric parameters during SSW 2009 event. Based on observations of the velocity of vertical plasma drift obtained by the incoherent scatter radar at Jicamarca, we introduced additional electric potential in the GSM TIP model, which allowed us to reproduce the zonal electric field (ÉB vertical plasma drift) and the observed SSW effects in the low-latitude ionosphere. Furthermore, we tried to reproduce the SSW ionospheric effects by including internal gravity waves in the high-latitude mesosphere. We discuss the model calculation results and possible reasons for model/data disagreements and give the proposals for further investigations. This work was supported by RFBR Grants №12-05-31217 and №14-05-00578.

  10. Stratospheric warmings in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite radiation data, 1969-73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation is largely based on radiation data from the vertical temperature profile radiometers on the satellite NOAA 2. The physical-statistical interpretation of the radiance data is considered. Aspects regarding the nonuniqueness of the minor warming in August 1973 are discussed. It is pointed out that conditions leading to major warmings in the Northern Hemisphere were not satisfied in the Southern Hemisphere during the period from 1969 to 1973.

  11. TIME-GCM study of the ionospheric equatorial vertical drift changes during the 2006 stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A.; Hagan, M. E.; Richmond, A. D.; Roble, R. G.

    2014-02-01

    This modeling study quantifies the daytime low-latitude vertical E×B drift changes in the longitudinal wave number 1 (wn1) to wn4 during the major extended January 2006 stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) period as simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM), and attributes the drift changes to specific tides and planetary waves (PWs). The largest drift amplitude change (approximately 5 m/s) is seen in wn1 with a strong temporal correlation to the SSW. The wn1 drift is primarily caused by the semidiurnal westward propagating tide with zonal wave number 1 (SW1), and secondarily by a stationary planetary wave with zonal wave number 1 (PW1). SW1 is generated by the nonlinear interaction of PW1 and the migrating semidiurnal tide (SW2) at high latitude around 90-100 km. The simulations suggest that the E region PW1 around 100-130 km at the different latitudes has different origins: at high latitudes, the PW1 is related to the original stratospheric PW1; at midlatitudes, the model indicates PW1 is due to the nonlinear interaction of SW1 and SW2 around 95-105 km; and at low latitudes, the PW1 might be caused by the nonlinear interaction between DE2 and DE3. The time evolution of the simulated wn4 in the vertical E×B drift amplitude shows no temporal correlation with the SSW. The wn4 in the low-latitude vertical drift is attributed to the diurnal eastward propagating tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3), and the contributions from SE2, TE1, and PW4 are negligible.

  12. SAGE studies of the waves and eddy fluxes of ozone and temperature near 55 deg during the late February 1979 stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.-H.

    1985-01-01

    Ozone data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment have been used in conjunction with meteorological information to study the waves and eddy fluxes of ozone and temperature near 55 deg N during the late February 1979 stratospheric warming. The results indicate an intense poleward eddy ozone transport in the altitude range between approximately 24 and 38 km, and an equatorward transport above an altitude of about 38 km. It is found that this equatorward eddy ozone transport in the upper stratosphere was accompanied by a poleward eddy heat transport, as expected on the basis of the ozone photochemistry. The results also indicate that the phase relationship between ozone and temperature waves agrees qualitatively with existing model analyses.

  13. The spring 2011 final stratospheric warming above Eureka: anomalous dynamics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Zhao, X.; Bourassa, A. E.; Daffer, W. H.; Degenstein, D.; Drummond, J. R.; Farahani, E. E.; Fraser, A.; Lloyd, N. D.; Manney, G. L.; McLinden, C. A.; Rex, M.; Roth, C.; Strahan, S. E.; Walker, K. A.; Wohltmann, I.

    2012-08-01

    In spring 2011, the Arctic polar vortex was stronger than in any other year on record. As the polar vortex started to break up in April, ozone and NO2 columns were measured with UV-visible spectrometers above the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Canada (80.05° N, 86.42° W) using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. These ground-based column measurements were complemented by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) satellite measurements, Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) simulations, and dynamical parameters. On 8 April 2011, NO2 columns above PEARL from the DOAS, OMI, and GMI datasets were approximately twice as large as in previous years. On this day, temperatures and ozone volume mixing ratios above Eureka were high, suggesting enhanced chemical production of NO2 from NO. Additionally, GMI NOx and N2O fields suggest that downward transport along the vortex edge and horizontal transport from lower latitudes also contributed to the enhanced NO2. The anticyclone that transported lower-latitude NOx above PEARL became frozen-in and persisted in dynamical and GMI N2O fields until the end of the measurement period on 31 May 2011. Ozone isolated within this frozen-in anticyclone (FrIAC) in the middle stratosphere was depleted due to reactions with the enhanced NOx. Ozone loss was calculated using the passive tracer technique, with passive ozone profiles from the Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model, ATLAS. At 600 K, ozone losses between 1 December 2010 and 20 May 2011 reached 4.2 parts per million by volume (ppmv) (58%) and 4.4 ppmv (61%), when calculated using GMI and OSIRIS ozone profiles, respectively. This middle-stratosphere gas-phase ozone loss led to a more rapid decrease in ozone column amounts in April/May 2011 compared with previous years. Ground-based, OMI, and GMI ozone total columns within the FrIAC all decreased by more than 100 DU

  14. Equatorial vertical drift modulation by the lunar and solar semidiurnal tides during the 2013 sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A.; Fejer, B. G.; Forbes, J. M.; Zhang, X.; Yudin, V.

    2016-02-01

    During the 2013 stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) period the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar at Jicarmarca, Peru, observed low-latitude vertical drift modulation with lows of 0-12 m/s daytime maximum drifts between 6-13 and 22-25 January and enhanced drifts up to 43 m/s between 15 snd 19 January. The NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model reproduces the prevailing vertical drift feature and is used to examine possible causes. The simulations indicate that the modulation of the vertical drift is generated by the beating of the semidiurnal solar SW2 and lunar M2 tides. During the SSW period the beating is observable since the magnitudes of lunar and solar semidiurnal tidal amplitudes are comparable. The theoretical beating frequency between SW2 and M2 is 1/(15.13 day) which may be modified due to phase changes. This study highlights the importance of the lunar tide during SSW periods and indicates that the equatorial vertical drift modulation should be observable at other longitudes as well.

  15. Indirect global warming effects of ozone and stratospheric water vapor induced by surface methane emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Grossman, A.S.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O. Jr.; Jain, A.; Grant, K.A.

    1994-07-01

    Methane has indirect effects on climate due to chemical interactions as well as direct radiative forcing effects as a greenhouse gas. We have calculated the indirect, time-varying tropospheric radiative forcing and GWP of O{sub 3} and stratospheric H{sub 2}O due to an impulse of CH{sub 4}. This impulse, applied to the lowest layer of the atmosphere, is the increase of the atmospheric mass of CH{sub 4} resulting from a 25 percent steady state increase in the current emissions as a function of latitude. The direct CH{sub 4} radiative forcing and GWP are also calculated. The LLNL 2-D radiative-chemistry-transport model is used to evaluate the resulting changes in the O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} atmospheric profiles as a function of time. A correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model is used to calculate the radiative forcing at the tropopause of the globally-averaged atmosphere profiles. The O{sub 3} indirect GWPs vary from {approximately}27 after a 20 yr integration to {approximately}4 after 500 years, agreeing with the previous estimates to within about 10 percent. The H{sub 2}O indirect GWPs vary from {approximately}2 after a 20 yr integration to {approximately}0.3 after 500 years, and are in close agreement with other estimates. The CH{sub 4} GWPs vary from {approximately}53 at 20 yrs to {approximately}7 at 500 yrs. The 20 year CH{sub 4} GWP is {approximately}20% larger than previous estimates of the direct CH{sub 4} GWP due to a CH{sub 4} response time ({approximately}17 yrs) that is much longer than the overall lifetime (10 yrs). The increased CH{sub 4} response time results from changes in the OH abundances caused by the CH{sub 4} impulse. The CH{sub 4} radiative forcing results are consistent with IPCC values. Estimates are made of latitude effects in the radiative forcing calculations, and UV effects on the O{sub 3} radiative forcing calculations (10%).

  16. The spring 2011 final stratospheric warming above Eureka: anomalous dynamics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Zhao, X.; Bourassa, A. E.; Daffer, W. H.; Degenstein, D.; Drummond, J. R.; Farahani, E. E.; Fraser, A.; Lloyd, N. D.; Manney, G. L.; McLinden, C. A.; Rex, M.; Roth, C.; Strahan, S. E.; Walker, K. A.; Wohltmann, I.

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2011, the Arctic polar vortex was stronger than in any other year on record. As the polar vortex started to break up in April, ozone and NO2 columns were measured with UV-visible spectrometers above the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Canada (80.05° N, 86.42° W) using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. These ground-based column measurements were complemented by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) satellite measurements, Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) simulations, and meteorological quantities. On 8 April 2011, NO2 columns above PEARL from the DOAS, OMI, and GMI datasets were approximately twice as large as in previous years. On this day, temperatures and ozone volume mixing ratios above Eureka were high, suggesting enhanced chemical production of NO2 from NO. Additionally, GMI NOx (NO + NO2) and N2O fields suggest that downward transport along the vortex edge and horizontal transport from lower latitudes also contributed to the enhanced NO2. The anticyclone that transported lower-latitude NOx above PEARL became frozen-in and persisted in dynamical and GMI N2O fields until the end of the measurement period on 31 May 2011. Ozone isolated within this frozen-in anticyclone (FrIAC) in the middle stratosphere was lost due to reactions with the enhanced NOx. Below the FrIAC (from the tropopause to 700 K), NOx driven ozone loss above Eureka was larger than in previous years, according to GMI monthly average ozone loss rates. Using the passive tracer technique, with passive ozone profiles from the Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model, ATLAS, ozone losses since 1 December 2010 were calculated at 600 K. In the air mass that was above Eureka on 20 May 2011, ozone losses reached 4.2 parts per million by volume (ppmv) (58%) and 4.4 ppmv (61%), when calculated using GMI and OSIRIS ozone profiles, respectively. This gas-phase ozone loss

  17. Wave Driven Disturbances of the Thermal Structure in the Polar Winter Upper Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Katelynn R.

    The polar winter middle atmosphere is a dynamically active region that is driven primarily by wave activity. Planetary waves intermittently disturbed the region at different levels and the most spectacular type of disturbance is a major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW). However, other types of extreme disturbances occur on a more frequent, intraseasonal basis. One such disturbance is a synoptic-scale "weather event" observed in lidar and rocket soundings, soundings from the TIMED/SABER instrument and UK Meteorological Office (MetO) assimilated data. These disturbances are most easily identified near 42 km where temperatures are elevated over baseline conditions by a remarkable 50 K and an associated cooling is observed near 75 km. As these disturbances have a coupled vertical structure extending into the lower mesosphere, they are termed Upper Stratospheric/Lower Mesospheric (USLM) disturbances. This research begins with description of the phenomenology of USLM events in observations and the assimilated data set MetO, develops a description of the dynamics responsible for their development and places them in the context of the family of polar winter middle atmospheric disturbances. Climatologies indicates that USLM disturbances are commonly occurring polar wintertime disturbances of the middle atmosphere, have a remarkably repeating thermal structure, are located on the East side of the polar low and are related planetary wave activity. Using the same methodology for identifying USLM events and building climatologies of these events, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model WACCM version 4 is established to spontaneously and internally generate USLM disturbances. Planetary waves are seen to break at a level just above the stratopause and convergence of the EP-flux vector is occurring in this region, decelerating the eastward zonal-mean wind and inducing ageostrophic vertical motion to maintain mass continuity. The descending air increases the horizontal

  18. What can we learn from simulating Stratospheric Sudden Warming periods with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics GCM?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A. I.; Hagan, M. E.; Roble, R. G.; Richmond, A. D.; Yudin, V. A.; Liu, H.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Burns, A. G.; Maruyama, N.

    2013-12-01

    The ionosphere-thermosphere system is not only influenced from geospace but also by meteorological variability. Ionospheric observations of GPS TEC during the current solar cycle have shown that the meteorological variability is important during solar minimum, but also can have significant ionospheric effects during solar medium to maximum conditions. Numerical models can be used to help understand the mechanisms that couple the lower and upper atmosphere over the solar cycle. Numerical modelers invoke different methods to simulate realistic, specified events of meteorological variability, e.g. specify the lower boundary forcing, nudge the middle atmosphere, data assimilation. To study the vertical coupling, we first need to assess the numerical models and the various methods used to simulate realistic events with respect to the dynamics of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region, the electrodynamics, and the ionosphere. This study focuses on Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) periods since these are associated with a strongly disturbed middle atmosphere which can have effects up to the ionosphere. We will use the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation model (TIME-GCM) to examine several recent SSW periods, e.g. 2009, 2012, and 2013. The SSW period in TIME-GCM will be specified in three different ways: 1. using reanalysis data to specify the lower boundary; 2. nudging the neutral atmosphere (temperature and winds) with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM)/Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) results; 3. nudging the background atmosphere (temperature and winds) with WACCM/GEOS5 results. The different forcing methods will be evaluated for the SSW periods with respect to the dynamics of the MLT region, the low latitude vertical drift changes, and the ionospheric effects for the different SSW periods. With the help of ionospheric data at different longitudinal sectors it will be possible to

  19. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent has rapidly declined over the past few decades, and most climate models project a continuation of this trend during the 21st century in response to greenhouse gas forcing. A number of recent studies have shown that this sea-ice loss induces vertically propagating Rossby waves, which weaken the stratospheric polar vortex and increase the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). SSWs have been shown to increase the probability of a negative NAO in the following weeks, thereby driving anomalous weather conditions over Europe and other mid-latitude regions. In contrast, other studies have shown that Arctic sea-ice loss strengthens the polar vortex, increasing the probability of a positive NAO. Sun et al. (2015) suggest these conflicting results may be due to the region of sea-ice loss considered. They find that if only regions within the Arctic Circle are considered in sea-ice projections, the polar vortex weakens; if only regions outwith the Arctic Circle are considered, the polar vortex strengthens. This is because the anomalous Rossby waves forced in the former/latter scenario constructively/destructively interfere with climatological Rossby waves, thus enhancing/suppressing upward wave propagation. In this study, we investigate whether Sun et al.'s results are robust to a different model. We also divide the regions of sea-ice loss they considered into further sub-regions, in order to examine the regional differences in more detail. We do this by using the intermediate complexity climate model, IGCM4, which has a well resolved stratosphere and does a good job of representing stratospheric processes. Several simulations are run in atmosphere only mode, where one is a control experiment and the others are perturbation experiments. In the control run annually repeating historical mean surface conditions are imposed at the lower boundary, whereas in each perturbation run the model is forced by SST perturbations imposed in a specific

  20. Ionospheric Response to the 2009 Sudden Stratospheric Warming over the Equatorial, Low- and Mid-Latitudes in American Sector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Goncharenko, L. P.; de Abreu, A. J.; Gende, M.; de Jesus, R.; Pezzopane, M.; Kavutarapu, V.; Coster, A. J.; Pillat, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    The equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere/thermosphere system is predominantly disturbed by waves (MSTIDs, tides, and planetary waves), which are generated in the lower atmosphere or in-situ, as well as electric fields and TIDs produced by geomagnetic storm and UV, EUV, and X-ray solar radiation. For many years, it was thought that, during geomagnetic quiet conditions, the equatorial and low-latitude F-layer was mainly perturbed by waves that were generated not far away from the observed location or electric fields generated by the Equatorial Electroject (EEJ). On the contrary, during geomagnetic storms when the energy sources are in high latitudes the waves (TIDs) travel a very long distance from high latitude to equatorial region and electric fields can be mapped via magnetic field lines. However, in the recent times an unexpected coupling between high latitude, mid- latitude, and equatorial/low latitudes was discovered during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. All aspects involved in this process must be explored in order to improve our knowledge about the Earth´s atmosphere. The present study investigates the consequences of vertical coupling from lower to the upper atmosphere in the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere in Southern Hemisphere during a major SSW event, which took place during January-February 2009 in the Northern Hemisphere. Using seventeen ground-based dual-frequency GPS stations and two ionosonde stations spanning from latitude 2.8oN to 53.8oS and from longitude 36.7oW to 67.8oW over the South American sector, it has been observed that the ionosphere was significantly disturbed by the SSW event from Equator to the mid-latitudes. Using one GPS station located in mid-latitude (South America sector) it is reported for the first time that the mid-latitude in southern hemisphere (American Sector) was disturbed by the SSW event in the Northern hemisphere. The VTEC at all 17 GPS and two ionosonde stations show significant deviations

  1. Comparison of the dynamical response of low latitude middle atmosphere to the major stratospheric warming events in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagavathiammal, G. J.; Sathishkumar, S.; Sridharan, S.; Gurubaran, S.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents comparison of low-latitude dynamical responses to boreal 2008/09 and austral 2002 winter Major Stratospheric Warming (MSW) events, as both events are of vortex split type. During these winters, planetary wave (PW) variability and changes in low-latitude circulation are examined using European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA)-interim data sets and mesospheric wind data acquired by the MF radars at Tirunelveli (8.7°N) and Rarotonga (22°S). Eliassen-Palm diagnostic is used to provide an evidence for the lateral PW energy propagation from high to low-latitudes during both the MSW events. The PW flux reaches much lower latitudes during the boreal event than during the austral event. The low-latitude westward winds at stratospheric heights are stronger (weaker) during the boreal (austral) MSW. Weak (strong) PW wave activity at low latitude mesospheric heights during boreal (austral) MSW indicates the influence of low-latitude stratospheric westward winds on the vertical propagation of PW to low-latitude mesosphere.

  2. A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, H.; Nakamura, T.; Miyasaka, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) is a dramatic phenomenon of the winter stratosphere in which the distribution of chemical constituents, associated chemical tendency, and transport of chemical constituents differ significantly inside and outside of the polar vortex. In this study, the chemical constituent distributions in the major SSW of 2009/2010 were simulated by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate 3.2-Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) nudged toward the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Interim Re-Analysis data. The results were compared with Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. In addition, ozone tendency due to ozone transport and chemical ozone loss in the high-latitude lower stratosphere before and after the SSW was analyzed for the period from 1 January 2010 to 11 February 2010. The evolution and distribution of ozone and HCl inside/outside the polar vortex associated with the vortex shift to the midlatitudes in January are quite similar between SMILES and MLS. Those of ClO are also similar, considering the difference in the local time for the measurement. Analyses of the nudged CCM run indicate that inside the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the ozone concentration increased moderately owing to partial cancelation between the large negative ozone tendency due to chemical ozone destruction and large positive ozone tendency due to horizontal ozone influx from outside of the vortex as well as downward advection. In the region of a high ozone concentration with the same area as that of the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the large increase in ozone was primarily due to a downward advection of ozone. SMILES and MLS observations, nudged CCM simulations, and ozone tendency analyses revealed a highly longitudinal dependent ozone tendency at high latitudes during the SSW.

  3. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences--an ongoing science and policy success story.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most, ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C.

  4. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences--an ongoing science and policy success story.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most, ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C. PMID

  5. Analysis of Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) over Tropical and Sub-tropical Regions of India using Rayleigh Lidar and Satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Som Kumar; Chandra, Harish; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Gadhavi, Harish; Vaishnav, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    The Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) is one of the most spectacular phenomena in the atmosphere and has impacts on the Earth's lower, middle and upper atmospheres. Lidar is one of the best instrument to study Earth's middle atmospheric thermal structure with very temporal and vertical resolution. A Nd: YAG laser based Rayleigh Lidar is operational over Mt. Abu India (24.5 oN, 72.7 oE) since 1997.In this study, two major SSW episodes associated with vortex displacement and vortex splitting occurred in year 1998 and 1999 respectively are investigated first time over Mt. Abu using lidar observations. Analyses show that CIRA-86 and MSISE-90 model fail to capture these SSW episode, whereas ground based lidar and satellite observations from Halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) onboard upper atmospheric research satellite (UARS)are able to capture effect of SSW events. Lidar measurements are able to capture SSW warming and its decay very accurately. Impact of SSW is further investigated in ECMWF Interim reanalyzed potential vorticity. Moreover, a detail study has been presented to understand the latitudinal variation of SSW warming and associated mesospheric cooling over Indian region.

  6. Simulating influence of QBO phase on planetary waves during a stratospheric warming in a general circulation model of the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Andrey; Gavrilov, Nikolai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander; Savenkova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    One of the important factors of dynamical interactions between the lower and upper atmosphere is energy and momentum transfer by atmospheric internal gravity waves. For numerical modeling of the general circulation and thermal regime of the middle and upper atmosphere, it is important to take into account accelerations of the mean flow and heating rates produced by dissipating internal waves. The quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) of the zonal mean flow at lower latitudes at stratospheric heights can affect the propagation conditions of planetary waves. We perform numerical simulation of global atmospheric circulation for the initial conditions corresponding to the years with westerly and easterly QBO phases. We focus on the changes in amplitudes of stationary planetary waves (SPWs) and traveling normal atmospheric modes (NAMs) in the atmosphere during SSW events for the different QBO phases. For these experiments, we use the global circulation of the middle and upper atmosphere model (MUAM). There is theory of PW waveguide describing atmospheric regions where the background wind and temperature allow the wave propagation. There were introduced the refractive index for PWs and found that strongest planetary wave propagation is in areas of large positive values of this index. Another important PW characteristic is the Eliassen-Palm flux (EP-flux). These characteristics are considered as useful tools for visualizing the PW propagation conditions. Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event has significant influence on the formation of the weather anomalous and climate changes in the troposphere. Also, SSW event may affect the dynamical and energy processes in the upper atmosphere. The major SSW events imply significant temperature rises (up to 30 - 40 K) at altitudes 30 - 50 km accompanying with corresponding decreases, or reversals, of climatological eastward zonal winds in the stratosphere.

  7. Study of thermospheric and ionospheric tidal responses to the 2009 stratospheric sudden warming by an assimilative atmosphere-ionosphere coupled TIME-GCM with FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-Ting; Liu, Hanli; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Charles C. H.; Chen, Chia-Hung; Chang, Loren; Chen, Wei-Han

    In this study, ionospheric peak densities obtained from radio occultation soundings of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC are decomposed into their various constituent tidal components for studying the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) effects on the tidal responses during the 2008/2009. The observations are further compared with the results from an atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model, TIME-GCM. The model assimilates MERRA 3D meteorological data between the lower-boundary (~30km) and 0.1h Pa (~62km) by a nudging method. The comparison shows general agreement in the major features of decrease of migrating tidal signatures (DW1, SW2 and TW3) in ionosphere around the growth phase of SSW, with phase/time shifts in the daily time of maximum around EIA and middle latitudes. Both the observation and simulation indicate a pronounced enhancement of the ionospheric SW2 signatures after the stratospheric temperature increase. The model suggest that the typical morning enhancement/afternoon reduction of electron density variation is mainly caused by modification of the ionospheric migrating tidal signatures. The model shows that the thermospheric SW2 tide variation is similar to ionosphere as well as the phase shift. These phases shift of migrating tides are highly related to the present of induced secondary planetary wave 1 in the E region.

  8. Study of the thermospheric and ionospheric response to the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming using TIME-GCM and GSM TIP models: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Bessarab, F. S.; Korenkov, Yu N.; Liu, Hanli; Goncharenko, L. P.; Tolstikov, M. V.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a study of mesosphere and low thermosphere influence on ionospheric disturbances during 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. This period was characterized by extremely low solar and geomagnetic activity. The study was performed using two first principal models: thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) and global self-consistent model of thermosphere, ionosphere, and protonosphere (GSM TIP). The stratospheric anomalies during SSW event were modeled by specifying the temperature and density perturbations at the lower boundary of the TIME-GCM (30 km altitude) according to data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Then TIME-GCM output at 80 km was used as lower boundary conditions for driving GSM TIP model runs. We compare models' results with ground-based ionospheric data at low latitudes obtained by GPS receivers in the American longitudinal sector. GSM TIP simulation predicts the occurrence of the quasi-wave vertical structure in neutral temperature disturbances at 80-200 km altitude, and the positive and negative disturbances in total electron content at low latitude during the 2009 SSW event. According to our model results the formation mechanisms of the low-latitude ionospheric response are the disturbances in the n(O)/n(N2) ratio and thermospheric wind. The change in zonal electric field is key mechanism driving the ionospheric response at low latitudes, but our model results do not completely reproduce the variability in zonal electric fields (vertical plasma drift) at low latitudes.

  9. A study of stratospheric vacillations and sudden warmings on a beta-plane. I - Single wave-mean flow interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    A beta-plane model of the stratosphere is used to investigate the planetary-wave amplitude vacillations first reported by Holton and Mass (1976). This model differs from theirs in allowing more horizontal modes. For low surface wave amplitudes, a new class of solutions is found which exhibits a stationary, partially reflecting critical line at steady state. The critical line equilibrates at lower altitudes as the wave forcing is increased. Vacillating solutions occur when the steady state critical line occurs near the lower boundary. The maximum wave amplitude and the maximum steady-state wave amplitude found in the model are in the ratio of 2:1, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The maximum wave amplitude never exceeds 2200 gpm which is quite close to the saturation limit predicted by Schoeberl (1982). An analysis of the statistics of slowly and rapidly vacillating flows shows that both the wave and zonal mean variances are important in determining the time mean, zonal mean dynamics of the upper stratosphere.

  10. Response of migrating tides to the stratospheric sudden warming in 2009 and their effects on the ionosphere studied by a whole atmosphere-ionosphere model GAIA with COSMIC and TIMED/SABER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Fujiwara, H.; Shinagawa, H.

    2012-10-01

    This paper compares results from a whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model, GAIA, with the COSMIC and TIMED/SABER observations during the 2008/2009 northern winter season. The GAIA model has assimilated meteorological reanalysis data by a nudging method. The comparison shows general agreement in the major features from the stratosphere to the ionosphere including the growth and decay of the major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event in 2009. During this period, a pronounced semidiurnal variation in the F region electron density and its local-time phase shift similar to the previous observations are reproduced by the model and COSMIC observation. The model suggests that the electron density variation is caused by an enhanced semidiurnal variation in the E × B drift, which is probably related to an amplified semidiurnal migrating tide (SW2) in the lower thermosphere. The model and TIMED/SABER observation show that the SW2 tide amplifies at low latitudes from the stratosphere to the thermosphere as well as the phase variation. Possible mechanisms for the SW2 variability in the low latitude stratosphere could be the change of its propagation condition, especially the (2, 2) mode, due to changing zonal background wind and meridional temperature gradient, and/or an enhancement of its source due to redistribution of stratospheric ozone. Present results also show a prominent long-term variation of the terdiurnal migrating component (TW3) in the ionosphere and atmosphere.

  11. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  12. How Much Winter Stratospheric Polar-cap Warming Is Explained By Upward-propagating Planetary Waves In CMIP5 Models?: Part 1. An Indirect Approach Using A Wave Interference Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, B.

    2013-12-01

    The breaking of upward-propagating planetary (typically characterized by the combination of zonal wave number 1 and 2) waves in the stratosphere is regarded as one of the factors that provoke the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) and the accompanying collapse of stratospheric polar vortex during winter. It is also known that if the anomalous stationary wave pattern is in phase with that of the climatology during a certain period, this period is dynamically favorable for the upward propagation and amplification of planetary waves. This kind of phenomenon that amplitude of resultant wave increases by combining two or more waves in phase is called the constructive interference. Our research evaluates whether and to what degree the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models simulate such a relation between tropospheric wave interference and Northern polar stratosphere temperature anomaly during winter. Here the 500-hPa wave interference index (WII500) is defined as the coefficient that is obtained by projecting the anomaly of wave number 1 and 2 components of 500-hPa geopotential height onto its climatology. Using monthly outputs of the CMIP5 historical runs currently available to us, we examine the lagged relationship (R-square) between the WII500 during November-December-January (NDJ) and the polar-cap temperature anomaly at 50 hPa (PCT50) during December-January-February (DJF) on an interannual timescale. By sampling uncertainty in R-squares of 33-yr samples (chosen fit with the modern reanalysis period, 1980-2012) with bootstrap resampling, we obtain the sampled medians for all models. The observed relations are then calculated using six reanalyses (ERA-40, ERA-Interim, JRA-25, MERRA, NCEP-R1, and NCEP-R2), and the 5-95% confidence interval of their observed R-square is obtained again with bootstrap resampling of all six reanalyses blended. Then we evaluate which CMIP5 model simulates the WII500-PCT50 relation within the probable range of

  13. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5-10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  14. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  15. The stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F W

    2003-01-15

    The stratosphere is that part of the atmosphere which lies between ca. 10 and 50 km above the surface of the Earth and which contains the ozone layer. It is the seat of much interesting behaviour in terms of dynamics, radiation and chemistry, now revealed in detail by observations from modern space instruments, but still not completely understood. Other planetary atmospheres exhibit stratospheric behaviour which in some ways resembles, and in others contrasts sharply with, that of the Earth. In reviewing these topics, this paper describes some key problems that will be addressed by new measurements from space in the near future.

  16. Stratospheric ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Rowland, F Sherwood

    2006-05-29

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290-320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime-the 'Antarctic ozone hole'. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules.

  17. Stratospheric ozone depletion

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2006-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290–320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime—the ‘Antarctic ozone hole’. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules. PMID:16627294

  18. Stratospheric ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Rowland, F Sherwood

    2006-05-29

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290-320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime-the 'Antarctic ozone hole'. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules. PMID:16627294

  19. The Future of the Stratosphere and the Ozone Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, P. A.; Oman, L.; Pawson, S.; Fleming, E. L.; Li, F.; Jackman, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stratospheric ozone has been slightly depleted (2-4 % globally) by emissions of ozone depleting substances (ODSs). The landmark 1987 Montreal Protocol led to the end of most these ODS emissions, and total levels of ODSs have been declining since the late 1990s. The interim replacements for these ODSs were hydroclorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), but these HCFCs have also now been regulated. The period in which stratospheric change has been dominated by CFC-induced ozone loss (the "CFC era") is now coming to an end, as a period begins when the impacts of stratospheric circulation and chemistry changes induced by Greenhouse Gas increases (the "GHG era"). The stratosphere GHG-era will be characterized by continued decreases of ODSs and increases of CO2, N2O, and CH4. In this talk, we will describe how these factors will modify stratospheric ozone levels and the basic stratospheric climatology: CO2 and CH4 increases will increase stratospheric ozone, while N2O increases will decrease stratospheric ozone. In particular, GHG increases and the associated warming of the troposphere will modify stratospheric transport and cool the upper stratosphere. We will quantitatively show the contributions by various GHGs to these changes and the specifics of the chemical, dynamical, and radiative changes. Further, we will show how the stratosphere evolves under future GHG projections from the various Representative Concentration Pathways, illustrating the different changes in stratospheric ozone caused by the concurrent radiative, chemical and dynamical impacts of GHG changes.

  20. Stratospheric aircraft: Impact on the stratosphere?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, H.

    1992-02-01

    The steady-state distribution of natural stratospheric ozone is primarily maintained through production by ultraviolet photolysis of molecular oxygen, destruction by a catalytic cycle involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and relocation by air motions within the stratosphere. Nitrogen oxides from the exhausts of a commercially viable fleet of supersonic transports would exceed the natural source of stratospheric nitrogen oxides if the t should be equipped with 1990 technology jet engines. This model-free comparison between a vital natural global ingredient and a proposed new industrial product shows that building a large fleet of passenger stratospheric aircraft poses a significant global problem. NASA and aircraft industries have recognized this problem and are studying the redesign of jet aircraft engines in order to reduce the nitrogen oxides emissions. In 1989 atmospheric models identified two other paths by which the ozone destroying effects of stratospheric aircraft might be reduced or eliminated: (1) Use relatively low supersonic Mach numbers and flight altitudes. For a given rate of nitrogen oxides injection into the stratosphere, the calculated reduction of total ozone is a strong function of altitude, and flight altitudes well below 20 kilometers give relatively low calculated ozone reductions. (2) Include heterogeneous chemistry in the two-dimensional model calculations. Necessary conditions for answering the question on the title above are to improve the quality of our understanding of the lower stratosphere and to broaden our knowledge of hetergeneous stratospheric chemistry. This article reviews recently proposed new mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions on the global stratospheric sulfate aerosols.

  1. Stratospheric aircraft: Impact on the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, H.

    1992-02-01

    The steady-state distribution of natural stratospheric ozone is primarily maintained through production by ultraviolet photolysis of molecular oxygen, destruction by a catalytic cycle involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and relocation by air motions within the stratosphere. Nitrogen oxides from the exhausts of a commercially viable fleet of supersonic transports would exceed the natural source of stratospheric nitrogen oxides if the t should be equipped with 1990 technology jet engines. This model-free comparison between a vital natural global ingredient and a proposed new industrial product shows that building a large fleet of passenger stratospheric aircraft poses a significant global problem. NASA and aircraft industries have recognized this problem and are studying the redesign of jet aircraft engines in order to reduce the nitrogen oxides emissions. In 1989 atmospheric models identified two other paths by which the ozone destroying effects of stratospheric aircraft might be reduced or eliminated: (1) Use relatively low supersonic Mach numbers and flight altitudes. For a given rate of nitrogen oxides injection into the stratosphere, the calculated reduction of total ozone is a strong function of altitude, and flight altitudes well below 20 kilometers give relatively low calculated ozone reductions. (2) Include heterogeneous chemistry in the two-dimensional model calculations. Necessary conditions for answering the question on the title above are to improve the quality of our understanding of the lower stratosphere and to broaden our knowledge of hetergeneous stratospheric chemistry. This article reviews recently proposed new mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions on the global stratospheric sulfate aerosols.

  2. The impact of the stratosphere on tropospheric climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinssen, Y. B. L.

    2010-12-01

    The stratospheric potential vorticity (PV) field in the current climate, its variations around the occurrence of a sudden stratospheric warming, and possible future changes are examined. The PV presents a compact way to describe the state of the atmosphere, and is linked to all other dynamical fields through the invertibility principle. Local changes in the PV have a nonlocal effect on the wind field, so that changes in the stratospheric PV can be related to circulation changes in the troposphere, making it possible to study the role of the stratosphere in climate. The seasonal cycle of the stratospheric polar cap PV anomaly (the PV anomaly is defined as that part of the PV that induces a wind field according to the PV inversion equation) is related to radiative effects. A positive polar PV anomaly forms in autumn and winter due to radiative cooling in the polar night, and vanishes in spring due to absorption of solar radiation by ozone. The formation of the vortex in autumn is similar for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH), but waves affect the NH stratosphere throughout winter, weakening the vortex compared to the less disturbed SH vortex. The stronger and colder SH vortex allows for (more) ozone depletion in spring, leading to a delayed break up of the SH vortex. In summer, the easterly stratospheric flow prohibits wave propagation to the stratosphere in both hemispheres, resulting in small interhemispheric differences. Wave forcing of the stratosphere from below can not only explain interhemispheric differences, but also interannual variability of the winter stratosphere. On average, about 50% of the interannual variability in the state of the stratosphere that is observed in the NH can be explained by the interannual variations in the 100 hPa heat flux, which is a measure of the wave forcing of the stratosphere. For the monthly mean climatology, the influence of the stratosphere on the tropospheric winds is small, but for individual

  3. Stratospheric Response to Intraseasonal Changes in Incoming Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim; silverman, vered; harnik, nili; Erlich, caryn

    2016-04-01

    Superposed epoch analysis of meteorological reanalysis data is used to demonstrate a significant connection between intraseasonal solar variability and temperatures in the stratosphere. Decreasing solar flux leads to a cooling of the tropical upper stratosphere above 7hPa, while increasing solar flux leads to a warming of the tropical upper stratosphere above 7hPa, after a lag of approximately six to ten days. Late winter (February-March) Arctic stratospheric temperatures also change in response to changing incoming solar flux in a manner consistent with that seen on the 11 year timescale: ten to thirty days after the start of decreasing solar flux, the polar cap warms during the easterly phase of the Quasi-Biennal Oscillation. In contrast, cooling is present after decreasing solar flux during the westerly phase of the Quasi-Biennal Oscillation (though it is less robust than the warming during the easterly phase). The estimated composite mean changes in Northern Hemisphere upper stratospheric (~ 5hPa) polar temperatures exceed 8K, and are potentially a source of intraseasonal predictability for the surface. These changes in polar temperature are consistent with the changes in wave driving entering the stratosphere. Garfinkel, C.I., V. Silverman, N. Harnik, C. Erlich, Y. Riz (2015), Stratospheric Response to Intraseasonal Changes in Incoming Solar Radiation, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 7648-7660. doi: 10.1002/2015JD023244.

  4. Radiative forcing from anthropogenic sulfur and organic emissions reaching the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengfei; Murphy, Daniel M.; Portmann, Robert W.; Toon, Owen B.; Froyd, Karl D.; Rollins, Andrew W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Rosenlof, Karen H.

    2016-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosols cool the Earth by scattering sunlight. Although sulfuric acid dominates the stratospheric aerosol, this study finds that organic material in the lowermost stratosphere contributes 30-40% of the nonvolcanic stratospheric aerosol optical depth (sAOD). Simulations indicate that nonvolcanic sAOD has increased 77% since 1850. Stratospheric aerosol accounts for 21% of the total direct aerosol radiative forcing (which is negative) and 12% of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) increase from organics and sulfate. There is a larger stratospheric influence on radiative forcing (i.e., 21%) relative to AOD (i.e., 12%) because an increase of tropospheric black carbon warms the planet while stratospheric aerosols (including black carbon) cool the planet. Radiative forcing from nonvolcanic stratospheric aerosol mass of anthropogenic origin, including organics, has not been widely considered as a significant influence on the climate system.

  5. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  6. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  7. Significant radiative impact of volcanic aerosol in the lowermost stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sandra M; Martinsson, Bengt G; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Friberg, Johan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A M; Hermann, Markus; van Velthoven, Peter F J; Zahn, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential to slow global warming, until recently, the radiative forcing associated with volcanic aerosols in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) had not been considered. Here we study volcanic aerosol changes in the stratosphere using lidar measurements from the NASA CALIPSO satellite and aircraft measurements from the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory. Between 2008 and 2012 volcanism frequently affected the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere aerosol loadings, whereas the Southern Hemisphere generally had loadings close to background conditions. We show that half of the global stratospheric aerosol optical depth following the Kasatochi, Sarychev and Nabro eruptions is attributable to LMS aerosol. On average, 30% of the global stratospheric aerosol optical depth originated in the LMS during the period 2008-2011. On the basis of the two independent, high-resolution measurement methods, we show that the LMS makes an important contribution to the overall volcanic forcing. PMID:26158244

  8. Significant radiative impact of volcanic aerosol in the lowermost stratosphere

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Sandra M.; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Friberg, Johan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Hermann, Markus; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential to slow global warming, until recently, the radiative forcing associated with volcanic aerosols in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) had not been considered. Here we study volcanic aerosol changes in the stratosphere using lidar measurements from the NASA CALIPSO satellite and aircraft measurements from the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory. Between 2008 and 2012 volcanism frequently affected the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere aerosol loadings, whereas the Southern Hemisphere generally had loadings close to background conditions. We show that half of the global stratospheric aerosol optical depth following the Kasatochi, Sarychev and Nabro eruptions is attributable to LMS aerosol. On average, 30% of the global stratospheric aerosol optical depth originated in the LMS during the period 2008–2011. On the basis of the two independent, high-resolution measurement methods, we show that the LMS makes an important contribution to the overall volcanic forcing. PMID:26158244

  9. Transport of ice into the stratosphere and the humidification of the stratosphere over the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Ye, H.; Wang, T.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Butler, A. H.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Portmann, R. W.

    2016-03-01

    Climate models predict that tropical lower stratospheric humidity will increase as the climate warms. We examine this trend in two state-of-the-art chemistry-climate models. Under high greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, the stratospheric entry value of water vapor increases by ~1 ppmv over the 21st century in both models. We show with trajectory runs driven by model meteorological fields that the warming tropical tropopause layer (TTL) explains 50-80% of this increase. The remainder is a consequence of trends in evaporation of ice convectively lofted into the TTL and lower stratosphere. Our results further show that within the models we examined, ice lofting is primarily important on long time scales; on interannual time scales, TTL temperature variations explain most of the variations in lower stratospheric humidity. Assessing the ability of models to realistically represent ice lofting processes should be a high priority in the modeling community.

  10. Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Marquardt, Allison; Kravitz, Ben; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2009-10-01

    Injecting sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere has been suggested as a means of geoengineering to cool the planet and reduce global warming. The decision to implement such a scheme would require a comparison of its benefits, dangers, and costs to those of other responses to global warming, including doing nothing. Here we evaluate those factors for stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols. Using existing U.S. military fighter and tanker planes, the annual costs of injecting aerosol precursors into the lower stratosphere would be several billion dollars. Using artillery or balloons to loft the gas would be much more expensive. We do not have enough information to evaluate more exotic techniques, such as pumping the gas up through a hose attached to a tower or balloon system. Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol injection would cool the planet, stop the melting of sea ice and land-based glaciers, slow sea level rise, and increase the terrestrial carbon sink, but produce regional drought, ozone depletion, less sunlight for solar power, and make skies less blue. Furthermore it would hamper Earth-based optical astronomy, do nothing to stop ocean acidification, and present many ethical and moral issues. Further work is needed to quantify many of these factors to allow informed decision-making.

  11. The contribution of ozone to future stratospheric temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maycock, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    The projected recovery of ozone from the effects of ozone depleting substances this century will modulate the stratospheric cooling due to CO2, thereby affecting the detection and attribution of stratospheric temperature trends. Here the impact of future ozone changes on stratospheric temperatures is quantified for three representative concentration pathways (RCPs) using simulations from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For models with interactive chemistry, ozone trends offset ~50% of the global annual mean upper stratospheric cooling due to CO2 for RCP4.5 and 20% for RCP8.5 between 2006-2015 and 2090-2099. For RCP2.6, ozone trends cause a net warming of the upper and lower stratosphere. The misspecification of ozone trends for RCP2.6/RCP4.5 in models that used the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)/Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) Ozone Database causes anomalous warming (cooling) of the upper (lower) stratosphere compared to chemistry-climate models. The dependence of ozone chemistry on greenhouse gas concentrations should therefore be better represented in CMIP6.

