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Sample records for street landfill site

  1. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  2. Health assessment for Hooker Chemical (102nd Street Landfill), Niagara Falls, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980506810. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The 102nd Street Landfill is two sites that comprise 22 acres. Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) and its predecessor, the Oldbury Electrochemical Company, deposited approximately 23,500 tons of mixed organic solvents, organic and inorganic phosphates, and related chemicals. Included in the site are approximately 300 tons of hexachlorocyclohexane process cake, including lindane. In addition, brine sludge, fly ash, electrochemical cell parts and related equipment in unknown quantities were dumped at the site. On-site contamination of the 102nd Street Landfill includes soils contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquids on both portions of the Landfill. Off-site contamination, based on current studies, results from contaminated ground-water leaching into the Niagara River which causes contamination of the river water, sediments, and aquatic organisms, including fish. The 102nd Street Landfill continues to represent a potential public health threat.

  3. Case study of landfill reclamation at a Florida landfill site.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Johnson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A landfill reclamation project was considered to recover landfill airspace and soil, reduce future groundwater impacts by removing the waste buried in the unlined area, and optimize airspace use at the site. A phased approach was utilized to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the reclamation project; based on the results of these evaluations, approximately 6.8 ha of the unlined cells were reclaimed. Approximately 371,000 in-place cubic meters of waste was mined from 6.8 ha in this project. Approximately 230,600 cubic meters of net airspace was recovered due to beneficial use of the recovered final cover soil and reclaimed soil as intermediate and daily cover soil, respectively, for the current landfill operations. This paper presents the researchers' landfill reclamation project experience, including a summary of activities pertaining to reclamation operations, an estimation of reclamation rates achieved during the project, project costs and benefits, and estimated composition of the reclaimed materials.

  4. 11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. (BUILDINGS 131, 130, 129, AND 128 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  6. Optimizing landfill site selection by using land classification maps.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M; Homaee, M; Mahmoodi, S; Pazira, E; Van Genuchten, M Th

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is a major environmental concern throughout the world. Proper landfill siting involves many environmental, economic, technical, and sociocultural challenges. In this study, a new quantitative method for landfill siting that reduces the number of evaluation criteria, simplifies siting procedures, and enhances the utility of available land evaluation maps was proposed. The method is demonstrated by selecting a suitable landfill site near the city of Marvdasht in Iran. The approach involves two separate stages. First, necessary criteria for preliminary landfill siting using four constraints and eight factors were obtained from a land classification map initially prepared for irrigation purposes. Thereafter, the criteria were standardized using a rating approach and then weighted to obtain a suitability map for landfill siting, with ratings in a 0-1 domain and divided into five suitability classes. Results were almost identical to those obtained with a more traditional environmental landfill siting approach. Because of far fewer evaluation criteria, the proposed weighting method was much easier to implement while producing a more convincing database for landfill siting. The classification map also considered land productivity. In the second stage, the six best alternative sites were evaluated for final landfill siting using four additional criteria. Sensitivity analyses were furthermore conducted to assess the stability of the obtained ranking. Results indicate that the method provides a precise siting procedure that should convince all pertinent stakeholders.

  7. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  8. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  9. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  10. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Jarrah, Omar . E-mail: aljarrah@just.edu.jo; Abu-Qdais, Hani . E-mail: hqdais@just.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  11. Bacterial community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the bacterial diversity of landfills and how environmental factors impact the diversity. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities of ten landfill leachate samples from five landfill sites in China. A total of 137 K useable sequences from the V3-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were retrieved from 205 K reads. These sequences revealed the presence of a large number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the landfills (709-1599 OTUs per sample). The most predominant bacterial representatives in the landfills investigated, regardless of geographic area, included Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The phyla Fusobacteria and Tenericutes were also found for the first time to be predominant in the landfills. The phylum Fusobacteria predominated (51.5 and 48.8%) in two semi-arid landfills, and the phylum Tenericutes dominated (30.6%) at one humid, subtropical landfill. Further, a large number of Pseudomonas was detected in most samples, comprising the dominant group and accounting for 40.9 to 92.4% of the total abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis based on OTU abundance showed that the abundant taxa separated the bacterial community. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that precipitation and landfilling age significantly impact on the bacterial community structure. The bacterial community function (e.g., cellulolytic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfate-oxidizing bacteria, and xenobiotic organic compound (XOC)-degrading bacteria) was also diverse, but the pattern is unclear.

  12. Bacterial community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the bacterial diversity of landfills and how environmental factors impact the diversity. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities of ten landfill leachate samples from five landfill sites in China. A total of 137 K useable sequences from the V3-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were retrieved from 205 K reads. These sequences revealed the presence of a large number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the landfills (709-1599 OTUs per sample). The most predominant bacterial representatives in the landfills investigated, regardless of geographic area, included Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The phyla Fusobacteria and Tenericutes were also found for the first time to be predominant in the landfills. The phylum Fusobacteria predominated (51.5 and 48.8%) in two semi-arid landfills, and the phylum Tenericutes dominated (30.6%) at one humid, subtropical landfill. Further, a large number of Pseudomonas was detected in most samples, comprising the dominant group and accounting for 40.9 to 92.4% of the total abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis based on OTU abundance showed that the abundant taxa separated the bacterial community. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that precipitation and landfilling age significantly impact on the bacterial community structure. The bacterial community function (e.g., cellulolytic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfate-oxidizing bacteria, and xenobiotic organic compound (XOC)-degrading bacteria) was also diverse, but the pattern is unclear. PMID:25981996

  13. Site-specific criteria for the completion of landfill aftercare.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

    2012-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills need to be managed after closure to assure long-term environmental compatibility. Aftercare can be completed when the authorities consider the landfill not likely to pose a threat to humans and the environment. In this work, a methodology for deriving site-specific aftercare completion criteria is presented and its application is illustrated via a case study. The evaluation method combines models addressing waste emission behavior, long-term barrier performance, and pollutant migration to assess the potential impact of landfill emissions on the environment. Based on the definition of acceptable impact levels at certain points of compliance, scenario- and pollutant-specific aftercare completion criteria are derived. The methodology was applied to a closed MSW landfill in Austria and potential aftercare durations were determined. While landfill gas emissions may become environmentally tolerable within decades at the site, leachate-related aftercare measures were expected to be necessary for centuries (primarily as a result of ammonium). Although the evaluation comes with large uncertainties, it allows for linking aftercare intensity and duration with respect to an environmentally compatible state of the landfill in the absence of aftercare. However, further case studies including regulatory review and acceptance are needed to use the methodology in a decision support tool on aftercare completion.

  14. The economic and social aspects of sanitary landfill site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of suitable sites for sanitary land fills are discussed. The economic considerations and problems of social acceptance are considered the most important. The subjects discussed are: (1) accessibility of land, (2) availability of cover material, (3) expected capacity of site, (4) cover material and compaction, (5) fire protection, (6) site location with respect to residential and industrial areas, and (7) land usage after landfill completion.

  15. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  16. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... AGENCY Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland, Boyd County... Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow...

  17. Landfill site selection by using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şener, Başak; Süzen, M. Lütfi; Doyuran, Vedat

    2006-01-01

    One of the serious and growing potential problems in most large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. Although there are some efforts to reduce and recover the waste, disposal in landfills is still the most common method for waste destination. An inappropriate landfill site may have negative environmental, economic and ecological impacts. Therefore, it should be selected carefully by considering both regulations and constraints on other sources. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in the vicinity of Ankara are determined by using the integration of geographic information systems and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). For this purpose, 16 input map layers including topography, settlements (urban centers and villages), roads (Highway E90 and village roads), railways, airport, wetlands, infrastructures (pipelines and power lines), slope, geology, land use, floodplains, aquifers and surface water are prepared and two different MCDA methods (simple additive weighting and analytic hierarchy process) are implemented to a geographical information system. Comparison of the maps produced by these two different methods shows that both methods yield conformable results. Field checks also confirm that the candidate sites agree well with the selected criteria.

  18. Quantification of landfill emissions to air: a case study of the Ano Liosia landfill site in the greater Athens area.

    PubMed

    Paraskaki, Ioanna; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2005-06-01

    Fugitive pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste landfills have the potential to cause annoyance and health impacts in the surrounding residential areas. The overall objective of this research was to perform an assessment of fugitive pollutant emissions and a dispersion analysis downwind of a specific landfill site. The study was performed at the closed Ano Liosia landfill site which is located in the greater Athens area. The human exposure from priority to health-risk pollutants emitted from landfill, such as vinyl chloride and benzene, was estimated by the landfill gas emission LandGEM 2.01 software combined with the atmospheric long-term dispersion model ISC3-LT. The emission and meteorological conditions under which the models were applied referred to the worst-case scenario. This scenario was used for the evaluation of the maximum human exposure assessed beyond the Ano Liosia landfill towards the residential areas. The above scenario provides the minimum downwind distance of the health-risk zone which is calculated to be equal to 1.5 km from the landfill. Within this distance the assessed air pollutant concentration for several air pollutants was significantly above the World Health Organization reference lifetime exposure health criteria. Finally, the applied methodology was used in the Ano Liosia landfill, where atmospheric concentrations of pollutants measured in the field were compared with model predictions. PMID:15997481

  19. Quantification of landfill emissions to air: a case study of the Ano Liosia landfill site in the greater Athens area.

    PubMed

    Paraskaki, Ioanna; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2005-06-01

    Fugitive pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste landfills have the potential to cause annoyance and health impacts in the surrounding residential areas. The overall objective of this research was to perform an assessment of fugitive pollutant emissions and a dispersion analysis downwind of a specific landfill site. The study was performed at the closed Ano Liosia landfill site which is located in the greater Athens area. The human exposure from priority to health-risk pollutants emitted from landfill, such as vinyl chloride and benzene, was estimated by the landfill gas emission LandGEM 2.01 software combined with the atmospheric long-term dispersion model ISC3-LT. The emission and meteorological conditions under which the models were applied referred to the worst-case scenario. This scenario was used for the evaluation of the maximum human exposure assessed beyond the Ano Liosia landfill towards the residential areas. The above scenario provides the minimum downwind distance of the health-risk zone which is calculated to be equal to 1.5 km from the landfill. Within this distance the assessed air pollutant concentration for several air pollutants was significantly above the World Health Organization reference lifetime exposure health criteria. Finally, the applied methodology was used in the Ano Liosia landfill, where atmospheric concentrations of pollutants measured in the field were compared with model predictions.

  20. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  1. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  2. Choosing a municipal landfill site by analytic network process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banar, Mufide; Kose, Barbaros Murat; Ozkan, Aysun; Poyraz Acar, Ilgin

    2007-04-01

    In this study, analytic network process (ANP), one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools has been used to choose one of the four alternative landfill sites for the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. For this purpose, Super Decision Software has been used and benefit opportunity cost and risk (BOCR) analysis has been done to apply ANP. In BOCR analysis, each alternative site has been evaluated in terms of its benefits, costs and risks; the opportunity cluster has been examined under the benefit cluster. In this context, technical, economical and social assessments have been done for the site selection of sanitary landfill. Also, results have been compared with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) which is another MCDM technique used in the study conducted before. Finally, the current site has been determined as the most appropriate site in both methods. These methods have not been commonly used in the discipline of environmental engineering but it is believed to be an important contribution for decision makers.

  3. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of off-site public utilities and streets in all cases, except where a municipality or other public body has...

  4. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-10-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  5. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  6. Evaluation of a municipal landfill site in Southern Spain with GIS-aided methodology.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Montserrat; Molero, Emilio; Hurtado, Alvaro; Grindlay, Alejandro; Ramos, Angel

    2008-12-30

    Landfill siting should take into account a wide range of territorial and legal factors in order to reduce negative impacts on the environment. This article describes a landfill siting method, which is based on EVIAVE, a landfill diagnosis method developed at the University of Granada. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology is also used to generate spatial data for site assessment. Landfill site suitability is assessed on a scale based on territorial indices that measure the risk of contamination for the following five environmental components: surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil, and human health. The method described in this article has been used to evaluate an area in Granada (Spain) where there is a currently operating landfill. The results obtained show that suitable locations for the disposal of municipal waste were successfully identified. The low environmental index values reflect the suitability of this landfill site as well as its minimal negative impacts on the environment.

  7. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  8. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I.; Kontaksakis, M.; Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  9. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential). PMID:26185166

  10. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential).

  11. Empirical approach to predict leached nutrients from landfill site.

    PubMed

    Barman, Pranab Jyoti; Kartha, Suresh A; Pradhan, Bulu

    2015-05-01

    An empirical approach is made in this investigation to predict the leached concentrations of sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) in the effluents from a landfill site. Water at certain predetermined inflow filling rate is applied to a specific ponding depth, at the top of an experimental column filled with landfill refuse soil at the top (upper layer) and normal local soil at the bottom (base layer). The water infiltrates into the upper layer soil, percolates through the pores in upper and base layers, and in the process leaches the nutrients from the soils that are collected at the bottom of the column. The experimentations were for different combinations of heights of upper and base layer soils, water ponding depth, and inflow filling rates. The nutrient concentrations in the outflow leachates are measured using flame photometer. The observations showed mixed responses of leaching and trapping of nutrients in the soil layers for the various combinations. The experimental observations also inferred that the nutrient leaching is more for cases involving higher ponding depths and higher inflow filling rates. Empirical relationships with respect to the geometrical parameters, to predict the leached concentrations of Na, Ca, and K, are developed from the experimental observations using nonlinear least squares regressive techniques. Exponential equations gave the best empirical fit among various nonlinear relations in the regression technique. The empirical models also predicted well for each subcategory of independent variables that are substantiated by high correlation coefficients. PMID:25410312

  12. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  13. Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nas, Bilgehan; Cay, Tayfun; Iscan, Fatih; Berktay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Landfill is a common solution for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. Landfill siting is an extremely difficult task to accomplish because the site selection process depends on different factors and regulations. To ensure that an appropriate site is chosen, a systematic process should be developed and followed. Unsuccessful landfill siting is typically the result of strong public opposition. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in Cumra County of Konya City are determined by using the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). ArcGIS 9.0 software and its extensions were used as the GIS tool since it is able to perform suitability analysis using MCE analysis. To identify appropriate landfill areas in the Cumra district, eight input map layers including proximity to municipal and local wells and irrigational canals, distance from transportation routes and rails, distance from archaeological sites, distance from urban areas, land use/land cover, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identifies regions showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. According to the map, 6.8% of the study area is most suitable, 15.7% is suitable, 10.4% is moderately suitable, 25.8% is poorly suitable, and 41.3% is unsuitable. At the end of the analyses, three candidate sites are determined. The selection of the final MSW landfill site, however, requires further field research. PMID:19169836

  14. Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect

  15. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study. PMID:11958553

  16. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  17. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  18. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  19. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  20. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  1. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  2. Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.

    PubMed

    Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach.

  3. Landfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, S. M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Iran. Several environmental pollution and soil degradation problems were found as a consequence of poor planning of landfills. So recognition of the MSW landfill state is required to prevent environmental problems. The objective of this research was to study the suitability of existing municipal landfill sites using geographic information system methods. Tonekabon city in the west area of Mazandaran province, northern Iran, along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, was chosen as a case study. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines were used: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and regional screening guidelines. The results indicate that the landfills were not located in suitable sites and also that there are few suitable locations to install the landfills.

  4. Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: a review of epidemiologic literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates current epidemiologic literature on health effects in relation to residence near landfill sites. Increases in risk of adverse health effects (low birth weight, birth defects, certain types of cancers) have been reported near individual landfill sites and in some multisite studies, and although biases and confounding factors cannot be excluded as explanations for these findings, they may indicate real risks associated with residence near certain landfill sites. A general weakness in the reviewed studies is the lack of direct exposure measurement. An increased prevalence of self-reported health symptoms such as fatigue, sleepiness, and headaches among residents near waste sites has consistently been reported in more than 10 of the reviewed papers. It is difficult to conclude whether these symptoms are an effect of direct toxicologic action of chemicals present in waste sites, an effect of stress and fears related to the waste site, or an effect of reporting bias. Although a substantial number of studies have been conducted, risks to health from landfill sites are hard to quantify. There is insufficient exposure information and effects of low-level environmental exposure in the general population are by their nature difficult to establish. More interdisciplinary research can improve levels of knowledge on risks to human health of waste disposal in landfill sites. Research needs include epidemiologic and toxicologic studies on individual chemicals and chemical mixtures, well-designed single- and multisite landfill studies, development of biomarkers, and research on risk perception and sociologic determinants of ill health. PMID:10698726

  5. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-01

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p < 0.05). At downgradient wells where sulfate concentrations were greater than 150 mg/L (approximately 10% of the maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in water, which suggests the presence of leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 μg/L and 11 μg/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass.

  6. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-01

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p < 0.05). At downgradient wells where sulfate concentrations were greater than 150 mg/L (approximately 10% of the maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in water, which suggests the presence of leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 μg/L and 11 μg/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass. PMID:26130423

  7. Spatial Data Mining Toolbox for Mapping Suitability of Landfill Sites Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujayyab, S. K. M.; Ahamad, M. S. S.; Yahya, A. S.; Aziz, H. A.

    2016-09-01

    Mapping the suitability of landfill sites is a complex field and is involved with multidiscipline. The purpose of this research is to create an ArcGIS spatial data mining toolbox for mapping the suitability of landfill sites at a regional scale using neural networks. The toolbox is constructed from six sub-tools to prepare, train, and process data. The employment of the toolbox is straightforward. The multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks structure with a backpropagation learning algorithm is used. The dataset is mined from the north states in Malaysia. A total of 14 criteria are utilized to build the training dataset. The toolbox provides a platform for decision makers to implement neural networks for mapping the suitability of landfill sites in the ArcGIS environment. The result shows the ability of the toolbox to produce suitability maps for landfill sites.

  8. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  10. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  11. Natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes at three Danish sites.

    PubMed

    Bjerg, Poul L; Tuxen, Nina; Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of comprehensive core and fringe field studies at three Danish landfill sites. The goal of the research activities is to provide a holistic description of core and fringe attenuation processes for xenobiotic organic compounds in landfill leachate plumes. The approach used is cross-disciplinary, encompassing integration of field-scale observations at different scales, field injection experiments, laboratory experiments, and reactive solute transport modeling. This is illustrated in examples from the most recently investigated site-the Sjoelund Landfill. The research performed serves as good case studies to conceptualize natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes and also supports the notion that monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may be a possible remediation strategy at landfills. However, landfill leachate plumes challenge traditional approaches and tools used in the application of MNA. In particular, the use of in situ indicators to document mass removal in landfill leachate plumes is emphasized. In this article, we advocate the application of conceptual and numerical models as tools for the integration of data and testing of hypotheses.

  12. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Diamond Shamrock Landfill Site, Cedartown, GA, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedy for the Diamond Shamrock Landfill Site, Cedartown, Georgia. This action is the final action planned for the Site. The alternative calls for implementation of response measures which will protect human health and the environment. The action addresses source and ground water contamination at the Site.

  13. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Archaeal community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Despite the pivotal role of archaea in methane production in landfills, the identity, ecology, and functional diversity of these microorganisms and their link to environmental factors remain largely unknown. We collected 11 landfill leachate samples from six geographically distinct landfills of different ages in China and analyzed the archaeal community by bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing. We retrieved 121,797 sequences from a total of 167,583 sequences (average length of 464 bp). The archaeal community was geographically structured, and nonabundant taxa primarily contributed to the observed dissimilarities. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that the total phosphorous (TP), nitrate, and conductivity are important drivers for shaping the archaeal community. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales greatly dominated 9 of 11 samples, ranging from 83.7 to 99.5 %. These methanogens also dominated the remaining two samples, accounting for 70.3 and 58.8 %, respectively. Interestingly, for all of the studied Chinese landfills, 16S rRNA analysis indicated the predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Odusanya, David O.; Okonkwo, Jonathan O. Botha, Ben

    2009-01-15

    The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high

  16. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  17. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  18. Municipal landfill sites as sources of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans.

    PubMed

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Burkowska, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    The present research was aimed at assessing the quality of air and soil on the premises and in the vicinity of the municipal landfill sites in Toruń with regard to the presence of pathogenic bacteria, potentially dangerous to humans. Air samples (the impaction method using a MAS-100 impactor) and soil samples were collected from seven sampling sites including the operating and closed landfill cells, sampling sites located near leachate ponds, and sampling sites located outside the above premises. The research also involved assessing microbial air contamination in three indoor spaces on the premises of the landfill sites. Microbial tests involved the determination of the number of culturable mesophilic, mannitol-positive, and α- and β-hemolytic bacteria in the air, determination of the number of coliform bacteria, spore-forming Clostridium perfringens in soil, and the presence of Salmonella in soil. The results indicate that bioaerosol emitted by this municipal facility is the source of hemolytic bacteria (≤ 300 CFU m(-3) of air), as well as of pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis). The highest risk of exposure to biological agents was determined in the sorting facility. Over sixty percent of air samples in this sampling site presented high pollution degree with mesophilic bacteria (500-2000 CFU m(-3) of air) and over one fourth of air samples presented very high pollution degree (>2000 CFU m(-3) of air). Indoor air in other rooms was considered highly/moderately contaminated (100-2000 CFU m(-3) of air). The highest risk related to the presence of Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, and coliform bacteria in soil was determined at the operating landfill cell and near the leachate pond of the closed landfill cell. At the operating landfill cell the total coli ranged from 4-1226 MPN g(-1) of dry mass of soil and Clostridium perfringens ranged from

  19. Limited site investigation of Landfills 1 and 4, Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Eddy, P.A.; Airhart, S.P.; Olsen, K.R.; Raymond, J.R.; Dahl, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The information presented in this report was collected during limited site investigation activities conducted in the vicinity of Landfills 1 and 4 at Fort Lewis. The purpose of this work was to provide a means of detecting and evaluating the impacts of these inactive landfills on ground-water quality and adjacent lands. This effort included the design and construction of ground-water monitoring systems for compliance with applicable federal and state regulations governing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-type landfills. Ground-water samples were collected from both existing (1981 and 1984) wells and the newly installed (1988) wells. The analytical results from the water samples indicate that the ground water in and around Landfill 1 contains limited contamination. Contaminants may include volatile organic compounds and nitrate. The primary concern in the area around Landfill 1 was the determination that ground water from two wells may contain cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. Nitrate levels in the downgradient wells were greater than those in upgradient wells and exceeded drinking water standards in some of the less-representative samples. Analyses of ground-water samples from wells in and around Landfill 4 indicate several contaminants may be present. These include volatile organic compounds (principally cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene), coliform, oil and grease, and perhaps some metals (iron and magnesium). The primary concern in the area around Landfill 4 was the determination that ground water from five wells contained cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. The source of contaminants beneath either landfill cannot yet be identified. Insufficient data exist to disprove or confirm either landfill as possible contributors. 19 refs., 32 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. A methodology for the determination of fugitive dust emissions from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria; Glytsos, Thodoros; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a methodology for the determination of the contribution of fugitive dust emissions from landfill sites to ambient PM10 concentrations and the subsequent exposure to working personnel. Fugitive dust emissions in landfills mainly originate from resuspension due to truck traffic on paved and unpaved roads and from wind-blown dust from landfill cover soil. The results revealed that exposure to PM10, originating from fugitive dust emissions in the landfill site, was exceeding the health protection standards (50 μg m(-3)). The higher average daily PM10 concentration (average value) for weekdays was equal to 275 μg m(-3) and was computed for the areas nearby the unpaved road located inside the landfill facilities that lead to the landfill cell. The percentage contributions of road and wind-blown dust to the PM10 concentrations on weekdays were equal to 76 and 1%, respectively. The influence of the background concentration is estimated close to 23%.

  1. Stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δD) of methane from European landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Lubina, C.; KöNigstedt, R.; Fischer, H.; Veltkamp, A. C.; Zwaagstra, O.

    1998-04-01

    The stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δD) of CH4 from four German and Dutch landfill sites have been characterized using different techniques for isotope analysis (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry). Samples taken directly from the gas collection systems show fairly uniform, biogenic δ13C-δD isotopic signatures [δ13C = (-59.0±2.2)‰ VPDB (n = 104); δD = (-304±10)‰ VSMOW (n = 46)]. In contrast, emission samples taken with static chambers on soil-covered landfill areas exhibit a considerable δ13C-δD variability, mainly due to the influence of aerobic bacterial CH4 oxidation, which occurs when the biogas CH4 encounters atmospheric oxygen available in the uppermost region of the cover soil. Soil gas samples from the landfill covers clearly show the progressive isotopic enrichment within the aerobic regions of the soil. Isotope fractionation factors due to CH4 oxidation were determined to be α(δ13C) = 1.008±0.004 and α(δD) = 1.039±0.026. On average, about 80% (70-97%) of CH4 is oxidized during the transport through cover soils, while no significant CH4 oxidation was found in uncovered areas consisting of freshly dumped waste. Area-integrated δ13C values of total emissions were derived from upwind-downwind measurements around the landfill and show very little temporal and site-to-site variation (δ13C = (-55.4±1.4)‰ VPDB (n = 13; four different landfills)). CH4 budgets were established for two landfill sites, indicating that projected CH4 surface emissions from uncovered and covered areas are significantly lower compared to total CH4 production (for a landfill without gas collection) or compared to the difference between CH4 production and recovery (for a landfill with a gas collection system). For these two landfill sites the overall fraction of CH4 oxidation is estimated to be 46 and 39% (53%) of total CH4 production (minus recovery). Furthermore, the δ13C balance (comparing the δ13C values of the

  2. Changing face of the landfill

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Integrated approach at Oregon landfill diverts wood and yard trimmings, while turning methane into power for 1,800 homes. Opened in the 1940`s as an open burn dump, Coffin Butte has evolved over the years into a sophisticated waste management facility incorporating ambitious recovery programs. While some of this change has been driven by regulatory demands, many of Valley Landfill`s innovations have come in response to market opportunities. Valley Landfill`s Processing and Recovery Center (PRC) is located a half mile down the road from the landfill site. Opened in 1990, the facility recycles urban wood waste, yard trimmings and street sweepings. The heart of this operation is a 500 hp horizontal feed, fixed-hammer grinder. Although this machine is typically used only for wood grinding, PRC was able to adapt it to handle both wood and yard trimmings by installing special feed roll assembly to compress green waste passing over the infeed belt. The facility handles approximately 40,000 cubic yards of loose green material and produces 15,000 to 18,000 yards of compost. The finished product is run through a trommel with a 5/8 inch mesh screen. Most of the compost is sold in bulk to area garden centers. A portion is processed through a 3/8 inch shaker screen and sold to a local company for use in bagged soil products. Valley Landfill is a partner in an ambitious project to generate electricity from landfill biogas.

  3. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F.

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  4. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Sumathi, V.R. Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-15

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  5. Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zume, J.T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Source apportionment of groundwater pollution around landfill site in Nagpur, India.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Paras R; Deshpande, Vijaya

    2005-12-01

    The present work attempts statistical analysis of groundwater quality near a Landfill site in Nagpur, India. The objective of the present work is to figure out the impact of different factors on the quality of groundwater in the study area. Statistical analysis of the data has been attempted by applying Factor Analysis concept. The analysis brings out the effect of five different factors governing the groundwater quality in the study area. Based on the contribution of the different parameters present in the extracted factors, the latter are linked to the geological setting, the leaching from the host rock, leachate of heavy metals from the landfill as well as the bacterial contamination from landfill site and other anthropogenic activities. The analysis brings out the vulnerability of the unconfined aquifer to contamination.

