Science.gov

Sample records for strength significantly increased

  1. Increased cross-education of muscle strength and reduced corticospinal inhibition following eccentric strength training.

    PubMed

    Kidgell, D J; Frazer, A K; Daly, R M; Rantalainen, T; Ruotsalainen, I; Ahtiainen, J; Avela, J; Howatson, G

    2015-08-06

    Strength training of one limb results in a substantial increase in the strength of the untrained limb, however, it remains unknown what the corticospinal responses are following either eccentric or concentric strength training and how this relates to the cross-education of strength. The aim of this study was to determine if eccentric or concentric unilateral strength training differentially modulates corticospinal excitability, inhibition and the cross-transfer of strength. Changes in contralateral (left limb) concentric strength, eccentric strength, motor-evoked potentials, short-interval intracortical inhibition and silent period durations were analyzed in groups of young adults who exercised the right wrist flexors with either eccentric (N=9) or concentric (N=9) contractions for 12 sessions over 4weeks. Control subjects (N=9) did not train. Following training, both groups exhibited a significant strength gain in the trained limb (concentric group increased concentric strength by 64% and eccentric group increased eccentric strength by 62%) and the extent of the cross-transfer of strength was 28% and 47% for the concentric and eccentric group, respectively, which was different between groups (P=0.031). Transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed that eccentric training reduced intracortical inhibition (37%), silent period duration (15-27%) and increased corticospinal excitability (51%) compared to concentric training for the untrained limb (P=0.033). There was no change in the control group. The results show that eccentric training uniquely modulates corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the untrained limb to a greater extent than concentric training. These findings suggest that unilateral eccentric contractions provide a greater stimulus in cross-education paradigms and should be an integral part of the rehabilitative process following unilateral injury to maximize the response. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increase in Strength of Partially Stabilized Zirconia After Shot Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Iwanaka, Kae; Osada, Toshio; Koike, Hitonobu

    2015-09-01

    The effects of shot peening (SP) on the strength of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) were studied. The compressive residual stress, apparent fracture toughness ( K C), and bending strength values of specimens subjected to SP were investigated. Results of x-ray diffraction analyses showed that SP introduced large compressive residual stress in specimens. As a result, the K C and bending strength values of specimens having semi-elliptical pre-cracks on their surfaces increased significantly. Shot-peened specimens having surface pre-cracks with lengths less than 140 µm exhibited strength comparable to that of smooth specimens and fractured outside the pre-crack zone, indicating that the pre-cracks were rendered harmless by SP. Thus, the introduction of a compressive residual stress by SP is an effective technique for increasing the strength of PSZ.

  3. At-home resistance tubing strength training increases shoulder strength in the trained and untrained limb.

    PubMed

    Magnus, C R A; Boychuk, K; Kim, S Y; Farthing, J P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to determine if an at-home resistance tubing strength training program on one shoulder (that is commonly used in rehabilitation settings) would produce increases in strength in the trained and untrained shoulders via cross-education. Twenty-three participants were randomized to TRAIN (strength-trained one shoulder; n = 13) or CONTROL (no intervention; n = 10). Strength training was completed at home using resistance tubing and consisted of maximal shoulder external rotation, internal rotation, scaption, retraction, and flexion 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Strength was measured via handheld dynamometry and muscle size measured via ultrasound. For external rotation strength, the trained (10.9 ± 10.9%) and untrained (12.7 ± 9.6%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (1.6 ± 13.2%; -2.7 ± 12.3%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). For internal rotation strength, the trained (14.8 ± 11.3%) and untrained (14.6 ± 10.1%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (6.4 ± 11.2%; 5.1 ± 8.8%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for scaption strength (P = 0.056). TRAIN significantly increased muscle size in the training arm of the supraspinatus (1.90 ± 0.32 to 1.99 ± 0.31 cm), and the anterior deltoid (1.08 ± 0.37 to 1.21 ± 0.39 cm; P < 0.05). This study suggests that an at-home resistance tubing training program on one limb can produce increases in strength in both limbs, and has implications for rehabilitation after unilateral shoulder injuries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-03-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null-distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto-occipital zone. The obtained segmentations consistently show a sparse number of significantly connected voxels that are located near the surface of the anterior thalamus over a population of 38 subjects.

  5. Gambling increases self-control strength in problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Anne E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Brown, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    In two studies it is demonstrated that, in the short-term, slot machine gambling increases self-control strength in problem gamblers. In Study 1 (N = 180), participants were randomly assigned to either play slot machines or engage in a control task (word anagrams) for 15 min. Subsequent self-control strength was measured via persistence on an impossible tracing task. Replicating Bergen et al. (J Gambl Stud, doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9274-9 , 2011), control condition participants categorized as problem gamblers persisted for less time than did lower gambling risk participants. However, in the slot machine condition, there were no significant differences in persistence amongst participants as a function of their gambling classification. Moreover, problem gambling participants in the slot machine condition persisted at the impossible tracing task longer than did problem gambling participants in the control condition. Study 2 (N = 209) systematically replicated Study 1. All participants initially completed two tasks known to deplete self-control strength and a different control condition (math problems) was used. Study 2 results were highly similar to those of Study 1. The results of the studies have implications for the helping professions. Specifically, helping professionals should be aware that problem gamblers might seek out gambling as a means of increasing self-control strength.

  6. Increasing electric field strength in polymer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchen, Fahima; Joyce, Donna M.; Grabowski, Chris; Kathaperumal, Mohanalingam; Perry, Joseph; Grote, James G.

    2017-10-01

    Increased electric field breakdown in several polymer-based capacitor dielectrics, including biaxially oriented polypropylene, has been demonstrated using electron and hole blocking layers. Increased electric field breakdown translates into increased energy density. Presented here is work that includes using these blocking layers for a new capacitor dielectric material with a high permittivity (K). Initial results are promising, increasing the potential for even higher energy density polymer capacitors.

  7. Increasing Electric Field Strength of Polymer Capacitors (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-31

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0496 INCREASING ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH OF POLYMER CAPACITORS (PREPRINT) Fahima Ouchen KBRWyle James Grote...COVERED (From - To) 31 October 2017 Interim 24 January 2014 – 30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INCREASING ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH OF...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Increased electric field breakdown in several polymer-based capacitor dielectrics, including biaxially oriented

  8. The adaptations to strength training : morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength.

    PubMed

    Folland, Jonathan P; Williams, Alun G

    2007-01-01

    High-resistance strength training (HRST) is one of the most widely practiced forms of physical activity, which is used to enhance athletic performance, augment musculo-skeletal health and alter body aesthetics. Chronic exposure to this type of activity produces marked increases in muscular strength, which are attributed to a range of neurological and morphological adaptations. This review assesses the evidence for these adaptations, their interplay and contribution to enhanced strength and the methodologies employed. The primary morphological adaptations involve an increase in the cross-sectional area of the whole muscle and individual muscle fibres, which is due to an increase in myofibrillar size and number. Satellite cells are activated in the very early stages of training; their proliferation and later fusion with existing fibres appears to be intimately involved in the hypertrophy response. Other possible morphological adaptations include hyperplasia, changes in fibre type, muscle architecture, myofilament density and the structure of connective tissue and tendons. Indirect evidence for neurological adaptations, which encompasses learning and coordination, comes from the specificity of the training adaptation, transfer of unilateral training to the contralateral limb and imagined contractions. The apparent rise in whole-muscle specific tension has been primarily used as evidence for neurological adaptations; however, morphological factors (e.g. preferential hypertrophy of type 2 fibres, increased angle of fibre pennation, increase in radiological density) are also likely to contribute to this phenomenon. Changes in inter-muscular coordination appear critical. Adaptations in agonist muscle activation, as assessed by electromyography, tetanic stimulation and the twitch interpolation technique, suggest small, but significant increases. Enhanced firing frequency and spinal reflexes most likely explain this improvement, although there is contrary evidence

  9. Nanolaminates: increasing dielectric breakdown strength of composites.

    PubMed

    Fillery, Scott P; Koerner, Hilmar; Drummy, Lawrence; Dunkerley, Erik; Durstock, Michael F; Schmidt, Daniel F; Vaia, Richard A

    2012-03-01

    Processable, low-cost, high-performance hybrid dielectrics are enablers for a vast array of green technologies, including high-temperature electrical insulation and pulsed power capacitors for all-electric transportation vehicles. Maximizing the dielectric breakdown field (E(BD)), in conjunction with minimization of leakage current, directly impacts system performance because of the field's quadratic relationship with electrostatic energy storage density. On the basis of the extreme internal interfacial area and ultrafine morphology, polymer-inorganic nanocomposites (PNCs) have demonstrated modest increases in E(BD) at very low inorganic loadings, but because of insufficient control of the hierarchal morphology of the blend, have yielded a precipitous decline in E(BD) at intermediate and high inorganic volume fractions. Here in, we demonstrate that E(BD) can be increased up to these intermediate inorganic volume fractions by creating uniform one-dimensional nanocomposites (nanolaminates) rather than blends of spherical inorganic nanoparticles and polymers. Free standing nanolaminates of highly aligned and dispersed montmorillonite in polyvinyl butyral exhibited enhancements in E(BD) up to 30 vol % inorganic (70 wt % organically modified montmorillonite). These relative enhancements extend up to five times the inorganic fraction observed for random nanoparticle dispersions, and are anywhere from two to four times greater than observed at comparable volume fraction of nanoparticles. The breakdown characteristics of this model system suggested a trade-off between increased path tortuosity and polymer-deficient structural defects. This implies that an idealized PNC morphology to retard the breakdown cascade perpendicular to the electrodes will occur at intermediate volume fractions and resemble a discotic nematic phase where highly aligned, high-aspect ratio nanometer thick plates are uniformly surrounded by nanoscopic regions of polymer. © 2012 American Chemical

  10. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    PubMed

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  11. Indirect sinusoidal vibrations induces an acute increase in explosive strength.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Leandro V; Moreira, Pedro V S; Huebner, Rudolf; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of indirect vibration on neuromuscular responses and fatigue resistance (electromyographic activity - EMG and force) during isometric exercise. Nineteen healthy men (age=22.4±2.7years; body mass=76.4±12.9kg, height=175±6.7cm) performed isometric elbow flexion exercises in three experimental treatments: only isometric exercise (control - CON); isometric exercise with the addition of sinusoidal vibrations (SVE 1 ; frequency=20Hz, displacement=3.55±0.54mm); and isometric exercise with the addition of sinusoidal vibrations with frequency variation (SVE 2 ; frequency=20±3Hz, displacement=3.6±0.8mm). The peak of the rate of EMG rise (RER) and the root mean square of biceps brachii during the first 200ms (RMS200bic) were significantly higher in SVE 1 (RMS200bic, 25.57±11.70%MVC; RER, 266.91±130.16%MVCs -1 ) than CON (RMS200bic, 19.31±8.19%MVC; RER, 169.15±65.98%MVCs -1 ). Regarding force, in SVE 1 , compared to CON, significant increases were observed in peak of rate of force development (CON, 643.96±192.57N/s; SVE 1 , 845.54±292.84N/s), rate of force development in the first 200ms (CON, 382.92±138,63N/s; SVE 1 , 501.09±147.46N/s), and impulse in 200ms (CON, 8.56±3.56Ns; SVE 1 , 11.67±4.45Ns). The addition of indirect sinusoidal vibrations during exercise induced increases in the rate of force development (explosive strength), without affecting the peak force (maximal strength) and the ability to sustain strength production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  13. Antimicrobial strength increases with group size: implications for social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Christine; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Doug; Briscoe, David; Smith, Shannon; Wilson, Peter; Beattie, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that aggregations of animals are likely to attract pathogenic micro-organisms and that this is especially the case for semisocial and eusocial insects where selection ultimately led to group sizes in the thousands or even millions, attracting the epithet ‘superorganism’. Here, we analyse antimicrobial strength, per individual, in eight thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) that present increasing innate group sizes and show that species with the largest group size (100–700) had the strongest antimicrobials, those with smaller groups (10–80) had lower antimicrobial activity, while solitary species showed none. Species with large innate group sizes showed strong antimicrobial activity while the semisocial species showed no activity until group size increased sufficiently to make activity detectable. The eusocial species behaved in a similar way, with detectable activity appearing once group size exceeded 120. These analyses show that antimicrobial strength is determined by innate group size. This suggests that the evolution of sociality that, by definition, increases group size, may have had particular requirements for defences against microbial pathogens. Thus, increase in group size, accompanied by increased antibiotic strength, may have been a critical factor determining the ‘point of no return’, early in the evolution of social insects, beyond which the evolution of social anatomical and morphological traits was irreversible. Our data suggest that traits that increase group size in general are accompanied by increased antimicrobial strength and that this was critical for transitions from solitary to social and eusocial organization. PMID:20880858

  14. Antimicrobial strength increases with group size: implications for social evolution.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christine; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Doug; Briscoe, David; Smith, Shannon; Wilson, Peter; Beattie, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    We hypothesize that aggregations of animals are likely to attract pathogenic micro-organisms and that this is especially the case for semisocial and eusocial insects where selection ultimately led to group sizes in the thousands or even millions, attracting the epithet 'superorganism'. Here, we analyse antimicrobial strength, per individual, in eight thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) that present increasing innate group sizes and show that species with the largest group size (100-700) had the strongest antimicrobials, those with smaller groups (10-80) had lower antimicrobial activity, while solitary species showed none. Species with large innate group sizes showed strong antimicrobial activity while the semisocial species showed no activity until group size increased sufficiently to make activity detectable. The eusocial species behaved in a similar way, with detectable activity appearing once group size exceeded 120. These analyses show that antimicrobial strength is determined by innate group size. This suggests that the evolution of sociality that, by definition, increases group size, may have had particular requirements for defences against microbial pathogens. Thus, increase in group size, accompanied by increased antibiotic strength, may have been a critical factor determining the 'point of no return', early in the evolution of social insects, beyond which the evolution of social anatomical and morphological traits was irreversible. Our data suggest that traits that increase group size in general are accompanied by increased antimicrobial strength and that this was critical for transitions from solitary to social and eusocial organization.

  15. Strength Asymmetry Increases Gait Asymmetry and Variability in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    LaRoche, Dain P.; Cook, Summer B.; Mackala, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the research was to determine how knee extensor strength asymmetry influences gait asymmetry and variability since these gait parameters have been related to mobility and falls in older adults. Methods Strength of the knee extensors was measured in 24 older women (65 – 80 yr). Subjects were separated into symmetrical strength (SS, n = 13) and asymmetrical strength (SA, n = 11) groups using an asymmetry cutoff of 20%. Subjects walked at a standard speed of 0.8 m s−1 and at maximal speed on an instrumented treadmill while kinetic and spatiotemporal gait variables were measured. Gait and strength asymmetry were calculated as the percent difference between legs and gait variability as the coefficient of variation over twenty sequential steps. Results SA had greater strength asymmetry (27.4 ± 5.5%) than SS (11.7 ± 5.4%, P < 0.001). Averaged across speeds, SA had greater single (7.1% vs. 2.5%) and double-limb support time asymmetry (7.0 vs. 4.3%) than SS and greater single-limb support time variability (9.7% vs. 6.6%, all P < 0.05). Group × speed interactions occurred for weight acceptance force variability (P = 0.02) and weight acceptance force asymmetry (P = 0.017) with greater variability at the maximal speed in SA (5.0 ± 2.4% vs. 3.7 ± 1.2%) and greater asymmetry at the maximal speed in SA (6.4 ± 5.3% vs. 2.5 ± 2.3%). Conclusion Gait variability and asymmetry are greater in older women with strength asymmetry and increase when they walk near their maximal capacities. The maintenance of strength symmetry, or development of symmetry through unilateral exercise, may be beneficial in reducing gait asymmetry, gait variability, and fall risk in older adults. PMID:22617401

  16. Upsetting Butt Edge Increases Weld-Joint Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesco, D.

    1964-01-01

    Mechanical upsetting /a mode of cold forging/ of butt edges to be welded is accomplished by the use of hydraulic rams and pressure rollers. The mechanical upsetting increases the thickness of the material in the heat-affected zone and compensates for the lower specific strength per unit thickness common to this area.

  17. A METHOD OF INCREASING THE STRENGTH OF FIBERGLASS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This study deals with the effects of the additives BeO, ZrO 2 , ZnO in combinations and combined with Li2O , Fe2O3, B2O3 on the properties of glasses...of the type MgO-CaO-SrO-Al2O3 minus SiO2 . The increase in the chemical stability of the glasses and the increased strength of the fiberglass which

  18. High parity is associated with increased bone size and strength.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2005-12-01

    Some, but not all, studies report an association between decreased hip fracture risk and high parity despite similar bone mineral density (BMD). Our hypothesis was that bone size, a major determinant of bone strength, is greater in women with high parity compared with low parity or nulliparous women. A cross-sectional study of 168 Hutterite women aged 40-80 years was conducted. BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area of the total body (TB), hip, femoral neck (FN), and lumbar spine (LS) were measured, as well as bone geometry at the 4% and 20% distal radius and bending strength at 20% radius. Diet and activity recall and strength measurements were obtained. Of the 168 women, 42 (25%) were nulliparous while the remaining women reported 1 to 16 births (median=6). Of the 126 parous women, 122 (97%) breast-fed their infants (range 1.5-24 months). Hip, FN and LS BMD were not associated with either parity or months of breast-feeding. TB BMC and bone area (both, p<0.05) and FN bone area (p<0.01) were associated with parity. FN bone area was 4% greater in women with 7+ vs 1-4 children. Torsional bending strength, which includes structural and material bone properties, at the 20% distal radius was greater with higher parity (p=0.01). No bone measure was associated with average months of breast-feeding. High parity is associated with increased radial torsional bending strength and femoral neck size. The greater femoral neck size, without higher BMD, may explain the reduced hip fracture risk among women with high parity previously reported in some studies.

  19. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-09-07

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space.

  20. Fusion of concentrically layered tubular tissue constructs increases burst strength.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thanh N; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2010-06-01

    Tubular tissue constructs prepared from neonatal human dermal fibroblasts entrapped in fibrin gel were incubated on a mandrel for three weeks to allow for initial fibrin remodeling into tissue before being concentrically layered and incubated for an additional three weeks on the mandrel. Upon harvest, double layer constructs were not statistically different from single layer control constructs in terms of length, collagen density, cell density, tensile modulus, or ultimate tensile strength. However, the thickness and burst pressure were both approximately twice the single layer control values. Metabolically active cells were detected at the interface, and scanning electron microscopy revealed fiber structures bridging the two layers, co-localizing with the cells, which exhibited minimal migration across the layers. In contrast, double layer constructs where tissue fusion was prohibited by mechanical distraction of the layers showed no increase in burst pressure despite having increased thickness and the same collagen and cell densities of the single layer control constructs; moreover, the burst failure occurred sequentially in the layers in contrast to simultaneous failure for the fused double layer constructs. This study provides insight into the nature of the interface and the role of cell behavior when tissue fusion occurs between two layers of bioartificial tissue in vitro. It also suggests a method for improving the burst strength of fibrin-based tubular tissue constructs by increasing the construct thickness via concentrically layering and fusing two constructs.

  1. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio (SA1) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference (SA2) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion cw and friction angle ϕw of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of SA1 and significant increase of SA2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion cw and lower to medium friction angle ϕw. This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of cw and ϕw under different confinements, different combinations of cw and ϕw may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir. PMID:29140292

  2. Residual compressive surface stress increases the bending strength of dental zirconia.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Zhang, Fei; Vanmeensel, Kim; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Naert, Ignace; Vleugels, Jozef; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2017-04-01

    To assess the influence of surface treatment and thermal annealing on the four-point bending strength of two ground dental zirconia grades. Fully-sintered zirconia specimens (4.0×3.0×45.0mm 3 ) of Y-TZP zirconia (LAVA Plus, 3M ESPE) and Y-TZP/Al 2 O 3 zirconia (ZirTough, Kuraray Noritake) were subjected to four surface treatments: (1) 'GROUND': all surfaces were ground with a diamond-coated grinding wheel on a grinding machine; (2) 'GROUND+HEAT': (1) followed by annealing at 1100°C for 30min; (3) 'GROUND+Al 2 O 3 SANDBLASTED': (1) followed by sandblasting using Al 2 O 3 ; (4) 'GROUND+CoJet SANDBLASTED': (1) followed by tribochemical silica (CoJet) sandblasting. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the zirconia-phase composition and potentially induced residual stress. The four-point bending strength was measured using a universal material-testing machine. Weibull analysis revealed a substantially higher Weibull modulus and slightly higher characteristic strength for ZirTough (Kuraray Noritake) than for LAVA Plus (3M ESPE). For both zirconia grades, the 'GROUND' zirconia had the lowest Weibull modulus in combination with a high characteristic strength. Sandblasting hardly changed the bending strength but substantially increased the Weibull modulus of the ground zirconia, whereas a thermal treatment increased the Weibull modulus of both zirconia grades but resulted in a significantly lower bending strength. Micro-Raman analysis revealed a higher residual compressive surface stress that correlated with an increased bending strength. Residual compressive surface stress increased the bending strength of dental zirconia. Thermal annealing substantially reduced the bending strength but increased the consistency (reliability) of 'GROUND' zirconia. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pseudotachylyte increases the post-slip strength of faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, Brooks; Lockner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Solidified frictional melts, or pseudotachylytes, are observed in exhumed faults from across the seismogenic zone. These unique fault rocks, and many experimental studies, suggest that frictional melting can be an important process during earthquakes. However, it remains unknown how melting affects the post-slip strength of the fault and why many exhumed faults do not contain pseudotachylyte. Analyses of triaxial stick-slip events on Westerly Granite (Rhode Island, USA) sawcuts at confining pressures from 50 to 400 MPa show evidence for frictional heating, including some events energetic enough to generate surface melt. Total and partial stress drops were observed with slip as high as 6.5 mm. We find that in dry samples following melt-producing stick slip, the shear failure strength increased as much as 50 MPa, while wet samples had <10 MPa strengthening. Microstructural analysis indicates that the strengthening is caused by welding of the slip surface during melt quenching, suggesting that natural pseudotachylytes may also strengthen faults after earthquakes. These results predict that natural pseudotachylyte will inhibit slip reactivation and possibly generate stress heterogeneities along faults. Wet samples do not exhibit melt welding, possibly because of thermal pressurization of water reducing frictional heating during slip.

  4. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  5. Significant Impacts of Increasing Aridity on the Arid Soil Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Califf, Katy; Cardona, Cesar; Copeland, Audrey; van Treuren, Will; Josephson, Karen L.; Knight, Rob; Gilbert, Jack A.; Quade, Jay; Maier, Raina M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Global deserts occupy one-third of the Earth’s surface and contribute significantly to organic carbon storage, a process at risk in dryland ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to climate-driven ecosystem degradation. The forces controlling desert ecosystem degradation rates are poorly understood, particularly with respect to the relevance of the arid-soil microbiome. Here we document correlations between increasing aridity and soil bacterial and archaeal microbiome composition along arid to hyperarid transects traversing the Atacama Desert, Chile. A meta-analysis reveals that Atacama soil microbiomes exhibit a gradient in composition, are distinct from a broad cross-section of nondesert soils, and yet are similar to three deserts from different continents. Community richness and diversity were significantly positively correlated with soil relative humidity (SoilRH). Phylogenetic composition was strongly correlated with SoilRH, temperature, and electrical conductivity. The strongest and most significant correlations between SoilRH and phylum relative abundance were observed for Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Euryarchaeota (Spearman’s rank correlation [rs] = >0.81; false-discovery rate [q] = ≤0.005), characterized by 10- to 300-fold decreases in the relative abundance of each taxon. In addition, network analysis revealed a deterioration in the density of significant associations between taxa along the arid to hyperarid gradient, a pattern that may compromise the resilience of hyperarid communities because they lack properties associated with communities that are more integrated. In summary, results suggest that arid-soil microbiome stability is sensitive to aridity as demonstrated by decreased community connectivity associated with the transition from the arid class to the hyperarid class and the significant correlations observed between soilRH and both diversity and the relative abundances of key microbial phyla

  6. Econometric analysis of the changing effects in wind strength and significant wave height on the probability of casualty in shipping.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sabine; Kumar, Shashi; Sakurada, Yuri; Shen, Jiajun

    2011-05-01

    This study uses econometric models to measure the effect of significant wave height and wind strength on the probability of casualty and tests whether these effects changed. While both effects are in particular relevant for stability and strength calculations of vessels, it is also helpful for the development of ship construction standards in general to counteract increased risk resulting from changing oceanographic conditions. The authors analyzed a unique dataset of 3.2 million observations from 20,729 individual vessels in the North Atlantic and Arctic regions gathered during the period 1979-2007. The results show that although there is a seasonal pattern in the probability of casualty especially during the winter months, the effect of wind strength and significant wave height do not follow the same seasonal pattern. Additionally, over time, significant wave height shows an increasing effect in January, March, May and October while wind strength shows a decreasing effect, especially in January, March and May. The models can be used to simulate relationships and help understand the relationships. This is of particular interest to naval architects and ship designers as well as multilateral agencies such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that establish global standards in ship design and construction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  8. Increased range of motion and decreased strength of the thumb in massage practitioners with thumb pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-hyun; Kwon, Oh-yun; An, Mi-ryung; Kim, Yoon-shin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints among massage practitioners with and without thumb pain and control subjects. Sixteen massage practitioners with thumb pain, 16 practitioners without thumb pain, and 16 control subjects participated in this study. ROM of flexion, extension, and abduction in the MP joint; ROM of flexion and extension in the IP joint of the thumb; strength of the flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis longus (FPL), and extensor pollicis longus measured in all subjects. ROM of extension and abduction in the MP joint were significantly increased in massage practitioners with and without thumb pain compared with control subjects. ROM of extension in the IP joint was significantly increased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain. The strength of the EPB and FPL muscle was significantly decreased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain and control subjects, respectively. In addition, there was significantly increased EPB/FPB strength in massage practitioners without thumb pain compared to those with thumb pain and control subjects.

  9. Increased Range of Motion and Decreased Strength of the Thumb in Massage Practitioners with Thumb Pain

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Si-hyun; KWON, Oh-yun; AN, Mi-ryung; KIM, Yoon-shin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints among massage practitioners with and without thumb pain and control subjects. Sixteen massage practitioners with thumb pain, 16 practitioners without thumb pain, and 16 control subjects participated in this study. ROM of flexion, extension, and abduction in the MP joint; ROM of flexion and extension in the IP joint of the thumb; strength of the flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis longus (FPL), and extensor pollicis longus measured in all subjects. ROM of extension and abduction in the MP joint were significantly increased in massage practitioners with and without thumb pain compared with control subjects. ROM of extension in the IP joint was significantly increased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain. The strength of the EPB and FPL muscle was significantly decreased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain and control subjects, respectively. In addition, there was significantly increased EPB/FPB strength in massage practitioners without thumb pain compared to those with thumb pain and control subjects. PMID:24739763

  10. The increase of compressive strength of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilorini, Rr. M. I. Retno; Santosa, Budi; Rejeki, V. G. Sri; Riangsari, M. F. Devita; Hananta, Yan's. Dianaga

    2017-03-01

    Polymer modified concrete is one of some concrete technology innovations to meet the need of strong and durable concrete. Previous research found that Moringa oleifera can be applied as natural polymer modifiers into mortars. Natural polymer modified mortar using Moringa oleifera is proven to increase their compressive strength significantly. In this resesearch, Moringa oleifera seeds have been grinded and added into concrete mix for natural polymer modified concrete, based on the optimum composition of previous research. The research investigated the increase of compressive strength of polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera as natural polymer modifiers. There were 3 compositions of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera referred to previous research optimum compositions. Several cylinder of 10 cm x 20 cm specimens were produced and tested for compressive strength at age 7, 14, and, 28 days. The research meets conclusions: (1) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera, with and without skin, has higher compressive strength compared to natural polymer modified mortar with Moringa oleifera and also control specimens; (2) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is achieved by specimens contains Moringa oleifera that is 0.2% of cement weight; and (3) The compressive strength increase of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is about 168.11-221.29% compared to control specimens

  11. Increased diffuse radiation fraction does not significantly accelerate plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, Alon; Krakauer, Nir

    2010-05-01

    ), will result in a measurable decrease (~0.6ppm) in the seasonal CO2 minimum. This holds regardless of whether the sink is the result of 1) An increase in NPP, or 2) The combined effect of a temperature-driven decrease in heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and no change in NPP. This is since both NPP and Rh peak in summer. By contrast, observations from the NOAA global CO2 monitoring network show the opposite change in the seasonal minimum in 1992 and 1993 (~0.2ppm increase) both at Mauna Loa, and in the Marine Boundary Layer mean (>20° N), which is hard to reconcile with increased NPP in northern summer. Another indicator of annual NPP is tree wood increment. Previous work (Krakauer et al., 2003) showed that the average response in tree ring series after past Pinatubo-size volcanic eruptions implied lower NPP north of 45° N, presumably as a result of shorter growing season and lower total irradiance induced by scattering aerosols, and no significant change in NPP at lower latitudes. Here we show that In 1992, after the Pinatubo eruption, ring width in the 25° N-45° N band was 99.3±2.9% of average (n=351 sites), similar to the average of 100.4±2.2% over past eruptions (n=15 eruptions) (Uncertainty is given as 2 SE.). These results are also inconsistent with substantial NPP enhancement, although a limitation of the tree-ring approach is that available measurements do not uniformly sample the latitude band. The combined evidence of tree rings and the CO2 seasonal cycle shows that the enhancement of NPP by scattering aerosols on annual timescales is weak. This result suggests that reducing aerosols through stricter pollution controls may strengthen the land carbon sink, while geo-engineering schemes which aim to mitigate global warming by spreading scattering aerosols in the stratosphere may weaken it.