  12. Climate and Ozone Response to Increased Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor abundance affects ozone, surface climate, and stratospheric temperatures. From 30-50 km altitude, temperatures show global decreases of 3-6 K over recent decades. These may be a proxy for water vapor increases, as the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model reproduces these trends only when stratospheric water vapor is allowed to increase. Observations suggest that stratospheric water vapor is indeed increasing, however, measurements are extremely limited in either spatial coverage or duration. The model results suggest that the observed changes may be part of a global, long-term trend. Furthermore, the required water vapor change is too large to be accounted for by increased production within the stratosphere, suggesting that ongoing climate change may be altering tropospheric input. The calculated stratospheric water vapor increase contributes an additional approximately equals 24% (approximately equals 0.2 W/m(exp 2)) to the global warming from well-mixed greenhouse gases over the past two decades. Observed ozone depletion is also better reproduced when destruction due to increased water vapor is included. If the trend continues, it could increase future global warming and impede stratospheric ozone recovery.

  13. The radiative impact of Polar Stratospheric Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, T.; Merrelli, A. J.; Poole, L. R.; Pitts, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) are an ubiquitous feature in the stratosphere over the polar regions on the winter hemisphere. Heterogeneous chemistry and microphysics of these clouds play a pivotal role in the formation of the ozone hole. We constrain the radiative impact of these clouds utilizing observations from the space-borne lidar CALIPSO and the state of the art radiative transfer model LBLDIS.In addition to spatial and vertical distribution of PSCs, CALIPSO also provides their composition which is used in LBLDIS to calculate their radiative impact.This analysis focuses on the Antarctic winter season of 2008. Here, CALIPSO shows a distinct maximum in integrated optical depth of PSCs east of the Antarctic peninsula which is present throughout the entire winter season. Under clear-sky conditions PSCs can warm the lower stratosphere by several K/day in this region. However, the radiative impact of PSCs is greatly reduced in the presence of underlying tropospheric clouds. With tropospheric cloud parameters provided by CALIPSO we calculate the radiative impact of PSCs for several tropospheric cloud conditions to constrain the potential impact of PSCs on stratospheric temperatures.We find that high tropospheric clouds reduce the heating effect of PSCs and eventually PSCs have a cooling effect on lower stratospheric temperatures. We investigate how the radiative impact of PSCs changes throughout the winter with changing tropospheric conditions and how these locally forced temperature fluctuations impact the formation of PSCs.

  14. Dehydration of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M.; Dessler, A.

    2011-03-01

    Domain filling, forward trajectory calculations are used to examine the global dehydration processes that control stratospheric water vapor. As with most Lagrangian models of this type, water vapor is instantaneously removed from the parcel to keep the relative humidity with respect to ice from exceeding saturation or a specified super-saturation value. We also test a simple parameterization of stratospheric convective moistening through ice lofting and the effect of gravity waves as a mechanism that can augment dehydration. Comparing diabatic and kinematic trajectories, we find, in agreement with previous authors, that the additional transport due to the vertical velocity "noise" in the kinematic calculation creates too dry a stratosphere and a too diffuse a water-vapor tape recorder signal compared observations. The diabatic simulations, on the other hand, produce stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios very close to that observed by Aura's Microwave Limb Sounder. Convective moistening, which will increases stratospheric HDO, also increases stratospheric water vapor while gravity waves do the opposite. We find that while the Tropical West Pacific is the dominant dehydration location, dehydration over Tropical South America is also important. Antarctica also makes a contribution to the overall stratospheric water vapor budget by releasing very dry air into the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere following the break up of the winter vortex.

  15. Trends in stratospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

  16. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  17. The impacts of Unilateral Stratospheric Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Haywood, J. M.; Bellouin, N.; Stephenson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stratospheric geoengineering proposals have been suggested on the premise that the cooling impacts of volcanic eruptions could be deliberately mimicked to offset the impacts of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the future by counterbalance global warming. Here, we examine both the impacts of hemispherically asymmetric volcanoes in the observational record and the impact of prolonged deliberate injection of stratospheric aerosol into either the northern or southern hemisphere stratosphere or into both hemispheres equally to assess the impacts on Sahelian rainfall and agriculture (Haywood et al., 2013). While the frequency of volcanic eruptions during the past 100 years is too sparse for definitive attribution, there is a suggestion that volcanic eruptions that preferentially load the northern hemisphere are the harbinger of Sahelian drought. Simulations are then performed with the HadGEM2 couple atmospheric-ocean model to assess the impacts of these volcanic eruptions and deliberate unilateral stratospheric geoengineering. Figure 1 shows the impacts of the geoengineering simulations which show that stratospheric injection into the northern hemisphere induces a severe and prolonged Sahelian drought with undoubted detrimental consequences for the local population. Conversely injection into the southern hemisphere causes a significant greening of the Sahel with vegetation productivity enhanced by over 100%. On the face of it, this suggests potential advocacy of injection into the southern hemisphere: we will investigate potential other side-effects from such a strategy...... Haywood, J.M., A. Jones, N. Bellouin, and D.B. Stephenson, Asymmetric forcing from stratospheric aerosols impacts Sahelian drought, Nature Climate Change, Vol 3, No 7, 660-665, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1857, 2013.

  18. Satellite stratospheric aerosol measurement validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    The validity of the stratospheric aerosol measurements made by the satellite sensors SAM II and SAGE was tested by comparing their results with each other and with results obtained by other techniques (lider, dustsonde, filter, and impactor). The latter type of comparison required the development of special techniques that convert the quantity measured by the correlative sensor (e.g., particle backscatter, number, or mass) to that measured by the satellite sensor (extinction) and quantitatively estimate the uncertainty in the conversion process. The results of both types of comparisons show agreement within the measurement and conversion uncertainties. Moreover, the satellite uncertainty is small compared to aerosol natural variability (caused by seasonal changes, volcanoes, sudden warmings, and vortex structure). It was concluded that the satellite measurements are valid.

  19. Satellite stratospheric aerosol measurement validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    The validity of the stratospheric aerosol measurements made by the satellite sensors SAM II and SAGE was tested by comparing their results with each other and with results obtained by other techniques (lider, dustsonde, filter, and impactor). The latter type of comparison required the development of special techniques that convert the quantity measured by the correlative sensor (e.g. particle backscatter, number, or mass) to that measured by the satellite sensor (extinction) and quantitatively estimate the uncertainty in the conversion process. The results of both types of comparisons show agreement within the measurement and conversion uncertainties. Moreover, the satellite uncertainty is small compared to aerosol natural variability (caused by seasonal changes, volcanoes, sudden warmings, and vortex structure). It was concluded that the satellite measurements are valid.

  20. Dehydration of the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Domain filling, forward trajectory calculations are used to examine the global dehydration processes that control stratospheric water vapor. As with most Lagrangian models of this type, water vapor is instantaneously removed from the parcel to keep the relative humidity (RH) with respect to ice from exceeding saturation or a specified super-saturation value. We also test a simple parameterization of stratospheric convective moistening through ice lofting and the effect of gravity waves as a mechanism that can augment dehydration. Comparing diabatic and kinematic trajectories driven by the MERRA reanalysis, we find that the additional transport due to the vertical velocity "noise" in the kinematic calculation creates too dry a stratosphere and a too diffuse a water-vapor tape recorder signal compared observations. We also show that the kinematically driven parcels are more likely to encounter the coldest tropopause temperatures than the diabatic trajectories. The diabatic simulations produce stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios close to that observed by Aura's Microwave Limb Sounder and are consistent with the MERRA tropical tropopause temperature biases. Convective moistening increases stratospheric water vapor while our parameterized gravity waves does the opposite. We find that while the Tropical West Pacific is the dominant dehydration location, but dehydration over Tropical South America is also important. Antarctica makes a small contribution to the overall stratospheric water vapor budget as well by releasing very dry air into the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere following the break up of the winter vortex.

  1. Stratospheric-Tropospheric Interaction and the 2002 Ozone Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 ozone hole was remarkable for its small size and early break-up. This small size resulted from a series of wave events over the course of the 2002 winter. The major event of the 2002 winter was the major warming in late September 2002. This warming resulted from an extremely strong wave event that propagated out of the troposphere, reversed the zonal mean flow, and warmed the polar vortex. This late-September event was the culmination of a series of large wave events which occurred over the course of the 2002 winter. These waves collectively warmed the vortex and decelerated the stratospheric flow. In this talk, we will trace the origin of these wave events, and we will also analyze the feedback of the large disruption of the stratospheric flow on the troposphere.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of observed sudden warmings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dartt, D. G.; Venne, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The planetary wave dynamics of stratospheric sudden warmings in the Northern Hemisphere for a large number of observed events that occurred during winters from 1970 to 1975 and 1978 to 1981 are investigated. The analysis describes wave propagation and zonal flow interaction from the troposphere upwards to near 50 km, and in some years to near 80 km. Three primary topics are covered here: (1) the interaction of zonally propagating and quasi-stationary planetary waves during warming events; (2) planetary wave influence on zonal flow near the stratopause; and (3) planetary wave propagation to near 80 km as seen from Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data.

  3. The tropospheric-stratospheric polar vortex breakdown of January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    An extraordinary warming of the stratosphere in December-January 1976-77 was followed by tropospheric warming in the polar region and cooling in middle latitudes. During January 10-20, the associated polar anticyclone extended from the surface to 10 mb. Antecedents of the polar vortex breakdown are reviewed with the aid of results of zonal-harmonic analyses of planetary waves, for heights of the pressure surfaces (700-10 mb), temperature, and mean stratospheric temperature (the latter determined from satellite radiation measurements). Wave 1 in height and temperature played a dominant role in the stratosphere, attaining amplitudes of 1600 gpm and 25 C, respectively, at 10 mb. On the other hand, superposition of retrogressing wave 1 and quasi-stationary wave 2 in the height of the 300-mb surface, with individual amplitudes exceeding 300 gpm, is judged to have been an important factor in the overall development.

  4. Stratospheric water vapor feedback.

    PubMed

    Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

    2013-11-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  5. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    PubMed Central

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  6. Dehydration of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.

    2011-08-01

    Domain filling, forward trajectory calculations are used to examine the global dehydration processes that control stratospheric water vapor. As with most Lagrangian models of this type, water vapor is instantaneously removed from the parcel to keep the relative humidity (RH) with respect to ice from exceeding saturation or a specified super-saturation value. We also test a simple parameterization of stratospheric convective moistening through ice lofting and the effect of gravity waves as a mechanism that can augment dehydration. Comparing diabatic and kinematic trajectories driven by the MERRA reanalysis, we find that, unlike the results from Liu et al. (2010), the additional transport due to the vertical velocity "noise" in the kinematic calculation creates too dry a stratosphere and a too diffuse a water-vapor tape recorder signal compared observations. We also show that the kinematically driven parcels are more likely to encounter the coldest tropopause temperatures than the diabatic trajectories. The diabatic simulations produce stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios close to that observed by Aura's Microwave Limb Sounder and are consistent with the MERRA tropical tropopause temperature biases. Convective moistening, which will increase stratospheric HDO, also increases stratospheric water vapor while the addition of parameterized gravity waves does the opposite. We find that while the Tropical West Pacific is the dominant dehydration location, but dehydration over Tropical South America is also important. Antarctica makes a small contribution to the overall stratospheric water vapor budget as well by releasing very dry air into the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere following the break up of the winter vortex.

  7. Stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    I use a general circulation model of Earth's climate to simulate stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon aerosols, varying the altitude of injection, initial particle size, and whether the deposited black carbon modifies ground albedo. 1 Tg of black carbon aerosols injected into the stratosphere each year will cause significant enough surface cooling to negate anthropogenic warming if the aerosols are small (r=0.03 mum) or if the aerosols are injected into the middle stratosphere, although using small aerosols causes large regional cooling effects that would be catastrophic to agriculture. The aerosols cause significant stratospheric heating, resulting in stratospheric ozone destruction and circulation changes, most notably an increase in the Northern Hemisphere polar jet, which forms an Arctic ozone hole and forces a positive mode of the Arctic Oscillation. The hydrologic cycle is perturbed, specifically the summer monsoon system of India, Africa, and East Asia, resulting in monsoon precipitation collapse. Global primary productivity is decreased by 35.5% for the small particle case. Surface cooling causes some sea ice regrowth, but not at statistically significant levels. All of these climate impacts are exacerbated for small particle geoengineering, with high altitude geoengineering with the default particle size (r=0.08 mum) causing a reasonable amount of cooling, and large particle (r=0.15 mum) geoengineering or particle injection into the lower stratosphere causing few of these effects. The modification of ground albedo by the soot particles slightly perturbs the radiative budget but does not cause any distinguishable climate effects. The cheapest means we investigated for placing 1 Tg of black carbon aerosols into the stratosphere by diesel fuel combustion would cost 1.4 trillion initially and 541 billion annual, or 2.0% and 0.8% of GDP, respectively. The additional carbon dioxide released from combusting diesel to produce these aerosols is about 1

  8. Stratospheric Airship Design Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ira Steve; Fortenberry, Michael; Noll, . James; Perry, William

    2012-07-01

    The concept of a stratospheric or high altitude powered platform has been around almost as long as stratospheric free balloons. Airships are defined as Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) vehicles with propulsion and steering systems. Over the past five (5) years there has been an increased interest by the U. S. Department of Defense as well as commercial enterprises in airships at all altitudes. One of these interests is in the area of stratospheric airships. Whereas DoD is primarily interested in things that look down, such platforms offer a platform for science applications, both downward and outward looking. Designing airships to operate in the stratosphere is very challenging due to the extreme high altitude environment. It is significantly different than low altitude airship designs such as observed in the familiar advertising or tourism airships or blimps. The stratospheric airship design is very dependent on the specific application and the particular requirements levied on the vehicle with mass and power limits. The design is a complex iterative process and is sensitive to many factors. In an effort to identify the key factors that have the greatest impacts on the design, a parametric analysis of a simplified airship design has been performed. The results of these studies will be presented.

  9. Disentangling the Roles of Various Forcing Mechanisms on Stratospheric Temperature Changes Since 1979 with the NASA GEOSCCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, Valentina; Swartz, W.; Colarco, P.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L.; Stolarski, R.; Waugh, D.

    2015-01-01

    Observations show that the cooling of global stratospheric temperatures from 1979 to 2015 took place in two major steps coincident with the 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions. In order to attribute the features of the global stratospheric temperature time series to the main forcing agents, we performed a set of simulations with the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model. Our results show that the characteristic step-like behavior is to be attributed to the effects of the solar cycle, except for the post-1995 flattening of the lower stratospheric temperatures, where the decrease in ozone depleting substances due to the Montreal Protocol slowed ozone depletion and therefore also the cooling of the stratosphere. Volcanic eruptions also caused a significant warming of the stratosphere after 1995. The observed general cooling is mainly caused by increasing ozone depleting substances in the lower stratosphere, and greenhouse gases in the middle and upper stratosphere.

  10. Seasonal variation of radiance variances from satellite observations Implication of seasonal variation of available potential energy in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, T.-C.; Stanford, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Nimbus 5 satellite radiances for the period 1973-74 are used to examine the seasonal variation of available potential energy in the stratosphere in order to provide a further observational basis for a long-term numerical simulation of stratospheric circulation. The maximum value of stratospheric zonal available potential energy, A(Z), in the upper and middle stratosphere shows pronounced variations between winter and summer, while little variation occurs in the lower stratospheric A(Z). The aperiodic occurrence of sudden warmings complicates the seasonal variation of A(Z) and A(E) (eddy available potential energy) in the stratosphere, making the energetics irregular. Time-Fourier analysis reveals that the primary variation of A(Z) and A(E) in the stratosphere is annual and semiannual, respectively.

  11. Ozone and the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimazaki, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the stratospheric ozone is effective in absorbing almost all radiation below 300 nm at heights below 300 km. The distribution of global ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, and the latitudinal variations of the total ozone column over four seasons are considered. The theory of the ozone layer production is discussed together with catalytic reactions for ozone loss and the mechanisms of ozone transport. Special attention is given to the anthropogenic perturbations, such as SST exhaust gases and freon gas from aerosol cans and refrigerators, that may cause an extensive destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer and thus have a profound impact on the world climate and on life.

  12. Stratospheric hydroperoxyl measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Johnson, David G.; Chance, Kelly V.

    1990-01-01

    The hydroperoxyl radical plays a key role in stratospheric chemistry through the HO(x) catalytic cycle of ozone destruction. Earlier measurements of stratospheric HO2 have given mixed results. Some measured mixing ratios greatly exceed theoretical predictions. Measurements of HO2 have now been made with a balloon-borne FIR spectrometer. The measured daytime profile is in excellent agreement with theory up to 40 kilometers. Above this level the measurements exceed theory by 30 percent, perhaps because of underprediction of ozone at these altitudes. The nighttime HO2 profile is strongly depressed with respect to the daytime profile, in general agreement with theory.

  13. Measurements of stratospheric bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlacek, W. A.; Lazrus, A. L.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977, molecules containing acidic bromine were sampled in the stratosphere by using tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide impregnated filters. Sampling was accomplished by WB-57F aircraft and high-altitude balloons, spanning latitudes from the equator to 75 deg N and altitudes up to 36.6 km. Analytical results are reported for 4 years of measurements and for laboratory simulations that determined the filter collection efficiencies for a number of brominated species. Mass mixing ratios for the collected bromine species in air average about 27 pptm in the stratosphere. Seasonal variability seems to be small.

  14. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  15. Human Health Effects of Ozone Depletion From Stratospheric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents EPA's initial response to NASA's request to advise on potential environmental policy issues associated with the future development of supersonic flight technologies. Consistent with the scope of the study to which NASA and EPA agreed, EPA has evaluated only the environmental concerns related to the stratospheric ozone impacts of a hypothetical HSCT fleet, although recent research indicates that a fleet of HSCT is predicted to contribute to climate warming as well. This report also briefly describes the international and domestic institutional frameworks established to address stratospheric ozone depletion, as well as those established to control pollution from aircraft engine exhaust emissions.

  16. Analysis of the Interactions of Planetary Waves with the Mean Flow of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    During the winter period, large scale waves (planetary waves) are observed to propagate from the troposphere into the stratosphere. Such wave events have been recognized since the 1 950s. The very largest wave events result in major stratospheric warmings. These large scale wave events have typical durations of a few days to 2 weeks. The wave events deposit easterly momentum in the stratosphere, decelerating the polar night jet and warming the polar region. In this presentation we show the typical characteristics of these events via a compositing analysis. We will show the typical periods and scales of motion and the associated decelerations and warmings. We will illustrate some of the differences between major and minor warming wave events. We will further illustrate the feedback by the mean flow on subsequent wave events.

  17. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  18. The stratospheric ozone layer-an overview.

    PubMed

    Peter, T

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarises the knowledge on the properties of the stratospheric ozone layer. Dynamic, chemical, and microphysical aspects are reviewed with emphasis on chemistry. The questions addressed are as follows. Do we have a quantitative understanding of the Antarctic ozone hole? What lies behind the trend of slowly decreasing ozone columns over northern mid-latitudes? To what degree was chemistry responsible for the extremely low ozone levels over northern Europe in January 1992? The discovery of the ozone hole in 1985 exposed scientific neglect of the category of fast heterogeneous reactions taking place on particulate matter in the stratosphere. But even now after the wide acceptance of some heterogeneous reactions it is difficult to fully account for the rate at which Antarctic ozone is depleted each year in August. After reviewing the known heterogeneous reactions, possible hitherto unrecognised mechanisms are briefly outlined. The paper also includes a discussion of the chemical reactions which can occur even under relatively warm conditions on the ubiquitous, stratospheric aerosol particles and which could contribute to the observed mid-latitudinal ozone depletion. Finally, the paper underlines the importance of dynamic processes, that is, horizontal transport and vertical adiabatic motion, which appear to be the main cause of the anomalously low northern hemispheric ozone values during the 1991/1992 winter.

  19. Direct measurements of stratospheric fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroz, E. J.; Lazrus, A. L.; Bonelli, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Stratospheric fluoride mass mixing ratios were measured by passing stratospheric air through filters half of which is impregnated in a base. Measurements of stratospheric fluoride were obtained at altitudes from 15 to 40 km at latitude 30-33 N and longitude 95-105 W at different months of the year. The significant amount of fluoride collected on the base-impregnated portion of the filters suggests that fluoride is present in the stratosphere as an acid gas. The mixing ratios decrease markedly at altitudes less than 20-25 km, suggesting the troposphere as the major sink for stratospheric fluoride.

  20. Chlorofluoromethanes and the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The conclusions of a workshop held by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to assess the current knowledge of the impact of chlorofluoromethane release in the troposphere on stratospheric ozone concentrations. The following topics are discussed; (1) Laboratory measurements; (2) Ozone measurements and trends; (3) Minor species and aerosol measurements; (4) One dimensional modeling; and (5) Multidimensional modeling.

  1. A consistent definition of the Arctic polar vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W.; Seo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Breakup of the polar vortex is a dominant feature of the seasonal transition from winter to summer in the stratosphere, which significantly affects stratospheric O3 concentration and tropospheric weather. Previously several criteria for the vortex breakup have been suggested based on the potential vorticity (PV) and wind speed, however, those mainly have focused on the lower stratospheric vortex of which spatiotemporal evolution and decay are more continuous than those of the upper stratospheric vortex. To find a consistent criterion for the vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere, the present study defined a polar vortex breakup day as when PV gradient at the polar vortex edge becomes lower than that at the subtropical edge on the area equivalent latitude based on PV. With applying the new definition to the UK Met Office reanalysis data, the breakup days of the Arctic polar vortices on 18 isentropic levels from 450 K to 1300 K were calculated for the period of 1993-2005. In comparison with CH4, N2O and O3 measured by the ILAS and POAM II/III satellite instruments, the breakup days are well consistent with changes in the distribution of such tracers as well as their zonal standard deviations associated with the vortex structure breaking and irreversible mixing. The vortex breakup in the upper stratosphere occurs more or less a month prior to that in the middle and lower stratosphere while the stratospheric final warming events occurs simultaneously in the upper and lower stratosphere.

  2. Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Two Types of El Niño Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Margaret; Newman, Paul; Oman, Luke; Molod, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    This study is the first to identify a robust ENSO signal in the Antarctic stratosphere. Following the recent ocean-atmosphere literature, El Niño events between 1979 and 2006 are classified as follows: "warm pool" El Niño events (warm SST anomalies in the Niño 4 region) and "cold tongue" events (warm SST anomalies in the Niño 3 region). The MERRA meteorological reanalysis is used to examine the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric response to both types of El Niño events. Consistent with previous studies, "cold tongue" events do not impact temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere. The polar stratospheric response to "warm pool" El Niño events is larger and is distinct from the response to "cold tongue" events. "Warm pool" El Niño events shift the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) to the central Pacific, enhance precipitation and cloud top heights in the southeastern edge of the SPCZ, and increase planetary wave driving in October and November. These conditions lead to higher polar stratospheric temperatures during austral summer (>2K at 70hPa), as compared with neutral ENSO years.

  3. Northern Winter Climate Change: Assessment of Uncertainty in CMIP5 Projections Related to Stratosphere-Troposphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzini, E.; Karpechko, A.Yu.; Anstey, J.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Baldwin, M.P.; Black, R.X.; Cagnazzo, C.; Calvo, N.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Christiansen, B.; Davini, Paolo; Gerber, E.; Giorgetta, M.; Gray, L.; Hardiman, S.C.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Marsh, D.R.; McDaniel, B.A.; Purich, A.; Scaife, A.A.; Shindell, Drew; Son, S.-W; Watanabe, S.; Zappa, G.

    2014-01-01

    Future changes in the stratospheric circulation could have an important impact on northern winter tropospheric climate change, given that sea level pressure (SLP) responds not only to tropospheric circulation variations but also to vertically coherent variations in troposphere-stratosphere circulation. Here we assess northern winter stratospheric change and its potential to influence surface climate change in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-Phase 5 (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble. In the stratosphere at high latitudes, an easterly change in zonally averaged zonal wind is found for the majority of the CMIP5 models, under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario. Comparable results are also found in the 1% CO2 increase per year projections, indicating that the stratospheric easterly change is common feature in future climate projections. This stratospheric wind change, however, shows a significant spread among the models. By using linear regression, we quantify the impact of tropical upper troposphere warming, polar amplification, and the stratospheric wind change on SLP. We find that the intermodel spread in stratospheric wind change contributes substantially to the intermodel spread in Arctic SLP change. The role of the stratosphere in determining part of the spread in SLP change is supported by the fact that the SLP change lags the stratospheric zonally averaged wind change. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the importance of simulating the coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere, to narrow the uncertainty in the future projection of tropospheric circulation changes.

  4. Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Stratospht1ic sulfuric acid particles scatter and absorb sunlight and they scatter, absorb and emit terrestrial thermal radiation. These interactions play a role in the earth's radiation balance and therefore affect climate. The stratospheric aerosols are perturbed by volcanic injection of SO2 and ash, by aircraft injection of SO2, by rocket exhaust of Al2O3 and by tropospheric mixing of particles and pollutant SO2 and COS. In order to assess the effects of these perturbations on climate, the effects of the aerosols on the radiation balance must be understood and in order to understand the radiation effects the properties of the aerosols must be known. The discussion covers the aerosols' effect on the radiation balance. It is shown that the aerosol size distribution controls whether the aerosols will tend to warm or cool the earth's surface. Calculations of aerosol properties, including size distribution, for various perturbation sources are carried out on the basis of an aerosol model. Calculations are also presented of the climatic impact of perturbed aerosols due to volcanic eruptions and Space Shuttle flights.

  5. Scientific assessment of stratospheric ozone: 1989, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of the current understanding of stratospheric ozone (SO). The focus is on four major current aspects of SO: (1) polar ozone; (2) global trends; (3) theoretical predictions; and (4) halocarbon ozone depleting materials and global warming potentials. Other ozone related topics are also discussed: (1) the trends of stratospheric temperature, stratospheric aerosols, source gases, and surface ultraviolet radiation; and (2) the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere as it pertains to the lifetimes of ozone related chemicals. There have been highly significant advances in the understanding of the impact of human activities on the Earth's protective ozone layer. There are four major findings that each heighten the concern that chlorine and bromine containing chemicals can lead to a significant depletion of SO: (1) Antarctic Ozone Hole; (2) Perturbed Arctic Chemistry; (3) Long-term Ozone Decreases; and (4) Model Limitations.

  6. A Tropical West Pacific OH minimum and implications for stratospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, M.; Wohltmann, I.; Ridder, T.; Lehmann, R.; Rosenlof, K.; Wennberg, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Notholt, J.; Krüger, K.; Mohr, V.; Tegtmeier, S.

    2013-11-01

    Hundreds of biogenic and anthropogenic chemical species are emitted into the atmosphere. Most break down efficiently by reaction with OH and do not reach the stratosphere. Here we show the existence of pronounced minima in the tropospheric columns of ozone and OH over the West Pacific, the main source region for stratospheric air. We show that this amplifies the impact of surface emissions on the stratospheric composition. Specifically, emissions of biogenic halogenated species from natural sources and from kelp and seaweed farming can have a larger effect on stratospheric ozone depletion. Increasing anthropogenic emissions of SO2 in South East Asia or from minor volcanic eruptions can play a larger role for the stratospheric aerosol budget, a key element for explaining the recently observed decrease in global warming rates (Solomon et al., 2011).

  7. Validation of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature trends has become recognized as an important indicator of climate change, because different climate forcing mechanisms exhibit distinct vertical warming and cooling patterns. For example, the cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming. Despite its importance, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. One of the main reason is because stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. This study presents an evaluation of the stratospheric temperature profiles from a newly ground-based microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) which has been built and designed at the University of Bern. The measurements from TEMPERA are compared with the ones from other different techniques such as in-situ (radiosondes), active remote sensing (lidar) and passive remote sensing on board of Aura satellite (MLS) measurements. In addition a statistical analysis of the stratospheric temperature obtained from TEMPERA measurements during four years of data has been performed. This analysis evidenced the capability of TEMPERA radiometer to monitor the temperature in the stratosphere for a long-term. The detection of some singular sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) during the analyzed period shows the necessity of these

  8. Mesosphere-Stratosphere Coupling: Implications for Climate Variability and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of this project is the establishment of a causal link from circulation anomalies in the lower mesosphere and stratopause region downward through the stratosphere to the troposphere. The observational link for stratospheric sudden warmings and surface climate is fairly clear. However, our understanding of the dynamics is incomplete. We have been making significant progress in the area of dynamical mechanisms by which circulation anomalies in the stratosphere affect the troposphere. We are trying to understand the details and sequence of events that occur when a middle atmosphere (wind) anomaly propagates downward to near the tropopause. The wind anomaly could be caused by a warming or solar variations in the low-latitude stratopause region, or could have other causes. The observations show a picture that is consistent with a circulation anomaly that descends to the tropopause region, and can be detected as low as the mid-troposphere. Processes near the stratopause in the tropics appear to be important precursors to the wintertime development of the northern polar vortex. This may affect significantly our understanding of the process by which low-latitude wind anomalies in the low mesosphere and upper stratosphere evolve through the winter and affect the polar vortex.

  9. Changes in stratospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Cicerone, R J

    1987-07-01

    The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is a natural feature of the earth's environment. It performs several important functions, including shielding the earth from damaging solar ultraviolet radiation. Far from being static, ozone concentrations rise and fall under the forces of photochemical production, catalytic chemical destruction, and fluid dynamical transport. Human activities are projected to deplete substantially stratospheric ozone through anthropogenic increases in the global concentrations of key atmospheric chemicals. Human-induced perturbations may be occurring already.

  10. In-situ Observations of Mid-latitude Forest Fire Plumes Deep in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Hans-Juerg; Drdla, Katja; Stohl, Andreas; Pfister, Leonhard; Loewenstein, Max; Lopez, Jimena P.; Hudson, Paula K.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Fromm, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We observed a plume of air highly enriched in carbon monoxide and particles in the stratosphere at altitudes up to 15.8 km. It can be unambiguously attributed to North American forest fires. This plume demonstrates an extratropical direct transport path from the planetary boundary layer several kilometers deep into the stratosphere, which is not fully captured by large-scale atmospheric transport models. This process indicates that the stratospheric ozone layer could be sensitive to changes in forest burning associated with climatic warming.

  11. A stratospheric water vapor feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Variations in stratospheric water vapor play a role in the evolution of our climate. We show here that variations in water vapor since 2004 can be traced to tropical tropopause layer (TTL) temperature perturbations from at least three processes: the quasi-biennial oscillation, the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and the temperature of the troposphere. The connection between stratospheric water vapor and the temperature of the troposphere implies the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the feedback in a chemistry-climate model to have a magnitude of +0.3 W/m2/K, which could be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. About two-thirds of the feedback comes from the extratropical stratosphere below ~16 km (the lowermost stratosphere), with the rest coming from the stratosphere above ~16 km (the overworld).

  12. Ensemble climate simulations using a fully coupled ocean-troposphere-stratosphere general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Huebener, H; Cubasch, U; Langematz, U; Spangehl, T; Niehörster, F; Fast, I; Kunze, M

    2007-08-15

    Long-term transient simulations are carried out in an initial condition ensemble mode using a global coupled climate model which includes comprehensive ocean and stratosphere components. This model, which is run for the years 1860-2100, allows the investigation of the troposphere-stratosphere interactions and the importance of representing the middle atmosphere in climate-change simulations. The model simulates the present-day climate (1961-2000) realistically in the troposphere, stratosphere and ocean. The enhanced stratospheric resolution leads to the simulation of sudden stratospheric warmings; however, their frequency is underestimated by a factor of 2 with respect to observations.In projections of the future climate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report on emissions scenarios A2, an increased tropospheric wave forcing counteracts the radiative cooling in the middle atmosphere caused by the enhanced greenhouse gas concentration. This leads to a more dynamically active, warmer stratosphere compared with present-day simulations, and to the doubling of the number of stratospheric warmings. The associated changes in the mean zonal wind patterns lead to a southward displacement of the Northern Hemisphere storm track in the climate-change signal. PMID:17569652

  13. Generation of waves by jet-stream instabilities in winter polar stratosphere/mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpynev, B. G.; Churilov, S. M.; Chernigovskaya, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the paper we investigate the manifestation of large-scale and middle-scale atmospheric irregularities observed on stratosphere/mesosphere heights. We consider typical patterns of circulation in stratosphere and lower mesosphere which are formed due to a difference of air potential energy between equatorial and polar latitudes, especially in polar night conditions. On the base of ECMWF Era Interim reanalysis data we consider the dynamics of midlatitude winter jet-streams which transfer heat from low latitudes to polar region and which develop due to equator/pole baroclinic instabilities. We consider typical patterns of general circulation in stratosphere/lower mesosphere and reasons for creation of flaky structure of polar stratosphere. Also we analyze conditions that are favorable for splitting of winter circumpolar vortex during sudden stratosphere warming events and role of phase difference tides in this process. The analysis of vertical structure of the stratosphere wind shows the presence of regions with significant shear of horizontal velocity which favors for inducing of shear-layer instability that appears as gravity wave on boundary surface. During powerful sudden stratosphere warming events the main jet-stream can amplify these gravity waves to very high amplitudes that causes wave overturning and releasing of wave energy into the heat due to the cascade breakdown and turbulence. For the dynamics observed in reanalysis data we consider physical mechanisms responsible for observed phenomena.

  14. Sensitivity of Stratospheric Geoengineering with Black Carbon to Aerosol Size and Altitude of Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Shindell, Drew T.; Miller, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface temperatures show that the climate effects strongly depend on aerosol size and altitude of injection. 1 Tg BC/a injected into the lower stratosphere would cause little surface cooling for large radii but a large amount of surface cooling for small radii and stratospheric warming of over 60 C. With the exception of small particles, increasing the altitude of injection increases surface cooling and stratospheric warming. Stratospheric warming causes global ozone loss by up to 50% in the small radius case. The Antarctic shows less ozone loss due to reduction of polar stratospheric clouds, but strong circumpolar winds would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively expensive and infeasible. Although studying an absorbing aerosol is a useful counterpart to previous studies involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries too many risks to make it a viable option for deployment.

  15. Impact of geoengineered aerosols on the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tilmes, S.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Gettelman, A.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2009-06-27

    A coupled chemistry climate model, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model was used to perform a transient climate simulation to quantify the impact of geoengineered aerosols on atmospheric processes. In contrast to previous model studies, the impact on stratospheric chemistry, including heterogeneous chemistry in the polar regions, is considered in this simulation. In the geoengineering simulation, a constant stratospheric distribution of volcanic-sized, liquid sulfate aerosols is imposed in the period 2020–2050, corresponding to an injection of 2 Tg S/a. The aerosol cools the troposphere compared to a baseline simulation. Assuming an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B emission scenario, global warming is delayed by about 40 years in the troposphere with respect to the baseline scenario. Large local changes of precipitation and temperatures may occur as a result of geoengineering. Comparison with simulations carried out with the Community Atmosphere Model indicates the importance of stratospheric processes for estimating the impact of stratospheric aerosols on the Earth’s climate. Changes in stratospheric dynamics and chemistry, especially faster heterogeneous reactions, reduce the recovery of the ozone layer in middle and high latitudes for the Southern Hemisphere. In the geoengineering case, the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole is delayed by about 30 years on the basis of this model simulation. For the Northern Hemisphere, a onefold to twofold increase of the chemical ozone depletion occurs owing to a simulated stronger polar vortex and colder temperatures compared to the baseline simulation, in agreement with observational estimates.

  16. Science in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan

    1997-01-01

    The Science in the Stratosphere program, first established in 1992, was conceived to introduce K-6 teachers to airborne infrared astronomy through the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and to use this venue as a basis for seeing scientists at work in a mission-intensive program. The teachers selected for this program would bring their new perspectives back to their schools and students. Unlike the related FOSTER program, the emphasis of this program was on more intensive exposure of the KAO mission to a small number of teachers. The teachers in the Science in the Stratosphere program essentially lived with the project scientists and staff for almost a week. One related goal was to imbed the KAO project with perspectives of working teachers, thereby sensitizing the project staff and scientists to educational outreach efforts in general, which is an important goal of the NASA airborne astronomy program. A second related goal was to explore the ways in which K-5 educators could participate in airborne astronomy missions. Also unlike FOSTER, the Science in the Stratosphere program was intentionally relatively unstructured, in that the teacher participants were wholly embraced by the science team, and were encouraged to 'sniff out' the flavor of the whole facility by talking with people.

  17. Stratospheric Aerosols for Solar Radiation Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben

    SRM in the context of this entry involves placing a large amount of aerosols in the stratosphere to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface, thereby cooling the surface and counteracting some of the warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The way this is accomplished depends on the specific aerosol used, but the basic mechanism involves backscattering and absorbing certain amounts of solar radiation aloft. Since warming from greenhouse gases is due to longwave (thermal) emission, compensating for this warming by reduction of shortwave (solar) energy is inherently imperfect, meaning SRM will have climate effects that are different from the effects of climate change. This will likely manifest in the form of regional inequalities, in that, similarly to climate change, some regions will benefit from SRM, while some will be adversely affected, viewed both in the context of present climate and a climate with high CO2 concentrations. These effects are highly dependent upon the means of SRM, including the type of aerosol to be used, the particle size and other microphysical concerns, and the methods by which the aerosol is placed in the stratosphere. SRM has never been performed, nor has deployment been tested, so the research up to this point has serious gaps. The amount of aerosols required is large enough that SRM would require a major engineering endeavor, although SRM is potentially cheap enough that it could be conducted unilaterally. Methods of governance must be in place before deployment is attempted, should deployment even be desired. Research in public policy, ethics, and economics, as well as many other disciplines, will be essential to the decision-making process. SRM is only a palliative treatment for climate change, and it is best viewed as part of a portfolio of responses, including mitigation, adaptation, and possibly CDR. At most, SRM is insurance against dangerous consequences that are directly due to increased surface air

  18. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-11-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of Arkansas have developed a conceptual understanding of energy and of electromagnetism, including the electromagnetic spectrum, I devote a lecture (and a textbook section) to ozone depletion and another lecture (and section) to global warming. Humankind came together in 1986 and quickly solved, to the extent that humans can solve it, ozone depletion. We could do the same with global warming, but we haven't and as yet there's no sign that we will. The parallel between the ozone and global warming cases, and the difference in outcomes, are striking and instructive.

  19. Freezing Behavior of Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols Inferred from Trajectory Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Toon, O. B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Based on the trajectory analysis presented in this paper, a new mechanism is described for the freezing of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols. Temperature histories based on 10-day back trajectories for six ER-2 flights during AASE-I (1989) and AAOE (1987) are presented. The mechanism requires, as an initial step, the cooling of a H2SO4/H2O aerosol to low temperatures. If a cooling cycle is then followed up by a warming to approximately 196-198 K, the aerosols may freeze due to the growth of the crystallizing embryos formed at the colder temperature. The HNO3 absorbed at colder temperatures may increase the nucleation rate of the crystalling embryos and therefore influence the crystallization of the supercooled aerosols upon warming. Of all the ER-2 flights described, only the polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), observed on the flights of January 24, and 25, 1989 are consistent with the thermodynamics of liquid ternary solutions of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O (type Ib PSCs). For those two days, back trajectories indicate that the air mass was exposed to sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) melting temperatures about 24 hours prior to being sampled by the ER-2. Temperature histories, recent laboratory measurements, and the properties of glassy solids suggest that stratospheric H2SO4 aerosols may undergo a phase transition to SAT upon warming at approximately 198 K after going through a cooling cycle to about 194 K or lower.

  20. 'The plunger hypothesis' - predicting the tropospheric impact of extreme stratospheric events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Simon; Baldwin, Mark; Stephenson, David

    2016-04-01

    The coupling of events in the polar stratosphere to those in the polar troposphere is not currently understood. Extreme events in the stratosphere have been identified to have a lasting influence on the tropospheric circulation below for a period of up to 60 days. As such understanding the downward propagation of stratospheric circulation anomalies would be beneficial to surface forecasting. In this work we use the new 'plunger hypothesis', that mass fluxes into and out of the polar region compress the polar column of air - in a manner similar to a plunger - and cause pressure and temperature anomalies. We demonstrate how a quasigeostrophic assumption within this hypothesis allows for the prediction of mass fluxes across the boundary to the polar region given the pressure distribution at the boundary. This then allows for a prediction of how a given stratospheric event such as a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) or a strong vortex event influences the polar troposphere. The performance of this hypothesis is tested; its usefulness in improving surface forecasts, its accuracy in response to stratospheric events, and its ability to predict downward propagation of Arctic Oscillation (AO) index in the aftermath of extreme stratospheric events. The link between this work and the PV inversion formulation of stratosphere-troposphere coupling is discussed. This work forms part of a three and a half year PhD project.

  1. Saturn's Stratospheric Oxygen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Paul N.; Delgado Díaz, Héctor E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, Brigette; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    There are three known oxygenated species present in Saturn's upper atmosphere: H2O, CO and CO2. The ultimate source of the water must be external to Saturn as Saturn's cold tropopause effectively prevents any internal water from reaching the upper atmosphere. The carbon monoxide and dioxide source(s) could be internal, external, produced by the photochemical interaction of water with Saturn's stratospheric hydrocarbons or some combination of all of these. At this point it is not clear what the external source(s) are.Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O and CO2 (Hesman et al., DPS 2015, 311.16 & Abbas et al. 2013, Ap. J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/2/73) on Saturn. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using CIRS retrieved temperatures, the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level can be retrieved and the CO2 mole fraction at ~1-10 mbar. Coupled with ground based observations of CO (Cavalié et al., 2010, A&A, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912909) these observations provide a complete oxygen compound data set to test photochemical models.Preliminary results will be presented with an emphasis on upper limit analysis to determine the percentage of stratospheric CO and CO2 that can be produced photochemically from CIRS observational constraints on the H2O profile.

  2. The stratosphere: Present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D. (Editor); Reed, E. I. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The present status of stratospheric science is discussed. The three basic elements of stratospheric science-laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and theoretical studies are presented along with an attempt to predict, with reasonable confidence, the effect on ozone of particular anthropogenic sources of pollution.