  7. Using Mcda and GIS for Landfill Site Selection: Central Districts of Antalya Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, E.; San, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to select new landfill sites in Antalya, Turkey which is the fifth biggest city according to the population, approximately 1.2 million. It is the first rank according to the population growth rate in Turkey. The city of Antalya is the touristic places and its climate is Mediterranean climate. Therefore, choosing landfill site is very crucial and it affects the future of the city. Existing landfill site will not be sufficient in near future. The study was implemented in the Aksu, Dosemealti, Kepez, Konyaalti, and Muratpasa districts in Antalya. The study area has almost 1980 km-square. Twelve parameters which are geology, fault lines, landslides, river, lake, elevation, slope, aspect, population, rain, road network, and temperature data were determined. These parameters were assessed using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method and the weights of criteria layers were computed. Then, the computed weights were checked by the consistency index and consistency ratio which were found as 0.12 and 8.5%, respectively. The consistency index for 12 parameters should be lower than 1.48 and the consistency ratio should be less than 10%. This means that the constructed AHP matrix is suitable for analysis. Finally, the most suitable areas for landfill were computed according to the weights achieved from AHP matrix. The results were obtained in a range between 0.39 and 0.90. When the obtained results were compared with the existing landfill site called Kizilli area, the AHP score was found as 0.62. Therefore, new landfill area(s) should be selected from the determined results.

  8. Factors influencing the establishment of floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Natural revegetation on landfill sites often results in a species poor sward dominated by Elymus repens (Shaw, 1983; Davis, 1988; Wong, 1988). The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the mechanism by which E.repens achieved such apparent domination and secondly to investigate various methods to establish floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site. Low rates of germination and survival were recorded from seeds of Plantago lanceolata, Centaureau nigrand Leucanthemum vulgare sown into a sward of E.repens on a restored landfill site in Essex, even during periods with adequate soil water. Plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L. vulgare were grown in pots and transplanted into the sward of E.repens. Over the following two years a significant decrease in crown cover of these species was recorded. In areas where E.repens had been treated with herbicide or mown, seedlings and introduced plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare increased in cover over two years. Stomatal conductance of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare was reduced when these species were growing with E.repens even during periods with adequate soil water. P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare growing with E.repens on restored landfill has been shown experimentally to result in reduced cover. It is suggested that this is due to competition in combination potentially, with allelochemical effects of E.repens. Successful establishment of a floristically rich grass mix was achieved by the reduction in cover of E.repens by herbicide or mowing. On newly restored landfill a careful balance between soil treatments, fertilizer levels and subsequent management in the form of mowing must be attained in order to establish floristically rich grasslands. The results from this study show that by utilizing various management techniques a floristically rich grass mix could be established on a restored landfill site.

  9. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site (Chania, Greece).

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, E; Lazaridis, M

    2010-09-01

    Air pollutants emitted from landfills affect air quality, contribute to the greenhouse effect and may cause serious problems to human health under certain circumstances. The current study was focused on the determination of air emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site which is located in the Akrotiri area (Chania, Greece). The landfill consists of two phases, phase A (first phase) which is currently closed (operational between 2003 and 2007) and phase B (second phase, operation between 2007 and (foreseen) 2013). Three different emission models (the EPA LandGEM model, the triangular model and the stoichiometric model) were used for the quantification of emissions. The LandGEM 3.02 software was further adopted and used in conjunction with the long-term dispersion model ISC3-LT for the evaluation of the dispersion of gaseous chemical components from the landfill. The emission and meteorological conditions under which the models were applied were based on the worst-case emission scenario. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide, vinyl chloride and benzene were determined in and around the landfill site. The concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and benzene were calculated to be far below the limit value proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human health safety. However, the vinyl chloride concentrations were above the WHO reference lifetime exposure health criteria for the phase B area.

  10. GIS modelling for new landfill sites: critical review of employed criteria and methods of selection criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Shukri Yahya, Ahmad; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Policy makers and the public are increasingly concerned with the determination of landfill-siting input criteria (DLSIC) in landfill modelling procedures as an area of research. Thus, its procedures are complicated and decision makers are increasingly pressured. These procedures can be considerably develop in order to reduce the negative effect of landfill locations on the environment, economy, and society. In this review article, literature related to the developments of 64 models and their procedures in the past 18 years (from 1997 to 2014) were comprehensively survey. DLSIC are determined through a conventional method. The frequency of criterion usage reflects the limitation of Conventional method for DLSIC. Moreover, some of these studies utilize unrelated criteria that are time-consuming, costly, arduous, and fruitless. Potential improvement in Geographic information systems GIS modelling parameter for landfill sites via utilizing multivariate analysis (MVA) instead of Conventional method (CM) through for DLSIC (e.g., Input variables, Accuracy, objectivity, reliability of criteria, time consumption, cost and comprehensiveness) were emphasize. It can be conclude that expenses can be reduce by implementing MVA in DLSIC for landfill modelling using geographic information systems (GIS) based on the corresponding significant level. Moreover, the determined criteria can be accurate, satisfying, sufficient, and free of bias from experts and human error.

  11. Spatial effect of new municipal solid waste landfill siting using different guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2014-01-01

    Proper implementation of landfill siting with the right regulations and constraints can prevent undesirable long-term effects. Different countries have respective guidelines on criteria for new landfill sites. In this article, we perform a comparative study of municipal solid waste landfill siting criteria stated in the policies and guidelines of eight different constitutional bodies from Malaysia, Australia, India, U.S.A., Europe, China and the Middle East, and the World Bank. Subsequently, a geographic information system (GIS) multi-criteria evaluation model was applied to determine new suitable landfill sites using different criterion parameters using a constraint mapping technique and weighted linear combination. Application of Macro Modeler provided in the GIS-IDRISI Andes software helps in building and executing multi-step models. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process technique was included to determine the criterion weight of the decision maker's preferences as part of the weighted linear combination procedure. The differences in spatial results of suitable sites obtained signifies that dissimilarity in guideline specifications and requirements will have an effect on the decision-making process. PMID:24241167

  12. Mathematical modeling of heavy metals contamination from MSW landfill site in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tantemsapya, N; Naksakul, Y; Wirojanagud, W

    2011-01-01

    Kham Bon landfill site is one of many municipality waste disposal sites in Thailand which are in an unsanitary condition. The site has been receiving municipality wastes without separating hazardous waste since 1968. Heavy metals including, Pb, Cr and Cd are found in soil and groundwater around the site, posing a health risk to people living nearby. In this research, contamination transport modelling of Pb, Cr and Cd was simulated using MODFLOW for two periods, at the present (2010) and 20 years prediction (2030). Model results showed that heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr migrated toward the north-eastern and south-eastern direction. The 20 years prediction showed that, heavy metals tend to move from the top soil to the deeper aquifer. The migration would not exceed 500 m radius from the landfill centre in the next 20 years, which is considered to be a slow process. From the simulation model, it is recommended that a mitigation measure should be performed to reduce the risk from landfill contamination. Hazardous waste should be separated for proper management. Groundwater contamination in the aquifer should be closely monitored. Consumption of groundwater in a 500 m radius must be avoided. In addition, rehabilitation of the landfill site should be undertaken to prevent further mobilization of pollutants.

  13. Spatial effect of new municipal solid waste landfill siting using different guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2014-01-01

    Proper implementation of landfill siting with the right regulations and constraints can prevent undesirable long-term effects. Different countries have respective guidelines on criteria for new landfill sites. In this article, we perform a comparative study of municipal solid waste landfill siting criteria stated in the policies and guidelines of eight different constitutional bodies from Malaysia, Australia, India, U.S.A., Europe, China and the Middle East, and the World Bank. Subsequently, a geographic information system (GIS) multi-criteria evaluation model was applied to determine new suitable landfill sites using different criterion parameters using a constraint mapping technique and weighted linear combination. Application of Macro Modeler provided in the GIS-IDRISI Andes software helps in building and executing multi-step models. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process technique was included to determine the criterion weight of the decision maker's preferences as part of the weighted linear combination procedure. The differences in spatial results of suitable sites obtained signifies that dissimilarity in guideline specifications and requirements will have an effect on the decision-making process.

  14. Seismic characterization and dynamic site response of a municipal solid waste landfill in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, P; SivakumarBabu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; VivekAnand, K S

    2016-03-01

    Seismic design of landfills requires an understanding of the dynamic properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the dynamic site response of landfill waste during seismic events. The dynamic response of the Mavallipura landfill situated in Bangalore, India, is investigated using field measurements, laboratory studies and recorded ground motions from the intraplate region. The dynamic shear modulus values for the MSW were established on the basis of field measurements of shear wave velocities. Cyclic triaxial testing was performed on reconstituted MSW samples and the shear modulus reduction and damping characteristics of MSW were studied. Ten ground motions were selected based on regional seismicity and site response parameters have been obtained considering one-dimensional non-linear analysis in the DEEPSOIL program. The surface spectral response varied from 0.6 to 2 g and persisted only for a period of 1 s for most of the ground motions. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained was 0.5 g and the minimum and maximum amplifications are 1.35 and 4.05. Amplification of the base acceleration was observed at the top surface of the landfill underlined by a composite soil layer and bedrock for all ground motions. Dynamic seismic properties with amplification and site response parameters for MSW landfill in Bangalore, India, are presented in this paper. This study shows that MSW has less shear stiffness and more amplification due to loose filling and damping, which need to be accounted for seismic design of MSW landfills in India. PMID:26759434

  15. Seismic characterization and dynamic site response of a municipal solid waste landfill in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, P; SivakumarBabu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; VivekAnand, K S

    2016-03-01

    Seismic design of landfills requires an understanding of the dynamic properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the dynamic site response of landfill waste during seismic events. The dynamic response of the Mavallipura landfill situated in Bangalore, India, is investigated using field measurements, laboratory studies and recorded ground motions from the intraplate region. The dynamic shear modulus values for the MSW were established on the basis of field measurements of shear wave velocities. Cyclic triaxial testing was performed on reconstituted MSW samples and the shear modulus reduction and damping characteristics of MSW were studied. Ten ground motions were selected based on regional seismicity and site response parameters have been obtained considering one-dimensional non-linear analysis in the DEEPSOIL program. The surface spectral response varied from 0.6 to 2 g and persisted only for a period of 1 s for most of the ground motions. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained was 0.5 g and the minimum and maximum amplifications are 1.35 and 4.05. Amplification of the base acceleration was observed at the top surface of the landfill underlined by a composite soil layer and bedrock for all ground motions. Dynamic seismic properties with amplification and site response parameters for MSW landfill in Bangalore, India, are presented in this paper. This study shows that MSW has less shear stiffness and more amplification due to loose filling and damping, which need to be accounted for seismic design of MSW landfills in India.

  16. Spatio-temporal evolution of biogeochemical processes at a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of fate and transport of contaminants are strongly dependent on spatio-temporal variability of soil hydraulic and geochemical properties. This study focuses on time-series signatures of hydrological and geochemical properties at different locations within the Norman landfill site. Norman Landfill is a closed municipal landfill site with prevalent organic contamination. Monthly data at the site include specific conductance, δ18O, δ2H, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate) from 1998-2006. Column scale data on chemical concentrations, redox gradients, and flow parameters are also available on daily and hydrological event (infiltration, drainage, etc.) scales. Since high-resolution datasets of contaminant concentrations are usually unavailable, Wavelet and Fourier analyses were used to infer the dominance of different biogeochemical processes at different spatio-temporal scales and to extract linkages between transport and reaction processes. Results indicate that time variability controls the progression of reactions affecting biodegradation of contaminants. Wavelet analysis suggests that iron-sulfide reduction reactions had high seasonal variability at the site, while fermentation processes dominated at the annual time scale. Findings also suggest the dominance of small spatial features such as layered interfaces and clay lenses in driving biogeochemical reactions at both column and landfill scales. A conceptual model that caters to increased understanding and remediating structurally heterogeneous variably-saturated media is developed from the study.

  17. Raster-based outranking method: a new approach for municipal solid waste landfill (MSW) siting.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Mohamad; Abbaspour, Rahim Ali; Davalou, Romina

    2015-08-01

    MSW landfill siting is a complicated process because it requires integration of several factors. In this paper, geographic information system (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) were combined to handle the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill siting. For this purpose, first, 16 input data layers were prepared in GIS environment. Then, the exclusionary lands were eliminated and potentially suitable areas for the MSW disposal were identified. These potentially suitable areas, in an innovative approach, were further examined by deploying Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic network process (ANP), which are two of the most recent MCDA methods, in order to determine land suitability for landfilling. PROMETHEE II was used to determine a complete ranking of the alternatives, while ANP was employed to quantify the subjective judgments of evaluators as criteria weights. The resulting land suitability was reported on a grading scale of 1-5 from 1 to 5, which is the least to the most suitable area, respectively. Finally, three optimal sites were selected by taking into consideration the local conditions of 15 sites, which were candidates for MSW landfilling. Research findings show that the raster-based method yields effective results.

  18. N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p < 0.01), 3.56 ( p < 0.01), and 2.12 ( p < 0.01) from the soil samples preincubated with 5% CH 4 for three months when compared with the control, respectively. Among the three selected landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p < 0.001). N 2O fluxes were also elevated by the increase of the CH 4 emissions with landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 μg N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p < 0.01) from sandy soil-covered landfill site, which was 72% ( p < 0.05) and 173% ( p < 0.01) lower than the other two clay soil covered landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

  19. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  20. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Tenth Street Site, Columbus, NE, February 23, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document (ROD) presents the remedial action selected for the Tenth Street Site in Columbus, Nebraska. The selected remedy is ground water monitoring and institutional controls with a contingency for extraction of contaminated ground water and discharge to the Loup River.

  2. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  3. Application of raster-based GIS techniques in the siting of landfills in Trabzon Province, Turkey: a case study.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Volkan

    2012-09-01

    One of the most important steps in solid waste management is the selection of an appropriate landfill site. The site selection process requires the evaluation and analysis of several criteria. However, the traditional evaluation method is not sufficient for the site selection process. Geographical information system (GIS) technologies are effectively used in the process of site selection, which is a spatial problem. This article describes a raster GIS-based landfill site selection (LSS) method. This method utilizes a raster-based spatial database in which the factors affect the landfill site selection. The final product in this method is the cost surface map showing pixel-based values of the appropriate areas. Furthermore, this GIS-based LSS method was applied for the evaluation of two landfill sites in Trabzon Province in Turkey, for which the traditional evaluation method for site selection was used. The suitability values on the cost surface map of these two landfills have shown that these sites are not appropriate for a solid waste landfill. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the method of raster GIS-based site selection gives more effective results than traditional methods.

  4. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario).

  5. Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to

  6. "Street Life" as a Site of Resiliency: How Street Life-Oriented Black Men Frame Opportunity in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arafat Payne, Yasser

    2008-01-01

    This study organized a participatory action research team of four street life-oriented Black men to examine attitudes toward opportunity in a community sample of street life-oriented Black men ranging between the ages of 16 and 65. Data were collected in the form of 371 surveys and two group interviews. Most of the data collection took place…

  7. Environmental state and buffering properties of underground hydrosphere in waste landfill site of the largest petrochemical companies in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musin, R. Kh; Kurlyanov, N. A.; Kalkamanova, Z. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article examines the waste landfill site of PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” built 1982. Particular attention is paid to the volume of disposed wastes and peculiarities of landfill operation. It has been revealed that the landfill negatively impacts groundwater. The increase in groundwater level and contamination degree is dependent on recharge from infiltration of precipitation that interacts with the waste in the landfill cells. Groundwater contamination follows the longitudinal distribution pattern, with maximum intensity reaching in the nearest area of the landfill. With increasing distance, concentration of all pollutants sharply reduces. Within three kilometers away from the landfill, groundwater turns to its background values indicating its quality. The landfill discharges oil, phenols, formaldehyde, benzol, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, and iron and, to a lesser extent, sulfates, chlorides and barium into the underground hydrosphere. The overlimiting concentrations of other components are caused by intensive leaching from the rocks by aggressive carbonic acid water. The concentrations of hydrocarbonates can reach 8 g/l in the groundwater within the landfill and its nearest area, however, under natural conditions, they do not exceed 0.4 g/l. This is only possible in a case of partial activity of carbon dioxide associated with destruction of organic matter disposed in the landfill. One of the processes that play an important role in groundwater quality recovery is mixing of contaminated groundwater with infiltrating precipitation.

  8. Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2013-09-01

    Long term methane emissions from landfill sites are often predicted by first-order decay (FOD) models, in which the default coefficients of the methane generation potential and the methane generation rate given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are usually used. However, previous studies have demonstrated the large uncertainty in these coefficients because they are derived from a calibration procedure under ideal steady-state conditions, not actual landfill site conditions. In this study, the coefficients in the FOD model were estimated by a new approach to predict more precise long term methane generation by considering region-specific conditions. In the new approach, age-defined waste samples, which had been under the actual landfill site conditions, were collected in Hokkaido, Japan (in cold region), and the time series data on the age-defined waste sample's methane generation potential was used to estimate the coefficients in the FOD model. The degradation coefficients were 0.0501/y and 0.0621/y for paper and food waste, and the methane generation potentials were 214.4 mL/g-wet waste and 126.7 mL/g-wet waste for paper and food waste, respectively. These coefficients were compared with the default coefficients given by the IPCC. Although the degradation coefficient for food waste was smaller than the default value, the other coefficients were within the range of the default coefficients. With these new coefficients to calculate methane generation, the long term methane emissions from the landfill site was estimated at 1.35×10(4)m(3)-CH(4), which corresponds to approximately 2.53% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the city (5.34×10(5)t-CO(2)/y).

  9. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.

    PubMed

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  10. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  11. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  12. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  13. Comparative evaluation of leachate pollution index of MSW landfill site of Kolkata with other metropolitan cities of India.

    PubMed

    Motling, Sanjay; Dutta, Amit; Mukherjee, S N; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-07-01

    The uncontrolled tipping of mixed urban solid waste in landfill site causes serious negative impacts on the environment. The major issue in this context is the generation of leachate which possesses potential of polluting freshwater ecosystem including groundwater besides associated health hazards and depletion of soil fertility. In this context, a pseudo computation quantitative tool, known as leachate pollution index (LPI), has been developed by some researchers for scaling pollution potential of landfill site owing to emergence of leachate. This paper. deals with the assessment of leachate quality of existing landfill site of Kolkata situated at Dhapa waste dumping ground through evaluation of the LPI from experimental analysis of leachate. The leachate was collected from this site in different seasons. 18 parameters were tested with real leachate samples in the Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department of Jadavpur University Kolkata. The results exhibited a very high value of organic pollutants in the leachate with COD as 21,129 mg/L and also values of TDS, Fe2+, Cr, Zn, chloride and ammonical nitrogen. The LPI value of Kolkata landfill site at Dhapa was estimated and also compared with leachate quality data of other metropolitan cities viz. Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai as available in literatures. It is found that LPI of the Kolkata landfill site is highest compared to all other landfill sites of other metropolitan cities in India. PMID:25509951

  14. Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: a synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2013-10-15

    The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ≤4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region.

  15. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2007-04-01

    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  16. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  17. Geological site characterization of the proposed Eagle Mountain landfill, Riverside County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Oneacre, J. )

    1993-03-01

    Modern sanitary landfills are highly engineered facilities that require comprehensive and detailed geological investigations to ensure protection of the environment and human health. The Eagle Mountain site, an abandoned iron ore mine, is a complex of metasedimentary rocks and igneous intrusives overlain to the east by extensive debris-flow deposits. Geological characterization included gravity surveys, shallow thermal studies to identify areas of high groundwater flow, fracture and joint mapping, shallow trenching of faults offset debris flow, and soil age dating of time of faulting. Extensive core drilling and large diameter monitoring wells were carried to 1,500 ft. in highly fractured rocks and with minimal drilling fluids. Down-hole packer testing, video logging of fractures, and a full scale pumping test were conducted in a major fault zone. This comprehensive geological data base characterized what will be, information on the Eagle, when permitted, the largest sanitary landfill in the world.

  18. Health assessment for Pigeon Point Landfill Site (New Castle City Landfill), New Castle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980494603. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-11

    The Pigeon Point Landfill 180-acre site includes a former municipal landfill that reportedly received industrial wastes during the period from 1968 to 1985. Initial sampling of groundwater and leachate revealed inorganic and organic chemicals at levels of health concern; however, per anecdotal information received from EPA, subsequent sampling has not confirmed initial sampling results. Only the original sampling data were available for this health assessment and since the data are questionable, they are not reported here. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater and leachate. However, information available on the site at present is of questionable validity. Additional information on contaminants released, populations potentially exposed, and environmental pathways through which the contaminants can reach these populations is needed.

  19. Landfill-stimulated iron reduction and arsenic release at the Coakley Superfund Site (NH).

    PubMed

    deLemos, Jamie L; Bostick, Benjamin C; Renshaw, Carl E; Stürup, Stefan; Feng, Xiahong

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant at more than one-third of all Superfund Sites in the United States. Frequently this contamination appearsto resultfrom geochemical processes rather than the presence of a well-defined arsenic source. Here we examine the geochemical processes that regulate arsenic levels at the Coakley Landfill Superfund Site (NH), a site contaminated with As, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Long-term field observations indicate that the concentrations of most of these contaminants have diminished as a result of treatment by monitored natural attenuation begun in 1998; however, dissolved arsenic levels increased modestly over the same interval. We attribute this increase to the reductive release of arsenic associated with poorly crystalline iron hydroxides within a glaciomarine clay layer within the overburden underlying the former landfill. Anaerobic batch incubations that stimulated iron reduction in the glaciomarine clay released appreciable dissolved arsenic and iron. Field observations also suggest that iron reduction associated with biodegradation of organic waste are partly responsible for arsenic release; over the five-year study period since a cap was emplaced to prevent water flow through the site, decreases in groundwater dissolved benzene concentrations at the landfill are correlated with increases in dissolved arsenic concentrations, consistent with the microbial decomposition of both benzene and other organics, and reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides. Treatment of contaminated groundwater increasingly is based on stimulating natural biogeochemical processes to degrade the contaminants. These results indicate that reducing environments created within organic contaminant plumes may release arsenic. In fact, the strong correlation (>80%) between elevated arsenic levels and organic contamination in groundwater systems at Superfund Sites across the United States suggests that arsenic contamination caused by natural degradation of

  20. An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques — pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites — at deterring three commonly recorded species — the Black-headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull ( Larus fuscus) — from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used.

  1. Combining geographic information system, multicriteria evaluation techniques and fuzzy logic in siting MSW landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.; Voudrias, Evangelos; Petalas, Christos; Stravodimos, George

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for siting municipal solid waste landfills, coupling geographic information systems (GIS), fuzzy logic, and multicriteria evaluation techniques. Both exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria are used. Factors, i.e., non-exclusionary criteria, are divided in two distinct groups which do not have the same level of trade off. The first group comprises factors related to the physical environment, which cannot be expressed in terms of monetary cost and, therefore, they do not easily trade off. The second group includes those factors related to human activities, i.e., socioeconomic factors, which can be expressed as financial cost, thus showing a high level of trade off. GIS are used for geographic data acquisition and processing. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is the multicriteria evaluation technique used, enhanced with fuzzy factor standardization. Besides assigning weights to factors through the AHP, control over the level of risk and trade off in the siting process is achieved through a second set of weights, i.e., order weights, applied to factors in each factor group, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, thus taking into account the local site characteristics. The method has been applied to Evros prefecture (NE Greece), an area of approximately 4,000 km2. The siting methodology results in two intermediate suitability maps, one related to environmental and the other to socioeconomic criteria. Combination of the two intermediate maps results in the final composite suitability map for landfill siting.

  2. An evaluation of techniques to control problem bird species on landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques--pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites --at deterring three commonly recorded species--the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)--from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used.

  3. A novel approach in calculating site-specific aftercare completion criteria for landfills in The Netherlands: Policy developments.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ellen; de Nijs, Ton C M; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a more circular economy, current attention on waste is shifting from landfilling towards the prevention, re-use and recycling of waste materials. Although the need for landfills is decreasing, there are many landfills around the world that are still operational or at the point of starting the aftercare period. With traditional aftercare management, these landfills require perpetual aftercare at considerable cost due to monitoring and regular maintenance of liners. In an attempt to lower these aftercare costs, and to prevent that future generations become responsible for finding a sustainable solution of present day waste, the Dutch government takes action to explore the possibilities of sustainable landfill management. A project was started to investigate whether the use of source-oriented treatment techniques (so-called active treatment) of landfills can result in a sustainable emission reduction to soil and groundwater. During the next decade, sustainable landfill management is tested at three selected pilot landfills in the Netherlands. To enable this pilot testing and to determine its success after the experimental treatment period, a new methodology and conceptual framework was developed. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the new methodology, and in particular the policy decisions, needed to determine whether the pilot experiments will be successful. The pilot projects are considered successful when the concentrations in the leachate of the pilot landfills have sufficiently been reduced and for longer periods of time and comply with the derived site-specific Environmental Protection Criteria (EPC). In that case, aftercare can be reduced, and it can be determined whether sustainable landfill management is economically feasible for further implementation. PMID:27497586

  4. A novel approach in calculating site-specific aftercare completion criteria for landfills in The Netherlands: Policy developments.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ellen; de Nijs, Ton C M; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a more circular economy, current attention on waste is shifting from landfilling towards the prevention, re-use and recycling of waste materials. Although the need for landfills is decreasing, there are many landfills around the world that are still operational or at the point of starting the aftercare period. With traditional aftercare management, these landfills require perpetual aftercare at considerable cost due to monitoring and regular maintenance of liners. In an attempt to lower these aftercare costs, and to prevent that future generations become responsible for finding a sustainable solution of present day waste, the Dutch government takes action to explore the possibilities of sustainable landfill management. A project was started to investigate whether the use of source-oriented treatment techniques (so-called active treatment) of landfills can result in a sustainable emission reduction to soil and groundwater. During the next decade, sustainable landfill management is tested at three selected pilot landfills in the Netherlands. To enable this pilot testing and to determine its success after the experimental treatment period, a new methodology and conceptual framework was developed. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the new methodology, and in particular the policy decisions, needed to determine whether the pilot experiments will be successful. The pilot projects are considered successful when the concentrations in the leachate of the pilot landfills have sufficiently been reduced and for longer periods of time and comply with the derived site-specific Environmental Protection Criteria (EPC). In that case, aftercare can be reduced, and it can be determined whether sustainable landfill management is economically feasible for further implementation.

  5. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  6. Combined chemical and toxicological evaluation of leachate from municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pooja; Gupta, Asmita; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, landfill leachate of three landfill sites of Delhi, India, was toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment. Raw leachate samples were collected from the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills of Delhi lacking liner systems. Samples were characterized with relatively low concentrations of heavy metals while the organic component exceeded the upper permissible limit by up to 158 times. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of numerous xenobiotics belonging to the group of halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, and other emerging contaminants. Quantitative analysis of PAHs showed that the benzo(a)pyrene-toxic equivalence quotient (BaP-TEQ) ranged from 41.22 to 285.557 ng L(-1). The human risk assessment methodology employed to evaluate the potential adverse effects of PAHs showed that the cancer risk level was lower than the designated acceptable risk of 10(-6). However, significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leachates on HepG2 cell line was observed with MTT EC50 value ranging from 11.58 to 20.44 % and statistically significant DNA damage. Thus, although the leachates contained low concentrations of PAHs with proven carcinogenic potential, but the mixture of contaminants present in leachates are toxic enough to cause synergistic or additive cytotoxicity and genotoxicity and affect human health.

  7. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated. PMID:26577215

  8. Seismic refraction studies at the Painter Street bridge site, Rio Dell, California

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of seismic refraction P- and S-wave measurements, at the site of the Painter Street bridge, in Rio Dell, California. The bridge is spanning highway US 101, 4 miles south of Fortuna, in northwestern California. This study was performed to provide an estimate of material properties for the foundation of the bridge, in support of a seismic stability analysis of the bridge performed at LLNL by D. McCallen. The Rio Dell region is seismically active and the Painter Street bridge is one of only 2 bridges of its type in California, instrumented for strong motion recordings. Measurements were made using a 12-channel Geometric/Nimbus ES 1210 Signal Enhancement Seismograph. 3 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Health assessment for Somersworth Municipal Landfill Site, Strafford County, Somersworth, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD980520225. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-12

    The Somersworth Municipal Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in a predominantly residential part of central Somersworth, New Hampshire, approximately one mile southwest of downtown Somersworth. On-site soils are contaminated with low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with low levels of VOCs. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has concluded that the Somersworth Landfill Site is of potential public health concern under current conditions because of the potential risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  10. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030.