  12. Aneuploidy 16 in human embryos increases significantly with maternal age.

    PubMed

    Benadiva, C A; Kligman, I; Munné, S

    1996-08-01

    To determine aneuploidy for chromosome 16 by recycling nuclei of cells already analyzed for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, and 21 using multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization in preimplantation human embryos in a time frame compatible with clinical IVF and to asssess the incidence of chromosome 16 aneuploidy in embryos related to maternal age. Prospective experimental study. In vitro fertilization program in a tertiary center. One hundred four consenting patients undergoing IVF. Chromosome 16 ploidy was analyzed in a total of 195 embryos. In 89 embryos, a standard multiple-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization was used for chromosomes X, Y, 18 and 16 (series 1). The remaining 106 embryos (series 2) were reanalyzed with a new procedure for chromosome 16, which involves rehybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled alpha satellite probe after the standard analysis for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, and 21 was completed. The embryos were assigned to one of three groups according to the women's age; group 1: /= 40 years (n = 23). Successful analysis, including biopsy, fixation, and fluorescence in situ hybridization was achieved in 86% of the blastomeres within approximately 10 hours. A significant relationship was found between the rate of aneuploidy for chromosome 16 and increasing maternal age: group 1: 0%, group 2: 6.3%, and group 3: 11.7%. Monosomy for chromosome 16 was found in 72.7% of the 11 embryos carrying chromosome 16 anomalies, with the remaining three embryos having two trisomies and one tetrasomy. This new protocol was applied clinically to five patients undergoing preimplantation aneuploidy assessment. Aneuploidy for chromosome 16 was found in five embryos from three of those patients. This study demonstrates that preimplantation genetic diagnosis of the major human aneuploidies is achievable within a time frame compatible with IVF. In addition, this study confirms, for embryos, the existing

  13. Significant enhancement of the strength-to-resistivity ratio by using nanotwins in epitaxial Cu films

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit; Ronningh, Filip; Anderoglu, Osman; Zhang, X

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanotwinned Cu films, with an average twin spacing ranging from 7 to 16 nm, exhibit a high ratio of strength-to-electrical resisitivity, -400 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}. The hardness of these Cu films approaches 2.8 GPa, and their electrical resistivities are comparable to that of oxygen-free high-conductivity Cu. Compared to high-angle grain boundaries, coherent twin interfaces possess inherently high resistance to the transmission of single dislocations, and yet an order of magnitude lower electron scattering coefficient, determined to be 1.5-5 x 10{sup -7} {mu}{Omega}cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Analytical studies as well as experimental results show that, in polycrystalline Cu, grain refinement leads to a maximum of the strength-to-resistivity ratio, -250 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}, when grain size is comparable to the mean-free path of electrons. However, in twinned Cu, such a ratio increases continuously with decreasing twin spacing down to a few nanometers. Hence nanoscale growth twins are more effective to achieve a higher strength-to-resistivity ratio than high-angle grain boundaries.

  14. The Wildland-Urban Interface: Increasing Significance, Complexity and Contribution

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, presentations at International Symposia on Society and Resource Management (ISSRM) have covered an increasingly broad scope of topics on natural resource issues. The wildland-urban interface (WUI) was a key topic of discussion at the ninth ISSRM in 2002: a reflection of the response by social scientists to increasing residential development...

  15. Significant shear bond strength improvements of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement with a resin coating.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Michael T; Stoeckel, Daniel C; Rawson, Kenneth G; Welch, Dan B

    2017-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) may be sensitive to temperature and moisture changes for the first 24 hours after photopolymerization. To test the hypothesis that a resin coating placed over the surface of an RMGIC restoration would decrease the susceptibility to moisture and temperature conditions, 44 RMGIC samples were prepared in inverted-cone recesses drilled in epoxy resin plates. After abrasion of all samples with 800-grit silicon carbide paper to simulate a diamond bur finish on the surface, a coat of highly filled resin was applied to the experimental group (n = 22) and cured according to the manufacturer's instructions. The plates were thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C and then maintained at 37°C with 95% humidity. The thermocycled samples were bonded to a second epoxy resin plate filled with RMGIC and subjected to shear bond strength testing. The resin-coated group had a significantly greater mean shear bond strength than the control group (P < 0.05). The resin coating also appeared to affect the mode of failure by significantly increasing the number of mixed failures (P < 0.05). The results suggest that a resin coating protects RMGIC from moisture- and temperature-induced damage and increases shear bond strength.

  16. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-01

    p16 is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and is considered a tumor suppressor protein. Alterations in p16 protein expression are associated with tumor development and progression. However, the p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has not been investigated in the endometrium. Therefore, we evaluated stromal p16 expression in different types of endometrial lesions using immunohistochemistry. Differences in the p16 expression status according to the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 62, 26, and 36 cases of benign, precancerous, and malignant endometrial lesions, respectively. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas precancerous lesions showed a variable degree of staining proportion and intensity. Atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) had significantly higher stromal p16 expression levels than benign lesions. Endometrioid carcinoma (EC), serous carcinoma (SC), and carcinosarcoma showed significantly elevated stromal p16 expression levels compared with benign and precancerous lesions. In addition, there were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between AH/EIN and SEIC and between EC and SC. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among nonpathological endometrium, atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, and hyperplasia without atypia were not statistically significant. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma, and raise the possibility that p16 overexpression in the peritumoral stroma is associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior of endometrial SC. PMID:27902476

  17. Increased medial olivocochlear reflex strength in normal-hearing, noise-exposed humans.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Ishan

    2017-01-01

    tolerance (SLT) and tinnitus. These data provide evidence that MOCR strength is associated with NEB. The functional significance of increased MOCR strength is discussed.

  18. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Tino; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim; Keller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. PMID:28600344

  20. Solubilisation of myosin in a solution of low ionic strength L-histidine: Significance of the imidazole ring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Zou, Yufeng; Han, Minyi; Pan, Lihua; Xing, Tong; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-04-01

    Myosin, a major muscle protein, can be solubilised in a low ionic strength solution containing L-histidine (His). To elucidate which chemical constituents in His are responsible for this solubilisation, we investigated the effects of 5mM His, imidazole (Imi), L-α-alanine (Ala), 1-methyl-L-histidine (M-his) and L-carnosine (Car) on particle properties of myosin suspensions and conformational characteristics of soluble myosin at low ionic strength (1 mM KCl, pH 7.5). His, Imi and Car, each containing an imidazole ring, were able to induce a myosin suspension, which had small particle size species and high absolute zeta potential, thus increasing the solubility of myosin. His, Imi and Car affected the tertiary structure and decreased the α-helix content of soluble myosin. Therefore, the imidazole ring of His appeared to be the significant chemical constituent in solubilising myosin at low ionic strength solution, presumably by affecting its secondary structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser Welded versus Resistance Spot Welded Bone Implants: Analysis of the Thermal Increase and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The first aim of this “ex vivo split mouth” study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Materials and Methods. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. Results. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Conclusion. Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength. PMID:25110731

  2. Laser welded versus resistance spot welded bone implants: analysis of the thermal increase and strength.

    PubMed

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this "ex vivo split mouth" study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength.

  3. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance.

    PubMed

    del Favero, Serena; Roschel, Hamilton; Artioli, Guilherme; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Costa, André; Barroso, Renato; Negrelli, Ana Lua; Otaduy, Maria Concepción; da Costa Leite, Cláudia; Lancha-Junior, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of betaine supplementation on muscle phosphorylcreatine (PCr) content and strength performance in untrained subjects. Additionally, we compared the ergogenic and physiological responses to betaine versus creatine supplementation. Finally, we also tested the possible additive effects of creatine and betaine supplementation. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were assigned to receive betaine (BET; 2 g/day), creatine (CR; 20 g/day), betaine plus creatine (BET+CR; 2+20 g/day, respectively) or placebo (PL). At baseline and after 10 days of supplementation, we assessed muscle strength and power, muscle PCr content, and body composition. The CR and BET+CR groups presented greater increase in muscle PCr content than PL (p=0.004 and p=0.006, respectively). PCr content was comparable between BET versus PL (p=0.78) and CR versus BET+CR (p=0.99). CR and BET+CR presented greater muscle power output than PL in the squat exercise following supplementation (p=0.003 and p=0.041, respectively). Similarly, bench press average power was significantly greater for the CR-supplemented groups. CR and BET+CR groups also showed significant pre- to post-test increase in 1-RM squat and bench press (CR: p=0.027 and p<0.0001; BET+CR: p=0.03 and p<0.0001 for upper- and lower-body assessments, respectively) No significant differences for 1-RM strength and power were observed between BET versus PL and CR versus BET+CR. Body composition did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.

  4. The effect of increasing strength and approach velocity on triple jump performance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sam J; Yeadon, M R Fred; King, Mark A

    2016-12-08

    The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and approach velocity on optimal performance. The strength and approach velocity of the simulation model were each increased by up to 30% in 10% increments from baseline data collected from a national standard triple jumper. Increasing strength always resulted in an increased overall jump distance. Increasing approach velocity also typically resulted in an increased overall jump distance but there was a point past which increasing approach velocity without increasing strength did not lead to an increase in overall jump distance. Increasing both strength and approach velocity by 10%, 20%, and 30% led to roughly equivalent increases in overall jump distances. Distances ranged from 14.05m with baseline strength and approach velocity, up to 18.49m with 30% increases in both. Optimal phase ratios were either hop-dominated or balanced, and typically became more balanced when the strength of the model was increased by a greater percentage than its approach velocity. The range of triple jump distances that resulted from the optimisation process suggests that strength and approach velocity are of great importance for triple jump performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The significance of nanoparticles on bond strength of polymer concrete to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Douba, A.; Genedy, M.; Matteo, E. N.

    2017-01-03

    Here, polymer concrete (PC) is a commonly used material in construction due to its improved durability and good bond strength to steel substrate. PC has been suggested as a repair and seal material to restore the bond between the cement annulus and the steel casing in wells that penetrate formations under consideration for CO 2 sequestration. Nanoparticles including Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs), Aluminum Nanoparticles (ANPs) and Silica Nano particles (SNPs) were added to an epoxy-based PC to examine how the nanoparticles affect the bond strength of PC to a steel substrate. Slant shear tests were used to determine themore » bond strength of PC incorporating nanomaterials to steel; results reveal that PC incorporating nanomaterials has an improved bond strength to steel substrate compared with neat PC. In particular, ANPs improve the bond strength by 51% over neat PC. Local shear stresses, extracted from Finite Element (FE) analysis of the slant shear test, were found to be as much as twice the apparent/average shear/bond strength. These results suggest that the impact of nanomaterials is higher than that shown by the apparent strength. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements of epoxy with and without nanomaterials showed ANPs to influence curing of epoxy, which might explain the improved bond strength of PC incorporating ANPs.« less

  6. The significance of nanoparticles on bond strength of polymer concrete to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Douba, A.; Genedy, M.; Matteo, E. N.; Kandil, U. F.; Stormont, J.; Reda Taha, M. M.

    2017-01-03

    Here, polymer concrete (PC) is a commonly used material in construction due to its improved durability and good bond strength to steel substrate. PC has been suggested as a repair and seal material to restore the bond between the cement annulus and the steel casing in wells that penetrate formations under consideration for CO2 sequestration. Nanoparticles including Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs), Aluminum Nanoparticles (ANPs) and Silica Nano particles (SNPs) were added to an epoxy-based PC to examine how the nanoparticles affect the bond strength of PC to a steel substrate. Slant shear tests were used to determine the bond strength of PC incorporating nanomaterials to steel; results reveal that PC incorporating nanomaterials has an improved bond strength to steel substrate compared with neat PC. In particular, ANPs improve the bond strength by 51% over neat PC. Local shear stresses, extracted from Finite Element (FE) analysis of the slant shear test, were found to be as much as twice the apparent/average shear/bond strength. These results suggest that the impact of nanomaterials is higher than that shown by the apparent strength. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements of epoxy with and without nanomaterials showed ANPs to influence curing of epoxy, which might explain the improved bond strength of PC incorporating ANPs.

  7. How much is Enough? The Requirement for Increased Infantry Dismount Strength in Heavy Divisions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-04

    qualitative advantage to use a competitive strategy that pits our enduring strengths against enduring Soviet weaknesses.2 However, encompassed in this...Requirement for Increased Infantry Dismount Strength in Heavy Divisions Major Douglas D. BrissonDTIC ELECTE School of Advanced Military Studies U. S...Much Is Enough?: The Requirement for increased Infantry Dismount Strength in Heavy Divisions. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) MA.! Dlnoln I11 ri . A 13a. TYPE

  8. Increase the strength characteristics of polymer films by radiation graft polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvova, M. A.; Zhevnyk, V. D.; Pak, V.; Denisov, V. Ya; Borodin, Y. V.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of increasing the strength characteristics of polymer films based on polyethylene and polyamide by radiation graft polymerization was investigated. Two methods of graft polymerization (direct method and the method of polymer mixtures cross-linking) on the PMMA films surface were studied. The possibility of increasing the strength and elasticity of polymeric films by radiation modification of polymethyl methacrylate was shown.

  9. The development of ultrahigh strength low alloy cast steels with increased toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Paul C.

    a high temperature HIP treatment, both the CVN and ductility of the alloy was found to increase while maintaining comparable ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) levels as compared to the original homogenization treatment. Austempering the (IC) 4340+ material led to a significant increase in CVN and ductility at the expense of UTS and yield strength as the primarily martensitic microstructure was converted to a mixed martensitic-bainitic structure. An initial heat of induction melted, aluminum deoxidized investment cast ES-1 with 0.06 wt % of aluminum showed that the average -40°F and +72°F impact toughness, % elongation, and UTS and YS of the fully heat treated investment cast + HIP ES-1 material lagged significantly behind that of the vacuum degassed cast + HIP ES-1 ingot material. Even though the % elongation and impact toughness of the investment cast ES-1 material changed between heat treatment conditions, the average UTS and YS values remained relatively unchanged throughout the heat treatments for the investment cast study. Etched micrographs of the investment cast ES-1 material showed evidence of significant differences in microsegregation reduction between the samples homogenized at 2125°F for 4 hours and those not homogenized at 2125°F for 4 hours. SEM fracture surface work performed on the investment cast material clearly showed that the induction melted investment and aluminum killed cast material contained significant amounts of MnS and Al2O3 inclusions that were not discovered in the vacuum degassed cast ingot material. Lastly, the results of a third heat of induction melted, aluminum deoxidized investment cast ES-1 material possessing just 0.01wt% of aluminum showed that the decrease in aluminum content from the first experimental heat did not improve the mechanical properties of the investment cast material. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans.

    PubMed

    Maas, M; Dam-Deisz, W D C; van Roon, A M; Takumi, K; van der Giessen, J W B

    2014-12-15

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk map model predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococcosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed to determine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popular recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humans and to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht. Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nested PCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastricht were analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis. In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43-74%) was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7-18%) in 2005-2006. Average worm burden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistent with the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction on the number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE cases up to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnaires showed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were considered at risk for infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased Tensile Strength of Carbon Nanotube Yarns and Sheets through Chemical Modification and Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Baker, James S.; Sola, Francisco; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; McCorkle, Linda S.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Gaier, James; Chen, Michelle; Meador, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent strength of individual carbon nanotubes offers considerable opportunity for the development of advanced, lightweight composite structures. Recent work in the fabrication and application of carbon nanotube (CNT) forms such as yarns and sheets has addressed early nanocomposite limitations with respect to nanotube dispersion and loading; and has pushed the technology toward structural composite applications. However, the high tensile strength of an individual CNT has not directly translated to macro-scale CNT forms where bulk material strength is limited by inter-tube electrostatic attraction and slippage. The focus of this work was to assess post processing of CNT sheet and yarn to improve the macro-scale strength of these material forms. Both small molecule functionalization and e-beam irradiation was evaluated as a means to enhance tensile strength and Youngs modulus of the bulk CNT material. Mechanical testing results revealed a tensile strength increase in CNT sheets by 57 when functionalized, while an additional 48 increase in tensile strength was observed when functionalized sheets were irradiated; compared to unfunctionalized sheets. Similarly, small molecule functionalization increased yarn tensile strength up to 25, whereas irradiation of the functionalized yarns pushed the tensile strength to 88 beyond that of the baseline yarn.

  12. ANODAL TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (TDCS) INCREASES ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF SHOULDER ROTATORS MUSCLES IN HANDBALL PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    Hazime, Fuad Ahmad; da Cunha, Ronaldo Alves; Soliaman, Renato Rozenblit; Romancini, Ana Clara Bezerra; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2017-06-01

    Weakness of the rotator cuff muscles can lead to imbalances in the strength of shoulder external and internal rotators, change the biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint and predispose an athlete to injury. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has demonstrated promising results in a variety of health conditions. However few studies addressed its potential approach in the realm of athletics. The purpose of this study was to investigate if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technique increases the isometric muscle strength of shoulder external and internal rotators in handball athletes. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Eight female handball players aged between 17 and 21 years (Mean=19.65; SD=2.55) with 7.1 ± 4.8 years of experience in training, participating in regional and national competitions were recruited. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles was evaluated during and after 30 and 60 minutes post one session of anodal and sham current (2mA; 0.057mA/cm 2 ) with a one-week interval between stimulations. Compared to baseline, MVIC of shoulder external and internal rotators significantly increased after real but not sham tDCS. Between-group differences were observed for external and internal rotator muscles. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of external rotation increased significantly during tDCS, and 30 and 60 minutes post-tDCS for real tDCS compared to that for sham tDCS. For internal rotation MVIC increased significantly during and 60 minutes post-tDCS. The results indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation temporarily increases maximal isometric contractions of the internal and external rotators of the shoulder in handball players. 2.

  13. High ionic strength: its significance in immunosurveillance against tumor cells in sharks and rays (elasmobranchs).

    PubMed

    Rosen, P; Woodhead, A D

    1980-04-01

    It is postulated that the rarity of tumors in elasmobranchs is due to the high ionic strength in their tissues, which is equivalent to a high body temperature. Such conditions should lead to the elimination of variable antigenicity and 100% immune surveillance. The basis for this theory is that the repressor molecular for mitosis, not binding to its operator site cannot bind anywhere.

  14. The effects of tack welding and increasing surface area on the tensile strength of silver electric and flame soldered stainless steel joints.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, J A; Mathieu, G P; Hondrum, S

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: 1) to compare silver solder joint strength using flame and electric soldering techniques, and 2) to determine the effect of tack welding and increasing metal-to-metal contact area prior to tack welding, on the tensile strength of silver solder joints. Six methods: (flame soldered; tack welded and flame soldered; increased contact area, tack welded, and flame soldered; electrosoldered; tack welded and electrosoldered; and increased contact area, tack welded, and electrosoldered) were used to produce 15 solder joints in each group. The tensile strength of the joints were tested with Instron Universal Testing Machine. Flame soldering resulted in joints with significantly higher tensile strength (P < or = 0.001). Tack welding had no significant effect on the tensile strength of the joints. Increasing the contact area had no significant effect on the tensile strength of tack welded electric soldered joints, but significantly weakened the flame soldered joints (P < or = 0.05).

  15. A mechanism for increased contractile strength of human pennate muscle in response to strength training: changes in muscle architecture

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Jesper L; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Leffers, Anne-Mette; Wagner, Aase; Magnusson, S Peter; Halkjær-Kristensen, Jens; Simonsen, Erik B

    2001-01-01

    In human pennate muscle, changes in anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) or volume caused by training or inactivity may not necessarily reflect the change in physiological CSA, and thereby in maximal contractile force, since a simultaneous change in muscle fibre pennation angle could also occur. Eleven male subjects undertook 14 weeks of heavy-resistance strength training of the lower limb muscles. Before and after training anatomical CSA and volume of the human quadriceps femoris muscle were assessed by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), muscle fibre pennation angle (θp) was measured in the vastus lateralis (VL) by use of ultrasonography, and muscle fibre CSA (CSAfibre) was obtained by needle biopsy sampling in VL. Anatomical muscle CSA and volume increased with training from 77.5 ± 3.0 to 85.0 ± 2.7 cm2 and 1676 ± 63 to 1841 ± 57 cm3, respectively (±s.e.m.). Furthermore, VL pennation angle increased from 8.0 ± 0.4 to 10.7 ± 0.6 deg and CSAfibre increased from 3754 ± 271 to 4238 ± 202 μm2. Isometric quadriceps strength increased from 282.6 ± 11.7 to 327.0 ± 12.4 N m. A positive relationship was observed between θp and quadriceps volume prior to training (r = 0.622). Multifactor regression analysis revealed a stronger relationship when θp and CSAfibre were combined (R = 0.728). Post-training increases in CSAfibre were related to the increase in quadriceps volume (r = 0.749). Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform distribution (type I and II) remained unaltered with training. VL muscle fibre pennation angle was observed to increase in response to resistance training. This allowed single muscle fibre CSA and maximal contractile strength to increase more (+16 %) than anatomical muscle CSA and volume (+10 %). Collectively, the present data suggest that the morphology, architecture and contractile capacity of human pennate muscle are interrelated, in vivo. This interaction seems to include the specific adaptation responses evoked by intensive resistance

  16. Ischemic Conditioning Increases Strength and Volitional Activation of Paretic Muscle in Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hyngstrom, Allison S; Murphy, Spencer A; Nguyen, Jennifer; Schmit, Brian D; Negro, Francesco; Gutterman, David D; Durand, Matthew J

    2018-02-08

    Ischemic conditioning (IC) on the arm or leg has emerged as an intervention to improve strength and performance in healthy populations, but the effects on neurologic populations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of a single session of IC on knee extensor strength and muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. Maximal knee extensor torque measurements and surface EMG were quantified in 10 chronic stroke survivors (>1 year post-stroke) with hemiparesis before and after a single session of IC or Sham on the paretic leg. IC consisted of five minutes of compression with a proximal thigh cuff (inflation pressure = 225 mmHg for IC or 25 mmHg for Sham) followed by five minutes of rest. This was repeated five times. Maximal knee extensor strength, EMG magnitude, and motor unit firing behavior were measured before and immediately after IC or Sham. IC increased paretic leg strength by 10.6{plus minus}8.5 Nm while no difference was observed in the Sham group (change in Sham = 1.3{plus minus}2.9 Nm; p = 0.001 IC vs. Sham). IC-induced increases in strength were accompanied by a 31{plus minus}15% increase in the magnitude of muscle EMG during maximal contractions and a 5% decrease in motor unit recruitment thresholds during sub-maximal contractions. Individuals who had the most asymmetry in strength between their paretic and non-paretic legs had the largest increases in strength (r 2 = 0.54). This study provides evidence that a single session of IC can increase strength through improved muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors.

  17. Does Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy Increase Voluntary Muscle Strength After Spinal Cord Injury? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Gabriel Ribeiro; Szpoganicz, Camila; Ilha, Jocemar

    2018-01-01

    Background: Physical therapists frequently use neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy in an effort to increase the voluntary strength of partially paralyzed muscles in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), but it is not clear whether this treatment is effective. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of NMES for increasing voluntary strength in the partially paralyzed muscles of people with SCI. Methods: A systematic review of scientific literature was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, ScienceDirect, and Embase. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials and controlled trials that compared NMES aimed at increasing strength in partially paralyzed muscles versus placebo/nothing or versus a nonstrengthening intervention or versus any other type of strengthening intervention in adults with SCI. Results: Five studies were included. Two studies found an increase in strength measured by peak force and manual muscle force test after an NMES protocol. One study found a between-group difference in favor of the NMES associated with progressive resistance training, and the other study showed an increase in the number of muscles improved by at least 1 degree of strength after NMES in combination with a cycle ergometer. The other 3 studies made several comparisons and found no differences between groups that received NMES and the controls. Conclusions: There is some suggestion that NMES increases voluntary strength in partially paralyzed muscle following SCI. However, there is no strong evidence to affirm the superiority of NMES over other treatment strategies used to gain strength in partially paralyzed muscles after SCI. These findings need replicating in large high-quality randomized controlled trials.

  18. Increased sink strength offsets the inhibitory effect of sucrose on sugarcane photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael V; Machado, Eduardo C; Magalhães Filho, José R; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Martins, Márcio O; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (g s ), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the initial slope of A-C i curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthesis was inhibited by sucrose spraying in both genotypes, through decreases in V cmax , k, g s and ATP production driven by electron transport (J atp ). Photosynthesis of plants subjected to the combination of partial darkness and sucrose spraying was similar to photosynthesis of reference plants for both genotypes. Significant increases in V cmax , g s and J atp and marginal increases in k were noticed when combining partial darkness and sucrose spraying compared with sucrose spraying alone. Our data also revealed that increases in sink strength due to partial darkness offset the inhibition of sugarcane photosynthesis caused by sucrose spraying, enhancing the knowledge on endogenous regulation of sugarcane photosynthesis through the source-sink relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The bioimpedance phase angle predicts low muscle strength, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality in old patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kristina; Wirth, Rainer; Neubauer, Maxi; Eckardt, Rahel; Stobäus, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the impact of low phase angle (PhA) values on muscle strength, quality of life, symptom severity, and 1-year mortality in older cancer patients. Prospective study with 1-year follow-up. Cancer patients aged >60 years. PhA was derived from whole body impedance analysis. The fifth percentile of age-, sex-, and body mass index-stratified reference values were used as cut-off. Quality of life was determined with the European Organization of Research and Treatment in Cancer questionnaire, reflecting both several function scales and symptom severity. Muscle strength was assessed by hand grip strength, knee extension strength, and peak expiratory flow. 433 cancer patients, aged 60-95 years, were recruited. Patients with low PhA (n = 197) exhibited decreased muscle strength compared with patients with normal PhA (hand grip strength: 22 ± 8.6 vs 28.9 ± 8.9 kg, knee extension strength: 20.8 ± 11.8 vs 28.1 ± 14.9 kg, and peak expiratory flow: 301.1 ± 118 vs 401.7 ± 142.6 L/min, P < .001). Physical function, global health status, and role function from the European Organization of Research and Treatment in Cancer questionnaire were reduced, and most symptoms (fatigue, anorexia, pain, and dyspnea) increased in patients with low PhA (P < .001). In a risk-factor adjusted regression analysis, PhA emerged as independent predictor of physical function (ß:-0.538, P = .023), hand grip strength (ß:-4.684, P < .0001), knee extension strength (ß:-4.548, P = .035), and peak expiratory flow (ß:-66.836, P < .0001). Low PhA moreover predicted 1-year mortality in the Cox proportional hazards regression model, whereas grip strength was no longer significant. PhA below the fifth reference percentile is highly predictive of decreased muscle strength, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality in old patients with cancer and should be evaluated in routine assessment. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by

  20. [Muscular strength training does not increase human adults' arterial stiffness or improve body toning].