  3. Signal of CP El Niño propagation in Southern hemispheric stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Li, T.; Dou, X.

    2014-12-01

    By using ERA-Interim and MERRA reanalysis, we firstly point out the Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratosphere warming is most significant during September, rather than during boreal winter of CP El Niño years. The SH stratospheric temperature anomalies become significant since July and reach the peak around September with a maximum above 4K, indicates the suppressed southern polar vortex and the strengthening of BD circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. After October, the southern polar positive signal decreases and the temperature anomalies becomes not significant. The E-P flux and the E-P flux divergence variations in SH mid-latitudes are most significant in August of CP El Niño, which lead SH stratospheric temperature anomalies by 1 month. The anomalously enhanced westward planetary waves at SH middle latitudes can propagate upward and poleward through the stratosphere westerly wind during SH winter (July-September). Thus, enhanced dissipation of westward planetary waves in the upper stratosphere of SH can cause anomalous warming in the polar region and cooling in the tropical stratosphere. The propagation of planetary waves in SH stratosphere is depressed and not significant since the westerly wind in SH stratosphere weakens rapidly from October to December. The significant anomalous eddy heat flux (EHF) are also found over mid- and high- latitude of SH stratosphere during August and weaken after September. The EHF at 100hPa (40°-80°S) suggest that the planetary wave activity is strengthened during July-September rather than during October-November in most CP El Niño events.

  4. Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B.; Pollack, J. B.; Summers, A.; Toon, O. B.; Sagan, C.; Van Camp, W.

    1976-01-01

    Generated primarily by volcanic explosions, a layer of submicron silicate particles and particles made of concentrated sulfuric acids solution is present in the stratosphere. Flights through the stratosphere may be a future source of stratospheric aerosols, since the effluent from supersonic transports contains sulfurous gases (which will be converted to H2SO4) while the exhaust from Space Shuttles contains tiny aluminum oxide particles. Global heat balance calculations have shown that the stratospheric aerosols have made important contributions to some climatic changes. In the present paper, accurate radiative transfer calculations of the globally-averaged surface temperature (T) are carried out to estimate the sensitivity of the climate to changes in the number of stratospheric aerosols. The results obtained for a specified model atmosphere, including a vertical profile of the aerosols, indicate that the climate is unlikely to be affected by supersonic transports and Space Shuttles, during the next decades.

  5. Seeing in the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pin; Traub, W. A.; Kern, B. D.; Matsuo, T.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating NASA's reinvigoration of suborbital programs, we present a quantitative analysis of seeing in the stratosphere and its implications for direct detection of mature exoplanets using a visible-wavelength, coronagraphic telescope onboard a balloon platform. We analyze two sources of dynamic wavefront perturbations: turbulence in the free atmosphere and locally generated turbulence. This paper concentrates on the former, as the local-seeing measurement and analysis results are detailed in a previous paper1. Using published, space-borne observations of optical inhomogeneities in the stratosphere, we calculate speckle intensities arising from aberrations of stellar wavefronts propagating through the atmosphere above a balloon-borne observatory. Specifically, we demonstrate that the inner scale of turbulence is critically important in determining speckle intensities for planet-star separations greater than 0.1 arcsecond. Therefore, a turbulence model such as the Hill-Andrews spectrum is required to account for the effects of the inner scale. Results derived from the (conventional) Komolgorov, von Karman, and Hill-Andrews spectra are presented vis-á-vis requirements of Planetscope, a balloon-borne coronagraph concept that would directly characterize known extrasolar planets and debris disks around nearby stars. Footnotes 1 Traub, WA; Chen, P; Kern B. "Planetscope: An Exoplanet Coronagraph on a Balloon Platform.” Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 7010(70103S), DOI:10.1117/12.788087

  6. ORISON, a stratospheric project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Moreno, Jose Luis; Mueller, Thomas; Duffard, Rene; Juan Lopez-Moreno, Jose; Wolf, Jürgen; Schindler, Karsten; Graf, Friederike

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical research based on satellites is extremely expensive, complex, requires years of development, and the overall difficulties are immense. The ORISON project addresses the feasibility study and the design of a global solution based on platforms on-board stratospheric balloons, which allows overcoming the limitations of the Earth's atmosphere, but at a much lower cost and with fewer complications than on satellite platforms. The overall idea is the use of small low-cost stratospheric balloons, either individually or as a fleet, equipped with light-weight medium-sized telescopes and other instruments to perform specific tasks on short-duration missions. They could carry different payloads for specific "experiments" too, and should be configurable to some degree to accommodate variable instrumentation. These balloon-based telescopes should be designed to be launched from many sites on Earth, not necessarily from remote sites such as Antarctica or near the North Pole, and at low cost. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 690013.

  7. A decomposition of ENSO's impacts on the northern winter stratosphere: competing effect of SST forcing in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jian; Ren, Rongcai

    2016-06-01

    This study applies WACCM, a stratosphere-resolving model to dissect the stratospheric responses in the northern winter extratropics to the imposed ENSO-related SST anomalies in the tropics. It is found that the anomalously warmer and weaker stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO is basically a balance of the opposite effects between the SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific (TPO) and that over the tropical Indian Ocean basin (TIO). Specifically, the ENSO-related SST anomalies over the TIO are to induce an anomalously colder and stronger stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO, which acts to partially cancel out the much stronger warmer and weaker polar vortex response to the SST anomalies over the TPO. Further analysis indicates that, while the SST forcing from the TPO contributes to the anomalously positive Pacific North America (PNA) pattern in the troposphere and the enhancement of the stationary wavenumber (WN)-1 in the stratosphere during warm ENSO, the TIO SST forcing is to induce an anomalously negative PNA and a reduction of both WN-1 and WN-2 in the stratosphere. Diagnosis of E-P flux confirms that, the anomalously upward propagation of stationary waves in the extratropics mainly lies over the western coast of North America during warm ENSO, which is mainly associated with the TPO-induced positive PNA response and is partially suppressed by the effect of the accompanying TIO SST forcing.

  8. On the motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.

    1994-01-01

    Trajectory calculations using horizontal winds from the U.K. Meteorological Office data assimilation system and vertical velocities from a radiation calculation are used to simulate the three-dimensional motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex for Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winters since the launch of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Throughout the winter, air from the upper stratosphere moves poleward and descends into the middle stratosphere. In the SH lower to middle stratosphere, strongest descent occurs near the edge of the polar vortex, with that edge defined by mixing characteristics. The NH shows a similar pattern in late winter, but in early winter strongest descent is near the center of the vortex, except when wave activity is particularly strong. Strong barriers to latitudinal mixing exist above about 420 K throughout the winter. Below this, the polar night jet is weak in early winter, so air descending below that level mixes between polar and middle latitudes. In late winter, parcels descend less and the polar night jet moves downward, so there is less latitudinal mixing. The degree of mixing in the lower stratosphere thus depends strongly on the position and evolution of the polar night jet and on the amount of descent experienced by the air parcels; these characteristics show considerable interannual variability in both hemispheres. The computed trajectories provide a three-dimensional picture of air motion during the final warming. Large tongues of air are drawn off the vortex and stretched into increasingly long and narrow tongues extending into low latitudes. This vortex erosion process proceeds more rapidly in the NH than in he SH. In the lower stratosphere, the majority of air parcels remain confined within a lingering region of strong potential vorticity gradients into December in the SH and April in the NH, well after the vortex breaks up in the midstratosphere.

  9. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 1; Respective Influences of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Climate Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and 8 different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to allow for a full tropospheric climate response, and with specified SSTs to minimize the tropospheric change. The results show that tropospheric warming (cooling) experiments and stratospheric cooling (warming) experiments produce more positive (negative) AO/NAO indices. For the typical magnitudes of tropospheric and stratospheric climate changes, the tropospheric response dominates; results are strongest when the tropospheric and stratospheric influences are producing similar phase changes. Both regions produce their effect primarily by altering wave propagation and angular momentum transports, but planetary wave energy changes accompanying tropospheric climate change are also important. Stratospheric forcing has a larger impact on the NAO than on the AO, and the angular momentum transport changes associated with it peak in the upper troposphere, affecting all wavenumbers. Tropospheric climate changes influence both the A0 and NAO with effects that extend throughout the troposphere. For both forcings there is often vertical consistency in the sign of the momentum transport changes, obscuring the difference between direct and indirect mechanisms for influencing the surface circulation.

  10. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Mao, J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  11. Troposphere-stratosphere response to large-scale North Atlantic Ocean variability in an atmosphere/ocean coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, N.-E.; Bader, Jürgen; Keenlyside, N. S.; Manzini, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The instrumental records indicate that the basin-wide wintertime North Atlantic warm conditions are accompanied by a pattern resembling negative North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), and cold conditions with pattern resembling the positive NAO. This relation is well reproduced in a control simulation by the stratosphere resolving atmosphere-ocean coupled Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Further analyses of the MPI-ESM model simulation shows that the large-scale warm North Atlantic conditions are associated with a stratospheric precursory signal that propagates down into the troposphere, preceding the wintertime negative NAO. Additional experiments using only the atmospheric component of MPI-ESM (ECHAM6) indicate that these stratospheric and tropospheric changes are forced by the warm North Atlantic conditions. The basin-wide warming excites a wave-induced stratospheric vortex weakening, stratosphere/troposphere coupling and a high-latitude tropospheric warming. The induced high-latitude tropospheric warming is associated with reduction of the growth rate of low-level baroclinic waves over the North Atlantic region, contributing to the negative NAO pattern. For the cold North Atlantic conditions, the strengthening of the westerlies in the coupled model is confined to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Comparing the coupled and uncoupled model shows that in the cold phase the tropospheric changes seen in the coupled model are not well reproduced by the standalone atmospheric configuration. Our experiments provide further evidence that North Atlantic Ocean variability (NAV) impacts the coupled stratosphere/troposphere system. As NAV has been shown to be predictable on seasonal-to-decadal timescales, these results have important implications for the predictability of the extra-tropical atmospheric circulation on these time-scales.

  12. Effect of Recent Sea Surface Temperature Trends on the Arctic Stratospheric Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke; Hurwitz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The springtime Arctic polar vortex has cooled significantly over the satellite era, with consequences for ozone concentrations in the springtime transition season. The causes of this cooling trend are deduced by using comprehensive chemistry-climate model experiments. Approximately half of the satellite era early springtime cooling trend in the Arctic lower stratosphere was caused by changing sea surface temperatures (SSTs). An ensemble of experiments forced only by changing SSTs is compared to an ensemble of experiments in which both the observed SSTs and chemically- and radiatively-active trace species are changing. By comparing the two ensembles, it is shown that warming of Indian Ocean, North Pacific, and North Atlantic SSTs, and cooling of the tropical Pacific, have strongly contributed to recent polar stratospheric cooling in late winter and early spring, and to a weak polar stratospheric warming in early winter. When concentrations of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases are fixed, polar ozone concentrations show a small but robust decline due to changing SSTs. Ozone changes are magnified in the presence of changing gas concentrations. The stratospheric changes can be understood by examining the tropospheric height and heat flux anomalies generated by the anomalous SSTs. Finally, recent SST changes have contributed to a decrease in the frequency of late winter stratospheric sudden warmings.

  13. Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Two Types of El Nino Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Molod, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first to identify a robust El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal in the Antarctic stratosphere. El Nino events are classified as either conventional "cold tongue" events (positive SST anomalies in the Nino 3 region) or "warm pool" events (positive SST anomalies in the Nino 4 region). The ERA-40, NCEP and MERRA meteorological reanalyses are used to show that the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere responds differently to these two types of El Nino events. Consistent with previous studies, "cold tongue" events do not impact temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere. During "warm pool" El Nino events, the poleward extension and increased strength of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) favor an enhancement of planetary wave activity during the SON season. On average, these conditions lead to higher polar stratospheric temperatures and a weakening of the Antarctic polar jet in November and December, as compared with neutral ENSO years. The phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modulates the stratospheric response to "warm pool" El Nino events: the strongest planetary wave driving events are coincident with the easterly phase of the QBO.

  14. Stratospheric benzene and hydrocarbon aerosols detected in Saturn's auroral regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.; Vinatier, S.; Simon, A. A.; Dartois, E.; Spiga, A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Saturn's polar upper atmosphere exhibits significant auroral activity; however, its impact on stratospheric chemistry (i.e. the production of benzene and heavier hydrocarbons) and thermal structure remains poorly documented. Aims: We aim to bring new constraints on the benzene distribution in Saturn's stratosphere, to characterize polar aerosols (their vertical distribution, composition, thermal infrared optical properties), and to quantify the aerosols' radiative impact on the thermal structure. Methods: Infrared spectra acquired by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on board Cassini in limb viewing geometry are analysed to derive benzene column abundances and aerosol opacity profiles over the 3 to 0.1 mbar pressure range. The spectral dependency of the haze opacity is assessed in the ranges 680-900 and 1360-1440 cm-1. Then, a radiative climate model is used to compute equilibrium temperature profiles, with and without haze, given the haze properties derived from CIRS measurements. Results: On Saturn's auroral region (80°S), benzene is found to be slightly enhanced compared to its equatorial and mid-latitude values. This contrasts with the Moses & Greathouse (2005, J. Geophys. Res., 110, 9007) photochemical model, which predicts a benzene abundance 50 times lower at 80°S than at the equator. This advocates for the inclusion of ion-related reactions in Saturn's chemical models. The polar stratosphere is also enriched in aerosols, with spectral signatures consistent with vibration modes assigned to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, and presenting similarities with the signatures observed in Titan's stratosphere. The aerosol mass loading at 80°S is estimated to be 1-4 × 10-5 g cm-2, an order of magnitude less than on Jupiter, which is consistent with the order of magnitude weaker auroral power at Saturn. We estimate that this polar haze warms the middle stratosphere by 6 K in summer and cools the upper stratosphere by 5 K in winter. Hence

  15. Effects of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Food Supply in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2010-12-01

    Possible food supply change is one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric geoengineering. In regions with high population density, climate changes such as precipitation reduction spurred by stratospheric sulfate injection may cause drought, reduce crop yield, and affect the food supply for hundreds of millions of people. Therefore, as part of the research into the benefits and risks of stratospheric geoengineering, it is necessary to fully investigate its effects on the regional climate system and crop yields, which is the goal of this study. In particular, we focus on China, not only because of its high risk to experience severe regional climate change after stratospheric geoengineering, but also because of its high vulnerability due to a large share of its population living on agriculture. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT and CLICROP agricultural simulation models. We first evaluate these models by forcing them with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (early season paddy, double crop paddy, spring wheat, winter wheat, corn, sorghum and soybean). Overall, there is a strong upward trend in both yield and fertilizer use, but interannual variations can be associated with temperature and precipitation variations. Using climate model simulations with the NASA GISS general circulation model forced by both a standard global warming scenario (A1B) and A1B combined with stratospheric geoengineering, we then apply scenarios of changes of precipitation and temperature from these runs to examine their effects on Chinese agricultural production. Compared to global warming only, the geoengineering runs produced summer precipitation reductions in northeastern China but precipitation increases in the Yangtze River region. Without changes

  16. Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

    SciTech Connect

    Osprey, S.; Barnett, J.; Smith, J.; Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003-2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

  17. On the Lack of Stratospheric Dynamical Variability in Low-top Versions of the CMIP5 Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Baldwin, Mark P.; Birner, Thomas; Black, Robert X.; Butler, Amy H.; Calvo, Natalia; Davis, Nicholas A.; Gerber, Edwin P.; Gillett, Nathan; Hardiman, Steven; Kim, Junsu; Kruger, Kirstin; Lee, Yun-Young; Manzini, Elisa; McDaniel, Brent A.; Polvani, Lorenzo; Reichler, Thomas; Shaw, Tiffany A.; Sigmond, Michael; Son, Seok-Woo; Toohey, Matthew; Wilcox, Laura; Yoden, Shigeo; Christiansen, Bo; Lott, Francois; Shindell, Drew; Yukimoto, Seiji; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    We describe the main differences in simulations of stratospheric climate and variability by models within the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that have a model top above the stratopause and relatively fine stratospheric vertical resolution (high-top), and those that have a model top below the stratopause (low-top). Although the simulation of mean stratospheric climate by the two model ensembles is similar, the low-top model ensemble has very weak stratospheric variability on daily and interannual time scales. The frequency of major sudden stratospheric warming events is strongly underestimated by the low-top models with less than half the frequency of events observed in the reanalysis data and high-top models. The lack of stratospheric variability in the low-top models affects their stratosphere-troposphere coupling, resulting in short-lived anomalies in the Northern Annular Mode, which do not produce long-lasting tropospheric impacts, as seen in observations. The lack of stratospheric variability, however, does not appear to have any impact on the ability of the low-top models to reproduce past stratospheric temperature trends. We find little improvement in the simulation of decadal variability for the high-top models compared to the low-top, which is likely related to the fact that neither ensemble produces a realistic dynamical response to volcanic eruptions.

  18. Freezing of stratospheric aerosol droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Peter, T.; Crutzen, P. )

    1994-06-22

    The authors discuss the freezing of sulfuric acid droplets under stratospheric conditions from a thermodynamic point of view. They argue that the primary candidate for freezing is likely to be sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H[sub 2]SO[sub 4][center dot]4H[sub 2]O). Their theoretical results suggest that the homogeneous freezing rate of this molecule is too low at stratospheric temperatures to explain measured results. Thus experimental values are likely to be due to heterogeneous freezing. This means that an appropriate nuclei must be present for freezing to commence, and has implications also for the formation of nitric acid trihydrates in the stratosphere.

  19. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Peter, T.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model, to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will be significantly reduced.

  20. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Thomason, L. W.; Peter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model. to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will he significantly reduced.

  1. Modifications of the quasi-biennial oscillation by a geoengineering perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30 year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0° longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5 Tg/yr and 2.5 Tg/yr) and the altitude of the injection (16 km-25 km and 22 km-25 km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. This is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere and higher residual vertical velocity. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e., highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase.

  2. Modifications of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation by a Geoengineering Perturbation of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30-year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0 degree longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5Tg per year and 2.5 Tg per year) and the altitude of the injection (16km-25km and 22km-25km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e. highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase. This locked QBO westerly phase is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  3. Dynamics of the future anthropogenic climate change in the Northern Hemisphere coupled stratosphere/troposphere system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Nour-Eddine

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that the response to future anthropogenic climate changes in Northern hemisphere is characterized by weakening of high-latitude westerlies in the coupled stratosphere/troposphere-system and strengthening of mid-latitude tropospheric eddy-driven jet with strong impact on large-scale precipitation. Here we show using different model experiments and wave geometry diagnostics that the overall dynamics of this response can be understood in the framework of two competing atmospheric bridges. One bridge is located in the stratosphere and connect the tropical Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with the coupled high-latitude stratosphere/troposphere system through changes in the upper flank of subtropical jet and downward stratosphere/troposphere dynamical coupling. This bridge is responsible for the weakening of the westerlies in high latitude stratosphere/troposphere system. The second bridge is in the troposphere and connects the tropical ocean warming with the extra-tropics trough changes in the static stability. This bridge is responsible for the wave-induced strengthening of the tropospheric eddy-driven jet. It is shown that the large-scale precipitation response in mid-to-high latitudes results mainly from the dynamical adjustment to wave-driven changes in the tropospheric meridional overturning circulation. The competing interaction between the stratospheric and tropospheric pathway constitutes another aspect of stratosphere/troposphere dynamical coupling. Her we will show how that such coupling can help understanding model discrepancies in the Northern Hemisphere future climate change.

  4. Arctic climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, K. E.; Battisti, D. S.; Bitz, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent warming and record summer sea-ice area minimums have spurred expressions of concern for arctic ecosystems, permafrost, and polar bear populations, among other things. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections to deliberately cancel the anthropogenic temperature rise has been put forth as a possible solution to restoring Arctic (and global) climate to modern conditions. However, climate is particularly sensitive in the northern high latitudes, responding easily to radiative forcing changes. To that end, we explore the extent to which tropical injections of stratospheric sulfate aerosol can accomplish regional cancellation in the Arctic. We use the Community Climate System Model version 3 global climate model to execute simulations with combinations of doubled CO2 and imposed stratospheric sulfate burdens to investigate the effects on high latitude climate. We further explore the sensitivity of the polar climate to ocean dynamics by running a suite of simulations with and without ocean dynamics, transiently and to equilibrium respectively. We find that, although annual, global mean temperature cancellation is accomplished, there is over-cooling on land in Arctic summer, but residual warming in Arctic winter, which is largely due to atmospheric circulation changes. Furthermore, the spatial extent of these features and their concurrent impacts on sea-ice properties are modified by the inclusion of ocean dynamical feedbacks.

  5. The persistently variable "background" stratospheric aerosol layer and global climate change.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; Daniel, J S; Neely, R R; Vernier, J-P; Dutton, E G; Thomason, L W

    2011-08-12

    Recent measurements demonstrate that the "background" stratospheric aerosol layer is persistently variable rather than constant, even in the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Several independent data sets show that stratospheric aerosols have increased in abundance since 2000. Near-global satellite aerosol data imply a negative radiative forcing due to stratospheric aerosol changes over this period of about -0.1 watt per square meter, reducing the recent global warming that would otherwise have occurred. Observations from earlier periods are limited but suggest an additional negative radiative forcing of about -0.1 watt per square meter from 1960 to 1990. Climate model projections neglecting these changes would continue to overestimate the radiative forcing and global warming in coming decades if these aerosols remain present at current values or increase.

  6. Numerical simulation of the gravitational separation in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, S.; Ishidoya, S.; Morimoto, S.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Honda, H.; Murayama, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has been shown that the gravitational separation effect in the stratosphere can be observable from the measurements of N2, O2 and Ar isotopic ratios and Ar/N2 ratio. The gravitational separation has a possibility to be a new tracer of stratospheric circulation. In this study, theoretical simulations were performed to validate an existence of the gravitational separation in the stratosphere, as well as to evaluate the magnitude of the isotopic discrimination of the atmospheric major components driven by molecular diffusion process. The 2-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere (SOCRATES) developed by NCAR was used to evaluate the gravitational separation in the stratosphere. This model originally includes mass transport processes caused by molecular diffusion to take into account only above the mesosphere, since the molecular diffusion effect has been thought to be negligibly small in the stratosphere, compared with the eddy diffusion effect. In this study, we simply lowered its vertical domain to the tropopause for the calculation of molecular diffusion. We assumed the thermal diffusion factor to be zero, since the thermal diffusion effect would be of no importance in the stratosphere. We simulated the height-latitude distributions of 44CO2 and 45CO2 concentrations, and then calculated the isotopic ratio as a δ value (in per meg). As a result, it is concluded that the magnitude of the gravitational separation in the stratosphere will be significant enough to be detected by recent isotopic measurements. To examine how the CO2 age and the δ value are influenced by changes in the stratospheric circulation, we made numerical simulations under the condition that the meridional mass transport is arbitrarily accelerated on the supposition that the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) is enhanced due to global warming. The relationships between the two variables under the enhanced-BDC condition are clearly different from those under the normal condition, indicating that

  7. Greenhouse gases in the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wenyi Zhong; Haigh, J.D. ); Pyle, J.A. )

    1993-02-20

    The potential radiative forcing in the stratosphere of changing concentrations of ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 is assessed. Significant changes in heating rate in the lower stratosphere are found. The response of a fully interactive radiative-photochemical-dynamical two-dimensional model to such changes in gaseous concentrations is investigated. The inclusion of CH[sub 4], N[sub 2]O and the CFC in the radiation scheme causes a small (1 K) decrease in temperature throughout the stratosphere after 50 model years with a resulting increase in ozone column up to 1% in summer high latitudes. An experiment in which lower stratospheric ozone concentrations were forcibly reduced in line with recent satellite observations results in significant (several degrees) temperature decrease in this region. Such decreases may be very significant in maintaining polar ozone loss. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Recent volcanism and the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Cronin, J F

    1971-05-21

    In the quiet years after the 1956 eruption of the Bezymianny volcano in central Kamchatka, it is doubtful that any volcano vented into the stratosphere until the 1963 eruptions of Agung (Bali), Trident (Alaska), and Surtsey (Iceland). From 1963 to the Hekla (Iceland) event in May 1970, two latitudinal belts of volcanoes have ejected ash and gases into the stratosphere. One belt is equatorial and the other is just below the Arctic Circle. The latter, where the tropopause is considerably lower, may have been the principal source of replenishment of volcanic dust and gases to the stratosphere. Submarine and phreatic volcanic eruptions may have been the sources of reported increase of water vapor in the stratosphere. PMID:17792942

  9. Recent volcanism and the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Cronin, J F

    1971-05-21

    In the quiet years after the 1956 eruption of the Bezymianny volcano in central Kamchatka, it is doubtful that any volcano vented into the stratosphere until the 1963 eruptions of Agung (Bali), Trident (Alaska), and Surtsey (Iceland). From 1963 to the Hekla (Iceland) event in May 1970, two latitudinal belts of volcanoes have ejected ash and gases into the stratosphere. One belt is equatorial and the other is just below the Arctic Circle. The latter, where the tropopause is considerably lower, may have been the principal source of replenishment of volcanic dust and gases to the stratosphere. Submarine and phreatic volcanic eruptions may have been the sources of reported increase of water vapor in the stratosphere.

  10. NDSC and JPL stratospheric lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, I. Stuart

    1995-01-01

    The Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change is an international cooperation providing a set of high-quality, remote-sensing instruments at observing stations around the globe. A brief description of the NDSC and its goals is presented. Lidar has been selected as the NDSC instrument for measurements of stratospheric profiles of ozone, temperature, and aerosol. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed and implemented two stratospheric lidar systems for NDSC. These are located at Table Mountain, California, and at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. These systems, which utilize differential absorption lidar, Rayleigh lidar, raman lidar, and backscatter lidar, to measure ozone, temperature, and aerosol profiles in the stratosphere are briefly described. Examples of results obtained for both long-term and individual profiles are presented.

  11. Thermal modeling of stratospheric airships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Fang, Xiande; Wang, Zhenguo; Hou, Zhongxi; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhang, Helei; Dai, Qiumin; Xu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    The interest in stratospheric airships has increased and great progress has been achieved since the late 1990s due to the advancement of modern techniques and the wide range of application demands in military, commercial, and scientific fields. Thermal issues are challenging for stratospheric airships, while there is no systematic review on this aspect found yet. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on thermal issues of stratospheric airships. The main challenges of thermal issues on stratospheric airships are analyzed. The research activities and results on the main thermal issues are surveyed, including solar radiation models, environmental longwave radiation models, external convective heat transfer, and internal convective heat transfer. Based on the systematic review, guides for thermal model selections are provided, and topics worthy of attention for future research are suggested.

  12. Evolution of the stratosphere during northern winter 1991/92 as diagnosed from U.K. Meteorological Office analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Alan; Grose, William L.; Pope, Victoria D.; Maclean, Hector; Swinbank, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological analyses, produced at the U.K. Meteorological Office by data assimilation, are used to study the circulation of the stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere during winter 1991/92. The analyses are supplemented by Lagrangian visualizations of the circulation. The main features discussed are (1) the changes in vertical structure of the circulation, (2) the merger of anticyclones that precipitated a strong stratospheric warming, (3) vortex roll up in the upper stratosphere, (4) the entrainment of air into the polar vortex in the middle and upper stratosphere, and (5) the influence of tropospheric blocking on the lower stratosphere. The study provides a meteorological basis for the interpretation of data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).

  13. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  14. Stratospheric dynamics and transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, William L.; Turner, R. E.; Blackshear, W. T.; Eckman, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    A three dimensional General Circulation Model/Transport Model is used to simulate stratospheric circulation and constituent distributions. Model simulations are analyzed to interpret radiative, chemical, and dynamical processes and their mutual interactions. Concurrent complementary studies are conducted using both global satellite data and other appropriate data. Comparisons of model simulations and data analysis studies are used to aid in understanding stratospheric dynamics and transport processes and to assess the validity of current theory and models.

  15. The Origin of Stratospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    The domain-filling, forward trajectory calculation model developed by Schoeberl and Dessler [2011] is used to investigate the origin of air that enters the stratosphere, and the origin of the driest and wettest air parcels. We compare results from NASA's MERRA, NCEP's CFSR, and ECMWF's ERAi reanalyses in a non-convection simulation. The stratospheric air parcel origin is related to but distinct from the location of final dehydration zones. Final dehydration zones control stratospheric water vapor, but stratospheric air origin tells about the origin of non-water soluble constituents such as HCN or CO. The models broadly agree that stratospheric air parcel origins follow the ITCZ in winter with maxima over the tropical west Pacific and South America. The origins are more broadly dispersed in summer. Somewhat surprisingly, the seasonal cycle for the origins is small with most of the air parcels entering the stratosphere from 360K originate in non-DJF months. The origin of the wettest and driest parcels shows that the driest parcels (1-3 ppmv) originate in the tropical West Pacific while the wettest (6-10 ppmv) parcels originate in the East Pacific/ Central America.

  16. Universal stratospheric balloon gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Yury; Filippov, Sergey; Brekhov, Oleg; Nikolaev, Nikolay

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth’s crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). For investigation of Earth's magnetic field one of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN and MAI during already about 25 years. This system consists of three instrumental containers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. Up today this set has been used only for geomagnetic purposes. So we describe this system on example of the measuring of the geomagnetic field gradient. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one’s name is - stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Process of SBMG deployment, feature of the exit of rope from the magazine at the moment of balloon launching has been studied. Used magazine is cellular type. The hodograph of the measuring base of SBMG and the technique of correction of the deviations of the measuring base from the vertical line (introduction of the amendments for the deviation) during the flight have been investigated. It is shown that estimation of the normal level of values of the vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field is determined by the accuracy of determining the length of the measuring base SBMG

  17. Signal of central Pacific El Niño in the Southern Hemispheric stratosphere during austral spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengyun; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang; Xue, Xianghui

    2015-11-01

    Using ERA-Interim and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis data sets, we investigated the effects of the central Pacific (CP) El Niño on the Southern Hemispheric (SH) stratosphere particularly during the austral spring. SH stratosphere warming is at a maximum in September rather than in November and December, as suggested by previous studies. SH stratospheric temperature anomalies become significant beginning in July and reach a peak of approximately 4 K in September, reflecting a weakened SH vortex and a strengthened SH stratospheric Brewer-Dobson circulation. The anomalous Eliassen-Palm flux and its divergence in the SH midlatitudes are most significantly enhanced in August, leading to the SH maximum stratospheric temperature anomalies approximately 1 month later. In the middle latitudes of the SH, the poleward and upward propagation of enhanced planetary waves (PWs) during the austral winter (July-September) causes anomalous SH polar warming and tropical cooling in the stratosphere. The wave number 1 (WN1) pattern is responsible for PW anomalies in August, whereas the WN2 pattern is responsible for those in September. Eddy heat flux during CP El Niño is also anomalously enhanced in extratropical SH stratosphere in both August and September and subsequently weaken during the following months.

  18. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  19. The Many Problems with Geoengineering Using Stratospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2009-05-01

    In response to the global warming problem, there has been a recent renewed call for geoengineering ``solutions'' involving injecting particles into the stratosphere or blocking sunlight with satellites between the Sun and Earth. While volcanic eruptions have been suggested as innocuous examples of stratospheric aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone depletion and regional hydrologic and temperature responses. In this talk, I consider the suggestion to create an artificial stratospheric aerosol layer. No systems to conduct geoengineering now exist, but a comparison of different proposed stratospheric injection schemes, airplanes, balloons, artillery, and a space elevator, shows that using airplanes would not be that expensive. We simulated the climate response to both tropical and Arctic stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol precursors using a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We simulated the injection of SO2 and the model converts it to sulfate aerosols, transports them and removes them through dry and wet deposition, and calculates the climate response to the radiative forcing from the aerosols. We conducted simulations of future climate with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B business-as-usual scenario both with and without geoengineering, and compare the results. We found that if there were a way to continuously inject SO2 into the lower stratosphere, it would produce global cooling. Acid deposition from the sulfate would not be enough to disturb most ecosystems. Tropical SO2 injection would produce sustained cooling over most of the world, with more cooling over continents. Arctic SO2 injection would not just cool the Arctic. But both tropical and Arctic SO2 injection would disrupt the Asian and African summer monsoons, reducing precipitation to the food supply

  20. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.

    1990-09-15

    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Stratospheric processes: Observations and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.; Cox, R. Anthony; Turco, Richard; Brasseur, Guy P.; Matthews, W. Andrew; Zhou, Xiuji; Douglass, Anne; Zander, Rudi J.; Prendez, Margarita; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    1991-01-01

    Explaining the observed ozone trends discussed in an earlier update and predicting future trends requires an understanding of the stratospheric processes that affect ozone. Stratospheric processes occur on both large and small spatial scales and over both long and short periods of time. Because these diverse processes interact with each other, only in rare cases can individual processes be studied by direct observation. Generally the cause and effect relationships for ozone changes were established by comparisons between observations and model simulations. Increasingly, these comparisons rely on the developing, observed relationships among trace gases and dynamical quantities to initialize and constrain the simulations. The goal of this discussion of stratospheric processes is to describe the causes for the observed ozone trends as they are currently understood. At present, we understand with considerable confidence the stratospheric processes responsible for the Antarctic ozone hole but are only beginning to understand the causes of the ozone trends at middle latitudes. Even though the causes of the ozone trends at middle latitudes were not clearly determined, it is likely that they, just as those over Antarctica, involved chlorine and bromine chemistry that was enhanced by heterogeneous processes. This discussion generally presents only an update of the observations that have occurred for stratospheric processes since the last assessment (World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1990), and is not a complete review of all the new information about stratospheric processes. It begins with an update of the previous assessment of polar stratospheres (WMO, 1990), followed by a discussion on the possible causes for the ozone trends at middle latitudes and on the effects of bromine and of volcanoes.

  2. Modeled impacts of stratospheric ozone and water vapor perturbations with implications for high-speed civil transport aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Rind, D.; Lonergan, P.

    1995-04-20

    Ozone and water vapor perturbations are explored in a series of experiments with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate/middle atmosphere model. Large perturbations, and realistic perturbations, to stratospheric ozone and water vapor are investigated, with and without allowing sea surface temperatures to change, to illuminate the nature of the dynamic and climatic impact. Removing ozone in the lower stratosphere without allowing sea surface temperatures to change results in in situ cooling of up to 10{degrees}C in the tropical lower stratosphere, with radiative warming about half as large in the middle stratosphere. The temperature changes induce increases in tropospheric and lower stratospheric eddy energy and in the lower stratosphere residual circulation of the order of 10%. When sea surface temperatures are allowed to respond to this forcing, the global, annual-average surface air temperature cools by about 1{degrees}C as a result of the decreased ozone greenhouse capacity, reduced tropospheric water vapor, and increased cloud cover. For more realistic ozone changes, as defined in the High-Speed Research Program/Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft reports, the stratosphere generally cools by a few tenths degrees Celsius. In this case, the surface air temperature change is not significant, due to the conflicting influences of stratospheric ozone reduction and tropospheric ozone increase, although high-latitude cooling of close to 0.5{degrees}C does occur consistently. With a more realistic increase of stratospheric water vapor of 7%, the middle atmosphere cools by 0.5{degrees}C or less, and the surface temperature change is neither significant nor consistent. Overall, the experiments emphasize that stratospheric changes affect tropospheric dynamics, and that tropospheric feedback processes and natural variability are important when assessing the climatic response to aircraft emissions. 21 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Measurement of Elements in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Balloon-borne winch system; stratospheric free radicals; stratospheric sounding; copper vapor lasers; ozone measurement; NO2 analysis; chlorine chemistry; trace elements; and ClO observations are discussed.

  4. Optimizing stratospheric sulfur geoengineering by seasonally changing sulfur injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection has been shown to have potential in counteracting global warming if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast enough and if climate warming will continue. Injecting large amounts of sulfate particles to the stratosphere would increase the reflectivity of the atmosphere and less sunlight would reach the surface. However, the effectivity (per injected sulphur mass unit) of this kind of geoengineering would decrease when amount of injected sulfur is increased. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes which have larger gravitational settling velocity and which do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and from where sulfur is spread equally to both hemispheres. However, the solar intensity will change locally during the year and sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when the solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection could be expected to be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. Here we study effects of the different SRM injection scenarios by using two versions of the MPI climate models. First, aerosol spatial and temporal distributions as well as the resulting radiative properties from the SRM are defined by using the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. After that, the global and regional climate effects from different injection scenarios are predicted by using the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We carried out simulations, where 8 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Results show that changing the sulfur injection area seasonally would lead to similar global mean shortwave

  5. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Haughney, L. C.; Innis, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20-40-microns on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  6. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, P M; Haughney, L C; Innis, R C

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20-40-microm on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  7. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  8. Observational evidence of preferred flow regimes in the Northern Hemisphere winter stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. B.; Fairlie, T. D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Ten years of stratospheric geopotential height data are analyzed in an attempt to determine whether there are preferred flow regimes in the Northern Hemisphere winter stratosphere. The data are taken from Stratospheric Sounding Units on board NOAA satellites. The probability density estimate of the amplitude of the wavenumber 1 10-mb height is found to be bimodal. The density distribution is composed of a dominant large-amplitude mode and a less frequent low-amplitude mode. When the wavenumber 1 10-mb height data are projected onto the phase plane defined by the 10-mb zonal-mean winds and wavenumber 1 100-mb heights, three preferred regimes are evident. The small-amplitude mode separates into a strong zonal wind-weak wave regime and a weak zonal wind-weak wave regime. The large-amplitude mode is an intermediate zonal wind-strong wave regime. Transitions between the large-amplitude regime and the weak zonal wind-weak wave regime are found to be associated with major stratospheric warmings. The clustering of the stratospheric data into the preferred flow regimes is interpreted in light of the bifurcation properties of the Holton and Mass model. The interannual variability of the Northern Hemisphere winter stratosphere is interpreted in terms of the relative frequency of the observed preferred regimes.

  9. Light Absorption of Stratospheric Aerosols: Long-Term Trend and Contribution by Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel , R. F.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol light-absorption coefficients are useful for studies of radiative transfer and heating rates. Ogren appears to have published the first light- absorption coefficients in the stratosphere in 1981, followed by Clarke in 1983 and Pueschel in 1992. Because most stratospheric soot appears to be due to aircraft operations, application of an aircraft soot aerosol emission index to projected fuel consumption suggests a threefold increase of soot loading and light absorption by 2025. Together, those four data sets indicate an increase in mid-visible light extinction at a rate of 6 % per year. This trend is similar to the increase per year of sulfuric acid aerosol and of commercial fleet size. The proportionality between stepped-up aircraft operations above the tropopause and increases in stratospheric soot and sulfuric acid aerosol implicate aircraft as a source of stratospheric pollution. Because the strongly light-absorbing soot and the predominantly light-scattering sulfuric acid aerosol increase at similar rates, however, the mid-visible stratospheric aerosol single scatter albedo is expected to remain constant and not approach a critical value of 0.98 at which stratospheric cooling could change to warming.

  10. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  11. Chemistry and Pollution of the Stratosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents an outline of the chemistry involved and the steps which are being taken to gain a better understanding of the stratosphere. Chemical composition of natural stratosphere and depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by man-made pollutants are covered. (HM)

  12. Statistical Perspectives on Stratospheric Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparling, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Long-lived tropospheric source gases, such as nitrous oxide, enter the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause, are transported throughout the stratosphere by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and are photochemically destroyed in the upper stratosphere. These chemical constituents, or "tracers" can be used to track mixing and transport by the stratospheric winds. Much of our understanding about the stratospheric circulation is based on large scale gradients and other spatial features in tracer fields constructed from satellite measurements. The point of view presented in this paper is different, but complementary, in that transport is described in terms of tracer probability distribution functions (PDFs). The PDF is computed from the measurements, and is proportional to the area occupied by tracer values in a given range. The flavor of this paper is tutorial, and the ideas are illustrated with several examples of transport-related phenomena, annotated with remarks that summarize the main point or suggest new directions. One example shows how the multimodal shape of the PDF gives information about the different branches of the circulation. Another example shows how the statistics of fluctuations from the most probable tracer value give insight into mixing between different regions of the atmosphere. Also included is an analysis of the time-dependence of the PDF during the onset and decline of the winter circulation, and a study of how "bursts" in the circulation are reflected in transient periods of rapid evolution of the PDF. The dependence of the statistics on location and time are also shown to be important for practical problems related to statistical robustness and satellite sampling. The examples illustrate how physically-based statistical analysis can shed some light on aspects of stratospheric transport that may not be obvious or quantifiable with other types of analyses. An important motivation for the work presented here is the need for synthesis of the

  13. Stratospheric ozone effects on temperature.

    PubMed

    Reck, R A

    1976-05-01

    Calculated surface temperature changes, DeltaT(8), due to stratospheric ozone depletion (at 35 degrees N latitude in April) are less than previously estimated and range between -0.6 and +0.9 degrees K. The sign of DeltaT(8), is determined by the surface albedo and the presence or absence of a low-lying particulate layer (heating with particles, cooling without particles). The calculations indicate that a 90 percent stratospheric ozone depletion does not cause the temperature inversion at the tropopause to vanish, although it is weakened substantially.

  14. Extreme stratospheric springs and their consequences for the onset of polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siskind, David E.; Allen, Douglas R.; Randall, Cora E.; Harvey, V. Lynn; Hervig, Mark E.; Lumpe, Jerry; Thurairajah, Brentha; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.