  11. Basic hydrogeologic and remote sensing data for selection of sanitary landfill sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, H. K.; Ruth, B. E.; Degner, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste disposal were studied in Volusia County to protect the water supply in the area. Highlands in this County are of limited areal extent and, most significantly, the sand hills and ridges are in areas where recharge of the Floridan aquifer occurs. This study proves that well drained soils meeting the current State requirements are of limited areal extent. These areas should not be utilized as sanitary landfill sites! Rather, it is recommended that the Tomoka Farm Road site into the adjacent wetlands be extended. The County site on Rima Ridge recommended by Greenleaf-Telesca as the primary waste burial site in the County should be re-evaluated because of potential danger to the Daytona Beach water supply.

  12. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  13. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  14. Siting MSW landfills using MCE methodology in GIS environment (Case study: Birjand plain, Iran).

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Zeynab Karimzadeh; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The rapid municipal solid waste growth of Birjand plain causes to find an appropriate site selection for the landfill. In order to reduce the negative impacts of waste, the use of novel tools and technologies to gain a suitable site for landfill seems imperative. The present paper aimed to exhibits the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) for the landfill site selection of the Birjand plain because till date a suitable action has not been implicated. In the present research, the parameters such as environmental and socio-economical factors have been used. The factors like slope, water resources, soil parameters, landuse, fault and protected areas in the model of effective environmental criteria and the factors viz. distance from road, urban areas, village, airport, historical place, and industries in the model of socio-economic criteria were investigated and with the use of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) models were compounded and according to the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifier (LQ) were aggregated. The paper focuses on the OWA method as well as an approach for integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and OWA. OWA has been developed as a generalization of multi-criteria combination. In this study we attained comparable data via the technique of ANP and five scenarios of OWA method were used. The results of field studies, fifth scenario for the study area proposed. Based on the research findings, OWA method had a great potential and flexibility in the modeling of the complex decision-making problems. PMID:26321380

  15. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  16. Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

  17. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD072122062. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-20

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in Human Exposure Pathways Section below, human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  18. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazoty, A.; Fiandaca, G.; Pedersen, J.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Pedersen, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    A DC resistivity (DC) and Time Domain Induced Polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures, when compared to DC surveys alone. Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill and another seven profiles in the surroundings, giving a dense coverage over the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D Laterally Constrained Inversion scheme, recently implemented for IP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model. Results show that it is possible to both resolve the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth, which correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill, and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by boreholes data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact that the resolved geological units have in the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  19. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazoty, A.; Fiandaca, G.; Pedersen, J.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Pedersen, J. K.

    2012-06-01

    A direct current (DC) resistivity and time domain induced polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures compared to DC surveys alone. Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill, and another seven profiles in the surroundings provide a sufficiently dense coverage of the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D laterally constrained inversion scheme, recently implemented for TDIP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model. Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth that correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by borehole data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact of the resolved geological units on the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  20. Work plan for the radiological survey for the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 site, Knoxville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This work plan establishes the methods and requirements for performing a radiological survey at the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee (DWI 1630 Site) in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The radiological survey will identify the radiological contamination level of the equipment and debris stored at the DWI 1630 Site. The data generated from the survey activities will support the decisions for characterization of the equipment/debris and aid in subsequent disposition and waste handling. The survey activities to be performed under this work plan include an equipment radiological survey, a walkover survey, and an immunoassay testing for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This work plan includes a quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) project plan, a health and safety (H&S) plan, and a waste management plan.

  1. Radiological survey results for the Peek Street site properties, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Cottrell, W.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1992-08-01

    The Peek Street Industrial Facility, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York, was operated by the General Electric Company for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1947 and 1955. A variety of operations using radioactive materials were conducted at the site, but the main activities were to design an intermediate breeder reactor and to develop a chemical process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent reactor fuel. Nonradioactive beryllium metal was machined on the site for breeder reactor application. The 4.5-acre site was decommissioned and released in October 1955. A radiological survey was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 1989. The survey included scan and grid point measurements of direct radiation levels outdoors on the five properties and inside the factory building, and radionuclide analysis of samples collected from each property. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in outdoor surface and subsurface soil samples from each property and in dust, debris, and structural materials from inside the factory building. Auger holes were logged to assess location and extent of possible subsurface residual soil radioactivity. Radionuclide concentrations were deter-mined in both indoor and outdoor water samples and in selected samples of vegetation. The presence of fixed and transferable surface residual radioactivity was investigated inside the factory building and on discarded materials outdoors on the property. High-volume air samples as well as additional selected indoor and outdoor soil samples were analyzed to determine levels of elemental beryllium.

  2. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

    2012-08-01

    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting.

  3. Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Kilda, R.; Poskas, G.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

  4. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

  5. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians

  6. A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S. M.; Shehhi, B. Al

    2012-07-01

    Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

  7. Effects of ageing on elution behaviour of nitrogenous compounds in disposed wastes from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of elution and cation exchange capacity (CEC) tests were applied to aged and fresh municipal and industrial solid wastes to examine the effects of ageing on the long-term elution behaviour of nitrogen on leachate in municipal and industrial solid waste landfill sites. Nitrogen in the leachate gradually eluted as organic nitrogen, but not upon transformation of organic nitrogen to elutable inorganic nitrogen compounds in the solid waste. Ammonium in the solid waste, retained similar to its interaction with clay minerals in soil, elutes when exposed to leachate by being replaced with highly concentrated cations or loses its positive charge in high pH in the leachate, which percolates down from the upper layer of the disposed waste. The quantity of ammonium adsorbed into the aged wastes through CEC measurement process by replacement with ammonium acetate was higher than that onto the fresh wastes. That difference in quantities can serve as an index of the ability of the solid waste to withhold ammonium in the leachate that percolates down the landfill layer. Those results demonstrate that ammonification of organic nitrogen in the waste is not the crucial step of the elution of nitrogenous compounds into leachate. PMID:25145199

  8. Assessment of ecological risks at former landfill site using TRIAD procedure and multicriteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Schultz, Eija; Haimi, Jari

    2013-02-01

    Old industrial landfills are important sources of environmental contamination in Europe, including Finland. In this study, we demonstrated the combination of TRIAD procedure, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), and statistical Monte Carlo analysis for assessing the risks to terrestrial biota in a former landfill site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and metals. First, we generated hazard quotients by dividing the concentrations of metals and PHCs in soil by the corresponding risk-based ecological benchmarks. Then we conducted ecotoxicity tests using five plant species, earthworms, and potworms, and determined the abundance and diversity of soil invertebrates from additional samples. We aggregated the results in accordance to the methods used in the TRIAD procedure, conducted rating of the assessment methods based on their performance in terms of specific criteria, and weighted the criteria using two alternative weighting techniques to produce performance scores for each method. We faced problems in using the TRIAD procedure, for example, the results from the animal counts had to be excluded from the calculation of integrated risk estimates (IREs) because our reference soil sample showed the lowest biodiversity and abundance of soil animals. In addition, hormesis hampered the use of the results from the ecotoxicity tests. The final probabilistic IREs imply significant risks at all sampling locations. Although linking MCDA with TRIAD provided a useful means to study and consider the performance of the alternative methods in predicting ecological risks, some uncertainties involved still remained outside the quantitative analysis. PMID:22762796

  9. Effects of ageing on elution behaviour of nitrogenous compounds in disposed wastes from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of elution and cation exchange capacity (CEC) tests were applied to aged and fresh municipal and industrial solid wastes to examine the effects of ageing on the long-term elution behaviour of nitrogen on leachate in municipal and industrial solid waste landfill sites. Nitrogen in the leachate gradually eluted as organic nitrogen, but not upon transformation of organic nitrogen to elutable inorganic nitrogen compounds in the solid waste. Ammonium in the solid waste, retained similar to its interaction with clay minerals in soil, elutes when exposed to leachate by being replaced with highly concentrated cations or loses its positive charge in high pH in the leachate, which percolates down from the upper layer of the disposed waste. The quantity of ammonium adsorbed into the aged wastes through CEC measurement process by replacement with ammonium acetate was higher than that onto the fresh wastes. That difference in quantities can serve as an index of the ability of the solid waste to withhold ammonium in the leachate that percolates down the landfill layer. Those results demonstrate that ammonification of organic nitrogen in the waste is not the crucial step of the elution of nitrogenous compounds into leachate.

  10. Geolectrical methods applied on a contaminated site : the Entressen landfill case study (south-eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naudet, V.; Revil, A.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2003-04-01

    Redox potential is a controlling parameter in many contaminated site remediation technologies. Its knowledge is crutial to understand the contaminant plume development and risks for groundwater ressources. But, redox potential is very difficult to measure directlly in the field. A geophysical method that could determine the redox potential distribution in a contaminant plume would be particularly welcome. We believe that the self-potential method (SP) offers such a possibility. We performed extensive SP and electrical resistivity measurements downstream the Entressen landfill (south-eastern France in Provence). Thanks to the electrical resistivity tomographies, we obtained a 3D image of the aquifer datum. This image helps us to better understand the pattern of water flow through the channels, and to estimate the electrokinetic component of the SP signal. An important negative SP anomaly (-400 mV) is measured near the decantation basins of the landfill, suggesting an hypothetical leak of these basins. The polarity and the great amplitude of this anomaly indicate that the main component of the SP signal is due to electrochemical reactions such as oxido-reduction reactions. The comparison of the SP measurements and the geochemical data shows that the negative SP anomaly is correlated with the anaerobic zone of the contaminant plume. We believe that redox potential gradients in the contaminant plume generate a diffusion potential which is responsible for the SP anomaly. Microbial activity also plays a key role in all these processes.

  11. Statistical trends in ground-water monitoring data at a landfill Superfund site: A case study.

    PubMed

    Stoline, M R; Passero, R N; Barcelona, M J

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the use of statistical regression models to characterize temporal trends in groundwater monitoring data collected between 1980 and 1990 on 15 wells and 13 parameters (195 cases in all) at the KL Avenue landfill site in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. This site was used as a municipal landfill prior to 1980, then was placed on the Superfund site list in 1982 after ground-water contamination was found.Six temporal regression trend models were defined using linear and quadratic regression models. These trends were used to classify each of the 195 cases as: improving, deteriorating, or stable over the 1980-1990 time period. Using these classifications it was determined that there were more than twice as many improving cases as deteriorating conditions at the KL site during this time period. These models provide a method for visualizing and interpreting trends in ground-water quality at individual well locations within the contaminant plume and for assessing the chemical trend behavior of the overall plume. The improving, deteriorating, and stable trend categories were developed for two purposes. The first purpose is to facilitate comprehension of information contained in large amounts of water quality data. The second is to assist communication among the many different groups of people who recommend actions, including remediation responsibilities at Superfund sites, like the KL site.A normal probability model was used in the trend classifications. This model contained provisions to accommodate nondetect data and other 'abnormal' laboratory determinations which can influence the trend selection process. The robustness of this classification procedure was examined using a lognormal probability model. The overall conclusions about the KL site using the lognormal model were similar to those obtained using the normal model. However, some individual trend indications were different using the lognormal model. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to check the

  12. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  13. Holocene faulting near closed landfill Pit 6, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Taffet, M.J.; Copland, J.R.; Mateik, R.S.; Wade, W.M.

    1992-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Site 300 test facility, an 11 mi{sup 2} area, is located in the rugged, semiarid Altamont Hills southwest of Tracy, California. Geologic studies conducted at the site in support of environmental assessments of closed landfill Pit 6 reveal the presence of a fault strand showing evidence of repeated movements during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. These studies included airphoto interpretation, geologic mapping, and logging of four exploratory trenches and other exposures. The fault was traced from west of Pit 6 to southeast of the pit, a distance of about 1,500 ft; regional reconnaissance suggests that the fault extends beyond the limits of the area studied in detail. The identified fault strand is not coincident with any previously mapped fault. It occurs within a band of highly deformed Tertiary rocks that is bounded by the Carnegie fault on the north and the Corral Hollow fault on the south. Evidence of Holocene movement within the larger Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone indicates that this fault zone should be considered active and could be a source of future strong earthquake motion. Regressions relating total fault length, segment length, and fault plane area suggest that the Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone may be capable of generating an earthquake in the range of M{sub s} 6.3 to 7.1. Effects of a strong earthquake on closed landfill Pit 6 would be expected to be slight since the identified Holocene fault trace passes at least 100 ft south of the outer limits of the pit area. However, the effects of strong ground shaking from a local source upon buildings, slopes, and other structures within Site 300 and vicinity should receive further consideration.

  14. Holocene faulting near closed landfill Pit 6, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Taffet, M.J. ); Copland, J.R. ); Mateik, R.S.; Wade, W.M. )

    1992-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 test facility, an 11 mi[sup 2] area, is located in the rugged, semiarid Altamont Hills southwest of Tracy, California. Geologic studies conducted at the site in support of environmental assessments of closed landfill Pit 6 reveal the presence of a fault strand showing evidence of repeated movements during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. These studies included airphoto interpretation, geologic mapping, and logging of four exploratory trenches and other exposures. The fault was traced from west of Pit 6 to southeast of the pit, a distance of about 1,500 ft; regional reconnaissance suggests that the fault extends beyond the limits of the area studied in detail. The identified fault strand is not coincident with any previously mapped fault. It occurs within a band of highly deformed Tertiary rocks that is bounded by the Carnegie fault on the north and the Corral Hollow fault on the south. Evidence of Holocene movement within the larger Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone indicates that this fault zone should be considered active and could be a source of future strong earthquake motion. Regressions relating total fault length, segment length, and fault plane area suggest that the Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone may be capable of generating an earthquake in the range of M[sub s] 6.3 to 7.1. Effects of a strong earthquake on closed landfill Pit 6 would be expected to be slight since the identified Holocene fault trace passes at least 100 ft south of the outer limits of the pit area. However, the effects of strong ground shaking from a local source upon buildings, slopes, and other structures within Site 300 and vicinity should receive further consideration.

  15. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. 76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City... Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the Settlement Agreement. Under the terms... reimbursement of Past Response Costs. Opportunity for Comment: For thirty (30) days following the publication...

  17. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  18. Dispersion of odour: a case study with a municipal solid waste landfill site in North London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ujjaini; Hobbs, Stephen E; Longhurst, Philip

    2003-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are a potential source of offensive odours that can create annoyance within communities. Dispersion modelling was used to quantify the potential odour strength causing an impact on the community around a particular MSW landfill site north of the London area in the United Kingdom. The case studies were completed with the short-term mode of COMPLEX-I, software developed by the US-EPA. The year 1998 was chosen as a source of baseline data. It was observed that by 2004, when the landfill will progress towards the west and a big band of the area towards the north would be partly/fully restored, the maximum contribution of the new sources giving higher odour concentrations would be in the southwesterly regions away from the landfill. Concentrations as high as 25.0 ou(E)/m(3) were observed with 3 min averaging time in the southwesterly areas as compared to concentrations of 20.0 ou(E)/m(3) at 10 min averaging times. However, the percentage frequency of such critical events occurring would be low. All other surrounding farms and small villages would be exposed to the concentration of 3.0 ou(E)/m(3) on certain occasions. In the year 2008, the majority of the filling fronts would be filled with wastes with no contributions from the active and operational cells. The maximum odour concentration around the landfill site for 1 h averaging time would be approximately 3 ou(E)/m(3) about 1.0 km north and 500 m west of the landfill site. For 3 min averaging time, the stretch of 5 ou(E)/m(3) band would be up to 2.5 km towards the north of the landfill site. It is argued that further analysis of the model calculations considering effects of wind direction, frequency of wind direction, stability of the atmosphere, selected odour threshold, integration time of the model, etc. would form a basis for calculating the separation distances of the landfill site from the surrounding community. PMID:12781755

  19. Thai waste landfill site fire crisis, particular matter 10, and risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    In March 2014, a big waste pollution occurs in Thailand. A big fire occurs at a big industrial waste landfill site, Phraeksa, Samut Prakan Province, Bangkok Metropolitan Region. This fire generates several pollutants, including particular matter 10 (PM10). According to the official report of the Bangkok Metropolis, the PM10 in the nearby area (5 km from the crisis area) is equal to 0.575 mg/m 3. The concern is on chronic health effect of PM10 exposure. Recently, the possible carcinogenic property of PM10 is mentioned. To estimate the cancer risk due to this crisis in Thailand, the author calculates the risk based on the ratio by Raaschou-Nielsen et al.; the risk is equal to 70.15 times. Based on the present study, a closed following up and monitoring on the problem of lung cancer in the future among the people living near the crisis area are needed. PMID:27461705

  20. Complete genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38, an oxalotrophic bacterium isolated from municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yong, Delicia; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-11-20

    Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38 is a bacterium isolated from a former sanitary landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of P. pnomenusa RB38 in which an oxalate utilization pathway was identified. The genome analysis suggested the potential of this strain as an effective biocontrol agent against oxalate-producing phytopathogens.

  1. Complete genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38, an oxalotrophic bacterium isolated from municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yong, Delicia; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-11-20

    Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38 is a bacterium isolated from a former sanitary landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of P. pnomenusa RB38 in which an oxalate utilization pathway was identified. The genome analysis suggested the potential of this strain as an effective biocontrol agent against oxalate-producing phytopathogens. PMID:26393955

  2. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land. PMID:22134738

  3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  4. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from soils at an illegal dumping site and landfills in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the diversity and community of genus Mycobacterium in polluted soils, we tried to isolate mycobacteria from 11 soil samples collected from an illegal dumping site and 3 landfills in Japan. Using culture methods with or without Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, a total of 19 isolates of mycobacteria were obtained from 5 soil samples and 3 of them were isolated only by the co-culture method with the amoeba. Conventional biochemical tests and sequencing of the hsp65, rpoB, and 16S rRNA genes were performed for species identification of 17 of the 19 isolates. Among the 17 isolates, there was one isolate each of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, Mycobacterium mageritense, Mycobacterium frederiksbergense, M. vanbaalenii or Mycobacterium austroafricanum, and Mycobacterium chubuense or Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum. The remaining 12 isolates could not be precisely identified at the species level. A phylogenic tree based on the hsp65 sequences indicated that 2 of the 12 isolates were novel species. In addition, 4 isolates were phylogenically close to species that degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which induce some cancers in humans. These results demonstrated that there were many hitherto-unreported mycobacteria in the polluted soils, and suggested that some mycobacteria might play roles in the natural attenuation and engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites with other microorganisms.

  5. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030. PMID:26965404

  6. [Municipal landfill site in Krzyz near Tarnów as source of microbiological factors harmful to environment and human health].

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Krzysztof; Barabasz, Wiesław

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate microbiological pollution of air with microorganisms belonging to different taxonomic and physiological groups, and to examine whether the effect of the municipal landfill site in Krzyz changes at various study sites located: in so called "zero zone" (operating landfill), at different distances from the landfill and in Tarnów. Microbiological studies of atmospheric air were carried out from May 1998 to April 2001. Measurements were taken at 10 study sites located at the operating municipal landfill site in Krzyz, inside and outside of its protection zone. Microbial air pollution standard (PN-89/Z-04111/02 and PN-89/Z-04111/03) were used to evaluate the impact of municipal landfill site on the atmospheric environment. The standards were most often exceeded by hemolytic bacteria, (277 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e. 76.9%, and Actinomycetes (213 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 59.1%, while by fungi (26 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 7.2% and bacteria (42 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 11.6% in a lesser degree. The standards were most often exceeded in operating land fill site sector, at the gateway to the land fill site and in partially reclaimed sector. Fewest cases of standard exceedance were recorded in control site (located outside the landfill site), near built-up area and before the entrance to the land fill site.

  7. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability.

  8. Indirect measurements of field-scale hydraulic conductivity of waste from two landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Fleming, I R

    2011-12-01

    Management and prediction of the movement and distribution of fluids in large landfills is important for various reasons. Bioreactor landfill technology shows promise, but in arid or semi-arid regions, the natural content of landfilled waste may be low, thus requiring addition of significant volumes of water. In more humid locations, landfills can become saturated, flooding gas collection systems and causing sideslope leachate seeps or other undesirable occurrences. This paper compares results from two different approaches to monitoring water in waste. At the Brock West Landfill in eastern Canada, positive pore pressures were measured at various depths in saturated waste. The downward seepage flux through the waste is known, thus the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the waste at this landfill was determined to be 3 × 10(-7)cm/s. By comparison, the Spadina Landfill in western Canada is predominantly unsaturated. The infiltration of moisture into the waste was measured using moisture sensors installed in boreholes which determined arrival time for moisture fronts resulting from major precipitation events as well as longer-term change in moisture content resulting from unsaturated drainage during winter when frozen ground prevented infiltration. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from these data ranged from approximately 10(-6)cm/s for the slow winter drainage in the absence of significant recharge to 10(-2)cm/s or higher for shallow waste subject to high infiltration through apparent preferential pathways. These two very different approaches to field-scale measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity provide insight into the nature of fluid movement in saturated and unsaturated waste masses. It is suggested that the principles of unsaturated seepage apply reasonably well for landfilled waste and that the hydraulic behavior of waste is profoundly influenced by the nature and size of voids and by the degree of saturation prevailing in the

  9. Aspergillus fumigatus and mesophilic moulds in air in the surrounding environment downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Olivier; Robert, Samuel; Debeaupuis, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Non-hazardous waste landfilling has the potential to release biological agents into the air, notably mould spores. Some species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, may be a cause of concern for at-risk nearby residents. However, air concentration in the surrounding environment of non-hazardous waste landfill sites is poorly documented. An extensive sampling programme was designed to investigate the relationship between culturable mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations in air and distance downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites. On-site and off-site repeated measurements were performed at four landfill sites during cold and warm seasons. A high-flow air-sampler device was selected so as to allow peak concentration measurement. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explain variability in the concentrations in air over time and across sites, seasons, instantaneous meteorological conditions and discharged waste tonnage. Concentrations of mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus at off-site upwind sampling locations were compared with concentrations at each of the downwind sampling locations. At the tipping face location, peak concentration reached 480,000CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and 9300CFUm(-3) for A. fumigatus. Compared with upwind background levels, these concentrations were, on average, approximately 20 and 40 times higher respectively. A steep decline in the concentration of both mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus was observed between the tipping face location and the downwind property boundary (reduction by 77% and 84% respectively), followed by a low decline leading to a 90% and 94% reduction in concentration at 200m from the property boundary and beyond. With the 200m and 500m downwind sampling point values added together, the 97.5th percentile of concentration was 6013CFUm(-3) and 87CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus, respectively. Other determining factors were the discharged waste tonnage, the season, instantaneous temperature

  10. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  11. Leachate characterization and assessment of groundwater pollution near municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Dahiya, R P; Chandra, A

    2006-07-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Gazipur landfill-site and its adjacent area to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentration of various physico-chemical parameters including heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) and microbiological parameters (total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC)) were determined in groundwater and leachate samples. The moderately high concentrations of Cl-, NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+), Phenol, Fe, Zn and COD in groundwater, likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they proved to be as tracers for groundwater contamination. The effect of depth and distance of the well from the pollution source was also investigated. The presence of TC and FC in groundwater warns for the groundwater quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demand for the proper management of waste in Delhi.

  12. Quorum sensing activity of Serratia fonticola strain RB-25 isolated from an ex-landfill site.

    PubMed

    Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine-lactone (3-oxo-C6 HSL). This is the first report of the production of these AHLs in S. fonticola.

  13. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  14. Quorum Sensing Activity of Serratia fonticola Strain RB-25 Isolated from an Ex-landfill Site

    PubMed Central

    Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine-lactone (3-oxo-C6 HSL). This is the first report of the production of these AHLs in S. fonticola. PMID:24625739

  15. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

  16. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Assessing the environmental risks associated with contaminated sites: Definition of an Ecotoxicological Classification index for landfill areas (ECRIS).

    PubMed

    Senese, V; Boriani, E; Baderna, D; Mariani, A; Lodi, M; Finizio, A; Testa, S; Benfenati, E

    2010-06-01

    Assessing ecological risk in quantitative terms is a site-specific complex procedure requiring evaluation of all possible pathways taken by the chemicals from the contamination source to the targets to be protected. Unfortunately, too many cases lack of physico-chemical and ecotoxicological data makes impossible to quantify the ecological risk. We present the Ecotoxicological Classification Risk Index for Soil (ECRIS), a new classification system specific for soil risk assessment, which gives a comparative indication of the risk linked to environmental contamination by any chemical. The tool we propose is based on the integration of a data set characterizing the ecotoxicological and exposure profile of chemicals. ECRIS is a simple approach specifically set up for the landfill scenario. This index draws on the huge amount of data from our many years of leachate analysis. ECRIS is useful for a first screening of probably contaminated soil. A case study based on some Italian landfills is proposed.

  18. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Naidu, R

    2013-11-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts>biosolids>biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2-2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) Mg(-1) biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. PMID:23380138

  19. Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, M. A.; Mattson, E.; Ankeny, M.; Kelsey, J.

    2005-05-01

    The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill covers indicate that vegetation-free areas are not uncommon at municipal waste landfills. Data from soil profiles beneath these areas suggest that anaerobic conditions in the plant-rooting zone are controlling plant distribution. On the same landfill, aerobic conditions exist at similar depths beneath well-vegetated areas. The movement of methane and carbon dioxide, generated by degradation of organic wastes, into the overlying soil cover displaces oxygen in the root zone. Monitoring data from landfills in semi-arid areas indicate that barometric pumping can result in hours of anaerobic conditions in the root zone. Microbial consumption of oxygen in the root zone reduces the amount of oxygen available for plant root respiration but consumption of oxygen and methane also produce water as a reaction byproduct. This biogenic water production can be on the order of centimeters of water per year which, while increasing water availability, also has a negative feedback on transport of landfill gases through the cover. Accounting for these processes can improve evapotranspirative landfill cover design at other sites.

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, CT. (First remedial action), September 1990. (Supplemental). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 34-acre Beacon Heights Landfill site is on the northwest corner of an 82-acre property in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. The ROD supplements the 1985 ROD by resolving those determinations left open in the 1985 ROD, including the manner and locations of leachate treatment/disposal; cleanup levels for soil deemed impracticable to cap in areas contiguous to the landfill; and the need for air pollution controls on the landfill gas vents. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, ground water, surface water, and air are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  1. Evaluation of two solid waste landfills, a Superfund site, and strip mining on ground water quality in Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.L. ); Moody, J.B. ); Smith, G.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Willow Creek Landfill, the Jones Landfill, the Summit National Superfund Site, and Peterson Strip Mine are located in a 2 mi[sup 2] area in the SE portion of Portage County, OH. This study evaluated these potential sources of environmental pollution on ground water resources in 2 townships in Portage County, OH. The study area, comprising 15 mi[sup 2], is located in the glaciated portion of NE Ohio. The geology consists of alternating sandstones, siltstones, shales, and coal of the Pottsville Group of Pennsylvanian Age, overlain with glacial drift of the Wisconsin Glaciation of the Pleistocene Epoch. The Pottsville Formation was divided into 3 aquifers: shallow, intermediate, and deep for this study. 55 domestic wells in the study area and 13 monitoring wells at Willow Creek landfill were samples and analyzed for 23 inorganic chemical parameters. High concentrations of total dissolved solids, hardness, Cl, SO[sub 4], Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were found in wells located to the SE and W of the potential contamination sources, from water in the shallow aquifer. The other two aquifers are inorganically uncontaminated at this time. The presence of a buried glacial valley is influencing the ground water flow patterns locally, which results in an increase in total dissolved solids with other inorganic geochemical parameters to the west of the four contamination sources.