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Cabral, Carlos Ernani de Araujo; Fernandes-Guerra, Felipe E; Zugno, Leonel Mario; Tinoco-Cabral, Suzet de Araujo; Dantas-Leite, Lucia; Fernandes Filho, José; Costa-Lima, Kenio

    2013-01-01

    Determining the influence of three weekly strength training (ST) sessions, over a ten-week period, on arterial stiffness (AS) and taking the associated anthropometric measurements. This was a before-and-after intervention trial, involving a sample of 17 individuals. Participants were adults from both genders aged 18 and 40 years-old who had been sedentary for at least three months previously. Anthropometric measurements were taken, together with pulse wave velocity (PWV) before and immediately after the experimental sessions. Independent variables (age and gender) were considered for determining their influence on final PWV and anthropometric measurements. Comparing initial PWV (mean=9.00) with final PWV (mean=9.00) for subjects involved in the proposed ST revealed no significant difference between them (p=0.469). Regarding anthropometric measurement, individuals' body fat (p<0.001) and body fat mass percentages (p<0.001) became significantly reduced, accompanied by an increase in lean mass (p<0.001). However, no changes were recorded regarding waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p= 0.777), body mass (p=0.226) or body mass index (BMI) (p =0.212). This study's findings suggested that the proposed ST did not increase AS. Devotees of such type of training may therefore safely enjoy all its benefits without risk to the cardiovascular system. Further controlled and randomized research is needed to confirm these results.

  1. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chupel, Matheus U.; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E.; Minuzzi, Luciéle G.; Pedrosa, Filipa M.; Colado, Juan C.; Ferreira, José P.; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment. PMID:28659812

  2. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  3. PEGylation with the thiosuccinimido butylamine linker significantly increases the stability of haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Zhong; Yu, Wei-Li; Zheng, He; Guo, Xuan; Guo, Nan; Hu, Tao; Zhong, Jin-Yi

    2017-07-20

    Haloalkane dehalogenase (HLD) can catalyze the hydrolytic dehalogenation of halogenated compounds. However, HLD suffers from the poor stability to resist the environmental stress. PEGylation is an effective approach to enhance the stability of enzymes. The linker is an important stabilization factor of PEGylation. Thus, the linkers of the PEGylated HLD were optimized to improve the stability of HLD in the present study. The PEGylated haloalkane dehalogenase DhaAs with methylamine (Ml), carbamate (Cm) and thiosuccinimido butylamine (Tb) linkers were prepared, respectively. The effects of the Ml, Cm and Tb linkers on the stability of the PEGylated DhaAs were investigated under different environmental stresses. Among the three linkers, the Tb linker showed the highest efficacy to improve the stability of the PEGylated DhaA. The Tb linker significantly increased the thermal stability of the PEGylated DhaA by slowing its structural unfolding, and the pH stability of the PEGylated DhaA by slowing the protonation process. In addition, the PEGylated DhaA with the Tb linker showed the maximum resistance to high ionic strength (1M NaCl) and organic solvent (40% DMSO). PEGylation with the Tb linker is of general interest to effectively improve the stability of proteins, particularly the protein with poor stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing the Strength of Odors Produced by an Odor-Emitting Technology Using Odor Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Ayako; Sakairi, Minoru; Suzuki, Daisuke

    We have developed an odor-emitting apparatus for application of odor to information technology. This apparatus consists of a chemical capsule cartridge including chemical capsules of odor ingredients and valves to control odor emission using an artificial metal muscle. In this method, multiple valves can be opened using the current for a single artificial muscle because the expansion and contraction time constant for the artificial muscles is large. We have developed a new multi-valve sequence mode that uses multiple odor capsules to increase odor strength, and we have been able to increase the strength produced by a factor of two. In addition, we evaluated the change in odor strength using a mock-up of the back seat of an automobile, and all of the ten test subjects reported sensing a stronger odor.

  5. Increasing FSW join strength by optimizing feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmadi, Djarot B.; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Siswanto, Eko

    2017-10-01

    Principally the join in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is formed due to mechanical bonding. At least there are two factors determines the quality of this join, first is the temperature in the area around the interface and secondly the intense of mixing forces in nugget zone to create the mechanical bonding. The adequate temperature creates good flowability of the nugget zone and an intensive mixing force produces homogeneous strong bonding. Based on those two factors in this research the effects of feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle of the FSW process to the tensile strength of resulted join are studied. The true experimental method was used. Feed rate was varied at 24, 42, 55 and 74 mm/minutes and from the experimental results, it can be concluded that the higher feed rate decreases the tensile strength of weld join and it is believed due to the lower heat embedded in the material. Inversely, the higher rotating speed increases the join’s tensile strength as a result of higher heat embedded in base metal and higher mixing force in the nugget zone. The rotating speed were 1842, 2257 and 2904 RPMs. The pin angle determines the direction of mixing force. With variation of pin angle: 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° the higher pin angle generally increases the tensile strength because of more intensive mixing force. For 12° pin angle the lower tensile strength is found since the force tends to push out the nugget area from the joint gap.

  6. Milk calcium taken with cheese increases bone mineral density and bone strength in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Takada, Yukihiro; Matsuyama, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Yano, Hideo; Toba, Yasuhiro

    2002-11-01

    We investigated the calcium bioavailability of milk calcium, taken with or without cheese. Twenty-four 6-week-old male rats for a meal-feeding experiment were trained to consume an AIN-76 diet within 2 h (2 times per day) for 2 weeks. The rats were then divided into three experimental groups, each fed 2 types of experimental diets: Control group, Cheese group, and Ca-Cheese group. The rats were each alternately given 2 types of experimental diets at 2-h meal-feeding for 31 days. The breaking force and energy of the femur in the Ca-Cheese group were significantly higher than in the control group. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the femur in the Ca-Cheese group was also significantly higher than in the other two groups. These results indicate that milk calcium taken with cheese increases bone strength and BMD efficiently, results that may be useful for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  7. Increasing Mechanical Strength of Gelatin Hydrogels by Divalent Metal Ion Removal

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Qi; Yates, Keegan; Vogt, Caleb; Qian, Zichen; Frost, Megan C.; Zhao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The usage of gelatin hydrogel is limited due to its instability and poor mechanical properties, especially under physiological conditions. Divalent metal ions present in gelatin such as Ca2+ and Fe2+ play important roles in the gelatin molecule interactions. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of divalent ion removal on the stability and mechanical properties of gelatin gels with and without chemical crosslinking. The gelatin solution was purified by Chelex resin to replace divalent metal ions with sodium ions. The gel was then chemically crosslinked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Results showed that the removal of divalent metal ions significantly impacted the formation of the gelatin network. The purified gelatin hydrogels had less interactions between gelatin molecules and form larger-pore network which enabled EDC to penetrate and crosslink the gel more efficiently. The crosslinked purified gels showed small swelling ratio, higher crosslinking density and dramatically increased storage and loss moduli. The removal of divalent ions is a simple yet effective method that can significantly improve the stability and strength of gelatin hydrogels. The in vitro cell culture demonstrated that the purified gelatin maintained its ability to support cell attachment and spreading. PMID:24736500

  8. Properties of hot-rolled sheets from ferritic steel with increased strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovich, Yu.; Isaenkova, M.; Dobrokhotov, P.; Stolbov, S.; Bannykh, O.; Bannykh, I.; Antsyferova, M.

    2017-10-01

    Sheets from ferritic steel 3 mm thick with increased strength after thermal hardening were studied by use of various X-ray methods and mechanical testing. Rolling of steel was carried out at 1100°C with rather great reductions per pass, so that plastic deformation of metal spread by the significant distance from the surface. The texture of sheet proved to have two sharply different layers: the inner layer of ˜40% thick with the usual rolling texture of BCC metals and the external layer with the rolling texture of FCC metals. At that, within the intermediate layer the texture is weakened. Texture formation within the external layer is conditioned by the process of dynamical deformation ageing: interstitial impurities from atmosphere block dislocations, prevent from their slip and at increased temperatures promote their collective climb. As a result, the direction of lattice rotation as well as the final rolling texture change. Due to texture layering, by impact testing of the sheet the plane of crack propagation must be changed when this crack reaches the inner layer, and then an additional energy for its further movement is required. Thermal hardening of the sheet retains the type of rolling texture, though results in some its scattering, but at the same time the breaking point of steel grows twice owing to formation of intermetallic particles.

  9. Thixotropic action of self-repairing chemicals to increase strength at first impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    Thixotropic aspects of self repairing chemicals increase strength at first impact in addition to self repairing strength in subsequent impact damage The samples with thixotropic repair chemical were compared to samples with repair chemical that is not thixotropic. The flow rate and initial impact resistance were assessed. In theory, thixotropic chemicals are thicker and stiffer upon impact, until impacted at which time they flow more effectively than non thixotropic chemicals. Samples with thixotropic additives may make the ballistic panels tougher and more shear and fatigue resistant.

  10. Composite fibrin scaffolds increase mechanical strength and preserve contractility of tissue engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Liu, Jinyu; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2008-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that fibrin-based tissue engineered blood vessels (TEV) exhibited vascular reactivity, matrix remodeling and sufficient strength for implantation into the veins of an ovine animal model, where they remained patent for 15 weeks. Here we present an approach to improve the mechanical properties of fibrin-based TEV and examine the relationship between mechanical strength and smooth muscle cell (SMC) function. To this end, we prepared TEV that were composed of two layers: a cellular layer containing SMC embedded in fibrin hydrogel to provide contractility and matrix remodeling; and a second cell-free fibrin layer composed of high concentration fibrinogen to provide mechanical strength. The ultimate tensile force of double-layered TEV increased with FBG concentration in the cell-free layer in a dose-dependent manner. Double-layered TEV exhibited burst pressure that was ten-fold higher than single-layered tissues but vascular reactivity remained high even though the cells were constricting an additional tissue layer. These results showed that mechanical strength results largely from the biomaterial but contractility requires active cellular machinery. Consequently, they may suggest novel approaches for engineering biomaterials that satisfy the requirement for high mechanical strength while preserving SMC function.

  11. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, David; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Demolles, Deborah; Fielding, Roger A

    2011-11-01

    Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cost prohibitive for some older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention that provides real-time guidance and monitoring of resistance training in the home. A randomized clinical trial in 103 middle-aged or older participants. Participants were assigned to use of a theory-driven interactive voice response system designed to promote resistance training (Telephone-Linked Computer-based Long-term Interactive Fitness Trainer; n = 52) or to an attention control (n = 51) for a period of 12 months. Measurements of muscle strength, balance, walk distance, and mood were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. We observed increased strength, improved balance, and fewer depressive symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. Using generalized estimating equations modeling, group differences were statistically significant for knee flexion strength (p = .035), single-leg stance time (p = .029), and Beck Depression Inventory (p = .030). This computer-based telecommunications exercise intervention led to improvements in participants' strength, balance, and depressive symptoms. Because of their low cost and easy accessibility, computer-based interventions may be a cost-effective way of promoting exercise in the home.

  12. Sensitivity to White Matter fMRI Activation Increases with Field Strength

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Erin L.; Gawryluk, Jodie R.; Dillen, Kim N. H.; Patterson, Steven A.; Feindel, Kirk W.; Beyea, Steven D.; Stevens, M. Tynan R; Newman, Aaron J.; Schmidt, Matthias H.; D’Arcy, Ryan C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in white matter is controversial. Given that many of the studies that report fMRI activation in white matter used high field MRI systems, we investigated the field strength dependence of sensitivity to white matter fMRI activation. In addition, we evaluated the temporal signal to noise ratio (tSNR) of the different tissue types as a function of field strength. Data were acquired during a motor task (finger tapping) at 1.5 T and 4 T. Group and individual level activation results were considered in both the sensorimotor cortex and the posterior limb of the internal capsule. We found that sensitivity increases associated with field strength were greater for white matter than gray matter. The analysis of tSNR suggested that white matter might be less susceptible to increases in physiological noise related to increased field strength. We therefore conclude that high field MRI may be particularly advantageous for fMRI studies aimed at investigating activation in both gray and white matter. PMID:23483983

  13. Neural mechanisms of strength increase after one-week motor imagery training.

    PubMed

    Grosprêtre, Sidney; Jacquet, Thomas; Lebon, Florent; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Martin, Alain

    2018-03-01

    The neural mechanisms explaining strength increase following mental training by motor imagery (MI) are not clearly understood. While gains are mostly attributed to cortical reorganization, the sub-cortical adaptations have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of MI training on muscle force capacity and the related spinal and supraspinal mechanisms. Eighteen young healthy participants (mean age: 22.5 ± 2.6) took part in the experiment. They were distributed into two groups: a control group (n = 9) and an MI training group (n = 9). The MI group performed seven consecutive sessions (one per day) of imagined maximal isometric plantar flexion (4 blocks of 25 trials per session). The control group did not engage in any physical or mental training. Both groups were tested for the isometric maximal plantar flexion torque (MVC) and the rate of torque development (RTD) before and after the training session. In addition, soleus and medial gastrocnemius spinal and supraspinal adaptations were assessed through the recording of H-reflexes and V-waves, with electrical stimulations of the posterior tibial nerve evoked at rest and during MVC, respectively. After one week, only the MI training group increased both plantar flexion MVC and RTD. The enhancement of muscle torque capacity was accompanied by significant increase of electromyographic activity and V-wave during MVC and of H-reflex at rest. The increased cortical descending neural drive and the excitability of spinal networks at rest could explain the greater RTD and MVC after one week of MI training.

  14. Does on-water resisted rowing increase or maintain lower-body strength?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 30 years, endurance volumes have increased by >20% among the rowing elite; therefore, informed decisions about the value of weight training over other possible activities in periodized training plans for rowing need to be made. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in lower-body strength development after two 14-week phases of intensive resisted on-water rowing, either incorporating weight training or rowing alone. Ten elite women performed 2 resisted rowing ("towing ropes," e.g., 8 × 3 minutes) plus 6 endurance (e.g., 16-28 km at 70-80% maximum heart rate) and 2 rate-regulated races (e.g., 8,000 m at 24 strokes per minute) on-water each week. After a 4-week washout phase, the 14-week phase was repeated with the addition of 2 weight-training sessions (e.g., 3-4 sets × 6-15 reps). Percent (±SD) and standardized differences in effects (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence limit) for 5-repetition leg pressing and isometric pulling strength were calculated from data ratio scaled for body mass, log transformed and adjusted for pretest scores. Resisted rowing alone did not increase leg pressing (-1.0 ± 5.3%, p = 0.51) or isometric pulling (5.3 ± 13.4%, p = 0.28) strength. In contrast, after weight training, a moderately greater increase in leg pressing strength was observed (ES = 0.72 ± 0.49, p = 0.03), although differences in isometric pulling strength were unclear (ES = 0.56 ± 1.69, p = 0.52). In conclusion, intensive on-water training including resisted rowing maintained but did not increase lower-body strength. Elite rowers or coaches might consider the incorporation of high-intensity nonfatiguing weight training concurrent to endurance exercise if increases in lower-body strength without changes in body mass are desired.

  15. Strengthening interventions increase strength and improve activity after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ada, Louise; Dorsch, Simone; Canning, Colleen G

    2006-01-01

    Is strength training after stroke effective (ie, does it increase strength), is it harmful (ie, does it increase spasticity), and is it worthwhile (ie, does it improve activity)? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Stroke participants were categorised as (i) acute, very weak, (ii) acute, weak, (iii) chronic, very weak, or (iv) chronic, weak. Strengthening interventions were defined as interventions that involved attempts at repetitive, effortful muscle contractions and included biofeedback, electrical stimulation, muscle re-education, progressive resistance exercise, and mental practice. Strength was measured as continuous measures of force or torque or ordinal measures such as manual muscle tests. Spasticity was measured using the modified Ashworth Scale, a custom made scale, or the Pendulum Test. Activity was measured directly, eg, 10-m Walk Test, or the Box and Block Test, or with scales that measured dependence such as the Barthel Index. 21 trials were identified and 15 had data that could be included in a meta-analysis. Effect sizes were calculated as standardised mean differences since various muscles were studied and different outcome measures were used. Across all stroke participants, strengthening interventions had a small positive effect on both strength (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.54) and activity (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.53). There was very little effect on spasticity (SMD -0.13, 95% CI -0.75 to 0.50). Strengthening interventions increase strength, improve activity, and do not increase spasticity. These findings suggest that strengthening programs should be part of rehabilitation after stroke.

  16. Increased Residual Force Enhancement in Older Adults Is Associated with a Maintenance of Eccentric Strength

    PubMed Central

    Power, Geoffrey A.; Rice, Charles L.; Vandervoort, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite an age-related loss of voluntary isometric and concentric strength, muscle strength is well maintained during lengthening muscle actions (i.e., eccentric strength) in old age. Additionally, in younger adults during lengthening of an activated skeletal muscle, the force level observed following the stretch is greater than the isometric force at the same muscle length. This feature is termed residual force enhancement (RFE) and is believed to be a combination of active and passive components of the contractile apparatus. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of RFE in older adults and utilize aging as a muscle model to explore RFE in a system in which isometric force production is compromised, but structural mechanisms of eccentric strength are well-maintained. Therefore, we hypothesised that older adults will experience greater RFE compared with young adults. Following a reference maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of the dorsiflexors in 10 young (26.1±2.7y) and 10 old (76.0±6.5y) men, an active stretch was performed at 15°/s over a 30° ankle joint excursion ending at the same muscle length as the reference MVCs (40° of plantar flexion). Any additional torque compared with the reference MVC therefore represented RFE. In older men RFE was ∼2.5 times greater compared to young. The passive component of force enhancement contributed ∼37% and ∼20% to total force enhancement, in old and young respectively. The positive association (R2 = 0.57) between maintained eccentric strength in old age and RFE indicates age-related mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of eccentric strength likely contributed to the observed elevated RFE. Additionally, as indicated by the greater passive force enhancement, these mechanisms may be related to increased muscle series elastic stiffness in old age. PMID:23133544

  17. Abaloparatide, a novel PTH receptor agonist, increased bone mass and strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys by increasing bone formation without increasing bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Doyle, N; Varela, A; Haile, S; Guldberg, R; Kostenuik, P J; Ominsky, M S; Smith, S Y; Hattersley, G

    2018-03-01

    Abaloparatide, a novel PTH1 receptor agonist, increased bone formation in osteopenic ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys while increasing cortical and trabecular bone mass. Abaloparatide increased bone strength and maintained or enhanced bone mass-strength relationships, indicating preserved or improved bone quality. Abaloparatide is a selective PTH1R activator that is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The effects of 16 months of abaloparatide administration on bone formation, resorption, density, and strength were assessed in adult ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos). Sixty-five 9-18-year-old female cynos underwent OVX surgery, and 15 similar cynos underwent sham surgery. After a 9-month period without treatments, OVX cynos were allocated to four groups that received 16 months of daily s.c. injections with either vehicle (n = 17) or abaloparatide (0.2, 1, or 5 μg/kg/day; n = 16/dose level), while Sham controls received s.c. vehicle (n = 15). Bone densitometry (DXA, pQCT, micro-CT), qualitative bone histology, serum calcium, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometry, and bone strength were among the key measures assessed. At the end of the 9-month post-surgical bone depletion period, just prior to the treatment phase, the OVX groups exhibited increased bone turnover markers and decreased bone mass compared with sham controls. Abaloparatide administration to OVX cynos led to increased bone formation parameters, including serum P1NP and endocortical bone formation rate. Abaloparatide administration did not influence serum calcium levels, bone resorption markers, cortical porosity, or eroded surfaces. Abaloparatide increased bone mass at the whole body, lumbar spine, tibial diaphysis, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. Abaloparatide administration was associated with greater lumbar vertebral strength, and had no adverse effects on bone mass-strength relationships for the vertebrae, femoral neck, femoral

  18. Newly developed Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si-Fe biomedical beta titanium alloys with increased strength and enhanced biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Kopova, Ivana; Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Landa, Michal; Janeček, Miloš; Bačákova, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    Beta titanium alloys are promising materials for load-bearing orthopaedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, low elastic modulus and moderate strength. Metastable beta-Ti alloys can be hardened via precipitation of the alpha phase; however, this has an adverse effect on the elastic modulus. Small amounts of Fe (0-2 wt.%) and Si (0-1 wt.%) were added to Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta (TNZT) biocompatible alloy to increase its strength in beta solution treated condition. Fe and Si additions were shown to cause a significant increase in tensile strength and also in the elastic modulus (from 65 GPa to 85 GPa). However, the elastic modulus of TNZT alloy with Fe and Si additions is still much lower than that of widely used Ti-6Al-4V alloy (115 GPa), and thus closer to that of the bone (10-30 GPa). Si decreases the elongation to failure, whereas Fe increases the uniform elongation thanks to increased work hardening. Primary human osteoblasts cultivated for 21 days on TNZT with 0.5Si+2Fe (wt.%) reached a significantly higher cell population density and significantly higher collagen I production than cells cultured on the standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, the Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta-2Fe-0.5Si alloy proves to be the best combination of elastic modulus, strength and also biological properties, which makes it a viable candidate for use in load-bearing implants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Children with low muscle strength are at an increased risk of fracture with exposure to exercise.

    PubMed

    Clark, E M; Tobias, J H; Murray, L; Boreham, C

    2011-06-01

    To use objective measures of physical fitness and muscle function to assess the interplay between exercise, muscle and fractures during childhood. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using The Young Hearts Project, a population-based cohort recruited from Northern Ireland. Grip strength was assessed with a hand-held dynamometer. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the 20-metre endurance shuttle run. The outcome of interest was reported fractures. Data were also collected on other potential confounders. There were 787 boys (49.5%) and 803 girls aged 13.9±1.5 years. 414 (26.0%) children reported a fracture at anytime since birth. There was a positive association between higher aerobic fitness and reported fracture (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.45, P=0.012) greatest in those with lowest grip strength (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.23 to 3.31, P=0.005). Conversely, in those with highest grip strength, no association was seen between aerobic fitness and reported fractures. In children, higher levels of aerobic fitness are associated with an increased risk of fractures, with the greatest risk seen in those with low muscle strength. Our results suggest that there is the potential for exercise protocols that aim to strengthen forearm musculature to reduce upper limb fractures in adolescents.

  20. Eccentric resistance training increases and retains maximal strength, muscle endurance, and hypertrophy in trained men.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Schena, Federico

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining. All intervention groups reported significant 1RM/body mass increases after training (CONC baseline: 1.04 ± 0.06, post-training: 1.12 ± 0.08, p < 0.05; ECC baseline: 1.08 ± 0.04, post-training: 1.15 ± 0.05, p < 0.05; TRAD baseline: 1.06 ± 0.08, post-training: 1.11 ± 0.10, p < 0.05). After detraining, only ECC retained 1RM/body mass above the baseline (1.17 ± 0.07, p < 0.05), while CONC and TRAD returned to baseline values. Only ECC improved and retained MNR (baseline: 22 ± 3; post-training: 25 ± 3, and post-detraining: 25 ± 4, p < 0.05 compared with baseline) and chest circumference (baseline: 98.3 ± 2.4 cm, post-training: 101.7 ± 2.2 cm and post-detraining: 100.7 ± 2.3 cm. p < 0.05 compared with baseline), while no significant changes occurred in both CONC and TRAD. The incorporation of eccentric training can be recommended for counteracting the negative effects of detraining or forced physical inactivity.

  1. Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training.

    PubMed

    Bjørnsen, T; Salvesen, S; Berntsen, S; Hetlelid, K J; Stea, T H; Lohne-Seiler, H; Rohde, G; Haraldstad, K; Raastad, T; Køpp, U; Haugeberg, G; Mansoor, M A; Bastani, N E; Blomhoff, R; Stølevik, S B; Seynnes, O R; Paulsen, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on changes in muscle mass (lean mass and muscle thickness) and strength during 12 weeks of strength training in elderly men. Thirty-four elderly males (60-81 years) were randomized to either an antioxidant group (500 mg of vitamin C and 117.5 mg vitamin E before and after training) or a placebo group following the same strength training program (three sessions per week). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle thickness by ultrasound imaging. Muscle strength was measured as one-repetition maximum (1RM). Total lean mass increased by 3.9% (95% confidence intervals: 3.0, 5.2) and 1.4% (0, 5.4) in the placebo and antioxidant groups, respectively, revealing larger gains in the placebo group (P = 0.04). Similarly, the thickness of m. rectus femoris increased more in the placebo group [16.2% (12.8, 24.1)] than in the antioxidant group [10.9% (9.8, 13.5); P = 0.01]. Increases of lean mass in trunk and arms, and muscle thickness of elbow flexors, did not differ significantly between groups. With no group differences, 1RM improved in the range of 15-21% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, high-dosage vitamin C and E supplementation blunted certain muscular adaptations to strength training in elderly men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Inhibition of Activin Receptor Type IIB Increases Strength and Lifespan in Myotubularin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Michael W.; Read, Benjamin P.; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R.; Stein, Matthew J.; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Seehra, Jasbir S.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  3. Is a school-based physical activity intervention effective for increasing tibial bone strength in boys and girls?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity

  4. Undulatory physical resistance training program increases maximal strength in elderly type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Gilberto Monteiro; Montrezol, Fábio Tanil; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Colantonio, Emilson; Gomes, Ricardo José; Marinho, Rodolfo; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of a specific protocol of undulatory physical resistance training on maximal strength gains in elderly type 2 diabetics. Methods The study included 48 subjects, aged between 60 and 85 years, of both genders. They were divided into two groups: Untrained Diabetic Elderly (n=19) with those who were not subjected to physical training and Trained Diabetic Elderly (n=29), with those who were subjected to undulatory physical resistance training. The participants were evaluated with several types of resistance training’s equipment before and after training protocol, by test of one maximal repetition. The subjects were trained on undulatory resistance three times per week for a period of 16 weeks. The overload used in undulatory resistance training was equivalent to 50% of one maximal repetition and 70% of one maximal repetition, alternating weekly. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between pre-test and post-test over a period of 16 weeks. Results The average gains in strength were 43.20% (knee extension), 65.00% (knee flexion), 27.80% (supine sitting machine), 31.00% (rowing sitting), 43.90% (biceps pulley), and 21.10% (triceps pulley). Conclusion Undulatory resistance training used with weekly different overloads was effective to provide significant gains in maximum strength in elderly type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:25628192

  5. Undulatory physical resistance training program increases maximal strength in elderly type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gilberto Monteiro dos; Montrezol, Fábio Tanil; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Colantonio, Emilson; Gomes, Ricardo José; Marinho, Rodolfo; Moura, Leandro Pereira de; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a specific protocol of undulatory physical resistance training on maximal strength gains in elderly type 2 diabetics. The study included 48 subjects, aged between 60 and 85 years, of both genders. They were divided into two groups: Untrained Diabetic Elderly (n=19) with those who were not subjected to physical training and Trained Diabetic Elderly (n=29), with those who were subjected to undulatory physical resistance training. The participants were evaluated with several types of resistance training's equipment before and after training protocol, by test of one maximal repetition. The subjects were trained on undulatory resistance three times per week for a period of 16 weeks. The overload used in undulatory resistance training was equivalent to 50% of one maximal repetition and 70% of one maximal repetition, alternating weekly. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between pre-test and post-test over a period of 16 weeks. The average gains in strength were 43.20% (knee extension), 65.00% (knee flexion), 27.80% (supine sitting machine), 31.00% (rowing sitting), 43.90% (biceps pulley), and 21.10% (triceps pulley). Undulatory resistance training used with weekly different overloads was effective to provide significant gains in maximum strength in elderly type 2 diabetic individuals.