    2015-09-01

    We use data from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) explorer and from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) stratospheric analysis to explore the variability in the onset of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) season. Consistent with recently published results, we show that the early onset of the NH PMC season in 2013 was accompanied by a warm springtime stratosphere; conversely, we show that the late onset in 2008 coincides with a very cold springtime stratosphere. Similar stratospheric temperature anomalies for 1997 and 2011 also are connected either directly, through observed temperatures, or indirectly, through an early PMC onset, to conditions near the mesopause. These 4 years, 2008, 1997, 2011, and 2013 represent the extremes of stratospheric springtime temperatures seen in the MERRA analysis and correspond to analogous extrema in planetary wave activity. The three years with enhanced planetary wave activity (1997, 2011 and 2013) are shown to coincide with the recently identified stratospheric Frozen In Anticyclone (FrIAC) phenomenon. FrIACs in 1997 and 2013 are associated with early PMC onsets; however, the dramatic FrIAC of 2011 is not. This may be because the 2011 FrIAC occurred too early in the spring. The link between NH PMC onset and stratospheric FrIAC occurrences represents a new mode of coupling between the stratosphere and mesosphere. Since FrIACs appear to be more frequent in recent years, we speculate that as a result, PMCs may occur earlier as well. Finally we compare the zonal mean zonal winds and observed gravity wave activity for the FrIACs of 2011 and 2013. We find no evidence that gravity wave activity was favored in 2013 relative to 2011, thus suggesting that direct forcing by planetary waves was the key mechanism in accelerating the cooling and moistening of the NH mesopause region in May of 2013.

  15. Pole-to-Pole Distribution of Stratospheric Black Carbon (Soot) Aerosol from Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Ferry, G. V.; Verma, S.; Howard, S. D.; Strawa, Anthony W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of black carbon (soot) aerosol (BCA) in the atmosphere is of interest for several reasons: (1) Because BCA has the highest absorption cross section of any compound known, it can absorb solar radiation to cause atmospheric warming. (2) Because it is a strong adsorber of gases, it can catalyze heterogeneous reactions to change the chemical composition of the atmosphere.(3) If aircraft are a major source of BCA, it is an important tracer of aircraft emissions. Analysis for BCA of impactor samples from Arctic and Antarctic deployments, utilizing particle morphology of scanning electron microscopy images, permits the following conclusions: (1) The BCA concentration in the northern stratosphere varies between 0 and 2.6 ng m-3 averaging 0.6 ng/cu m. (2) This BCA loading is commensurate with estimated fuel consumptions in the stratosphere by the current commercial fleet and an emission index E=0.03 g BCA per kg fuel burnt which was measured in jet exhaust at al titude.Thus, most stratospheric BCA in the northern stratosphere results from aircraft emissions. The background BCA concentration in the southern stratosphere varies between 0 and 0.6 ng cu m averaging 0.1 ng/cu m. This strong meridional gradient implies that stratospheric BCA residence time- is shorter than are mixing times between hemispheres. Projected annual fuel consumption of a future supersonic commercial fleet is 7E13 g. This fleet would increase stratospheric BCA loadings by a factor of 2-3, because almost all fuel would be burnt above the tropopause. An improved EI(BCA) by a factor of ten would result in an increase of stratospheric BCA loadings by approximately 50 %.

  16. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions? LUAMI 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, Thomas; Vogelmann, Hannes; Fix, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin; Calpini, Bertrand; Levrat, Gilbert; Romanens, Gonzague; Apituley, Arnoud; Wilson, Keith M.; Begbie, Robert; Reichardt, Jens; Vömel, Holger; Sprenger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A large-scale comparison of water-vapour vertical-sounding instruments took place over central Europe on 17 October 2008, during a rather homogeneous deep stratospheric intrusion event (LUAMI, Lindenberg Upper-Air Methods Intercomparison). The measurements were carried out at four observational sites: Payerne (Switzerland), Bilthoven (the Netherlands), Lindenberg (north-eastern Germany), and the Zugspitze mountain (Garmisch-Partenkichen, German Alps), and by an airborne water-vapour lidar system creating a transect of humidity profiles between all four stations. A high data quality was verified that strongly underlines the scientific findings. The intrusion layer was very dry with a minimum mixing ratios of 0 to 35 ppm on its lower west side, but did not drop below 120 ppm on the higher-lying east side (Lindenberg). The dryness hardens the findings of a preceding study ("Part 1", Trickl et al., 2014) that, e.g., 73 % of deep intrusions reaching the German Alps and travelling 6 days or less exhibit minimum mixing ratios of 50 ppm and less. These low values reflect values found in the lowermost stratosphere and indicate very slow mixing with tropospheric air during the downward transport to the lower troposphere. The peak ozone values were around 70 ppb, confirming the idea that intrusion layers depart from the lowermost edge of the stratosphere. The data suggest an increase of ozone from the lower to the higher edge of the intrusion layer. This behaviour is also confirmed by stratospheric aerosol caught in the layer. Both observations are in agreement with the idea that sections of the vertical distributions of these constituents in the source region were transferred to central Europe without major change. LAGRANTO trajectory calculations demonstrated a rather shallow outflow from the stratosphere just above the dynamical tropopause, for the first time confirming the conclusions in "Part 1" from the Zugspitze CO observations. The trajectories qualitatively explain

  17. Aircraft deployment, and airborne arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Estelle; Tuck, Adrian; Hipskind, Steve; Toon, Brian; Wegener, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition had two primary objectives: to study the production and loss mechanisms of ozone in the north polar stratosphere and to study the effect on ozone distribution of the Arctic Polar Vortex and of the cold temperatures associated with the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Two specially instrumented NASA aircraft were flown over the Arctic region. Each aircraft flew to acquire data on the meteorological, chemical and cloud physical phenomena that occur in the polar stratosphere during winter. The chemical processes which occur in the polar stratosphere during winter were also observed and studied. The data acquired are being analyzed.

  18. Polar stratospheric clouds and the ozone hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Toon, Owen B.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of physical processes governing the formation of stratospheric particles, in order to dramatize the interactions between polar stratospheric clouds and the Antarctic ozone-destruction mechanism. Attention is given to the successive stages of particle nucleation, condensation/evaporation and sedimentation/coagulation phenomena, and the ways in which polar stratospheric clouds are observed. Considerable evidence exists that polar stratospheric cloud particles are composed of nitric acid. The relatively small Arctic ozone hole depletion is due to the much smaller duration of Arctic stratospheric clouds.

  19. Stable isotope enrichment in stratospheric nitrous oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, T.; Wahlen, M.

    1997-12-05

    Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that also plays a role in the cycling of stratospheric ozone. Air samples from the lower stratosphere exhibit {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O enrichment in nitrous oxide, which can be accounted for with a simple model describing an irreversible destruction process. The observed enrichments are quite large and incompatible with those determined for the main stratospheric nitrous oxide loss processes of photolysis and reaction with excited atomic oxygen. Thus, although no stratospheric source needs to be invoked, the data indicate that present understanding of stratospheric nitrous oxide chemistry is incomplete. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. The relationship of satellite-inferred stratospheric aerosol extinction to the position of the 50-mb north polar jet stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Endlich, Roy M.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between stratospheric aerosols and the location of the north polar night stratospheric jet stream was investigated for selected periods of four successive winters (1979-1982), using measurements from SAM II (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II) and SAGE I (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment I) satellite-borne sun photometers and corresponding meteorological observations. Each period investigated included a polar stratospheric warming during which major dynamic meteorological changes are known to have perturbed the structure of the polar vortex. The analysis of variations in aerosol extinction mixing ratio patterns among winters and during major stratospheric warming events within separate winters showed a well-defined positive gradient in extinction mixing ratio and temperature across the jet stream from the cyclonic side to the anticyclonic side at altitudes between 20 and 30 km during each winter period. Estimates of extinction mixing ratio profiles measured near the center of the polar vortex suggest that a gradual subsidence took place within the polar vortex during at least three of the four winter periods.

  1. 21 Layer troposphere-stratosphere climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Suozzo, R.; Lacis, A.; Russell, G.; Hansen, J.

    1984-01-01

    The global climate model is extended through the stratosphere by increasing the vertical resolution and raising the rigid model top to the 0.01 mb (75 km) level. The inclusion of a realistic stratosphere is necessary for the investigation of the climate effects of stratospheric perturbations, such as changes of ozone, aerosols or solar ultraviolet irradiance, as well as for studying the effect on the stratosphere of tropospheric climate changes. The observed temperature and wind patterns throughout the troposphere and stratosphere are simulated. In addition to the excess planetary wave amplitude in the upper stratosphere, other model deficiences include the Northern Hemisphere lower stratospheric temperatures being 5 to 10 C too cold in winter at high latitudes and the temperature at 50 to 60 km altitude near the equator are too cold. Methods of correcting these deficiencies are discussed.

  2. Effect of Recent Sea Surface Temperature Trends on the Springtime Cooling Trend of the Arctic Stratospheric Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim; Oman, Luke; Hurwitz, Margaret

    2015-04-01

    The springtime Arctic polar vortex has cooled significantly over the satellite era, with consequences for ozone concentrations in the springtime transition season. The causes of this cooling trend are deduced by using comprehensive chemistry-climate model experiments. Approximately half of the satellite era early springtime cooling trend in the Arctic lower stratosphere was caused by changing sea surface temperatures (SSTs). An ensemble of experiments forced only by changing SSTs is compared to an ensemble of experiments in which both the observed SSTs and chemically- and radiatively-active trace species are changing. By comparing the two ensembles, it is shown that warming of Indian Ocean, North Pacific, and North Atlantic SSTs, and cooling of the tropical Pacific, have strongly contributed to recent polar stratospheric cooling in late winter and early spring, and to a weak polar stratospheric warming in early winter. When concentrations of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases are fixed, polar ozone concentrations show a small but robust decline due to changing SSTs. Ozone changes are magnified in the presence of changing gas concentrations. The stratospheric changes can be understood by examining the tropospheric height and heat flux anomalies generated by the anomalous SSTs. Finally, recent SST changes have contributed to a decrease in the frequency of late winter stratospheric sudden warmings.

  3. Ultraviolet Radiation and Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun produces ozone in the stratosphere and it participates in the destruction of ozone. Absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone is the primary heating mechanism leading to the maximum in temperature at the stratopause. Variations of solar ultraviolet radiation on both the 27-day solar rotation period and the 11-year solar cycle affect ozone by several mechanisms. The temperature and ozone in the upper stratosphere respond to solar uv variations as a coupled system. An increase in uv leads to an increase in the production of ozone through the photolysis of molecular oxygen. An increase in uv leads to an increase in temperature through the heating by ozone photolysis. The increase in temperature leads to a partially-offsetting decrease in ozone through temperature-dependent reaction rate coefficients. The ozone variation modulates the heating by ozone photolysis. The increase in ozone at solar maximum enhances the uv heating. The processes are understood and supported by long-term data sets. Variation in the upper stratospheric temperatures will lead to a change in the behavior of waves propagating upward from the troposphere. Changes in the pattern of wave dissipation will lead to acceleration or deceleration of the mean flow and changes in the residual or transport circulation. This mechanism could lead to the propagation of the solar cycle uv variation from the upper stratosphere downward to the lower stratosphere. This process is not well-understood and has been the subject of an increasing number of model studies. I will review the data analyses for solar cycle and their comparison to model results.

  4. Saturn's Stratospheric Water Vapor Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesman, Brigette E.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Romani, Paul N.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.

    2015-11-01

    Water is a sought after commodity in the solar system. It is used as an indication of life, planetary formation timescales, and signatures of past cometary impacts. In Saturn’s atmosphere there are two sources of water: an internal primordial reservoir that is confined to the troposphere, and an external source of unknown origin that delivers water to the stratosphere. Potential sources of stratospheric water include: Saturn’s main rings (via neutral infall and/or ions transported along magnetic field lines - “Ring Rain”), interplanetary dust particles, and the E-ring that is supplied with water from the plumes of Enceladus. Measuring the latitudinal and seasonal variation of H2O on Saturn will constrain the source of Saturn’s stratospheric water.Cassini’s Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O on Saturn at wavelengths of 40 and 50 microns. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using our retrieved temperatures, we derive the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level for comparison with water-source models. The latitudinal variation of stratospheric water vapor will be presented as a first step in understanding the external source of water on Saturn. The observed local maximum near Saturn’s equator supports either a neutral infall from the rings or a source in the E-ring. We will look for secondary maxima at mid-latitudes to determine whether “Ring Rain” also contributes to the inventory of water in Saturn’s upper atmosphere.

  5. Saturn's Stratospheric Water Vapor Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesman, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Water is a sought after commodity in the solar system. It is used as an indication of life, planetary formation timescales, and signatures of past cometary impacts. In Saturn's atmosphere there are two sources of water: an internal primordial reservoir that is confined to the troposphere, and an external source of unknown origin that delivers water to the stratosphere. Potential sources of stratospheric water include: Saturn's main rings (via neutral infall and/or ions transported along magnetic field lines - "Ring Rain"), interplanetary dust particles, and the E-ring that is supplied with water from the plumes of Enceladus. Measuring the latitudinal and seasonal variation of H2O on Saturn will constrain the source of Saturn's stratospheric water. Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O on Saturn at wavelengths of 40 and 50 microns. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using our retrieved temperatures, we derive the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level for comparison with water-source models. The latitudinal variation of stratospheric water vapor between 2004-2009 will be presented as a first step in understanding the external source of water on Saturn. The observed local maximum near Saturn's equator supports either a neutral infall from the rings or a source in the E-ring. We will look for secondary maxima at mid-latitudes to determine whether "Ring Rain" also contributes to the inventory of water in Saturn's upper atmosphere.

  6. Role of Methane in Antarctic Stratospheric Ozone Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Natalia; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Palmeiro, Froila

    2014-05-01

    Observational and modeling studies have shown the impact of changes in Antarctic stratospheric ozone on tropospheric climate in austral spring and summer. In the future, effects of increasing greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances oppose each other. Projections show potential impact of ozone recovery on precipitation, carbon uptake in the Southern Hemisphere ocean, Antarctic ice sheets and Southern Hemisphere sea ice. In order to quantify properly the tropospheric impacts of ozone recovery, future Antarctic ozone changes in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere region and the role (if any) of increasing greenhouse gases in ozone recovery need to be evaluated. To do so, we use the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Earth System Model, CESM, with the high-top version of the atmospheric component, CESM(WACCM), which is a fully coupled chemistry climate model. Three climate change scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of 3 simulations each from 2005 to 2065 are analyzed. In scenario RCP2.6, the largest ozone recovery is simulated in October and November at 50hPa and it is followed by the largest response in temperature in November and December at 70hPa. While the response in RCP4.5 in ozone and temperature is almost identical to that in RCP2.6 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region, scenario RCP8.5 shows significantly stronger ozone recovery and warming than the other two scenarios, particularly in November and December at 70hPa in ozone and 100hPa in temperature. We show that this is due to larger amounts of methane in RCP8.5 compared to the other two scenarios, which reduces catalytic ozone loss locally. Differences across scenarios in advection of ozone from the source region in the tropical stratosphere do not play a significant role.

  7. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Chen, Howard E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  8. Strong modification of stratospheric ozone forcing by cloud and sea-ice adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yan; Hu, Yongyun; Huang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the climatic impact of stratospheric ozone recovery (SOR), with a focus on the surface temperature change in atmosphere-slab ocean coupled climate simulations. We find that although SOR would cause significant surface warming (global mean: 0.2 K) in a climate free of clouds and sea ice, it causes surface cooling (-0.06 K) in the real climate. The results here are especially interesting in that the stratosphere-adjusted radiative forcing is positive in both cases. Radiation diagnosis shows that the surface cooling is mainly due to a strong radiative effect resulting from significant reduction of global high clouds and, to a lesser extent, from an increase in high-latitude sea ice. Our simulation experiments suggest that clouds and sea ice are sensitive to stratospheric ozone perturbation, which constitutes a significant radiative adjustment that influences the sign and magnitude of the global surface temperature change.

  9. Large-scale dynamics and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Held, I.M. )

    1993-02-01

    Predictions of future climate change raise a variety of issues in large-scale atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Several of these are reviewed in this essay, including the sensitivity of the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean to increasing freshwater input at high latitudes; the possibility of greenhouse cooling in the southern oceans; the sensitivity of monsoonal circulations to differential warming of the two hemispheres; the response of midlatitude storms to changing temperature gradients and increasing water vapor in the atmosphere; and the possible importance of positive feedback between the mean winds and eddy-induced heating in the polar stratosphere.

  10. Impacts of Stratospheric Particles Injection on Stratospheric Ozone: Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Mingjin; Rkiouak, Laylla; Fuller, Steve; Pope, Francis; Cox, Tony; Watson, Matt; Kalberer, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The stratospheric injection of aerosols is a geoengineering scheme designed to reduce the impacts of climate change. The injected particles scatter solar radiation back to space and hence reduce the radiative forcing of the Earth. The scattering ability of a particle depends on both its size and composition. Particles composed of titania (TiO2) have recently been highlighted as a possible candidate aerosol because of their impressive light scattering ability by virtue of a high refractive index (Pope et al. 2012). The impact of particles injection on stratospheric ozone needs to be systematically assessed via laboratory and modelling studies. In this work, the heterogeneous reactions of airborne TiO2 particles with N2O5 and HCl are investigated by using an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube. A Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer is used to detect trace gases, and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer is used to measure aerosol number concentration and size distribution. The kinetics of the uptake of N2O5 onto TiO2 particles and the influence of HCl will be presented, and the result will be compared to the uptake onto natural sulphate stratospheric particles.

  11. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Niño on stratospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-08-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Niño. In boreal spring, El Niño events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Niño events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region and specifically over the cold point region are nonuniform, and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Niño approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  12. Stratospheric emissions effects database development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.; Hertel, Peter S.; Maggiora, Debra R.; Oncina, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the development of a stratospheric emissions effects database (SEED) of aircraft fuel burn and emissions from projected Year 2015 subsonic aircraft fleets and from projected fleets of high-speed civil transports (HSCT's). This report also describes the development of a similar database of emissions from Year 1990 scheduled commercial passenger airline and air cargo traffic. The objective of this work was to initiate, develop, and maintain an engineering database for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burn and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons (as CH4) have been calculated on a 1-degree latitude x 1-degree longitude x 1-kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files. This report describes the assumptions and methodology for the calculations and summarizes the results of these calculations.

  13. Ices in Titan's Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of Cassini CIRS far-infrared limb spectra of Titan at 15N, 15S, and 58S reveal a broad emission feature between 70 and 270/cm, restricted to altitudes between 60 and 100 km. This emission feature is chemically different from Titan's photochemical aerosol, which has an emission feature peak around 145 cm-1. The shape of the observed broad emission feature resembles a mixture of the solid component of the two most abundant nitrites in Titan's stratosphere, that of HCN and HC3N. Following the saturation vapor pressure vertical profiles of HCN and HC3N, the 60 to 100 km altitude range corresponds closely to the vertical location where these nitriles are expected to condense out and form small, suspended ice particles. This is the first time ices in Titan's stratosphere have been identified at latitudes south of 50N. Results and physical implications will be discussed.

  14. Stratospheric emissions effects database development

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.; Hertel, P.S.; Maggiora, D.R.; Oncina, C.A.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the development of a stratospheric emissions effects database (SEED) of aircraft fuel burn and emissions from projected Year 2015 subsonic aircraft fleets and from projected fleets of high-speed civil transports (HSCT's). This report also describes the development of a similar database of emissions from Year 1990 scheduled commercial passenger airline and air cargo traffic. The objective of this work was to initiate, develop, and maintain an engineering database for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burn and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons (as CH4) have been calculated on a 1-degree latitude x 1-degree longitude x 1-kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files. This report describes the assumptions and methodology for the calculations and summarizes the results of these calculations.

  15. Effect of recent sea surface temperature trends on the Arctic stratospheric vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Hurwitz, M. M.; Oman, L. D.

    2015-06-01

    Comprehensive chemistry-climate model experiments and observational data are used to show that up to half of the satellite era early springtime cooling trend in the Arctic lower stratosphere was caused by changing sea surface temperatures (SSTs). An ensemble of experiments forced only by changing SSTs is compared to an ensemble of experiments in which both the observed SSTs and chemically and radiatively active trace species are changing. By comparing the two ensembles, it is shown that warming of Indian Ocean, North Pacific, and North Atlantic SSTs and cooling of the tropical Pacific have strongly contributed to recent polar stratospheric cooling in late winter and early spring. When concentrations of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases are fixed, polar ozone concentrations show a small but robust decline due to changing SSTs. Ozone loss is larger in the presence of changing concentrations of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases. The stratospheric changes can be understood by examining the tropospheric height and heat flux anomalies generated by the anomalous SSTs. Finally, recent SST changes have contributed to a decrease in the frequency of late winter stratospheric sudden warmings.

  16. Laboratory chemistry and stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments on the chemistry of ice particles to study the role of HCl and ClONO2 from CFCs in stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica. It is found that gaseous HCl is scavenged with high efficiency by the ice and the gas phase chlorine nitrate may react with the HCL-containing ice to produce Cl2. Also, consideration is given ot the behavior of solid nitric acid trihydrate and sulfuric acid aerosols.

  17. Halocarbon ozone depletion and global warming potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global warming).

  18. Quantifying the temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Angus J.; Griffiths, Hannah G.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction in global-mean precipitation when stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is used to counterbalance global warming from increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has been mainly attributed to the temperature-independent effect of CO2 on atmospheric radiative cooling. We demonstrate here that stratospheric sulphate aerosol itself also acts to reduce global-mean precipitation independent of its effects on temperature. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoenginering on global-mean precipitation is calculated by removing temperature-dependent effects from climate model simulations of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). When sulphate aerosol is injected into the stratosphere at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year the aerosol reduces global-mean precipitation by approximately 0.2 %, though multiple ensemble members are required to separate this effect from internal variability. For comparison, the precipitation reduction from the temperature-independent effect of increasing CO2 concentrations under the RCP4.5 scenario of the future is approximately 0.5 %. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric sulphate aerosol arises from the aerosol’s effect on tropospheric radiative cooling. Radiative transfer calculations show this is mainly due to increasing downward emission of infrared radiation by the aerosol, but there is also a contribution from the stratospheric warming the aerosol causes. Our results suggest climate model simulations of solar dimming can capture the main features of the global-mean precipitation response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

  19. Stratospheric geoengineering impacts on El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C. J.; Robock, A.

    2015-03-01

    To examine the impact of proposed stratospheric geoengineering schemes on the amplitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variations we examine climate model simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G1-G4 experiments. Here we compare tropical Pacific behavior under anthropogenic global warming (AGW) using the representative concentration pathway resulting in 4.5 W m-2 radiative forcing at the end of the 21st Century, the RCP4.5 scenario, with that under G1-G4 and under historical model simulations. Climate models under AGW project relatively uniform warming across the tropical Pacific over the next several decades. We find no statistically significant change in ENSO frequency or amplitude under stratospheric geoengineering as compared with those that would occur under ongoing AGW.

  20. Dynamical factors affecting ozone mixing ratios in the Antarctic lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiotani, Masato; Gille, John C.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the climatology and interannual variability of dynamical quantities and ozone mixing ratios during the Southern Hemisphere spring for 1979-1984. The seasonal variation in temperature in the lower stratosphere is repeatable; a steep decrease in zonal mean ozone mixing ratios is observed around 60 deg S toward the South Pole in September which, with time, becomes shallower in association with minor warmings and a final warming. Climatological synoptic charts in the lower stratosphere show the circumpolar circulation in the geopotential height field and the prominence of planetary wave 1 in the temperature and ozone fields. When wave activity is strong, there are weaker westeries, higher temperatures, and higher ozone mixing ratios at high latitudes.

  1. Stratospheric sulfur and its implications for radiative forcing simulated by the chemistry climate model EMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brühl, C.; Lelieveld, J.; Tost, H.; Höpfner, M.; Glatthor, N.

    2015-03-01

    Multiyear simulations with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC with a microphysical modal aerosol module at high vertical resolution demonstrate that the sulfur gases COS and SO2, the latter from low-latitude and midlatitude volcanic eruptions, predominantly control the formation of stratospheric aerosol. Marine dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and other SO2 sources, including strong anthropogenic emissions in China, are found to play a minor role except in the lowermost stratosphere. Estimates of volcanic SO2 emissions are based on satellite observations using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument for total injected mass and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat or Stratospheric Aerosol and Gases Experiment for the spatial distribution. The 10 year SO2 and COS data set of MIPAS is also used for model evaluation. The calculated radiative forcing of stratospheric background aerosol including sulfate from COS and small contributions by DMS oxidation, and organic aerosol from biomass burning, is about 0.07W/m2. For stratospheric sulfate aerosol from medium and small volcanic eruptions between 2005 and 2011 a global radiative forcing up to 0.2W/m2 is calculated, moderating climate warming, while for the major Pinatubo eruption the simulated forcing reaches 5W/m2, leading to temporary climate cooling. The Pinatubo simulation demonstrates the importance of radiative feedback on dynamics, e.g., enhanced tropical upwelling, for large volcanic eruptions.

  2. Stratospheric sulfur and its implications for radiative forcing simulated by the chemistry climate model EMAC

    PubMed Central

    Brühl, C; Lelieveld, J; Tost, H; Höpfner, M; Glatthor, N

    2015-01-01

    Multiyear simulations with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC with a microphysical modal aerosol module at high vertical resolution demonstrate that the sulfur gases COS and SO2, the latter from low-latitude and midlatitude volcanic eruptions, predominantly control the formation of stratospheric aerosol. Marine dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and other SO2 sources, including strong anthropogenic emissions in China, are found to play a minor role except in the lowermost stratosphere. Estimates of volcanic SO2 emissions are based on satellite observations using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument for total injected mass and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat or Stratospheric Aerosol and Gases Experiment for the spatial distribution. The 10 year SO2 and COS data set of MIPAS is also used for model evaluation. The calculated radiative forcing of stratospheric background aerosol including sulfate from COS and small contributions by DMS oxidation, and organic aerosol from biomass burning, is about 0.07W/m2. For stratospheric sulfate aerosol from medium and small volcanic eruptions between 2005 and 2011 a global radiative forcing up to 0.2W/m2 is calculated, moderating climate warming, while for the major Pinatubo eruption the simulated forcing reaches 5W/m2, leading to temporary climate cooling. The Pinatubo simulation demonstrates the importance of radiative feedback on dynamics, e.g., enhanced tropical upwelling, for large volcanic eruptions. PMID:25932352

  3. Tropospheric response to an 'ozone depletion'-like polar stratospheric cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Chen, G.; Robinson, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    By following the setup of Kushner and Polvani (2006) in a simplified dynamical model, we add a polar stratospheric cooling in the springtime to mimic the ozone depletion, and try to investigate the role of polar vortex breakdown, also known as stratospheric final warming (SFW), in the tropospheric response to stratospheric changes. Overall, the circulation anomaly associated with such cooling bears a remarkable resemblance to the Southern Hemisphere climate trends due to ozone depletion, including poleward shift of the tropospheric jet and poleward expansion of the Hadley cell. We then categorize the 80 members into those SFWs are delayed, and those SFWs are not, and calculate the response separately. The response for the years in which SFWs are delayed are very similar to the total one, while the stratosphere is only characterized by the localized cooling for those years in which SFWs are not delayed, without any clear downward influence. This suggests that ozone depletion affects the Southern Hemisphere climate through delaying the SFWs. We also find that interannual variability in the stratospheric and tropospheric circulation can be organized by the timing of SFWs, similar to the observed climate trends.

  4. Transport versus energetic particle precipitation: Northern polar stratospheric NOx and ozone in January-March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Päivärinta, S.-M.; Verronen, P. T.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; Seppälä, A.; Andersson, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    In early 2012, a strong sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) took place, accompanied by several medium-scale solar proton events (SPEs). Here we use a chemistry transport model (CTM) in order to assess the relative contributions of (1) intensified downward transport of odd nitrogen (NOx) and (2) in situ production of NOx by protons, on stratospheric NOx and ozone during January-March 2012. The CTM is constrained by an upper boundary condition for reactive nitrogen (NOy) species, based on satellite observations from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board Envisat, and includes a new parameterization of the SPE-caused effects on NOy and odd hydrogen (HOx) species. We found that the amount of NOx increases due to both transport and in situ production effects, the intensified descent of NOx dominating the middle and upper stratospheric impact. The model results indicate NOx enhancements of 120-3300% (5-48 ppbv) between 38 and 50 km, caused by the transport of mesosphere/lower thermosphere NOx down to the stratosphere following the SSW. The SPEs increase NOx by up to 820-1200% (14-21 ppbv) at 33 to 50 km. The effect on the stratospheric ozone is larger following the downward transport of NOx than during and after the SPEs. The model predicts ozone losses of up to 17% and 9% at around 40 km due to transport and SPE effects, respectively.

  5. Evidence for an earlier greenhouse cooling effect in the stratosphere before 1980 over the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, C. S.; Tourpali, K.; Zanis, P.; Eleftheratos, K.; Repapis, C.; Goodman, A.; Wuebbles, D.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Luterbacher, J.

    2014-08-01

    This study provides a new look at the observed and calculated long-term temperature changes from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere since 1958 over the Northern Hemisphere. The data sets include the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, the Free University of Berlin (FU-Berlin) and the RICH radiosonde data sets as well as historical simulations with the CESM1-WACCM global model participating in CMIP5. The analysis is mainly based on monthly layer mean temperatures derived from geopotential height thicknesses in order to take advantage of the use of the independent FU-Berlin stratospheric data set of geopotential height data since 1957. This approach was followed to extend the records for the investigation of the stratospheric temperature trends to the earliest possible time. After removing the natural variability with an autoregressive multiple regression model our analysis shows that the period 1958-2011 can be divided into two distinct sub-periods of long-term temperature variability and trends: before and after 1980. By calculating trends for the summer time to reduce interannual variability, the two periods are as follows. From 1958 until 1979, a non-significant trend (0.06 ± 0.06 °C decade-1 for NCEP) and slightly cooling trends (-0.12 ± 0.06 °C decade-1 for RICH) are found in the lower troposphere. The second period from 1980 to the end of the records shows significant warming (0.25 ± 0.05 °C decade-1 for both NCEP and RICH). Above the tropopause a significant cooling trend is clearly seen in the lower stratosphere both in the pre-1980 period (-0.58 ± 0.17 °C decade-1 for NCEP, -0.30 ± 0.16 °C decade-1 for RICH and -0.48 ± 0.20 °C decade-1 for FU-Berlin) and the post-1980 period (-0.79 ± 0.18 °C decade-1 for NCEP, -0.66 ± 0.16 °C decade-1 for RICH and -0.82 ± 0.19 °C decade-1 for FU-Berlin). The cooling in the lower stratosphere persists throughout the year from the tropics up to 60° N. At polar latitudes competing dynamical and radiative

  6. Stratospheric Temperature Changes: Observations and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Chanin, M.-L.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Gaffen, D.; Gelman, M.; Keckhut, P.; Koshelkov, Y.; Labitzke, K.; Lin, J.-J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews observations of stratospheric temperatures that have been made over a period of several decades. Those observed temperatures have been used to assess variations and trends in stratospheric temperatures. A wide range of observation datasets have been used, comprising measurements by radiosonde (1940s to the present), satellite (1979 - present), lidar (1979 - present) and rocketsonde (periods varying with location, but most terminating by about the mid-1990s). In addition, trends have also been assessed from meteorological analyses, based on radiosonde and/or satellite data, and products based on assimilating observations into a general circulation model. Radiosonde and satellite data indicate a cooling trend of the annual-mean lower stratosphere since about 1980. Over the period 1979-1994, the trend is 0.6K/decade. For the period prior to 1980, the radiosonde data exhibit a substantially weaker long-term cooling trend. In the northern hemisphere, the cooling trend is about 0.75K/decade in the lower stratosphere, with a reduction in the cooling in mid-stratosphere (near 35 km), and increased cooling in the upper stratosphere (approximately 2 K per decade at 50 km). Model simulations indicate that the depletion of lower stratospheric ozone is the dominant factor in the observed lower stratospheric cooling. In the middle and upper stratosphere both the well-mixed greenhouse gases (such as CO) and ozone changes contribute in an important manner to the cooling.

  7. The mystery of recent stratospheric temperature trends.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David W J; Seidel, Dian J; Randel, William J; Zou, Cheng-Zhi; Butler, Amy H; Mears, Carl; Osso, Albert; Long, Craig; Lin, Roger

    2012-11-29

    A new data set of middle- and upper-stratospheric temperatures based on reprocessing of satellite radiances provides a view of stratospheric climate change during the period 1979-2005 that is strikingly different from that provided by earlier data sets. The new data call into question our understanding of observed stratospheric temperature trends and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances. Here we highlight the important issues raised by the new data and suggest how the climate science community can resolve them. PMID:23192146

  8. Seasonal evolution of Saturn's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Melody; Fouchet, Thierry; Spiga, Aymeric; Guerlet, Sandrine

    2015-11-01

    The exceptional duration of the Cassini-Huygens mission enables unprecedented study of Saturn's atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. In Saturn's stratosphere (from 20 hPa to 10-4 hPa), photochemical and radiative timescales are in the same order as Saturn's revolution period (29.5 years). Consequently, the large seasonal insolation variations experienced by this planet are expected to influence significantly temperatures and abundances of photochemical by-products in this region. We investigate the seasonal evolution of Saturn's stratosphere by measuring meridional and seasonal variations (from 2005 to 2012) of temperature and C2H6, C2H2, and C3H8 abundances using Cassini/CIRS limb observations. We complete this study with the development of a GCM (Global Climate Model), in order to understand the physical processes behind this seasonal evolution.The analysis of the CIRS limb observations show that the lower and upper stratospheres do not exhibit the same trends in their seasonal variations, especially for temperature. In the lower stratosphere, the seasonal temperature contrast is maximal (at 1 hPa) and can be explained by the radiative contributions included in our GCM. In contrast, upper stratospheric temperatures (at 0.01 hPa) are constant from northern winter to spring, at odds with our GCM predictions. This behavior indicates that other physical processes such as gravity waves breaking may be at play. At 1 hPa, C2H6, C2H2, and C3H8 abundances exhibit a striking seasonal stability, consistently with the predictions of the photochemical models of Moses and Greathouse, 2005 and Hue et al., 2015. However, the meridional distributions of these species do not follow the predicted trends, which gives insight on atmospheric dynamics. We perform numerical simulations with the GCM to better understand dynamical phenomena in Saturn's atmosphere. We investigate how the large insolation variations induced by the shadow of the rings influence temperatures and atmospheric

  9. Changes in the Ozone Content over Central Europe During Reversals of Stratospheric Circulation in Late Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entzian, G.; Grasnick, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A superposed epoch analysis during late winter zonal wind reversals was carried out from 18 year observation series (1963 to 1980) of the meridional geopotential height gradient in the 30 mb level (latitude mean) and of the ozone content over central Europe. Experimental data suggest that if planetary waves are responsible for the additional meridional ozone transport during stratospheric warmings, this transport has to take place at heights other than those up to the ozone maximum in the middle latitudes.

  10. Temperature Trends in the Tropical Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Connections with Sea Surface Temperatures and Implications for Water Vapor and Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Waugh, D. W.; Oman, L. D.; Wang, L.; Hurwitz, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations and chemistry-climate model experiments are used to understand the zonal structure of tropical lower stratospheric temperature, water vapor, and ozone trends. The warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the past 30 years is strongest near the Indo-Pacific warm pool, while the warming trend in the western and central Pacific is much weaker. In the lower stratosphere, these trends are reversed: the historical cooling trend is strongest over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and is weakest in the western and central Pacific. These zonal variations are stronger than the zonal-mean response in boreal winter. Targeted experiments with a chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that sea surface temperature (hereafter SST) trends are driving the zonal asymmetry in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric tropical temperature trends. Warming SSTs in the Indian Ocean and in the warm pool region have led to enhanced moist heating in the upper troposphere, and in turn to a Gill-like response that extends into the lower stratosphere. The anomalous circulation has led to zonal structure in the ozone and water vapor trends near the tropopause, and subsequently to less water vapor entering the stratosphere. The radiative impact of these changes in trace gases is smaller than the direct impact of the moist heating. Projected future SSTs appear to drive a temperature and water vapor response whose zonal structure is similar to the historical response. In the lower stratosphere, the changes in water vapor and temperature due to projected future SSTs are of similar strength to, though slightly weaker than, that due directly to projected future CO2, ozone, and methane.

  11. Temperature trends in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Connections with sea surface temperatures and implications for water vapor and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Waugh, D. W.; Oman, L. D.; Wang, L.; Hurwitz, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    Satellite observations and chemistry-climate model experiments are used to understand the zonal structure of tropical lower stratospheric temperature, water vapor, and ozone trends. The warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the past 30 years is strongest near the Indo-Pacific warm pool, while the warming trend in the western and central Pacific is much weaker. In the lower stratosphere, these trends are reversed: the historical cooling trend is strongest over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and is weakest in the western and central Pacific. These zonal variations are stronger than the zonal-mean response in boreal winter. Targeted experiments with a chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that sea surface temperature (hereafter SST) trends are driving the zonal asymmetry in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric tropical temperature trends. Warming SSTs in the Indian Ocean and in the warm pool region have led to enhanced moist heating in the upper troposphere, and in turn to a Gill-like response that extends into the lower stratosphere. The anomalous circulation has led to zonal structure in the ozone and water vapor trends near the tropopause, and subsequently to less water vapor entering the stratosphere. The radiative impact of these changes in trace gases is smaller than the direct impact of the moist heating. Projected future SSTs appear to drive a temperature and water vapor response whose zonal structure is similar to the historical response. In the lower stratosphere, the changes in water vapor and temperature due to projected future SSTs are of similar strength to, though slightly weaker than, that due directly to projected future CO2, ozone, and methane.

  12. Inability of stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections to preserve the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, K. E.; Battisti, D. S.; Bitz, C. M.

    2015-06-01

    Injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere has the potential to reduce the climate impacts of global warming, including sea level rise (SLR). However, changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation that can significantly influence the rate of basal melting of Antarctic marine ice shelves and the associated SLR have not previously been considered. Here we use a fully coupled global climate model to investigate whether rapidly increasing stratospheric sulfate aerosol concentrations after a period of global warming could preserve Antarctic ice sheets by cooling subsurface ocean temperatures. We contrast this climate engineering method with an alternative strategy in which all greenhouse gases (GHG) are returned to preindustrial levels. We find that the rapid addition of a stratospheric aerosol layer does not effectively counteract surface and upper level atmospheric circulation changes caused by increasing GHGs, resulting in continued upwelling of warm water in proximity of ice shelves, especially in the vicinity of the already unstable Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica. By contrast, removal of GHGs restores the circulation, yielding relatively cooler subsurface ocean temperatures to better preserve West Antarctica.

  13. Development of algorithms for using satellite meteorological data sets to study global transport of stratospheric aerosols and ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Want, P. H.; Deepak, A.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of stratospheric aerosol and ozone measurements obtained from the NASA developed SAM II and SAGE satellite instruments were investigated for their global scale transports. The stratospheric aerosols showed that during the stratospheric warming of the winter 1978 to 1979, the distribution of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio in the northern high latitude exhibited distinct changes. Dynamic processes might have played an important role in maintenance role in maintenance of this zonal mean distribution. As to the stratospheric ozone, large poleward ozone transports are shown to occur in the altitude region from 24 km to 38 km near 55N during this warming. This altitude region is shown to be a transition region of the phase relationship between ozone and temperature waves from an in-phase one above 38 km. It is shown that the ozone solar heating in the upper stratosphere might lead to enhancement of the damping rate of the planetary waves due to infrared radiation alone in agreement with theoretical analyses and an earlier observational study.

  14. Tracking the delayed response of the northern winter stratosphere to ENSO using multi reanalyses and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Rongcai; Rao, Jian; Wu, Guoxiong; Cai, Ming

    2016-06-01

    The concurrent effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the northern winter stratosphere have been widely recognized; however, the delayed effects of ENSO in the next winter after mature ENSO have yet to be confirmed in multi reanalyses and model simulations. This study uses three reanalysis datasets, a long-term fully coupled model simulation, and a high-top general circulation model to examine ENSO's delayed effects in the stratosphere. The warm-minus-cold composite analyses consistently showed that, except those quick-decaying quasi-biennial ENSO events that reverse signs during July-August-September (JAS) in their decay years, ENSO events particularly those quasi-quadrennial (QQ) that persist through JAS, always have a significant effect on the extratropical stratosphere in both the concurrent winter and the next winter following mature ENSO. During the concurrent winter, the QQ ENSO-induced Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern corresponds to an anomalous wavenumber-1 from the upper troposphere to the stratosphere, which acts to intensify/weaken the climatological wave pattern during warm/cold ENSO. Associated with the zonally quasi-homogeneous tropical forcing in spring of the QQ ENSO decay years, there appear persistent and zonally quasi-homogeneous temperature anomalies in the midlatitudes from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere until summer. With the reduction in ENSO forcing and the PNA responses in the following winter, an anomalous wavenumber-2 prevails in the extratropics. Although the anomalous wave flux divergence in the upper stratospheric layer is still dominated by wavenumber-1, it is mainly caused by wavenumber-2 in the lower stratosphere. However, the wavenumber-2 activity in the next winter is always underestimated in the model simulations, and wavenumber-1 activity dominates in both winters.