  2. The effect of atmospheric pressure on CH4 and CO2 emission from a closed landfill site in Manchester, UK.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, A N; Anonye, D

    2013-07-01

    A time series study was conducted to ascertain the effect of barometric pressure on the variability of CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a closed landfill site. An in situ data of methane/carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental parameters were collected by means of an in-borehole gas monitor, the GasClam (Ion Science, UK). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the strength of the correlation between ground-gas concentrations and barometric pressure. The result shows CH4 and CO2 concentrations to be variable with weak negative correlations of 0.2691 and 0.2773, respectively, with barometric pressure over the entire monitoring period. Although the R(2) was slightly improved by considering their concentration over single periods of rising and falling pressure, single periods of rising pressure and single periods of falling pressure, their correlations remained insignificant at 95% confidence level. The result revealed that atmospheric pressure--the acclaimed major control on the variability of ground-gas concentration--is not always so. A case was made for the determination of other possible controls such as changes in temperature, soil permeability, landfill water depth, season, and geology of the borehole and also how much of control each factor would have on the variability/migration of CH4 and CO2 concentrations from the studied landfill.

  3. Contaminant transport in the sub-surface soil of an uncontrolled landfill site in China: site investigation and two-dimensional numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Thomas, Hywel R; Sedighi, Majid; Masum, Shakil A; Ran, Qihua

    2016-02-01

    A field investigation of contaminant transport beneath and around an uncontrolled landfill site in Huainan in China is presented in this paper. The research aimed at studying the migration of some chemicals present in the landfill leachate into the surrounding clayey soils after 17 years of landfill operation. The concentrations of chloride and sodium ions in the pore water of soil samples collected at depths up to 15 m were obtained through an extensive site investigation. The contents of organic matter in the soil samples were also determined. A two-dimensional numerical study of the reactive transport of sodium and chloride ion in the soil strata beneath and outside the landfill is also presented. The numerical modelling approach adopted is based on finite element/finite difference techniques. The domain size of approximately 300 × 30 m has been analysed and major chemical transport parameters/mechanisms are established via a series of calibration exercises. Numerical simulations were then performed to predict the long-term behaviour of the landfill in relation to the chemicals studied. The lateral migration distance of the chloride ions was more than 40 m which indicates that the advection and mechanical dispersion are the dominant mechanism controlling the contaminant transport at this site. The results obtained from the analysis of chloride and sodium migration also indicated a non-uniform advective flow regime of ions with depth, which were localised in the first few metres of the soil beneath the disposal site. The results of long-term simulations of contaminant transport indicated that the concentrations of ions can be 10 to 30 times larger than that related to the allowable limit of concentration values. The results of this study may be of application and interest in the assessment of potential groundwater and soil contamination at this site with a late Pleistocene clayey soil. The obtained transport properties of the soils and the contaminant transport

  4. Contaminant transport in the sub-surface soil of an uncontrolled landfill site in China: site investigation and two-dimensional numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Thomas, Hywel R; Sedighi, Majid; Masum, Shakil A; Ran, Qihua

    2016-02-01

    A field investigation of contaminant transport beneath and around an uncontrolled landfill site in Huainan in China is presented in this paper. The research aimed at studying the migration of some chemicals present in the landfill leachate into the surrounding clayey soils after 17 years of landfill operation. The concentrations of chloride and sodium ions in the pore water of soil samples collected at depths up to 15 m were obtained through an extensive site investigation. The contents of organic matter in the soil samples were also determined. A two-dimensional numerical study of the reactive transport of sodium and chloride ion in the soil strata beneath and outside the landfill is also presented. The numerical modelling approach adopted is based on finite element/finite difference techniques. The domain size of approximately 300 × 30 m has been analysed and major chemical transport parameters/mechanisms are established via a series of calibration exercises. Numerical simulations were then performed to predict the long-term behaviour of the landfill in relation to the chemicals studied. The lateral migration distance of the chloride ions was more than 40 m which indicates that the advection and mechanical dispersion are the dominant mechanism controlling the contaminant transport at this site. The results obtained from the analysis of chloride and sodium migration also indicated a non-uniform advective flow regime of ions with depth, which were localised in the first few metres of the soil beneath the disposal site. The results of long-term simulations of contaminant transport indicated that the concentrations of ions can be 10 to 30 times larger than that related to the allowable limit of concentration values. The results of this study may be of application and interest in the assessment of potential groundwater and soil contamination at this site with a late Pleistocene clayey soil. The obtained transport properties of the soils and the contaminant transport

  5. Assessment of the impact of landfill on groundwater quality: a case study of the Pirana site in western India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Umesh Kumar; Kumar, Manish; Chauhan, Rita; Jha, Pawan Kumar; Ramanathan, Al; Subramanian, V

    2008-06-01

    In present study focus has been given on estimating quality and toxicity of waste with respect to heavy metals and its impact on groundwater quality, using statistical and empirical relationships between different hydrochemical data, so that easy monitoring may be possible which in turn help the sustainable management of landfill site and municipal solid waste. Samples of solid waste, leachate and groundwater were analyzed to evaluate the impact of leachates on groundwater through the comparison of their hydrochemical nature. Results suggest the existence of an empirical relationship between some specific indicator parameters like heavy metals of all three above mentioned sample type. Further, K/Mg ratio also indicates three groundwater samples heavily impacted from leachate contamination. A good number of samples are also showing higher values for NO(3)(-) and Pb than that of World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water regulation. Predominance of Fe and Zn in both groundwater and solid waste samples may be due to metal plating industries in the area. Factor analysis is used as a tool to explain observed relation between numerous variables in term of simpler relation, which may help to deduce the strength of relation. Positive loading of most of the factors for heavy metal clearly shows landfill impact on ground water quality especially along the hydraulic gradient. Cluster analysis, further substantiates the impact of landfill. Two major groups of samples obtained from cluster analysis suggest that one group comprises samples that are severely under the influence of landfill and contaminated leachates along the groundwater flow direction while other assorted with samples without having such influence.

  6. Results of the radiological and beryllium verification survey at the Peek Street Site, Schenectady, New York (SY001V)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.; Carrier, R.F.; Allred, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent verification radiological and non-radioactive beryllium survey at the Peek Street site, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York. The purpose of the survey, conducted during 1993 and continuing through January 1994, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any beryllium concentrations or radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at one meter indoors and outdoors, alpha and beta scans inside the structure, and the collection of soil, dust and debris samples and smears for radionuclide and beryllium analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological and beryllium measurements on the property were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on all data collected, the industrial property at 425 Peek Street and the adjacent state-owned bike path in Schenectady, New York, conforms to all applicable radiological and non-radioactive beryllium guidelines established for this site by DOE and approved by the State of New York.

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Cleburn Street Well Site, Grand Island, NE, June 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions for three separate source areas at the Cleburn Street Well Site in Grand Island, Nebraska. The selected remedies address contaminated groundwater and subsurface soils according to the extent of contamination and associated risks at each source area. The selected remedy for this source area included: In-situ soil treatment by soil vapor extraction and treatment by carbon adsorption; Groundwater extraction and treatment by on-site air stripping; Institutional controls to restrict groundwater use and prevent exposures; Groundwater monitoring; and Air monitoring of emissions from the air stripper and emissions controls if necessary.

  8. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10{sup {minus} 4} carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 {mu}g/ft{sup 2} for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated.

  9. Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

  10. A case study of determining liquefaction potential of a new landfill site in Virginia by using computer modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.H.; Leung, C.W.; Mandeville, P.A.; Wu, A.H.

    1995-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Subtitle D and Virginia Solid Waste Management (VSWM) regulations require that subsurface soil liquefaction potential be addressed during permitting of new and expanding landfills. There is an increasing trend towards use of computer modelling by many engineers and designers to assess the liquefaction potential of landfill sites. During the Part A permit application for a new site located in the central part of Virginia, a computer program {open_quotes}LIQUFAC{close_quotes} was used by the authors to evaluate liquefaction potential of the new site. The program was developed under the supervision of Dr. Arthur Wu, a geotechnical engineering consultant with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) of Washington, D.C. The program follows the procedures developed by Seed (1984), Castro (1987), and the National Research Council (NRC) 1985 publication {open_quotes}Liquefaction of Soils During Earthquake.{close_quotes} This paper presents the evaluation of the subsurface soil liquefaction potential for the new site, which is located in a seismic impact zone with a magnitude (M) equal to 5.5, and a maximum horizontal ground acceleration of 0.2g. Safety factors against liquefaction for each soil layer in a critical profile and the corresponding one-dimensional settlements due to earthquake loading are calculated. The results and findings of the analyses are tabulated in tables and illustrated in graphs. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented.

  11. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  12. Identification and assessment of water pollution as a consequence of a leachate plume migration from a municipal landfill site (Tucumán, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego S; Puchulu, María E; Georgieff, Sergio M

    2014-06-01

    Landfills constitute potential sources of different pollutants that could generate human health and environmental problems. While some landfills currently work under the protection of a bottom liner with leachate collection, it was demonstrated that migration could take place even yet with these cautions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pollution caused by a leachate plume from a municipal landfill that is affecting both groundwater and surface waters. The research was carried out at Pacará Pintado landfill in northwestern Argentina. Analysis of water samples indicates that leachate is affecting groundwater under the landfill area and an abandoned river channel hydraulically connected. In the center of the landfill area, the plume is anoxic and sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese reduction zones were identified. Leachate plume presented high concentration of organic matter, Fe, Mn, NH(4)(+), Cl(-) and Cr reaching an extension of 900 m. The presence of a leachate plume in a landfill site with a single liner system implies that the use of this groundwater pollution control method alone is not enough especially if permeable sediments are present below.

  13. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability. PMID:22878933

  14. Hydrological Perturbations Drive Biogeochemical Processes in Experimental Soil Columns from the Norman Landfill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fate and transport of contaminants in saturated and unsaturated zones is governed by biogeochemical processes that are complex and non-linearly coupled to each other. A fundamental understanding of the interactions between transport and reaction processes is essential to better characterize contaminant movement in the subsurface. The objectives of this study are to: i) develop quantitative relationships between hydrological (initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity ratio, and soil layering), geochemical (mineralogy, surface area, redox potential, and organic matter) and microbiological factors (MPN) that alter the biogeochemical processes, and ii) characterize the effect of hydrologic perturbations on coupled processes occurring at the column scale. The perturbations correspond to rainfall intensity, duration of wet and dry conditions, and water chemistry (pH). Soils collected from two locations with significantly different geochemistry at the Norman landfill site are used in this study. Controlled flow experiments were conducted on: i) two homogeneous soil columns, ii) a layered soil column, iii) a soil column with embedded clay lenses, and iv) a soil column with embedded clay lenses and one central macropore. Experimental observations showed enhanced biogeochemical activity at the interface of the layered and lensed columns over the texturally homogeneous soil columns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important processes were microbial reduction of Fe(III) and SO42-, and oxidation of reduced products in the columns. Modeling results from HP1 indicate least redox activity in the homogeneous sand column while the structurally heterogeneous columns utilize oxygen and nitrate from recharge as well as iron sulfide minerals already present in the columns as electron acceptors. Furthermore, the interface of the layered and lensed soil columns acts as a hotspot of biogeochemical activity due to increased transport timescale as a

  15. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD001145671. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-26

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  16. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  17. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  18. Suitability analysis for siting MSW landfills and its multicriteria spatial decision support system: method, implementation and case study.

    PubMed

    Demesouka, O E; Vavatsikos, A P; Anagnostopoulos, K P

    2013-05-01

    Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) have emerged as an integration of geographical information systems (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods for incorporating conflicting objectives and decision makers' (DMs') preferences into spatial decision models. This article presents a raster-based MC-SDSS that combines the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and compromise programming methods, such as TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution) and Ideal Point Methods. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time that a synergy of AHP and compromise programming methods is implemented in raster-driven GIS-based landfill suitability analysis. This procedure is supported by a spatial decision support system (SDSS) that was developed within a widely used commercial GIS software package. A real case study in the Thrace region in northeast Greece serves as a guide on how to conduct a suitability analysis for a MSW landfill site with the proposed MC-SDSS. Moreover, the procedure for identifying MSW disposal sites is accomplished by performing four computational models for synthesizing the DMs per criterion preferential system. Based on the case study results, a comparison analysis is performed according to suitability index estimations. According to them Euclidean distance metric and TOPSIS present strong similarities. When compared with Euclidean distance metric, TOPSIS seems to generate results closer to that derived by Manhattan distance metric. The comparison of Chebychev distance metric with all the other approaches revealed the greatest deviations. PMID:23453354

  19. Priorities determination using novel analytic hierarchy process and median ranked sample set, case study of landfill siting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, N. E. Ahmad; Basri, H.

    2015-02-01

    Integrating environmental, social, political, and economical attributes enhances the decision making process. Multi criteria decision making (MCDM) involves ambiguity and uncertainty due to various preferences. This study presents a model to minimize the uncertainty and ambiguity of human judgments by means of integrating the counter stakeholders with median ranked sample set (MRSS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The model uses landfill site selection as a MCDM problem. Sixteen experts belong to four clusters that are government, private, institution, and non-governmental organisations participated and their preferences were ranked in four by four matrix. Then the MRSS and the AHP were used to obtain the priorities of landfill siting criteria. Environmental criteria have the highest priority that equals to 48.1% and the distance from surface water, and the faults zones are the most important factors with priorities equal to 18% and 13.7% respectively. In conclusion, the hybrid approach that integrates counter stakeholders MRSS, and AHP is capable of being applied to complex decision making process and its outputs are justified.

  20. Leaky Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  1. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    PubMed

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  2. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    PubMed

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures. PMID:27151238

  3. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  4. 77 FR 67399 - State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including..., applicable to workers and former workers of State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliation Team, Quincy... Reconciliation Team, Quincy, Massachusetts. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  5. General assessment of the influence of a municipal landfill site and environmental factors on the occurrence of keratinolytic fungi in soil.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, K; Płaza, G; Sztyler, A; Bronder, J; Terakowski, M; Guarro, J

    2000-01-01

    The study was to generally determine the influence of a municipal landfill site and environmental factors on the distribution of keratinolytic fungi in soil. The landfill site in Sosnowiec was selected for examination. Keratinolytic fungi occurred abundantly in soils of the landfill site examined and its surrounding area. Of 495 soil samples (Petri dishes) examined, 379 (76.56%) were found to be positive for keratinolytic fungi. Altogether, 1131 strains from 26 species were isolated from the samples. Among the fungi, some species with pathogenic properties (Microsporum racemosum, M. cookei, M. gypseum, Aphanoascus fulvescens and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) were recorded. The influence of environmental factors on the qualitative and quantitative composition of keratinolytic fungi in the soils was complex. Among these factors, exchangeable acidity (pH in 1 M KCl, in particular), faecal bacterial contamination and the level of water deficit in soil were the most important. The conclusion has been drawn that municipal landfill sites are the sources of potentially pathogenic fungi with keratinolytic properties. PMID:10959197

  6. Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case of PCBs this has been exacerbated by subsequent landfilling of contaminated products (oils, capacitors, sealants and other building residues). In most cases locations and amounts are not or vaguely known but impacts are increasingly discovered by monitoring in the most advanced countries with sophisticated monitoring schemes in place. These reveal that entire river systems are being contaminated by these old dumps and contaminated sites and that expensive remediation work is required for to reduce further contamination. In addition more recently other (halogenated) chemicals exhibiting the characteristics of POPs have emerged including e.g. brominated aromatic compounds (e.g. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants) widely used as flame retardants for electronics; textiles, furniture; upholstery; insulation foam etc.) and fluorinated organic pollutants (e.g. PFOS or PFOA used in carpets, textiles, furniture, paper coating etc.). As products containing these chemicals reach the end of their life these hazardous compounds increasingly ended and end up in the waste stream. In most countries a large proportion of these wastes are disposed to landfills. In developing countries and those with economies in transition almost all this waste is landfilled. Consequently the quantities of POPs in municipal waste landfills have increased the last two decades. Therefore in addition to chemical landfills also municipal landfills increasingly become POPs deposits and sources. Because of their persistence

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Onalaska Municipal Landfill site, Lacrosse County, Wisconsin (first remedial action), Final report, August 14, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-14

    The 11-acre Onalaska Municipal Landfill site includes a 7-acre landfill owned by the Township of Onalaska, which is located in central-western Wisconsin. The Black River and its associated wetlands are 400 feet west of the site and lie within a wildlife and fish refuge. Approximately 320,000 gallons of liquid solvent waste and approximately 1,000 drums of solvent waste were either burned with other trash onsite or poured directly into holes for burial in the southwestern portion of the landfill. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, xylenes, and TCE; other organics including PAHs; and metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for the site includes in-situ bioremediation of the solvent-contaminated soil and, if feasible, a portion of the landfill debris; pumping and treatment of the ground water plume using aeration, clarification, and filtration, followed by discharge of the treated ground water into the Black River and onsite disposal of the sludge.

  8. The Expedited Remedial Action Program: A case study. The Alhambra Front Street manufactured gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Padleschat, J.A.; McMahon, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1995, the Department of Toxic Substances Control asked Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) to enter one of its manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites into the new Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP). SoCalGas initially was not enthusiastic about the new program. Nevertheless, SoCalGas submitted an application for its Alhambra MGP site to be selected for the ERAP. The Alhambra Site was accepted into ERAP in November 1995, and was the first ERAP site to have orphan shares. MGP sites are well suited to the ERAP. They often involve few potentially responsible parties and can be expected to have the same primary contaminants: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, and petroleum hydrocarbons from the crude oil feedstock used to manufacture the gas.

  9. Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Munisport Landfill site, Dade County, North Miami, FL. (First remedial action), July 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-26

    The 291-acre Munisport Landfill site, including a 170-acre, inactive municipal landfill, is within the city of North Miami, Dade County, Florida. The city of North Miami leased 291 acres to Munisport for recreational development in 1971 which began filling low-lying areas of the site with clean fill and construction debris. In 1975, a temporary permit allowed solid waste to be used as fill above the water table. However, in 1976, a State inspection found twelve 55-gallon drums that were leaking wastes onsite; a violation was issued, and these drums were removed offsite by the city. Landfilling operations ceased in 1981, but closure has not yet taken place. Leachate from the landfill waste still poses a significant threat to the aquatic organisms in the Mangrove Preserve. The ground water is no longer used for potable purposes as a result of salt water intrusion. The contaminants of concern affecting the ground water include VOCs such as benzene and toluene; other organics; metals, such as arsenic, chromium, and lead; and other inorganics.

  11. Energy potential of modern landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  13. Natural attenuation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in shallow aquifer at the Luhuagang's landfill site, Kaifeng, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei Hong; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Xue Yu; Zhang, Yan; Tabouré, Aboubacar

    2015-02-01

    The natural attenuation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) in shallow aquifer was investigated at the Luhuagang's landfill site (LLS), where the subsoil and shallow aquifer have been contaminated by certain chemicals owning to a lack of protective structures and leachate collection systems. Batch natural attenuation experiments and molecular biology experiments were conducted to study the natural attenuation characteristics of 1,2,4-TCB, the relative contributions of the primary natural attenuation processes and the functional microorganisms degrading 1,2,4-TCB, respectively. The results indicated that the relationship between degradation rate and 1,2,4-TCB concentrations was in line with first-order decay kinetics, and the natural attenuation rate of 1,2,4-TCB in the three media followed the order silt>fine sand>medium sand, which was related to the size of the media and the microbial population. The relative contribution of adsorption to natural attenuation was 97.7%, 98.2%, and 95.7% in unsterilized silt, fine sand and medium sand, respectively, and that of biodegradation was 2.3%, 1.8%, and 4.3%, respectively. These properties are related to the characteristics of the pollutants and the specific conditions at the contaminated sites, such as the characteristics of the aquifer media and microbial communities. The functional microorganisms degrading 1,2,4-TCB at the site were proved to be primarily Pseudomonas sp. This study indicates the feasibility of bioremediation (bioaugmentation and biostimulation) by indigenous microorganisms to treat 1,2,4-TCB contamination at the site.

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management in Indian mega-cities: a case study of Chennai landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Jha, Arvind K; Sharma, C; Singh, Nahar; Ramesh, R; Purvaja, R; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2008-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation rate is over-riding the population growth rate in all mega-cities in India. Greenhouse gas emission inventory from landfills of Chennai has been generated by measuring the site specific emission factors in conjunction with relevant activity data as well as using the IPCC methodologies for CH4 inventory preparation. In Chennai, emission flux ranged from 1.0 to 23.5mg CH4m(-2)h(-1), 6 to 460microg N2Om(-2)h(-1) and 39 to 906mg CO2m(2)h(-1) at Kodungaiyur and 0.9 to 433mg CH4m(-2)h(-1), 2.7 to 1200microg N2Om(-2)h(-1) and 12.3 to 964.4mg CO2m(-2)h(-1) at Perungudi. CH4 emission estimates were found to be about 0.12Gg in Chennai from municipal solid waste management for the year 2000 which is lower than the value computed using IPCC, 1996 [IPCC, 1996. Report of the 12th session of the intergovernmental panel of climate change, Mexico City, 1996] methodologies.

  17. Characterization of bacterial diversity at different depths in the Moravia Hill landfill site at Medellin, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was used to assess bacterial diversity at different depths within a former solid waste dump in Medellín, Colombia. Sampling sites included a densely populated area, which is built upon 40 m of solid waste (domestic, industrial, agric...

  18. a New Framework for Geospatial Site Selection Using Artificial Neural Networks as Decision Rules: a Case Study on Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujayyab, S. K. M.; Ahamad, M. A. S.; Yahya, A. S.; Saad, A.-M. H. Y.

    2015-10-01

    This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS) and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision-making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Syosset Landfill Site, operable unit 2, Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY, March 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for the second operable unit (OU2) for the Syosset Landfill site (the Site), located in the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York. This operable unit addresses the fate and transport of the contaminants in the groundwater emanating from the Site. EPA is consultation with the State of New York has determined that contamination is limited and does not pose a significant threat to human health or the environment; therefore, remediation is not appropriate. This determination is based on the OU2 Remedial Investigation and the expected successful implementation of the OU1 remedy.

  20. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Rajkumar; Thirumalaisamy, Subramani; Lakshumanan, Elango

    2012-01-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

  1. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

  2. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  3. The use of GPR and VES in delineating a contamination plume in a landfill site: a case study in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porsani, Jorge L.; Filho, Walter M.; Elis, Vagner R.; Shimeles, Fisseha; Dourado, João C.; Moura, Helyelson P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method, or Georadar, in outlining a zone of contamination due to solid residues at the waste burial site of Rio Claro in the state of São Paulo, SE Brazil. A total of eight GPR profiles with 50- and 100-MHz antennae were surveyed. Six profiles were located within the landfill site and the remaining two were outside. The main objective of the GPR survey was to evaluate the side extension of contamination. A Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) survey was performed at four points within the site in order to investigate the vertical extent of the contamination plume and to define the bottom of the landfill. Two additional VESs were done outside the landfill with the purpose of determining the top of the ground water table and the geoelectric stratigraphy of the background. From the interpretation of the GPR profiles, it was possible to locate the top of the contamination plume and to infer that it was migrating laterally beyond the limits of the waste disposal site. This was observed along the profile situated close to the highway SP-127, which was about 20 m from the limit of the site. The signature of the contaminant appears as a discontinuous reflector that is believed to be a shallow ground water table. The discontinuity is marked by a shadow zone, which is characteristic of conductive contaminant residues. The contamination did not move far enough to reach a sugar cane plantation located at approximately 100 m from the border of the site. In the regions free from contamination, the ground water table was mapped at approximately 10 m of depth, and it was characterized by a strong and continuous reflector. The radar signal penetrated deep enough and enabled the identification of a second reflector at approximately 14 m deep, interpreted as the contact between the Rio Claro and the Corumbataı´ formations. The contact is marked by the presence of gravel characterized by

  4. An Integrated Approach to Determine Ground-water Surface Water Flux in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System at the Norman Landfill Research Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Phanikumar, M.; McGuire, J. T.; Masoner, J.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2008-12-01

    An area of research in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma involves a small wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the ground- water/surface-water exchange rate and flow direction. The ground-water/surface-water flow has to be quantified in order to better understand the influence of contaminants and nutrients on the transport and fate of landfill leachates. Different types of data have been collected at the site over a period of ten years including isotopic composition of water samples, ion concentrations, water levels, evaporative and seepage fluxes and meteorological variables. After identifying key processes influencing the water exchange between the wetland and ground-water based on time series analysis, we used process-based modeling to determine the ground-water/surface-water flow rates in the system using an integrated water balance model. Other methods used to constrain processes and parameters in the study include: (a) ground-water inflow calculation with stable environmental isotopes mass balance (b) ground-water input to the wetland with solute mass balance, and (c) Darcy's flow calculation of ground-water/surface-water exchange based on measurements from a network of piezometers. Preliminary results show that it is possible to differentiate between regional and local ground-water influences, as well as precipitation and evapotranspiration contributions in the exchange behavior.

  5. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Neumann, Patrick P.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully “translated” into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  6. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    PubMed

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms.

  7. Study of vinyl chloride formation at landfill sites in California. Final report, 16 July 1985-15 January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.; Hallen, R.T.; Payne, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if vinyl chloride (VC) detected in air above California landfills is produced in situ. Experiments were performed with N and S California landfill samples and anaerobic-digestor sewage sludge. Test materials were incubated with various chlorocarbons and with /sup 13/C-trichloroethylene (TCE) to confirm biological production of /sup 13/C-VC. These experiments confirmed the biological dechlorination of chloroethylenes as the most likely route for VC emission from landfills, rather than chemical or photochemical routes, or PVC degradation. Leaching from PVC could be a minor source of VC, though there was less than 0.1% (estimated) plastic in the landfill samples, containing at most 330 ppm of VC monomer. A landfill sample known to produce VC was used to start an anaerobic chemostat using methanol as sole carbon source. The enriched culture resulting was homogeneous, and when incubated with /sup 13/C-TCE, produced (13)C-VC, confirmed by GC/MS.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

  9. Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have

  10. Investigation of greenhouse gas emissions from a landfill site and agriculture in the UK by deployment of an in-situ FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonderfeld, Hannah; Humpage, Neil; Jeanjean, Antoine; Leigh, Roland; Allen, Grant; Boesch, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The main greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted by human activities in the UK are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Understanding and quantifying their emissions is essential to monitor and guide emission reduction measures. The GAUGE (Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions) project funded by NERC aims to improve the knowledge of the UK GHG budget by an extensive measurement program. In this presentation, we focus on two important sources of these GHG: Waste and agricultural sector. We are presenting data from the deployment of an in-situ FTIR (Ecotech) for continuous and simultaneous sampling of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO with a high time resolution in the order of minutes. During a two week field campaign at a landfill site near Ipswich in August 2014, measurements were taken within a radius of 320 m of the uncovered and active area of the landfill, which was still filled with new incoming waste. The data are analysed in detail for emission ratios of CH4 to CO2. Thereby a consistent ratio in favour of CO2 is found for these emissions. We have applied a computation fluid dynamics (CFD) model, constrained with local wind measurements and a detailed topographic map of the landfill site, to the in-situ concentration data to calculate emission fluxes of the active site. Since October 2014 the FTIR has been sampling from a church tower in Glatton as part of a near surface sampling network in East Anglia focusing on regional GHG emissions from agriculture. The site is mainly influenced by south westerly winds. A clear diurnal cycle is observed in summer for CO2, CH4 and N2O, which is less pronounced in the winter months. A simulation of the methane and nitrous oxide concentrations through application of the NAME model to the EDGAR and NAEI emission inventories illustrates some shortcomings in the available emission inventories for the probed region.

  11. Where Should the Landfill Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

  12. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ≈ 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water

  14. Street sweeping and stormwater regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the role of street sweeping in meeting the requirements of the Clean Water Act stormwater regulations. The article identifies those industrial and municipal activities which are covered by the regulations and cites frequent sweeping of site surfaces for industry and street sweeping for municipalities as an integral part of compliance plans.