  6. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  7. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  8. Heavier and lighter load resistance training to momentary failure produce similar increases in strength with differing degrees of discomfort.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James Peter; Steele, James

    2017-10-01

    It has been suggested that disparities in effort and discomfort between high- and low-load resistance training might exist, which in turn have produced unequivocal adaptations between studies. Strength responses to heavier load (HL; 80% maximum voluntary isometric torque; MVIT) and lighter load (LL; 50% MVIT) resistance training were examined in addition to acute perceptions of effort and discomfort. Seven men (20.6 ± 0.5 years, 178.9 ± 3.2 cm, 77.1 ± 2.7 kg) performed unilateral resistance training of the knee extensors to momentary failure using HL and LL. Analyses revealed significant pre- to post-intervention increases in strength for both HL and LL, with no significant between-group differences (P > 0.05). Mean repetitions per set, total training time, and discomfort were all significantly higher for LL compared with HL (P < 0.05). This study indicates that resistance training with HL and LL produces similar strength adaptations, but discomfort should be considered before selecting a training load. Muscle Nerve 56: 797-803, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Significance of in-situ dry-ice blasting on the microstructure, crystallinity and bonding strength of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shujuan; Zeng, Jinyan; Li, Lifen; Sun, Junbin; Yang, Xiong; Liao, Hanlin

    2017-07-01

    To obtain hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings with high crystallinity which have long-term stability in clinical applications, coarse powders were usually injected to less energetic plasma. However, the HA coatings accumulated by partly melted particles usually have high porosity and poor mechanical properties, especially poor bonding strength. In this work, by profiting its quenching and mechanical impact, dry-ice blasting was in-situ employed during plasma spray process to improve the microstructure characterization and bonding strength of HA coatings. In addition, the influence of in-situ dry-ice blasting on the phase composition and crystallinity of plasma-sprayed HA coatings was investigated. The results show that a significant reduction of porosity and an apparent increase in bonding strength are revealed in plasma-sprayed HA coatings due to the cleaning effect of dry-ice blasting on the convex unmelted particles and splashing fragments. HA coatings prepared by the combination process of plasma spraying and dry-ice blasting have a compromise structure with minimum globular pores but with pronounced microcracks. The disappearance of CaO phase and the increase in crystallinity also derive from the application of dry-ice blasting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Postnatal Odor Exposure Increases the Strength of Interglomerular Lateral Inhibition onto Olfactory Bulb Tufted Cells.

    PubMed

    Geramita, Matthew; Urban, Nathan N

    2016-12-07

    Lateral inhibition between pairs of olfactory bulb (OB) mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) is linked to a variety of computations including gain control, decorrelation, and gamma-frequency synchronization. Differential effects of lateral inhibition onto MCs and TCs via distinct lateral inhibitory circuits are one of several recently described circuit-level differences between MCs and TCs that allow each to encode separate olfactory features in parallel. Here, using acute OB slices from mice, we tested whether lateral inhibition is affected by prior odor exposure and if these effects differ between MCs and TCs. We found that early postnatal odor exposure to the M72 glomerulus ligand acetophenone increased the strength of interglomerular lateral inhibition onto TCs, but not MCs, when the M72 glomerulus was stimulated. These increases were specific to exposure to M72 ligands because exposure to hexanal did not increase the strength of M72-mediated lateral inhibition. Therefore, early life experiences may be an important factor shaping TC odor responses. Responses of olfactory (OB) bulb mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) are known to depend on prior odor exposure, yet the specific circuit mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent changes are unknown. Here, we show that odor exposure alters one particular circuit element, interglomerular lateral inhibition, which is known to be critical for a variety of OB computations. Early postnatal odor exposure to acetophenone, a ligand of M72 olfactory sensory neurons, increases the strength of M72-mediated lateral inhibition onto TCs, but not MCs, that project to nearby glomeruli. These findings add to a growing list of differences between MCs and TCs suggesting that that these two cell types play distinct roles in odor coding. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612321-07$15.00/0.

  11. Increase in cratering efficiency with target curvature in strength-controlled craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A. I.; Okamoto, C.; Kurosawa, K.; Kadono, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirai, T.

    2018-02-01

    Impact-cratering processes on small bodies are thought to be mainly controlled by the local material strength because of their low surface gravity, and craters that are as large as the parent bodies should be affected by the target curvature. Although cratering processes on planar surfaces in the strength-controlled regime have been studied extensively, the mechanism by which target curvature affects the cratering processes remains unclear. Herein, we report on a series of impact experiments that used spherical targets with various diameters. The resultant craters consisted of a deep circular pit and an irregular-shaped spall region around the pit, which is consistent with the features reported in a number of previous cratering experiments on planar surfaces. However, the volume and radius of the craters increased with the normalized curvature. The results indicate that the increase in the spall-region volume and radius mainly contributes to the increase in the whole crater volume and radius, although the volume, depth, and radius of pits remain constant with curvature. The results of our model indicate that the geometric effect due to curvature (i.e., whereby the distance from the equivalent center to the target free surface is shorter for higher curvature values) contributes to increases in the cratering efficiency. Our results suggest that the impactors that produce the largest craters (basins) on some asteroids are thus smaller than what is estimated by current scaling laws, which do not take into account the curvature effects.

  12. Increased intra-cortical porosity reduces bone stiffness and strength in pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Vardakastani, V; Saletti, D; Skalli, W; Marry, P; Allain, J M; Adam, C

    2014-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disease occurring in one out of every 20,000 births. Although it is known that Type I collagen mutation in OI leads to increased bone fragility, the mechanism of this increased susceptibility to fracture is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the microstructure of cortical bone fragments from patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) using polarized light microscopy, and to correlate microstructural observations with the results of previously performed mechanical compression tests on bone from the same source. Specimens of cortical bone were harvested from the lower limbs of three (3) OI patients at the time of surgery, and were divided into two groups. Group 1 had been subjected to previous micro-mechanical compression testing, while Group 2 had not been subjected to any prior testing. Polarized light microscopy revealed disorganized bone collagen architecture as has been previously observed, as well as a large increase in the areal porosity of the bone compared to typical values for healthy cortical bone, with large (several hundred micron sized), asymmetrical pores. Importantly, the areal porosity of the OI bone samples in Group 1 appears to correlate strongly with their previously measured apparent Young's modulus and compressive strength. Taken together with prior nanoindentation studies on OI bone tissue, the results of this study suggest that increased intra-cortical porosity is responsible for the reduction in macroscopic mechanical properties of OI cortical bone, and therefore that in vivo imaging modalities with resolutions of ~100 μm or less could potentially be used to non-invasively assess bone strength in OI patients. Although the number of subjects in this study is small, these results highlight the importance of further studies in OI bone by groups with access to human OI tissue in order to clarify the relationship between increased porosity and reduced macroscopic mechanical integrity

  13. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode. PMID:25969895

  14. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M; Burks, Tyesha N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D; Leng, Sean X

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p=.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p=.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans.

  15. Ischemic preconditioning increases muscle perfusion, oxygen uptake, and force in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Paradis-Deschênes, Pénélope; Joanisse, Denis R; Billaut, François

    2016-09-01

    Muscle ischemia and reperfusion induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve performance in various activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of IPC on muscle hemodynamics and oxygen (O2) uptake during repeated maximal contractions. In a cross-over, randomized, single-blind study, 10 strength-trained men performed 5 sets of 5 maximal voluntary knee extensions of the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, preceded by either IPC of the right lower limb (3×5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 200 mm Hg) or sham (20 mm Hg). Changes in deoxyhemoglobin, expressed as a percentage of arterial occlusion, and total hemoglobin ([THb]) concentrations of the vastus lateralis muscle were monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy. Differences between IPC and sham were analyzed using Cohen's effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences. Compared with sham, IPC likely increased muscle blood volume at rest (↑[THb], 46.5%; ES, 0.56; 90% confidence limits for ES, -0.21, 1.32). During exercise, peak force was almost certainly higher (11.8%; ES, 0.37; 0.27, 0.47), average force was very likely higher (12.6%; ES, 0.47; 0.29, 0.66), and average muscle O2 uptake was possibly increased (15.8%; ES, 0.36; -0.07, 0.79) after IPC. In the recovery periods between contractions, IPC also increased blood volume after sets 1 (23.6%; ES, 0.30; -0.05, 0.65) and 5 (25.1%; ES, 0.32; 0.09, 0.55). Three cycles of IPC immediately increased muscle perfusion and O2 uptake, conducive to higher repeated force capacity in strength-trained athletes. This maneuver therefore appears relevant to enhancing exercise training stimulus.

  16. Increasing strength of a biomedical Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy by alloying with Fe, Si and O.

    PubMed

    Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Václavová, Kristína; Horváth, Klaudia; Landa, Michal; Srba, Ondřej; Janeček, Miloš

    2017-07-01

    Low-modulus biomedical beta titanium alloys often suffer from low strength which limits their use as load-bearing orthopaedic implants. In this study, twelve different Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta based alloys alloyed with Fe, Si and O additions were prepared by arc melting and hot forging. The lowest elastic modulus (65GPa) was achieved in the benchmark TNTZ alloy consisting only of pure β phase with low stability due to the 'proximity' to the β to α'' martensitic transformation. Alloying by Fe and O significantly increased elastic modulus, which correlates with the electrons per atom ratio (e/a). Sufficient amount of Fe/O leads to increased yield stress, increased elongation to fracture and also to work hardening during deformation. A 20% increase in strength and a 20% decrease in the elastic modulus when compared to the common Ti-6Al-4V alloy was achieved in TNTZ-Fe-Si-O alloys, which proved to be suitable for biomedical use due to their favorable mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tailoring magnetostriction sign of ferromagnetic composite by increasing magnetic field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Junming; Liu, Xiaolian; Wu, Kaiyun; Wang, Yue; Hu, Shanshan; Zhao, Hui; Xiao, Andong; Ma, Tianyu; Yan, Mi

    2016-08-01

    The unitary deformation of single-phase ferromagnets by a magnetic field, i.e., either positive or negative linear magnetostriction, allows only monotonous control. Here we report a proof-of-principle ferromagnetic composite Fe73Ga27, for which the magnetostriction sign changes from positive to negative by increasing the magnetic field strength. Based on the transformation from body-centered-cubic (BCC) to face-centered-cubic (FCC) phases in this binary system, Fe73Ga27 composite is prepared by aging the BCC averaged precursor for 3 days at 803 K. Magnetic measurements indicate that the BCC phase exhibits smaller magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant than the FCC phase. The offset effect between BCC and FCC phases produces positive net magnetostriction at low magnetic fields but negative net magnetostriction at high magnetic fields. By tuning the field strength, such composites can mediate compressive and tensile strains to other functional materials, e.g., piezoelectric material or optic-fibers, which is beneficial to design multifunctional devices.

  18. Transferrin-modified PLGA nanoparticles significantly increase the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in bladder cancer cells by increasing intracellular retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shihua; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Chengfan; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Ningchen; Na, Yanqun

    2014-10-01

    To improve the anticancer effects of paclitaxel (Tax) on bladder cancer, transferrin-modified and unmodified poly( d,l lactide- co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NPs) were generated to deliver Tax. The characteristics of the NPs and the drug-release profiles were evaluated. The cytotoxicity levels of blank NPs and Tax-loaded NPs in the bladder cancer cell lines MBT-2, J-82, and TCC Sup were determined. The uptakes and retentions of the NPs by the cell lines and the intracellular distribution of the NPs were also studied. The results showed similar NPs characteristics and drug-release profiles for NPs with and without transferrin modification. The sizes of NPs with and without transferrin modification were 206 and 278 nm, respectively; the Z-potentials were -23.5 and -24.3 mV, respectively; the drug loadings were 6.5 and 6.7 % w/w, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed in the bladder cancer cells exposed to blank NPs. Both types of Tax-loaded NPs, however, had significantly higher cytotoxicity levels compared with the Tax solution in the bladder cancer cells. The transferrin-modified, Tax-loaded NPs were significantly more cytotoxic than the Tax-loaded NPs without modification in the MBT-2 and TCC Sup cells. There were no significant differences in NP uptakes between transferrin-modified and unmodified NPs in any of the three studied bladder cancer cell lines; however, the retentions of the modified NPs were significantly higher in the MBT-2 and TCC Sup cells. These findings suggest that NPs can significantly improve the anticancer effect of Tax in bladder cells. Furthermore, transferrin-modified NPs can improve the anticancer effect by increasing intracellular retention and not by increasing uptake. The transferrin-modified NPs are promising drug delivery vehicle for bladder cancer treatment.

  19. Performance of Repetitive Tasks Induces Decreased Grip Strength and Increased Fibrogenic Proteins in Skeletal Muscle: Role of Force and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Samir M.; Barr, Ann E.; Rico, Mario; Amin, Mamta; Litvin, Judith; Popoff, Steven N.; Safadi, Fayez F.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between performance of repetitive tasks, grip strength declines, and fibrogenic-related protein changes in muscles, and their link to inflammation. Specifically, we examined forearm flexor digitorum muscles for changes in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; a matrix protein associated with fibrosis), collagen type I (Col1; a matrix component), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; an upstream modulator of CTGF and collagen), in rats performing one of two repetitive tasks, with or without anti-inflammatory drugs. Methodology/Results To examine the roles of force versus repetition, rats performed either a high repetition negligible force food retrieval task (HRNF), or a high repetition high force handle-pulling task (HRHF), for up to 9 weeks, with results compared to trained only (TR-NF or TR-HF) and normal control rats. Grip strength declined with both tasks, with the greatest declines in 9-week HRHF rats. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of HRNF muscles showed increased expression of Col1 in weeks 3–9, and CTGF in weeks 6 and 9. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PCR results, and also showed greater increases of CTGF and collagen matrix in 9-week HRHF rats than 9-week HRNF rats. ELISA, and immunohistochemistry revealed greater increases of TGFB1 in TR-HF and 6-week HRHF, compared to 6-week HRNF rats. To examine the role of inflammation, results from 6-week HRHF rats were compared to rats receiving ibuprofen or anti-TNF-α treatment in HRHF weeks 4–6. Both treatments attenuated HRHF-induced increases in CTGF and fibrosis by 6 weeks of task performance. Ibuprofen attenuated TGFB1 increases and grip strength declines, matching our prior results with anti-TNFα. Conclusions/Significance Performance of highly repetitive tasks was associated with force-dependent declines in grip strength and increased fibrogenic-related proteins in flexor digitorum muscles. These changes were attenuated, at least

  20. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  2. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%,more » respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.« less

  3. Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Browder, Diane M.; Baker, Joshua N.; Lee, Angel; Spooner, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Shared stories have been shown to help increase emerging literacy skills in students with significant intellectual disabilities. One important literacy skill is the development of listening comprehension. In this study, least-to-most prompt system was used to promote listening comprehension during shared stories for two students with significant…

  4. The significance and mechanism of an increased serum phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio during infection.

    PubMed

    Wannemacher, R W; Klainer, A S; Dinterman, R E; Beisel, W R

    1976-09-01

    Infections or inflammatory states often cause significant increases in serum phenylalanine and the phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio. More than 95% of samples obtained during inflammatory diseases in man showed phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio increases greater than the maximum normal values. An increase in this ratio also occurred in monkeys with induced Rocky Mountain spotted fever, viral encephalitis, yellow fever, or pneumococcal and Salmonella infections, as well as in rats with pneumococcal and Salmonella infections, as well as in rats with pneumococcal, Salmonella or tularemia infections. A similar ratio increase occurred in rats inoculated with unpurified mediator substances (released by activated leukocytes) that appear to initiate many of the secondary metabolic phenomena associated with infection and/or inflammation. To identify responsible mechanisms, rats were given lethal doses of Streptococcus pneumoniae; serum phenylalanine and phenylalanine-tyrosine ratios increased significantly. Hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase activities were slightly decreased when compared to noninfected controls. Infected and noninfected rats showed comparable oxidation rates for 14C-phenylalanine given with an oral phenylalanine load, as a pulse-oral dose, or as an intraperitoneal injection. After 8 hr, both infected and control rats had similar amounts of radioactivity in total body protein, but tissue distributions were markedly altered during pneumococcal sepsis. Serum proteins of infected rats contained almost twice as much total radioactivity as that found in controls, while the amount of labeled phenylalanine in skeletal muscle protein was significantly reduced in the infected group. Isolated muscles from infected rats released more phenylalanine and less tyrosine than control muscles. Infection-related increases in serum phenlalanine could not be explained by decreased hydroxylation or oxidation. Rather, the data were consistent with an increased flux of phenylalanine into

  5. Therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate significantly increase extracellular dopamine in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G; Fowler, J S; Logan, J; Gerasimov, M; Maynard, L; Ding, Y; Gatley, S J; Gifford, A; Franceschi, D

    2001-01-15

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in children for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic effects are poorly understood. Whereas methylphenidate blocks the dopamine transporter (main mechanism for removal of extracellular dopamine), it is unclear whether at doses used therapeutically it significantly changes extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration. Here we used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (D2 receptor radioligand that competes with endogenous DA for binding to the receptor) to evaluate whether oral methylphenidate changes extracellular DA in the human brain in 11 healthy controls. We showed that oral methylphenidate (average dose 0.8 +/- 0.11 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular DA in brain, as evidenced by a significant reduction in B(max)/K(d) (measure of D2 receptor availability) in striatum (20 +/- 12%; p < 0.0005). These results provide direct evidence that oral methylphenidate at doses within the therapeutic range significantly increases extracellular DA in human brain. This result coupled with recent findings of increased dopamine transporters in ADHD patients (which is expected to result in reductions in extracellular DA) provides a mechanistic framework for the therapeutic efficacy of methylphenidate. The increase in DA caused by the blockade of dopamine transporters by methylphenidate predominantly reflects an amplification of spontaneously released DA, which in turn is responsive to environmental stimulation. Because DA decreases background firing rates and increases signal-to-noise in target neurons, we postulate that the amplification of weak DA signals in subjects with ADHD by methylphenidate would enhance task-specific signaling, improving attention and decreasing distractibility. Alternatively methylphenidate-induced increases in DA, a neurotransmitter involved with motivation and reward, could

  6. Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-10-21

    The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can

  7. Increased consumer density reduces the strength of neighborhood effects in a model system.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Andrew C; Underwood, Nora; Inouye, Brian D

    2017-11-01

    An individual's susceptibility to attack can be influenced by conspecific and heterospecifics neighbors. Predicting how these neighborhood effects contribute to population-level processes such as competition and evolution requires an understanding of how the strength of neighborhood effects is modified by changes in the abundances of both consumers and neighboring resource species. We show for the first time that consumer density can interact with the density and frequency of neighboring organisms to determine the magnitude of neighborhood effects. We used the bean beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, and two of its host beans, Vigna unguiculata and V. radiata, to perform a response-surface experiment with a range of resource densities and three consumer densities. At low beetle density, damage to beans was reduced with increasing conspecific density (i.e., resource dilution) and damage to the less preferred host, V. unguiculata, was reduced with increasing V. radiata frequency (i.e., frequency-dependent associational resistance). As beetle density increased, however, neighborhood effects were reduced; at the highest beetle densities neither focal nor neighboring resource density nor frequency influenced damage. These findings illustrate the importance of consumer density in mediating indirect effects among resources, and suggest that accounting for consumer density may improve our ability to predict population-level outcomes of neighborhood effects and our use of them in applications such as mixed-crop pest management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Tassel removal positively affects biomass production coupled with significantly increasing stem digestibility in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China.

  9. Denosumab significantly increases DXA BMD at both trabecular and cortical sites: results from the FREEDOM study.

    PubMed

    Bolognese, Michael A; Teglbjærg, Christence Stubbe; Zanchetta, Jose R; Lippuner, Kurt; McClung, Michael R; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Høiseth, Arne; Lakatos, Péter; Moffett, Alfred H; Lorenc, Roman S; Wang, Andrea; Libanati, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Denosumab is an approved therapy for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high or increased risk for fracture. In the FREEDOM study, denosumab reduced fracture risk and increased bone mineral density (BMD). We report the spine and hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD responses from the overall study of 7808 women and from a substudy of 441 participants in which more extensive spine and hip assessments as well as additional skeletal sites were evaluated. Significant BMD improvements were observed as early as 1 mo at the lumbar spine, total hip, and trochanter (all p<0.005 vs placebo and baseline). BMD increased progressively at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, 1/3 radius, and total body from baseline to months 12, 24, and 36 (all p<0.005 vs placebo and baseline). BMD gains above the least significant change of more than 3% at 36 months were observed in 90% of denosumab-treated subjects at the lumbar spine and 74% at the total hip, and gains more than 6% occurred in 77% and 38%, respectively. In conclusion, denosumab treatment resulted in significant, early, and continued BMD increases at both trabecular and cortical sites throughout the skeleton over 36 mo with important gains observed in most subjects. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tassel Removal Positively Affects Biomass Production Coupled with Significantly Increasing Stem Digestibility in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  11. Questionnaire order significantly increased response to a postal survey sent to primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Frances J; Sharp, Linda; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Kelleher, Tracy; Comber, Harry

    2008-02-01

    Primary care physicians are increasingly being asked to participate in postal surveys. Difficulties in achieving adequate response rates among physicians have been reported. We investigated the effect of two low-cost interventions on response to a primary care physician postal questionnaire. A 2x2 factorial trial was developed within the context of a national survey assessing views and practices of physicians regarding prostate-specific antigen testing. We evaluated questionnaire order (version 1: demographics first, version 2: topic-specific questions first) and written precontact. A national database of primary care physicians was compiled. One thousand five hundred ninety-nine physicians were randomly selected, stratified by health board, and randomized. 47.9% of eligible physicians completed a questionnaire. There was a statistically significant 5.1% higher response rate among physicians receiving version 1 of the questionnaire than those receiving version 2 (50.6% vs. 45.4%, P=0.05); the adjusted odds of response were significantly raised (odds ratio=1.24; 95% confidence interval=1.01-1.54). Precontact resulted in a nonsignificant 3.6% increase in response (49.8% vs. 46.2%; P=0.16). The interventions did not interact. Ordering questionnaires with general questions first can significantly increase response rates, whereas precontact can achieve a modest increase. These strategies may enhance response while adding little to the cost of a physician survey.

  12. Calcium/synaptotagmin-evoked compound fusion increases quantal size and synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    He, Liming; Xue, Lei; Xu, Jianhua; McNeil, Benjamin D.; Bai, Li; Melicoff, Ernestina; Adachi, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Exocytosis at synapses generally refers to fusion between vesicles and the plasma membrane1. Although compound fusion between vesicles2,3 was proposed at ribbon-type synapses4,5, whether it exists, how it is mediated, and what role it plays at conventional synapses remain unclear. Here we addressed this issue at a nerve terminal containing conventional active zones. High potassium application and high frequency firing induced giant capacitance up-steps reflecting exocytosis of vesicles larger than regular ones, followed by giant down-steps reflecting bulk endocytosis. They also induced giant vesicle-like structures, as observed with electron microscopy, and giant miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) reflecting more transmitter release. Calcium and its sensor for vesicle fusion, synaptotagmin, were required for these giant events. After high frequency firing, calcium/synaptotagmin-dependent mEPSC size increase was paralleled by calcium/synaptotagmin-dependent post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). These results suggest that calcium/synaptotagmin mediates compound fusion between vesicles, that exocytosis of compound vesicles increases quantal size which enhances synaptic strength and thus contributes to the generation of PTP, and that exocytosed compound vesicles may be retrieved via bulk endocytosis. We suggest to include a new vesicle cycling route, compound exocytosis followed by bulk endocytosis, into models of synapses, where currently only vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane is considered (Fig. S1)1. PMID:19279571

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and cardiotrophin 1 increase strength and mass of extraocular muscle in juvenile chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Wiggins, Larisa M; von Bartheld, Christopher S

    2010-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and cardiotrophin 1 (CT1) are known to increase the strength of extraocular muscles in adult and embryonic animals, but no information is available for the early postnatal period, when strabismus treatment in humans is most urgent. Here the authors sought to determine whether these trophic factors strengthen juvenile maturing extraocular muscles and gain insight into mechanisms of force increase. After two injections of IGF1, CT1, or both with different dosages in posthatch chickens, the authors quantified five parameters of the superior oblique extraocular muscle at 2 weeks of age: contractile force, muscle mass, total myofiber area, myofiber diameter, and number of proliferating satellite cells labeled by bromodeoxyuridine. Treatment with IGF1, CT1, and combination of IGF1 and CT1 significantly increased contractile force by 14% to 22%. CT1 and combination treatment significantly increased muscle mass by 10% to 24%. IGF1/CT1 combination treatment did not have additive effects on strengthening muscles, compared with single-drug treatments. Myofiber area increased significantly with IGF1 and CT1 treatment in proximal, but not distal, parts of the muscle and this was due to increased fiber numbers or length (IGF1) or increased diameters of global layer myofibers (CT1). Trophic factors increased the number of proliferating (bromodeoxyuridine-labeled) satellite cells in proximal and middle segments of muscles. Exogenous IGF1 and CT1 strengthen extraocular muscles during maturation. They predominantly remodel the proximal segment of juvenile extraocular muscles. This information about muscle plasticity may aid the design of pharmacologic treatment of strabismus in children during the "critical period" of oculomotor maturation.

  14. Corticosteroids Significantly Increase Serum Cystatin C Concentration without Affecting Renal Function in Symptomatic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jian-Long; Ge, Ning; Zhen, Yuzhi; Zhao, Qingzhen; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Human cystatin C is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain consisting of 120 amino acid residues. Its concentration in the circulation is mainly determined by glomerular filtration rate. However, non-renal factors, i.e., drugs, may dramatically affect its levels in the circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of corticosteroid treatment on serum cystatin C concentration in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Fifty-six symptomatic heart failure patients were treated with prednisone. Concentrations of serum cystatin C and serum creatinine were recorded at baseline, and after about 2 weeks of treatment. Twenty-four hour urinary creatinine was also measured to directly calculate glomerular filtration rate. Prednisone treatment significantly increased serum cystatin C concentration from 1.24 +/- 0.40 mg/L at baseline to 1.61 +/- 0.80 mg/L at the end of study (p < 0.05). However, the elevation in serum cystatin C concentration was not associated with renal function impairment. Prednisone not only significantly decreased serum creatinine concentrations from 89.66 +/- 28.63 pmol/L at baseline to 76.55 +/- 20.80 micromol/L after prednisone treatment (p < 0.05), but also significantly increased fractional excretion of sodium and urine flow rate. The data also showed there was a slight and but nonstatistically significant increase in glomerular filtration rate in such patients after prednisone treatment. Important non-renal factors, such as corticosteroids, can influence cystatin C concentration. Thus, it needs to be considered when interpreting cystatin C values in patients with heart failure receiving corticosteroid therapy.