  15. The origin and evolution of Saturn’s 2011-2012 stratospheric vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Hesman, B. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Bjoraker, G.; Gorius, N.; Hurley, J.; Sinclair, J.; Orton, G. S.; Legarreta, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Read, P. L.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-11-01

    The planet-encircling springtime storm in Saturn’s troposphere (December 2010-July 2011, Fletcher, L.N. et al. [2011]. Science 332, 1413-1414; Sánchez-Lavega, A. et al. [2011]. Nature 475, 71-74; Fischer, G. et al. [2011]. Nature 475, 75-77) produced dramatic perturbations to stratospheric temperatures, winds and composition at mbar pressures that persisted long after the tropospheric disturbance had abated. Thermal infrared (IR) spectroscopy from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), supported by ground-based IR imaging from the VISIR instrument on the Very Large Telescope and the MIRSI instrument on NASA’s IRTF, is used to track the evolution of a large, hot stratospheric anticyclone between January 2011 and March 2012. The evolutionary sequence can be divided into three phases: (I) the formation and intensification of two distinct warm airmasses near 0.5 mbar between 25 and 35°N (B1 and B2) between January-April 2011, moving westward with different zonal velocities, B1 residing directly above the convective tropospheric storm head; (II) the merging of the warm airmasses to form the large single ‘stratospheric beacon’ near 40°N (B0) between April and June 2011, disassociated from the storm head and at a higher pressure (2 mbar) than the original beacons, a downward shift of 1.4 scale heights (approximately 85 km) post-merger; and (III) the mature phase characterised by slow cooling (0.11 ± 0.01 K/day) and longitudinal shrinkage of the anticyclone since July 2011. Peak temperatures of 221.6 ± 1.4 K at 2 mbar were measured on May 5th 2011 immediately after the merger, some 80 K warmer than the quiescent surroundings. From July 2011 to the time of writing, B0 remained as a long-lived stable stratospheric phenomenon at 2 mbar, moving west with a near-constant velocity of 2.70 ± 0.04 deg/day (-24.5 ± 0.4 m/s at 40°N relative to System III longitudes). No perturbations to visible clouds and hazes were detected during this period. With no

  16. Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

  17. Radiative flux measurements in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to determine how the stratospheric tropospheric exchange of water vapor is affected by the interaction of solar (visible) and planetary (infrared) radiation with tropical cumulonimbus anvils. This research involves field measurements from the ER-2 aircraft as well as radiative transfer modelling to determine heating and cooling rates and profiles that directly affect the exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

  18. The natural oscillations in stratospheric ozone observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at the NDACC station Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Lorena; Hocke, Klemens; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Eckert, Ellen; von Clarmann, Thomas; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2016-08-01

    A multilinear parametric regression analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and interannual variations of stratospheric ozone profiles from the GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) microwave radiometer at Bern, Switzerland (46.95° N, 7.44° E; 577 m). GROMOS takes part in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The study covers the stratosphere from 50 to 0.5 hPa (from 21 to 53 km) and extends over the period from January 1997 to January 2015. The natural variability was fitted during the regression analysis through the annual and semi-annual oscillations (AO, SAO), the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the solar activity cycle. Seasonal ozone variations mainly appear as an annual cycle in the middle and upper stratosphere and a semi-annual cycle in the upper stratosphere. Regarding the interannual variations, they are primarily present in the lower and middle stratosphere. In the lower and middle stratosphere, ozone variations are controlled predominantly by transport processes, due to the long lifetime of ozone, whereas in the upper stratosphere its lifetime is relatively short and ozone is controlled mainly by photochemistry. The present study shows agreement in the observed naturally induced ozone signatures with other studies. Further, we present an overview of the possible causes of the effects observed in stratospheric ozone due to natural oscillations at a northern midlatitude station. For instance regarding the SAO, we find that polar winter stratopause warmings contribute to the strength of this oscillation since these temperature enhancements lead to a reduction in upper stratospheric ozone. We have detected a strong peak amplitude of about 5 % for the solar cycle in lower stratospheric ozone for our 1.5 cycles of solar activity. Though the 11-year ozone oscillation above Bern is in phase with the solar cycle, we suppose that the strong amplitude is

  19. The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Jensen, Eric J.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The particles remain in the Tropics for most of their life, and during this period of time a size distribution is developed by a combination of coagulation, growth by heteromolecular condensation, and mixing with air parcels containing preexisting sulfate particles. The aerosol eventually migrates to higher latitudes and descends across isentropic surfaces to the lower stratosphere. The aerosol is removed from the stratosphere primarily at mid- and high latitudes through various processes, mainly by isentropic transport across the tropopause from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  20. The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition - Prologue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, Richard; Plumb, Alan; Condon, Estelle

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the initial scientific results of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE), as well as data from other atmospheric experiments and analyses carried out during the Arctic polar winter of 1989. Mission objectives of the AASE were to study the mechanisms of ozone depletion and redistribution in the northern polar stratosphere, including the influences of Arctic meteorology, and polar stratospheric clouds formed at low temperatures. Some major aspects of the AASE are described including: logistics and operations, meteorology, polar stratospheric clouds, trace composition and chemistry, and ozone depletion. It is concluded that the Arctic-89 experiments have provided the scientific community with a wealth of new information that will contribute to a better understanding of the polar winter stratosphere and the critical problem of global ozone depletion.

  1. Homogeneous freezing nucleation of stratospheric solution droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The classical theory of homogeneous nucleation was used to calculate the freezing rate of sulfuric acid solution aerosols under stratospheric conditions. The freezing of stratospheric aerosols would be important for the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. In addition, the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions on stratospheric aerosols may be very sensitive to their state. The calculations indicate that homogeneous freezing nucleation of pure water ice in the stratospheric solution droplets would occur at temperatures below about 192 K. However, the physical properties of H2SO4 solution at such low temperatures are not well known, and it is possible that sulfuric acid aerosols will freeze out at temperatures ranging from about 180 to 195 K. It is also shown that the temperature at which the aerosols freeze is nearly independent of their size.

  2. A Saturnian stratospheric seasonal climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Caldwell, J.

    1979-01-01

    Motivated by recent observational evidence that seasonal processes occur within Saturn's stratosphere, a seasonal stratospheric climate model has been constructed. This model predicts stratospheric temperatures above the P = 0.1-atm level as a function of time throughout the Saturnian year. Specific results are presented for south-polar and equatorial temperatures. The model predicts that substantial seasonal phase lags exist; maximum stratospheric temperatures at the south pole occur at the southern hemisphere's autumnal equinox. Brightness temperature observations at 17.8 microns, taken during 1977/1978, indicate that stratospheric temperatures are greater at the south pole than at the equator. The model is consistent with these observations, predicting enhanced south polar temperatures, relative to the equator, from 1975 to 1983.

  3. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  4. Stratospheric Cooling and Arctic Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.

    1998-01-01

    We present sensitivity studies using the AER box model for an idealized parcel in the lower stratosphere at 70 deg N during winter/spring with different assumed stratospheric cooling and chlorine loadings. Our calculations show that stratospheric cooling could further deplete ozone via increased polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and retard its expected recovery even with the projected chlorine loading decrease. We introduce the concept of chlorine-cooling equivalent and show that a 1 K Cooling could provide the same local ozone depletion as an increase of chlorine by 0.4-0.7 ppbv for the scenarios considered. Thus, sustained stratospheric cooling could further reduce Arctic ozone content and delay the anticipated ozone recovery in the Northern Hemisphere even with the realization of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments.

  5. Stratospheric Cooling and Arctic Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.

    1998-01-01

    We present sensitivity studies using the AER( box model for an idealized parcel in the lower stratosphere at 70 N during winter/spring with different assumed stratospheric coolings and chlorine loadings. Our calculations show that stratospheric cooling could further deplete ozone via increased polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and retard its expected recovery even with the projected chlorine loading decrease. We introduce the concept of chlorine-cooling equivalent and show that a 1 K cooling could provide the same local ozone depletion as an increase of chlorine by 0.4-0.7 ppbv for the scenarios considered. Thus, sustained stratospheric cooling could further reduce Arctic ozone content and delay the anticipated ozone recovery in the Northern Hemisphere even with the realization of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments.

  6. The Evolution and Fate of Saturn's Stratospheric Vortex: Infrared Spectroscopy from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Hesman, B. E.; Arhterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Hurley, J.; Sinclair, J.; Gorius, N.; Orton, G. S.; Read, P. L.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    The planet-encircling springtime storm in Saturn's troposphere (December 2010-July 2011) produced dramatic perturbations to stratospheric temperatures, winds and composition at mbar pressures that persisted long after the tropospheric disturbance had abated. Observations from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), supported by ground-based imaging from the VISIR instrument on the Very Large Telescope,is used to track the evolution of a large, hot stratospheric anticyclone between January 2011 and the present day. The evolutionary sequence can be divided into three phases: (I) the formation and intensification of two distinct warm airmasses near 0.5 mbar between 25 and 35N (one residing directly above the convective storm head) between January-April 2011, moving westward with different zonal velocities; (II) the merging of the warm airmasses to form the large single 'stratospheric beacon' near 40N between April and June 2011, dissociated from the storm head and at a higher pressure (2 mbar) than the original beacons; and (III) the mature phase characterized by slow cooling and longitudinal shrinkage of the anticyclone since July 2011, moving west with a near-constant velocity of 2.70+/-0.04 deg/day (-24.5+/-0.4 m/s at 40N). Peak temperatures of 220 K at 2 mbar were measured on May 5th 2011 immediately after the merger, some 80 K warmer than the quiescent surroundings. Thermal winds hear calculations in August 2011 suggest clockwise peripheral velocities of 200400 mls at 2 mbar, defining a peripheral collar with a width of 65 degrees longitude (50,000 km in diameter) and 25 degrees latitude. Stratospheric acetylene (C2H2) was uniformly enhanced by a factor of three within the vortex, whereas ethane (C2H6) remained unaffected. We will discuss the thermal and chemical characteristics of Saturn's beacon in its mature phase, and implications for stratospheric vortices on other giant planets.

  7. CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    There has been a lot of discussion about global warming. Some say anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused the earth to warm. Others say there is no abnormality at all, that it is just natural warming. As you will see from the data presented and analyzed, a greater than normal warming did occur in recent times but no measurements confirm an increase in CO2, whether anthropogenic or natural, had any effect on global temperatures. There is however, strong evidence that anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the major cause of the recent abnormal warming. CFCs have created both unnatural atmospheric cooling and warming based on these facts: CFCs have destroyed ozone in the lower stratosphere/ upper troposphere causing these zones in the atmosphere to cool 1.37°C from 1966 to 1998. This time span was selected to eliminate the effect of the natural solar irradiance (cooling-warming) cycle effect on the earth's temperature. The loss of ozone allowed more UV light to pass through the stratosphere at a sufficient rate to warm the lower troposphere plus 8-3/4" of the earth by 0.48°C (1966 to 1998). Mass and energy balances show that the energy that was absorbed in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere hit the lower troposphere/earth at a sustainable level of 1.69 × 10 18 Btu more in 1998 than it did in 1966. Greater ozone depletion in the Polar Regions has caused these areas to warm some two and one-half (2 1/2) times that of the average earth temperature -1.2°C versus 0.48°C. This has caused permafrost to melt, which is releasing copious quantities of methane, estimated at 100 times that of manmade CO2 release, to the atmosphere. Methane in the atmosphere slowly converts to CO2 and water vapor and its release has contributed to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. There is a temperature anomaly in Antarctica. The Signey Island landmass further north, warmed like the rest of the Polar Regions; but south at Vostok, there has

  8. The Cl-36 in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deck, Bruce; Wahlen, Martin; Weyer, Harley; Kubik, Peter; Sharma, Pankaj; Gove, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Initial measurements of the cosmogenic radionuclide, Cl-36, in the lower stratosphere were made by accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples were obtained using the large volume LASL air sampling pods on a NASA WB-57F aircraft. Untreated (for collection of particulates only) and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide treated (for collection of particulates and HCl) IPC-1478 filters were flown on three flights in the lower stratosphere. Chlorine (Cl) and Cl compounds are important trace constituents for stratospheric chemistry, in particular with respect to O3 destruction. Stratospheric Cl chemistry has recently received increased attention with the observation of strong O3 depletion in the Antarctic winter vortex and in the weaker and more complex Arctic winter vortices. Cosmogenic (Cl-36) is produced by spallation reactions from Ar mainly in the stratosphere, and has had several applications as a geochemical tracer. The large amounts of Cl-36 introduced by nuclear weapon testing have been removed from the stratosphere by now, and measurements in the stratosphere to obtain cosmogenic production rates and concentration distributions is now possible. The use of cosmogenic Cl-36 as a tracer for stratospheric Cl chemistry and for stratospheric/tropospheric exchange processes is investigated. A first attempt to determine stratospheric and tropospheric production rates, the partitioning of Cl-36 among particulate and gaseous Cl compounds, and the respective inventories and removal rates is being made. Results from a flight at 13.7 km, 30-33 degrees N, 97-107 degrees W, and from a second flight at 17.7 km, 43-45-36 degrees N, 92-94 degrees W, for the untreated and treated filters respectively are presented.

  9. Cloud formation in Titan's Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Erika

    2016-06-01

    In addition to the organic haze particles produced photochemically in Titan's upper atmosphere, a number of trace gases are also created. These hydrocarbon and nitrile species include C2H6, C2H2, C4H10, HCN, HC3N, C2H5CN and many more. While both Voyager and Cassini observations have found evidence for ices (e.g. C4N2, HCN) in the atmosphere above Titan's poles, these species are also likely to condense at other latitudes forming optically thin ice layers in the stratosphere. A series of simulations have been conducted using Titan CARMA, a 1-D microphysics and radiative transfer model, to explore cloud particle formation with ˜20 of Titan's trace hydrocarbon and nitrile gases. These species reach their condensation temperatures between 60 and 110 km. Most condense solely as ices, however, C3H8 will condense first near 70 km as a liquid and then freeze as the droplets descend toward the surface. C3H8 and C2H6 join CH4 as a liquid at Titan's surface. Many ices have long condensation timescales resulting in particle radii ˜1 micron or less. Several (including HCN, C3H8, C2H2) will grow 10-50 times larger. Expected condensation altitudes and particle sizes will be presented, as well as the implications for the optical properties of Titan's stratospheric aerosol particles.

  10. Is there a stratospheric fountain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Held, G.

    2007-06-01

    The impact of convection on the thermal structure of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) was investigated from a series of four daily radiosonde ascents and weather S-band radar observations carried out during the HIBISCUS campaign in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone in Southeast Brazil in February 2004. The temperature profiles display a large impact of convective activity on the thermal structure of the TTL. Compared to non-active periods, convection is observed to result in a cooling of 4.5°C to 7.5°C at the Lapse Rate Tropopause at 16 km, propagating up to 19 km or 440 K potential temperature levels in the stratosphere in most intense convective cases. Consistent with the diurnal cycle of echo top heights seen by a S-band weather radar, a systematic temperature diurnal cycle is observed in the layer, displaying a rapid cooling of 3.5°C on average (-9°, -2°C extremes) during the development phase of convection in the early afternoon during the most active period. Since the cooling occurs during daytime within a timescale of 6-h, its maximum amplitude is at the altitude of the Cold Point Tropopause at 390 K and temperature fluctuations associated to gravity waves do not display significant diurnal change, the afternoon cooling of the TTL cannot be attributed to radiation, advection, gravity waves or adiabatic lofting. It implies a fast insertion of adiabatically cooled air parcels by overshooting turrets followed by mixing with the warmer environment. During most intense convective days, the overshoot is shown to penetrate the stratosphere up to 450 K potential temperature level. Such fast updraft offers an explanation for the presence of ice crystals, and enhanced water vapour layers observed up to 18-19 km (410-430 K) in the same area by the HIBISCUS balloons and the TROCCINOX Geophysica aircraft, as well as high tropospheric chemical species concentrations in the TTL over land observed from space. Overall, injection of cold air by irreversible mixing

  11. Is the Stratospheric QBO affected by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure via an Annual Cycle Modulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Jarvis, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    This study explores possible solar wind dynamic pressure effects on equatorial temperature and wind with an emphasis on the stratospheric Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). The QBO phase occurrence and transition are closely linked to an annual cycle of tropical lower stratospheric temperature. The statistical response of the tropical temperature to solar wind dynamic pressure is characterized by ~1.25 K warming near the tropopause during the Boreal winter and spring and ~ 0.5 K cooling in the troposphere during the Austral winter and spring. The combined effect of this is a reduction of the amplitude of the annual cycle in temperature in the tropical tropopause region. The weakening of the annual cycle causes systematic and significant change in the tropical upwelling and therefore the strength and phase distribution of the QBO in the lower stratosphere. In the lower stratosphere, significantly stronger and more frequency easterly anomalies are found to be associated with high solar wind dynamic pressure during August to October. In addition to the seasonal response, there is a small but seasonally invariant response that is characterized by a vertical three-cell anomaly pattern with westerly anomalies in the troposphere and at 3-10 hPa and easterly anomalies in the lower stratosphere. We propose that significantly stronger easterly anomalies in the tropical lower stratosphere under high solar wind dynamic pressure during the Austral winter and spring are a consequence both of the initializing effect of this three-cell structure and of an amplification effect due to the seasonal modulation of the annual cycle.

  12. Simulations of Dynamics and Transport during the September 2002 Antarctic Major Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Lahoz, Willian A.; Scaife, Adam A.; Randall, Cora E.; Pawson, Steven; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A mechanistic model simulation initialized on 14 September 2002, forced by 100-hPa geopotential heights from Met Office analyses, reproduced the dynamical features of the 2002 Antarctic major warming. The vortex split on approx.25 September; recovery after the warming, westward and equatorward tilting vortices, and strong baroclinic zones in temperature associated with a dipole pattern of upward and downward vertical velocities were all captured in the simulation. Model results and analyses show a pattern of strong upward wave propagation throughout the warming, with zonal wind deceleration throughout the stratosphere at high latitudes before the vortex split, continuing in the middle and upper stratosphere and spreading to lower latitudes after the split. Three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes show the largest upward and poleward wave propagation in the 0(deg)-90(deg)E sector prior to the vortex split (coincident with the location of strongest cyclogenesis at the model's lower boundary), with an additional region of strong upward propagation developing near 180(deg)-270(deg)E. These characteristics are similar to those of Arctic wave-2 major warmings, except that during this warming, the vortex did not split below approx.600 K. The effects of poleward transport and mixing dominate modeled trace gas evolution through most of the mid- to high-latitude stratosphere, with a core region in the lower-stratospheric vortex where enhanced descent dominates and the vortex remains isolated. Strongly tilted vortices led to low-latitude air overlying vortex air, resulting in highly unusual trace gas profiles. Simulations driven with several meteorological datasets reproduced the major warming, but in others, stronger latitudinal gradients at high latitudes at the model boundary resulted in simulations without a complete vortex split in the midstratosphere. Numerous tests indicate very high sensitivity to the boundary fields, especially the wave-2 amplitude. Major warmings

  13. Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, E.J.; Mason, A.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

    1983-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

  14. Extratropical Stratosphere-Troposphere Mass Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the exchange of gases between the stratosphere and the troposphere is important for determining how pollutants enter the stratosphere and how they leave. This study does a global analysis of that the exchange of mass between the stratosphere and the troposphere. While the exchange of mass is not the same as the exchange of constituents, you can t get the constituent exchange right if you have the mass exchange wrong. Thus this kind of calculation is an important test for models which also compute trace gas transport. In this study I computed the mass exchange for two assimilated data sets and a GCM. The models all agree that amount of mass descending from the stratosphere to the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere extra tropics is approx. 10(exp 10) kg/s averaged over a year. The value for the Southern Hemisphere by about a factor of two. ( 10(exp 10) kg of air is the amount of air in 100 km x 100 km area with a depth of 100 m - roughly the size of the D.C. metro area to a depth of 300 feet.) Most people have the idea that most of the mass enters the stratosphere through the tropics. But this study shows that almost 5 times more mass enters the stratosphere through the extra-tropics. This mass, however, is quickly recycled out again. Thus the lower most stratosphere is a mixture of upper stratospheric air and tropospheric air. This is an important result for understanding the chemistry of the lower stratosphere.

  15. Changes in stratospheric thermal structure and chemical composition during a major stratwarm event of 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, O.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone mass mixing ratio obtained from both European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) Reanalysis (ERA)-Interim and Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite shows large values in the equatorial upper stratosphere during the occurrence of a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in January 2013 preceded by a large reduction of planetary wave activity. However surprisingly equatorial temperature is found to decrease at pressure levels where the ozone mixing ratio is larger. The computed radiative heating rate using SBDART model also shows positive heating rate indicating that the temperature should increase in response to the ozone accumulation over equator. In addition to radiative heating due to ozone, heating rate due to the other dominant factors, namely, ascending motion and convergence of meridional heat flux which could influence the thermal structure of the equatorial stratosphere, are estimated. It is found that the observed low temperature during the SSW is mainly due to large upward motions. The estimated heating rates agree reasonably well with the observed heating rates at 10-8 hPa indicating the dominance of transport at lower stratosphere. The large discrepancy between the estimated and observed heating rates in the upper stratosphere may be due to the dominance of photochemistry. To study the variations of chemical constituents during the SSW, we investigated the volume mixing ratios (VMR) of different chemical components obtained from Microwave Limb Sounder onboard Aura satellite which show distinct variations at high and low latitudes in the upper stratosphere (30-50 km) during the occurrence of SSW in January 2013. In this study, it is being observed that zonally averaged H2O VMR (WVMR) is decreasing over equatorial region with the onset of the warming event. Oxidation of methane (CH4) is the primary source of

  16. Laboratory Investigations of Stratospheric Halogen Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, Paul H.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Stickel, Robert E.; Hynes, Anthony J.

    1997-01-01

    A final report for the NASA-supported project on laboratory investigations of stratospheric halogen chemistry is presented. In recent years, this project has focused on three areas of research: (1) kinetic, mechanistic, and thermochemical studies of reactions which produce weakly bound chemical species of atmospheric interest; (2) development of flash photolysis schemes for studying radical-radical reactions of stratospheric interest; and (3) photochemistry studies of interest for understanding stratospheric chemistry. The first section of this paper contains a discussion of work which has not yet been published. All subsequent chapters contain reprints of published papers that acknowledge support from this grant.

  17. Warm Up with Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Too little time is often spent on warm-up activities in the school or recreation class. Warm-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for warm-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)

  18. The ISA-MIP Historical Eruption SO2 Emissions Assessment (HErSEA): an intercomparison for interactive stratospheric aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Graham; Dhomse, Sandip; Sheng, Jianxiong; Mills, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Major historical volcanic eruptions have injected huge amounts of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere with observations showing an enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer for several years (ASAP, 2006). Such long-lasting increases in stratospheric aerosol loading cool the Earth's surface by scattering incoming solar radiation and warm the stratosphere via absorption of near infra-red solar and long-wave terrestrial radiation with complex effects on climate (e.g. Robock, 2000). Two recent modelling studies of Mount Pinatubo (Dhomse et al., 2014; Sheng et al. 2015) have highlighted that observations suggest the sulphur loading of the volcanically enhanced stratospheric aerosol may have been considerably lower than suggested by measurements of the injected SO2. This poster describes a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" for interactive stratospheric aerosol models within the framework of the SPARC initiative on Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate (SSiRC). The new "Historical Eruption SO2 emissions Assessment" (HErSEA) will intercompare model simulations of the three largest volcanic perturbations to the stratosphere in the last 50 years, 1963 Mt Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Mt Pinatubo. The aim is to assess how effectively the emitted SO2 translates into perturbations to stratospheric aerosol properties and simulated radiative forcings in different composition-climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA). Each modelling group will run a mini-ensemble of transient AMIP-type runs for the 3 eruptions with a control no-eruption run followed by upper and lower bound injection amount estimates and 3 different injection height settings for two shallow (e.g. 19-21km amd 23-25km) and one deep (e.g. 19-25km) injection. First order analysis will intercompare stratospheric aerosol metrics such as 2D-monthly AOD(550nm, 1020nm) and timeseries of tropical and NH/SH mid-visible extinction at three different models levels (15, 20 and 25km

  19. Gravitational Separation in the Stratosphere - A New Tracer of Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishidoya, S.; Sugawara, S.; Morimoto, S.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Honda, H.; Murayama, S.

    2012-12-01

    As a basic knowledge of atmospheric science, it has been believed that the gravitational separation of atmospheric components is observable only in the atmosphere above the turbopause. Despite this common perception, we found, from high-precision measurements not only of the isotopic ratios of N2, O2 and Ar but also of the concentration of Ar, that the gravitational separation occurs significantly even in the stratosphere; their observed vertical profiles are in good agreement with those expected theoretically from molecular mass differences. The O2/N2 ratio observed in the middle stratosphere, corrected for the gravitational separation, showed the same mean air age as estimated from the CO2 concentration. Simulations with a 2-dimensional NCAR model (SOCRATES) also indicated that a relationship between the gravitational separation and the air age in the stratosphere would be affected by an enhancement of the Brewer-Dobson circulation due to global warming. Therefore, the gravitational separation would be usable as a new tracer for an understanding of atmospheric circulation in the stratosphere.

  20. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE VARIATIONS IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE DURING THE CASSINI MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bampasidis, Georgios; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Achterberg, R. K.; Lavvas, P.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Flasar, F. M.; Carlson, R. C.; Romani, P. N.; Guandique, E. A.; Teanby, N. A.; Moussas, X.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Stamogiorgos, S.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a line-by-line Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Titan code that includes the most recent laboratory spectroscopic data and haze descriptions relative to Titan's stratosphere. We use this code to model Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer data taken during the numerous Titan flybys from 2006 to 2012 at surface-intercepting geometry in the 600-1500 cm{sup -1} range for latitudes from 50 Degree-Sign S to 50 Degree-Sign N. We report variations in temperature and chemical composition in the stratosphere during the Cassini mission, before and after the Northern Spring Equinox (NSE). We find indication for a weakening of the temperature gradient with warming of the stratosphere and cooling of the lower mesosphere. In addition, we infer precise concentrations for the trace gases and their main isotopologues and find that the chemical composition in Titan's stratosphere varies significantly with latitude during the 6 years investigated here, with increased mixing ratios toward the northern latitudes. In particular, we monitor and quantify the amplitude of a maximum enhancement of several gases observed at northern latitudes up to 50 Degree-Sign N around mid-2009, at the time of the NSE. We find that this rise is followed by a rapid decrease in chemical inventory in 2010 probably due to a weakening north polar vortex with reduced lateral mixing across the vortex boundary.

  1. Stratospheric Sulphur - 3D Chemical Transport Model Simulations and MIPAS/ENVISAT Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Annika; Höpfner, Michael; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Stiller, Gabriele; Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In this study processes that regulate the atmospheric distribution, and the budget of carbonyl sulphide (OCS), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and stratospheric sulphate aerosols are investigated in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere. Sulphate aerosols impact the Earth's climate by backscattering parts of the incoming solar radiation. This negative radiative forcing can lead to reduced surface temperatures and is thought of as one reason for the recent global warming "hiatus". Our study is based on the comparison of modeled and observed data. An isentropic chemical transport model is used, spanning the region from 330 to 3000 K potential temperature (~ 8 - 66 km), driven by ERA-Interim Reanalysis data. The simulations are compared to observations from MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding), a limb sounder on the satellite ENVISAT that was operational from July 2002 to April 2012. The focus of our study lies on volcanically emitted SO2 and its dispersion, as main precursor for sulphate aerosol during volcanically perturbed times, with its simulated distribution and lifetime, in comparison to MIPAS SO2 measurements. Moreover data for OCS, as the main source for stratospheric sulphur during volcanically quiescent periods. Furthermore, first results of sulphuric aerosol-mass retrievals from MIPAS are presented. These will be combined with the gaseous sulphur species to obtain a global budget of stratospheric sulphur.

  2. Simulation of the climate effects of a geoengineered stratospheric sulfate cloud with the NASA GEOSCCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, L.; Aquila, V.; Colarco, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Suggested solar radiation management (SRM) methods to mitigate global warming include the injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) in the stratosphere. We present the results from SRM simulation ensemble performed with the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We focus on the response of the stratosphere to a stratospheric SO2 injection. In particular, we investigate the changes of the stratospheric dynamics and composition, and the impact of an increased aerosol layer on ozone recovery. As prescribed for experiment G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), we inject 5 Tg/year of SO2 from 2020 to 2070. The location of the injection is the equator at 0° longitude between 16 km and 25 km altitude. After 2070, we interrupt the SO2 injection and simulate the readjustment until 2090. The emissions scenario is RCP4.5, which predicts a radiative forcing of about 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. This is considered a "medium-low" scenario in terms of radiative forcing. GEOSCCM does not include an interactive ocean model, therefore we use the sea surface temperatures forecasted by the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) for RCP4.5.

  3. In-situ measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone over Hyderabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Sreenivasan, S.; Sinha, P. R.

    The Study of the ozone concentration and its variability is one of the key indexes for environmental and ecological degradation While the stratospheric ozone absorbs the harmful ultraviolet radiation between 280-320 nm band, the tropospheric ozone is formed in the elevated layers up to 10km above ground level through the photochemical decomposition of the precursor gases like NOx, VOCs and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) released from the earth surface. Ozone studies are also vital for the understanding of solar terrestrial coupling as well as the ozone chemistry on a given site and its surroundings. Continuous measurements of vertical profile of ozone and various meteorological parameters (i.e. temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction) over one year period were made over Hyderabad using high altitude plastic balloons, in order to investigate i. variations of ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere, ii. stratospheric warming iii. coupling between upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. Ozonesonde (Electro Chemical Cell) coupled with GPS RS80-15N radiosonde was used for the measurement of Ozone and meteorological parameters.

  4. Observed stratospheric profiles and stratospheric lifetimes of HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.M.; Sturges, W.T.; Penkett, S.A.

    1995-06-01

    The authors present profile measurements of HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b in the stratosphere. The measurements show that these chemicals are not in equilibrium in the stratosphere at present, and allow inferences of stratospheric lifetimes. The lifetimes are strongly dependent upon the actual N{sub 2}O lifetime, and for an N{sub 2}O lifetime of 110y, are 68 {+-} 11y for HCFC-141b and a minimum of 138y for HCFC-142b.

  5. Stratospheric Tides and Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, R.; Orris, R. L.; Wu, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    In the upper stratosphere, the atmosphere exhibits significant diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal variations, with typical amplitude of about 2K in mid-latitudes. In this paper we examine how well the tidal variations in temperature are represented by the Goddard Geodesic Earth Orbiting Satellite (GEOS-2) data assimilation system. We show that the GEOS-2 atmospheric model is quite successful at simulating the tidal temperature variations. However, the assimilation of satellite temperature soundings significantly damps the simulated tides. The reason is because the tides are not well represented by the satellite retrievals used by the assimilation system (which have a typical tidal amplitude of around 1K). As a result of this study, we suggest improvements that should be made to the treatment of satellite soundings by the assimilation system.

  6. Denitrification in the Antarctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Rapid loss of ozone over Antarctica in spring requires that the abundance of gaseous nitric acid be very low. Precipitation of particulate nitric acid has been assumed to occur in association with large ice crystals, requiring significant removal of H2O and temperatures well below the frost point. However, stratospheric clouds exhibit a bimodal size distribution in the Antarctic atmosphere, with most of the nitrate concentrated in particles with radii of 1 micron or greater. It is argued here that the bimodal size distribution sets the stage for efficient denitrification, with nitrate particles either falling on their own or serving as nuclei for the condensation of ice. Denitrification can therefore occur without significant dehydration, and it is unnecessary for temperatures to drop significantly below the frost point.

  7. Evidence for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    A statistically significant measurement of H2O2 in the stratosphere has been obtained. The results were obtained from the 112.19/cm RQ5 branch of the torsional-rotational spectrum with a remote-sensing far-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer during the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC-2), on June 20, 1983. The concentration above the balloon gondola is unexpectedly large, corresponding to 0.68 + or - 0.21 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at an effective altitude of 38.3 km. Below the gondola altitude the concentration of H2O2 is slightly less than expected from the model predictions at 33.2 km (0.19 + or - 0.05 ppbv) and significantly less than expected at 29.3 km (0.08 + or - 0.03 ppbv).

  8. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Moister During the 21st Century?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A.E.; Schoberl, M. R.; Ye, H.; Wang, T.; Oman, L.; Douglass, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  9. Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Peer Johannes; Abraham, Nathan Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term solar radiation management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks for this experiment. While the SRM scheme considered here could offset greenhouse gas induced global mean surface warming, it leads to important changes in atmospheric composition. We find large stratospheric ozone increases that induce significant reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, which would have implications for vitamin D production. In addition, the higher stratospheric ozone levels lead to decreased ozone photolysis in the troposphere. In combination with lower atmospheric specific humidity under SRM, this results in overall surface ozone concentration increases in the idealized G1 experiment. Both UV-B and surface ozone changes are important for human health. We therefore highlight that both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone changes must be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  10. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Wetter During the 21st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Douglass, A. R.; Oman, L.

    2014-12-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  11. Spatial distribution of water in the stratosphere of Jupiter from Herschel HIFI and PACS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, T.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Lellouch, E.; de Val-Borro, M.; Jarchow, C.; Moreno, R.; Hartogh, P.; Orton, G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Billebaud, F.; Dobrijevic, M.; Lara, L. M.; González, A.; Sagawa, H.

    2013-05-01

    Context. In the past 15 years, several studies suggested that water in the stratosphere of Jupiter originated from the Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) comet impacts in July 1994, but a direct proof was missing. Only a very sensitive instrument observing with high spectral/spatial resolution can help to solve this problem. This is the case of the Herschel Space Observatory, which is the first telescope capable of mapping water in Jupiter's stratosphere. Aims: We observed the spatial distribution of the water emission in Jupiter's stratosphere with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) and the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) onboard Herschel to constrain its origin. In parallel, we monitored Jupiter's stratospheric temperature with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) to separate temperature from water variability. Methods: We obtained a 25-point map of the 1669.9 GHz water line with HIFI in July 2010 and several maps with PACS in October 2009 and December 2010. The 2010 PACS map is a 400-point raster of the water 66.4 μm emission. Additionally, we mapped the methane ν4 band emission to constrain the stratospheric temperature in Jupiter in the same periods with the IRTF. Results: Water is found to be restricted to pressures lower than 2 mbar. Its column density decreases by a factor of 2-3 between southern and northern latitudes, consistently between the HIFI and the PACS 66.4 μm maps. We infer that an emission maximum seen around 15 °S is caused by a warm stratospheric belt detected in the IRTF data. Conclusions: Latitudinal temperature variability cannot explain the global north-south asymmetry in the water maps. From the latitudinal and vertical distributions of water in Jupiter's stratosphere, we rule out interplanetary dust particles as its main source. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Jupiter's stratospheric water was delivered by the SL9 comet and that more than 95% of the observed water comes from the comet according to

  12. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  13. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  14. The stratcom 8 effort. [stratospheric photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The ozone-nitrogen oxides ultraviolent flux interactions were investigated to obtain data on stratospheric photochemistry. The balloon, rocket, and aircraft operations are described along with the instruments, parameter measurements, and payloads.

  15. Radiative heating rates near the stratospheric fountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, G. M.; Newell, R. E.; Danielsen, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Radiative heating rates are computed for various sets of conditions thought to be appropriate to the stratospheric fountain region: with and without a layer of cirrus cloud between 100 and 150 mbar; with standard ozone and with decreased ozone in the lower stratosphere, again with and without the cirrus cloud; and with different temperatures in the tropopause region. The presence of the cloud decreases the radiative cooling below the cloud in the upper troposphere and increases the cooling above it in the lower stratosphere. The cloud is heated at the base and cooled at the top and thus radiatively destabilized; overall it gains energy by radiation. Decreasing ozone above the cloud also tends to cool the lower stratosphere. The net effect is a tendency for vertical convergence and horizontal divergence in the cloud region. High resolution profiles of temperature, ozone, and cloudiness within the fountain region are required in order to assess the final balance of the various processes.

  16. A Strange Thing Happened in the Stratosphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    What would cause a wind pattern that held for at least 60 years to suddenly change? NASA scientists are working to understand the recent quirky behavior of winds in Earth’s stratosphere.Credit: N...

  17. Polar stratospheric clouds inferred from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J.; Jones, R. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Tuck, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    Anomalously high radiances from the ozone channel of the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) sounding instrument have been observed in the Northern Hemisphere winter lower stratosphere. Such events, thought to be due to polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), are examined further by computing relative humidities using Stratospheric Sounding Unit temperatures and water vapor measurements from the LIMS Map Archive Tape analyses. Regions identified as PSCs are found to correspond closely to regions of high humidity. While instances of saturation were found, the average humidity at the centers of 39 PSCs was calculated to be 58 percent. Possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy are discussed. Applying a similar approach to the Southern Hemisphere, in 1979, virtually no PSCs are found in the vortex after September 10 at 20 km. This result has important implications for a number of proposed explanations for the Antarctic ozone hole.

  18. Planetary science: Music of the stratospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.

    2008-05-01

    Fifteen-year oscillations in Saturn's equatorial stratosphere bear a striking resemblance to the shorter-term oscillations seen on Earth and Jupiter - akin to notes played on a cello, a violin and a viola.

  19. Stratospheric Relaxation in IMPACT's Radiation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Edis, T; Grant, K; Cameron-Smith, P

    2006-11-13

    While Impact incorporates diagnostic radiation routines from our work in previous years, it has not previously included the stratospheric relaxation required for forcing calculations. We have now implemented the necessary changes for stratospheric relaxation, tested its stability, and compared the results with stratosphere temperatures obtained from CAM3 met data. The relaxation results in stable temperature profiles in the stratosphere, which is encouraging for use in forcing calculations. It does, however, produce a cooling bias when compared to CAM3, which appears to be due to differences in radiation calculations rather than the interactive treatment of ozone. The cause of this bias is unclear as yet, but seems to be systematic and hence cancels out when differences are taken relative to a control simulation.

  20. Denitrification mechanisms in the polar stratospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Turco, R. P.; Hamill, P.

    1990-01-01

    Microphysical simulations suggest that the time required for nitric acid particles to sediment from the stratosphere is comparable to the time required for falling ice particles to incorporate nitric acid vapor from the vapor phase. Since nitric acid particles form earlier in the winter than ice particles, these simulations favor denitrification being a separate process from dehydration, with denitrification being due to nitric acid particles and dehydration due to ice particles. In the simulations, the column abundance of nitric acid is only depleted if temperatures low enough for nitric acid particles to exist extend to the altitude above which the column is measured. Such low temperatures are infrequent in the Arctic lower stratosphere, which may be the main reason that the Arctic stratospheric column shows little loss of nitric acid during winter, while the colder Antarctic stratospheric column shows a substantial loss of nitric acid.

  1. Trajectory tracking control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zewei; Huo, Wei; Wu, Zhe

    2012-10-01

    Stratospheric airship is a new kind of aerospace system which has attracted worldwide developing interests for its broad application prospects. Based on the trajectory linearization control (TLC) theory, a novel trajectory tracking control method for an underactuated stratospheric airship is presented in this paper. Firstly, the TLC theory is described sketchily, and the dynamic model of the stratospheric airship is introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. Then, the trajectory tracking control strategy is deduced in detail. The designed control system possesses a cascaded structure which consists of desired attitude calculation, position control loop and attitude control loop. Two sub-loops are designed for the position and attitude control loops, respectively, including the kinematics control loop and dynamics control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Finally, simulation results for the stratospheric airship to track typical trajectories are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Laboratory studies of stratospheric aerosol chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    1996-01-01

    In this report we summarize the results of the two sets of projects funded by the NASA grant NAG2-632, namely investigations of various thermodynamic and nucleation properties of the aqueous acid system which makes up stratospheric aerosols, and measurements of reaction probabilities directly on ice aerosols with sizes corresponding to those of polar stratospheric cloud particles. The results of these investigations are of importance for the assessment of the potential stratospheric effects of future fleets of supersonic aircraft. In particular, the results permit to better estimate the effects of increased amounts of water vapor and nitric acid (which forms from nitrogen oxides) on polar stratospheric clouds and on the chemistry induced by these clouds.

  3. The chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the early 1980`s the Antarctic ozone hole was discovered. The ozone loss was 50 percent in the lower stratosphere during springtime, which is made possible by the conditions over Antarctica in winter. The absence of sunlight in the stratosphere during polar winter causes the stratospheric air column there to cool and sink, drawing air from lower latitudes into the upper stratosphere. This lower-latitude air gets closer to the Earth`s axis of rotation as it moves poleward and is accelerated by the need to conserve angular momentum to greater and greater westerly wind speeds forming a vortex bounded by the polar night jet stream. The air entering the vortex contains reactive ozone-destroying species. The observed ozone losses occurred concurrently with increases of chlorofluorocarbon increases.

  4. Stratospheric sounding by infrared heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Mumma, M. J.; Kostiuk, T.; Buhl, D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Intensity profiles of infrared spectral lines of stratospheric constituents can be fully resolved with a heterodyne spectrometer of sufficiently high resolution. The constituents' vertical distributions can then be evaluated accurately by analytic inversion of the measured line profiles. Estimates of the detection sensitivity of a heterodyne receiver are given in terms of minimum detectable volume mixing ratios of stratospheric constituents, indicating a large number of minor constituents which can be studied. Stratospheric spectral line shapes, and the resolution required to measure them are discussed in light of calculated synthetic line profiles for some stratospheric molecules in a model atmosphere. The inversion technique for evaluation of gas concentration profiles is briefly described and applications to synthetic lines of O3, CO2, CH4 and N2O are given.

  5. Stratospheric aftermath of the 2010 Storm on Saturn as observed by the TEXES instrument. I. Temperature structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Spiga, Aymeric; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Guerlet, Sandrine; Leconte, Jérémy; Orton, Glenn S.

    2016-10-01

    We report on spectroscopic observations of Saturn's stratosphere in July 2011 with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) mounted on the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF). The observations, targeting several lines of the CH4ν4 band and the H2 S(1) quadrupolar line, were designed to determine how Saturn's stratospheric thermal structure was disturbed by the 2010 Great White Spot. A study of Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) spectra had already shown the presence of a large stratospheric disturbance centered at a pressure of 2 hPa, nicknamed the beacon B0, and a tail of warm air at lower pressures (Fletcher et al. [2012] Icarus 221, 560-586). Our observations confirm that the beacon B0 vertical structure determined by CIRS, with a maximum temperature of 180 ± 1 K at 2 hPa, is overlain by a temperature decrease up to the 0.2-hPa pressure level. Our retrieved maximum temperature of 180 ± 1 K is colder than that derived by CIRS (200 ± 1 K), a difference that may be quantitatively explained by terrestrial atmospheric smearing. We propose a scenario for the formation of the beacon based on the saturation of gravity waves emitted by the GWS. Our observations also reveal that the tail is a planet-encircling disturbance in Saturn's upper stratosphere, oscillating between 0.2 and 0.02 hPa, showing a distinct wavenumber-2 pattern. We propose that this pattern in the upper stratosphere is either the signature of thermal tides generated by the presence of the warm beacon in the mid-stratosphere, or the signature of Rossby wave activity.

  6. Spectroscopic detection of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of features have been identified as absorption lines of hydrogen cyanide in infrared spectra of stratospheric absorption obtained from a high-altitude aircraft. Column amounts of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide have been derived from spectra recorded on eight flights. The average vertical column amount above 12 kilometers is 7.1 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the 14th molecules per square centimeter, corresponding to an average mixing ratio of 170 parts per trillion by volume.