  15. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, S.A. . E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. . E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. . E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

    2007-07-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

  16. LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Wade C.

    2012-01-24

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

  17. Landfills in karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.H. ); Memon, B.A.; LaMoreaux, P.E. )

    1994-06-01

    State and Federal regulations have established restrictions for location of hazardous waste and municipal, solid waste landfills. Regulations require owners/operators to demonstrate that the hydrogeology has been completely characterized at proposed landfills, and that locations for monitoring wells have been properly selected. Owners/operators are also required to demonstrate that engineering measures have been incorporated in the design of the municipal solid waste landfills, so that the site is not subject to destabilizing events, as a result of location in unstable areas, such as karst terrains. Karst terrains are typically underlain by limestone or dolomite, and may contain a broad continuum of karst features and karst activity. Preliminary investigation of candidate sites will allow ranking of the sites, rejection of some unsuitable sites, and selection of a few sites for additional studies. The complexity of hydrogeologic systems, in karst terrains, mandates thorough hydrogeologic studies to determine whether a specific site is, or can be rendered, suitable for a land disposal facility. Important components of hydrogeologic studies are: field mapping of structural and stratigraphic units; interpretation of sequential aerial photographs; test drilling and geophysical analyses; fracture analyses; seasonal variation in water-levels; spatial variation of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and aquiclude; velocity and direction of movement of ground water within aquifers; determination of control for recharge, discharge, and local base level; and evaluation of the effects of man's activities, such as pumping, dewatering and construction.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria

  19. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  20. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 3, Simulation of solute transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A solute transport model representing a 2.3-sq mi area surrounding and downgradient from a municipal landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, N.Y. was used to simulate migration of a conservative solute (chloride) in the upper glacial aquifer. Aquifer values used in the model were: hydraulic conductivity, 200 ft/day; effective porosity, 0.30; longitudinal dispersivity, 100 ft; transverse dispersivity, 20 ft. Average concentration of chloride was set at 875.0 mg/L in leachate and 10 mg/L in recharge and in ambient groundwater. Entry of leachate into the aquifer was assumed to have begun in 1977. Chloride concentrations in the simulated plume after 6 years of travel matched reasonably well the chloride data collected in October-December 1982. After 12 years of travel, the simulated plume extended 6,200 ft and was 2,600 ft wide. Maximum predicted concentration at the site boundary was 160 mg/L. Additional simulations were made to test the model 's ability to predict the effect of several remedial strategies on the movement of solutes. These included capping the landfill with an impermeable surface, removal of contaminated groundwater through four recovery wells, and a combination of the first two actions. (USGS)

  1. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  2. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices. PMID:25258630

  3. Bringing new life to old landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Rabasca, L.

    1996-01-01

    On the West Coast, Waste Management, Inc. is bringing new life to old landfills. The Bradley Landfill in Sun Valley, CA, just outside of Los Angeles, is being transformed into a recycling park, while a few hundred miles north, in the San Francisco Bay Area, an old landfill is now home to a transfer station and recycling center. WMI began transforming the landfill in the early 1990s.The first change was to process wood and green waste rather than landfilling it. In 1993, WMI added a sorting facility, and in 1994, after the Jan. 17 Northridge earthquake, the company added a construction and demolition debris (C and D) facility. There also is a landfill gas collection facility on the site. In the future, WMI hopes to add the following facilities: composting, railhaul, alternative fuels production, tire processing, and soil remediation. WMI also hopes several companies that use recycled materials as feedstock will build their plants at the landfill.

  4. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, R; De Araujos Morais, J; Carre, J; Bayard, R; Chovelon, J M; Gourdon, R

    2011-11-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. PMID:21778044

  5. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  6. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that are abused How can street drugs harm your pregnancy? Using street drugs can cause problems ... drugs that are abused How can street drugs harm your pregnancy? Using street drugs can cause problems ...

  7. Regulatory acceptance of the proposed well abandonment program for the present landfill, Operable Unit 7, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.R.

    1995-07-01

    The regulatory agencies approved a well abandonment program for the Present Landfill, Operable Unit (OU) 7 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, only three months after preparation. The proposed well abandonment program consists of abandoning 26 of the 54 existing monitoring wells in OU 7 that are currently sampled quarterly as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance wells or sitewide groundwater protection wells. Well abandonment was proposed on the basis that the purpose of each well has been fulfilled, the wells fall under the footprint of the landfill cap, the presence of the wells would compromise the integrity of the cap because holes would have to be cut in the synthetic liner, and unequal compaction of the fill material around the wells would potentially cause differential settlement of the cap. The proposal provided the technical justification to abandon the wells in place. The timely approval of the proposal by the regulatory agencies will allow the abandonment of the wells during fiscal year 1995 under the sitewide Well Abandonment and Replacement Program (WARP). Cost savings resulting from a decrease in the number of wells to be sampled under the groundwater monitoring program are estimated at $416,000 per year. This paper presents a summary of the well abandonment program, discusses the timely approvals required for implementation, and present the potential cost savings that can be achieved through implementation of the program.

  8. Effects of willow stands on heavy metal concentrations and top soil properties of infrastructure spoil landfills and dredged sediment-derived sites.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Quataert, Paul; Genouw, Gerrit; Lettens, Suzanna; Tack, Filip M G

    2009-10-01

    The effects of willow stand development on top soil properties of uncontaminated infrastructure spoil landfills (ISL) and contaminated dredged sediment landfills (DSL) were assessed. For the ISL, significant increases in Cd, Zn and organic C levels in the top soil (0-10 cm) were detected more than 20 years after disposal. The increases in Cd and Zn concentrations in the top soil were attributed to leaf-associated metal transfer and leaf fall: the relatively high Cd and Zn concentrations in willow leaves resulted in top soil enrichment for these elements. Higher absolute amounts of Cd, Zn and Mn were taken up and recycled during leaf fall on DSL than on ISL, but did not result in significant differences between top soil and deeper soil (10-30 cm) for the DSL. Direct comparison of top soil development between both types of sites is not possible due to differences in stand age and time since disposal. The DSL were characterised by a higher short-range variance for the Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the top soil than the ISL. During the first years of ripening and dewatering, significant sulphate leaching occurred in the top soil of the DSL.

  9. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  10. Results of the supplementary radiological survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CVP001)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1995-04-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted radiological surveys at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania. The surveys were performed on October 11-13 and November 14-17, 1993, in order to provide a complete characterization prior to site remediation. The surveys included a gamma scan and a scan for surface contamination from alpha and beta-gamma emitters; measurement of direct and removable alpha and beta-gamma levels; systematic FIDLER measurements at the surface of the concrete; and the collection of samples from boreholes for radionuclide analysis. Results of the surveys revealed radionuclide concentrations and surface contamination levels in excess of applicable DOE guidelines for {sup 238}U. Radionuclide distributions were higher than typical background levels for {sup 238}U in the Springdale, Pennsylvania area.

  11. Emergency landfill gas control at the Milwaukee County Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, M.S.; Boone, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    In October 1994, up to 55 percent methane concentrations by volume were found below 76th Street in Franklin, Wisconsin. Numerous utilities exist below 76th Street which service homes located only 100 feet east. The Milwaukee County Landfill, located immediately west of 76th Street, was the source of methane gas. With winter weather conditions approaching, Milwaukee County was concerned that landfill gas (LFG) could migrate along utilities or in sandy soil and enter basements of adjacent homes. The County declared an emergency to immediately release funds and authorized a design/build contract to remedy the gas migration. CDM Engineers and Constructors, Inc. was selected for the project. The Milwaukee County Department of Public Works, Environmental Services Division led the project team. Numerous activities occurred simultaneously, including: (1) Public Relations, (2) Notification to Wisconsin DNR, (3) Design and Permitting, (4) Ordering the Flare, (5) Installing Methane Detectors in 29 Basements. Public relations included public forums with local residences, monthly newsletters, meetings with the ski hill operator, television interviews, local newspaper interviews, briefing the County Alderman and City of Franklin officials. Cooperation from Wisconsin DNR provided a 10-day turnaround for approval of the design. A perimeter active gas collection and flare system was employed to mitigate LFG. The system included eight gas extraction wells drilled to the base of the landfill and one horizontal trench (approximately 40 feet long). Extraction wells and trench were connected together with a buried 6-inch HDPE header pipe. Condensate is collected in a 550-gallon double-walled steel tank.

  12. Provenance of white marbles from the nabatean sites of Qase Al Bint and colonnaded street baths at Petra, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Jaber, Nizar; al-Saad, Ziad; Shiyyab, Adnan; Degryse, Patrick

    Intercultural relations and trade are important components of understanding of historical interrelationships between regions and cultures. One of the most interesting objects of trade is stone, because of the expense and difficulty of its transport. Thus, the source of marble used in the Nabatean city of Petra was investigated using established petrological, geochemical and isotopic analyses. Specifically, marble from Qasr al Bint and the Colonnaded Street baths were sampled and investigated. The results of these analyses show that the marbles came from sources in Asia Minora and Greece. The most likely sources of the marble are the quarries of Thasos, Penteli, Prokennesos and Dokimeion. The choice of marble followed the desired utilitarian and aesthetic function of the stone. These results show that active trade in stone was part of the cultural interaction of the period.

  13. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. PMID:22647548

  14. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  15. N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  16. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.L. . E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  17. In situ denitrification in controlled landfill systems

    SciTech Connect

    Onay, T.T.; Pohland, F.G.

    1996-11-01

    The characteristics of leachate from landfill disposal sites vary according to the operational stage of the landfill. Leachates from old landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable refuse substrates. The relative concentration accumulating as stabilization progresses is also influenced by washout as leachate is collected and removed for external treatment. However, in landfills operated as bioreactors with leachate containment, collection and in situ recirculation to accelerate decomposition of readily available organic fractions of the refuse, leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations may accumulate to much higher levels. High leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations in landfill leachate have been reported, resulting in separate treatment challenges if direct discharge to either land or receiving waters is practiced. External treatment options for landfill leachate may involve complex physical-chemical and/or biological processes for removal of both high-strength organic and inorganic fractions, including nitrogen. Such separate leachate treatment systems are often costly and difficult to control on a continuum. Therefore, this study focused on the investigation of landfill ammonia nitrogen generation patterns, and the potential for its in situ attenuation and conversion in landfills constructed to permit sequential nitrification and denitrification using leachate recirculation. Accordingly, the landfill is constructed and operated as a controlled bioreactor system, with opportunity to convert ammonia to nitrate by nitrification and nitrate to nitrogen gas by denitrification. The results presented in this paper focus on in situ landfill denitrification of nitrified ammonia.

  18. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  19. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill--a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Min; Liu, Ming-Chao

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the "Cd rice" incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l(-1) with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l(-1) in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l(-1) would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l(-1) in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to

  20. Cleaner Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  1. 72. Crown Street, Chapel Street, Court Street & Grand Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Crown Street, Chapel Street, Court Street & Grand Avenue Bridges. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.63/. 71/.80/.94. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources.

  3. Assessment of odorous VOCs released from a main MSW landfill site in Istanbul-Turkey via a modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Saral, Arslan; Demir, Selami; Yildiz, Senol

    2009-08-30

    An air pollution modeling study was conducted to investigate the odorous effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a sanitary landfill area on ambient air quality. The atmospheric dispersion of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and 22 VOCs was modeled. Industrial Source Complex v3 Short Term (ISCST3) model was used to estimate hourly concentrations of odorous VOCs over the nearest residential area. Odor thresholds of VOCs of interest were also found in the literature. Results showed that short-term averages of three odorous VOCs, namely ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide, exceeded their odor thresholds, which are reported to be 0.022, 0.138 and 11.1 microg/m(3), respectively, at several points within the domain. Their highest concentrations within Gokturk County were estimated to be 0.09387 microg/m(3) for ethyl mercaptan, 0.07934 microg/m(3) for methyl mercaptan and 6.315 microg/m(3) for hydrogen sulfide. Short-term model results revealed the occasional odor problems being reported for Gokturk County. Hourly concentrations were used to obtain frequencies of odor episodes in Gokturk County via a probability analysis. The results showed that ethyl mercaptan concentrations did not exceed its odor threshold during more than 8.84% of the time. Similarly, the maximum odor episode frequencies for methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide were 0.98% and 0.34% of the time, respectively.

  4. Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH₄) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH₄ generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH₄ and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH₄ oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH₄ and CO₂ emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH₄ emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH₄ emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(−2) day(−1), respectively. The total CH₄ emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(−1). The mean of the CH₄ oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(−1). Special consideration must be given to the CH₄ oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH₄ emission reduction.

  5. First report of a lipopeptide biosurfactant from thermophilic bacterium Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus MK01 newly isolated from municipal landfill site.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Hakimeh; Abdoli, Mahya; Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Samie, Nima; Alidoust, Leila; Abbasi, Habib; Fooladi, Jamshid; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2014-07-01

    A biosurfactant-producing thermophile was isolated from the Kahrizak landfill of Tehran and identified as a bacterium belonging to the genus Aneurinibacillus. A thermostable lipopeptide-type biosurfactant was purified from the culture medium of this bacterium and showed stability in the temperature range of 20-90 °C and pH range of 5-10. The produced biosurfactant could reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 43 mN/m with a CMC of 1.21 mg/mL. The strain growing at a temperature of 45 °C produces a substantial amount of 5 g/L of biosurfactant in the medium supplemented with sunflower oil as the sole carbon source. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the biosurfactant production using sunflower oil, sodium nitrate, and yeast extract as variables. The optimization resulted in 6.75 g/L biosurfactant production, i.e., 35% improved as compared to the unoptimized condition. Thin-layer chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical composition analysis confirmed the lipopeptide structure of the biosurfactant.

  6. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  7. Engineered Municipal Waste Landfills: Climate Significance, Benefits, and some Landfill "Geophysics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenstein, D.; Yazdani, R.

    2002-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills have unique features: Wastes worldwide emit biogenic methane to the atmosphere of magnitude comparable to the total atmospheric buildup between 1980 and 1990. Carbon sequestered in landfills is large in geologic terms Management of decomposition in landfilled waste is desirable: (a) Control of waste decomposition and methane promises over tenfold cheaper greenhouse gas abatement compared to most other greenhouse gas abatement strategies. This is due in part to carbon sequestration and landfill gas energy offset of fossil fuel consumption (b) Landfill gas energy potential worldwide, is up to 1% of world energy. Use of landfill gas conserves a resource otherwise wasted (c) Monetary benefits of landfill life extension from decomposition and rapid volume reduction can be quite attractive This is a benefit for the US, where landfills are increasingly difficult and expensive to site. (d) Landfills containing mixed waste can be significant sources of atmospheric and groundwater pollutants needing control. Control is possible from advancing landfill management approaches (e) The stabilization of waste lessens pollutant risk and needs for costly long-term landfill aftercare. Greater control of landfill decomposition has been advocated in the form of "controlled" or "bioreactor" landfills. (SWANA, 1999; Reinhart and Townsend, 1996). Field trials are encouraging by several environmental/monetary criteria. Control of moisture and temperature have given fivefold or more acceleration of methane generation (Augenstein et al, 1998, 2000). There has been rapid volume loss of the landfilled waste as well, with conversion of waste organics to gas. Many trials over years have shown potential for abatement of pollutants in landfill leachate. Demonstration work by the solid waste management community attests to the benefits potential. Increasing field demonstrations, have been accompanied by observation and/or solution of several issues. As noted

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  9. 626628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626628 North Eutaw Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    626-628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626-628 North Eutaw Street & 400-412 Druid Hill Avenue on a block bounded by North Eutaw Street, George Street, Jaspar Street, & Druid Hill Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill... Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun County, Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on...

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Numerical assessment of a landfill compliance limit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensel, Bruce R.; Keefer, Donald A.; Griffin, Robert A.; Berg, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    The PLASM and Random Walk ground-water flow and contaminant transport models were used to assess the potential impact of various proposed regulatory compliance distances on landfill siting. Contaminant transport modeling was performed for 16 generalized geological sequences representative of hydrogeological conditions over an estimated 90 to 95 percent of Illinois. Results of this modeling indicate that about 50 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable for landfilling of nonhazardous wastes if the compliance distance was 100 feet. With a compliance distance of 500 feet, about 55 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable. This work demonstrates the utility of computer modeling in the development of regulations governing landfill siting.

  15. Bethlehem landfill groundwater containment monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hasemeier, R.F.; Knight, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The groundwater containment measures at the City of Bethlehem Landfill near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania include a 13-well pumping system; capping of closed landfill areas; a new landfill liner to decrease recharge; containment of a degraded aquifer; and substantial data reporting requirements to demonstrate effectiveness of the pump and treat system. The containment system functions as a barrier to downgradient contaminant migration. Reduction of groundwater recharge creates a very dynamic abatement system requiring monitoring. Performance monitoring of portions of the groundwater containment is continuous and accomplished through a centralized computer interface. Automated system control and data management reduces the human attention required to maintain a constant hydrodynamic barrier. Abatement system operational data is combined with other site monitoring data, including well water levels, water chemistry data, tonnage reports, and operational data, to fulfill permit reporting requirements for performance.

  16. Influence of soil pH on the fractionation of Cr, Cu and Zn in solid phases from a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Meléndez, G; Korre, A; Parry, S J

    2000-12-01

    The spatial variability of soil pH for engineered Weathered Oxford Clay is described using 35 samples collected from the base of a new cell in an existing landfill. Soil pH variability influences the reactivity of Cr, Cu and Zn in the site. The reactivity of these metals as natural components was determined using a sequential extraction method. The total concentration of Cr, Cu and Zn and the mineralogical composition were also determined. The results showed that due to the presence of a layer rich in pyrite in the base, a natural acidification may occur which can produce a soil pH as low as 2.7. The spatial variability of soil pH in this area has been described with an anisotropical variogram model and the estimation of its values at unsampled locations was carried out using the ordinary kriging algorithm. From the spatial modelling of the soil pH, it was found that the metals in the soil solid phases follow a similar distribution. PMID:15092828

  17. H2S removal and bacterial structure along a full-scale biofilter bed packed with polyurethane foam in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Yan, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide accumulated under a cover film in a landfill site was treated for 7 months by a full-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes. Sampling ports were set along the biofilter bed to investigate H2S removal and microbial characteristics in the biofilter. The H2S was removed effectively by the biofilter, and over 90% removal efficiency was achieved in steady state. Average elimination capacity of H2S was 2.21 g m(-3) h(-1) in lower part (LPB) and 0.41 g m(-3) h(-1) in upper part (UPB) of the biofilter. Most H2S was eliminated in LPB. H2S concentration varied along the polyurethane foam packed bed, the structure of the bacterial communities showed spatial variation in the biofilter, and H2S removal as well as products distribution changed accordingly. The introduction of odorants into the biofilter shifted the distribution of the existing microbial populations toward a specific culture that could metabolize the target odors. PMID:23989036

  18. Concentration of novel brominated flame retardants and HBCD in leachates and sediments from selected municipal solid waste landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olukunle, O I; Okonkwo, O J

    2015-09-01

    In this study leachate and sediment samples were collected from six municipal solid waste landfill sites across Gauteng Province in South Africa to determine the levels of 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5 tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Soxhlet as well as liquid-liquid extraction were employed for sediment and leachates respectively followed by GC-EIMS analysis. Concentrations of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) ranged from below detection (

  19. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term.

  20. Venice Park landfill: Working with the community

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Venice Park landfill was one of the first sites to be permitted under Michigan's proposed Public Act 641. PA 641 essentially changed the rules and regulations for landfills from the simple design of digging a hole and filling it. It also upgraded standards to those that are more sophisticated, including liners, leachate collection systems, and gas extraction systems. In 1992, methane gas from the landfill was collected into wells drilled into the trash varying in depth from 30-50 feet in depth. A vacuum pulls the gas from the trash into the wells, then through a piping system. The landfill uses about 80-100 kilowatts in-house. The remainder of the gas is sold to Consumers Power Co. which uses landfill gas to supply power to homes.

  1. Assessment of subsurface chlorinated solvent contamination using tree cores at the front street site and a former dry cleaning facility at the Riverfront Superfund site, New Haven, Missouri, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.; Struckhoff, Garrett C.; Burken, Joel G.

    2004-01-01

    Tree-core sampling has been a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly assess the presence of shallow (less than about 30 feet deep) tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in soils and ground water at the Riverfront Superfund Site. This report presents the results of tree-core sampling that was successfully used to determine the presence and extent of chlorinated solvent contamination at two sites, the Front Street site (operable unit OU1) and the former dry cleaning facility, that are part of the overall Riverfront Superfund Site. Traditional soil and ground-water sampling at these two sites later confirmed the results from the tree-core sampling. Results obtained from the tree-core sampling were used to design and focus subsequent soil and ground-water investigations, resulting in substantial savings in time and site assessment costs. The Front Street site is a small (less than 1-acre) site located on the Missouri River alluvium in downtown New Haven, Missouri, about 500 feet from the south bank of the Missouri River. Tree-core sampling detected the presence of subsurface PCE contamination at the Front Street site and beneath residential property downgradient from the site. Core samples from trees at the site contained PCE concentrations as large as 3,850 mg-h/kg (micrograms in headspace per kilogram of wet core) and TCE concentrations as large as 249 mg-h/kg. Soils at the Front Street site contained PCE concentrations as large as 6,200,000 mg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) and ground-water samples contained PCE concentrations as large as 11,000 mg/L (micrograms per liter). The former dry cleaning facility is located at the base of the upland that forms the south bank of the Missouri River alluvial valley. Tree-core sampling did not indicate the presence of PCE or TCE contamination at the former dry cleaning facility, a finding that was later confirmed by the analyses of soil samples collected from the site. The lateral extent of PCE

  2. Plants as biomarkers for monitoring heavy metal contaminants on landfill sites using sequential extraction and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES).

    PubMed

    Murphy, A P; Coudert, M; Barker, J

    2000-12-01

    There have been a number of studies investigating metal uptake in plants on contaminated landfill sites, but little on their role as biomarkers to identify metal mobility for continuous monitoring purposes. Vegetation can be used as a biomonitor of site pollution, by identifying the mobilisation of heavy metals and by providing an understanding of their bioavailability. Plants selected were the common nettle (Uritica Dioica), bramble (Rubus Fruticosa) and sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus). A study of the soil fractionation was made to investigate the soil properties that are likely to influence metal mobility and a correlation exercise was undertaken to investigate if variations in concentration of metals in vegetation can reflect variations in concentration of the metals in soil. The soil was digested using aqua regia in a microwave closed vessel. The vegetation was digested using both microwave and a hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid mixture, refluxed on a heating block and a comparison made. The certified reference materials (CRMs) used were Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, peach leaves for vegetation (NIST) and for soil CRM 143R, sewage sludge-amended soil (BCR). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2-6% for the analyses. Our findings show evidence of phytoextraction by some plants, (especially bramble and nettle), with certain plants, (sycamore) exhibiting signs of phytostabilisation. The evidence suggests that there is a degree of selectivity in metal uptake and partitioning within the plant compartments. It was also possible to correlate mobility phases of certain metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) using the soil and plant record. Zn and Cu exhibited the greatest potential to migrate from the roots to the leaves, with Pb found principally in the roots of ground vegetation. Our results suggest that analysis of bramble leaves, nettle leaves and roots can be used to monitor the mobility of Pb in the soil with nettle, bramble and sycamore leaves to monitor Cu and Zn

  3. Learning from Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)

  4. Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Kastens, M.K.; Sheader, L.R.L.; Benson, C.H.; Albright, W.H.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr{sup -1}), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of <3.0 mm yr{sup -1}. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

  5. Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

    In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity

  6. Gaseous methyl- and inorganic mercury in landfill gas from landfills in Florida, Minnesota, Delaware, and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Southworth, G.; Prestbo, E. M.; Wallschläger, D.; Bogle, M. A.; Price, J.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal waste landfills contain numerous sources of mercury which could be emitted to the atmosphere. Their generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests that landfills may act as bioreactors for methylated mercury compounds. Since our previous study at a single Florida landfill, gaseous inorganic and methylated mercury species have now been identified and quantified in landfill gas at nine additional municipal landfills in several regions of the US. Total gaseous mercury occurs at concentrations in the μg m-3 range, while methylated compounds occur at concentrations in the ng m-3 range at all but one of the landfill sites. Dimethylmercury is the predominant methylated species, at concentrations up to 100 ng m-3, while monomethyl mercury was generally lower. Limited measurements near sites where waste is exposed for processing (e.g. working face, transfer areas) suggest that dimethylmercury is released during these activities as well. Although increasing amounts of landfill gas generated in the US are flared (which should thermally decompose the organic mercury to inorganic mercury), unflared landfill gas is a potentially important anthropogenic source of methylated mercury emissions to the atmosphere.

  7. Landfill gas energy recovery: Turning a liability into an asset

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M.

    1996-08-01

    Until the past decade, landfill gas (LFG) was viewed as a nuisance at best and a hazard at worst. Today, municipalities and private-sector solid waste management companies are findings ways to put landfill gas to productive use. Landfill gas energy recovery eliminates detrimental air emissions; prevents landfill methane from contributing to global climate change; stops methane from migrating off-site and becoming a safety hazard or odor problem; and provides local utilities, industry, and consumers with a competitive, local source of power. In other words, LFG-to-energy facilities provide a unique form of recycling--solid waste is hauled to the landfill as refuse and returned to the consumer in the form of energy. US EPA`s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) and new EPA regulations for control of landfill gas emissions work together to encourage greater use of LFT at many facilities across the US.

  8. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73 years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study. PMID:22894551

  9. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the

  10. Landfill gas recovery: An analysis of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. M.

    1982-02-01

    Aspects of landfill gas recovery including the range of gas recovery, production rates, corrosion, medium-Btu industrial applications, and conversion to electricity via an internal combustion engine were investigated. It is estimated that the landfill site studied is capable of producing more than 2.17 x 10 to the 13th power Btu's of gas per year for a period of over eight years.

  11. EPA`s landfill methane outreach program: Helping facilities save money and protect the environment by using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.

    1997-06-01

    Until the past decade, landfill gas (LFG) was viewed as a nuisance at best and a hazard at worst. Today, many landfill owners and private-sector solid waste management companies are finding ways to put landfill gas to productive use. Landfill gas energy recovery eliminates detrimental air emissions; prevents landfill methane from contributing to global climate change; stops methane from migrating off-site and becoming a safety hazard or odor problem; and provides local utilities, industry, and consumers with a competitive, local source of power. In other words, LFG-to-energy facilities provide a unique form of recycling - solid waste is hauled to the landfill as refuse and returned to the consumer in the form of energy. US EPA`s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) works to encourage greater use of LFG at facilities across the US.

  12. Landfill capping: The Croton Point Landfill experience

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasaraghaven, R.; Gavin, J.M.; Landi, A.M.; Ritchie, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Croton Point Landfill Capping involved the installation of an impermeable, geosynthetic cap and the attendant geotechnical cover soils over a 113 acre hazardous waste landfill in Croton-On-Hudson, New York. The remediation process - Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Remedial Design and Remedial Construction lasted six years. This paper sets forth some of the insights and experiences gained during that process and provides some practical recommendations. In particular, the paper evaluates the Croton Landfill experience in regard to Health and Safety; Stormwater Control; erosion and sediment control; QA/QC; leachate treatment and disposal; and wildlife control.

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  14. Landfill mining: Development of a cost simulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pinkel, Michael; Polansek, Stephanie; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill. PMID:26858240

  15. Application of hydrogeology and groundwater-age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at the site of a landfill to the Mahomet Aquifer, near Clinton, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Buszka, Paul M.