  15. Endurance training significantly increases serum endocan but not osteoprotegerin levels: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-01-05

    Endocan (EN) was suggested a potential inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) marker which might also be involved in renal failure and/or renal failure-associated vascular events. It is not clear whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a pro- or anti-atherogenic factor, however, it is agreed upon that OPG is elevated in subjects with increased calcification status. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of long-term physical activity on serum endocan (EN) and osteoprotegerin-levels. One hundred nine subjects were told to increase their amount of physical activity for 8 months by performing 150min/week moderate or 75min/week vigorous exercise. Incremental cycle ergometer tests were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months for the determination of EN and OPG. To investigate the difference between baseline and 8 months levels of EN and OPG we used a paired sample t-test. To investigate the significance of the tendency of the progression (baseline/2 months/4 months/6 months/8 months) we used a Friedman test. Thirty-eight female and 60 male subjects completed the study. In the group of 61 subjects who had a performance gain by >4,9% EN-levels increased from 146 ± 110 to 196 ± 238 pg/ml (p = 0,036) equivalent to an increase of 33,5% but there was no significant change in OPG (4,4 ± 2,4 pmol/l vs. 4,3 ± 2,1 pmol/l; p = 0,668). Physical activity increases significantly EN-levels relativizing the status of EN as proinflammatory factor. EN should rather be considered as a mediator which is involved in several physiological (e.g., angiogenesis) but also pathological processes (e.g., CVD, tumour progression or endothelium-dependent inflammation) and whose expression can be significantly influenced by long term endurance training. Clinical trial registration number: NCT02097199 Date of trial registration at Clinical Trials

  16. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  17. Enhanced astroglial Ca2+ signaling increases excitatory synaptic strength in the epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ferradas, Carla; Morales, Juan Carlos; Wellmann, Mario; Nualart, Francisco; Roncagliolo, Manuel; Fuenzalida, Marco; Bonansco, Christian

    2015-09-01

    The fine-tuning of synaptic transmission by astrocyte signaling is crucial to CNS physiology. However, how exactly astroglial excitability and gliotransmission are affected in several neuropathologies, including epilepsy, remains unclear. Here, using a chronic model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rats, we found that astrocytes from astrogliotic hippocampal slices displayed an augmented incidence of TTX-insensitive spontaneous slow Ca(2+) transients (STs), suggesting a hyperexcitable pattern of astroglial activity. As a consequence, elevated glutamate-mediated gliotransmission, observed as increased slow inward current (SICs) frequency, up-regulates the probability of neurotransmitter release in CA3-CA1 synapses. Selective blockade of spontaneous astroglial Ca(2+) elevations as well as the inhibition of purinergic P2Y1 or mGluR5 receptors relieves the abnormal enhancement of synaptic strength. Moreover, mGluR5 blockade eliminates any synaptic effects induced by P2Y1R inhibition alone, suggesting that the Pr modulation via mGluR occurs downstream of P2Y1R-mediated Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from astrocyte. Our findings show that elevated Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate gliotransmission from hyperexcitable astrocytes up-regulates excitatory neurotransmission in epileptic hippocampus, suggesting that gliotransmission should be considered as a novel functional key in a broad spectrum of neuropathological conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dimerization of Cell-Adhesion Molecules Can Increase Their Binding Strength.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenmao; Qin, Meng; Li, Ying; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-14

    Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) often exist as homodimers under physiological conditions. However, owing to steric hindrance, simultaneous binding of two ligands to the homodimers at the same location can hardly be satisfied, and the molecular mechanism underlying this natural design is still unknown. Here, we present a theoretical model to understand the rupture behavior of cell-adhesion bonds formed by multiple binding ligands with a single receptor. We found that the dissociation forces for the cell-adhesion bond could be greatly enhanced in comparison with the monomer case through a ligand rebinding and exchange mechanism. We also confirmed this prediction by measuring dimeric cRGD (cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp) unbinding from integrin (α v β 3 ) using atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy. Our finding addresses the mechanism of increasing the binding strength of cell-adhesion bonds through dimerization at the single-molecule level, representing a key step toward the understanding of complicated cell-adhesion behaviors. Moreover, our results also highlight a wealth of opportunities to design mechanically stronger bioconjunctions for drug delivery, biolabeling, and surface modification.

  19. Short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases bond strength of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cersosimo, Maria Cecília Pereira; Matos, Adriana Bona; Couto, Roberta Souza D.'Almeida; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser on the adhesion of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin (SD and ED). Forty-six samples of occlusal dentine, obtained from human molars, had half of their surface protected, while the other half was submitted to erosive cycles. Afterward, 23 samples were irradiated with Er:YAG laser, resulting in four experimental groups: SD, sound irradiated dentine (SID-Er:YAG, 50 μs, 2 Hz, 80 mJ, and 12.6 J/cm2), ED, and eroded irradiated dentin (EID-erosion + Er:YAG laser). A self-etching adhesive system was used, and then cylinders of composite resin were prepared. A microshear bond strength test was performed after 24 h storage (n=20). The morphology of SD and ED, with or without Er:YAG laser irradiation, was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (n=3). Bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Statistically significant differences were found among the experimental groups: SD (9.76±3.39 B), SID (12.77±5.09 A), ED (5.12±1.72 D), and EID (7.62±3.39 C). Even though erosion reduces the adhesion to dentin, the surface irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases adhesion to both ED and SD.

  20. Diet-Induced Obesity Significantly Increases the Severity of Post-Traumatic Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Louer, Craig R.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Huebner, Janet L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Olson, Steven A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity and joint injury are both primary risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) that involve potential alterations in the biomechanical and inflammatory environments of the joint. Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a frequent long-term complication of intra-articular fractures. Obesity has been linked to primary OA and may potentially contribute to the development of PTA by a variety of mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to determine if diet-induced obesity influences the severity of PTA in mice and to examine interrelationships between joint degeneration and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in this response. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal chow (13% fat) or a high-fat diet (60% fat) starting at 4 weeks of age. At 16 weeks, half of each group received closed intra-articular fracture of the left knee. At 8 weeks post-fracture, knee osteoarthritis was assessed by cartilage and synovium histology in addition to bone morphology. Serum cytokine concentrations were determined with multiplex assay. Results Fractured knee joints of mice on a high-fat diet showed significantly increased osteoarthritic degeneration compared to non-fractured contralateral controls, while fractured knee joints of low-fat mice did not demonstrate significant differences from non-fractured contralateral controls. High-fat diet increased serum concentrations of interleukin-12p70, interleukin-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, while decreasing adiponectin concentrations. Systemic levels of adiponectin were inversely correlated with synovial inflammation in control limbs. Conclusion Diet-induced obesity significantly increased the severity of osteoarthritis following intra-articular fracture. Obesity and joint injury together can alter systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12p70. PMID:22576842

  1. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey Budget Would Provide "Significant" Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the administration submitted to Congress on 10 April, would provide the agency with 1.17 billion, an increase of 98.02 million, 9.17% more than the FY 2012 enacted budget of $1.07 billion (see Table 1). The proposed budget is a "significant" increase and "makes a statement about the USGS's relevance in the federal research community," USGS acting director Suzette Kimball said at the agency's briefing. Because Congress approved the FY 2013 budget just a few weeks prior to the release of the Obama administration's proposal, the FY 2014 budget is compared with the FY 2012 enacted budget here.

  2. Head and neck cooling decreases tympanic and skin temperature, but significantly increases blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Julia; Kollmar, Rainer; Cimpianu, Camelia-Lucia; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Moeller, Sebastian; Schwab, Stefan; Hilz, Max J

    2012-08-01

    Localized head and neck cooling might be suited to induce therapeutic hypothermia in acute brain injury such as stroke. Safety issues of head and neck cooling are undetermined and may include cardiovascular autonomic side effects that were identified in this study. Ten healthy men (age 35±13 years) underwent 120 minutes of combined head and neck cooling (Sovika, HVM Medical). Before and after onset of cooling, after 60 and 120 minutes, we determined rectal, tympanic, and forehead skin temperatures, RR intervals, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), laser-Doppler skin blood flow at the index finger and cheek, and spectral powers of mainly sympathetic low-frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and parasympathetic high-frequency (0.15-0.5 Hz) RR interval oscillations and sympathetic low-frequency oscillations of BP. We compared values before and during cooling using analysis of variance with post hoc analysis; (significance, P<0.05). Forehead skin temperature dropped by 5.5±2.2°C with cooling onset and by 12.4±3.2°C after 20 minutes. Tympanic temperature decreased by 4.7±0.7°C within 40 minutes, and rectal temperature by only 0.3±0.3°C after 120 minutes. Systolic and diastolic BP increased immediately on cooling onset and rose by 15.3±20.8 mm Hg and 16.5±13.4 mm Hg (P=0.004) after 120 minutes, whereas skin blood flow fell significantly during cooling. RR intervals and parasympathetic RR interval high-frequency powers increased with cooling onset and were significantly higher after 60 and 120 minutes than they were before cooling. Head and neck cooling prominently reduced tympanic temperature and thus might also induce intracerebral hypothermia; however, it did not significantly lower body core temperature. Profound skin temperature decrease induced sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction and prominent BP increases that are not offset by simultaneous parasympathetic heart rate slowing. Prominent peripheral vasoconstriction and BP increase must be

  3. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume (≥ 10 m s−1) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total flash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values ≤0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total flash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total flash rate. PMID:29158622

  4. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Christopher J; Carey, Lawrence D; Schultz, Elise V; Blakeslee, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume (≥ 10 m s -1 ) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total flash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values ≤0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total flash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total flash rate.

  5. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps Versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume greater than or equal to 10 m(sup -1) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total ash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values 0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total ash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total ash rate.

  6. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  8. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of <15 m ml(-1) . The significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  10. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  11. Lung cancer resection rates have increased significantly in females during a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Gwyn; Bannon, Finian; McGuigan, Jim

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to carry out a comparative study of lung cancer incidence and resection rates following the introduction of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and the reorganisation of Cancer Services in Northern Ireland. Data were retrieved from the Regional Thoracic Service Database and Northern Ireland Cancer Registry (NICR) covering the period 1994-2008. The two databases are maintained independently. A total of 13288 lung cancer cases and 1575 lung resections were identified. Secondary tumours were excluded. The incidence of lung tumours and procedures performed was available for each individual year. The incidence of lung cancer was taken from the NICR. The NICR confirmed the diagnosis of lung cancer using international guidelines and cancer was confirmed by histology, cytology, radiological investigations and post-mortem examinations. Poisson regression was used to model the incidence and resections per year; logistic regression was used to model the yearly rate of resections per incidence case. The 15-year period was divided into three periods to assess trends in surgical resection, but the surgical resection rate (SRR) was calculated on a yearly basis. The regional incidence of lung cancer in Northern Ireland (NI) females has increased (1.7% per annum P<0.01, Poisson regression), but this increase has not been seen in males. The incidence of lung cancer patients, who underwent resection at the regional Thoracic Surgery Unit, increased for females (4.4% per annum, P<0.01, Poisson regression), but not for males. The proportional rate of resection (number of resections in a given year/incidence in that year) has changed significantly over the study period for females but not males (the odds ratio per unit year was 1.029, P<0.01, logistic regression). The average age of females increased by 0.2 year (P<0.01) annually; there was no significant increase in the age of males over this period. There was no significant overall rise in the number

  12. Clinicopathological significance of increased ZIC1 expression in human endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xing; Liu, Qin; Yang, Ning; Shen, Jian-fang; Zhang, Xue-gang; Cao, Fang; Ding, Hou-zhong

    2015-12-01

    Zinc finger of the cerebellum (ZIC1), one of ZIC family genes, has been shown to play important roles in many cancers such as gastric cancer and breast cancer. However, there is little known about the expression and significance of ZIC1 in endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of ZIC1 in endometrial cancer. The mRNA and protein expression of ZIC1 in endometrial cancer tissues was detected using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Immunostaining of ZIC1 in 99 endometrial cancer samples was examined and its associations with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Hec-1-B cells were transfected with ZIC1-shRNA or sc-shRNA, and cell proliferation was assayed. Hec-1-B cells stably transfected with ZIC1-shRNA or sc-shRNA were subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice, and the tumor weight was measured. A significantly increased expression of ZIC1 mRNA and protein was observed in endometrial cancer tissues compared to that in normal endometrial tissues (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of ZIC1 was observed in almost all endometrial cancer samples (90/99) while light and moderate immunostaining of ZIC1 was only detected in 17 of 30 (56.7%) normal tissues. Moreover, up-regulation of ZIC1 was significantly correlated with age, disease stage, TNM stage and FIGO stage (P<0.05). The down-regulated expression of ZIC1 contributed to the inhibition of cell proliferation, and inhibited the growth of tumor. It was concluded that ZIC1 is over-expressed in endometrial cancer tissue but not in normal tissue, and positively correlated to the malignant biological behavior of endometrial carcinogenesis.

  13. Pedi-cap color change precedes a significant increase in heart rate during neonatal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Doug; Rich, Wade; Leone, Tina; Garey, Donna; Finer, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Heart rate is the most important indicator of infant well-being during neonatal resuscitation. The Nellcor Pedi-Cap turns gold when exposed to exhaled gas with CO₂>15 mmHg. The aim of this study was to determine if Pedi-Cap gold color change during neonatal resuscitation precedes an increase in heart rate in babies with bradycardia receiving mask ventilation. This was a single-center retrospective review of video recordings and physiologic data of newborns with bradycardia receiving mask positive pressure ventilation during neonatal resuscitation. Subjects were included if the baby's HR<100 BPM within the first 90 s of resuscitation. The primary outcome was the change in HR prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change compared to the HR after Pedi-Cap gold color change. Forty-one newborns during the study period had HR<100 BPM and received mask positive pressure ventilation with a Pedi-Cap. The median heart rate 10s prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change was 75 BPM (IQR 62-85) and increased to 136 BPM (IQR 113-158) 30 s after gold color change (p<0.001). SpO₂ increased from 45 ± 17% prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change to 52 ± 17% 30s after gold color change (p=0.001). Colorimetric CO₂ detection during mask positive pressure ventilation in neonatal resuscitation precedes a significant increase in heart rate and SpO₂. The Pedi-Cap can be easily applied during resuscitation, requires no electricity, provides immediate feedback and may be a useful, simple tool early in resuscitation and may be especially useful in resource limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  15. Release of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from yeast mitochondria is stimulated by increased ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Patrick C; Pfeiffer, Douglas R

    2006-02-06

    isolated yeast mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ release was activated by increased ionic strength. Free nucleotides, metal ion chelators, and increased pH also stimulated release. In yeast cells this release is likely an important mechanism in the regulation of mitochondrial matrix space divalent cation concentrations.

  16. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400–800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ∼9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  17. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Similar increases in strength after short-term resistance training due to different neuromuscular adaptations in young and older men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether differences in neuromuscular performance and muscle hypertrophy occur between young and older men. Twenty-three young (29 ± 9 years) and 26 older men (64 ± 8 years) completed 10 weeks of high-volume, medium load "hypertrophic" resistance training with low frequency (twice per week) with 10 young (34 ± 11 years) and 11 older men (65 ± 3 years) acting as nontraining control subjects. Training consisted of 2-5 sets of 8-14 repetitions (1- to 2-minute rest). Lower-limb dynamic (leg press) and isometric maximum leg extension force, as well as lower-limb lean mass and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area were assessed before and after the training period. Training led to significant increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) leg press performance in both training groups (young: 13 ± 7%, p < 0.001; older: 14 ± 9%, p < 0.001). Performance improvements were accompanied by increased muscle activation, assessed by voluntary activation level (29 ± 51%, p ≤ 0.05) and electromyography amplitude (35 ± 51%, p < 0.01) in older men only. Conversely, only young men showed significantly increased lower-limb lean mass (2.4 ± 2.5%, p < 0.01). Furthermore, increases in 1RM performance and lower-limb lean mass were significantly related in young men only (r = 0.524, p = 0.01, n = 23). In conclusion, although high-volume, medium load "hypertrophic" resistance training may induce similar improvements in strength between young and older men, it appears that different mechanisms underpin these improvements.

  19. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep: significantly increased penetration through slightly damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-11-01

    The OECD guideline for studies on percutaneous penetration to be used in hazard and risk evaluations prescribes experimental conditions with optimal barrier integrity of the skin, which in many occupational settings probably is not true. Thus, workers may have compromised skin due to chemical or mechanical damage, due to different medical conditions (eczema, dermatitis, skin irritation) or related to occupational scenarios involving prolonged wet work. The present study used the OECD guideline procedures to study the in vitro percutaneous penetration through human skin of a number of model substances (glyphosat, caffeine, benzoic acid, malathion) covering a range of solubilities. Further, we studied the extent to which a slightly damaged skin would change the rate, the amount absorbed during dermal exposure and the distribution of chemical deposition between epidermis and dermis. The present study demonstrates that a limited damage to the skin significantly increases the permeability coefficient (K (p)) as well as total percutaneous penetration of chemicals, and most significantly for those compounds that due to their physicochemical characteristics (the most hydrophilic as well as the most lipophilic) have low penetration rates through intact skin. The present experiment not only confirms the proportionality between lipophilicity and potential for percutaneous penetration, but also illustrates that at a certain degree of lipophilicity of a model compound, the different skin compartments become more attractive for temporary deposition of model compounds. Moreover, a clear change from epidermal deposition towards a dominating dermis deposition of chemicals temporarily deposited within the skin is seen following damage to the skin barrier. Thus, the distribution of chemicals within the skin compartments is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the chemicals as well as by the integrity of the skin. This observation may have implications when evaluating

  20. Effect of sludge retention on UF membrane fouling: The significance of sludge crystallization and EPS increase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel; Yang, Yunjia; Zhou, Zhiqi; Campos, Luiza C

    2015-10-15

    This paper concerns a previously unreported mechanism of membrane ultrafiltration (UF) fouling when a UF process with coagulation pre-treatment is used in drinking water treatment. The significance of settled coagulant solids (sludge) with different age within the membrane tank on UF fouling has been investigated at laboratory-scale, using model micro-polluted surface water. The process of floc crystallization and increasing bacterial EPS with solids (sludge) retention time may be detrimental to UF operation by causing an increased rate of membrane fouling. In this study the performance of two alum pre-treated hollow-fibre UF units, operated in parallel but with different settled sludge retention times (1 and 7 days), was compared. The results showed that over 34 days of operation the extent of reversible and irreversible fouling was much greater for the 7-day solids retention time. This was attributed to the greater extent of bacterial activity and the presence of Al-nanoparticles, arising from sludge crystallization, at the longer retention time. In particular, greater quantities of organic matter, particularly EPS (proteins and polysaccharides), were found in the UF cake layer and pores for the 7-day retention time. The addition of chlorine later in the membrane run substantially reduced the rate of membrane fouling for both sludge retention times, and this corresponded to reduced quantities of organic substances, including EPS, in the cake layer and pores of both membranes. The results suggest that bacterial activity (and EPS production) is more important than the production of Al-nanoparticles from solids crystallization in causing membrane fouling. However, it is likely that both phenomena are interactive and possibly synergistic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Undernutrition Significantly Impacts Ovarian Follicle Number and Increases Ovarian Oxidative Stress in Adult Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Angelica B.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hampton, Mark B.; Poynton, Rebecca A.; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2010-01-01

    Background We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN) advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. Methodology/Principal Findings Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. Conclusions We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of maternal UN potentially

  2. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  4. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg−1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  5. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    PubMed Central

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  6. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  7. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    PubMed Central

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density. PMID:26314987

  8. Repeated exposure to corticosterone increases depression-like behavior in two different versions of the forced swim test without altering nonspecific locomotor activity or muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Marks, Wendie; Fournier, Neil M; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2009-08-04

    We have recently shown that repeated high dose injections of corticosterone (CORT) reliably increase depression-like behavior on a modified one-day version of the forced swim test. The main purpose of this experiment was to compare the effect of these CORT injections on our one-day version of the forced swim test and the more traditional two-day version of the test. A second purpose was to determine whether altered behavior in the forced swim test could be due to nonspecific changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength. Separate groups of rats received a high dose CORT injection (40 mg/kg) or a vehicle injection once per day for 21 consecutive days. Then, half the rats from each group were exposed to the traditional two-day forced swim test and the other half were exposed to our one-day forced swim test. After the forced swim testing, all the rats were tested in an open field and in a wire suspension grip strength test. The CORT injections significantly increased the time spent immobile and decreased the time spent swimming in both versions of the forced swim test. However, they had no significant effect on activity in the open field or grip strength in the wire suspension test. These results show that repeated CORT injections increase depression-like behavior regardless of the specific parameters of forced swim testing, and that these effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength.

  9. Multiarticular isokinetic high-load eccentric training induces large increases in eccentric and concentric strength and jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Christos; Theodosiou, Konstantinos; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Gkantiraga, Evangelia; Gissis, Ioannis; Sambanis, Michalis; Souglis, Athanasios; Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term eccentric exercise training using a custom-made isokinetic leg press device, on concentric and eccentric strength and explosiveness as well as jumping performance. Nineteen healthy males were divided into an eccentric (ECC, n = 10) and a control group (CG, n = 9). The ECC group trained twice per week for 8 weeks using an isokinetic hydraulic leg press machine against progressively increasing resistance ranging from 70 to 90% of maximal eccentric force. Jumping performance and maximal force generating capacity were measured before and after eccentric training. In the ECC group, drop jump (DJ) height and maximal power were increased by 13.6 ± 3.2% (p < 0.01) and 25.8 ± 1.2% (p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was decreased by 17.6 ± 2.6% (p < 0.01). Changes in ankle, knee, and hip joint angles were also reduced by 33.9 ± 1.1%, 31.1 ± 1.0%, and 32.4 ± 1.6% (all p < 0.01), respectively, indicating an increase in muscle stiffness during the DJ. Maximal eccentric and concentric leg press force was increased by 64.9 ± 5.5% (p < 0.01) and 32.2 ± 8.8% (p < 0.01), respectively, and explosiveness, measured as force attained in the first 300 milliseconds, was increased by 49.1 ± 4.8% (p < 0.01) and 77.1 ± 7.7% (p < 0.01), respectively. The CG did not show any statistically significant changes in all parameters measured. The main findings of this study were that maximal concentric and eccentric force, explosiveness, and DJ performance were markedly increased after only 16 training sessions, possibly because of the high eccentric load attained during the bilateral eccentric leg press exercise performed on this custom-made device.

  10. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low rem...

  11. Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton through diet niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Chang, Chun-Yi; García-Comas, Carmen; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-Hao

    2013-09-01

    1. The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate is a central topic in ecology. Recently, there has been a growing interest in size diversity because body size is sensitive to environmental changes and is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties. However, how size diversity affects ecosystem functioning is an important yet unclear issue. 2. To fill the gap, with large-scale field data from the East China Sea, we tested the novel hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton (H1) and compared it with five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: flatter zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation decreases the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton through trophic cascade (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). 3. The results of univariate analyses support the hypotheses based on zooplankton size diversity (H1), zooplankton size spectrum (H2), nutrient (H3) and zooplankton taxonomic diversity (H4), but not the hypotheses based on fish predation (H5) and temperature (H6). More in-depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea. 4. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators

  12. Reduced bone breakage and increased bone strength in free range laying hens fed omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Tarlton, John F; Wilkins, Lindsay J; Toscano, Michael J; Avery, Nick C; Knott, Lynda

    2013-02-01

    The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the immediate precursors to a number of important mediators of immunity, inflammation and bone function, with products of omega-6 generally thought to promote inflammation and favour bone resorption. Western diets generally provide a 10 to 20-fold deficit in omega-3 PUFAs compared with omega-6, and this is thought to have contributed to the marked rise in incidence of disorders of modern human societies, such as heart disease, colitis and perhaps osteoporosis. Many of our food production animals, fed on grains rich in omega-6, are also exposed to a dietary deficit in omega-3, with perhaps similar health consequences. Bone fragility due to osteoporotic changes in laying hens is a major economic and welfare problem, with our recent estimates of breakage rates indicating up to 95% of free range hens suffer breaks during lay. Free range hens housed in full scale commercial systems were provided diets supplemented with omega-3 alpha linolenic acid, and the skeletal benefits were investigated by comparison to standard diets rich in omega-6. There was a significant 40-60% reduction in keel bone breakage rate, and a corresponding reduction in breakage severity in the omega-3 supplemented hens. There was significantly greater bone density and bone mineral content, alongside increases in total bone and trabecular volumes. The mechanical properties of the omega-3 supplemented hens were improved, with strength, energy to break and stiffness demonstrating significant increases. Alkaline phosphatase (an osteoblast marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (an osteoclast marker) both showed significant increases with the omega-3 diets, indicating enhanced bone turnover. This was corroborated by the significantly lower levels of the mature collagen crosslinks, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline, lysyl pyridinoline and histidinohydroxy-lysinonorleucine, with a corresponding significant shift in the mature

  13. I171V germline mutation in the NBS1 gene significantly increases risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Roznowski, Krzysztof; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Mosor, Maria; Pernak, Monika; Litwiniuk, Maria; Nowak, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal, recessive disease caused by homozygous mutations in the NBS1 gene. The most common deletion of 5 bp (657del5) in exon 6, which affects mostly the population of Central Europe is observed. Among the typical features of this disorder is that NBS patients experience a high incidence of lymphoid malignancies as well. An increased risk of solid tumors development for 657del5 carriers was the reason to investigate the role of NBS1 gene as a susceptible one for the breast cancer. The purpose of this work is to identify mutations in all 16 exons of the NBS1 gene in the group of the patients with diagnosed breast cancer and the control group of healthy individuals. In the group of 270 women with breast cancer, seven cases of mutated NBS1 gene were revealed. In the subgroup presenting mutated NBS1 gene, the mutation I171V in 5th exon occurred in five cases. It is the first such a discovery concerning breast cancer patients because this mutation had been previously observed only in the course of lymphoid or hematological malignancies. The rate of I171V mutation in the group of breast cancer patients was significantly higher than in the controls (OR: 9.42; 95% CI: 1.09-81.05; P = 0.02). The conclusion is that heterozygous germline mutation I171V in NBS1 gene is a significant risk factor for breast cancer development. It concerns especially the women whose first degree relatives had a previously diagnosed breast cancer (OR: 6.00; 95% CI: 0.98-38.07; P = 0.04). The histopathological and clinical features of breast cancer with I171V mutation suggest accumulation of the negative prognostic factors. The treatment's results however were unexpectedly satisfactory, that is why further investigations are necessary to assess the role of I171V mutation in NBS1 gene as a prognostic and predictive factor for breast cancer.

  14. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with significantly increased mortality among patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Robert J; Gish, Robert G; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2014-12-01

    The prioritization of liver transplantation (LT) for patients with end-stage liver disease uses the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), which attempts to identify the sickest patients and thereby those who are in greatest need for LT. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is not included in MELD, and severity of liver disease and risk of wait-list removal or wait-list death may be underestimated by MELD in patients with HE. Using United Network for Organ Sharing registry data, we evaluated the impact of HE on 90-day wait-list survival among adult LT wait-list registrants in the United States from 2003 to 2012. Survival was stratified by HE severity (none, grade 1-2, grade 3-4) and MELD. There were 84,947 new LT wait-list registrants during the study period; 36.8% had no HE, 57.4% had grade 1-2 HE, and 5.9% had grade 3-4 HE. Ninety-day wait-list mortality was significantly higher among patients with grade 3-4 HE compared with patients with grade 1-2 HE or no HE (24.4% versus 6.8% versus 3.5%; P < 0.001). When stratified by MELD, patients with grade 3-4 HE had 90-day wait-list mortality similar to that of nonencephalopathic patients with MELD scores 6-7 points higher. With the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, patients with grade 3-4 HE had 66% greater risk of 90-day mortality than patients without HE (hazard ratio = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.45-1.90; P < 0.001). The inclusion of HE severity in MELD improved the area under receiver operating curve for predicting 90-day wait-list survival from 0.6508 to 0.6863. In conclusion, grade 3-4 HE at time of wait-list registration significantly increases 90-day wait-list mortality independent of MELD score. Incorporating HE in the assessment of LT priority may improve prognostication of liver disease severity and prioritization for LT. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Significant increase of flow kinetic energy in "nonresponders" patients to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Sara; Palombizio, Dino; Cicogna, Francesco; Cantisani, Donatella; Reali, Manuela; Filomena, Domenico; Petronilli, Valentina; Iacoboni, Carlo; Agati, Luciano

    2017-05-01

    It's still unclear if different patterns of intraventricular flow dynamics may be detected in patients nonresponders to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) as compared to responders ones. Aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of left ventricular (LV) flow dynamics 6-months after CRT to identify Echo-particle imaging velocity (PIV) patterns were more frequently detected in nonresponders patients. Thirty-two patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, undergoing CRT, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 2D and 3D echo and fluid dynamics assessment 6 months after CRT, during active CRT (CRT-ON) and during a temporarily discontinued state (CRT-OFF). LV volumes systolic and diastolic volumes (LVESV and LVEDV), ejection fraction (LVEF), global longitudinal strain (GLS), systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI), and several geometrical and functional Echo-PIV-derived parameters were calculated. Patients were divided in two groups: "responders" to CRT (decrease in LVESV>15% 6 months after CRT) and "nonresponders." During CRT-OFF, LVEF, GLS were lower, while SDI and LVESV were higher in nonresponders group (P=.030, P=.051, P=.035, and P=.025, respectively). Energy dissipation, vortex area, and vorticity fluctuation were higher in "nonresponders" patients during CRT-OFF (P=.038, P=.054, and P=.035, respectively). During CRT-ON, energy dissipation, vortex area, and vorticity fluctuation further increase in nonresponders patients (P=.020, P=.038, and P=.030, respectively) with a concomitant worsening of SDI (P=.045). Our data show a significant worsening in flow-derived parameters in CRT "nonresponders" patients as compared with responders. Further larger longitudinal studies are necessary to assess whether these more chaotic intraventricular flow-patterns may contribute to a persistent adverse remodeling observed in this subset of patients. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Does extensive on-water rowing increase muscular strength and endurance?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Mike R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in aerobic condition, strength, and muscular endurance following 8 weeks of endurance rowing alone or in combination with weight-training. Twenty-two elite rowers were assigned to (1) rowing (n = 10, 250-270 km · week⁻¹) or (2) rowing (n = 12, 190-210 km · week⁻¹) plus four weight-training sessions each week. Pre and post mean and standardized effect-size (ES) differences in aerobic condition (watts at 4 mmol · L⁻¹) and strength (isometric pull, N), prone bench-pull (6-repetition maximum, 6-RM), 5- and 30-repetition leg-press and 60-repetition seated-arm-pull (J, performed on a dynamometer) normalized by body mass and log-transformed were analysed, after adjusting for gender. The standardized differences between groups were trivial for aerobic condition (ES [±90% CI] = 0.15; ±0.28, P = 0.37) and prone bench-pull (ES = 0.27; ±0.33, P = 0.18), although a moderate positive benefit in favour of rowing only was observed for the seated-arm-pull (ES = 0.42; ±0.4, P = 0.08). Only the weight-training group improved isometric pull (12.4 ± 8.9%, P < 0.01), 5-repetition (4.0 ± 5.7%, P < 0.01) and 30-repetition (2.4 ± 5.4%, P < 0.01) leg-press. In conclusion, while gains in aerobic condition and upper-body strength were comparable to extensive endurance rowing, weight-training led to moderately greater lower-body muscular-endurance and strength gains.