  7. Studies of polar stratospheric cloud formation.

    PubMed

    Prenni, A J; Tolbert, M A

    2001-07-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion was first reported in 1985. Early on, researchers identified polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as being important in chemistry related to ozone depletion. PSCs exist as crystalline water-ice particles (type II), and as crystalline (type Ia) or liquid (type Ib) particles stable above the water-ice frost point. Uncertainty remains concerning the composition and formation mechanism of the most common PSC, type Ia. Here, we consider likely formation mechanisms for type Ia PSCs.

  8. Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A. ||; McGhee, T.J.; Burris, J.

    1995-05-20

    This paper presents stratospheric temperature measurements made by ground based lidar during the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign experiment. These measurements are correlated with complementary measurements made from sondes, satellite platforms, and National Meteorological Center analyses. Over the altitude range 30 to 65 km, the lidar derived temperatures were within 2 to 3 K of the temperatures derived from the other measurement systems. Specific differences are discussed in the paper.

  9. Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Northam, G. B.; Butler, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer at 20 km.

  10. Modeling the effects of UV variability and the QBO on the troposphere-stratosphere system. Part I: The middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, N.K.; Rind, D.

    1995-08-01

    Results of experiments with a GCM involving changes in UV input ({plus_minus}25%, {plus_minus}10%, {plus_minus}5% at wavelengths below 0.3 {mu}m) and simulated equatorial QBO are presented, with emphasis on the middle atmosphere response. The UV forcing employed is larger than observed during the last solar cycle and does not vary with wavelength, hence the relationship of these results to those from actual solar UV forcing should be treated with caution. The QBO alters the location of the zero wind line and the horizontal shear of the zonal wind in the low to middle stratosphere, while the UV change alters the magnitude of the polar jet and the vertical shear of the zonal wind. Both mechanisms thus affect planetary wave propagation. The east phase of the QBO leads to tropical cooling and high-latitude warming in the lower stratosphere, with opposite effects in the upper stratosphere. This quadrupole pattern is also seen in the observations. The high-latitude responses are due to altered planetary wave effects, while the model`s tropical response in the upper stratosphere is due to gravity wave drag. Increased UV forcing warms tropical latitudes in the middle atmosphere, resulting in stronger extratropical west winds, an effect which peaks in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere with the more extreme UV forcing but at lower altitudes and smaller wind variations with the more realistic forcing. The increased vertical gradient of the zonal wind leads to increased vertical propagation of planetary waves, altering energy convergences and temperatures. The exact altitudes affected depend upon the UV forcing applied. Results with combined QBO and UV forcing show that in the Northern Hemisphere, polar warming for the east QBO is stronger when the UV input is reduced by 25% and 5% as increased wave propagation to high latitudes (east QBO effect) is prevented from then propagating vertically (reduced UV effect). 30 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Seasonal Stratospheric Chemistry on Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Hue, Vincent; Poppe, Andrew R.; Luszcz-Cook, Statia H.; Moullet, Arielle

    2016-10-01

    We use a time-variable photochemical model to study the change in stratospheric constituent abundances as a function of altitude, latitude, and season on Uranus and Neptune. In the absence of meridional transport, the results for Neptune are similar to those predicted for Saturn: seasonal variations in the abundances of observable hydrocarbons such as C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H4, C3H8, and C4H2 are large in the upper stratosphere but become increasingly damped with depth due to increased dynamical and chemical time scales. We also find that latitude gradients in hydrocarbon abundances would be maintained on Neptune in the absence of atmospheric circulation. On Uranus, however, the more stagnant, poorly mixed stratosphere leads to a lower-altitude homopause, with methane being photolyzed relatively deep in the stratosphere, at which point both diffusion and chemical time constants have become longer than a Uranian year. Seasonal variations in stratospheric constituents on Uranus are therefore muted, despite the planet's large obliquity. We compare our model results to global-average observations from Spitzer and to spatially-resolved infrared observations from the ground. The model-data comparisons have implications with respect to the importance and strength of meridional transport, the origin of stratospheric oxygen-bearing species, and the dust and cometary influx rates on Uranus and Neptune.

  12. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  13. Zonal-mean global teleconnection from 15 to 110 km derived from SABER and WACCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chu, Xinzhao; Liu, Han-Li; Yamashita, Chihoko; Russell, James M., III

    2012-05-01

    We derive the correlation patterns over the global latitudes and from the stratosphere to lower thermosphere (broadly referred to as teleconnection) using temperature data measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) from 2002 to 2010, and using 54 years of simulations of temperatures and winds by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). We also analyze the possible mechanisms of teleconnection by investigating the correlations between the temperature and residual circulation. The correlation patterns show that teleconnection exists globally over the equatorial, mid- and high-latitudes, and temperature anomalies correspond well to the anomalies of the residual circulations through adiabatic heating/cooling. A main new finding of this study is that the teleconnection extends well into the lower thermosphere, the thermospheric anomalies are consistent with the corresponding changes of the winter-to-summer lower-thermospheric branch of the residual circulation, and the winter stratosphere perturbations influence the thermosphere globally. Using a reference point chosen in the northern winter stratosphere, we find that the teleconnection structures for time periods with and without Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) display similar patterns in SABER, and teleconnection patterns in WACCM are nearly identical for days with major SSWs, minor SSWs and without SSWs. WACCM results show strong inter-annual and intra-annual altitude variations of the teleconnection patterns in the southern polar region but stable altitudes of correlation regions in the equatorial and northern latitudes. The altitude variations are likely responsible for the weak correlations poleward of 60°S when multiyear or multimonth data are used.

  14. The 2009-2010 arctic stratospheric winter - general evolution, mountain waves and predictability of an operational weather forecast model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörnbrack, A.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Orsolini, Y. J.; Nishii, K.; Nakamura, H.

    2011-12-01

    The relatively warm 2009-2010 Arctic winter was an exceptional one as the North Atlantic Oscillation index attained persistent extreme negative values. Here, selected aspects of the Arctic stratosphere during this winter inspired by the analysis of the international field experiment RECONCILE are presented. First of all, and as a kind of reference, the evolution of the polar vortex in its different phases is documented. Special emphasis is put on explaining the formation of the exceptionally cold vortex in mid winter after a sequence of stratospheric disturbances which were caused by upward propagating planetary waves. A major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) occurring near the end of January 2010 concluded the anomalous cold vortex period. Wave ice polar stratospheric clouds were frequently observed by spaceborne remote-sensing instruments over the Arctic during the cold period in January 2010. Here, one such case observed over Greenland is analysed in more detail and an attempt is made to correlate flow information of an operational numerical weather prediction model to the magnitude of the mountain-wave induced temperature fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that the forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system for the onset of the major SSW were very skilful and the ensemble spread was very small. However, the ensemble spread increased dramatically after the major SSW, displaying the strong non-linearity and internal variability involved in the SSW event.

  15. The 2009-2010 Arctic stratospheric winter - general evolution, mountain waves and predictability of an operational weather forecast model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörnbrack, A.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Orsolini, Y. J.; Nishii, K.; Nakamura, H.

    2012-04-01

    The relatively warm 2009-2010 Arctic winter was an exceptional one as the North Atlantic Oscillation index attained persistent extreme negative values. Here, selected aspects of the Arctic stratosphere during this winter inspired by the analysis of the international field experiment RECONCILE are presented. First of all, and as a kind of reference, the evolution of the polar vortex in its different phases is documented. Special emphasis is put on explaining the formation of the exceptionally cold vortex in mid winter after a sequence of stratospheric disturbances which were caused by upward propagating planetary waves. A major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) occurring near the end of January 2010 concluded the anomalous cold vortex period. Wave ice polar stratospheric clouds were frequently observed by spaceborne remote-sensing instruments over the Arctic during the cold period in January 2010. Here, one such case observed over Greenland is analysed in more detail and an attempt is made to correlate flow information of an operational numerical weather prediction model to the magnitude of the mountain-wave induced temperature fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that the forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system for the onset of the major SSW were very skilful and the ensemble spread was very small. However, the ensemble spread increased dramatically after the major SSW, displaying the strong non-linearity and internal variability involved in the SSW event.

  16. Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols over Menlo Park, California, October 1972 - March 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Viezee, W.; Hake, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    During an 18-month period, 30 nighttime observations of stratospheric aerosols were made using a ground based ruby lidar located near the Pacific coast of central California (37.5 deg. N, 122.2 deg. W). Vertical profiles of the lidar scattering ratio and the particulate backscattering coefficient were obtained by reference to a layer of assumed negligible particulate content. An aerosol layer centered near 21 km was clearly evident in all observations, but its magnitude and vertical distribution varied considerably throughout the observation period. A reduction of particulate backscattering in the 23- to 30-km layer during late January 1973 appears to have been associated with the sudden stratospheric warming which occurred at that time.

  17. Stratospheric winter climate response to ENSO in three chemistry-climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. M.; Shindell, D. T.; Winter, B.; Bourqui, M. S.; Faluvegi, G.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Brönnimann, S.

    2008-07-01

    Three different chemistry-climate models are compared with respect to their simulation of the stratospheric response to extreme cases of ENSO. Ensemble simulations of an unusually warm ENSO event (1940-1941) compared to a very cold event (1975-1976) reveal a weaker and warmer polar vortex in the Northern Hemisphere winter. This follows from anomalously propagating waves decelerating the zonal flow and strengthening the residual mean circulation. Models are in good agreement in simulating the observed (statistically reconstructed for the case 1941) flow in the lower stratosphere over the Pacific North American region, but less so over the North Atlantic European sector with insufficient reproduction of the wave structure. Modeled column ozone is reduced in the Tropics and increased on average in the northern extra tropics in accord with the general pattern seen in observations and in line with an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  18. Global warming mitigation by sulphur loading in the atmosphere: Required emissions and possible side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Chernokulsky, A. V.; Karpenko, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    An approach to mitigate the global warming via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied employing a large ensemble of numerical experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS (IAP RAS CM). The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenical greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with an additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the 21st century. Different ensemble members were constructed by varying emission intensity, residence time, optical properites, and horizontal distributions of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, starting and ending years of applied emissions are varied between different ensemble members. Given global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, at the global basis, the most efficient latitudinal distribution of geoengineering aerosols is that peaked between 50∘N and 70∘N. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is slightly less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount 5 - 10 TgS/yr in year 2050 and > 10 TgS/yr in year 2100. This is not a small part of the current emissions of tropospheric sulphates. Moreover, even if the global warming is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. If the geoengineering emissions are stopped, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air temperture may change with a rate of several Kelvins per decade. The results obtained with the IAP RAS CM are further interpreted by making use of an energy-balance climate model. As a whole, the results obtained with this simpler model support conclusions made on the basis of the IAP RAS CM simulations.

  19. Climatology of the stratospheric polar vortex and planetary wave breaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Holton, James R.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of Ertel's potential vorticity (PV) on the 850 K isentropic surface is used to establish a climatology for the transient evolution of the planetary scale circulation in the Northern Hemisphere winter midstratosphere. PV distributions are computed from gridded NMC daily temperature and height maps for the 10 and 30 mb levels, and show that a very good approximation for 850 K PV can be derived from 10 mb heights and temperatures alone. It is assumed that reversals of the latitudinal gradient of PV, localized in longitude and latitude may be regarded as signatures of planetary wave breaking. Wave breaking identified by such signatures tends to occur mainly in the vicinity of the Aleutian anticyclone, with a secondary maximum over Europe. The area of the polar vortex, defined as the area enclosed by PV contours greater than a certain critical value, is strongly influenced by wave breaking. Erosion of the polar vortex due to transport and mixing of PV leads to a preconditioned state, when defined in terms of vortex area, that always occurs prior to major stratospheric warmings. During winters with little PV transport or mixing, the vortex area evolves rather uniformly in response to radiative forcing. During winters with major sudden warmings, the wave breaking signature as defined here first appears at low values of PV, then rapidly moves toward higher values as the vortex area is reduced and the 'surf-zone' structure becomes well defined.

  20. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  1. Predictability of the stratospheric polar vortex breakdown: An ensemble reforecast experiment for the splitting event in January 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mukougawa, Hitoshi; Kuroda, Yuhji; Mizuta, Ryo; Yabu, Shoukichi; Yoshimura, Hiromasa

    2016-04-01

    A series of ensemble reforecast experiments is conducted to investigate the predictability and the occurrence mechanism of a stratospheric sudden warming occurred in late January 2009, which is a typical polar vortex splitting event. To fully examine the rapid vortex splitting evolution and predictability variation, ensemble forecasts are carried out every day during January 2009. The vortex splitting event is reliably predicted by forecasts initialized after 6 days prior to the vortex breakup. It is also found that the propagating property of planetary waves within the stratosphere is a key to the successful prediction for the vortex splitting event. Planetary waves incoming from the troposphere are reflected back into the troposphere for failed forecasts, whereas they are absorbed within the stratosphere for succeeded forecasts. Composite analysis reveals the following reflection process of planetary waves for the failed forecast: Upward propagation of planetary wave activity from a tropospheric blocking over Alaska is weaker during initial prediction periods; then, the deceleration of the zonal wind in the upper stratosphere becomes weaker over Europe, which produces a preferable condition for the wave reflection; hence, subsequently incoming wave activity from the troposphere over Europe is reflected back over the Siberia inducing the eastward phase tilt of planetary waves, which shuts down the further upward propagation of planetary waves leading to the vortex splitting. Thus, this study shows that the stratospheric condition would be another important control factor for the occurrence of the vortex splitting event, besides anomalous tropospheric circulations enforcing upward propagation of planetary waves.

  2. On the potential impact of the stratosphere upon seasonal dynamical hindcasts of the North Atlantic Oscillation: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsolini, Yvan Joseph; Kindem, I. T.; Kvamstø, N. G.

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the importance of the stratosphere-troposphere linkage on the seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation in a pilot study using a high horizontal resolution atmospheric general circulation model, and covering the 14 winters from 1979/1980 to 1992/1993. We made an ensemble of simulations with the Meteo-France "Arpege Climat" model (V3.0) with a well-resolved stratosphere, and a broad comparison is drawn with hindcasts from previously published experiments using low-top and lower horizontal resolution models, but covering the same winters with the same ensemble size and verification method. For the January-February-March North Atlantic Oscillation index, the deterministic hindcast skill score is 0.59, using re-analyses as verification. It is comparable to the reported multi-model skill score (0.57). The largest improvement originates from the winter 1986/1987 characterised by a major stratospheric sudden warming. We demonstrate that there is then a high-latitude zonal-mean zonal wind decrease in the stratosphere-troposphere hindcasts over a broad pressure range. This is consistent with a composite analysis showing that model anomalous vortex events, either weak or strong, lead to a North Atlantic Oscillation index anomaly in the troposphere, which persists, on average, for 1 month after the anomaly peaked in the stratosphere.

  3. Extreme climate of the global troposphere and stratosphere in 1940-42 related to El Niño.

    PubMed

    Brönnimann, S; Luterbacher, J; Staehelin, J; Svendby, T M; Hansen, G; Svenøe, T

    2004-10-21

    Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon is the most prominent mode of climate variability and affects weather and climate in large parts of the world, its effects on Europe and the high-latitude stratosphere are controversial. Using historical observations and reconstruction techniques, we analyse the anomalous state of the troposphere and stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere from 1940 to 1942 that occurred during a strong and long-lasting El Niño event. Exceptionally low surface temperatures in Europe and the north Pacific Ocean coincided with high temperatures in Alaska. In the lower stratosphere, our reconstructions show high temperatures over northern Eurasia and the north Pacific Ocean, and a weak polar vortex. In addition, there is observational evidence for frequent stratospheric warmings and high column ozone at Arctic and mid-latitude sites. We compare our historical data for the period 1940-42 with more recent data and a 650-year climate model simulation. We conclude that the observed anomalies constitute a recurring extreme state of the global troposphere-stratosphere system in northern winter that is related to strong El Niño events. PMID:15496919

  4. As estimation of the climatic effects of stratospheric ozone losses during the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, R.M.; Ko, M.K.W.; Yang, Yajaing

    1997-04-01

    In order to study the potential climatic effects of the ozone hole more directly and to assess the validity of previous lower resolution model results, the latest high spatial resolution version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., seasonal radiative dynamical climate model is used to simulate the climatic effects of ozone changes relative to the other greenhouse gases. The steady-state climatic effect of a sustained decrease in lower stratospheric ozone, similar in magnitude to the observed 1979-90 decrease, is estimated by comparing three steady-state climate simulations: (I) 1979 greenhouse gas concentrations and 1979 ozone, (II) 1990 greenhouse gas concentrations with 1979 ozone, and (III) 1990 greenhouse gas concentrations with 1990 ozone. The simulated increase in surface air temperature resulting from nonozone greenhouse gases is 0.272 K. When changes in lower stratospheric ozone are included, the greenhouse warming is 0.165 K, which is approximately 39% lower than when ozone is fixed at the 1979 concentrations. Ozone perturbations at high latitudes result in a cooling of the surface-troposphere system that is greater (by a factor of 2.8) than that estimated from the change in radiative forcing resulting from ozone depletion and the model`s 2 X CO{sub 2} climate sensitivity. The results suggest that changes in meridional heat transport from low to high latitudes combined with the decrease in the infrared opacity of the lower stratosphere are very important in determining the steady-state response to high latitude ozone losses. The 39% compensation in greenhouse warming resulting from lower stratospheric ozone losses is also larger than the 28% compensation simulated previously by the lower resolution model. The higher resolution model is able to resolve the high latitude features of the assumed ozone perturbation, which are important in determining the overall climate sensitivity to these perturbations. 39 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. An Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Losses during the 1980s. Appendix K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Robert M.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Shia, Run-Lie; Yang, Yajaing; Zhou, Shuntai; Molnar, Gyula

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the potential climatic effects of the ozone hole more directly and to assess the validity of previous lower resolution model results, the latest high spatial resolution version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., seasonal radiative dynamical climate model is used to simulate the climatic effects of ozone changes relative to the other greenhouse gases. The steady-state climatic effect of a sustained decrease in lower stratospheric ozone, similar in magnitude to the observed 1979-90 decrease, is estimated by comparing three steady-state climate simulations: 1) 1979 greenhouse gas concentrations and 1979 ozone, II) 1990 greenhouse gas concentrations with 1979 ozone, and III) 1990 greenhouse gas concentrations with 1990 ozone. The simulated increase in surface air temperature resulting from nonozone greenhouse gases is 0.272 K. When changes in lower stratospheric ozone are included, the greenhouse warming is 0.165 K, which is approximately 39% lower than when ozone is fixed at the 1979 concentrations. Ozone perturbations at high latitudes result in a cooling of the surface-troposphere system that is greater (by a factor of 2.8) than that estimated from the change in radiative forcing resulting from ozone depiction and the model's 2 x CO, climate sensitivity. The results suggest that changes in meridional heat transport from low to high latitudes combined with the decrease in the infrared opacity of the lower stratosphere are very important in determining the steady-state response to high latitude ozone losses. The 39% compensation in greenhouse warming resulting from lower stratospheric ozone losses is also larger than the 28% compensation simulated previously by the lower resolution model. The higher resolution model is able to resolve the high latitude features of the assumed ozone perturbation, which are important in determining the overall climate sensitivity to these perturbations.

  6. Isolating the roles of different forcing agents in global stratospheric temperature changes using model integrations with incrementally added single forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquila, V.; Swartz, W. H.; Waugh, D. W.; Colarco, P. R.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2016-07-01

    Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979-2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979-1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991). The 1995-present period is characterized by decreasing ODS concentrations and by the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations increase over the whole time period. In order to isolate the roles of different forcing agents in the global stratospheric temperature changes, we performed a set of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model with prescribed sea surface temperatures. We find that in our model simulations the cooling of the stratosphere from 1979 to present is mostly driven by changes in GHG concentrations in the middle and upper stratosphere and by GHG and ODS changes in the lower stratosphere. While the cooling trend caused by increasing GHGs is roughly constant over the satellite era, changing ODS concentrations cause a significant stratospheric cooling only up to the mid-1990s, when they start to decrease because of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Sporadic volcanic events and the solar cycle have a distinct signature in the time series of stratospheric temperature anomalies but do not play a statistically significant role in the long-term trends from 1979 to 2014. Several factors combine to produce the step-like behavior in the stratospheric temperatures: in the lower stratosphere, the flattening starting in the mid-1990s is due to the decrease in ozone-depleting substances; Mount Pinatubo and the solar cycle cause the abrupt steps through the aerosol-associated warming and the volcanically induced ozone depletion. In the middle and upper stratosphere, changes in solar

  7. Microphysical and radiative changes in cirrus clouds by geoengineering the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, A.; Spichtinger, P.; Luo, B. P.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wernli, H.; Lohmann, U.; Peter, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the absence of tangible progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the implementation of solar radiation management has been suggested as measure to stop global warming. Here we investigate the impacts on northern midlatitude cirrus from continuous SO2emissions of 2-10 Mt/a in the tropical stratosphere. Transport of geoengineering aerosols into the troposphere was calculated along trajectories based on ERA Interim reanalyses using ozone concentrations to quantify the degree of mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air termed "troposphericity". Modeled size distributions of the geoengineered H2SO4-H2O droplets have been fed into a cirrus box model with spectral microphysics. The geoengineering is predicted to cause changes in ice number density by up to 50%, depending on troposphericity and cooling rate. We estimate the resulting cloud radiative effects from a radiation transfer model. Complex interplay between the few large stratospheric and many small tropospheric H2SO4-H2O droplets gives rise to partly counteracting radiative effects: local increases in cloud radiative forcing up to +2 W/m2for low troposphericities and slow cooling rates, and decreases up to -7.5 W/m2for high troposphericities and fast cooling rates. The resulting mean impact on the northern midlatitudes by changes in cirrus is predicted to be low, namely <1% of the intended radiative forcing by the stratospheric aerosols. This suggests that stratospheric sulphate geoengineering is unlikely to have large microphysical effects on the mean cirrus radiative forcing. However, this study disregards feedbacks, such as temperature and humidity changes in the upper troposphere, which must be examined separately.

  8. Oxygen Compounds in Saturn’s Stratosphere During the 2010 Northern Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesman, Brigette E.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P. G.

    2013-10-01

    The massive eruption at 40N (planetographic latitude) in December 2010 has produced significant and long-lived changes in temperature and species abundances in Saturn’s northern hemisphere (Hesman et al. 2012a, Fletcher et al. 2012). The northern storm region has been observed on many occasions between January 2011 and June of 2012 by Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). In this time period, temperatures in regions referred to as “beacons” (warm regions in the stratosphere at certain longitudes in the storm latitude) became significantly warmer than pre-storm values of 140K. In this period hydrocarbon emission greatly increased however this increased emission could not be attributed due to the temperature changes alone for many of these species (Hesman et al. 2012b, Bjoraker et al 2012). In order to build a comprehensive picture of the changes to the stratosphere due to the 2010 northern storm we are now investigating the oxygen compounds in Saturn’s stratosphere to determine if similar changes in these species were measured. The time evolution of stratospheric CO2 and H2O abundances in the beacon regions throughout 2011 and 2012 will be presented. References: Bjoraker, G., B.E. Hesman, R.K. Achterberg, P.N. Romani. 2012, “The Evolution of Hydrocarbons in Saturn’s Northern Storm Region,” AAS DPS Conference, Vol. 44, #403.05. Fletcher, L.N. et al. 2012, “The Origin and Evolution of Saturn’s 2011-2012 Stratospheric Vortex,” Icarus, 221, 560-586. Hesman, B.E. et al. 2012a, “Elusive Ethylene Detected in Saturn’s Northern Storm Region,” The Astrophysical Journal, 760, 24-30. Hesman, B.E. et al. 2012b, “Ethylene Emission in the Aftermath of Saturn’s 2010 Northern Storm,” AAS DPS Conference, Vol. 44, #403.06.

  9. OCS, stratospheric aerosols and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Hamill, P.

    1980-01-01

    Carbonyl sulphide (OCS) is found to be the predominant sulphur-bearing compound in our atmosphere1-3. It contributes to the formation of stratospheric sulphate aerosol particles4, which affect the Earth's radiation balance and climate5-7. Using recently obtained data, we estimate that OCS has a global source of ~5 tg per year (tg = 1012 g) and a lifetime of roughly 1 yr. We calculate that increasing anthropogenic emissions of OCS could cause measurable climate alterations within the next century. Numerous sources of OCS have been identified (see Fig. 1). Crutzen et al.8 estimate that natural and agricultural fires contribute 0.2-0.3 tg of OCS to the atmosphere each year. Adams et al.9 measured average OCS emission rates for a variety of common soils of about 0.004 g m-2 yr-1, which may be extrapolated to a global OCS source of nearly 0.5 tg yr-1. Adams et al.9 also noted OCS emissions several thousand times greater than average above saline marshes. Carbonyl sulphide has been detected near cattle feedlots in concentrations as high as 6,000 p.p.b.v.10. Volcanoes and fumaroles seem to represent a minor source of OCS (refs 11,12). We estimate that the direct contributions of biospheric processes to the OCS budget may be ~1 tg yr-1.

  10. Trends in stratospheric minor constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, R. S.; Chu, W. P.; Coffey, M. T.; Heaps, W. S.; Kaye, J. A.; Mccormick, M. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Photochemical models predict that increasing source gas concentrations are also expected to lead to changes in the concentrations of both catalytically active radical species (such as NO2, ClO, and OH) and inactive reservoir species (such as HNO3, HCl, and H2O). For simplicity, we will refer to all these as trace species. Those species that are expected to have increasing concentration levels are investigated. Additionally, the trace species concentration levels are monitored for unexpected changes on the basis of the measure increase in source gases. Carrying out these investigations is difficult due to the limited data base of measurements of stratospheric trace species. In situ measurements are made only infrequently, and there are few satelliteborne measurements, most over a time space insufficient for trend determination. Instead, ground-based measurements of column content must be used for many species, and interpretation is complicated by contributions from the troposphere or mesosphere or both. In this chapter, we examine existing measurements as published or tabulated.

  11. Curing of epoxy matrix composite in stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela

    Large structures for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories are needed for next stage of space exploitation. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the polymerization technology of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment. The polymerisation process is proposed for the material exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, space plasma, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The stratospheric flight experiments are directed to an investigation of the curing polymer matrix under the stratospheric conditions on. The unique combination of low atmospheric pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short wavelength UV and diurnal temperature variations associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. The first flight experiment with uncured composites was a part of the NASA scientific balloon flight program realised at the NASA stratospheric balloon station in Alice Springs, Australia. A flight cassette installed on payload was lifted with a “zero-pressure” stratospheric balloon filled with Helium. Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provided the launch, flight telemetry and landing of the balloon and payload. A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed 3 days in the stratosphere (40 km altitude). The second flight experiment was realised in South Australia in 2012, when the cassette was exposed in 27 km altitude. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the space irradiations are responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The first prepreg in the world was cured successfully in stratosphere. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

  12. The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss on Southern Hemisphere stratospheric circulation and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeble, J.; Braesicke, P.; Abraham, N. L.; Roscoe, H. K.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss resulting from chlorine activation on polar stratospheric clouds is examined using a pair of model integrations run with the fully coupled chemistry climate model UM-UKCA. Suppressing chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions is found to produce modelled ozone differences consistent with observed ozone differences between the present and pre-ozone hole period. Statistically significant high-latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) ozone loss begins in August and peaks in October-November, with > 75% of ozone destroyed at 50 hPa. Associated with this ozone destruction is a > 12 K decrease of the lower polar stratospheric temperatures and an increase of > 6 K in the upper stratosphere. The heating components of this temperature change are diagnosed and it is found that the temperature dipole is the result of decreased short-wave heating in the lower stratosphere and increased dynamical heating in the upper stratosphere. The cooling of the polar lower stratosphere leads, through thermal wind balance, to an acceleration of the polar vortex and delays its breakdown by ~ 2 weeks. A link between lower stratospheric zonal wind speed, the vertical component of the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux, Fz and the residual mean vertical circulation, w*, is identified. In November and December, increased westerly winds and a delay in the breakup of the polar vortex lead to increases in Fz, indicating increased wave activity entering the stratosphere and propagating to higher altitudes. The resulting increase in wave breaking, diagnosed by decreases to the EP flux divergence, drives enhanced downwelling over the polar cap. Many of the stratospheric signals modelled in this study propagate down to the troposphere, and lead to significant surface changes in December.

  13. Residual Circulation in the Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere as Diagnosed from Microwave Limb Sounder Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Crisp, David; Zurek, Richard; Elson, Lee; Fishbein, Evan; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe; Grainger, R. G.; Lambert, Alyn; Harwood, Robert; Peckham, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    northern winters analyzed in this study, strong downward velocities are diagnosed in the lower stratosphere during stratospheric warmings and are associated with enhanced wave forcing (computed as the momentum residual) in the mid- and upper stratosphere. The implications of the computed circulation for the distribution of tracers are illustrated by the example of the `double-peaked' structure in the water vapor distribution measured by MLS.

  14. Temperature trends and interannual variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: connections with sea surface temperatures and implications for water vapor and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim; Waugh, Darryn; Oman, Luke; Wang, Lei; Hurwitz, Margaret

    2014-05-01

    Satellite data and chemistry-climate models are used to investigate the forcing of variability in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. The observations show significant zonal variations in the in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) tropical temperature trends (with largest UT warming and LS cooling over the Indo-Pacific region). Chemistry-climate models (CCMs) are used to demonstrate that SST trends are driving the zonal asymmetry, and that the anomalous circulation set up by the changing SSTs has led to zonal structure in the ozone and water vapor trends near the tropopause, and subsequently to less water vapor entering the stratosphere. CCM experiments are also used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of SSTs dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino, with response varying with season and between different variants of the El Nino. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the central and eastern El Nino events is around 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  15. The fate of stratospheric potential vorticity cutoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portmann, Raphael; Crezee, Bas; Quinting, Julian; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric cutoffs of potential vorticity (PV) frequently form through non-linear breaking of Rossby waves in mid-latitudes. Through destabilisation of the tropospheric layers beneath, they can trigger convection. Alternatively, through their induced horizontal advection they can produce intense precipitation events near topography and in regions with a background baroclinicity. PV cutoff lifecycles show high variability: their lifetime ranges between 1 and more than 10 days and the end of the lifecycle can occur through diabatic decay - leading to stratosphere-troposphere exchange - or re-absorption by the polar stratospheric reservoir. The relative frequency of these two processes is however unclear, as is the quantitative link between cutoffs and convective and large-scale precipitation. Two case studies are performed by using ECMWF analysis data, backward trajectories and radio soundings to look in detail at the processes involved in the diabatic decay. It is found that latent heating in convective updrafts - and the associated cross-isentropic transport of low PV air - largely explains the diabatic decay of the cutoffs. Using a tracking algorithm we produce an ERA-Interim cutoff climatology that provides information about the statistics of the cutoff lifetime and the relative frequency of stratospheric re-absorption versus diabatic decay. In addition, we track atmospheric stability and total column water beneath the cutoffs in order to investigate why certain cutoffs decay faster than others. The results contribute to a better understanding of the lifecycle of PV cutoffs and a particular process of stratosphere-troposphere exchange.

  16. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document presents a second report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). This document presents a second report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent United Nations Environment Program scientific assessment has shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA was designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This second report presents the status of the ongoing research as reported by the principal investigators at the second annual AESA Program meeting in May 1992: Laboratory studies are probing the mechanism responsible for many of the heterogeneous reactions that occur on stratospheric particles. Understanding how the atmosphere redistributes aircraft exhaust is critical to our knowing where the perturbed air will go and for how long it will remain in the stratosphere. The assessment of fleet effects is dependent on the ability to develop scenarios which correctly simulate fleet operations.

  17. Cloud formation, convection, and stratospheric dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Wang, Tao; Avery, Melody A.; Jensen, Eric J.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis winds, temperatures, and anvil cloud ice, we use our domain-filling, forward trajectory model combined with a new cloud module to show that convective transport of saturated air and ice to altitudes below the tropopause has a significant impact on stratospheric water vapor and upper tropospheric clouds. We find that including cloud microphysical processes (rather than assuming that parcel water vapor never exceeds saturation) increases the lower stratospheric average H2O by 10-20%. Our model-computed cloud fraction shows reasonably good agreement with tropical upper troposphere (TUT) cloud frequency observed by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument in boreal winter with poorer agreement in summer. Our results suggest that over 40% of TUT cirrus is due to convection, and it is the saturated air from convection rather than injected cloud ice that primarily contributes to this increase. Convection can add up to 13% more water to the stratosphere. With just convective hydration (convection adds vapor up to saturation), the global lower stratospheric modeled water vapor is close to Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Adding convectively injected ice increases the modeled water vapor to ~8% over observations. Improving the representation of MERRA tropopause temperatures fields reduces stratospheric water vapor by ~4%.

  18. Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Mackinnon, Ian D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Platey grains of cubic Bi2O3, alpha-Bi2O3, and Bi2O(2.75), nanograins were associated with chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles W7029C1, W7029E5, and 2011C2 that were collected in the stratosphere at 17-19 km altitude. Similar Bi oxide nanograins were present in the upper stratosphere during May 1985. These grains are linked to the plumes of several major volcanic eruptions during the early 1980s that injected material into the stratosphere. The mass of sulfur from these eruptions is a proxy for the mass of stratospheric Bi from which we derive the particle number densities (p/cu m) for "average Bi2O3 nanograins" due to this volcanic activity and those necessary to contaminate the extraterrestrial chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles via collisional sticking. The match between both values supports the idea that Bi2O3 nanograins of volcanic origin could contaminate interplanetary dust particles in the Earth's stratosphere.

  19. An exploration of Saturn's stratospheric dynamics through Global Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Aymeric; Guerlet, Sandrine; Indurain, Mikel; Millour, Ehouarn; Sylvestre, Mélody; Thierry, Fouchet; Meurdesoif, Yann; Thomas, Dubos

    2014-11-01

    A decade of Cassini observations has yielded a new vision on the dynamical phenomena in Saturn's troposphere and stratosphere. Several puzzling signatures (equatorial oscillations with a period of about half a Saturn year, interhemispheric circulations affecting the hydrocarbons’ distribution, including possible effects of rings shadowing, sudden warming associated with the powerful 2010 Great White Spot) cannot be explained by current photochemical and radiative models, which do not include dynamics. We therefore suspect that 1. the observed anomalies arise from large-scale dynamical circulations and 2. those large-scale dynamical motions are driven by atmospheric waves, eddies, and convection, in other words fundamental mechanisms giving birth to, e.g., the Quasi-Biennal Oscillation and Brewer-Dobson circulation in the Earth’s middle atmosphere. We explore the plausibility of this scenario using our new Global Climate Modeling (GCM) for Saturn. To build this model, we firstly formulated dedicated physical parameterizations for Saturn’s atmosphere, with a particular emphasis on radiative computations (using a correlated-k radiative transfer model, with radiative species and spectral discretization tailored for Saturn) aimed at both efficiency and accuracy, and validated them against existing Cassini observations. A second step consisted in coupling this radiative model to an hydrodynamical solver to predict the three-dimensional evolution of Saturn's tropospheric and stratospheric flow. We will provide an analysis of the first results of those dynamical simulations, with a focus on the development of baroclinic and barotropic instability, on eddy vs. mean flow interactions, and how this could relate to the enigmatic signatures observed by Cassini. Preliminary high-resolution simulations with a new icosahedral dynamical solver adapted to high-performance computing will also be analyzed. Perspectives are twofold: firstly, broadening our fundamental knowledge

  20. Tropospheric- Stratospheric Measurement Studies Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Stuart W.

    1998-01-01

    The two high altitude aircraft, ER-2 NASA #706 and 709 and the DC-8 NASA #717 are in active use in several programs of upper atmospheric research to study polar ozone changes, stratospheric-tropospheric exchange processes and atmospheric effects of aviation aircraft. The ER-2 has participated in seven major missions which mainly concentrated on vortex dynamics and the large losses of Ozone in the Polar regions (Ozone hole) observed in the spring. One mission verified the complex dynamical chemical and physical processes that occur during sunrise and sunset. Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) obtained background measurements using the full ER-2 suite of instruments. Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) in 1997 assisted in understanding the mid-latitude and Arctic Ozone losses during the Northern Summer. The DC-8 with the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) has participated in the Subsonic Aircraft: Cloud and Contrail Effects Special Study (SUCCESS), in 1996 and the Subsonic assessment Ozone and Nitrogen oxide experiment (SONEX) in 1997 missions. The MMS with its sophisticated software accurately measures ground speed and attitude, in-situ static and dynamic pressure total temperature, which are used to calculate the three dimensional wind fields, static pressure, temperature and turbulence values to meteorological accuracy. The meteorological data is not only of interest for its own sake in atmospheric dynamical processes such as mountain waves and flux measurements; but is also required by other ER-2 experiments that simultaneously measure water vapor, O3, aerosols, NO, HCl, CH4, N2O, ClO, BrO, CO2, NOy, HOx and temperature gradients. MMS products are extensively used to assist in the interpretation of their results in understanding the importance of convective effects relative to in-situ chemical changes, as may be noted by examining the list of references attached. The MMS consists of three subsystems: (a

  1. Nitrogen compounds in Titan's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Cirs Investigation Team

    Titan's atmosphere is essentially composed of molecular nitrogen (N2). The chemistry between the two mother molecules (N2 and CH4) leads to the formation of a certain number of nitriles observed in Titan's stratosphere as early as at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter in 1980. In the spectra taken by the Infrared Radiometer Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) the signatures of HCN, HC3N, C2N2 and C4N2 (in solid form) were found and reported. Subsequent observations from the ground better described the vertical profiles of these constituents and allowed for the detection of CH3CN (acetonitrile) in the mm range [3,4]. Recent data recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft during the Titan flybys (October 2004 - June 2006) give a handle on the temporal and latitudinal variations of these constituents. The nadir spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 85°S to 75°N with a variety of emission angles. We study the emission observed in the mid-infrared CIRS detector arrays (covering roughly the 600-1500 cm-1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm-1 ). The composite spectrum shows several molecular signatures of nitriles. Information is retrieved on the meridional variations of the trace constituents and tied to predictions by dynamical-photochemical models [1,2,5]. The nitriles show a significant enhancement at high northern latitudes albeit not as marked as at the time of the Voyager encounter. We will give a review of our current understanding of the minor nitrile chemistry on Titan. References : [1] Coustenis et al., 2006. Icarus, in press. [2] Flasar et al., 2005. Science 308, 975. [3] Marten, A., et al., 2002, Icarus, 158, 532-544. [4] Marten, A. & Moreno, R., 2003. 35th Annual DPS Meeting, Monterey, Ca, BAAS, 35, 952. [5] Teanby et al., 2006. Icarus, 181, 243-255.

  2. Forced Planetary Waves, Stratospheric Ozone, and Critical Layers: Ingredients for the Stratospheric Forcing of the Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, T.; Cordero, E.

    2002-12-01

    Forced planetary waves generally extend throughout the troposphere and stratosphere and thus provide an important link between these two regions of the atmosphere. Because these planetary waves originate from mechanical and thermal forcing in the troposphere, planetary wave energy propagates upward into the stratosphere where momentum deposition via wave damping drives the zonal-mean stratospheric circulation. At the heart of this troposphere-stratosphere paradigm, wherein the troposphere forces the stratosphere, is the momentum deposition associated with the wave damping. Here we present striking evidence showing that the interactions between ozone and the planetary waves not only affects the wave damping rate, but the interactions also produce changes in planetary wave structure and planetary wave fluxes that radiate downward into the troposphere. Using analytical (WKB) and one-dimensional numerical modeling approaches, we show that there is a sensitive and intimate connection among the background flow, ozone, and forced planetary wave field in the stratosphere, a connection that in some cases leads to significant changes in the tropospheric wave fluxes. We find that this connection and thus the stratospheric forcing of the troposphere are dramatically strengthened if the critical level and the maximum in ozone advection are approximately coincident. Such conditions are most often met during Northern Hemisphere spring and summer. We also discuss these results in light of changes in ozone arising from natural (e.g., 11-year solar cycle) and anthropogenic (e.g., chlorofluorocarbons) perturbations.

  3. Long-term changes in the relationship between stratospheric circulation and East Asian Winter Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, K.

    2015-12-01

    Using two generations of reanalysis datasets from the NCAR, ECMWF, and JMA, we showed that on the interannual timescale the two leading modes of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) are associated with tropospheric annular mode (AM) and stratospheric polar vortex (SPV), respectively. The relationship between AM and the first EAWM mode remained stable during 1958 to 2013, whereas that between SPV and the second EAWM mode increased since the late 1980s. The SPV-related circulation and planetary wave activities are intensified in the latter period. We suggested that this change might be caused by the global warming and ozone depletion.