    2016-03-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey used interpretations of hydrogeologic conditions and tritium-based groundwater age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at a landfill site near Clinton, Illinois (the “Clinton site”) where a chemical waste unit (CWU) was proposed to be within the Clinton landfill unit #3 (CLU#3). Glacial deposits beneath the CWU consist predominantly of low-permeability silt- and clay-rich till interspersed with thin (typically less than 2 feet in thickness) layers of more permeable deposits, including the Upper and Lower Radnor Till Sands and the Organic Soil unit. These glacial deposits are about 170 feet thick and overlie the Mahomet Sand Member of the Banner Formation. The Mahomet aquifer is composed of the Mahomet Sand Member and is used for water supply in much of east-central Illinois.Eight tritium analyses of water from seven wells were used to evaluate the overall age of recharge to aquifers beneath the Clinton site. Groundwater samples were collected from six monitoring wells on or adjacent to the CLU#3 that were open to glacial deposits above the Mahomet aquifer (the upper and lower parts of the Radnor Till Member and the Organic Soil unit) and one proximal production well (approximately 0.5 miles from the CLU#3) that is screened in the Mahomet aquifer. The tritium-based age estimates were computed with a simplifying, piston-flow assumption: that groundwater moves in discrete packets to the sampled interval by advection, without hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing.Tritium concentrations indicate a recharge age of at least 59 years (pre-1953 recharge) for water sampled from deposits below the upper part of the Radnor Till Member at the CLU#3, with older water expected at progressively greater depth in the tills. The largest tritium concentration from a well sampled by this study (well G53S; 0.32 ± 0.10 tritium units) was in groundwater from a sand deposit in the upper part of the Radnor Till Member; the shallowest permeable unit

  16. Application of hydrogeology and groundwater-age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at the site of a landfill to the Mahomet Aquifer, near Clinton, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Buszka, Paul M.

    2016-03-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey used interpretations of hydrogeologic conditions and tritium-based groundwater age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at a landfill site near Clinton, Illinois (the “Clinton site”) where a chemical waste unit (CWU) was proposed to be within the Clinton landfill unit #3 (CLU#3). Glacial deposits beneath the CWU consist predominantly of low-permeability silt- and clay-rich till interspersed with thin (typically less than 2 feet in thickness) layers of more permeable deposits, including the Upper and Lower Radnor Till Sands and the Organic Soil unit. These glacial deposits are about 170 feet thick and overlie the Mahomet Sand Member of the Banner Formation. The Mahomet aquifer is composed of the Mahomet Sand Member and is used for water supply in much of east-central Illinois.Eight tritium analyses of water from seven wells were used to evaluate the overall age of recharge to aquifers beneath the Clinton site. Groundwater samples were collected from six monitoring wells on or adjacent to the CLU#3 that were open to glacial deposits above the Mahomet aquifer (the upper and lower parts of the Radnor Till Member and the Organic Soil unit) and one proximal production well (approximately 0.5 miles from the CLU#3) that is screened in the Mahomet aquifer. The tritium-based age estimates were computed with a simplifying, piston-flow assumption: that groundwater moves in discrete packets to the sampled interval by advection, without hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing.Tritium concentrations indicate a recharge age of at least 59 years (pre-1953 recharge) for water sampled from deposits below the upper part of the Radnor Till Member at the CLU#3, with older water expected at progressively greater depth in the tills. The largest tritium concentration from a well sampled by this study (well G53S; 0.32 ± 0.10 tritium units) was in groundwater from a sand deposit in the upper part of the Radnor Till Member; the shallowest permeable unit

  17. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  18. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  19. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  20. Chania multitudinisentens gen. nov., sp. nov., an N-acyl-homoserine-lactone-producing bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from landfill site soil.

    PubMed

    Ee, Robson; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Ji, Lianghui; Lim, Yan-Lue; Nor, Nuruddin Muhammad; Tee, Kok-Keng; Chen, Jian-Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic and taxonomic characterization was performed for bacterium RB-25T, which was isolated from a soil sample collected in a former municipal landfill site in Puchong, Malaysia. Growth occurred at 20-37 °C at pH 5-8 but not in the presence of 9 % (w/v) NaCl or higher. The principal fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). Ubiquinone-8 was the only isoprenoid quinone detected. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of phospholipid, phosphoaminolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified aminolipid. DNA G+C content was 50.9 mol% phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain RB-25T formed a distinct lineage within the family Enterobacteriaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It exhibited a low level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its phylogenetic neighbours Pantoea rwandensis LMG 26275T (96.6 %), Rahnella aquatilis CIP 78.65T (96.5 %), Pectobacterium betavasculorum ATCC 43762T (96.4 %), Pantoea rodasii LMG 26273T (96.3 %), Gibbsiella dentisursi NUM 1720T (96.3 %) and Serratia glossinae C1T (96.2 %). Multilocus sequence analyses based on fusA, pyrG, rplB, rpoB and sucA sequences showed a clear distinction of strain RB-25T from the most closely related genera. Isolate RB-25T could also be distinguished from members of these genera by a combination of the DNA G+C content, respiratory quinone system, fatty acid profile, polar lipid composition and other phenotypic features. Strain RB-25T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Chaniamultitudinisentens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RB-25T (=DSM 28811T=LMG 28304T). PMID:26978486

  1. The potential for aeration of MSW landfills to accelerate completion

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Charlotte; Gronow, Jan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-07-01

    Landfilling is a popular waste disposal method, but, as it is practised currently, it is fundamentally unsustainable. The low short-term financial costs belie the potential long-term environmental costs, and traditional landfill sites require long-term management in order to mitigate any possible environmental damage. Old landfill sites might require aftercare for decades or even centuries, and in some cases remediation may be necessary. Biological stabilisation of a landfill is the key issue; completion criteria provide a yardstick by which the success of any new technology may be measured. In order for a site to achieve completion it must pose no risk to human health or the environment, meaning that attenuation of any emissions from the site must occur within the local environment without causing harm. Remediation of old landfill sites by aerating the waste has been undertaken in Germany, the United States, Italy and The Netherlands, with considerable success. At a pilot scale, aeration has also been used in newly emplaced waste to accelerate stabilisation. This paper reviews the use of aerobic landfill worldwide, and assesses the ways in which the use of aerobic landfill techniques can decrease the risks associated with current landfill practices, making landfill a more sustainable waste disposal option. It focuses on assessing ways to utilise aeration to enhance stabilisation. The results demonstrated that aeration of old landfill sites may be an efficient and cost-effective method of remediation and allow the date of completion to be brought forward by decades. Similarly, aeration of newly emplaced waste can be effective in enhancing degradation, assisting with completion and reducing environmental risks. However, further research is required to establish what procedure for adding air to a landfill would be most suitable for the UK and to investigate new risks that may arise, such as the possible emission of non-methane organic compounds.

  2. A new system for groundwater contamination hazard rating of landfills.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Datta, Manoj; Nema, Arvind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, several unregulated landfills exist adjacent to large cities, releasing harmful contaminants to the underlying aquifer. Normally, landfills are constructed to hold three types of waste, namely hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, and construction and demolition waste. Hazardous waste and municipal solid waste landfills are of greater importance as these pose greater hazard to groundwater, in comparison with landfills holding waste from construction and demolition. The polluting landfills need to be prioritized to undertake necessary control and remedial measures. This paper assesses existing site hazard rating systems and presents a new groundwater contamination hazard rating system for landfills, which can be used for site prioritization. The proposed system is based on source-pathway-receptor relationships and evaluates different sites relative to one another. The system parameters have been selected based on literature. The Delphi technique is used to derive the relative importance weights of the system parameters. The proposed system is compared with nine existing systems. The comparison shows that the site hazard scores produced by the existing systems for hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, and construction and demolition waste landfills are of the same order of magnitude and tend to overlap each other but the scores produced by the proposed system for the three types of landfills vary almost by an order of magnitude, which shows that the proposed system is more sensitive to the type of waste. The comparison further shows that the proposed system exhibits greater sensitivity also to varied site conditions. The application of different systems to six old municipal solid waste landfills shows that whereas the existing systems produce clustered scores, the proposed system produces significantly differing scores for all the six landfills, which improves decision making in site ranking. This demonstrates that the proposed system

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  4. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  5. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  6. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  7. Report: management problems of solid waste landfills in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2002-08-01

    This paper evaluates current operational practices in municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait to provide existing knowledge on uncontrolled landfilling and associated problems of solid waste disposal in developing countries. The current landfilling practices are safe neither for humans nor for the environment. The landfill sites receive all kinds of wastes such as food wastes, oil products, debris, dead animals, agricultural wastes, chemical wastes, wastewater and sewage sludge. The wastes are dumped, spread and compacted in an uncontrolled manner and cover material is not applied regularly. Dust created within the landfill site and gas emissions cause a public nuisance. The characteristics of leachate formed indicate high organic content and presence of heavy metals, salts and nutrients. There are no provisions for leachate or landfill gas collection at the landfill sites. Recommendations for adjustment in landfill operation have been made in recognition of the transition period that is experienced in proceeding from the past and present to the future management of landfills in Kuwait to safeguard the public health and protect the environment.

  8. Hydrogeology of a landfill, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. A statistical model for landfill surface emissions.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Martin; Guy, Christophe; Millette, Denis

    2010-02-01

    Landfill operators require a rapid, simple, low-cost, and accurate method for estimation of landfill methane surface emissions over time. Several methods have been developed to obtain instantaneous field measurements of landfill methane surface emissions. This paper provides a methodology for interpolating instantaneous measurements over time, taking variations in meteorological conditions into account. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of three factors on landfill methane surface emissions: air temperature, pressure gradient between waste and atmosphere, and soil moisture content of the cover material. On the basis of a statistical three-factor and two-level full factorial design, field measurements of methane emissions were conducted at the City of Montreal landfill site during the summer of 2004. Three areas were measured: test area 1 (4800 m2), test area 2 (1400 m2), and test area 3 (1000 m2). Analyses of variance were performed on the data. They showed a significant statistical effect of the three factors and the interaction between temperature and soil moisture content on methane emissions. Analysis also led to the development of a multifactor correlation, which can be explained by the underlying processes of diffusive and advective flow and biological oxidation. This correlation was used to estimate total emissions of the three test areas for July and August 2004. The approach was validated using a second dataset for another area adjacent to the landfill. PMID:20222535

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from a municipal landfill.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Janne; Pihlatie, Mari; Lohila, Annalea; Thum, Tea; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Laurila, Tuomas; Vesala, Timo

    2005-10-15

    The first measurements of nitrous oxide (N20) emissions from a landfill by the eddy covariance method are reported. These measurements were compared to enclosure emission measurements conducted at the same site. The average emissions from the municipal landfill of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area were 2.7 mg N m(-2) h(-1) and 6.0 mg N m(-2) h(-1) measured bythe eddy covariance and the enclosure methods, respectively. The N20 emissions from the landfill are about 1 order of magnitude higher than the highest emissions reported from Northern European agricultural soils, and 2 orders of magnitude higher than the highest emissions reported from boreal forest soils. Due to the small area of landfills as compared to other land-use classes, the total N20 emissions from landfills are estimated to be of minor importance for the total emissions from Finland. Expressed as a greenhouse warming potential (GWP100), the N2O emissions make up about 3% of the total GWP100 emission of the landfill. The emissions measured by the two systems were generally of similar magnitude, with enclosure measurements showing a high small-scale spatial variation. PMID:16295838

  12. A statistical model for landfill surface emissions.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Martin; Guy, Christophe; Millette, Denis

    2010-02-01

    Landfill operators require a rapid, simple, low-cost, and accurate method for estimation of landfill methane surface emissions over time. Several methods have been developed to obtain instantaneous field measurements of landfill methane surface emissions. This paper provides a methodology for interpolating instantaneous measurements over time, taking variations in meteorological conditions into account. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of three factors on landfill methane surface emissions: air temperature, pressure gradient between waste and atmosphere, and soil moisture content of the cover material. On the basis of a statistical three-factor and two-level full factorial design, field measurements of methane emissions were conducted at the City of Montreal landfill site during the summer of 2004. Three areas were measured: test area 1 (4800 m2), test area 2 (1400 m2), and test area 3 (1000 m2). Analyses of variance were performed on the data. They showed a significant statistical effect of the three factors and the interaction between temperature and soil moisture content on methane emissions. Analysis also led to the development of a multifactor correlation, which can be explained by the underlying processes of diffusive and advective flow and biological oxidation. This correlation was used to estimate total emissions of the three test areas for July and August 2004. The approach was validated using a second dataset for another area adjacent to the landfill.

  13. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    SciTech Connect

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of whole landfill site methane emission at 15 landfills. • Multiple on-site source identification and quantification. • Quantified methane emission from shredder waste and composting. • Large difference between measured and reported methane emissions. - Abstract: Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h{sup −1}, corresponding to 0.7–13.2 g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41–81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y{sup −1}. This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y{sup −1} estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for

  14. Guideway along Frankford Avenue between Dyre Street and Pratt Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Guideway along Frankford Avenue between Dyre Street and Pratt Street. Looking northeast. Pratt Street station in right mid-ground. - Frankford Elevated, 52100-5400 Frankford Avenue (guideway & stations), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Emissions of Nonmethane Organic Compounds at an Illinois (USA) Landfill: Preliminary Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.; Niemann, M.; Niemann, L.; Baker, J.

    1997-08-01

    Current US regulatory models for estimating emissions of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require field validation to determine if the models are realistic. A project was initiated to begin to develop a field method for direct measurement of landfill NMOC emissions and, concurrently, develop improved sampling and analysis methods for individual NMOCs in landfill gas matrices. Two contrasting field sites at the Greene Valley Landfill, DuPage County, Illinois, USA, were established.

  16. All About Sesame Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Phylis

    The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

  17. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  18. A decision support system for assessing landfill performance.

    PubMed

    Celik, Başak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlü, Kahraman

    2010-01-01

    Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills.

  19. A decision support system for assessing landfill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Basak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlue, Kahraman

    2010-01-15

    Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills.

  20. Landfills for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, R. )

    1994-01-01

    In the next 10 years, the role of landfills will not change significantly. Landfills are, and will continue to be, the cornerstone of any waste services system. A number of factors will, however, cause adjustments in the way landfills function. The character of the waste is also changing. Mankind will see more treated industrial residue in future years. Certain types of these materials have, in the past, gone to hazardous waste disposal sites. These are non-hazardous wastes, but generators found a certain comfort in sending them to hazardous waste facilities that had double composite liners, leachate collection, and financial assurance. With the new technical standards and environmental security of sanitary landfills, there will be a reluctance on the part of generators to pay a premium to send this waste to a hazardous waste site. There is also a growing interest in treating characteristic'' hazardous waste to a level where it is no longer hazardous and can be placed in a sanitary landfill.

  1. The biological impact of landfill leachate on nearby surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, S.W.

    1994-12-31

    Five landfill sites were evaluated for their potential to adversely impact the biotic community of surface waters. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity tests were used to determine the toxicity of water samples collected from landfill monitoring wells and the nearest surface water. Four of the five landfill sites exhibited acute or chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, or Pimephales promelas. Toxicity identification procedures performed on water samples revealed toxic responses to metals and one toxic response to organic compounds. Surface water toxicity at an industrial landfill is most likely due to zinc from a tire production facility. Iron and a surfactant were determined to be the probable causes for toxicity at two municipal solid waste landfills.

  2. Easy landfill gas profits

    SciTech Connect

    Schleifer, R.

    1988-03-01

    Landfill and digester gases can be valuable fuels. Engine-driven energy recovery systems are a common sight today at landfills and wastewater treatment plants. Yet the complaint is still heard: ''Waste'' gases are tough on engines. That can be true when impurities and variability in landfill or digester gas are not controlled. But with today's fuel-system technology, control is not difficult. Typically, custom-engineered fuel systems for alternate-fuel engine applications can include filters, scrubbers, separators, calorimeters, or other devices needed to deliver an acceptable gas to the engine. It's important that this system is designed only after a thorough gas analysis.

  3. Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Anumol, Tarun; Barlaz, Morton; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Landfill leachate samples (n=11) were collected from five USA municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and analyzed for ten trace organic pollutants that are commonly detected in surface and municipal wastewater effluents (viz., carbamazepine, DEET, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, PFOA, PFOS, primidone, sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). Carbamazepine, DEET, PFOA and primidone were detected in all leachate samples analyzed and gemfibrozil was detected in samples from four of the five-landfill sites. The contaminants found in the highest concentrations were DEET (6900-143000 ng L(-1)) and sucralose (<10-621000 ng L(-1)). Several compounds were not detected (fluoxetine) or detected infrequently (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and PFOS). Using the average mass of DEET in leachate amongst the five landfills and scaling the mass release from the five test landfills to the USA population of landfills, an order of magnitude estimate is that over 10000 kg DEET yr(-1) may be released in leachate. Some pharmaceuticals have similar annual mean discharges to one another, with the estimated annual discharge of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, primidone equating to 53, 151 and 128 kg year(-1). To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that primidone has been included in a landfill leachate study. While the estimates developed in this study are order of magnitude, the values do suggest the need for further research to better quantify the amount of chemicals sent to wastewater treatment facilities with landfill leachate, potential impacts on treatment processes and the significance of landfill leachate as a source of surface water contamination.

  4. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  5. A decision support tool for landfill methane generation and gas collection.

    PubMed

    Emkes, Harriet; Coulon, Frédéric; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a decision support tool (DST) to enhance methane generation at individual landfill sites. To date there is no such tool available to provide landfill decision makers with clear and simplified information to evaluate biochemical processes within a landfill site, to assess performance of gas production and to identify potential remedies to any issues. The current lack in understanding stems from the complexity of the landfill waste degradation process. Two scoring sets for landfill gas production performance are calculated with the tool: (1) methane output score which measures the deviation of the actual methane output rate at each site which the prediction generated by the first order decay model LandGEM; and (2) landfill gas indicators' score, which measures the deviation of the landfill gas indicators from their ideal ranges for optimal methane generation conditions. Landfill gas indicators include moisture content, temperature, alkalinity, pH, BOD, COD, BOD/COD ratio, ammonia, chloride, iron and zinc. A total landfill gas indicator score is provided using multi-criteria analysis to calculate the sum of weighted scores for each indicator. The weights for each indicator are calculated using an analytical hierarchical process. The tool is tested against five real scenarios for landfill sites in UK with a range of good, average and poor landfill methane generation over a one year period (2012). An interpretation of the results is given for each scenario and recommendations are highlighted for methane output rate enhancement. Results demonstrate how the tool can help landfill managers and operators to enhance their understanding of methane generation at a site-specific level, track landfill methane generation over time, compare and rank sites, and identify problems areas within a landfill site. PMID:26168873

  6. A decision support tool for landfill methane generation and gas collection.

    PubMed

    Emkes, Harriet; Coulon, Frédéric; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a decision support tool (DST) to enhance methane generation at individual landfill sites. To date there is no such tool available to provide landfill decision makers with clear and simplified information to evaluate biochemical processes within a landfill site, to assess performance of gas production and to identify potential remedies to any issues. The current lack in understanding stems from the complexity of the landfill waste degradation process. Two scoring sets for landfill gas production performance are calculated with the tool: (1) methane output score which measures the deviation of the actual methane output rate at each site which the prediction generated by the first order decay model LandGEM; and (2) landfill gas indicators' score, which measures the deviation of the landfill gas indicators from their ideal ranges for optimal methane generation conditions. Landfill gas indicators include moisture content, temperature, alkalinity, pH, BOD, COD, BOD/COD ratio, ammonia, chloride, iron and zinc. A total landfill gas indicator score is provided using multi-criteria analysis to calculate the sum of weighted scores for each indicator. The weights for each indicator are calculated using an analytical hierarchical process. The tool is tested against five real scenarios for landfill sites in UK with a range of good, average and poor landfill methane generation over a one year period (2012). An interpretation of the results is given for each scenario and recommendations are highlighted for methane output rate enhancement. Results demonstrate how the tool can help landfill managers and operators to enhance their understanding of methane generation at a site-specific level, track landfill methane generation over time, compare and rank sites, and identify problems areas within a landfill site.

  7. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  8. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  9. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management. PMID:20935025

  10. Review of groundwater contamination hazard rating systems for old landfills.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Datta, Manoj; Nema, Arvind Kumar

    2010-02-01

    A large number of old uncontrolled landfills exist in developing countries. These are potentially harmful to the environment, especially with respect to groundwater contamination, and therefore, are in need of appropriate control and remedial measures. However, due to resource constraints, such measures are to be undertaken in a phased manner. An appropriate landfill hazard rating system that can evaluate relative groundwater contamination hazard of different sites is a useful tool for site ranking in order to set priorities. This paper reviews 18 existing hazard rating systems that follow the index function approach. Nine systems that are best representative of the existing systems, have been applied to six hazardous waste landfills as well as six municipal solid waste landfills. When used for ranking hazardous waste landfills, some systems such as HRS-1990, ERPHRS, WARM and RSS respond well whereas others like DRASTIC, NCS, NPC system and JENV system show a clustering effect. However, these rating systems do not perform well when applied to old municipal solid waste landfills. Even the HRS-1990, which is observed to be the most sensitive among all rating systems, exhibits some shortcomings. Improvements have been suggested in the waste quantity factor values of HRS-1990 to make it suitable for old municipal solid waste landfills. The improved system is observed to provide superior results in comparison with the existing systems, making it appropriate for use as a tool for ranking of old landfills in need of remediation and control measures.

  11. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  12. Low-cost treatment of landfill leachate using peat.

    PubMed

    Heavey, M

    2003-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive obliges member states to collect and treat leachate from landfill sites. In regions of high population density, this is commonly achieved through discharge of the leachate to the municipal sewerage system. In Ireland, rural landfills can be a long distance from a suitable sewerage system, resulting in high transportation costs. On-site treatment systems, when used elsewhere, are mainly aerobic treatment systems, which are costly to construct and operate. There is a particular need for low-cost, low-maintenance leachate treatment systems for small low-income landfills, and for closed landfills, where long-term running costs of aerobic systems may be unsustainable. In 1989, this research work was initiated to investigate the use of local peat for the treatment of leachate from a small rural landfill site. In 1997, following the award of grant-aid under the EU LIFE Programme, a full-scale leachate treatment plant was constructed, using local un-drained peat as the treatment medium. When the LIFE Project ended in February 2001, leachate treatment research continued at the site using a pre-treated peat as the treatment medium. The treatment levels achieved using both types of peat are discussed in this paper. It is concluded that landfill leachate may be successfully treated using a low-cost peat bed to achieve almost 100% removal of both BOD and ammonia.

  13. Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, E.R.; Archer, D.B.; De Macario, E.C.; Macario, A.J.L.

    1988-03-01

    Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from landfill sites in the United Kindgom. Strains of Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, several different immunotypes of Methanobacterium bryantii, and a coccoid methanogen distinct from the reference immunotypes were identified.

  14. Analysis of Street Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stuart H.; Bhatt, Sudhir

    1972-01-01

    A study of the content of street drugs available to a college campus and a community is presented. Emphasis is given to the adulterants and substitutions encountered in the illicit preparations. (Author)

  15. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  16. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  17. 18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING NORTH, For the purpose of clarity and simplicity, directions relate to the nearly north-south orientation of the Naval Supply Center, and not to true north. The alignment of streets and buildings in the NSC are roughly related to magnetic north, and are thus about 10 degrees clockwise from true north. WITH BUILDINGS 222 AND 221 ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. The tall, narrow building in the middle of the photo is 10 North Warren Street. Signs saying 'Saddlery,' 'Carriage,' and 'Hardware' on the building indicate that the photo was taken during the tenancy of Claffery & Slack (1888-1914). - 10 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), 10 North Warren Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. The Street and Its Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Studied development of identity as street children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Found that children without income-generating activity lack self-definition as street children but recognize the street as a place of apprenticeship, knowing they can return to institutions or to parents. Working children view the street as a workplace and meeting place,…

  20. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates.

  1. [Dispersion and analysis of odor pollution in landfill area under the enclosed operation condition].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Wu, Shi-Xing; Dai, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Dai, Zhan-Guo; Lu, Xu-Fei; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Kai; Wei, Pan-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Odor pollution of landfill site is a serious problem accompanied with the urbanization process that influences city life. Generally, odor emission points in landfill boundary are detected by experience, but the pollution intensity, distribution and variation in the scope of landfill boundary are difficulty to describe. In this research, odor emission points were disclosed with equal odor concentration curves that were delineated using electric nose and GPS instrument. The leakage of landfill gas and exhaust emission from biogas incineration torch was the main cause of the odor pollution in landfill area. Gas production evaluation suggested that the improvement of landfill gas consumption is the key point to control the odor pollution at the landfill site.

  2. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  3. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  4. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities.

  5. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities. PMID:10417373

  6. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  7. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  8. Municipal landfill leachate management

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, T.; Willson, R.; Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

  9. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  10. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  11. 3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME LEFT CENTER; 21 AT MID-LEFT CENTER; 4 AT LEFT CENTER; RUNDBOGENSTIL TOWER AT CENTER; BUILDING 3 RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 2 AT EXTREME RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 3 IS THE OLDEST BUILDING ON SITE AND WAS BUILT CIRCA 1850 - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  12. 52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water Company site, along covered Dundee Canal prism, toward Dayton Avenue and Botany Worsted Mills - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  13. 1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street showing Paper Machine Building at southwest corner of site; view to northeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  14. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827).

    PubMed

    Kootker, Lisette M; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  15. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Alan G.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  16. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827).

    PubMed

    Kootker, Lisette M; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world.

  17. Optimization of leachate treatment using persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process: case study: Deir El-Balah Landfill Site, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; Arafa, Anwar I; El-Sebaie, Olfat D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing H2O2 reagent in persulfate activation to treat stabilized landfill leachate. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as persulfate and H2O2 dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following two responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities (<0.0001): chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal. The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 116 min, 4.97 g S2O8(2-), 7.29 g H2O2 dosage and pH 11. The experimental results were corresponding well with predicted models (COD and NH3-N removal rates of 81% and 83%, respectively). The results obtained in the stabilized leachate treatment were compared with those from other treatment processes, such as persulfate only and H2O2 only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The combined method (i.e., /S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with other studied applications. PMID:26744940

  18. Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Tarazi, E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36microSva(-1) in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91microSva(-1). The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70microSva(-1). Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn=2.52 and Ba=1.33; old landfill site: Cr=1.88, Zn=3.64, and Ba=1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr=1.57, Zn=2.19, and Ba=1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste.

  19. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  20. 23. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 21. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 24. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 22. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., RI. sec. 4215, mp 141.67/.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  5. VIEW LOOKING DOWN DUNCAN STREET FROM AYRES STREET, WITH FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING DOWN DUNCAN STREET FROM AYRES STREET, WITH FACILITY 712 ON RIGHT AND FACILITY 713 ON LEFT (CENTRAL-ENTRY SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING TYPE). VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Wilikina Drive & Kunia Road, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Quantification of Methane Emissions From Street Level Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lavoie, T. N.; Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of identifying, attributing, and quantifying methane emissions from urban sources such as landfills, waste-water treatment facilities and natural gas distribution systems is an active area of research. This interest is fueled, in part, by recent measurements indicating that urban emissions are a significant source of methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas) and in fact may be substantially higher than current inventory estimates. As a result, developing methods for locating and quantifying emissions from urban methane sources is of great interest to industries such as landfill owners, and governmental agencies. In an attempt to identify major methane source locations and emissions in the city of Indianapolis, systematic measurements of CH4 concentrations and meteorology data were made at street level using multiple vehicles equipped with cavity ring-down spectrometers. A number of discrete sources were detected at methane molar ratios in excess of 15 times background levels. The street level data is analyzed with plume inversion models including Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) software, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and backward Lagrangian Simulations (bLS) to identify source location and emission rates. The methodology for analyzing the street level data and our estimates of CH4 emissions from various sources in the city of Indianapolis will be presented.

  7. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate using Pennisetum clandestinum.