  17. Increase of tensile strength and toughness of bio-based diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with chitin nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian; Xue, Han; Feng, Zhiwei; Cheng, Binfeng; Yang, Haijie

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to reinforce and toughen thermoset epoxy resins. We describe a slurry-compounding technique to transfer a uniform dispersion of chitin nanowhiskers (CW) in ethanol into an epoxy matrix. The incorporation of the hydrophilic CW reinforces the oil-soluble diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). The resultant CW/epoxy bionanocomposites were transparent and showed considerably enhanced thermal and mechanical properties with tensile strength, modulus, toughness, and elongation at break being increased by 49%, 16%, 457%, and 250%, with only 2.5 wt.% CW. This improvement in strength and toughness is rare for thermoset epoxy/rigid nanofiller systems. We hypothesize that CW with many free amine groups could function not only as a nanofiller but also as a macromolecular polyamine hardener that participates in epoxy curing. The strong covalent interaction between the filler and the matrix allowed for efficient load transfer across the interfaces, which accounted for the greater strength and toughness. PMID:28604774

  18. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael A; Bailey, Alyssa M; Rondon, Matthew J; McNerny, Erin M; Sahar, Nadder D; Kohn, David H

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6-12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups-exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and increases

  19. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael A.; Bailey, Alyssa M.; Rondon, Matthew J.; McNerny, Erin M.; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6–12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups–exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and

  20. INCREASING AGE IS A RISK FACTOR FOR DECREASED POSTPARTUM PELVIC FLOOR STRENGTH

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Lieschen H.; Pickett, Stephanie D.; Peck, Jennifer D; Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Stone, Daniel E.; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors associated with decreased pelvic floor strength (PFS) after the first vaginal delivery in a cohort of low risk women Methods This is a secondary analysis of a prospective study examining the risk of pelvic floor injury in a cohort of primiparous women. All recruited participants underwent an examination, 3D ultrasound and measurement of pelvic floor strength (PFS) in the third trimester and repeated at 4 weeks-6 months postpartum using a perineometer. Results There were 84 women recruited for the study, and 70 completed the postpartum assessment. Average age was 28.4 years (SD, 4.8). There were 46 (66%) subjects with a vaginal delivery (VD) and 24 (34%) with a cesarean delivery (CD) who labored. Decreased PFS was observed more frequently in the VD group compared to the CD group (68% vs. 42%, p=0.03). In modified Poisson regression models controlling for mode of delivery and time of postpartum assessment, women who were age 25-29 (RR=2.80, 95% CI 1.03-7.57) and >=30 (RR=2.53, 95% CI 0.93-6.86)) were over 2.5 times more likely to have decreased postpartum PFS compared to women < 25 yo. Conclusions In this population, women age 25 and older were more than twice as likely to have a decrease in postpartum PFS. PMID:28067746

  1. Increase in federal match associated with significant gains in coverage for children through Medicaid and CHIP.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Stephen W; Choi, Hwajung; Davis, Matthew M

    2012-08-01

    As the number of children living in poverty has increased steadily over the past decade, Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) have enrolled millions of additional youths. Federal and state governments jointly finance both programs, with the federal portion determined by the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage, commonly known as the "federal match." The federal government has used intermittent increases in the federal match as a way to provide fiscal relief to states during economic downturns. The most recent broad increase ended in June 2011, but the precise impact on Medicaid and CHIP enrollment for children is not known. No previous study has evaluated the association of the federal match with children's enrollment in state Medicaid or CHIP programs in the context of other state factors. To shed light on the degree to which public coverage for children varies with differences in the federal match, we examined publicly available data from all fifty states from 1999 to 2009. We found that a ten-percentage-point increase in the federal match was associated with a 1.9 percent increase in Medicaid and CHIP enrollment, equivalent to approximately 500,000 children. This association persisted when adjusted for multiple state-level factors, including the proportion of children living in poverty. This analysis underscores the central role of the federal match in supporting expansion of Medicaid and CHIP coverage for children.

  2. [The clinical significance of increased neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Ding, Y L; Sun, Y C; Shen, N; Chen, Y H; Yao, W Z

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the clinical implications of increased neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in sarcoidosis. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for 72 cases of histologically diagnosed, treatment-näive sarcoidosis admitted to Peking University Third Hospital from January 2000 to October 2014. The patients included 18 men and 54 women, 26 to 75 years of age [(50±10) years], with the disease course 0.5 month to 12 years (median disease course, 3 months). Results of cell count and differentials of BALF were analyzed and the patients were grouped based on the percentage of neutrophils: those with increased neutrophils (>3%) and those without (≤3%). Clinical manifestations, pulmonary function tests, radiological features, bronchoscopic findings, and other laboratory data were compared between the 2 groups. Finally 67 patients were followed for 6 to 240 months (median 36 months). The subsequent changes of radiological manifestations and relapses after therapy were recorded and compared. Results: There were 72 patients in the study, including 16 with increased BALF neutrophils(stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ/Ⅲ, 4/10/2) and 56 without(stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ/Ⅲ, 9/45/2). Compared with patients without increased neutrophils, those with increased neutrophils had more reticular changes in the lungs(6/16, 8/56), more common diffusion dysfunction (7/13, 11/46) with lower D L CO% [(70±19)% vs (89±23)%], higher percentage of CD 8 + lymphocytes [(19±4)% vs (11±4)%, P <0.05] in BALF. Sixteen (stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ/Ⅲ, 4/10/2) and 51 (stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ/Ⅲ, 9/41/1) patients with and without increased neutrophils were followed respectively. Compared with patients without increased neutrophils, those with increased neutrophils tended to deteriorate and relapse despite corticosteroid therapy. Conclusions: Sarcoidosis patients with BALF neutrophilia had more severe pulmonary fibrosis and diffusion dysfunction, poorer response to corticosteroid therapy and higher relapse rate

  3. Cholecystectomy does not significantly increase the risk of fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Gang; Wang, Li-Zhen; Fu, Hang-Jiang; Shen, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Fa-Ming; Xie, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Zhong; Ji, Guo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between cholecystectomy and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 32428 subjects who had voluntarily undergone annual health checkups in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2011 to May 2013 were included in this study. Basic data collection, physical examination, laboratory examination, and abdominal ultrasound examination were performed. RESULTS: Subjects undergoing cholecystectomy were associated with greater age, female sex, higher body mass index, and higher levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. However, no significant differences were found in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, albumin, and serum uric acid. The overall prevalence of FLD diagnosed by ultrasonography was high at 38.4%. The prevalence of FLD was significantly higher for subjects who had undergone cholecystectomy (46.9%) than those who had not undergone cholecystectomy (38.1%; χ2 test, P < 0.001). Cholecystectomy was positively associated with FLD (OR = 1.433, 95%CI: 1.259-1.631). However, after adjusting for possible factors associated with FLD, multivariate regression analysis showed that the association between cholecystectomy and FLD was not statistically significant (OR = 1.096; 95%CI: 0.939-1.279). CONCLUSION: According to our study results, cholecystectomy may not be a significant risk factor for FLD. PMID:25834328

  4. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in those with gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p < 0.0001) when compared to those without gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  5. Significant visual increase following infectious keratitis after collagen cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Farhad

    2012-08-01

    To report a patient who developed a left paracentral stromal scar due to infectious keratitis that occurred after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus. The flattening effect of the scar led to an increase in visual acuity. The corneal scar and flattening effect on the anterior corneal curvature were assessed by slit-lamp photography, high-resolution Scheimpflug imaging, and corneal confocal microscopy. Three days after CXL, a corneal bacterial infection occurred in the left cornea and was treated with local antibiotics that led to a paracentral scar. Twenty-one days after CXL, a flattening of the anterior curvature of >11.00 diopters was observed. As a consequence, corrected distance visual acuity improved by five lines. Corneal remodeling may lead to a homogenization of the anterior corneal surface and an increase in visual acuity. Remodeling may not only occur spontaneously following CXL, but also following an event that results in focal corneal scarring, such as corneal infection. In a highly irregular keratoconic cornea, the benefit of the flattening effect of a scar may outweigh the increase in aberrations and light scatter. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Effects of drop sets with resistance training on increases in muscle CSA, strength, and endurance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Kubota, Atsushi; Natsume, Toshiharu; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Abe, Takashi; Machida, Shuichi; Naito, Hisashi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a single high-load (80% of one repetition maximum [1RM]) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load (30% 1RM) without recovery intervals on muscle strength, endurance, and size in untrained young men. Nine untrained young men performed dumbbell curls to concentric failure 2-3 days per week for 8 weeks. Each arm was randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: 3 sets of high-load (HL, 80% 1RM) resistance exercise, 3 sets of low-load [LL, 30% 1RM] resistance exercise, and a single high-load (SDS) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load. The mean training time per session, including recovery intervals, was lowest in the SDS condition. Elbow flexor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) increased similarly in all three conditions. Maximum isometric and 1RM strength of the elbow flexors increased from pre to post only in the HL and SDS conditions. Muscular endurance measured by maximum repetitions at 30% 1RM increased only in the LL and SDS conditions. A SDS resistance training program can simultaneously increase muscle CSA, strength, and endurance in untrained young men, even with lower training time compared to typical resistance exercise protocols using only high- or low-loads.

  7. Efficiency of citicoline in increasing muscular strength of patients with nontraumatic cerebral hemorrhage: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Farhad; Vakilian, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    Brain infarction cerebrovascular accident is the most common neurologic disease throughout the world. Currently, there is no proven therapeutic effect for drugs other than thrombolytic ones in treatment of the acute phase of cerebrovascular accident. Some recent studies indicate that neuroprotective compounds such as citicoline can be of benefit in the acute phase of cerebrovascular accidents, including the bleeding form. This study was carried out to assess the efficiency of citicoline in increasing muscular strength of patients with nontraumatic cerebral hemorrhage. This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial on 32 patients with hemorrhagic nontraumatic supratentorial cerebral infarction, who were divided into two groups of 16, the first of which was treated with citicoline (250 mg intravenously twice a day) for 14 days. The second group was given placebo and their muscular strength was measured through physical examination before treatment and then 3 months later. The groups were matched in terms of age, sex, and amount of bleeding. The muscular strength of the two groups was compared using Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. Half of the patients were male and the mean of muscular strength in both groups before intervention was 2.5 (0-4.5) and after intervention was 4 in the group receiving citicoline and 3.12 and in the group receiving placebo, which indicates a meaningful difference (P = .019). The findings of this study showed that muscular strength in patients with cerebral hemorrhage receiving citicoline increased and indicated that citicoline may be efficient in treatment of patients with cerebral hemorrhage.

  8. Stratigraphic potential of Bolboforma significantly increased by new finds in the North Atlantic and South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Karowe, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Until now, the genus Bolboforma, a problematic group of calcareous microfossils, has been recorded only in Oligocene to Pliocene marine sedimentary rocks, chiefly in the eastern North Atlantic region. We add to this eastern North Atlantic record six new sites and eleven undescribed species from the continental slopes of Ireland and Morocco. More significantly, we record, for the first time, abundant assemblages of Bolboforma on the western side of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Seven boreholes on the continental shelf and slope of New Jersey and Virginia contain ten species, three of which are new. Two species are present in two outcrops in eastern Mississippi and four are present in a borehole in the coastal plain of Virginia. On the Lord Howe Rise, west of New Zealand, a DSDP corehole has yielded a rich assemblage including four undescribed species. In addition to expanding the geographic distribution of Bolboforma, our work extends the known stratigraphic range downward into the upper Eocene on both sides of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Our findings firmly support the inference of a planktonic life style for Bolboforma, which implies a significant potential for biostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic, and paleoenvironmental studies, on both a local and global scale. We recommend a concerted effort to further document the nature and distribution of Bolboforma.

  9. Longer duration of asthma is significantly associated with increased RV/TLC ratio.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anupama; Rahman, Kazi; Abejie, Belayneh; Jain, Vipul V; Vempilly, Jose Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Although FEV1/FVC ratio has been shown to be negatively associated with longer duration of asthma; an association between RV/TLC ratio and longer duration of asthma has not been explored. Patients with established asthma for more than a year and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited. Data obtained by questionnaire after informed consent was obtained, Pulmonary function tests and laboratory results were collected through chart review. Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Among the 93 subjects, 61 were women. The mean age of patients was 58 ± 15 years, and the mean duration of asthma was 21 ± 18 years. The ethnic composition included: Caucasians 64%, Hispanics 28% and other groups 8%. The FEV1/FVC ratio was not significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.15, p = 0.05). However, the RV/TLC ratio was significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.46, p < 0.001). RV/TLC ratio may be a better indicator than FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction related to longer duration of asthma. Lung volume measurements should be done in addition to spirometry to detect changes related to airway obstruction in patients with longer duration of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Significant increase of oral bacteria in the early pregnancy period in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tsuruda, Keiko; Iwamoto, Yuko; Kato, Fuminori; Odaki, Teruko; Yamane, Nobuko; Hori, Yuriko; Harashima, Yuka; Sakoda, Ayako; Tagaya, Akira; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Sugai, Motoyuki; Noguchi, Mayumi

    2017-02-01

    Oral microflora during pregnancy is critical to oral health care in the mother and her child. We examined the changes in the oral microbiota between pregnancy and nonpregnancy periods. The study was performed using 132 healthy pregnant women enrolled from Hiroshima City Asa Citizens Hospital and 51 healthy nonpregnant women as control. During pregnancy, 132 subjects were assessed for seven microbial species by the cultured method and polymerase chain reaction at the early (7-16 weeks gestation), the middle (17-28 weeks), and the late (29-39 weeks) pregnancy periods. Pregnant women completed a series of questionnaires regarding oral and systemic health and lifestyle habits. The total cultivable microbial counts in the early pregnancy were significantly higher than that of the nonpregnant women (P < 0.05). The incidences of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in gingival sulcus during the early and middle pregnancy were significantly higher than the nonpregnant group (P < 0.05), while Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum did not change. Candida species were more frequently detected during the middle and late pregnancy. The data suggest that pregnancy, especially in the early periods, promotes the proliferation of microorganisms in the oral cavity and facilitates a colonization of periodontal pathogens. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  12. Current and past cigarette smoking significantly increase risk for microscopic colitis.

    PubMed

    Yen, Eugene F; Pokhrel, Bhupesh; Du, Hongyan; Nwe, Steven; Bianchi, Laura; Witt, Benjamin; Hall, Curtis

    2012-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important environmental factor affecting inflammatory bowel disease. The role of smoking has not been rigorously studied in microscopic colitis (MC). The aim of this study was to compare the association of cigarette smoking in individuals with MC compared to a control population without MC. We reviewed the records of patients with a clinical and histologic diagnosis of collagenous colitis (CC) or lymphocytic colitis (LC). Clinical history, including alcohol and smoking status at the time of diagnosis of MC, were reviewed. In this case-control study, age- and gender-matched patients without diarrhea presenting for outpatient colonoscopy served as the control population. We analyzed a total of 340 patients with MC: 124 with CC and 216 with LC. Overall, any smoking status (former or current) was associated with MC (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.88). This risk was more prominent in current smokers (adjusted OR 5.36, 3.81, and 4.37 for CC, LC, and all MC, respectively, 95% CI all greater than 1). The association of smoking was not significantly affected by gender or average alcohol consumption. In our study population, cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of both forms of microscopic colitis. There were no significant differences between LC and CC, and current smoking and the development of microscopic colitis affected men and women similarly. We feel that these data are sufficient to discuss the potential risks of tobacco use in patients with microscopic colitis. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  13. Modern Environmental Health Hazards: A Public Health Issue of Increasing Significance in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C.; Sanders III, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa’s environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent’s disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. Data sources We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. Data synthesis The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Conclusion Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa’s disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa’s environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future. PMID:19590675

  14. Electrogastrography in Adults and Children: The Strength, Pitfalls, and Clinical Significance of the Cutaneous Recording of the Gastric Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive technique to record gastric myoelectrical activity from the abdominal surface. Although the recent rapid increase in the development of electrocardiography, EGG still suffers from several limitations. Currently, computer analysis of EGG provides few reliable parameters, such as frequency and the percentage of normal and altered slow wave activity (bradygastria and tachygastria). New EGG hardware and software, along with an appropriate arrangement of abdominal electrodes, could detect the coupling of the gastric slow wave from the EGG. At present, EGG does not diagnose a specific disease, but it puts in evidence stomach motor dysfunctions in different pathological conditions as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Despite the current pitfalls of EGG, a multitasking diagnostic protocol could involve the EGG and the 13C-breath testing for the evaluation of the gastric emptying time—along with validated gastrointestinal questionnaires and biochemical evaluations of the main gastrointestinal peptides—to identify dyspeptic subgroups. The present review tries to report the state of the art about the pathophysiological background of the gastric electrical activity, the recording and processing methodology of the EGG with particular attention to multichannel recording, and the possible clinical application of the EGG in adult and children. PMID:23762836

  15. Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Warmington, Kelly S; Morony, Sean; Gong, Jianhua; Cao, Jin; Gao, Yongming; Shalhoub, Victoria; Tipton, Barbara; Haldankar, Raj; Chen, Qing; Winters, Aaron; Boone, Tom; Geng, Zhaopo; Niu, Qing-Tian; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kostenuik, Paul J; Simonet, W Scott; Lacey, David L; Paszty, Chris

    2009-04-01

    The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and left untreated for 1 yr to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point Scl-AbII was administered for 5 wk. Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. This not only resulted in complete reversal, at several skeletal sites, of the 1 yr of estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, but also further increased bone mass and bone strength to levels greater than those found in non-ovariectomized control rats. Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin's role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Space radiation does not induce a significant increase of intrachromosomal exchanges in astronauts' lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, M; Durante, M; Johannes, C; Pieper, R; Obe, G

    2005-12-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis in astronauts has been used to provide direct, biologically motivated estimates of equivalent doses and risk associated to cosmic radiation exposure during space flight. However, the past studies concentrated on measurements of dicentrics and translocations, while chromosome intrachanges (inversions) have never been measured in astronauts' samples. Recent data reported in the literature suggest that densely ionizing radiation can induce a large fraction of intrachanges, thus leading to the suspicion that interchanges grossly underestimate the cosmic radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in astronauts. We have analyzed peripheral blood lymphocytes from 11 astronauts involved in short- or long-term space flights in low-Earth orbit using high-resolution multicolor banding to assess the frequency of intrachromosomal exchanges in both pre- and post-flight samples. We did not detect any inversions in chromosome 5 from a total of 2800 cells in astronauts' blood. In addition, no complex type exchanges were found in a total of 3590 astronauts' lymphocytes analyzed by multifluor fluorescence in situ hybridisation. We conclude that, within the statistical power of this study, the analysis of interchanges for biological dosimetry in astronauts does not significantly underestimate the space radiation-induced cytogenetic damage, and complex-type exchanges or intrachanges have limited practical use for biodosimetry at very low doses.

  17. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    PubMed

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Marine animals significantly increase tundra N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renbin; Liu, Yashu; Xu, Hua; Ma, Dawei; Jiang, Shan

    2013-12-01

    studies on greenhouse gas emissions from animals concentrated on domestic animals, with limited data available from wild animals. The number of marine animals is potentially large in coastal Antarctica. In this paper, N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony, a skua colony, the adjacent animal-lacking tundra, and background tundra sites to test the effects of marine animals on their fluxes in maritime Antarctica. Extremely high N2O emissions occurred in the penguin puddles (mean 392 µg N2O m-2 h-1) and seal wallows (mean 579 µg N2O m-2 h-1). The N2O emissions from animal colony tundra (13-57 µg N2O m-2 h-1) are much higher than those from the animal-lacking tundra, whereas the background tundra showed negligible N2O fluxes. Penguin puddles and seal wallows were stronger CH4 emitters than animal colony tundra soils, while animal-lacking tundra soils were strong CH4 sinks. Overall high N2O and CH4 emissions were modulated by soil physical and chemical processes associated with marine animal activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients NH4+-N and NO3--N, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon from marine animal excreta, animal tramp, and high soil water-filled pore space. Laboratory incubation experiments further confirmed that penguin and seal colony soils produced much higher N2O and CH4 emissions than animal-lacking tundra soils. Our results indicate that marine animal colonies are the hot spots for N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica, and even at the global scale, and current climate warming will further increase their emissions.

  20. Dissociation of bone resorption and bone formation in adult mice with a non-functional V-ATPase in osteoclasts leads to increased bone strength.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Kim; Flores, Carmen; Thomsen, Jesper S; Brüel, Anne-Marie; Thudium, Christian S; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Sims, Natalie; Askmyr, Maria; Martin, Thomas J; Everts, Vincent; Karsdal, Morten A; Richter, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Osteopetrosis caused by defective acid secretion by the osteoclast, is characterized by defective bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, while bone formation is normal or increased. In contrast the bones are of poor quality, despite this uncoupling of formation from resorption.To shed light on the effect of uncoupling in adult mice with respect to bone strength, we transplanted irradiated three-month old normal mice with hematopoietic stem cells from control or oc/oc mice, which have defective acid secretion, and followed them for 12 to 28 weeks.Engraftment levels were assessed by flow cytometry of peripheral blood. Serum samples were collected every six weeks for measurement of bone turnover markers. At termination bones were collected for µCT and mechanical testing. An engraftment level of 98% was obtained. From week 6 until termination bone resorption was significantly reduced, while the osteoclast number was increased when comparing oc/oc to controls. Bone formation was elevated at week 6, normalized at week 12, and reduced onwards. µCT and mechanical analyses of femurs and vertebrae showed increased bone volume and bone strength of cortical and trabecular bone.In conclusion, these data show that attenuation of acid secretion in adult mice leads to uncoupling and improves bone strength.

  1. Minodronic acid ameliorates vertebral bone strength by increasing bone mineral density in 9-month treatment of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The effect of treatment for 9months with minodronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on vertebral mechanical strength was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Forty skeletally mature female monkeys were randomized into four OVX groups and one sham group (n=8) based on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). OVX animals were treated orally with 15 and 150μg/kg QD of minodronic acid or 500μg/kg QD alendronate as a reference drug. Measurements of bone turnover markers and lumbar BMD were conducted at 0, 4 and 8months. Measurements of bone mechanical strength and minodronic acid concentration in vertebral bodies were also performed. OVX resulted in a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in bone turnover markers at 4 and 8months, compared to the sham group, and the ultimate load on the lumbar vertebra was decreased in OVX animals. Minodronic acid and alendronate prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar BMD. Minodronic acid at 150μg/kg increased the ultimate load on lumbar vertebra compared to untreated OVX animals. Regression analysis revealed that the ultimate load was correlated with lumbar BMD and bone mineral content (BMC), and most strongly with the increase in lumbar BMD and BMC over 8months. In a separate analysis within the sham-OVX controls and minodronic acid and alendronate treatment groups, the ultimate loads were also correlated with BMD and BMC. The load-BMD (BMC) correlation in the minodronic acid group showed a trend for a shift to a higher load from the basal relationship in the sham-OVX controls. These results indicate that treatment with minodronic acid for 9months increases vertebral mechanical strength in OVX monkeys, mainly by increasing BMD and BMC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Central European streams is driven by reductions in ionic strength rather than climate change or decreasing acidity.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; McDowell, William H; Oulehle, Filip

    2009-06-15

    Temporal trends in DOC concentration and flux were investigated at two geochemically distinct forested catchments in western Czech Republic. Mean discharge-weighted DOC concentrations averaged 18.8 mg L(-1) at the acidic Lysina catchment, and 20.2 mg L(-1) at base-rich and well-buffered Pluhuv Bor. Between 1993 and 2007 DOC in streamwater increased significantly in both catchments: the mean annual increase was 0.42 mg L(-1) yr(-1) (p < 0.001) at Lysina and 0.43 mg L(-1) yr(-1) (p < 0.001) at Pluhuv Bor, resulting in cumulative increases of 64 and 65%, respectively. These long-term increases in streamwater DOC were correlated with only modest increases in stream pH in both catchments, but large declines in ionic strength (IS), that resulted from declining atmospheric deposition. Neither catchment has undergone changes in soil-water pH, yet DOC concentrations tripled in the soil-water of both catchments. We conclude that changes in ionic strength of soil-water and streamwater, rather than acidity, are the primary drivers of changes in streamwater DOC in this region. Temperature, precipitation and discharge show no statistically significant trends during the study period, suggesting that climate change has played no role in the changes in DOC that we have observed.