  4. Evidence for an earlier greenhouse cooling effect in the stratosphere before the 1980s over the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, C. S.; Tourpali, K.; Zanis, P.; Eleftheratos, K.; Repapis, C.; Goodman, A.; Wuebbles, D.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Luterbacher, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a new look at the observed and calculated long-term temperature changes since 1958 for the region extending from the lower troposphere up to the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. The analysis is mainly based on monthly layer mean temperatures derived from geopotential height thicknesses between specific pressure levels. Layer mean temperatures from thickness improve homogeneity in both space and time and reduce uncertainties in the trend analysis. Datasets used include the NCEP/NCAR I reanalysis, the Free University of Berlin (FU-Berlin) and the RICH radiosonde datasets as well as historical simulations with the CESM1-WACCM global model participating in CMIP5. After removing the natural variability with an autoregressive multiple regression model our analysis shows that the time interval of our study 1958-2011 can be divided in two distinct sub-periods of long term temperature variability and trends; before and after 1980s. By calculating trends for the summer time to reduce interannual variability, the two periods are as follows. From 1958 until 1979, non-significant trends or slight cooling trends prevail in the lower troposphere (0.06 ± 0.06 °C decade-1 for NCEP and -0.12 ± 0.06 °C decade-1 for RICH). The second period from 1980 to the end of the records shows significant warming trends (0.25 ± 0.05 °C decade-1 for both NCEP and RICH). Above the tropopause a persistent cooling trend is clearly seen in the lower stratosphere both in the pre-1980s period (-0.58 ± 0.17 °C decade-1 for NCEP, -0.30 ± 0.16 °C decade-1 for RICH and -0.48 ± 0.20 °C decade-1 for FU-Berlin) and the post-1980s period (-0.79 ± 0.18 °C decade-1 for NCEP, -0.66 ± 0.16 °C decade-1 for RICH and -0.82 ± 0.19 °C decade-1 for FU-Berlin). The cooling in the lower stratosphere is a persistent feature from the tropics up to 60 north for all months. At polar latitudes competing dynamical and radiative processes are reducing the statistical

  5. The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss on Southern Hemisphere stratospheric circulation and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeble, J.; Braesicke, P.; Abraham, N. L.; Roscoe, H. K.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss resulting from chlorine activation on polar stratospheric clouds is examined using a pair of model integrations run with the fully coupled chemistry climate model UM-UKCA. Suppressing chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions is found to produce modelled ozone differences consistent with observed ozone differences between the present and pre-ozone hole period. Statistically significant high latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) ozone loss begins in August and peaks in October-November, with >75% of ozone destroyed at 50 hPa. Associated with this ozone destruction is a >12 K decrease of the lower polar stratospheric temperatures and an increase of >6 K in the upper stratosphere. The heating components of this temperature change are diagnosed and it is found that the temperature dipole is the result of decreased shortwave heating in the lower stratosphere and increased dynamical heating in the upper stratosphere. The cooling of the polar lower stratosphere leads, through thermal wind balance, to an acceleration of the polar vortex and delays its breakdown by ~2 weeks. A link between lower stratospheric zonal wind speed, the vertical component of the EP flux, Fz, and the residual mean vertical circulation, w*, is identified. In December and January, increased westerly winds lead to increases in Fz, associated with an increase in tropopause height. The resulting increase in wavebreaking leads to enhanced downwelling/reduced upwelling over the polar cap. Many of the stratospheric signals modelled in this study propagate down to the troposphere, and lead to significant surface changes in December.

  6. Lower Stratospheric Measurement Issues Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeltekopf, Arthur L.

    1992-01-01

    The Lower Stratospheric Measurement Issues workshop was held on 17-19 Oct. 1990. The 3-day workshop was sponsored by the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of the High Speed Research Program (HSRP). Its purpose was to provide a scientific forum for addressing specific issues regarding chemistry and transport in the lower stratosphere, for which measurements are essential to an assessment of the environmental impact of a projected fleet of high speed civil transports (HSCTs). The objective of the workshop was to obtain vigorous and critical review of the following topics: (1) atmospheric measurements needed for the assessment; (2) present capability for making those measurements; and (3) areas in instrumentation or platform development essential to making the measurements.

  7. Sources of particulates in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, E. Keith

    2011-10-01

    The dominant forms of particles collected at altitudes of 39, 42 and 45km during three balloon flights over Australia were aggregates having components with diameters typically 40 to 50nm. Their partial electron transparency suggested an organic composition and all were accompanied by a volatile liquid that could be stabilised by reaction with a thin copper film. They closely resembled particles called "fluffy micrometeorites" collected earlier in the mesosphere from rockets and their properties were consistent with those of particles collected from a comet by a recent spacecraft experiment. Particles in the upper stratosphere included some that resembled viruses and cocci, the latter being one of the organisms cultured from upper stratospheric air in a recent experiment. A plausible source of the stratospheric, mesospheric and cometary aggregates is consistent with the "panspermia" theory, that microorganisms present in space at the birth of the solar system could have reproduced in water within comets and brought life to Earth.

  8. Minor constituents in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the research in minor constituents in the stratosphere and mesosphere, carried out between 1975 and 1978, is presented. Much of the theoretical research was done with the aid of one-dimensional models. Different aspects of these models are discussed. Measurements of the chlorofluoromethanes, hydrochloric acid, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen oxide were conducted. It is noted that the hydrogen oxides are now assuming a larger role in stratospheric photochemistry than have been postulated before. The effect of water vapor and the hydrogen oxides on the overall chemistry of the stratosphere was investigated theoretically, along with the possible relationship between solar activity and atmospheric ozone. The mesosphere study included ozone, water vapor, nitric oxide, and odd nitrogen investigations.

  9. Measurements of Chlorine Partitioning in the Winter Arctic Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachnik, R.; Salawitch, R.; Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    1999-01-01

    Under the extremely cold conditions in the polar winter stratosphere, heterogeneous reactions involving HCl and CIONO(sub 2) on the surfaces of polar stratospheric cloud particles can release large amounts of reactive chlorine from these reservoirs leading to rapid chemical loss of ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during late winter and early spring.

  10. Improved Stratospheric Temperature Retrievals for Climate Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokke, L.; Joiner, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is embarking on plans to generate a twenty year reanalysis data set of climatic atmospheric variables. One of the focus points will be in the evaluation of the dynamics of the stratosphere. The Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU), flown as part of the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), is one of the primary stratospheric temperature sensors flown consistently throughout the reanalysis period. Seven unique sensors made the measurements over time, with individual instrument characteristics that need to be addressed. The stratospheric temperatures being assimilated across satellite platforms will profoundly impact the reanalysis dynamical fields. To attempt to quantify aspects of instrument and retrieval bias we are carefully collecting and analyzing all available information on the sensors, their instrument anomalies, forward model errors and retrieval biases. For the retrieval of stratospheric temperatures, we adapted the minimum variance approach of Jazwinski (1970) and Rodgers (1976) and applied it to the SSU soundings. In our algorithm, the state vector contains an initial guess of temperature from a model six hour forecast provided by the Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System (GEOS/DAS). This is combined with an a priori covariance matrix, a forward model parameterization, and specifications of instrument noise characteristics. A quasi-Newtonian iteration is used to obtain convergence of the retrieved state to the measurement vector. This algorithm also enables us to analyze and address the systematic errors associated with the unique characteristics of the cell pressures on the individual SSU instruments and the resolving power of the instruments to vertical gradients in the stratosphere. The preliminary results of the improved retrievals and their assimilation as well as baseline calculations of bias and rms error between the NESDIS operational product and col-located ground measurements will be presented.

  11. The Chemistry and Physics of Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Randall R.

    Perhaps no other environmental issue has captured as much widespread public interest and concern as stratospheric ozone depletion due to man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Increasing scientific understanding of the connections between CFCs and global-scale ozone changes, highlighted by observations of dramatic ozone loss in the Antarctic, has led to a landmark international treaty and subsequent treaty amendments. As outgrowths of these developments, stratospheric ozone depletion has found its way into science fiction fare and the term “ozone hole” has become part of the English lexicon.

  12. On the Stratospheric Chemistry of Hydrogen Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinbohl, Armin; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Sen, Bhaswar; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Strekowski, Rafal S.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Wine, Paul H.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2006-01-01

    HCN profiles measured by solar occultation spectrometry during 10 balloon flights of the JPL MkIV instrument are presented. The HCN profiles reveal a compact correlation with stratospheric tracers. Calculations with a 2D-model using established rate coefficients for the reactions of HCN with OH and O(1D) severely underestimate the measured HCN in the middle and upper stratosphere. The use of newly available rate coefficients for these reactions gives reasonable agreement of measured and modeled HCN. An HCN yield of approx.30% from the reaction of CH3CN with OH is consistent with the measurements.

  13. Stratospheric air sampling platform/sensor tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Page, W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a study are described in which in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation are considered for accommodation on airborne platforms capable of reaching stratospheric altitudes. The instrumentation measures trace species of importance to present concerns regarding stratospheric pollution and possible ozone depletion. The platforms examined were the U-2, modified U-2, balloon, rocket, F-15 flown in a zoom-climb maneuver, YF-12, and remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The sensors and performance characteristics of the platforms are described and special problems of sensor-platform integration are discussed. A typical latitudinal sampling mission is utilized to describe platform logistics problems and how the platforms might perform such missions.

  14. Advanced laser stratospheric monitoring systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the software support supplied by Systems and Applied Sciences Corporation for the study of Advanced Laser Stratospheric Monitoring Systems Analyses under contract No. NAS1-15806. This report discusses improvements to the Langley spectroscopic data base, development of LHS instrument control software and data analyses and validation software. The effect of diurnal variations on the retrieved concentrations of NO, NO2 and C L O from a space and balloon borne measurement platform are discussed along with the selection of optimum IF channels for sensing stratospheric species from space.

  15. Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

  16. Equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, David P.; Magalhaes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of radio occultation data from Voyager 2 have led to the discovery and characterization of an equatorial wave in the Uranus stratosphere. The observed quasi-periodic vertical atmospheric density variations are in close agreement with theoretical predictions for a wave that propagates vertically through the observed background structure of the stratosphere. Quantitative comparisons between measurements obtained at immersion and at emersion yielded constraints on the meridional and zonal structure of the wave; the fact that the two sets of measurements are correlated suggests a wave of planetary scale. Two equatorial wave models are proposed for the wave.

  17. SSTs, nitrogen fertiliser and stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.; Poppoff, I. G.; Capone, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A recently revised model of the stratosphere is used to show that a substantial enhancement in the ozone layer could accompany worldwide SST fleet operations and that water vapor may be an important factor in SST assessments. Revised rate coefficients for various ozone-destroying reactions are employed in calculations which indicate a slight increase in the total content of stratospheric ozone for modest-sized fleets of SSTs flying below about 25 km. It is found that water-vapor chemical reactions can negate in large part the NOx-induced ozone gains computed below 25 km and that increased use of nitrogen fertilizer might also enhance the ozone layer.

  18. Incorporation of stratospheric acids into water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Scott; Turco, Richard P.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are absorbed within the water ice lattice at mole fractions maximizing below 0.00001 and 0.0001 in a variety of solid impurity studies. The absorption mechanism may be substitutional or interstitial, leading in either case to a weak permeation of stratospheric ices by the acids at equilibrium. Impurities could also inhabit grain boundaries, and the acid content of atmospheric ice crystals will then depend on details of their surface and internal microstructures. Limited evidence indicates similar properties for the absorption of HNO3. Water ice lattices saturated with acid cannot be a significant local reservoir for HCl in the polar stratosphere.

  19. STROZ LITE - Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Thomas J.; Whiteman, David; Ferrare, Richard; Burris, John F.; Butler, James J.

    1991-01-01

    A mobile dual-wavelength differential absorption lidar capable of making precise measurements of stratospheric ozone between 20 and 45 km has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center as part of the international Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change. The system is installed in a 46-ft trailer, which enables the instrument to act as a network transfer standard and to be set up at any location where power can be obtained. A description of the instrument is presented, along with a discussion of the data analysis. Some results from an intercomparison held at JPL's Table Mountain Observatory in California during October and November 1988 are also presented.

  20. Large-scale dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere during the MAP/WINE campaign winter 1983 to 1984 in comparison with other winters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzoldt, K.

    1989-01-01

    For the MAP/WINE winter temperature and wind measurements of rockets were combined with SSU radiances (Stratospheric Sounder Unit onboard the NOAA satellites) and stratopause heights from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) to get a retrieved data set including all available information. By means of this data set a hemispheric geopotential height, temperature and geostrophic wind fields eddy transports for wave mean flow interaction and potential vorticity for the interpretation of nonlinear wave breaking could be computed. Wave reflection at critical lines was investigated with respect of stratospheric warmings. The meridional gradient of the potential vorticity and focusing of wave activity is compared with derived data from satellite observations during other winters.

  1. Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Naik, Rakhi

    2015-06-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in warm AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of warm AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology.

  2. Possible methane-induced polar warming in the early Eocene.

    PubMed

    Sloan, L C; Walker, J C; Moore, T C; Rea, D K; Zachos, J C

    1992-05-28

    Reconstructions of early Eocene climate depict a world in which the polar environments support mammals and reptiles, deciduous forests, warm oceans and rare frost conditions. At the same time, tropical sea surface temperatures are interpreted to have been the same as or slightly cooler than present values. The question of how to warm polar regions of Earth without noticeably warming the tropics remains unresolved; increased amounts of greenhouse gases would be expected to warm all latitudes equally. Oceanic heat transport has been postulated as a mechanism for heating high latitudes, but it is difficult to explain the dynamics that would achieve this. Here we consider estimates of Eocene wetland areas and suggest that the flux of methane, an important greenhouse gas, may have been substantially greater during the Eocene than at present. Elevated methane concentrations would have enhanced early Eocene global warming, and also might specifically have prevented severe winter cooling of polar regions because of the potential of atmospheric methane to promote the formation of optically thick, polar stratospheric ice clouds.

  3. Modeling the effects of UV variability and the QBO on the troposphere-stratosphere system. Part II: The troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Rind, D.; Balachandran, N.K.

    1995-08-01

    Results of experiments with a GCM involving changes in UV input ({plus_minus} 25%, {plus_minus}5% at wavelengths below 0.3 {mu}) and simulated equatorial QBO are presented, with emphasis on the tropospheric response. The QBO and UV changes alter the temperature in the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere warms, tropospheric eddy energy is reduced, leading to extratropical tropospheric cooling of some 0.5{degrees}C on the zonal average, and surface temperature changes up to {plus_minus}5{degrees}C locally. Opposite effects occur when the extratropical lower stratosphere/upper troposphere cools. Cooling or warming of the comparable region in the Tropics decreases/increases static stability, accelerating/decelerating the Hadley circulation. Tropospheric dynamical changes are on the order of 5%. The combined UV/QBO effect in the troposphere results from its impact on the middle atmosphere; in the QBO east phase, more energy is refracted to higher latitudes, due to the increased horizontal shear of the zonal wind, but with increased UV, this energy propagates preferentially out of the polar lower stratosphere, in response to the increased vertical shear of the zonal winds; therefore, it is less effective in warming the polar lower stratosphere. Due to their impacts on planetary wave generation and propagation, all combinations of UV and QBO phases affect the longitudinal patterns of tropospheric temperatures and geopotential heights. The modeled perturbations often agree qualitatively with observations and are of generally similar orders of magnitude. The results are sensitive to the forcing employed. In particular, the nature of the tropospheric response depends upon the magnitude (and presumably wavelength) of the solar irradiance perturbation. The results of the smaller UV variations ({plus_minus}5%) are more in agreement with observations, showing clear differences between the UV impact in the east and west QBO phase. 34 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  5. Waves and eddies simulated by high-resolution Global Climate Modeling of Saturn's troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, A.; Guerlet, S.; Meurdesoif, Y.; Indurain, M.; Millour, E.; Dubos, T.; Sylvestre, M.; Leconte, J.; Fouchet, T.

    2015-10-01

    Context The Cassini spacecraft, orbiting the Saturn's system since 2004, opened a new era for giant planets' exploration (1), and recently revealed that Saturn's hazy atmosphere is as dynamically active as Jupiter's colorful one. The longevity of the mission permitted a detailed analysis of tropospheric storms(2); an exceptionally detailed coverage of Saturn's great northern storm of 2010-2011, which eventually encircled the entire planet for months, and caused a sudden warming in the stratosphere (3); an assessment of the remarkable stability of the hexagonal polar jet (4); the seasonal monitoring of Saturn's equatorial oscillation (5), helping to build the analogy with the Quasi-Biennal Oscillation in the Earth's stratosphere (and a putative Quasi-Quadriennal Equatorial Oscillation in the jovian equatorial atmosphere). Those puzzling signatures in the stratosphere add to the outstanding questions related to the alternated jets structure in Saturn's troposphere: do jets' extent and forcing are deep in the interior, or confined to the weather layer? Are jets driven by sunlight or internal heat? Why such a strong prograde equatorial jet in Saturn?

  6. Investigating Type I Polar Stratospheric Cloud Formation Mechanisms with POAM Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Drdla, K.; Fromm, M.; Hoppel, K.; Browell, E.; Hamill, P.; Dempsey, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Type Ia PSCs are believed to be composed of nitric acid hydrate particles. Recent results from the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign showed evidence that this type of PSC was composed of a small number of very large particles capable of sedimentary denitrification of regions of the stratosphere. It is unknown whether homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation is responsible for the formation of these PSCs. Arctic winters are tending to be colder in response to global tropospheric warming. The degree to which this influences ozone depletion will depend on the freezing mechanism of nitric acid hydrate particles. If nucleation is homogeneous it implies that the freezing process is an inherent property of the particle, while heterogeneous freezing means that the extent of PSCs will depend in part on the number of nuclei available. The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM)II and III satellites have been making observations of stratospheric aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) since 1994. Recently, we have developed a technique that can discriminate between Type Ia and Ib PSCs using these observations. A statistical approach is employed to demonstrate the robustness of this approach and results are compared with lidar measurements. The technique is used to analyze observations from POAM II and II during Northern Hemisphere winters where significant PSC formation occurred with the objective of exploring Type I PSC formation mechanisms. The different PSCs identified using this method exhibit different growth curve as expressed as extinction versus temperature.

  7. Fiber-Optic Coupled Lidar Receiver System to Measure Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, David Brent; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of ozone in the atmosphere has become increasingly important over the past two decades. Significant increases of ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere, or troposphere, and decreases in the upper atmosphere, or stratosphere, have been attributed to man-made causes. High ozone concentrations in the troposphere pose a health hazard to plants and animals and can add to global warming. On the other hand, ozone in the stratosphere serves as a protective barrier against strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Man-made CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons) act as a catalyst with a free oxygen atom and an ozone molecule to produce two oxygen molecules therefore depleting the protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere. The beneficial and harmful effects of ozone require the study of ozone creation and destruction processes in the atmosphere. Therefore, to provide an accurate model of these processes, an ozone lidar system must be able to be used frequently with as large a measurement range as possible. Various methods can be used to measure atmospheric ozone concentrations. These include different airborne and balloon measurements, solar occulation satellite techniques, and the use of lasers in lidar (high detection and ranging,) systems to probe the atmosphere. Typical devices such as weather balloons can only measure within the direct vicinity of the instrument and are therefore used infrequently. Satellites use solar occulation techniques that yield low horizontal and vertical resolution column densities of ozone.

  8. International Conference on Problems Related to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The conference focused on four main areas of investigation: laboratory studies and stratospheric chemistry and constituents, sources for and chemical budget of stratospheric halogen compounds, sources for and chemical budget of stratospheric nitrous oxide, and the dynamics of decision making on regulation of potential pollutants of the stratosphere. Abstracts of the scientific sessions of the conference as well as complete transcriptions of the panel discussions on sources for an atmospheric budget of holocarbons and nitrous oxide are included. The political, social and economic issues involving regulation of potential stratospheric pollutants were examined extensively.

  9. Recent Increases in Stratospheric HCl: Stratospheric Dynamics versus the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Notholt, Justus

    2014-05-01

    Long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and cause ozone depletion. Increases in chlorine during the 1970s-1990s resulted in long-term ozone decreases, especially in the polar regions. Following the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the near-surface chlorine loading was observed to peak in 1993 and, since then, to decrease in line with expectations. After release from source gases in the stratosphere, chlorine mainly forms the reservoir HCl, providing an alternative method for monitoring the progress of the Montreal Protocol. A maximum in stratospheric HCl was observed around 1996, followed by decay at a rate close to 1%/year, consistent with the tropospheric chlorine peak and known transport timescales. However, we will present total column observations from ground-based FTIR instruments which show an unexpected and significant upturn in stratospheric HCl around 2007 in the northern hemisphere. Height-resolved observations from satellite instruments (HALOE, MLS, ACE) confirm this increase and show that it occurs in the lower stratosphere. These observations contrast with the ongoing monotonic decrease of near-surface chlorine source gases. Using 3-D model simulations (TOMCAT/SLIMCAT and KASIMA) we attribute this trend anomaly to a slowdown in the NH atmospheric circulation, causing air in the lower stratosphere to become more aged with a larger relative conversion of source gases to HCl. An important conclusion is that the Montreal Protocol is still on track and will still lead to long-term decreases in stratospheric chlorine. This dynamical variability could also significantly affect the evolution of stratospheric ozone and must be accounted for when searching for signs of ozone recovery.

  10. Thermal maps of Jupiter - Spatial organization and time dependence of stratospheric temperatures, 1980 to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Friedson, A. James; Baines, Kevin H.; Martin, Terry Z.; West, Robert A.; Caldwell, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Bergstralh, Jay T.; Malcolm, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial organization and time dependence of Jupiter's stratospheric temperatures have been measured by observing thermal emission from the 7.8-micrometer CH4 band. These temperatures, observed through the greater part of a Jovian year, exhibit the influence of seasonal radiative forcing. Distinct bands of high temperature are located at the poles and midlatitudes, while the equator alternates between warm and cold with a period of approximately 4 years. Substantial longitudinal variability is often observed within the warm midlatitude bands, and occasionally elsewhere on the planet. This variability includes small, localized structures, as well as large-scale waves with wavelengths longer than about 30,000 kilometers. The amplitudes of the waves vary on a time scale of about 1 month; structures on a smaller scale may have lifetimes of only days. Waves observed in 1985, 1987, and 1988 propagated with group velocities less than + or - 30 meters/sec.

  11. Ozone depletion and global warming potentials of CF3I

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, S.; Burkholder, J.B.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Garcia, R.R. |

    1994-10-01

    Laboratory measurements of the infrared and near-ultraviolet absorption characteristics of CF3I (a potentially useful substitute for halons) are presented. Using these data together with a detailed photochemical model, it is shown that the lifetime of this gas in the sunlit atmosphere is less than a day. The chemistry of iodine in the stratosphere is evaluated, and it is shown that any iodine that reaches the stratosphere will be very effective for ozone destruction there. However, the extremely short lifetime of CF3I greatly limits its transport to the stratosphere when released at the surface, especially at midlatitudes, and the total anthropogenic surface release of CF3I is likely to be far less than that of natural iodocarbons such as CH3I on a global basis. It is highly probable that the steady-state ozone depletion potential (ODP) of CF3I for surface releases is less than 0.008 and more likely below 0.0001. Measured infrared absorption data are also combined with the lifetime to show that the 20-year global warming potential (GWP) of this gas is likely to be very small, less than 5. Therefore, this study suggests that neither the ODP nor the GWP of this gas represent significant obstacles to its use as a replacement for halons.

  12. Stratospheric lifetime ratio of CFC-11 and CFC-12 from satellite and model climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Hoppe, C. M.; Müller, R.; Dutton, G. S.; Gille, J. C.; Griessbach, S.; Jones, A.; Meyer, C. I.; Spang, R.; Volk, C. M.; Walker, K. A.

    2014-11-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) play a key role in stratospheric ozone loss and are strong infrared absorbers that contribute to global warming. The stratospheric lifetimes of CFCs are a measure of their stratospheric loss rates that are needed to determine global warming and ozone depletion potentials. We applied the tracer-tracer correlation approach to zonal mean climatologies from satellite measurements and model data to assess the lifetimes of CFCl3 (CFC-11) and CF2Cl2 (CFC-12). We present estimates of the CFC-11/CFC-12 lifetime ratio and the absolute lifetime of CFC-12, based on a reference lifetime of 52 years for CFC-11. We analyzed climatologies from three satellite missions, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). We found a CFC-11/CFC-12 lifetime ratio of 0.47±0.08 and a CFC-12 lifetime of 112(96-133) years for ACE-FTS, a ratio of 0.46±0.07 and a lifetime of 113(97-134) years for HIRDLS, and a ratio of 0.46±0.08 and a lifetime of 114(98-136) years for MIPAS. The error-weighted, combined CFC-11/CFC-12 lifetime ratio is 0.46±0.04 and the CFC-12 lifetime estimate is 113(103-124) years. These results agree with the recent Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) reassessment, which recommends lifetimes of 52(43-67) years and 102(88-122) years, respectively. Having smaller uncertainties than the results from other recent studies, our estimates can help to better constrain CFC-11 and CFC-12 lifetime recommendations in future scientific studies and assessments. Furthermore, the satellite observations were used to validate first simulation results from a new coupled model system, which integrates a Lagrangian chemistry transport model into a climate model. For the coupled model we found a CFC-11/CFC-12 lifetime ratio of 0.48±0.07 and a CFC-12 lifetime of 110(95-129) years

  13. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  14. Draft global warming study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net carbon contribution of certain resource strategies designed to reduce those emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the greenhouse gas'' most associated with electricity production. The main purpose of the global warming study is to identify possible courses of action that BPA might take to reduce its contributions to the risk of global warming and to estimate the efficacy and costs of each approach. The principal measure of effectiveness is the reduction in total atmospheric carbon emissions compared to a base case. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Reconciling Warming Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Climate models projected stronger warming over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.

  16. The Stratosphere 1981: Theory and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of trace species are compared with theoretical estimates and the similarities and the differences between the two sets of data are discussed. The theoretical predictions are compared with long term trends in both column content and altitude profile of ozone as observed from ground-based and satellite instruments. The chemical kinetics and photochemistry of the stratosphere were reviewed.

  17. Changing composition of the global stratosphere.

    PubMed

    McElroy, M B; Salawitch, R J

    1989-02-10

    The current understanding of stratospheric chemistry is reviewed with particular attention to the influence of human activity. Models are in good agreement with measurements for a variety of species in the mid-latitude stratosphere, with the possible exception of ozone (O(3)) at high altitude. Rates calculated for loss of O(3) exceed rates for production by about 40 percent at 40 kilometers, indicating a possible but as yet unidentified source of high-altitude O(3). The rapid loss of O(3) beginning in the mid-1970s at low altitudes over Antarctica in the spring is due primarily to catalytic cycles involving halogen radicals. Reactions on surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds play an important role in regulating the abundance of these radicals. Similar effects could occur in northern polar regions and in cold regions of the tropics. It is argued that the Antarctic phenomenon is likely to persist: prompt drastic reduction in the emission of industrial halocarbons is required if the damage to stratospheric O(3) is to be reversed.

  18. Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, M.A. )

    1994-04-22

    Before the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was generally assumed that gas-phase chemical reactions controlled the abundance of stratospheric ozone. However, the massive springtime ozone losses over Antarctica first reported by Farman et al in 1985 could not be explained on the basis of gas-phase chemistry alone. In 1986, Solomon et al suggested that chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) could be important for the observed ozone losses. Since that time, an explosion of laboratory, field, and theoretical research in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry has occurred. Recent work has indicated that the most important heterogeneous reaction on PSCs is ClONO[sub 2] + HCl [yields] Cl[sub 2] + HNO[sub 3]. This reaction converts inert chlorine into photochemically active Cl[sub 2]. Photolysis of Cl[sub 2] then leads to chlorine radicals capable of destroying ozone through very efficient catalytic chain reactions. New observations during the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition found stoichiometric loss of ClONO[sub 2] and HCl in air processed by PSCs in accordance with reaction 1. Attention is turning toward understanding what kinds of aerosols form in the stratospheric, their formation mechanism, surface area, and specific chemical reactivity. Some of the latest findings, which underline the importance of aerosols, were presented at a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration workshop in Boulder, Colorado.

  19. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROTECTION: AN EPA ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine released into the atmosphere is a major factor in the depletion of the protective stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol, as amended in 1990, and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, address the limits and reduction schedules to be placed on chlorine- and brom...

  20. Stratospheric General Circulation with Chemistry Model (SGCCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Geller, Marvin A.; Kaye, Jack A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    In the past two years constituent transport and chemistry experiments have been performed using both simple single constituent models and more complex reservoir species models. Winds for these experiments have been taken from the data assimilation effort, Stratospheric Data Analysis System (STRATAN).

  1. Chemistry-Climate Models of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J.; Shindell, D.; Bruehl, C.; Dameris, M.; Manzini, E.; Nagashima, T.; Newman, P.; Pawson, S.; Pitari, G.; Rozanov, E.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the last decade, improved computer power has allowed three-dimensional models of the stratosphere to be developed that can be used to simulate polar ozone levels over long periods. This paper compares the meteorology between these models, and discusses the future of polar ozone levels over the next 50 years.

  2. Stratospheric Aerosols: The Transfer of Scientific Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feidler, Anita; Hurt, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Examines information transfer in atmospheric physics by tracing one paper through five years of citations and suggesting patterns for highly cited papers. The results are also discussed in terms of information transfer in a popularized environment, as stratospheric aerosols have been prominently discussed in the popular press. (Author/EM)

  3. Age as a diagnostic of stratospheric transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Plumb, R. Alan

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of stratospheric age from observations of long-lived trace gases with increasing tropospheric concentrations invoke the implicit assumption that an air parcel has been transported intact from the tropopical tropopause. However, because of rapid and irreversible mixing in the stratosphere, a particular air parcel cannot be identified with one that left the troposphere at some prior time. The parcel contains a mix of air with a range of transit times, and the mean value over this range is the most appropriate definition of age. The measured tracer concentration is also a mean over the parcel, but its value depends both on the transit time distribution and the past history of the tracer in the troposphere. In principle, only if the tropospheric concentration is increasing linearly can the age be directly inferred. We illustrate these points by employing both a one-dimensional diffusive analog of stratospheric transport, and the general circulation model (GCM) of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). Within the limits of the GCM, we estimate the time over which tropospheric tracer concentrations must be approximately linear in order to determine stratospheric age unambiguously; the concentration of an exponentially increasing tracer is a function only of age if the growth time constant is greater than about 7 years, which is true for all the chlorofluorocarbons. More rapid source variations (for example, the annual cycle in CO2) have no such direct relationship with age.

  4. General circulation of the Jovian stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexander S.; Sethunadh, Jisesh; Hartogh, Paul

    The stratosphere of Jupiter is a convectively stable and coldest layer that extends for about 350 km above the tropopause. The dynamics of stratospheres of fast rotating gas giants differ from that of terrestrial-like planets, their modeling is more challenging, and is still little known despite a growing number of observations. We present results of simulations with a newly developed Jovian general circulation model, which covers the altitudes between one bar and one microbar. The results demonstrate a high sensitivity of the circulation to variations of eddy diffusion, which, in turn, depends on the model resolution and assumed background viscosity. In the lower stratosphere, the multiple circulation cells associated with the tropospheric alternating jets dominate. Higher, a weak two-cell equator-to-pole transport forms due to the influence of smaller-scale eddies. The strength and extent of this circulation are defined by the momentum supplied by shallow and vertically propagating waves, and are consistent with observations of the Shoemaker-Levi 9 comet traces. We will also discuss the dynamical implications of our recent finding that radiative forcing exponentially increases with height, rather than approximately constant throughout the Jovian stratosphere, as was thought before (see presentation of T. Kuroda at B0.3 session).

  5. Large-Scale Stratospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. The Brewer-Dobson circulation: tropical upwelling. 2. Mixing into polar vortices. 3. The latitudinal structure of "age" in the stratosphere. 4. The subtropical "tracer edges". 5. Transport in the lower troposphere. 6. Tracer modeling during SOLVE. 7. 3D modeling of "mean age". 8. Models and measurements II.

  6. Nitrogen fertiliser and stratospheric ozone - Latitudinal effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Turco, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Substantial increases in atmospheric N2O resulting from the increased use of nitrogen fertilizers might cause large (to 10%) decreases in the stratospheric ozone content. Such ozone decreases would be caused by catalytic reaction cycles involving odd-nitrogen that is formed by N2O decomposition in the upper stratosphere. Turco et al. (1978), using a background chlorine level of 2 ppbv, have shown that if the measured values of specified reactions are used a 50% increase in N2O would lead to a 2.7% increase in the stratospheric column density, although the ozone content above 30 km would be reduced by more than 5%; they also estimated (unpublished data) that the change in the ozone column density caused by doubling the N2O abundance would be very close to zero (within about 0.1%). The present paper extends these calculations of N2O/ozone effects to two dimensions, thereby identifying the latitude dependence expected for such ozone perturbations. The effects of changes in stratospheric chlorine levels on predicted ozone changes are also discussed.

  7. The use of lidar for stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1977-01-01

    Stratospheric measurements possible with ground-based, airborne, and satellite-borne lidar systems are reviewed. The instruments, basic equations, and formats normally used for various scattering and absorption phenomena measurements are presented including a discussion of elastic, resonance, Raman, and fluorescence scattering techniques.

  8. Fourier spectroscopy of the stratospheric emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.; Bonetti, A.

    1980-01-01

    Stratospheric emission spectra in the submillimeter range have been recorded with a resolution of 0.0033/cm with a balloon-borne interferometer. Several minor atmospheric constituents have been identified in a preliminary analysis of the spectra; these are water vapor, oxygen, ozone isotopes, nitric acid, nitrous oxide, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and carbon monoxide.

  9. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.

    1992-01-01

    The features and scientific aims of SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy), a planned 2.5 m telescope to be installed in an aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 ft, are discussed. A brief overview of the SOFIA program is given.

  10. Stratospheric Aerosol--Observations, Processes, and Impact on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kresmer, Stefanie; Thomason, Larry W.; von Hobe, Marc; Hermann, Markus; Deshler, Terry; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Stenke, Andrea; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Weigel, Ralf; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Prata, Fred J.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Schlager, Hans; Barnes, John E.; Antuna-Marrero, Juan-Carlos; Fairlie, Duncan; Palm, Mathias; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Notholt, Justus; Rex, Markus; Bingen, Christine; Vanhellemont, Filip; Bourassa, Adam; Plane, John M. C.; Klocke, Daniel; Carn, Simon A.; Clarisse, Lieven; Trickl, Thomas; Neeley, Ryan; James, Alexander D.; Rieger, Landon; Wilson, James C.; Meland, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Interest in stratospheric aerosol and its role in climate have increased over the last decade due to the observed increase in stratospheric aerosol since 2000 and the potential for changes in the sulfur cycle induced by climate change. This review provides an overview about the advances in stratospheric aerosol research since the last comprehensive assessment of stratospheric aerosol was published in 2006. A crucial development since 2006 is the substantial improvement in the agreement between in situ and space-based inferences of stratospheric aerosol properties during volcanically quiescent periods. Furthermore, new measurement systems and techniques, both in situ and space based, have been developed for measuring physical aerosol properties with greater accuracy and for characterizing aerosol composition. However, these changes induce challenges to constructing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology. Currently, changes in stratospheric aerosol levels less than 20% cannot be confidently quantified. The volcanic signals tend to mask any nonvolcanically driven change, making them difficult to understand. While the role of carbonyl sulfide as a substantial and relatively constant source of stratospheric sulfur has been confirmed by new observations and model simulations, large uncertainties remain with respect to the contribution from anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. New evidence has been provided that stratospheric aerosol can also contain small amounts of nonsulfatematter such as black carbon and organics. Chemistry-climate models have substantially increased in quantity and sophistication. In many models the implementation of stratospheric aerosol processes is coupled to radiation and/or stratospheric chemistry modules to account for relevant feedback processes.

  11. Stratospheric aerosol—Observations, processes, and impact on climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremser, Stefanie; Thomason, Larry W.; Hobe, Marc; Hermann, Markus; Deshler, Terry; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Stenke, Andrea; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Weigel, Ralf; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Prata, Fred J.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Schlager, Hans; Barnes, John E.; Antuña-Marrero, Juan-Carlos; Fairlie, Duncan; Palm, Mathias; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Notholt, Justus; Rex, Markus; Bingen, Christine; Vanhellemont, Filip; Bourassa, Adam; Plane, John M. C.; Klocke, Daniel; Carn, Simon A.; Clarisse, Lieven; Trickl, Thomas; Neely, Ryan; James, Alexander D.; Rieger, Landon; Wilson, James C.; Meland, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Interest in stratospheric aerosol and its role in climate have increased over the last decade due to the observed increase in stratospheric aerosol since 2000 and the potential for changes in the sulfur cycle induced by climate change. This review provides an overview about the advances in stratospheric aerosol research since the last comprehensive assessment of stratospheric aerosol was published in 2006. A crucial development since 2006 is the substantial improvement in the agreement between in situ and space-based inferences of stratospheric aerosol properties during volcanically quiescent periods. Furthermore, new measurement systems and techniques, both in situ and space based, have been developed for measuring physical aerosol properties with greater accuracy and for characterizing aerosol composition. However, these changes induce challenges to constructing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology. Currently, changes in stratospheric aerosol levels less than 20% cannot be confidently quantified. The volcanic signals tend to mask any nonvolcanically driven change, making them difficult to understand. While the role of carbonyl sulfide as a substantial and relatively constant source of stratospheric sulfur has been confirmed by new observations and model simulations, large uncertainties remain with respect to the contribution from anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. New evidence has been provided that stratospheric aerosol can also contain small amounts of nonsulfate matter such as black carbon and organics. Chemistry-climate models have substantially increased in quantity and sophistication. In many models the implementation of stratospheric aerosol processes is coupled to radiation and/or stratospheric chemistry modules to account for relevant feedback processes.

  12. Warm Hands and Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Comfort Products, Inc. was responsible for the cold weather glove and thermal boots, adapted from a spacesuit design that kept astronauts warm or cool in the temperature extremes of the Apollo Moon Mission. Gloves and boots are thermally heated. Batteries are worn inside wrist of glove or sealed in sole of skiboot and are rechargeable hundreds of times. They operate flexible resistance circuit which is turned on periodically when wearer wants to be warm.

  13. Intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone above Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Simone; Hocke, Klemens; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2012-01-01

    GROMOS, the ground-based millimeter-wave ozone spectrometer, continuously measures the stratospheric ozone profile between the altitudes of 20 and 65 km above Bern (46°57‧N, 7°27‧E) since November 1994. Characteristics of intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone are derived from the long-term data set. Spectral analysis gives evidence for a dominant oscillation period of about 20 days in the lower and middle stratosphere during winter time. A strong 20-day wave is also found in collocated geopotential height measurements of the microwave limb sounder onboard the Aura satellite (Aura/MLS) confirming the ground-based observations of GROMOS and underlining the link between ozone and dynamics. Remarkably, the ozone series of GROMOS show an interannual variability of the strength of intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone. The interannual variability of ozone fluctuations is possibly due to influences of planetary wave forcing and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the meridional Brewer-Dobson circulation of the middle atmosphere. In detail, time series of the mean amplitude of ozone fluctuations with periods ranging from 10 to 60 days are derived at fixed pressure levels. The mean amplitude series are regarded as a measure of the strength of intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone above Bern. After deseasonalizing the mean amplitude series, we find QBO-like amplitude modulations of the intraseasonal oscillations of ozone. The amplitudes of the intraseasonal oscillations are enhanced by a factor of 2 in 1997, 2001, 2003, and 2005. QBO-like variations of intraseasonal oscillations are also present in wind, temperature and other parameters above Bern as indicated by meteorological reanalyses of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Further, intercomparisons of interannual variability of intraseasonal tropospheric and stratospheric oscillations are performed where the NAO index (North-Atlantic oscillation

  14. Polar Warming Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Polar warming is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar warming by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar warming. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar warming, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar warming in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar warming vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).

  15. Ozone Radiative Feedback in Global Warming Simulations with CO2 and non-CO2 Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponater, M.; Rieger, V.; Dietmüller, S.

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that ozone radiative feedback acts to reduce the climate sensitivity in global warming simulations including interactive atmospheric chemistry, if the radiative forcing origins from CO2 increase. The effect can be traced to a negative feedback from stratospheric ozone changes and it is amplified by a reduced positive feedback from stratospheric water vapor.These findings cannot be simply transferred to simulations in which the warming is driven by a non-CO2 radiative forcing. Using a perturbation of surface NOx and CO emissions as an example, we demonstrate that a tropospheric ozone feedback may have significant impacts on physical feedbacks. These interactions can act to an extent that the effect of a negative ozone feedback can be reversed by changes in other feedbacks, thus increasing the climate sensitivity instead of reducing it. We also address some conceptual issues showing up as chemical feedbacks are added to set of physical feedbacks in simulation with interactive chemistry.

  16. Climate change reduces warming potential of nitrous oxide by an enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian H.; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin G.; Stein, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), which is an important driver of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, is expected to accelerate with climate change. One particular consequence of this acceleration is the enhanced transport of nitrous oxide (N2O) from its sources at the Earth's surface toward its main sink region in the stratosphere, thus inducing a reduction in its lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and the most relevant currently emitted ozone-depleting substance. Here we examine the implications of a reduced N2O lifetime in the context of climate change. We find a decrease in its global warming potential (GWP) and, due to a decline in the atmospheric N2O burden, also a reduction in its total radiative forcing. From the idealized transient global warming simulation we can identify linear regressions for N2O sink, lifetime, and GWP with temperature rise. Our findings are thus not restricted to a particular scenario.

  17. Stratospheric geoengineering impacts on El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C. J.; Robock, A.

    2015-10-01

    To examine the impact of proposed stratospheric geoengineering schemes on the amplitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variations we examine climate model simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G1-G4 experiments. Here we compare tropical Pacific behavior under anthropogenic global warming (AGW) using several scenarios: an instantaneous quadrupling of the atmosphere's CO2 concentration, a 1 % annual increase in CO2 concentration, and the representative concentration pathway resulting in 4.5 W m-2 radiative forcing at the end of the 21st century, the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario, with that under G1-G4 and under historical model simulations. Climate models under AGW project relatively uniform warming across the tropical Pacific over the next several decades. We find no statistically significant change in ENSO frequency or amplitude under stratospheric geoengineering as compared with those that would occur under ongoing AGW, although the relative brevity of the G1-G4 simulations may have limited detectability of such changes. We also find that the amplitude and frequency of ENSO events do not vary significantly under either AGW scenarios or G1-G4 from the variability found within historical simulations or observations going back to the mid-19th century. Finally, while warming of the Niño3.4 region in the tropical Pacific is fully offset in G1 and G2 during the 40-year simulations, the region continues to warm significantly in G3 and G4, which both start from a present-day climate.

  18. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.