    PubMed

    Sögüt, Zerrin; Zaimoglu, B Zeynep; Erdogan, Reyhan; Sucu, M Yavuz

    2005-01-01

    Landfills are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method used across the world. Leachate generated from landfill areas exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater, with its high pollutant content, most notably metals, which cause an unbearable lower water quality. During dumping or after the capacity of the landfill has been reached, a decontamination and remediation program should be taken for the area. This study was conducted to assess the capacity and efficiency of Pennisetum clandestinum, a prostrate perennial plant, to accumulate chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb). Leachate, taken from the Sofulu Landfill Site, was given to Pennisetum clandestinum for 180 days, in 3 dilution sets as 1/1, 1/2 and 1/4, in batch configuration. An additional control set was also installed for comparison. Results showed that, even though the metal content of soil had risen, plants accumulated 2 to 8.5 times higher concentrations than the control set. It is important to see, the plant showed almost no stress symptoms even if the set was fed by pure leachate. Pennisetum clandestinum was observed to accumulate metals mostly in the upper bodies, excluding Fe and Cu. 76% of accumulated Cr, 85% of Ni, 66% of Zn and 100% of Pb was observed to accumulate in above-ground parts, where only 20% of Cu and 4% of Fe was accumulated. Due to the high pollution tolerance of Pennisetum clandestinum, makes this plant suitable for decontamination and remediation of landfill sites.

  8. Street Corner Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holiday, D. Alexander

    The language of Black America is rich and diverse in its utterance, whether through music (Jazz, Blues, Soul, Gospel, and Rap), through street corner "shuckin''n jivin'," or through writing. This language is used as a means of survival, of getting from one day to the next. Blacks have developed a system of taking the fewest words and making them…

  9. Benjamin Franklin Street Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Seth F.

    In this evaluation report of the sixth year of operation of the Benjamin Franklin-Urban League Street Academy in New York City, it is recommended that the program be continued for the seventh year despite the poorer than expected student gains in all studied components and the sporadic student attendance pattern and high dropout rate. Students…

  10. Saving Mango Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

  11. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Attenuation of landfill leachate at two uncontrolled landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Cheon, Jeong-Yong; Kwon, Hyung-Pyo; Yoon, Hee-Sung; Lee, Seong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Joung-Ku; Kim, Chang-Gyun

    2006-12-01

    Attenuation characteristics of landfill leachate were examined for two uncontrolled landfills in Korea. The two landfills containing municipal wastes without appropriate bottom liner and leachate treatment system have different landfill age, waste volume, and most importantly different hydrogeologic settings. One landfill (Cheonan landfill) is situated in an open flat area while the other (Wonju landfill) is located in a valley. Variations of various parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO{3/-}), sulfate (SO{4/2-}), and chloride (Cl-) were examined along groundwater flow path. All these parameters were analyzed every month for a year. In the interior of the landfills, typical anaerobic conditions revealed by low DO and NO3 concentrations, negative ORP values, high NH3, alkalinity, and Cl- concentrations were observed. Generally, higher levels of contaminants (DOC, NH3, and Cl-) were detected in the dry season while they were greatly lowered in the wet season. Significantly, large decrease of Cl- concentration in the wet season indicates that the dilution or mixing is one of dominant attenuation mechanisms of leachate. But detailed variation behaviors in the two landfills are different and they were largely dependent on permeability of surface and subsurface layers. The intermediately permeable surface of the landfills receives part of direct rainfall infiltration but most rainwater is lost to fast runoff. The practically impermeable surface of clayey silt (paddy field) at immediately adjacent to the Cheonan landfill boundary prevented direct rainwater infiltration and hence redox condition of the ground waters were largely affected by that of the upper landfill and the less permeable materials beneath the paddy fields prohibited dispersion of the landfill leachate into down gradient area. In the Wonju landfill, there are three

  13. Contextualizing Black Boys' Use of a Street Identity in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Starks, Brian Chad; Gibson, LaMar Rashad

    2009-01-01

    This participatory action research project worked with four street-life-oriented black men to document how a community sample of street-life-oriented black adolescents between the ages of sixteen and nineteen frame street life as a site of resiliency inside schools based on 156 surveys, 10 individual interviews, and 1 group interview. Data…

  14. View of South TwentyEighth Street seen from north boundary of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Eighth Street seen from north boundary of Easter Hill project site. Buildings No. 44, 445, 47, 46, 41, and 42 from left to right. Looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d-1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m-2 d-1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  16. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d‑1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m‑2 d‑1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  17. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania.

    PubMed

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source.

  18. Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made between "Sesame Street"…

  19. Street Children in Contemporary Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…

  20. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  1. Landfill modelling in LCA - a contribution based on empirical data.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Gudrun; Binner, Erwin; Mostbauer, Peter; Salhofer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Landfills at various stages of development, depending on their age and location, can be found throughout Europe. The type of facilities goes from uncontrolled dumpsites to highly engineered facilities with leachate and gas management. In addition, some landfills are designed to receive untreated waste, while others can receive incineration residues (MSWI) or residues after mechanical biological treatment (MBT). Dimension, type and duration of the emissions from landfills depend on the quality of the disposed waste, the technical design, and the location of the landfill. Environmental impacts are produced by the leachate (heavy metals, organic loading), emissions into the air (CH(4), hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons) and from the energy or fuel requirements for the operation of the landfill (SO(2) and NO(x) from the production of electricity from fossil fuels). To include landfilling in an life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach entails several methodological questions (multi-input process, site-specific influence, time dependency). Additionally, no experiences are available with regard to mid-term behaviour (decades) for the relatively new types of landfill (MBT landfill, landfill for residues from MSWI). The present paper focuses on two main issues concerning modelling of landfills in LCA: Firstly, it is an acknowledged fact that emissions from landfills may prevail for a very long time, often thousands of years or longer. The choice of time frame in the LCA of landfilling may therefore clearly affect the results. Secondly, the reliability of results obtained through a life-cycle assessment depends on the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. Therefore the choice of the general approach, using multi-input inventory tool versus empirical results, may also influence the results. In this paper the different approaches concerning time horizon and LCI will be introduced and discussed. In the application of empirical results, the presence of

  2. The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.

    SciTech Connect

    David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

    2001-10-18

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will

  3. Geohydrologic site characterization of the municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1996-01-01

    Geohydrologic conditions of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army. The 106.03-acre MSWLF has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The MSWLF, located about 1,200 feet east of the nearest occupied structure, is estimated to receive an average of approximately 56 tons of municipal solid waste per day and, at a fill rate of 1-4 acres per year, is expected to reach its capacity by the year 2004. The MSWLF is located in the Hueco Bolson, 4 miles east of the Franklin Mountains. Elevations at the MSWLF range from 3,907 to 3,937 feet above sea level. The climate at the MSWLF and vicinity is arid continental, characterized by an abundance of sunny days, high summer temperatures, relatively cool winters typical of arid areas, scanty rainfall, and very low humidity throughout the year. Average annual temperature near the MSWLF and vicinity is 63.3 degrees Fahrenheit and annual precipitation is 7.8 inches. Potential evaporation in the El Paso area was estimated to be 65 inches per year. Soils at and adjacent to the MSWLF are nearly level to gently sloping, have a fine sandy loam subsoil, and are moderately deep over caliche. The MSWLF is underlain by Hueco Bolson deposits of Tertiary age and typically are composed of unconsolidated to slightly consolidated interbedded sands, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. Individual beds are not well defined and range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to about 100 feet. The primary source of ground water in the MSWLF area is in the deposits of the Hueco Bolson. A relatively thick vadose zone of approximately 300 feet overlies the

  4. 5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION WITH CENTRAL AVENUE. AS PART OF THE INITIAL SITE DEVELOPMENT, A RAILROAD SPUR, ACCESS ROADS, POWER LINES, AND TELEPHONE LINES WERE BUILT. ALL FACILITIES WERE HEATED BY STEAM GENERATED IN BUILDING 443 AND PIPED THROUGHOUT THE SITE. THE BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS BUILDING 664, A LOW - LEVEL WASTE STORAGE FACILITY. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Mathematical modelling of landfill gas migration in MSW sanitary landfills.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Marañón, E; Sastre, H

    2001-10-01

    The laws that govern the displacement of landfill gas in a sanitary landfill are analysed. Subsequently, a 2-D finite difference flow model of a fluid in a steady state in a porous medium with infinite sources of landfill gas is proposed. The fact that landfill gas is continuously generated throughout the entire mass of the landfill differentiates this model from others extensively described in the literature and used in a variety of different applications, such as oil recovery, groundwater flow, etc. Preliminary results are then presented of the application of the model. Finally, the results obtained employing data from the literature and experimental assays carried out at the La Zoreda sanitary landfill (Asturias, Spain) are discussed and future lines of research are proposed.

  6. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  7. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests.

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  9. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the

  10. The effects of the built environment, traffic patterns, and micrometeorology on street level ultrafine particle concentrations at a block scale: Results from multiple urban sites.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonsik; Ranasinghe, Dilhara; Bunavage, Karen; DeShazo, J R; Wu, Lisa; Seguel, Rodrigo; Winer, Arthur M; Paulson, Suzanne E

    2016-05-15

    This study attempts to explain explicitly the direct and quantitative effects of complicated urban built-environment on near-road dispersion and levels of vehicular emissions at the scale of several city blocks, based on ultrafine particle concentrations ([UFP]). On short timescales, ultrafine particles are an excellent proxy for other roadway emissions. Five measurement sites in the greater Los Angeles with different built environments but similar mesoscale meteorology were explored. After controlling for traffic, for most sampling days and sites, morning [UFP] were higher than those in the afternoon due to limited dispersion capacity combined with a relatively stable surface layer. [UFP] at the intersection corners were also higher than those over the sampling sites, implying that accelerating vehicles around the intersections contributed to [UFP] elevation. In the calm morning, the areal aspect ratio (Ararea), developed in this study for real urban configurations, showed a strong relationship with block-scale [UFP]. Ararea includes the building area-weighted building height, the amount of open space, and the building footprint. In the afternoon, however, when wind speeds were generally higher and turbulence was stronger, vertical turbulence intensity σw was the most effective factor controlling [UFP]. The surrounding built environment appears to play an indirect role in observed [UFP], by affecting surface level micrometeorology. The effects are substantial; controlling for traffic, differences in Ararea and building heterogeneity were related to differences in [UFP] of factors of two to three among our five study sites. These results have significant implications for pedestrian exposure as well as transit-oriented urban planning.

  11. The effects of the built environment, traffic patterns, and micrometeorology on street level ultrafine particle concentrations at a block scale: Results from multiple urban sites.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonsik; Ranasinghe, Dilhara; Bunavage, Karen; DeShazo, J R; Wu, Lisa; Seguel, Rodrigo; Winer, Arthur M; Paulson, Suzanne E

    2016-05-15

    This study attempts to explain explicitly the direct and quantitative effects of complicated urban built-environment on near-road dispersion and levels of vehicular emissions at the scale of several city blocks, based on ultrafine particle concentrations ([UFP]). On short timescales, ultrafine particles are an excellent proxy for other roadway emissions. Five measurement sites in the greater Los Angeles with different built environments but similar mesoscale meteorology were explored. After controlling for traffic, for most sampling days and sites, morning [UFP] were higher than those in the afternoon due to limited dispersion capacity combined with a relatively stable surface layer. [UFP] at the intersection corners were also higher than those over the sampling sites, implying that accelerating vehicles around the intersections contributed to [UFP] elevation. In the calm morning, the areal aspect ratio (Ararea), developed in this study for real urban configurations, showed a strong relationship with block-scale [UFP]. Ararea includes the building area-weighted building height, the amount of open space, and the building footprint. In the afternoon, however, when wind speeds were generally higher and turbulence was stronger, vertical turbulence intensity σw was the most effective factor controlling [UFP]. The surrounding built environment appears to play an indirect role in observed [UFP], by affecting surface level micrometeorology. The effects are substantial; controlling for traffic, differences in Ararea and building heterogeneity were related to differences in [UFP] of factors of two to three among our five study sites. These results have significant implications for pedestrian exposure as well as transit-oriented urban planning. PMID:26938315

  12. Effects of a temporary HDPE cover on landfill gas emissions: multiyear evaluation with the static chamber approach at an Italian landfill.

    PubMed

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Caramiello, Cristina; Tatàno, Fabio; Viscione, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    According to the European Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and the related Italian Legislation ("D. Lgs. No. 36/2003"), monitoring and control procedures of landfill gas emissions, migration and external dispersions are clearly requested. These procedures could be particularly interesting in the operational circumstance of implementing a temporary cover, as for instance permitted by the Italian legislation over worked-out landfill sections, awaiting the evaluation of expected waste settlements. A possible quantitative approach for field measurement and consequential evaluation of landfill CO(2), CH(4) emission rates in pairs consists of the static, non-stationary accumulation chamber technique. At the Italian level, a significant and recent situation of periodical landfill gas emission monitoring is represented by the sanitary landfill for non-hazardous waste of the "Fano" town district, where monitoring campaigns with the static chamber have been annually conducted during the last 5 years (2005-2009). For the entire multiyear monitoring period, the resulting CO(2), CH(4) emission rates varied on the whole up to about 13,100g CO(2) m(-2)d(-1) and 3800 g CH(4) m(-2)d(-1), respectively. The elaboration of these landfill gas emission data collected at the "Fano" case-study site during the monitoring campaigns, presented and discussed in the paper, gives rise to a certain scientific evidence of the possible negative effects derivable from the implementation of a temporary HDPE cover over a worked-out landfill section, notably: the lateral migration and concentration of landfill gas emissions through adjacent, active landfill sections when hydraulically connected; and consequently, the increase of landfill gas flux velocities throughout the reduced overall soil cover surface, giving rise to a flowing through of CH(4) emissions without a significant oxidation. Thus, these circumstances are expected to cause a certain increase of the overall GHG emissions from the given

  13. Modeling LED street lighting.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ivan; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; Bugarin, Alejandra

    2014-07-10

    LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street. The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position (pole height and arm length), luminary angle (fixture tilt), and the angular intensity profile (radiation pattern) of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

  14. Geochemical processes in landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förstner, Ulrich; Kersten, Michael; Wienberg, Reinhard

    The present review focusses on the qualitative long-term perspectives of processes and mechanisms controlling the interactions of critical pollutants with organic and inorganic substrates both in "reactor landfills" and in deposits, which already consist of rock-like material ("final storage quality"). The behavior of pollutants in landfills is determined by the chemistry of interstitial solutions, i.e. by pH and redox conditions, and concentration of inorganic and organic ligands; in "reactor landfills" these conditions are widely variable as a result of biochemical reactions, while "final storage quality" implies less variations of chemical interactions. In both alternatives, however, prediction of short- and long-term effects on groundwater quality should be based on the proportion of "active species" of compounds ("mobility concept"). Qualitative assessment of potentially mobile pollutants may involve a controlled significative intensivation of important parameters such as pH-values. Using sequential extraction rearrangements of specific solid "phases" can be evaluated prior to the actual remobilisation of the pollutant into the dissolved phase. From a geochemical point of view the "reactor landfill" is characterized by labile conditions during the initial aerobic and acid anaerobic phases, the former mainly due to uncontrolled interactions with organic solutes. On the other hand, final storage quality, which is defined by the composition of earth crust material, in most cases is not attained by simple incineration of municipal waste, i.e. by reduction of organic fractions only. There is, in particular, the problem of easily soluble minerals, such as chlorides. Nonetheless the type of inorganic residue deposits will increasingly receive prevalence as a method of final storage for municipal wastes in the future.

  15. Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect

    Lettis, William

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  17. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  18. Perpetual landfilling through aeration of the waste mass; lessons from test cells in Georgia (USA).

    PubMed

    Read, A D; Hudgins, M; Phillips, P

    2001-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices.

  19. Ecological risk assessment of the impact of a landfill associated with karst terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.J.; Bailey, F.C.; Hollyday, E.F.; Byle, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    An ecological risk assessment is underway on an active sanitary landfill in Bedford County, Tennessee. The overall objective is to determine the probability of risk from landfill-associated toxicants to both the aquatic ecological communities and to human health through drinking water contamination. During the problem formulation phase, an EPA Rapid Bioassessment (Protocol I) of streams around the landfill indicated a lower diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in streams adjacent to the landfill compared to reference streams. During the analysis phase, water chemistry analyses were conducted on samples from 176 sites around the landfill, including seeps and springs, and the direction of movement of ground water under the site was determined by potentiometric mapping. Water flowing into Anderton Branch from landfill-associated tributaries, seeps and springs showed elevated specific conductance and elevated levels of chloride, manganese, iron, and nickel. GC-FID analysis indicated the presence of unidentified organic compounds in a small seep adjacent to the landfill. From these data it was concluded that there is potential for exposure of aquatic ecological communities and drinking water supplies to landfill-associated chemicals. In order to more thoroughly characterize ecological and human health risk associated with the landfill, more intensive analyses are underway, including quantitative seasonal macroinvertebrate biomonitoring, laboratory toxicity tests with Daphnia magna using water from selected monitoring sites, and monitoring of drinking water wells.

  20. Short-term landfill methane emissions dependency on wind.

    PubMed

    Delkash, Madjid; Zhou, Bowen; Han, Byunghyun; Chow, Fotini K; Rella, Chris W; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Short-term (2-10h) variations of whole-landfill methane emissions have been observed in recent field studies using the tracer dilution method for emissions measurement. To investigate the cause of these variations, the tracer dilution method is applied using 1-min emissions measurements at Sandtown Landfill (Delaware, USA) for a 2-h measurement period. An atmospheric dispersion model is developed for this field test site, which is the first application of such modeling to evaluate atmospheric effects on gas plume transport from landfills. The model is used to examine three possible causes of observed temporal emissions variability: temporal variability of surface wind speed affecting whole landfill emissions, spatial variability of emissions due to local wind speed variations, and misaligned tracer gas release and methane emissions locations. At this site, atmospheric modeling indicates that variation in tracer dilution method emissions measurements may be caused by whole-landfill emissions variation with wind speed. Field data collected over the time period of the atmospheric model simulations corroborate this result: methane emissions are correlated with wind speed on the landfill surface with R(2)=0.51 for data 2.5m above ground, or R(2)=0.55 using data 85m above ground, with emissions increasing by up to a factor of 2 for an approximately 30% increase in wind speed. Although the atmospheric modeling and field test are conducted at a single landfill, the results suggest that wind-induced emissions may affect tracer dilution method emissions measurements at other landfills. PMID:26896003

  1. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the

  2. Aerobic in situ stabilization of Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher: leachate quality after 1 year of operation.

    PubMed

    Öncü, G; Reiser, M; Kranert, M

    2012-12-01

    Modern landfill understanding points out controlled operation of landfills. Emissions from landfills are caused mainly by anaerobic biodegradation processes which continue for very long time periods after landfill closure. In situ landfill stabilization aims controlled reduction of emissions towards reduced expenditures as well as aftercare measures. Since April 2010, a new in situ stabilization technique is being applied at a pilot scale landfill (BAIV) within Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher. This new method utilizes intermittent aeration and leachate recirculation for waste stabilization. In this study, influence of this technique on leachate quality is investigated. Among many other parameters, leachate analyses were conducted for COD, BOD(5), NH(4)-N, NO(2)-N, NO(3)-N, TKN and chloride besides continuously on site recorded pH, electrical conductivity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Results from leachate quality analyses showed that biological activity in the landfill was accelerated resulting in initial higher leachate strength and reduced emission potential of landfill. During full scale in situ aeration, ambient conditions differ from optimized laboratory scale conditions which mainly concern temperature increase and deficient aeration of some landfill parts (Ritzkowski and Stegmann, 2005). Thus, as a field application results of this study have major importance on further process optimization and application. PMID:22938814

  3. Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.

    PubMed

    Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

    2008-01-01

    In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  4. Landfill gas management in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David, A.

    1997-12-31

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada`s commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10{sup 15} Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring.

  5. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  6. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  7. 8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE MARCHION HARDWARE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY W.W. HISLOP, AND BUILT IN 1895. THE GROUND FLOOR WAS RENOVATED SOME TIME IN THE 1930s. IN THE CENTER IS THE IMPERIAL BLOCK (ca. 1920), AND THE FULLER DRUG COMPANY (1918-1932).THE FULLER SITE WAS OCCUPIED BY THE HIGHLAND THEATER FROM 1932 TO 1972, AND RETAINS MUCH OF THE INTERIOR DECORATION FROM THAT PERIOD - Anaconda Historic District, Park & Commercial Streets, Main Street vicinity, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  8. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  9. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  10. View of South TwentyEighth Street from south boundary of Easter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Eighth Street from south boundary of Easter Hill project site. Buildings No. 15, 16, 41, 46, 45, and 48 from left to right. Church Building at right foreground is not an element of Easter Hill object site. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment intersects at left, 9th street segment intersects alley at right. View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. Children's Recollections of "Sesame Street."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bempechat, Janine; And Others

    This report presents a pilot study which collected preadolescents' retrospective reports of their preschool experiences with the television program, "Sesame Street." One-hundred-five fifth and sixth graders ranging from 9 to 12 years of age were asked to think back to when they viewed "Sesame Street" in their younger years and to respond to…

  13. Medical street names in Paris.

    PubMed

    Sykes, A H

    2004-02-01

    In Paris, the blue enamel signs for streets named after a person also bear the dates of birth and death, and a word or two to designate the person's field of activity. In this paper an alphabetical listing is given of 166 Parisian streets that have been named after medically qualified men who achieved distinction in medicine or elsewhere.

  14. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses. PMID:28677

  15. Hazard ranking of landfills using fuzzy composite programming

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemeister, M.E.; Jones, D.D.; Woldt, W.E.

    1996-04-01

    The environmental and health risks posed by unregulated landfills are concerns that must be addressed. These concerns have been highlighted with the recent reauthorization of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle D, which requires the closure of all unregulated landfills by October 1993. Most communities with unregulated landfills do not have the financial resources to conduct full-scale risk assessments. This paper proposes the use of a multicriteria assessment system as a tool for screening and prioritizing unregulated disposal sites according to their level of environmental and health hazard. This multicriteria assessment system uses a technique termed composite programming and allows for the use of imprecise information through fuzzy set theory. Using this methodology in landfill hazard assessment allows for the consideration of uncertainty associated with parameters that impact the hazard assessment. Additionally, the user can specify hazards that are most detrimental. The complexity of input parameters (first level indicators) were selected to minimize the time required to collect and/or analyze site-specific data. The result obtained in the assessment is a fuzzy number that indicates the most likely range of hazard and the largest likely range of hazard relative to the best and worst case scenarios. A case study, in which this method is applied to a small rural landfill, is presented to illustrate the methodology.

  16. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  17. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  18. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  19. Health assessment for Dover Municipal Landfill, Stratford County, Dover, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD980520191. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-12

    The Dover Municipal Landfill is an inactive landfill located on Tolend Road in the western corner of Dover, New Hampshire. Specific wastes include municipal trash, leather tanning wastes, industrial solvents, and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge. Contamination at the landfill exists in on-site groundwater, leachate, sediments, and soil. The Dover Municipal Landfill site is of potential public health concern due the potential risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  20. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  1. Leachate plumes in ground water from Babylon and Islip landfills, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmel, Grant E.; Braids, O.C.

    1977-01-01

    Landfills operated by the towns of Babylon and Islip in southwest and central Suffolk County, N.Y., contain urban refuse , incinerated garbage, and scavenger (cesspool) waste; some industrial refuse is deposited at the Babylon site. The Islip landfill was started in 1933, the Babylon landfill in 1947. The landfills are in contact with and discharge leachate into the highly permeable upper glacial aquifer hydraulic conductivity 190 to 500 ft/d. The aquifer is 74 feet thick at the Babylon landfill and 170 feet thick at the Islip landfill. The leachate-enriched water occupies the entire thickness of the aquifer beneath both landfills, but hydrologic boundaries retard downward migration of the plumes to deeper aquifers. The Babylon plume is 1,900 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to about 700 feet near its terminus 10,000 feet from the landfill. The Islip plume is 1,400 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to 500 feet near its terminus 5,000 feet from the landfill. Hydrochemical maps and sections show the distribution of the major chemical constituents of the plumes. The most highly leachate-enriched ground water obtained was from the Babylon site; it contained 860 mg/liter sodium, 110 mg/liter potassium, 565 mg/liter calcium, 100 mg/liter magnesium, 2,700 mg/liter bicarbonate, and 1,300 mg/liter chloride. Simulation of the movement and dispersion of the Babylon plume with a mathematical dispersion model indicated the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion to be about 60 feet squared per day and the ground-water velocity to be 1 ft/d. However, the velocity determined from the hydraulic gradient and public-supply wells in the area was 4 ft/d, which would cause a plume four times as long as that predicted by the model. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Examining the amenability of urban street networks for locating facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Zeng, Zhe; Jia, Tao; Li, Jing

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to characterize urban street networks from the perspective of facility location that is widely used for siting public or private services. Both topological and geometrical features of urban street networks are investigated to examine their impacts on the performance of facility location. We propose a set of efficiency and centrality measures to evaluate the amenability of street networks for locating facilities. The evaluation of 15 large cities in the U.S. reveals that facility locations are strongly affected by road network structures. For realistic street networks, grid planned road network are more amenable to locating facilities than irregular networks. The analyses on idealized network offer further evidence of the correlations between network properties and service provision efficiencies.

  3. Pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants within a leachate plume downgradient of a municipal landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Christenson, Scott C.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water samples collected from the Norman Landfill research site in central Oklahoma were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program's national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water contaminants (OWCs) in ground water. Five sites, four of which are located downgradient of the landfill, were sampled in 2000 and analyzed for 76 OWCs using four research methods developed by the USGS. OWCs were detected in water samples from all of the sites sampled, with 22 of the 76 OWCs being detected at least once. Cholesterol (a plant and animal steroid), was detected at all five sites and was the only compound detected in a well upgradient of the landfill. N,Ndiethyltoluamide (DEET used in insect repellent) and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (fire-retardant) were detected in water samples from all four sites located within the landfill-derived leachate plume. The sites closest to the landfill had more detections and greater concentrations of each of the detected compounds than sites located farther away. Detection of multiple OWCs occurred in the four sites located within the leachate plume, with a minimum of four and a maximum of 17 OWCs detected. Because the landfill was established in the 1920s and closed in 1985, many compounds detected in the leachate plume were likely disposed of decades ago. These results indicate the potential for long-term persistence and transport of some OWCs in ground water.

  4. Landfill gas project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The methane gas recovered from the landfill is used for space heating and water heating for the Florence-Lauderdale Humane Shelter 600 feet from the well head. The project to date and future development are described briefly. (MHR)

  5. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  6. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Ayalon, O. . E-mail: agofira@tx.technion.ac.il; Becker, N.; Shani, E.

    2006-07-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

  7. Methanogen communities in a municipal landfill complex in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Wang, Yangqing; Lei, Yu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    Landfills are significant global sources of atmospheric methane, but little is known about the ecology and community structure of methanogens in these sites. Here, we investigated the methanogen community based on methyl coenzyme M reductase A gene amplicons in the vertical profiles of three different sites at a municipal landfill complex in China. Links between methanogen communities and refuse properties were explored using multivariate analysis. Clone library results showed that most clones (92%) were related to the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, Methanomicrobiales. Almost all of the Methanomicrobiales clones retrieved in this study are members of the genus Methanoculleus Eight clones were affiliated with the genus Methanofollis The remaining clones were clustered within the genus Methanosarcina Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles showed that the landfill was predominated by 22 taxa, making up 69%-96% of the community. Of these, a single taxon comprised 36%-65% of the communities across all sites and depths. Principal components analysis separated the methanogen community into three groups, irrespective of site or depth. Redundancy analysis suggested that total phosphorus and pH play roles in structuring methanogen communities in landfills. PMID:27036145

  8. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for the disposal of PCBs and PCB Items are as follows: (1) Soils. The landfill site shall be located..., the soil shall have a high clay and silt content with the following parameters: (i) In-place soil thickness, 4 feet or compacted soil liner thickness, 3 feet; (ii) Permeability (cm/sec), equal to or...

  9. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for the disposal of PCBs and PCB Items are as follows: (1) Soils. The landfill site shall be located..., the soil shall have a high clay and silt content with the following parameters: (i) In-place soil thickness, 4 feet or compacted soil liner thickness, 3 feet; (ii) Permeability (cm/sec), equal to or...

  10. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for the disposal of PCBs and PCB Items are as follows: (1) Soils. The landfill site shall be located..., the soil shall have a high clay and silt content with the following parameters: (i) In-place soil thickness, 4 feet or compacted soil liner thickness, 3 feet; (ii) Permeability (cm/sec), equal to or...