  3. One year of abaloparatide, a selective peptide activator of the PTH1 receptor, increased bone mass and strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Varela, Aurore; Chouinard, Luc; Lesage, Elisabeth; Guldberg, Robert; Smith, Susan Y; Kostenuik, Paul J; Hattersley, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Abaloparatide is a novel 34 amino acid peptide selected to be a potent and selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1) signaling pathway. The effects of 12months of abaloparatide treatment on bone mass, bone strength and bone quality was assessed in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. SD rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery at 6months of age and left untreated for 3months to allow OVX-induced bone loss. Eighteen OVX rats were sacrificed after this bone depletion period, and the remaining OVX rats received daily s.c. injections of vehicle (n=18) or abaloparatide at 1, 5 or 25μg/kg/d (n=18/dose level) for 12months. Sham controls (n=18) received vehicle daily. Bone changes were assessed by DXA and pQCT after 0, 3, 6 or 12months of treatment, and destructive biomechanical testing was conducted at month 12 to assess bone strength and bone quality. Abaloparatide dose-dependently increased bone mass at the lumbar spine and at the proximal and diaphyseal regions of the tibia and femur. pQCT revealed that increased cortical bone volume at the tibia was a result of periosteal expansion and endocortical bone apposition. Abaloparatide dose-dependently increased structural strength of L4-L5 vertebral bodies, the femur diaphysis, and the femur neck. Increments in peak load for lumbar spine and the femur diaphysis of abaloparatide-treated rats persisted even after adjusting for treatment-related increments in BMC, and estimated material properties were maintained or increased at the femur diaphysis with abaloparatide. The abaloparatide groups also exhibited significant and positive correlations between bone mass and bone strength at these sites. These data indicate that gains in cortical and trabecular bone mass with abaloparatide are accompanied by and correlated with improvements in bone strength, resulting in maintenance or improvement in bone quality. Thus, this study demonstrated that long-term daily administration of abaloparatide to

  4. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan Heath; Kumar, Krishna; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan; Millis, Richard Mark

    2017-03-01

    Exercise with partially restricted blood flow is a low-load, low-intensity resistance training regimen which may have the potential to increase muscle strength in the obese, elderly and frail who are unable to do high-load training. Restricted blood flow exercise has also been shown to affect blood vessel function variably and can, therefore, contribute to blood vessel dysfunction. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that unilateral resistance training of the leg extensors with partially restricted blood flow increases muscle strength and decreases vascular autoregulation. The subjects were nine normotensive, overweight, young adult African-Americans with low cardiorespiratory fitness who underwent unilateral training of the quadriceps' femoris muscles with partially restricted blood flow at 30% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) load for 3 weeks. The 1-RM load and post-occlusion blood flow to the lower leg (calf) were measured during reactive hyperemia. The 1-RM load increased in the trained legs from 77 ± 3 to 84 ± 4 kg ( P < 0.05) in the absence of a significant effect on the 1-RM load in the contralateral untrained legs ( P > 0.1). Post-occlusion blood flow decreased significantly in the trained legs from 19 ± 2 to 13 ± 2 mL· min -1 · dL -1 ( P < 0.05) and marginally in the contralateral untrained legs from 18 ± 2 to 16 ± 1 mL· min -1 · dL -1 ( P = 0.09). Changes in post-occlusion blood flow to the skin overlying the trained and the contralateral untrained muscles were not significant. These results demonstrate that restricted blood flow exercise, which results in significant gains in muscle strength, may produce decrements in endothelial dysfunction and vascular autoregulation. Future studies should determine whether pharmacopuncture plays a role in treatments for such blood vessel dysfunction.

  5. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan Heath; Kumar, Krishna; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan; Millis, Richard Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Exercise with partially restricted blood flow is a low-load, low-intensity resistance training regimen which may have the potential to increase muscle strength in the obese, elderly and frail who are unable to do high-load training. Restricted blood flow exercise has also been shown to affect blood vessel function variably and can, therefore, contribute to blood vessel dysfunction. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that unilateral resistance training of the leg extensors with partially restricted blood flow increases muscle strength and decreases vascular autoregulation. Methods: The subjects were nine normotensive, overweight, young adult African-Americans with low cardiorespiratory fitness who underwent unilateral training of the quadriceps’ femoris muscles with partially restricted blood flow at 30% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) load for 3 weeks. The 1-RM load and post-occlusion blood flow to the lower leg (calf) were measured during reactive hyperemia. Results: The 1-RM load increased in the trained legs from 77 ± 3 to 84 ± 4 kg (P < 0.05) in the absence of a significant effect on the 1-RM load in the contralateral untrained legs (P > 0.1). Post-occlusion blood flow decreased significantly in the trained legs from 19 ± 2 to 13 ± 2 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P < 0.05) and marginally in the contralateral untrained legs from 18 ± 2 to 16 ± 1 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P = 0.09). Changes in post-occlusion blood flow to the skin overlying the trained and the contralateral untrained muscles were not significant. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that restricted blood flow exercise, which results in significant gains in muscle strength, may produce decrements in endothelial dysfunction and vascular autoregulation. Future studies should determine whether pharmacopuncture plays a role in treatments for such blood vessel dysfunction. PMID:28392959

  6. Vitamin D Receptor Ablation and Vitamin D Deficiency Result in Reduced Grip Strength, Altered Muscle Fibers, and Increased Myostatin in Mice.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Christian M; Cha, Kuan Minn; Houweling, Peter J; Rao, Renuka; Mokbel, Nancy; Lin, Mike; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Gunton, Jenny E

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with muscle weakness, pain, and atrophy. Serum vitamin D predicts muscle strength and age-related muscle changes. However, precise mechanisms by which vitamin D affects skeletal muscle are unclear. To address this question, this study characterizes the muscle phenotype and gene expression of mice with deletion of vitamin D receptor (VDRKO) or diet-induced vitamin D deficiency. VDRKO and vitamin D-deficient mice had significantly weaker grip strength than their controls. Weakness progressed with age and duration of vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Histological assessment showed that VDRKO mice had muscle fibers that were significantly smaller in size and displayed hyper-nuclearity. Real-time PCR also indicated muscle developmental changes in VDRKO mice with dysregulation of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and increased myostatin in quadriceps muscle (>2-fold). Vitamin D-deficient mice also showed increases in myostatin and the atrophy marker E3-ubiqutin ligase MuRF1. As a potential explanation for grip strength weakness, both groups of mice had down-regulation of genes encoding calcium-handling and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (Serca) channels. This is the first report of reduced strength, morphological, and gene expression changes in VDRKO and vitamin D-deficient mice where confounding by calcium, magnesium, and phosphate have been excluded by direct testing. Although suggested in earlier in vitro work, this study is the first to report an in vivo association between vitamin D, myostatin, and the regulation of muscle mass. These findings support a direct role for vitamin D in muscle function and corroborate earlier work on the presence of VDR in this tissue.

  7. Aquatic Therapy Improves Outcomes for Subacute Stroke Patients by Enhancing Muscular Strength of Paretic Lower Limbs Without Increasing Spasticity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Yi-Zhao; Huang, Li-Ping; Bai, Bei; Zhou, Shi; Yin, Miao-Miao; Zhao, Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hong-Tu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic exercise program designed to enhance muscular strength in paretic lower limbs in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-six subacute stroke patients were randomly divided to a conventional or an aquatic group (n = 18 each). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 8 wks of training. For the paretic lower limbs, maximum isometric voluntary contraction strength of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris caput longus and the tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius was measured. Cocontraction ratios during knee extension and flexion and ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were calculated respectively. In addition, Modified Ashworth Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, and Barthel Index were assessed. Compared with the conventional intervention, the aquatic intervention resulted in significantly higher knee extension (P = 0.002) and ankle plantarflexion torque (P = 0.002), accompanied with a significantly lower knee extension cocontraction ratio in the paretic limb (P = 0.000). Functional Ambulation Category (P = 0.009) and Barthel Index (P = 0.024) were greater in aquatic group than conventional group posttreatment. Modified Ashworth Scale scores did not show any differences between groups. Aquatic exercise enhanced muscle strength in paretic lower limbs and improved muscle cocontraction without increasing spasticity in subacute stroke patients.

  8. The strength of a female mate preference increases with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H; Dennenmoser, Stefan; Choe, Jae C

    2009-02-22

    When females search for mates and their perceived risk of predation increases, they less often express preferences for males that use conspicuous courtship signals, relaxing sexual selection on production of these signals. Here, we report an apparent exception to this general pattern. Courting male fiddler crabs Uca beebei sometimes build pillars of mud at the openings to their burrows in which crabs mate. Females visit several males before they choose a mate by staying and breeding in their burrows, and they preferentially visit males with pillars. Previous studies suggested that this preference is based on a visual orientation behaviour that may reduce females' risk of predation while searching for a mate. We tested this idea by determining whether the female preference for males with pillars increases with perceived predation risk. We attracted avian predators to where crabs were courting and measured the rates that sexually receptive females visited courting males with and without mud pillars. Under elevated risk, females continued to search for mates and they showed a stronger relative preference for males with pillars. Thus, when predation risk is high, females may continue to express preferences that are under natural selection because they help females avoid predation, strengthening sexual selection for use of the preferred signal.

  9. Gelsolin Deficiency Blocks Podosome Assembly and Produces Increased Bone Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Chellaiah, Meenakshi; Kizer, Neil; Silva, Matthew; Alvarez, Ulises; Kwiatkowski, David; Hruska, Keith A.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoclasts are unique cells that utilize podosomes instead of focal adhesions for matrix attachment and cytoskeletal remodeling during motility. We have shown that osteopontin (OP) binding to the αvβ3 integrin of osteoclast podosomes stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization and bone resorption by activating a heteromultimeric signaling complex that includes gelsolin, pp60c-src, and phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase. Here we demonstrate that gelsolin deficiency blocks podosome assembly and αvβ3-stimulated signaling related to motility in gelsolin-null mice. Gelsolin-deficient osteoclasts were hypomotile due to retarded remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. They failed to respond to the autocrine factor, OP, with stimulation of motility and bone resorption. Gelsolin deficiency was associated with normal skeletal development and endochondral bone growth. However, gelsolin-null mice had mildly abnormal epiphyseal structure, retained cartilage proteoglycans in metaphyseal trabeculae, and increased trabecular thickness. With age, the gelsolin-deficient mice expressed increased trabecular and cortical bone thickness producing mechanically stronger bones. These observations demonstrate the critical role of gelsolin in podosome assembly, rapid cell movements, and signal transduction through the αvβ3 integrin. PMID:10684249

  10. Tightening slip knots in raw and degummed silk to increase toughness without losing strength.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Maria F; Berardo, Alice; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-02-12

    Knots are fascinating topological elements, which can be found in both natural and artificial systems. While in most of the cases, knots cannot be loosened without breaking the strand where they are tightened, herein, attention is focused on slip or running knots, which on the contrary can be unfastened without compromising the structural integrity of their hosting material. Two different topologies are considered, involving opposite unfastening mechanisms, and their influence on the mechanical properties of natural fibers, as silkworm silk raw and degummed single fibers, is investigated and quantified. Slip knots with optimized shape and size result in a significant enhancement of fibers energy dissipation capability, up to 300-400%, without affecting their load bearing capacity.

  11. Tightening slip knots in raw and degummed silk to increase toughness without losing strength

    PubMed Central

    Pantano, Maria F.; Berardo, Alice; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    Knots are fascinating topological elements, which can be found in both natural and artificial systems. While in most of the cases, knots cannot be loosened without breaking the strand where they are tightened, herein, attention is focused on slip or running knots, which on the contrary can be unfastened without compromising the structural integrity of their hosting material. Two different topologies are considered, involving opposite unfastening mechanisms, and their influence on the mechanical properties of natural fibers, as silkworm silk raw and degummed single fibers, is investigated and quantified. Slip knots with optimized shape and size result in a significant enhancement of fibers energy dissipation capability, up to 300–400%, without affecting their load bearing capacity. PMID:26868855

  12. Serotonin and Histamine Therapy Increases Tetanic Forces of Myoblasts, Reduces Muscle Injury, and Improves Grip Strength Performance of Dmd(mdx) Mice.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Volkan; Lins, Jeremy; Lambert, Kristyn; Lazauski, Joan; Spaulding, James; McMichael, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked fatal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Although several therapeutic approaches have been studied, none has led to substantial long-term effects in patients. The aim of this study was to test a serotonin and histamine (S&H) combination on human skeletal myoblasts and Dmd(mdx) mice for its effects on muscle strength and injury. Normal human bioartificial muscles (BAMs) were treated, and muscle tetanic forces and muscle injury tests were performed using the MyoForce Analysis System. Dmd(mdx) mice, the murine model of DMD, were administered serotonin, histamine, or S&H combination twice daily for 6 weeks, and functional performance tests were conducted once a week. The S&H combination treatment caused significant increases in tetanic forces at all time points and concentrations tested as compared to the saline controls. Dose response of the BAMs to the treatment demonstrated a significant increase in force generation at all concentrations compared to the controls after 3 to 4 days of drug treatment. The highest 3 concentrations had a significant effect on lowering contractile-induced injury as measured by a reduction in the release of adenylate kinase. Histamine-only and S&H treatments improved grip strength of Dmd(mdx) mice, whereas serotonin-only treatment resulted in no significant improvement in muscle strength. The results of this study indicate that S&H therapy might be a promising new strategy for muscular dystrophies and that the mechanism should be further investigated.

  13. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored. The increase in body weight in the LD + MCT (1.1 ± 1.0 kg) and LD + LCT (0.8 ± 1.1 kg) groups was greater than that in the control group (-0.5 ± 0.9 kg) (P < 0.05). After 3 mo, participants in the LD + MCT group had a 13.1% increase in right-hand grip strength (1.2 ± 1.0 kg, P < 0.01), a 12.5% increase in walking speed (0.078 ± 0.080 m/s, P < 0.05), a 68.2% increase in a 10-s leg open-and-close test performance (2.31 ± 1.68 n/10 s, P < 0.001), and a 28.2% increase in peak expiratory flow (53 ± 59 L/min, P < 0.01). No significant improvements in muscle mass, strength, or function were observed in the LD + LCT or control groups. The combined supplementation of MCTs (6 g), leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol at dinner may improve muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017567. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Method of increasing the phase stability and the compressive yield strength of uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    A uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy characterized by high strength, high ductility and stable microstructure is fabricated by an improved thermal mechanical process. A homogenous ingot of the alloy which has been reduced in thickness of at least 50% in the two-step forging operation, rolled into a plate with a 75% reduction and then heated in vacuum at a temperature of about 750.degree. to 850.degree. C. and then quenched in water is subjected to further thermal-mechanical operation steps to increase the compressive yield strength approximately 30%, stabilize the microstructure, and decrease the variations in mechanical properties throughout the plate is provided. These thermal-mechanical steps are achieved by cold rolling the quenched plate to reduce the thickness thereof about 8 to 12%, aging the cold rolled plate at a first temperature of about 325.degree. to 375.degree. C. for five to six hours and then aging the plate at a higher temperature ranging from 480.degree. to 500.degree. C. for five to six hours prior to cooling the billet to ambient conditions and sizing the billet or plate into articles provides the desired increase in mechanical properties and phase stability throughout the plate.

  15. Increasing muscle strength and mass of thigh in elderly people with the hybrid-training method of electrical stimulation and volitional contraction.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yoshio; Haneda, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Takashi; Sakai, Yutaka; Matsuse, Hiroo; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Shiba, Naoto

    2010-05-01

    The "Hybrid training" (HYBT) method utilizing combined electrical stimulation and voluntary muscle contraction has been developed as a muscle training method. It has already been shown that the method is technically sound and clinically effective in healthy young subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the HYBT method on the knee extensor strength considering safety for elderly people. Twenty subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the HYBT group and the weight machine training (WMT) group. All the subjects performed knee flexion and extension for 19 min per session, twice a week for 12 weeks. At the baseline and after the training, the subjects' maximal isometric torque of knee extension and cross-sectional area (CSA) of quadriceps femoris muscle were measured. The subjects completed the study without adverse effects. The knee extension torque significantly increased in both groups (39% in HYBT group and 42% in WMT group, P < 0.05). The CSA of quadriceps whole significantly increased in both groups (9% in HYBT group and 14% in WMT group, P < 0.05). These results indicate that the HYBT method increases muscle strength and mass, and that this method is as effective as the WMT. In addition, unlike the WMT, the HYBT device, which is portable and not large in size, is so easy to handle that it can be placed at the bedside. Therefore, the HYBT has potential to become a safe, effective method of muscle training for elderly people.

  16. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zdzieblik, Denise; Oesser, Steffen; Baumstark, Manfred W; Gollhofer, Albert; König, Daniel

    2015-10-28

    Protein supplementation in combination with resistance training may increase muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of post-exercise protein supplementation with collagen peptides v. placebo on muscle mass and muscle function following resistance training in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. A total of fifty-three male subjects (72·2 (sd 4·68) years) with sarcopenia (class I or II) completed this randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. All the participants underwent a 12-week guided resistance training programme (three sessions per week) and were supplemented with either collagen peptides (treatment group (TG)) (15 g/d) or silica as placebo (placebo group (PG)). Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and bone mass (BM) were measured before and after the intervention using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic quadriceps strength (IQS) of the right leg was determined and sensory motor control (SMC) was investigated by a standardised one-leg stabilisation test. Following the training programme, all the subjects showed significantly higher (P<0·01) levels for FFM, BM, IQS and SMC with significantly lower (P<0·01) levels for FM. The effect was significantly more pronounced in subjects receiving collagen peptides: FFM (TG +4·2 (sd 2·31) kg/PG +2·9 (sd 1·84) kg; P<0·05); IQS (TG +16·5 (sd 12·9) Nm/PG +7·3 (sd 13·2) Nm; P<0·05); and FM (TG -5·4 (sd 3·17) kg/PG -3·5 (sd 2·16) kg; P<0·05). Our data demonstrate that compared with placebo, collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training further improved body composition by increasing FFM, muscle strength and the loss in FM.

  17. Three-fold increase of M1 strength in 40Ar at 10 MeV excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Werner; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tonchev, Anton

    2017-09-01

    We reexamined the excitation energy region of 40Ar around 9.8 MeV with the goal of determining the known M1 strength located at 9.76 MeV more accurately. The physics motivation was based on the fact that i) the neutrino-nucleus interaction cross section is proportional to the M1 strength of a nucleus, ii) DUNE, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at SURF will be using liquid argon as detector medium, iii) the energy spectrum of supernova neutrinos is peaked at approximately 10 MeV. Mono-energetic and linearly polarized photons of 9.88 MeV were produced via Compton backscattering of 548 nm FEL photons from 543 MeV electrons at the High-Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS) facility at TUNL. The 1.25 cm diameter photon beam with energy spread of 300 keV (FWHM) interacted with argon gas contained in a high-pressure cell. The cell was viewed with HPGe detectors placed at 90o relative to the incident photon beam in the horizontal and vertical planes to distinguish between E1 and M1 de-excitation γ-rays. Our re-measurement provided an increase in M1 strength by a factor of approximately 3, mostly due to the discovery that the known level in 40Ar at 9.84 MeV is of M1 character and not of E1 character, as previously thought. In addition to the already known M1 state at 9.76 MeV, we observed weaker M1 states at 9.70, 9.81, 9.87, and 9.89 MeV.

  18. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  19. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jensen, Rigmor; Gard, Gunvor; Skov, Liselotte; Hallström, Inger

    2014-06-01

    Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness in girls with TTH compared with healthy controls. A blinded case-control study comprising 41 girls with TTH and 41 age-matched healthy controls. Standardised testing of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, as well as MVC and rate-of-force development of dominant shoulder, was conducted. VO2 max was recorded by a submaximal ergometer test and pericranial tenderness by standardised manual palpation. Logistic regression analyses were applied. Girls with TTH demonstrated significantly higher pericranial tenderness than controls, in correlation with headache frequency (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). Results indicated that the odds ratio of girls having headache are 7.6 (95% CI 1.4-40.9) for weak to strong shoulder muscles; weak to average neck-shoulder strength OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1); neck flexion strength OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) and 5.2 (95% CI: 1.4-19.6) for each unit of decrease in VO2 max. Reduced neck-shoulder strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with TTH in girls. Future interventions should be directed towards health promoting patient educational programmes on enhanced physical exercising. Much more exact and detailed research in young girls and boys are needed. © International Headache Society 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  1. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing the Strength of Single Filaments and Yarns of a Paraaramid Fiber by Their Processing with an Aqueous Suspension of Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebanov, S. M.; Novikov, I. K.; Gumargalieva, K. Z.; Pavlikov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the results of increasing the strength and modulus of single filaments and yarns of a paraaramid fiber by their processing with an aqueous suspension of carbon nanotubes in the production process

  3. Sustained-release rhBMP-2 increased bone mass and bone strength in an ovine model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi Xiang; Liu, Da; Wan, Shi Yong; Cui, Geng; Zhang, Yang; Lei, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the local treatment effects of rhBMP-2 combined with fibrin sealant (FS) on bone mineral density, microarchitectural and mechanical properties in osteoporotic ovine spine. Postmenopausal osteoporosis was induced in eight sheep through ovariectomy (OVX) and a low-calcium diet for a period of 12 months. According to the Latin square design, L3-L6 vertebrae were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: A (rhBMP-2/FS), B (rhBMP-2), C (FS) and D (blank control). All materials were injected into the assigned vertebra transpedicularly. All animals were euthanized 3 months after treatment. Bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitectural and mechanical properties were assessed. ANOVA analysis of variance was used to determine effects of rhBMP-2/FS (α = 0.05). The BMD in group A (rhBMP-2/FS) was 18.8, 30.4 and 27.9% higher than that in group B, C and D, respectively. Analysis of bone structure by micro-CT revealed higher trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) in the rhBMP-2/FS group (P < 0.01). In addition, vertebrae treated with rhBMP-2/FS exhibited higher yield stress, ultimate stress, energy absorption and bone modulus compared to the control groups. Local administration of rhBMP-2/FS showed a positive trend in improving BMD, microarchitectural parameters and mechanical strength of osteoporotic vertebra. Slow release of rhBMP-2 using FS appeared to be an effective method of protein delivery. The local treatment of osteoporosis in the spine can increase bone strength and reduce fracture risk quickly.

  4. The significant increase and dynamic changes of the myeloid-derived suppressor cells percentage with chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Fu, Y; Ma, K; Liu, C; Jiao, X; Du, W; Zhang, H; Wu, X

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the correlations between myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood and cancer stage, immune function, and chemotherapy. Percentages of MDSCs (CD11b(+)CD14(-)CD33(+) cells) and lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 94 patients with Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated naïve and 30 healthy individuals were measured. Changes of the MDSCs percentage were further detected in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with systemic chemotherapy. Finally, coculture with CD8(+) cells was developed to determine effect of MDSCs on IFN-γ secretion of T lymphocytes. MDSCs percentage of 94 patients with NSCLC was significantly higher than that of 30 healthy subjects (P < 0.05), the percentages were increased with tumor progression, in patients with stage III and IV percentages were significantly higher than those in stage I and II patients (P = 0.013). The MDSCs percentage was negatively related to percentage of CD8(+) cells in the peripheral blood (r = -0.354, n = 38, P = 0.029), and when they were cocultured, IFN-γ secretion of CD8(+) cells was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In 20 patients with advanced NSCLC who received systemic chemotherapy, nine partial remission (PR) cases got MDSCs percentage significantly decreased (P < 0.001), three stable disease (SD) cases remained invariable (P = 0.307) and eight progressive disease (PD) cases got significantly increased (P = 0.024). The percentage of MDSCs in the patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy control subjects and it increased with tumor progression partially by inhibiting the CD8(+) cell function. The dynamic changes of MDSCs percentage reflected the efficacy of systemic chemotherapy.

  5. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Methods Taiwan’s extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan’s crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. Results The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan’s crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan’s and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan’s trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Conclusions Significant social events, such as a well-known person’s successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use

  6. A study on directions of significant efficiency increase of rock fracture by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, L. T.; Klishin, V. I.; Nikitenko, S. M.; Korneyev, V. A.; Korneyev, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the directions of a significant increase in effectiveness of mine rocks destruction by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite materials are reviewed and justified. Designs of mining drill bits with the cutting insert in the form of elliptical Cassinian oval and the asymmetric ring cleaves are suggested. Versions of laboratory stand constructions are developed in order to determine the power consumption of rock destruction.

  7. Adult Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates anabolic response to sclerostin antibody treatment with increased bone mass and strength.

    PubMed

    Sinder, B P; White, L E; Salemi, J D; Ominsky, M S; Caird, M S; Marini, J C; Kozloff, K M

    2014-08-01

    Treatments to reduce fracture rates in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta are limited. Sclerostin antibody, developed for treating osteoporosis, has not been explored in adults with OI. This study demonstrates that treatment of adult OI mice respond favorably to sclerostin antibody therapy despite retention of the OI-causing defect. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk. Although OI fracture risk is greatest before puberty, adults with OI remain at risk of fracture. Antiresorptive bisphosphonates are commonly used to treat adult OI, but have shown mixed efficacy. New treatments which consistently improve bone mass throughout the skeleton may improve patient outcomes. Neutralizing antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) are a novel anabolic therapy that have shown efficacy in preclinical studies by stimulating bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Scl-Ab in an adult 6 month old Brtl/+ model of OI that harbors a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly > Cys substitution on Col1a1. Six-month-old WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated with Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2×/week) or Veh for 5 weeks. OCN and TRACP5b serum assays, dynamic histomorphometry, microCT and mechanical testing were performed. Adult Brtl/+ mice demonstrated a strong anabolic response to Scl-Ab with increased serum osteocalcin and bone formation rate. This anabolic response led to improved trabecular and cortical bone mass in the femur. Mechanical testing revealed Scl-Ab increased Brtl/+ femoral stiffness and strength. Scl-Ab was successfully anabolic in an adult Brtl/+ model of OI.

  8. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing the number of African American PhDs in the sciences and engineering: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Maton, Kenneth I; Hrabowski, Freeman A

    2004-09-01

    Fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education, the percentage of African American students who receive PhDs in natural science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields remains disappointingly low. A multifaceted, strengths-based approach to intervention and research that holds great promise for increasing the number of African American students who achieve at the highest levels academically is described. This work began in 1988 with the development of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for undergraduate minority STEM majors at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). If current PhD receipt rates of program graduates continue, UMBC will in all likelihood become the leading predominantly White baccalaureate-origin university for Black STEM PhDs in the nation. The program is described and outcome and process findings from its ongoing evaluation are highlighted. The parenting practices that helped these youths to overcome the odds and achieve at the highest levels prior to coming to college are also examined. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  10. Increased knee muscle strength is associated with decreased activity limitations in established knee osteoarthritis: Two-year follow-up study in the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; van der Leeden, Marike; van der Esch, Martin; Roorda, Leo D; Verschueren, Sabine; van Dieën, Jaap; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost

    2015-08-18

    To examine the association between changes in knee muscle strength (extensor and flexor muscles separately, and mean values) and changes in activity limitations in patients with established knee osteoarthritis at 2 years. Data from 186 patients with knee osteoarthritis, part of the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis cohort, were gathered at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Activity limitations were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) - Physical Function subscale, the Get Up and Go test (GUG), and the 12-steps stairs test. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between changes in muscle strength and changes in activity limitations, adjusting for relevant confounders and baseline activity limitations. There was an overall 16% increase in mean knee muscle strength (p < 0.001), 19% increase in knee extensor muscle strength (p < 0.001), and 17% increase in knee flexor muscle strength (p < 0.001) at 2 years. Increased mean knee muscle strength and knee flexor muscle strength were associated with better self-reported physical function (WOMAC) (b = -5.7, p = 0.03 and b = -6.2, p = 0.05), decreased time on the GUG (b = -1.2, p = 0.003 and b = -1.4, p = 0.05) and decreased time on the stairs test (b = -4.4, p < 0.001 and b = -6.6, p < 0.001). Increased extensor muscle strength was associated only with decreased time on the stairs test (b = -2.7, p < 0.001). Increased knee muscle strength, mainly in the knee flexors, was associated with decreased activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis at 2 years. Thus, differences in muscle strength may partially explain the between-patients variability in activity limitations.

  11. Increased expression of VEGF121/VEGF165-189 ratio results in a significant enhancement of human prostate tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Catena, Raul; Muniz-Medina, Vanessa; Moralejo, Beatriz; Javierre, Biola; Best, Carolyn J M; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Green, Jeffrey E; Baker, Carl C; Calvo, Alfonso

    2007-05-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic factor upregulated in many tumors. The alternative splicing of VEGF mRNA renders 3 major isoforms of 121, 165 and 189 amino-acids in humans (1 less amino-acid for each mouse VEGF isoform). We have designed isoform specific real time QRT-PCR assays to quantitate VEGF transcripts in mouse and human normal and malignant prostates. In the human normal prostate, VEGF(165) was the predominant isoform (62.8% +/- 5.2%), followed by VEGF(121) (22.5% +/- 6.3%) and VEGF(189) (p < 0.001) (14.6% +/- 2.1%). Prostate tumors showed a significant increase in the percentage of VEGF(121) and decreases in VEGF(165) (p < 0.01) and VEGF(189) (p < 0.05). However, the amount of total VEGF mRNA was similar between normal and malignant prostates. VEGF(164) was the transcript with the highest expression in the mouse normal prostate. Unlike human prostate cancer, tumors from TRAMP mice demonstrated a significant increase in total VEGF mRNA levels and in each of the VEGF isoforms, without changes in the relative isoform ratios. Morpholino phosphorodiamide antisense oligonucleotide technology was used to increase the relative amount of VEGF(121) while proportionally decreasing VEGF(165) and VEGF(189) levels in human prostate cell lines, through the modification of alternative splicing, without changing transcription levels and total amount of VEGF. The increase in the VEGF(121)/VEGF(165-189) ratio in PC3 cells resulted in a dramatic increase in prostate tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Our results underscore the importance of VEGF(121) in human prostate carcinoma and demonstrate that the relative expression of the different VEGF isoforms has an impact on prostate carcinogenesis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review.