  19. Stratospheric Sulfuric Acid and Black Carbon Aerosol Measured During POLARIS and its Role in Ozone Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Pueschel, R. F.; Drdla, K.; Verma, S.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol can affect the environment in three ways. Sulfuric acid aerosol have been shown to act as sites for the reduction of reactive nitrogen and chlorine and as condensation sites to form Polar Stratospheric Clouds, under very cold conditions, which facilitate ozone depletion. Recently, modeling studies have suggested a link between BCA (Black Carbon Aerosol) and ozone chemistry. These studies suggest that HNO3, NO2, and O3 may be reduced heterogeneously on BCA particles. The ozone reaction converts ozone to oxygen molecules, while HNO3 and NO2 react to form NOx. Finally, a buildup of BCA could reduce the single-scatter albedo of aerosol below a value of 0.98, a critical value that has been postulated to change the effect of stratospheric aerosol from cooling to warming. Correlations between measured BCA amounts and aircraft usage have been reported. Attempts to link BCA to ozone chemistry and other stratospheric processes have been hindered by questions concerning the amount of BCA that exists in the stratosphere, the magnitude of reaction probabilities, and the scarcity of BCA measurements. The Ames Wire Impactors (AWI) participated in POLARIS as part of the complement of experiments on the NASA ER-2. One of our main objectives was to determine the amount of aerosol surface area, particularly BCA, available for reaction with stratospheric constituents and assess if possible, the importance of these reactions. The AWI collects aerosol and BCA particles on thin Palladium wires that are exposed to the ambient air in a controlled manner. The samples are returned to the laboratory for subsequent analysis. The product of the AWI analysis is the size, surface area, and volume distributions, morphology and elemental composition of aerosol and BCA. This paper presents results from our experiments during POLARIS and puts these measurements in the context of POLARIS and other missions in which we have participated. It describes modifications to the AWI data

  20. The Evolution of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Saturn's Stratosphere During the 2010 Northern Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesman, B. E.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Sada, P. V.; Jennings, D. E.; Lunsford, A. W.; Sinclair, J.; Romani, P. N.; Boyle, R.; Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P.

    2013-12-01

    The massive eruption at 40N (planetographic latitude) in December 2010 has produced significant and long-lived changes in temperature and species abundances in Saturn's northern hemisphere (Hesman et al. 2012a, Fletcher et al. 2012). The northern storm region has been observed on many occasions between January 2011 and June of 2012 by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). In this time period, temperatures in regions referred to as 'beacons' (warm regions in the stratosphere at certain longitudes in the storm latitude) became significantly warmer than pre-storm values of 140K. In this period hydrocarbon emission greatly increased; however, this increased emission could not be attributed due to the temperature changes alone for many of these species (Hesman et al. 2012b, Bjoraker et al 2012). The unique nature of the stratospheric beacons also resulted in the detection of ethylene (C2H4) using CIRS. These beacon regions have also led to the identification of rare hydrocarbon species such as C4H2 and C3H4 in the stratosphere. These species are all expected from photochemical processes in the stratosphere, however high temperatures, unusual chemistry, or dynamics are enhancing these species. The exact cause of these enhancements is still under investigation. Ground-based observations were performed using the high-resolution spectrometer Celeste in May 2011 to confirm the CIRS detection of C2H4 and to study its spectral signatures at higher spectral resolution. In order to follow the evolution of its emission further observations were performed in July 2011 and March 2012. These observations are being used in conjunction with the CIRS observations to investigate the source of the approximately 100-fold increase of ethylene in the stratospheric beacon. The time evolution of hydrocarbon emission from C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H4, and C4H2 in Saturn's Northern Storm beacon regions will be discussed. References: Bjoraker, G., B.E. Hesman, R.K. Achterberg, P.N. Romani

  1. Convective transport of very-short-lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ∼8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, ∼150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (∼7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total ∼8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at ∼150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute ∼7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a ∼2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt).

  2. Polar night vortex breakdown and large-scale stirring in the southern stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Cámara, Alvaro; Mechoso, C. R.; Ide, K.; Walterscheid, R.; Schubert, G.

    2010-11-01

    The present paper examines the vortex breakdown and large-scale stirring during the final warming of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during the spring of 2005. A unique set of in situ observations collected by 27 superpressure balloons (SPBs) is used. The balloons, which were launched from McMurdo, Antarctica, by the Stratéole/VORCORE project, drifted for several weeks on two different isopycnic levels in the lower stratosphere. We describe balloon trajectories and compare them with simulations obtained on the basis of the velocity field from the GEOS-5 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses performed with and without VORCORE data. To gain insight on the mechanisms responsible for the horizontal transport of air inside and outside the well-isolated vortex we examine the balloon trajectories in the framework of the Lagrangian properties of the stratospheric flow. Coherent structures of the flow are visualized by computing finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). A combination of isentropic analysis and FTLE distributions reveals that air is stripped away from the vortex's interior as stable manifolds eventually cross the vortex's edge. It is shown that two SPBs escaped from the vortex within high potential vorticity tongues that developed in association with wave breaking at locations along the vortex's edge where forward and backward FTLE maxima approximately intersect. The trajectories of three SPBs flying as a group at the same isopycnic level are examined and their behavior is interpreted in reference to the FTLE field. These results support the concept of stable and unstable manifolds governing transport of air masses across the periphery of the stratospheric polar vortex.

  3. Modeling Extremely Deep Convection over North America as a Source of Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. S.; Clapp, C.; Smith, J. B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    We have run the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) at scales that numerically resolve convection over a broad swath of the north central U.S. Our intentions were to simulate convective events that generated stratospheric water vapor plumes observed during the SEAC4RS mission, to quantify the amount of water vapor injected into the stratosphere by extremely deep convection, and to investigate ARW as a potential tool to forecast multi-decadal trends in extremely deep convection over North America. We have run ARW for five and a half days beginning at 12 UTC on 26 August 2013 on a 3-km horizontal grid with 50 vertical levels. We used MERRA for the initial conditions and boundary conditions because of its skill in reanalysis of water vapor. ARW was able to simulate many of the fundamental features of deep convection over North America, including specific events. We have shown that the convection simulated by ARW bears many of the features of mesoscale convective systems, including the flow of cold air over warm moist air, cold downdrafts and gust fronts, mid-level inflow, and wedges reminiscent of squall lines. The source of water vapor for the convection is low-level eastward transport into the ARW domain. Convection is initiated where local maxima in equivalent potential temperature of surface air form. Convection regularly penetrates to the level of neutral buoyancy of the surface air and can even influence the concentration of water vapor above. A few convective events inject water vapor above the 400 K potential temperature surface. Surprisingly, deep convective events can also desiccate the upper air, even in the stratosphere. There is clear evidence of convection generating ducted internal gravity waves that propagate upstream to trigger more deep convection. We will present a quantification of the amount of water vapor injected into the stratosphere by extremely deep convection, the causes of desiccation, and the mechanisms

  4. Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

  5. Challenges to producing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology for chemistry and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomason, Larry; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Bourassa, Adam; Rieger, Landon; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas; Arfeuille, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosol data sets are key inputs for climate models (GCMs, CCMs) particularly for understanding the role of volcanoes on climate and as a surrogate for understanding the potential of human-derived stratospheric aerosol as mitigation for global warming. In addition to supporting activities of individual climate models, the data sets also act as a historical input to the activities of SPARC's Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) and the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). One such data set was produced in 2004 as a part of the SPARC Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (ASAP), extending from 1979 and 2004. It was primarily constructed from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment series of instruments but supplemented by data from other space-based sources and a number of ground-based and airborne instruments. Updates to this data set have expanded the timeframe to span from 1850 through 2014 through the inclusion of data from additional sources, such as photometer data and ice core analyses. Fundamentally, there are limitations to the reliability of the optical properties of aerosol inferred from even the most complete single instrument data sets. At the same time, the heterogeneous nature of the underlying data to this historical data set produces considerable challenges to the production of a climate data set which is both homogeneous and reliable throughout its timespan. In this presentation, we will discuss the impact of this heterogeneity showing specific examples such as the SAGE II to OSIRIS/CALIPSO transition in 2005. Potential solutions to these issues will also be discussed.

  6. Unraveling the empirical relationship between Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hobe, Marc; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Müller, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Ever since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole it has been recognized that cold temperatures play a key role in fostering strong ozone depletion in the polar stratosphere. Compact negative correlations between total winter ozone loss and vortex area exposed to temperatures below certain threshold values have been demonstrated (e.g. Harris et al., 2010; Rex et al., 2006; Rex et al., 2004). The most commonly used threshold is the NAT equilibrium temperature, but other choices have been suggested, such as the temperature when the rate of chlorine activation on liquid aerosols exceeds a certain limit. Interestingly, both thresholds relate to critical temperatures in the context of heterogeneous chlorine activation, and Harris et al., 2010, stated that original activation (i.e. the activation in early winter) is the most important factor influencing ozone loss. But at least two other key processes - catalytic ozone loss and denitrification - depend directly on temperature, and temperature also controls the stability and therefore the persistence of the polar vortex. Here, we investigate such "vortex area" correlations for a number of different temperature thresholds, as well as direct correlations with vortex mean temperature and with the date of the final warming. We also carry out sensitivity studies using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) to investigate the response of ozone loss to temperature modifications for particle formation and growth, surface reaction probabilities and gas phase reactivity separately. Rex et al., Arctic ozone loss and climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04116, 2004. Rex et al., Arctic winter 2005: Implications for stratospheric ozone loss and climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23808, 2006. Harris et al., A closer look at Arctic ozone loss and polar stratospheric clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8499-8510, 2010.

  7. Comparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with lidar, radiosonde and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The importance of the knowledge of the temperature structure in the atmosphere has been widely recognized. Temperature is a key parameter for dynamical, chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere. The cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming ( [1] and references therein). However, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. Stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another [1]. Therefore it is important that in the future such datasets are generated. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. TEMPERA (TEMPERature RAdiometer) is a newly developed ground-based microwave radiometer designed, built and operated at the University of Bern. The instrument and the retrieval of temperature profiles has been described in detail in [2]. TEMPERA is measuring a pressure broadened oxygen line at 53.1 GHz in order to determine stratospheric temperature profiles. The retrieved profiles of TEMPERA cover an altitude range of approximately 20 to 45 km with a vertical resolution in the order of 15 km. The lower limit is given by the instrumental baseline and the bandwidth of the measured spectrum. The upper limit is given by the fact that above 50 km the oxygen lines are splitted by the Zeeman effect in the terrestrial magnetic field. In this study we present a comparison of stratospheric

  8. Seasonal prediction of the NAO from stratospheric and tropospheric indicators for different data products and index definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeisen, Daniela; Koszalka, Inga

    2016-04-01

    Skilful winter forecasts of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) anomaly - a proxy for weather conditions in Europe - are of crucial importance to industry applications and power supply policies at the local and regional level. These forecasts are achieved by either dynamical models, based on deterministic equations, or statistical models exploring correlations and teleconnections between key stratospheric and tropospheric variables and the NAO index. The response to anomalies in stratospheric polar cap temperatures, as e.g. the negative NAO response observed after major stratospheric sudden warming events, is quite reliably reproduced in seasonal prediction models. The strength of this response depends on the model and the strength and vertical extent of the forcing, which is modulated by teleconnections affecting the stratosphere, such as El Nino and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. In addition, various teleconnections with tropospheric origin tend to affect the prediction of the NAO. Both types of models - dynamical and statistical models - show some skill in predicting the NAO index anomaly on seasonal timescales, but this skill exhibits a strong year-to-year variability, since the connection between the NAO and the different predictors including the teleconnection mechanisms are not yet well understood. We present results comparing the statistical properties of the NAO index time series based on different reanalysis datasets and different index definitions with respect to the NAO winter variability, and their relation to statistical indicators used in weather forecasting for different winter regimes in Europe.

  9. A Risk-Based Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Angus J.; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2014-01-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product. PMID:24533155

  10. A risk-based framework for assessing the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Angus J; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J; Highwood, Eleanor J

    2014-01-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product.

  11. A risk-based framework for assessing the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Angus J; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J; Highwood, Eleanor J

    2014-01-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product. PMID:24533155

  12. Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.F.

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

  13. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  14. Revelations of a stratospheric circulation: The dynamical transport of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Observations by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) onboard the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed that above the 1 mb level, the mixing ratios of CH[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] are at least 10-100 times larger at the equator than at the south pole. In addition, the Voyager 2 Infrared Interferometric Spectrometer (IRIS) measured small meridional temperature gradients at the tropopause (60-200 mb) and in the upper troposphere (200-1000 mb) of Uranus. These temperature gradients result from a weak meridional circulation in the Uranian troposphere which penetrates into the stratosphere with upwelling at low southern latitudes and polar subsidence (vertical velocities [approximately]10[sup [minus]6] m/s, meridional velocities [approximately]10[sup [minus]3] m/s). The role of the zonally-averaged, meridional stratospheric circulation in determining the distribution of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere (0.1-100 mb) of Uranus is investigated with a 2-dimensional photochemical transport model. The stratospheric circulation is calculated with a linear, zonally-symmetric model with Newtonian cooling and Rayleigh friction similar to that used by Flaser et al. (1987). Operator-splitting is utilized to numerically solve the continuity equations for trace species in the stratosphere of Uranus. It is determined that advective transport by the stratospheric circulation can account for the essential observed meridional variation of stratospheric hydrocarbon abundances. However, vertical transport by eddy and molecular diffusion is required to fit the inferred vertical distribution of hydrocarbons. The uniform eddy diffusion coefficient is constrained to 10 cm[sup 2]/s < K < 100 cm[sup 2]/s (i.e. constant in both altitude and latitude). The best fit model has a meridional circulation three times stronger than the circulation of Flaser et al. and a weak uniform eddy diffusion coefficient, K = 100 cm[sup 2]/s.

  15. Stratospheric flight environmental impact: Analysis of trends and tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Hang

    When jetliners fly in the stratosphere, their emissions tend to be longer-lived and therefore have greater environmental impact. Since the bottom of the stratosphere can be lower than the cruise altitude of most commercial flights, the amount of stratospheric emissions must not be overlooked. The impacts of stratospheric emissions are different from tropospheric emissions, and the amount of stratospheric emissions today need to be evaluated. On the other hand, some studies suggest placing more flights into the stratosphere, as flying in the stratosphere can significantly reduce the presence of contrails. The tradeoff between the effect of contrails and that of stratospheric emissions is still unclear, but contrails can often be avoided without entering the stratosphere. In this study, we develop simple quantitative ways of assessing current stratospheric fuel burn using publicly available data, and then we develop a way of assessing stratospheric flight strategies. Our analysis covers 78% of the total travelled distance reported by the United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics, and shows that these flights burned ~ 9 million tons of fuel annually, or ~ 25% of cruise fuel, in the stratosphere between 2008 and 2012. Our results also show that the chance of flying into stratosphere varies by area because of variations in the tropopause height, but flights within the contiguous United States tend to stay below the stratosphere. The stratosphere fuel burn of Asia-US flights may be significantly reduced by taking jet stream routes since the stratosphere is lower near the poles. For the feasibility of contrail avoidance, our result showed that the chance of finding an Ice-Supersaturated-free region within 1000 ft. of the current flight level below the tropopause is significant for mid-latitude regions. We also found that if the region right below the tropopause is occupied by an Ice-Supersaturated Region (ISSR), this ISSR tends to be thicker. Thus, if a flight in

  16. Model predicts global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    Global greenhouse warming will be clearly identifiable by the 1990s, according to eight scientists who have been studying climate changes using computer models. Researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, say that by the 2010s, most of the globe will be experiencing “substantial” warming. The level of warming will depend on amounts of trace gases, or greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere.Predictions for the next 70 years are based on computer simulations of Earth's climate. In three runs of the model, James Hansen and his colleagues looked at the effects of changing amounts of atmospheric gases with time.

  17. LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observation of traveling planetary waves and potential vorticity advection in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS Northern Hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.

  18. Pristine Stratospheric Collections of Cosmic Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1981, NASA has routinely collected interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in the stratosphere by inertial impact onto silicone oil-coated flat plate collectors deployed on the wings of high-altitude aircraft [1]. The highly viscous oil traps and localizes the particles, which can fragment during collection. Particles are removed from the collectors with a micromanipulator and washed of the oil using organic solvents, typically hexane or xylene. While silicone oil is an efficient collection medium, its use is problematic. All IDPs are initially coated with this material (polydimethylsiloxane, n(CH3)2SiO) and traces of oil may remain after cleaning. The solvent rinse itself is also a concern as it likely removes indigenous organics from the particles. To avoid these issues, we used a polyurethane foam substrate for the oil-free stratospheric collection of IDPs.

  19. The stratospheric arrival pair in infrasound propagation.

    PubMed

    Waxler, Roger; Evers, Läslo G; Assink, Jelle; Blom, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    The ideal case of a deep and well-formed stratospheric duct for long range infrasound propagation in the absence of tropospheric ducting is considered. A canonical form, that of a pair of arrivals, for ground returns of impulsive signals in a stratospheric duct is determined. The canonical form is derived from the geometrical acoustics approximation, and is validated and extended through full wave modeling. The full caustic structure of the field of ray paths is found and used to determine phase relations between the contributions to the wavetrain from different propagation paths. Finally, comparison with data collected from the 2005 fuel gas depot explosion in Buncefield, England is made. The correspondence between the theoretical results and the observations is shown to be quite good. PMID:25920837

  20. Bifurcation properties of a stratospheric vacillation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoden, Shigeo

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear properties of the stratospheric vacillation model of Holton and Mass (1976) are studied numerically using bifurcation theory. Severe truncation and vertical differencing are used to obtain 81 nonlinear ordinary differential equations with time-dependent variables. Three branches of the steady solutions are determined using Powell's hybrid method and the pseudoarclength continuation method, and a multiplicity of stable steady-state solutions with different vertical structures are found to exist in some range of the bifurcation parameter. Periodic solutions are found which branch off from a steady solution by a Hopf bifurcation. It is suggested that the interannual variability of the stratospheric circulation in the middle and high latitudes during winter may be explained by the multiplicity of steady and periodic stable solutions.

  1. Infrared lidar observations of stratospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Forrister, H N; Roberts, D W; Mercer, A J; Gimmestad, G G

    2014-06-01

    We observed the stratospheric aerosol layer at 34° north latitude with a photon-counting 1574 nm lidar on three occasions in 2011. During all of the observations, we also operated a nearby 523.5 nm micropulse lidar and acquired National Weather Service upper air data. We analyzed the lidar data to find scattering ratio profiles and the integrated aerosol backscatter at both wavelengths and then calculated the color ratio and wavelength exponent for lidar backscattering from the stratospheric aerosols. The visible-light integrated backscatter values of the layer were in the range 2.8-3.5×10⁻⁴ sr⁻¹ and the infrared integrated backscatter values ranged from 2.4 to 3.7×10⁻⁵  sr⁻¹. The wavelength exponent was determined to be 1.9±0.2.

  2. Intercomparison of measurements of stratospheric hydrogen fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankin, William G.; Coffey, M. T.; Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.; Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.; Piccioli, S.; Farmer, C. B.; Seals, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the vertical profile of hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapor in the stratosphere and of the vertical column amounts of HF above certain altitudes were made using a variety of spectroscopic instruments in the 1982 and 1983 Balloon Intercomparison Campaigns. Both emission instruments working in the far-infrared spectral region and absorption instruments using solar occultation in the 2.5-micron region were employed. No systematic differences were seen in results from the two spectral regions. A mean profile from 20 - 45 km is presented, with uncertainties ranging from 20 to 50 percent. Total columns measured from ground and from 12 km are consistent with the profile if the mixing ratio for HF is small in the troposphere and low stratosphere.

  3. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  4. Modeling Nitrogen Oxides in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. Randy; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This talk will focus on the status of current understanding (not a historical review) as regards modeling nitrogen oxides (NOy) in the lower stratosphere (LS). The presentation will be organized around three major areas of process understanding: 1) NOy sources, sinks, and transport to the LS, 2) NOy species partitioning, and 3) polar multiphase processes. In each area, process topics will be identified with an estimate of the degree of confidence associated with their representation in numerical models. Several exotic and/or speculative processes will also be discussed. Those topics associated with low confidence or knowledge gaps, weighted by their prospective importance in stratospheric chemical modeling, will be collected into recommendations for further study. Suggested approaches to further study will be presented for discussion.

  5. Photochemical modeling of the Earth's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, L.

    A one-dimensional photochemical model of the Earth's stratosphere in order to provide an up-to-date comparison with mid-latitude observations. Scattered solar flux measurements (at 40 km) by J. R. Herman and J. E. Mentall. A 10% ratio of scattered to direct flux at 200 nm is unexplainable, without the existence of an unknown scattering component. The first-order effects of the inclusion of the diffuse radiation in a spherical shell atmosphere, for solar zenith angles close to 90 degrees were demonstrated. Changes in model concentrations are largest for short-lived radicals such as O, OH, CIO, and NO in the lower stratosphere, but relatively small compared to current observational uncertanties. We propose that a significant overestimate of the molecular oxygen absorption cross section near 210 nm is in large part responsible for the discrepancy between observed and modeled vertical profiles of some halocarbons (CFCI3 in particular).

  6. Predicted aircraft effects on stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Wofsy, Steve; Kley, Dieter; Zhadin, Evgeny A.; Johnson, Colin; Weisenstein, Debra; Prather, Michael J.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the current fleet of subsonic aircraft may already have caused detectable changes in both the troposphere and stratosphere has raised concerns about the impact of such operations on stratospheric ozone and climate. Recent interest in the operation of supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere has heightened such concerns. Previous assessments of impacts from proposed supersonic aircraft were based mostly on one-dimensional model results although a limited number of multidimensional models were used. In the past 15 years, our understanding of the processes that control the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases has changed dramatically. This better understanding was achieved through accumulation of kinetic data and field observations as well as development of new models. It would be beneficial to start examining the impact of subsonic aircraft to identify opportunities to study and validate the mechanisms that were proposed to explain the ozone responses. The two major concerns are the potential for a decrease in the column abundance of ozone leading to an increase in ultraviolet radiation at the ground, and redistribution of ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere leading to changes in the Earth's climate. Two-dimensional models were used extensively for ozone assessment studies, with a focus on responses to chlorine perturbations. There are problems specific to the aircraft issues that are not adequately addressed by the current models. This chapter reviews the current status of the research on aircraft impact on ozone with emphasis on immediate model improvements necessary for extending our understanding. The discussion will be limited to current and projected commercial aircraft that are equipped with air-breathing engines using conventional jet fuel. The impacts are discussed in terms of the anticipated fuel use at cruise altitude.

  7. Stratosphere-troposphere exchange project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Condon, Estelle; Pfister, Leonhard

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to manage the Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP). This includes holding and planning science team meetings, organizing sessions at conferences devoted to the results and objectives of STEP field programs, putting together special journal issues or special sections of journal issues devoted to the results of STEP, and planning and producing technical memoranda on STEP. Summary of progress and results are given.

  8. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), staged from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromine radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-I), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, Cl0 was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of Cl0 and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? and (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  9. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), stages from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromide radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-1), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, ClO was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of ClO and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-2): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  10. Stratospheric ozone: Impact of human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    1989-12-01

    Current knowledge of the chemistry of the stratosphere is reviewed using measurements from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment to test the accuracy of our treatment of processes at mid-latitudes, and results from the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) to examine our understanding of processes for the polar environment. It is shown that, except for some difficulties with N 2O 5 and possibly ClNO 3, gas phase models for nitrogen and chlorine species at 30°N in spring are in excellent agreement with the data from ATMOS. Heterogeneous processes may have an influence on the concentrations of NO 2, N 2O 5, HNO 3, and ClNO 3 for the lower stratosphere at 48°S in fall. Comparison of model and observed concentrations of O 3 indicate good agreement at 30°N, with less satisfactory results at 48°S. The discrepancy between the loss rate of O 3 observed over the course of the AAOE mission in 1987 and loss rates calculated using measured concentrations of ClO and BrO is found to be even larger than that reported by Anderson et al. (1989, J. geophys. Res.94, 11480). There appear to be loss processes for removal of O 3 additional to the HOC1 mechanism proposed by Solomon et al. (1986, Nature321, 755), the ClO-BrO scheme favored by McElroy et al. (1986, Nature321, 759), and the ClO dimer mechanism introduced by Molina and Molina (1987, J. phys. Chem.91, 433). There is little doubt that industrial halocarbons have a significant impact on stratospheric O 3. Controls on emissions more stringent than those defined by the Montreal Protocol will be required if the Antarctic Ozone Hole is not to persist as a permanent feature of the stratosphere.

  11. Polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, O.B. ); Turco, R.P. )

    1991-06-01

    During the Antarctic winter, strange and often invisible clouds form in the stratosphere over the pole. These clouds of ice and frozen nitric acid play a crucial role in the chemical cycle responsible for the recent appearance of the annual ozone hole. Their chemistry removes compounds that would normally trap ozone-destroying free chlorine produced by the breakdown of CFCs. The paper describes these clouds, their formation, and the mechanisms by which these clouds help chlorine destroy ozone.

  12. Stratospheric chlorine: Blaming it on nature

    SciTech Connect

    Taube, G.

    1993-06-11

    Much of the bitter public debate over ozone depletion has centered on the claim that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) pale into insignificance alongside natural sources of chlorine in the stratosphere. If so, goes the argument, chlorine could not be depleting ozone as atmospheric scientists claim, because the natural sources have been around since time immemorial, and the ozone layer is still there. The claim, put forward in a book by Rogelio Maduro and Ralf Schauerhammer, has since been touted by former Atomic Energy Commissioner Dixy Lee Ray and talk-show host Rush Limbaugh, and it forms the basis of much of the backlash now being felt by atmospheric scientists. The argument is simple: Maduro and Schauerhammer calculate that 600 million tons of chlorine enters the atmosphere annually from seawater, 36 million tons from volcanoes, 8.4 million tons from biomass burning, and 5 million tons from ocean biota. In contrast, CFCs account for a mere 750,000 tons of atmospheric chlorine a year. Besides disputing the numbers, scientists have both theoretical and observational bases for doubting that much of this chlorine is getting into the stratosphere, where it could affect the ozone layer. Linwood Callis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center points out one crucial problem with the argument: Chlorine from natural sources is soluble, and so it gets rained out of the lower atmosphere. CFCs, in contrast, are insoluble and inert and thus make it to the stratosphere to release their chlorine. What's more, observations of stratospheric chemistry don't support the idea that natural sources are contributing much to the chlorine there.

  13. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    SOFIA, (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is a planned 2.5 meter telescope to be installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 feet. It will permit routine measurement of infrared radiation inaccessible from the ground-based sites, and observation of astronomical objects and transient events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 18 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA would replace.

  14. The potential for ozone depletion in the arctic polar stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Brune, W H; Anderson, J G; Toohey, D W; Fahey, D W; Kawa, S R; Jones, R L; McKenna, D S; Poole, L R

    1991-05-31

    The nature of the Arctic polar stratosphere is observed to be similar in many respects to that of the Antarctic polar stratosphere, where an ozone hole has been identified. Most of the available chlorine (HCl and ClONO(2)) was converted by reactions on polar stratospheric clouds to reactive ClO and Cl(2)O(2) throughout the Arctic polar vortex before midwinter. Reactive nitrogen was converted to HNO(3), and some, with spatial inhomogeneity, fell out of the stratosphere. These chemical changes ensured characteristic ozone losses of 10 to 15% at altitudes inside the polar vortex where polar stratospheric clouds had occurred. These local losses can translate into 5 to 8% losses in the vertical column abundance of ozone. As the amount of stratospheric chlorine inevitably increases by 50% over the next two decades, ozone losses recognizable as an ozone hole may well appear.

  15. The potential for ozone depletion in the Arctic polar stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. ); Anderson, J.G.; Toohey, D.W. ); Fahey, D.W.; Kawa, S.R. ); Jones, R.L. ); McKenna, D.S. ); Poole, L.R. )

    1991-05-31

    The nature of the Arctic polar stratosphere is observed to be similar in many respects to that of the Antarctic polar stratosphere, where an ozone hole has been identified. most of the available chlorine (HCl and ClONO{sub 2}) was converted by reactions on polar stratospheric clouds to reactive ClO and Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} throughout the Arctic polar vortex before midwinter. Reactive nitrogen was converted to HNO{sub 3}, and some, with spatial inhomogeneity, fell out of the stratosphere. These chemical changes ensured characteristic ozone losses of 10 to 15% at altitudes inside the polar vortex where polar stratospheric clouds had occurred. These local losses can translate into 5 to 8% losses in the vertical column abundance of ozone. As the amount of stratospheric chlorine inevitably increases by 50% over the next two decades, ozone losses recognizable as an ozone hole may well appear.

  16. The potential for ozone depletion in the Arctic polar stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.; Toohey, D. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Poole, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    The nature of the Arctic polar stratosphere is observed to be similar in many respects to that of the Antarctic polar stratosphere, where an ozone hole has been identified. Most of the available chlorine (CHl and ClONO2) was converted by reactions on polar stratospheric clouds to reactive ClO and Cl2O2 thoroughout the Arctic polar vortex before midwinter. Reactive nitrogen was converted to HNO3, and some, with spatial inhomogeneity, fell out of the stratosphere. These chemical changes ensured characteristic ozone losses of 10 to 15 percent at altitudes inside the polar vortex where polar stratospheric clouds had occurred. These local losses can translate into 5 to 8 percent losses in the vertical column abundance of ozone. As the amount of stratospheric chlorine inevitably increases by 50 percent over the next two decades, ozone losses recognizable as an ozone hole may well appear.

  17. Long-Term Changes in Stratospheric Age Spectra in the 21st Century in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan E.; Ma, Jun; Nielsen, J. Eric; Liang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the long-term variations in the stratospheric age spectra using simulations of the 21st century with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Our purposes are to characterize the long-term changes in the age spectra and identify processes that cause the decrease of the mean age in a warming climate. Changes in the age spectra in the 21st century simulations are characterized by decreases in the modal age, the mean age, the spectral width, and the tail decay timescale. Our analyses show that the decrease in the mean age is caused by two processes: the acceleration of the residual circulation that increases the young air masses in the stratosphere, and the weakening of the recirculation that leads to the decrease of tail of the age spectra and the decrease of the old air masses. The weakening of the stratospheric recirculation is also strongly correlated with the increase of the residual circulation. One important result of this study is that the decrease of the tail of the age spectra makes an important contribution to the decrease of the main age. Long-term changes in the stratospheric isentropic mixing are investigated. Mixing increases in the subtropical lower stratosphere, but its impact on the age spectra is outweighed by the increase of the residual circulation. The impacts of the long-term changes in the age spectra on long-lived chemical traces are also investigated. 37 2

  18. Retrieval of stratospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide profiles from Odin Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) limb-scattered sunlight measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Craig Stuart

    2009-12-01

    Key to understanding and predicting the effects of global environmental problems such as ozone depletion and global warming is a detailed understanding of the atmospheric processes, both dynamical and chemical. Essential to this understanding are accurate global data sets of atmospheric constituents with adequate temporal and spatial (vertical and horizontal) resolutions. For this purpose the Canadian satellite instrument OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) was launched on the Odin satellite in 2001. OSIRIS is primarily designed to measure minor stratospheric constituents, including ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), employing the novel limb-scattered sunlight technique, which can provide both good vertical resolution and near global coverage. This dissertation presents a method to retrieve stratospheric O 3 and NO2 from the OSIRIS limb-scatter observations. The retrieval method incorporates an a posteriori optimal estimator combined with an intermediate spectral analysis, specifically differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). A detailed description of the retrieval method is presented along with the results of a thorough error analysis and a geophysical validation exercise. It is shown that OSIRIS limb-scatter observations successfully produce accurate stratospheric O3 and NO2 number density profiles throughout the stratosphere, clearly demonstrating the strength of the limb-scatter technique. The OSIRIS observations provide an extremely useful data set that is of particular importance for studies of the chemistry of the middle atmosphere. The long OSIRIS record of stratospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide may also prove useful for investigating variability and trends.

  19. HiSentinel: A Stratospheric Airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.; Smith, M.

    On December 4 2005 a team led by Southwest Research Institute SwRI successfully demonstrated powered flight of the HiSentinel stratospheric airship at an altitude of 74 000 feet The development team of Aerostar International the Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL and SwRI launched the airship from Roswell N M for a five-hour technology demonstration flight The 146-foot-long airship carried a 60-pound equipment pod and propulsion system when it became only the second airship in history to achieve powered flight in the stratosphere Designed for launch from remote sites these airships do not require large hangars or special facilities Unlike most stratospheric airship concepts HiSentinel is launched flaccid with the hull only partially inflated with helium As the airship rises the helium expands until it completely inflates the hull to the rigid aerodynamic shape required for operation A description of previous Team development results of the test flight plans for future development and applicability to future science missions will be presented

  20. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

  1. Photochemistry of Oxygen Compounds in Neptune's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, P. N.; Lellouch, E.; Bezard, B.; Feuchtgruber, H.

    1999-01-01

    ISO SWS observations of H2O and CO2 on Neptune (Feuchtgruber et al. 1997, Nature 389, 159) coupled with ground based millimeter observations of CO (Marten et al., 1993, Ap. J. 406 285) provide strong constraints on the photochemistry of these compounds in Neptune's stratosphere. Additional constraints on the photochemistry and vertical mixing come from the rich suite of hydrocarbons observed by ISO: CH4, C2H2, C2H6 (Bezard, 1998, Ann. Geophysicae 16, Sup. III C1037), CH3 (Bezard, et al. Ap. J. 515, 868), and C2H4 (Encrenaz et al. this DPS). We will use a one-dimensional global average photochemical model to analyze these compounds. In particular, we will better constrain the estimated external flux of H2O to Neptune's stratosphere given in Feuchtgruber et al., which is important in understanding the source of the observed stratospheric CO2. Kingdoms will come and go, the relentless march of time will continue, all will be explained.

  2. Discharges in the Stratosphere and Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Singh, Ashok K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Kulkarni, M. N.; Singh, Abhay K.

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper salient features of discharges in the stratosphere and mesosphere (namely sprites, halos, blue starters, blue jets, gigantic jets and elves), are discussed. The electrostatic field due to charge imbalance during lightning processes may lead to stratospheric/mesospheric discharges either through the conventional breakdown based on streamers and leaders or relativistic runaway mechanism. Most (not all) of the observed features of sprites, halos and jets are explained by this processes. Development and evolution of streamers are based on the local transient electrostatic field and available ambient electron density which dictate better probability in favor of positive cloud-to-ground discharges, and thus explains the polarity asymmetry in triggering sprites and streamers. Elves are generated by electromagnetic pulse radiated by return stroke currents of cloud-to-ground/inter-cloud discharges. Generation of the both donut and pancake shape elves are explained. Electrodynamic features of thunderstorms associated with stratospheric/mesospheric discharges are summarized including current and charge moment associated with relevant cloud-to-ground discharges. The hypothesis relating tropospheric generated gravity waves and mesospheric discharges are also discussed. Finally some interesting problems are listed.

  3. Physical processes in polar stratospheric ice clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard; Jordan, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    A one dimensional model of cloud microphysics was used to simulate the formation and evolution of polar stratospheric ice clouds. Some of the processes which are included in the model are outlined. It is found that the clouds must undergo preferential nucleation upon the existing aerosols just as do tropospheric cirrus clouds. Therefore, there is an energy barrier between stratospheric nitric acid particles and ice particles implying that nitric acid does not form a continuous set of solutions between the trihydrate and ice. The Kelvin barrier is not significant in controlling the rate of formation of ice particles. It was found that the cloud properties are sensitive to the rate at which the air parcels cool. In wave clouds, with cooling rates of hundreds of degrees per day, most of the existing aerosols nucleate and become ice particles. Such clouds have particles with sizes on the order of a few microns, optical depths on order of unity and are probably not efficient at removing materials from the stratosphere. In clouds which form with cooling rates of a few degrees per day or less, only a small fraction of the aerosols become cloud particles. In such clouds the particle radius is larger than 10 microns, the optical depths are low and water vapor is efficiently removed. Seasonal simulations show that the lowest water vapor mixing ratio is determined by the lowest temperature reached, and that the time when clouds disappear is controlled by the time when temperatures begin to rise above the minimum values.

  4. Seasonal radiative modeling of Titan's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézard, Bruno; Vinatier, Sandrine; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a seasonal radiative model of Titan's stratosphere to investigate the time variation of stratospheric temperatures in the 10-3 - 5 mbar range as observed by the Cassini/CIRS spectrometer. The model incorporates gas and aerosol vertical profiles derived from Cassini/CIRS spectra to calculate the heating and cooling rate profiles as a function of time and latitude. In the equatorial region, the radiative equilibrium profile is warmer than the observed one. Adding adiabatic cooling in the energy equation, with a vertical velocity profile decreasing with depth and having w ≈ 0.4 mm sec-1 at 1 mbar, allows us to reproduce the observed profile. The model predicts a 5 K decrease at 1 mbar between 2008 and 2016 as a result of orbit eccentricity, in relatively good agreement with the observations. At other latitudes, as expected, the radiative model predicts seasonal variations of temperature larger than observed, pointing to latitudinal redistribution of heat by dynamics. Vertical velocities seasonally varying between -0.4 and 1.2 mm sec-1 at 1 mbar provide adiabatic cooling and heating adequate to reproduce the time variation of 1-mbar temperatures from 2005 to 2016 at 30°N and S. The model is also used to investigate the role of the strong compositional changes observed at high southern latitudes after equinox in the concomitant rapid cooling of the stratosphere.

  5. COS in the stratosphere. [sulfuric acid aerosol precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Tyson, B. J.; Ohara, D.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been detected in the stratosphere, and mixing ratio measurements are reported for altitudes of 15.2 to 31.2 km. A large volume, cryogenic sampling system mounted on board a U-2 aircraft has been used for lower stratosphere measurements and a balloon platform for measurement at 31.2 km. These observations and measurements strongly support the concept that stratospheric COS is an important precursor in the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  6. Studies of dynamical processes affecting the distribution of stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to understand large-scale tracer transport processes in the stratosphere. Two approaches were taken. The first is analysis of tracer observations, especially satellite observations of ozone concentration and total column ozone. The second is numerical simulation of tracer transport processes. Topics researched include: quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and stratospheric ozone; mixing in the polar vortices; polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) properties from Antarctic lidar data; and statistical methods for numerical experiments.

  7. Stratosphere and Troposphere: Transport of Material between Them.

    PubMed

    Kroening, J L

    1965-02-19

    Data from two almost simultaneous balloon soundings show that ozone and dust in combination are transported from their stratospheric reservoirs into the troposphere by way of thin laminae measuring about 1 kilometer vertically by at least 480 kilometers horizontally. Transport in this layer occurs across the top of the jet stream in a region of very great vertical wind shear. Stratospheric aerosol may be an important instrument for the destruction of ozone within the stratosphere.

  8. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  9. Modeling of solar radiation management: a comparison of simulations using reduced solar constant and stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidindi, Sirisha; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-05-01

    The climatic effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) geoengineering have been often modeled by simply reducing the solar constant. This is most likely valid only for space sunshades and not for atmosphere and surface based SRM methods. In this study, a global climate model is used to evaluate the differences in the climate response to SRM by uniform solar constant reduction and stratospheric aerosols. Our analysis shows that when global mean warming from a doubling of CO2 is nearly cancelled by both these methods, they are similar when important surface and tropospheric climate variables are considered. However, a difference of 1 K in the global mean stratospheric (61-9.8 hPa) temperature is simulated between the two SRM methods. Further, while the global mean surface diffuse radiation increases by ~23 % and direct radiation decreases by about 9 % in the case of sulphate aerosol SRM method, both direct and diffuse radiation decrease by similar fractional amounts (~1.0 %) when solar constant is reduced. When CO2 fertilization effects from elevated CO2 concentration levels are removed, the contribution from shaded leaves to gross primary productivity (GPP) increases by 1.8 % in aerosol SRM because of increased diffuse light. However, this increase is almost offset by a 15.2 % decline in sunlit contribution due to reduced direct light. Overall both the SRM simulations show similar decrease in GPP (~8 %) and net primary productivity (~3 %). Based on our results we conclude that the climate states produced by a reduction in solar constant and addition of aerosols into the stratosphere can be considered almost similar except for two important aspects: stratospheric temperature change and the consequent implications for the dynamics and the chemistry of the stratosphere and the partitioning of direct versus diffuse radiation reaching the surface. Further, the likely dependence of global hydrological cycle response on aerosol particle size and the latitudinal and

  10. Asymmetry and nonlinearity of the influence of ENSO on the northern winter stratosphere: 2. Model study with WACCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jian; Ren, Rongcai

    2016-08-01

    Long-term simulations from the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM-WACCM) as its atmospheric component are used to investigate the asymmetry and the nonlinearity of the influences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the northern winter stratosphere. As in Part 1 of this study, four different types of ENSO are considered. The composite CESM-WACCM results first confirm the conclusions drawn from the observations, that the stratospheric polar jet responses to "moderate El Niño" and "strong La Niña" are stronger than those to "strong El Niño" and "moderate La Niña". In association with the ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) patterns that are reproduced well in the model, the tropical rainfall response centers exhibit an asymmetric east-west shift between El Niño and La Niña, which directly leads to the nonlinear and asymmetric Pacific-North America responses in the extratropics. Accordingly, the strengthening (weakening) planetary wave response in the stratosphere during warm (cold) ENSO also exhibits nonlinear and asymmetric features. When the ENSO SST forcing is prescribed to be linear and symmetric in WACCM, the nonlinearity and asymmetry of the stratospheric responses to moderate ENSO reveal the dominant role of the inherent properties of the atmosphere. However, the absence of asymmetry and nonlinearity in the stratospheric responses to strong ENSO in our sensitivity experiments indicates that the asymmetry in SST forcing between strong El Niño and La Niña still plays an important role in the asymmetric and nonlinear influences of ENSO on the extratropics.

  11. Troposphere-lower-stratosphere connection in an intermediate complexity model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Paolo; King, Martin; Kucharski, Fred; Buizza, Roberto; Visconti, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The dynamical coupling between the troposphere and the lower stratosphere has been investigated using a low-top, intermediate complexity model provided by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (SPEEDY). The key question that we wanted to address is whether a simple model like SPEEDY can be used to understand troposphere-stratosphere interactions, e.g. forced by changes of sea-ice concentration in polar arctic regions. Three sets of experiments have been performed. Firstly, a potential vorticity perspective has been applied to understand the wave-like forcing of the troposphere on the stratosphere and to provide quantitative information on the sub seasonal variability of the coupling. Then, the zonally asymmetric, near-surface response to a lower-stratospheric forcing has been analysed in a set of forced experiments with an artificial heating imposed in the extra-tropical lower stratosphere. Finally, the lower-stratosphere response sensitivity to tropospheric initial conditions has been examined. Results indicate how SPEEDY captures the physics of the troposphere-stratosphere connection but also show the lack of stratospheric variability. Results also suggest that intermediate-complexity models such as