  11. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the disposal of PCBs and PCB Items are as follows: (1) Soils. The landfill site shall be located..., the soil shall have a high clay and silt content with the following parameters: (i) In-place soil thickness, 4 feet or compacted soil liner thickness, 3 feet; (ii) Permeability (cm/sec), equal to or...

  12. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the disposal of PCBs and PCB Items are as follows: (1) Soils. The landfill site shall be located..., the soil shall have a high clay and silt content with the following parameters: (i) In-place soil thickness, 4 feet or compacted soil liner thickness, 3 feet; (ii) Permeability (cm/sec), equal to or...

  13. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT REGION I LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a new measurement technology for characterizing emissions from large area sources. This work was funded by EPA's Monitoring and Measurement for the 21st Century Initiative, or 21M2. The site selected for demonstrating this technology is a superfund landfil...

  14. Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

  15. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  16. Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, C. ); Loehr, R.C. . Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. )

    1993-01-01

    Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  18. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  19. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  20. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  1. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  3. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  5. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final PDWS for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  8. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  9. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability

  10. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills.

    PubMed

    Gharabaghi, B; Singh, M K; Inkratas, C; Fleming, I R; McBean, E

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use "generic" published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability

  11. Health assessment for Muskego Sanitary Landfill, Muskego, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID00713180. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-09

    The Muskego Sanitary Landfill site is listed on the National Priority List. The Muskego Sanitary Landfill is located approximately 3 miles southeast of the City of Muskego in Waukesha County. The Old Fill Area is a former sand and gravel pit that was subsequently used as a dumpsite. Ground water under the landfill has shown high levels of contamination with various heavy metals and volatile organic compounds. Based on the available information, the site is considered to be a potential public health concern. The risk to human health is caused by potential exposure to hazardous substances via inhalation and ingestion with contaminated ground water.

  12. Reclamation of sanitary landfills: A case study in Shelby County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Riddick, P.M.; Kirsch, S.; Kung, Hsiang-Te )

    1992-07-01

    Approximately 30,000 sanitary landfills were in operation in the United States in 1976; today, there are <7,000. The remaining 23,000 closed sites can be reclaimed to actually enhance the surrounding community; cost is the only limiting factor. Abandoned sanitary landfill sites do have problems, namely leachates, methane build-up, and subsidence. However, with modern techniques and planning, these problems can be overcome. Across the nation, old landfills have been converted into golf courses, parks, ski resorts, libraries, and even methane power plants. In some cases, a community's property value has actually increased after reclamation of the local landfill. Shelby County, in southwestern Tennessee, currently has four closed sanitary landfills. Only one site has been fully utilized as a recreational facility. At this site, four soccer fields are home to over 150 league soccer teams. Two sites are home to airplane radio-control clubs, although most land at these sites is currently unused. The fourth site is completely unused and up for sale. All of these closed sanitary landfills have potential use as recreation areas, but, as is often the case, lack of money and initiative is preventing development. 7 refs.

  13. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-10

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of

  14. Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), with Eli Cafe (7 North E Street), the Palace Saloon (11 North E Street), and Fetsche's (15 North E Street) to left of frame, view looking north on E Street - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  15. Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas utilisation in Oman.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed Fm; Qazi, Wajeeha A; Azam, Mohammed-Hasham; Mehmood, Umais A; Al-Mufragi, Ghithaa A; Alrawahi, Noor-Alhuda

    2016-08-01

    Municipal solid waste disposed in landfill sites decomposes under anaerobic conditions and produces so-called landfill-gas, which contains 30%-40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50%-60% of methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2 Therefore, migration of landfill-gas from landfills to the surrounding environment can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine municipal solid waste generation in Oman over the years 1971-2030, to quantify annual CH4 emissions inventory that resulted from this waste over the same period of time, and to determine the economic and environmental benefits of capturing the CH4 gas for energy production. It is found that cumulative municipal solid waste landfilled in Oman reaches 3089 Giga gram (Gg) in the year 2030, of which approximately 85 Gg of CH4 emissions are produced in the year 2030. The study also found that capturing CH4 emissions between the years 2016 and 2030 could attract revenues of up to US$333 million and US$291 million from the carbon reduction and electricity generation, simultaneously. It is concluded that CH4 emissions from solid waste in Oman increases enormously with time, and capture of this gas for energy production could provide a sustainable waste management solution in Oman.

  16. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ustohalova, Veronika . E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-07-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

  17. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  18. Electrodegradation of landfill leachate in a flow electrochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Peterson Bueno; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2005-01-01

    Sanitary landfills are the major method used today for the disposal and management of municipal solid waste. Decomposition of waste and rainfall generate leachate at the bottom of landfills, causing groundwater contamination. In this study, leachate from a municipal landfill site was treated by electrochemical oxidation in a pilot scale flow reactor, using oxide-coated titanium anode. The experiments were conducted under a constant flow rate of 2000 lh(-1) and the effect of current density on chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and ammonium removal was investigated. At a current density of 116.0 mA cm(-2) and 180 min of processing, the removal rates achieved were 73% for COD, 57% for TOC, 86% for color and 49% for ammonium. The process proved effective in degrading leachate, despite this effluent's usual refractoriness to treatment.

  19. Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-12-31

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  20. Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-01-01

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  1. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  2. The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  3. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, corner of F and Center Streets - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  5. Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, corner of Center and F Streets, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  6. Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner of F and 2nd Streets North, view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  7. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. Analysis of factors affecting methane-gas recovery from six landfills. Final report Jul 90-Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.; Epperson, D.; Davis, L.; Peer, R.; Gray, W.

    1991-09-01

    The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. (NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical model of CH4 generation based on those variables. The field test program development, in turn, is part of EPA/AEERL's research program aimed at improving global landfill CH4 emissions estimates.) To evaluate the effects of climate on CH4 production and recovery, the six sites represented a variety of moisture and temperature patterns (i.e., hot and wet, cool and wet, hot and dry). Landfill gas was tested at each landfill to evaluate the quality of the gas recovery data available at each. The testing included assessing the adequacy of on-site instrumentation and scanning the landfill surfaces for organic vapors that would indicate emissions of CH4. In addition, information on waste composition and landfill characteristics was sought for each landfill. Except for flow measurements, the test procedures selected were well suited to the types of gas recovery installations encountered at the landfills visited. Based on comparisons between EPA Reference Method 3C and instrument analyses of the landfill gas compositions, all on-site analysis instruments appeared to be operating with reasonable accuracy.

  10. Determining toxicity of leachates from Florida municipal solid waste landfills using a battery-of-tests approach.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marnie L; Bitton, Gabriel; Townsend, Timothy; Booth, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity and physicochemical parameters of municipal solid-waste (MSW) landfill leachates from six sites in north and north-central Florida, United States, were determined. Landfill leachates are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic constituents. Leachate toxicity was assayed using the acute C. dubia (48-h) and Microtoxtrade mark (15-min) assays and the chronic S. capricornutum (96-h) assay. The landfill leachates were shown to be highly toxic to both C. dubia and S. capricornutum with an EC(50) < 10% and < 15%, respectively. However, Microtoxtrade mark was not as sensitive to the leachates. Based on these results, the assays were ranked for their sensitivities to the landfill leachates; C. dubia > S. capricornutum > Microtoxtrade mark. Chemical analyses showed high concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and salts in the landfill leachates but low concentrations of heavy metals. The toxicity of the landfill leachates varied between the sites sampled and within each of the landfill sites. A significant relationship was found between the total ammonia content of the leachates and toxicity as determined by the C. dubia and S. capricornutum assays. Although the chemical constituents in Florida MSW landfill leachates may be more dilute, the toxicity of the leachates is equivalent to that from industrial waste landfills.

  11. Impact of changes in barometric pressure on landfill methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla; McDermitt, Dayle

    2014-07-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Our results show that landfill methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission, a phenomenon called barometric pumping. There was up to a 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions due to changes in barometric pressure. Wavelet coherence analysis revealed a strong spectral coherency between variations of barometric pressure and methane emission at periodicities ranging from 1 day to 8 days. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that at least 10 days of continuous measurements was needed in order to capture 90% of the total variance in the methane emission time series at our landfill site. From our results, it is clear that point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method will be subject to large variations in measured emission rates because of the barometric pumping phenomenon. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements could yield uncertainties, ranging from 28.8% underestimation to 32.3% overestimation. Our results demonstrate a need for continuous measurements to quantify annual total landfill emissions. This conclusion may apply to the study of methane emissions from wetlands, peatlands, lakes, and other environmental contexts where emissions are from porous media or ebullition. Other implications from the present study for hazard gas monitoring programs are also discussed.

  12. Potential for enhanced phytoremediation of landfills using biosolids--a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Despite the use of recyclable materials increasing worldwide, waste disposal to landfill remains the most common method of waste management because it is simple and relatively inexpensive. Although landfill disposal is an effective waste management system, if not managed correctly, a number of potential detrimental environmental impacts have been identified including soil and ground water contamination, leachate generation, and gas emissions. In particular, improper post-closure treatment of landfills or deterioration of the conventional clay landfill capping were shown to result in land degradation which required remediation to secure contaminants within the landfill site. Phytoremediation is an attractive technology for landfill remediation, as it can stabilize soil and simultaneously remediate landfill leachate. In addition, landfill phytoremediation systems can potentially be combined with landfill covers (Phytocapping) for hydrological control of infiltrated rainfall. However, for the successful application of any phytoremediation system, the effective establishment of appropriate, desired vegetation is critical. This is because the typically harsh and sterile nature of landfill capping soil limits the sustainable establishment of vegetation. Therefore, the physicochemical properties of landfill capping soils often need to be improved by incorporating soil amendments. Biosolids are a common soil amendment and will often meet these demanding conditions because they contain a variety of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, as well as a large proportion of organic matter. Such amendment will also ameliorate the physical properties of the capping soils by increasing porosity, moisture content, and soil aggregation. Contaminants which potentially originate from biosolids will also be remediated by activities congruent with the establishment of plants and bacteria.

  13. Specific model for the estimation of methane emission from municipal solid waste landfills in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Nimchuk, Nick; Kumar, Rakesh; Zietsman, Josias; Ramani, Tara; Spiegelman, Clifford; Kenney, Megan

    2016-09-01

    The landfill gas (LFG) model is a tool for measuring methane (CH4) generation rates and total CH4 emissions from a particular landfill. These models also have various applications including the sizing of the LFG collection system, evaluating the benefits of gas recovery projects, and measuring and controlling gaseous emissions. This research paper describes the development of a landfill model designed specifically for Indian climatic conditions and the landfill's waste characteristics. CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and temperature were considered as the prime factor for the development of this model. The developed model was validated for three landfill sites in India: Shillong, Kolkata, and Jaipur. The autocorrelation coefficient for the model was 0.915, while the R(2) value was 0.429. PMID:27343450

  14. Geometries of Karman Vortex Street

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roushan, Pedram; Wu, X. L.

    2004-03-01

    The Bénard-von Kármán vortex street is studied in a flowing soap film channel. The two-dimensional fluid flow in the film allows stable vortex streets to be generated and investigated over a broad range of Reynolds numbers, 10street is analyzed for different diameter rods, which span more than two orders of magnitude in their diameters. The parameters that characterize the envelop of the vortex street, such as the growth rate and the saturation amplitude, are measured for different Reynolds numbers. It is found that all of the curves representing the envelope can be collapsed onto a single master curve, suggesting that the shape of Karman vortex streets is universal, independent of Re. We construct a simple model that takes into account the energy transfer into vortices by periodic oscillations of transverse velocity fluctuations beneath the rod. This simple model not only explains the near wake shape of the street, but also allows other useful information such as the kinetic energy injected into the fluid and the drag coefficient CD to be extracted.

  15. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai. PMID:27194233

  16. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  17. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Hassayampa Landfill, AZ. (First remedial action), August 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-06

    The Hassayampa Landfill site is a 10-acre area of a 47-acre municipal landfill that was previously used for hazardous waste disposal. Land use in the area is predominantly desert and is sparsely cultivated. The Hassayampa Landfill lies within the Hassayampa River drainage area, but outside of the 100-year floodplain. The estimated 1,100 people who reside within a 3-mile radius of the site use the aquifer underlying the site for their drinking water. From 1961 to the present, the Maricopa County Landfill Department owned and operated the site. Waste disposed of at the landfill consisted chiefly of municipal garbage, tree trimmings, and other plant refuse. In 1979, the state requested that Hassayampa Landfill accept hazardous waste as an alternate waste disposal site during a prohibition at City of Phoenix landfills. In the 18 months that the landfill accepted hazardous waste, up to 3.28 million tons of liquid waste and approximately 4,150 tons of solid waste were deposited.

  19. Demonstration of landfill gas enhancement techniques in landfill simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Vogt, W. G.

    1982-02-01

    Various techniques to enhance gas production in sanitary landfills were applied to landfill simulators. These techniques include (1) accelerated moisture addition, (2) leachate recycling, (3) buffer addition, (4) nutrient addition, and (5) combinations of the above. Results are compiled through on-going operation and monitoring of sixteen landfill simulators. These test cells contain about 380 kg of municipal solid waste. Quantities of buffer and nutrient materials were placed in selected cells at the time of loading. Water is added to all test cells on a monthly basis; leachate is withdrawn from all cells (and recycled on selected cells) also on a monthly basis. Daily monitoring of gas volumes and refuse temperatures is performed. Gas and leachate samples are collected and analyzed on a monthly basis. Leachate and gas quality and quantity reslts are presented for the first 18 months of operation.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Cencic, Oliver; Svensson, Niclas; Krook, Joakim

    2016-07-01

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO2e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results' total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted. PMID:27282202

  1. Variation in organic matter characteristics of landfill leachates in different stabilisation stages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhinav; Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Goldsmith, C Douglas

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of landfill age on landfill leachate characteristics; two aspects are focused here. One is ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)) property, as the discharge of landfill leachates to publically owned treatment works can cause interference with UV(254) disinfection. The other is biorefractory organic nitrogen in leachates, as it can contribute to effluent nitrogen making it difficult to meet stringent effluent nitrogen regulations. To study variation in UV(254)-absorbing organic carbon and organic nitrogen, leachate samples ranging from cells with ages 2 to 30 y from a large landfill in Kentucky, were collected and fractionated on a basis of their molecular weight and chemical nature into humic acids, fulvic acids and a hydrophilic fraction. The effectiveness of long term landfilling and membrane treatment for organic matter and organic nitrogen removal was examined. Humic materials, which were the major UV(254)-absorbing substances, were mainly >1 kDa and they degraded significantly with landfill age. The hydrophilic organic fraction, which was the major contributor to organic nitrogen, was mainly <1 kDa and it became increasingly recalcitrant with landfill age. This study provides insight into the characteristics of the different leachate fractions with landfilling age that might aid the design of on-site leachate treatment techniques. PMID:25245294

  2. The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala Uganda, on the surrounding environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwiganga, M.; Kansiime, F.

    Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of nutrients, metals and numbers of bacteriological indicators in the landfill leachate. The landfill is not well located as it is close to a residential area (<200 m) and cattle farms. It is also located upstream of a wetland. The landfill generates nuisances like bad odour; there is scattering of waste by scavenger birds, flies and vermin. Industrial and hospital wastes are disposed of at the landfill without pre-treatment. The concentration of variables (nutrients, bacteriological indicators, BOD and heavy metals) in the leachate were higher than those recommended in the National Environment Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water and on Land. A composite sample that was taken 1500 m down stream indicated that the wetland considerably reduced the concentration of the parameters that were measured except for sulfides. Despite the fact that there was accumulation of metals in the sediments, the concentration has not reached toxic levels to humans. Soil and plant analyses indicated deficiencies of zinc and copper. The concentration of these elements was lowest in the leachate canal.

  3. Beneficial application of landfill mining Millersville Landfill, Anne Arundel County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Vanetti, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Several studies and investigations have been completed for the Millersville Sanitary Landfill in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The studies and reports range from detailed hydrogeologic investigations through review of closure alternatives for the individual refuse disposal cells located at the landfill. As a result of the evaluations and studies, one recommendation that was put before Anne Arundel County is the excavation and relocation of refuse from Cell 3 to: (1) create an infiltration basin; and (2) reduce the overall refuse footprint at the site, resulting in reduce long term environmental impacts and closure costs. Subsequent to this recommendation, several preliminary reviews have been held between Anne Arundel County, regulatory agencies and their consultants, Stearns & Wheler. These discussions indicated that it would be feasible, and the concept acceptable, to relocate the refuse in Cell 3 to ultimately create an infiltration basin. Subsequent to the preliminary meetings, a project plan and construction Contract Documents and Drawings were developed by Stearns & Wheler. The Project Plan was submitted to the State regulatory agencies (Maryland and Department of Environment (MDE) and Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR)), Millersville Landfill Citizen`s Advisory Committee, and Anne Arundel County (Department of public Works (DPW), Permit Acquisition and Code Enforcement (PACE) and Soil Conservation District (SCD)) for review and comment prior to undertaking the relocation of refuse in Cell 3.

  4. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. PMID:26445364

  5. Landfill mining for resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reith, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    Landfills are repositories of subeconomic resources. Landfill mining is an important enterprise that will someday return these resources to productive use, closing the loop on finite resources and stimulating economic development in communities near landfills. Secondary development of interred resources (landfill waste) will become economically viable as the environmental externalities of primary resource development -- e.g., the destruction of pristine habitat -- are more fully accounted for in programs of ecological design and design for environment. It is important to take an integrated and holistic approach to this new endeavor, which will be a complex assemblage of disciplines. Component disciplines include: resource economics, characterization, and excavation; contaminant control, and protection of environmental safety and health; material sorting, blending, and pretreatment; resource conversion, recovery, storage, and distribution; and reclamation for long-term land use. These technical elements must be addressed in close combination with compelling social issues such as environmental justice that may be especially critical in economically depressed communities surrounding today`s landfills.

  6. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  7. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-07-28

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  8. Landfill mining: Giving garbage a second chance

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, C.C.; Ruckstuhl, K. )

    1988-08-01

    Some communities face the problems of lack of landfill space and lack of landfill cover dirt. In some cases, existing landfills may be mined to reclaim dirt for use as cover material and to recover space for reuse. Such mining also has the potential of recovering recyclables and incinerator fuels. Machinery to reclaim refuse deposits, and their heterogeneous composted ingredients, was successfully tested at two Florida landfills in June 1987. One of the Florida mining tests, at the Collier County landfill near the city of Naples, had goals of demonstrating an economical mechanical system to separate the depository's ingredients into usable or redisposable components, and to see if the method could enable the county to avoid the expenses associated with permanent closure of a full landfill. This paper describes the history of the Collier County landfill, the equipment and feasibility test, economics, the monitoring of odors, landfill gas, and heavy metals, and results of the test.

  9. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  10. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  11. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Coakley Landfill, North Hampton, New Hampshire (first remedial action), June 28, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-28

    The 92-acre Coakley Landfill site is in the towns of Greenland and North Hampton, Rockingham County, New Hampshire. The site includes a 27-acre landfill, and borders farmland, undeveloped woodlands, and wetlands to the north and west and commercial and residential properties to the east and south. In 1979, the State received complaints concerning leachate breakouts in the area and, by 1983 VOC-contamination had been identified in a domestic drinking water well. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses source control and ground water contamination near the landfill. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavating and consolidating approximately 2,000 cubic yards of wetlands sediment and 30,000 cubic yards of solid waste and depositing the material into the landfill prior to capping; collecting and treating landfill gases using a thermal destruction process; ground water pumping and treatment using chemical precipitation for metals removal, air stripping for VOC removal, and biological treatment.

  13. Impact of Changes in Barometric Pressure on Landfill Methane Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermitt, Dayle; Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla

    2013-04-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska USA. Methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission. Emission rates were systematically higher in December than during the summer period. Higher methane emission rates were associated with changes in barometric pressure that were larger in magnitude and longer in duration in winter than in summer, and with lower mean temperatures, which appeared to reduce methane oxidation rates. Sharp changes in barometric pressure caused up to 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that continuous measurements over a period of at least 10 days were needed in order to capture 90% of total variance in the methane emission time series at our site. Our results suggest that point-in-time methane emission rate measurements taken at monthly or even longer time intervals using techniques such as the tracer plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method may be subject to large variations because of the strong dependence of methane emissions on changes in barometric pressure. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements will inevitably yield large uncertainties. Our results demonstrate the value of continuous measurements for quantifying total annual methane emission from a landfill.

  14. THE USEPA'S LANDFILL RESEARCH AND REGULATORY STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The priorities and initiatives of Environmental Protection Agency's landfill research and regulatory program over the next five years will be described. This will include municipal solid waste landfills as well as abandoned hazardous waste landfills.

    Regarding municipals s...

  15. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  16. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  17. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  18. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  19. Mining landfills for space and fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Flosdorf, H.W.; Alexieff, S.

    1993-03-01

    Lancaster County, Pennsylvania`s experiments with landfill reclamation are helping the county remain self-sufficient in managing its solid waste stream. Landfill mining is proving to be a worthwhile approach to extending landfill life and obtaining fuel for the county`s waste-to-energy plant.

  20. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE AND CLINOPTILOLITE ZEOLITE FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE: LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are tens of thousands of closed landfills in the United States, many of whicih are unlined and sited on alluvial deposits. Landfills are of concern because leachate contains a variety of pollutants that can contaminate ground and surface water. Data from chemical analysis...

  1. A process-based inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions inclusive of seasonal soil microclimate and CH4 oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed and field-validated an annual inventory model for California landfill CH4 emissions that incorporates both site-specific soil properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5o scale global climatic models. Based on 1-D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventor...

  2. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  3. Landfill restoration and biodiversity: a case of study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Giuseppe; Groppali, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Landfilling is a worldwide common waste treatment method. Final recovery usually consists of capping the area with top soil on which vegetation can grow. Depending on the suitability of the recovery pattern, landfill sites can work as potential reserve of semi-natural habitats. A recovery pattern applied to land reclamation of two hazardous waste landfills sited in Northern Italy (Po floodplain) was studied to assess the results in terms of biodiversity. These landfills lie within a landscape dominated by intensive agriculture. After final sealing, both landfills were covered by soil on which a meadow was sown and a hedgerow was planted around the borders. One of the compared areas was not provided with a pond and the hedgerow was incomplete. Butterflies and birds were used as indicators, and their seasonal abundance was related to habitat structure and ecological factors. Meadows grown on both areas supported a rich butterfly population (30 species), including some species that are by now uncommon in the Po floodplain. In both areas butterfly abundance was affected by summer drought. The birds' community included 57 species; 16 Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) were observed. Each bird community was different in the compared study areas because of their different size and habitat structure. For example, landfill A, provided with a pond and a more complex structure of the hedgerow, supported a richer birds community (52 species versus 39). Both restored landfills worked well as a stepping stone for migratory birds, but they were a reproductive habitat of poor quality. PMID:25161277

  4. VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Public health assessment for Muskego Sanitary Landfill, Muskego, Waukesha County, Wisconsin, Region 5. Cerclis No. WID000713180. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-06

    The Muskego Sanitary Landfill site is situated within the City of Muskego, Waukesha County, in the State of Wisconsin. Muskego Sanitary Landfill is a former sand and gravel pit which received unspecified types and amounts of municipal and industrial wastes over a period of approximately 25 years. Muskego Sanitary Landfill site is a public health hazard because in the past some nearby residents probably drank private well water containing site-related contamination. The groundwater around the site might pose a future public health hazard if no further action were taken to clean up the site. Ambient air near Muskego Sanitary Landfill is an indeterminate public health hazard. Wisconsin's Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Health (DOH) recommends the continued monitoring of groundwater in the vicinity of the site.

  7. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit.

  8. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  9. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  10. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting

  11. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  12. Potential tree species for use in the restoration of unsanitary landfills.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee Dae; Lee, Eun Ju

    2005-07-01

    Given that they represent the most economical option for disposing of refuse, waste landfills are widespread in urban areas. However, landfills generate air and water pollution and require restoration for landscape development. A number of unsanitary waste landfills have caused severe environmental problems in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the colonization status of different tree species on waste landfills to assess their potential for restoring unsanitary landfills in South Korea. Plot surveys were conducted using 10 x 10-m quadrats at seven waste landfill sites: Bunsuri, Dugiri, Hasanundong, Gomaeri, Kyongseodong, Mojeonri, and Shindaedong. We determined the height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and number of tree species in the plots, and enumerated all saplings < or =1 m high. Because black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, was the dominant tree species in the waste landfills, we measured the distance from the presumed mother plant (i.e., the tallest black locust in a patch), height, and DBH of all individuals in black locust patches to determine patch structure. Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix koreensis, and Populus sieboldii formed canopy layers in the waste landfills. The basal area of black locust was 1.51 m(2)/ha, and this species had the highest number of saplings among all tree species. The diameter of the black locust patches ranged from 3.71 to 11.29 m. As the patch diameter increased, the number of regenerated saplings also tended to increase, albeit not significantly. Black locust invaded via bud banks and spread clonally in a concentric pattern across the landfills. This species grew well in the dry habitat of the landfills, and its growth rate was very high. Furthermore, black locust has the ability to fix nitrogen symbiotically; it is therefore considered a well-adapted species for waste landfills. Eleven woody species were selected for screening: Acer palmatum, Albizzia julibrissin, Buxus microphylla var. koreana, Ginkgo

  13. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  14. GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Center and south platforms. Looking east from Pratt Street Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center and south platforms. Looking east from Pratt Street Station toward Bridge Street Station. - Frankford Elevated, Pratt Street Station, 5200-5201 Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. South and center platforms. Looking west from Bridge Street Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and center platforms. Looking west from Bridge Street Station toward Pratt Street Station. - Frankford Elevated, Pratt Street Station, 5200-5201 Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  18. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  19. Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO{sub 2} technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997--September 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Brown, W.R.; Siwajek, L.; Sanders, W.I.; Botgros, I.

    1998-09-01

    The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic feasibility of pre-treating Boului landfill gas with Acrion`s new landfill gas cleanup technology prior to combustion for power production us attractive. Acrion`s gas treatment provides several benefits to the currently structured electric generation project: (1) increase energy density of landfill gas from about 500 Btu/ft{sup 3} to about 750 Btu/ft{sup 3}; (2) remove contaminants from landfill gas to prolong engine life and reduce maintenance;; (3) recover carbon dioxide from landfill gas for Romanian markets; and (4) reduce emission of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction attributable to successful implementation of the landfill gas to electric project, with commercial liquid CO{sub 2} recovery, is estimated to be 53 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent of its 15 year life.

  20. [Difference of contaminant composition between landfill leachates and groundwater and its reasons].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Song; Yu, Hong; Xi, Bei-Dou; Cui, Dong-Yu; Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Dan

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate the groundwater pollution by landfill leachates, the distribution characteristics of inorganic salt, organic compounds and heavy metals in leachastes from a simple landfill and groundwater and its reason were study using conventional analysis, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the landfill was heterogeneous, and the extracts from the landfill wastes showed a high concentration of NH4(+) -N, but low contents of Cl-, SO4(2-), dissolved organic matter (DOM) and heavy metals. The nitrification process was blocked due to a strong reducing atmosphere in landfill, which caused a low concentration of NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N in leachates. Cu was mainly associated with DOM in leachates, while the distribution of the metals Ba, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and As was primarily related to hydrophobic organic compounds. The contaminate compositions in different groundwater were similar except for the groundwater under the landfill site. In contrast to landfill leachates, the groundwater showed a low concentration of NH4(+) -N, but high concentrations of Cl-, SO4(2-), DOM, NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N except for the groundwater under the landfill site. The organic compounds in the groundwater were mainly originated from microbial activity, and the distribution of the metals Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni was mainly related to fluorescecent organic matter in DOM. The results showed that the leak point of landfill leachates can be identified through the cluster analysis method on the basis of the contaminant composition in groundwater. PMID:24946594