    PubMed

    Crone, Brian C; Garland, Jay L; Sorial, George A; Vane, Leland M

    2016-11-01

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low removal efficiencies (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), and Nutrients), alkalinity demand, and potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have limited its application to warmer climates. Although well designed anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) are able to effectively treat DWW at psychrophilic temperatures (10-30 °C), lower temperatures increase methane solubility leading to increased energy losses in the form of dissolved methane in the effluent. Estimates of dissolved methane losses are typically based on concentrations calculated using Henry's Law but advection limitations can lead to supersaturation of methane between 1.34 and 6.9 times equilibrium concentrations and 11-100% of generated methane being lost in the effluent. In well mixed systems such as AnMBRs which use biogas sparging to control membrane fouling, actual concentrations approach equilibrium values. Non-porous membranes have been used to recover up to 92.6% of dissolved methane and well suited for degassing effluents of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors which have considerable solids and organic contents and can cause pore wetting and clogging in microporous membrane modules. Microporous membranes can recover up to 98.9% of dissolved methane in AnMBR effluents which have low COD and SS concentrations. Sequential Down-flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors have been used to recover between 57 and 88% of dissolved methane from Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor effluent at concentrations of greater than 30% and oxidize the rest for a 99% removal of total dissolved methane. They can also remove 90% of suspended solids and COD in UASB effluents and produce a high quality effluent. In

  13. Significance of an increase in the Child-Pugh score after radiotherapy in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Son, Seok Hyun; Jang, Hong Seok; Jo, In-Young; Choi, Byung Ock; Jang, Jeong Won; Yoon, Seung Kew; Kay, Chul Seung

    2014-04-29

    We attempted to analyze the effects of an increase in the Child-Pugh (CP) score on the overall survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiotherapy (RT). From March 2006 to February 2012, 103 patients received RT using the TomoTherapy Hi-Art at Incheon St. Mary's Hospital and Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The dose per fraction was 1.8-5 Gy, and the total dose was 40-60 Gy (median, 50 Gy). We considered an increase of at least 2 points in the CP score within 3 months after RT to be clinically important radiation-induced hepatic toxicity and analyzed the effects of an increased CP score on overall survival. The median follow-up duration was 11.6 months (range, 3.5-85.3 months). The median survival time was 11.6 months. In multivariate analysis, planning target volume and an increase in the CP score after RT were found to be a statistically significant factors (p = 0.010 and 0.015, respectively). In a comparison of cases with and without an increase in the CP score, there was an 11.0-month difference in the median survival time (6.9 vs. 17.9 months), and the relative risk of mortality was 1.8. An increase of at least 2 points in the CP score within 3 months of RT completion is an important on-treatment factor that affects overall survival. To minimize such increases, careful patient selection and a more sophisticated radiation treatment plan are imperative.

  14. PEP-1-frataxin significantly increases cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by reducing lipid peroxidation in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Bich Na; Yoo, Dae Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Mi Jin; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-12-01

    Frataxin plays important roles in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and in the differentiation of neurons during early development. In this study, we observed the effects of frataxin on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. For this, we constructed an expression vector, PEP-1, that was fused with frataxin to create a PEP-1-frataxin fusion protein that easily penetrated frataxin into the blood-brain barrier. Three mg/kg PEP-1-frataxin was intraperitoneally administered to mice once a day for 2 weeks. The administration of PEP-1 alone did not result in any significant changes in the number of Ki67-positive cells and doublecortin (DCX)-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the mouse dentate gyrus. However, the administration of PEP-1-frataxin significantly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells and DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the mouse dentate gyrus. In addition, PEP-1-frataxin significantly reduced 4-hydroxynonenal protein levels and malondialdehyde formation, while Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase protein levels were maintained. These results suggest that frataxin effectively increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by decreasing lipid peroxidation in the dentate gyrus.

  15. Bone regeneration in distraction osteogenesis demonstrates significantly increased vascularity in comparison to fracture repair in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N; Farberg, Aaron S; Deshpande, Sagar S; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Tissue analysis of bone regenerate has suggested an intense vascular response after mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO). Quantifying and three-dimensionally imaging this vascular response could be of immense clinical import in efforts to advance the utility of bone regeneration and repair. Conventional quantification of vascular responses has heretofore focused on inexact, cumbersome measurements of blood flow and histologic vessel counting. Using micro-computed tomography after vessel perfusion, we posit that quantitative vascular metrics will be significantly higher in mandibular DO compared with those observed in fracture repair (FxR) after bony union. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mandibular osteotomy and external fixator placement. A DO group (n=9) underwent a 5.1-mm distraction, whereas a FxR group (n=12) had a 2.1-mm fixed gap set. Forty days after surgery, Microfil was perfused into the vasculature, and imaging ensued. Vascular radiomorphometrics were calculated for the regions of interest. Independent-samples t-test was performed for comparison, with statistical significance set at P≤0.05. Stereological analysis demonstrated statistically significant increases in the distracted vasculature compared with fracture repair: vessel volume fraction (5.4% versus 2.8%, P=0.030) and vessel number (0.86 versus 0.50 mm, P=0.014). We report robust and quantifiable increases in vascular density in DO compared with FxR. Our findings support a significant distinction between the regenerative processes of mandibular DO from the reparative mechanisms controlling fracture healing. A better understanding of the differences between the 2 types of bone formation may enable clinicians to selectively optimize therapeutic outcomes in the future.

  16. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  17. The strength of the ankle dorsiflexors has a significant contribution to walking speed in people who can walk independently after stroke: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Simone; Ada, Louise; Canning, Colleen G; Al-Zharani, Matar; Dean, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the strength of muscles of the affected lower limb and walking speed after stroke. A cross-sectional observational study. University laboratory. Stroke survivors (N=60; mean age ± SD, 69±11y) 1 to 6 years poststroke, able to walk 10m independently without aids. Not applicable. Maximum isometric strength of 12 muscle groups (hip flexors/extensors, adductors/abductors, internal/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors, ankle dorsiflexors/plantarflexors, invertors/evertors) of the affected lower limb was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Comfortable walking speed was measured using the ten-meter walk test. Univariate analysis revealed that strength of the hip flexors (r=.35, P=.01), hip extensors (r=.29, P=.03), hip internal rotators (r=.30, P=.02), hip adductors (r=.29, P=.03), knee extensors (r=.27, P=.03), knee flexors (r=.30, P=.02), ankle dorsiflexors (r=.50, P=.00), ankle plantarflexors (r=.29, P=.03), and ankle evertors (r=.33, P=.01) were all positively associated with walking speed. Multivariate analysis (n=58) revealed that the combined strength of the ankle dorsiflexors and the hip flexors accounted for 34% of the variance in walking speed (P<.001). The ankle dorsiflexors accounted for 31% of the variance (P<.001). The strength of muscle groups other than the lower limb extensors, particularly the ankle dorsiflexors, has an important role in determining walking speed after stroke. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. GSTT1 Null Genotype Significantly Increases the Susceptibility to Urinary System Cancer: Evidences from 63,876 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; He, Jing; Ma, Tian-Jiao; Lei, Wei; Li, Feng; Shen, Han; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2016-01-01

    GSTT1 gene plays an important role in detoxification and clearance of reactive oxygen species(ROS). A null variant in this gene has been demonstrated to confer cancer susceptibility. Although many studies have demonstrated the association between GSTT1 null polymorphism and urinary system cancer susceptibility, several publications reported opposite conclusions. For better understanding the effects of this polymorphism on the risk of urinary system cancer, a updated meta-analysis was performed with a total of 26,666 cases and 37,210 controls extracted from 117 studies, by following the latest meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The results suggested that the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of urinary system cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.05-1.22). Furthermore, stratified analyses by the type of cancer, ethnicity, source of control and quality score presented a significantly increased risk associated with GSTT1 null genotype in bladder and prostate cancer subgroup, Caucasians and Indians subgroup, population-based(PB) subgroup, medium quality and low quality subgroup. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 null genotype is a potential cancer susceptibility variant. Well-designed and large-cohort studies are needed to confirm the association between GSTT1 null genotype and urinary system cancer risk.

  19. Strain-induced significant increase in metal-insulator transition temperature in oxygen-deficient Fe oxide epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Kei; Kan, Daisuke; Ichikawa, Noriya; Mibu, Ko; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Andreeva, Marina; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen coordination of transition metals is a key for functional properties of transition-metal oxides, because hybridization of transition-metal d and oxygen p orbitals determines correlations between charges, spins and lattices. Strain often modifies the oxygen coordination environment and affects such correlations in the oxides, resulting in the emergence of unusual properties and, in some cases, fascinating behaviors. While these strain effects have been studied in many of the fully-oxygenated oxides, such as ABO3 perovskites, those in oxygen-deficient oxides consisting of various oxygen coordination environments like tetrahedra and pyramids as well as octahedra remain unexplored. Here we report on the discovery of a strain-induced significant increase, by 550 K, in the metal-insulator transition temperature of an oxygen-deficient Fe oxide epitaxial thin film. The observed transition at 620 K is ascribed to charge disproportionation of Fe3.66+ into Fe4+ and Fe3+, associated with oxygen-vacancy ordering. The significant increase in the metal-insulator transition temperature, from 70 K in the bulk material, demonstrates that epitaxial growth of oxygen-deficient oxides under substrate-induced strain is a promising route for exploring novel functionality.

  20. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA; Herberg, Samuel

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice andmore » elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  1. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.; and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  2. The prevalence and incidence of coronary heart disease is significantly increased in periodontitis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bahekar, Amol Ashok; Singh, Sarabjeet; Saha, Sandeep; Molnar, Janos; Arora, Rohit

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting results as to whether periodontitis (PD) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether such an association exists. A systematic review of the literature revealed 5 prospective cohort studies (follow-up >6 years), 5 case-control studies, and 5 cross-sectional studies that were eligible for meta-analysis. Individual studies were adjusted for confounding factors such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. The 3 study categories were analyzed separately. Heterogeneity of the studies was assessed by Cochran Q test. The studies were homogeneous; therefore, the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model was used to compute common relative risk and odds ratio (OR). Meta-analysis of the 5 prospective cohort studies (86092 patients) indicated that individuals with PD had a 1.14 times higher risk of developing CHD than the controls (relative risk 1.14, 95% CI 1.074-1.213, P < .001). The case-control studies (1423 patients) showed an even greater risk of developing CHD (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.59-3.117, P < .001). The prevalence of CHD in the cross-sectional studies (17724 patients) was significantly greater among individuals with PD than in those without PD (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.329-1.907, P < .001). When the relationship between number of teeth and incidence of CHD was analyzed, cohort studies showed 1.24 times increased risk (95% CI 1.14-1.36, P < .0001) of development of CHD in patients with <10 teeth. This meta-analysis indicates that both the prevalence and incidence of CHD are significantly increased in PD. Therefore, PD may be a risk factor for CHD. Prospective studies are required to prove this assumption and evaluate risk reduction with the treatment of PD.

  3. Celiac disease diagnosis still significantly delayed - Doctor's but not patients' delay responsive for the increased total delay in women.

    PubMed

    Vavricka, Stephan R; Vadasz, Nina; Stotz, Matthias; Lehmann, Romina; Studerus, Diana; Greuter, Thomas; Frei, Pascal; Zeitz, Jonas; Scharl, Michael; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Tutuian, Radu; Fasano, Alessio; Schoepfer, Alain M; Rogler, Gerhard; Biedermann, Luc

    2016-10-01

    There is insufficient data on diagnostic delay and associated factors in celiac disease (CeD) as well as on its potential impact on the course of disease. Specifically taking its two components - patients' and doctors' delay - into account, we performed a large systematic patient survey study among unselected CeD patients in Switzerland. We found a mean/median total diagnostic delay of 87/24 months (IQR 5-96), with a range from 0 up to 780 months and roughly equal fractions of patients' and doctors' delay. Both mean/median total (93.1/24 vs. 60.2/12, p<0.001) and doctors' (41.8/3 vs. 23.9/2, p<0.001) diagnostic delay were significantly higher in female vs. male patients, whereas patients' delay was similar, regardless of preceding irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis. Patients with a diagnostic delay shorter than 2 years were significantly less often in need of steroids and/or immunosuppressants, substitution for any nutritional deficiency but more often free of symptoms 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. There is a substantial diagnostic delay in CeD, which is associated with a worse clinical outcome and significantly longer in female patients. This increased diagnostic delay in women is due to doctors' but not patients' delay and cannot be explained by antecedent IBS prior to establishing the CeD diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Engineered antibody domains with significantly increased transcytosis and half-life in macaques mediated by FcRn.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tianlei; Wang, Yanping; Feng, Yang; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Gong, Rui; Wang, Lili; Crowder, Karalyne; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2015-01-01

    Engineered antibody domains (eAds) are promising candidate therapeutics but their half-life is relatively short partly due to weak or absent binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). We developed a novel approach to increase the eAd binding to FcRn based on a combination of structure-based design, computational modeling and phage display methodologies. By using this approach, we identified 2 IgG1 CH2-derived eAds fused to a short FcRn-binding motif derived from IgG1 CH3 that exhibited greatly enhanced FcRn binding with strict pH dependency. Importantly, the increased affinity resulted in significantly enhanced FcRn-mediated epithelial transcytosis and prolonged elimination half-life (mean 44.1 hours) in cynomolgus macaques. These results demonstrate for the first time that the half-life of isolated eAds can be prolonged (optimized) by increasing their binding to FcRn while maintaining their small size, which has important implications for development of therapeutics, including eAd-drug conjugates with enhanced penetration in solid tissues.

  5. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  6. Adipose tissue-derived adiponectin expression is significantly associated with increased post operative mortality in horses undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Packer, M J; German, A J; Hunter, L; Trayhurn, P; Proudman, C J

    2011-08-01

    Adipose tissue is an important source of inflammatory cytokines (adipokines) and adiposity has been identified as having a significant effect on human morbidity and mortality. Obesity is also an emerging welfare problem in the UK horse population, but the role that it plays in secondary diseases is unclear. To examine the expression of inflammation-related adipokine genes in retroperitoneal adipose tissue of horses undergoing emergency abdominal surgery and to explore associations with adiposity and post operative survival. Retroperitoneal adipose tissue samples were obtained from 76 horses undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression for leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inhibitory factor, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin and interleukin-1. Multivariate patterns of adipokine expression were explored with principal component analysis (PCA), whilst univariable associations with post operative survival were tested in a Cox proportional hazards model. Leptin gene expression was higher in overweight and obese horses than in lean animals. Expression of mRNA encoding adiponectin mRNA in visceral adipose tissue was positively associated with increased post operative mortality (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.05-1.65). However, PCA did not demonstrate multivariable patterns of adipokine gene expression from visceral adipose tissue associated with body mass index or with survival. In horses presented with acute intestinal disease, increased adiponectin gene expression from retroperitoneal adipose tissue is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Obesity assessed by BMI had no association with increased post operative mortality in horses with primary gastrointestinal disease. Further study is warranted on the expression and effects of adipokines, particularly adiponectin, and correlation with postoperative outcome. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Significantly increased surface plasmon polariton mode excitation using a multilayer insulation structure in a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyan; Li, Jianqing; Xiao, Gongli

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, we propose a novel multilayer insulation structure in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguide to explore the possibility of increasing surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode excitation. Numerical investigations show that the effective refractive index of the multilayer insulation structure affects symmetric SPP mode excitation. The significant enhancement of electric field intensity in horizontal and vertical profiles with a dipole in SiO2 compared with in Al2O3 is observed in the proposed MIM plasmonic waveguides due to a combination of the improved optical density and dipole radiation intensities under a low refractive index. The Au/SiO2/Al2O3/SiO2/Au geometry shows the best enhancement performances, which can serve as an excellent guideline for designing and optimizing a high-performance SPP source using a multilayer insulation structure.

  8. Absorption studies show that phytase from Aspergillus niger significantly increases iron and zinc bioavailability from phytate-rich foods.

    PubMed

    Troesch, Barbara; Jing, Hua; Laillou, Arnaud; Fowler, Ann

    2013-06-01

    Iron and zinc deficiency are major public health problems affecting many parts of the world, including Southeast Asia. Infants, young children, and women of reproductive age are particularly vulnerable due to their high requirements. Even though iron and zinc are present in significant amounts in the plant-based diets typically consumed in developing countries, their bioavailability is low due to high levels of absorption inhibitors such as phytate. Phytase has been used in animal nutrition for decades to improve the bioavailability of certain minerals in feed. To show the effect of phytase in human nutrition based on evidence from human studies. Phytase can be used either during processing or as an active food ingredient degrading dietary phytate during stomach transit time. Evidence from human studies testing the effect of phytase on iron and zinc bioavailability using stable isotopes was reviewed. Twelve studies tested the effect of phytase on iron and five tested its effect on zinc bioavailability. Most of these studies used a phytase derived from Aspergillus niger. They found a beneficial effect unless phytate concentrations were too low or levels of inhibitors or enhancers of iron absorption were too high. Twenty to 320 phytase units per 100 g of flour significantly improved iron absorption, even though higher levels might further increase iron bioavailability. For zinc, not enough information is available to determine optimal activities. Phytase clearly has a beneficial effect on iron and zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods. It also has the potential to increase the absorption of magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus in areas such as Southeast Asia where mineral deficiencies are widespread.

  9. A History of Falls is Associated with a Significant Increase in Acute Mortality in Women after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Foster, Emma J; Barlas, Raphae S; Wood, Adrian D; Bettencourt-Silva, Joao H; Clark, Allan B; Metcalf, Anthony K; Bowles, Kristian M; Potter, John F; Myint, Phyo K

    2017-10-01

    The risks of falls and fractures increase after stroke. Little is known about the prognostic significance of previous falls and fractures after stroke. This study examined whether having a history of either event is associated with poststroke mortality. We analyzed stroke register data collected prospectively between 2003 and 2015. Eight sex-specific models were analyzed, to which the following variables were incrementally added to examine their potential confounding effects: age, type of stroke, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification, previous comorbidities, frailty as indicated by the prestroke modified Rankin Scale score, and acute illness parameters. Logistic regression was applied to investigate in-hospital and 30-day mortality, and Cox proportional-hazards models were applied to investigate longer-term outcomes of mortality. In total, 10,477 patients with stroke (86.1% ischemic) were included in the analysis. They were aged 77.7±11.9 years (mean±SD), and 52.2% were women. A history of falls was present in 8.6% of the men (n=430) and 20.2% of the women (n=1,105), while 3.8% (n=189) of the men and 12.9% of the women (n=706) had a history of both falls and fractures. Of the outcomes examined, a history of falls alone was associated with increased in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-1.71] and 30-day mortality (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.03-1.73) in women in the fully adjusted models. The Cox proportional-hazards models for longer-term outcomes and the history of falls and fractures combined showed no significant results. The history of falls is an important factor for acute stroke mortality in women. A previous history of falls may therefore be an important factor to consider in the short-term stroke prognosis, particularly in women.

  10. A stepwise reduction in plasma and salivary nitrite with increasing strengths of mouthwash following a dietary nitrate load.

    PubMed

    Woessner, Mary; Smoliga, James M; Tarzia, Brendan; Stabler, Thomas; Van Bruggen, Mitch; Allen, Jason D

    2016-04-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health. Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in vegetables and roots, has been identified as an effective means of increasing vascular NO bioavailability. Recent studies have shown a reduction in resting blood pressures in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects following ingestion of inorganic nitrate. Oral bacteria play a key role in this process and the use of strong antibacterial mouthwash rinses can disable this mechanism. Hence, mouthwash usage, a $1.4 billion market in the US, may potentially be detrimental to cardiovascular health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different strengths of commercially available mouthwash products on salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations following 8.4 mmol inorganic nitrate load (beetroot juice). Specifically, we examined the effects of Listerine antiseptic mouthwash, Cepacol antibacterial mouthwash, and Chlorhexidine mouthwash versus control (water). Twelve apparently healthy normotensive males (36 ± 11 yrs) completed four testing visits in a randomized order, separated by one week. Testing consisted of blood pressure (BP), and saliva and venous blood collection at baseline and each hour for 4 h. Following baseline-testing participants consumed 140 ml of beet juice and then 15 min later gargled with 5 mL of assigned mouthwash. Testing and mouthwash rinse was repeated every hour for 4 h. Linear mixed effects models, followed by pairwise comparisons where appropriate, were used to determine the influence of treatment and time on plasma and saliva nitrate and nitrite, and BP. Plasma and salivary nitrate increased above baseline (time effect) for all conditions (p ≤ 0.01). There were time (p ≤ 0.01), treatment (p ≤ 0.01), and interaction (p ≤ 0.05) effects for plasma and salivary nitrite. There was a treatment effect on systolic BP (p ≤ 0.05). Further examination revealed a

  11. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com; Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY; Packianathan, Satyaseelan

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patientsmore » were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.« less

  12. Little evidence for significant increases of methane emissions from oil and gas operations in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, X.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M.; Miller, B.; Kofler, J.; Newberger, T.; McKain, K.; Wolter, S.; Montzka, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies on whether methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas (ONG) operations in the U.S. have increased are still inconclusive. To provide observational evidence we carefully analyzed the in-situ CH4 measurements from the NOAA/ESRL Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN) for the best estimates of CH4 trends for 2006-2016. Methane data from more than 20 surface and aircraft sites across the U.S. were included in this study. Variations of sampling frequencies in different seasons were taken into account for accurate trend detection. Correlations among measurements within short sampling intervals were also considered for uncertainty estimates. We found that most of our sites had similar CH4 trends of 6 ppb/yr, which was comparable with the recent global background CH4 trend. Substantially higher growth rates were found at the Southern Great Plain site in Oklahoma (SGP, downwind of the Eagle Ford, Barnett Shale and Woodford ONG fields) and the Dahlen sites in North Dakota (DND, downwind of the Bakken ONG field), which indicated influences from regional ONG activities. Ethane (C2H6) measurements from SGP (C2H6 measurements were not available from DND) and propane (C3H8) measurements from both SPG and DND exhibited significant increasing trends, while trends at other sites were either non-significant (trend < 2*S.D.) or only marginally significant. Linear correlations were well identified for surface C3H8 and CH4 enhancements at these two sites, relative to observations at higher altitudes. However, by applying the observed enhancement ratios of surface C3H8 /CH4 and the C3H8 trends (as indicator for ONG emissions) on CH4 trend estimates, we would infer much larger surface CH4 trends than what we actually observed at these two sites. This discrepancy suggests that using enhancement ratios of C3H8 /CH4 is not likely a reliable approach to compute CH4 emission trends.

  13. The improvement in walking speed induced by resistance training is associated with increased muscular strength but not skeletal muscle mass in older women.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leandro; Ribeiro, Alex S; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Nascimento, Matheus A; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Souza, Mariana F; Pina, Fábio L C; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze whether improvements in fast walking speed induced by resistance training (RT) are associated with changes in body composition, muscle quality, and muscular strength in older women. Twenty-three healthy older women (69.6 ± 6.4 years, 64.95 ± 12.9 kg, 1.55 ± 0.07 m, 27.06 ± 4.6 kg/m²) performed a RT program for 8 weeks consisting of 8 exercises for the whole body, 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions maximum, 3 times a week. Anthropometric, body composition (fat-free mass [FFM], skeletal muscle mass [SMM], legs lean soft tissue [LLST], fat mass), knee extension muscular strength (KE1RM), muscle quality index (MQI [KE1RM/LLST]), and 10-meter walking test (10-MWT) were performed before and after the intervention. Significant (P < .05) changes were observed from pre- to post-training for FFM (+1.6%), MQI (+7.2%), SMM (+2.4%), LLST (+1.8%), KE1RM (+8.6%), fat mass (-1.4%), and time to perform 10-MWT (-3.7%). The percentage change in 10-MWT was significantly associated with percentage change in MQI (r = -0.46, P = .04) and KE1RM (r = -0.45, P = .04), however not associated percentage of changes in SMM (r = 0.01, P = .97), LLST (r = -0.22, P = .33), and body fat (r = 0.10, P = .66). We conclude that the improvement in the 10-MWT after an 8-week RT program is associated with increases in lower limb muscular strength and muscle quality, but not with muscle mass or body fat changes in older women.

  14. Single- vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlumberger, Andreas; Stec, Justyna; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Compared the effects of single- and multiple-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training. Both training groups had significant strength improvements in leg extension. In the seated bench press, only the three-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength. There were higher strength gains overall in the…

  15. Increasing Bone Mass and Bone Strength in Individuals with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Maximizing Response to Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...patients are being screened for study entry. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal cord injury, bone mass, bone strength, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid 16...have been completed or are on-going. All regulatory approvals have been maintained. Screening , enrollment and treatment of participants (Specific

  16. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cos...

  17. Combination treatment with eldecalcitol (ED-71) and raloxifene improves bone mechanical strength by suppressing bone turnover and increasing bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Satoshi; Sakai, Sadaoki; Shiraishi, Ayako; Koike, Nobuo; Mihara, Masahiko; Endo, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combination treatment with eldecalcitol (ELD) and raloxifene (RAL) on bone turnover, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength. Eight-month-old rats were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham operated, and divided into five groups (Sham, OVX+vehicle, OVX+RAL, OVX+ELD and OVX+ELD+RAL). ELD (7.5 ng/kg) and RAL (0.3mg/kg) were orally administered alone or in combination daily. Urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, BMD and mechanical properties of the lumbar spine and femur were assessed, and bone histomorphometry was performed. Urinary DPD levels in all the treatment groups were significantly decreased compared with the OVX+vehicle group. At 4 weeks of treatment, urinary DPD level of the combination group was significantly lower than that of either monotherapy group. The reduction in the BMD of the lumbar spine and femur by OVX was significantly prevented in all the treatment groups, and the BMD in the combination group was significantly higher than that in either monotherapy group. The ultimate load and work to failure of the fifth lumbar vertebra were significantly improved only by the combination treatment. The femoral midshaft ultimate load was significantly increased in the OVX+ELD group and the combination group, and the femoral midshaft work to failure was increased only in the combination group. Bone histomorphometric analysis using the third lumbar vertebra revealed that osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS), osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) and osteoclast number (N.Oc/BS) significantly decreased in all treatment groups, and osteoid surface (OS/BS) and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) significantly decreased in the ELD-treated and combination groups. The values of Ob.S/BS and OS/BS in the combination group were lower than those in either of the monotherapy groups. The bone formation parameters in the combination group were not reduced to below

  18. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  19. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFS) increase breast tumor growth rate, metastases, blood flow, and oxygenation without significant change in vascular density.

    PubMed

    Okunieff, Paul; Fenton, Bruce M; Zhang, Lurong; Kern, Francis G; Wu, Timothy; Greg, J Robert; Ding, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Breast tumors expressing no detectable FGFs (MCF-7) were compared with tumors transfected with FGF4 or FGF1 (FGF4/MCF-7 or FGF1/MCF-7), and with MDA-MB-435, which produce endogenous FGF2. Tumor blood flow was measured by 133Xe diffusion, oxygen distribution was measured by Eppendorf pO2 histography, and vascular density was measured by CD31 staining. Tumors that overexpress angiogenic factors grew at a rate far exceeding that of MCF-7. The FGF producing tumors also had much higher metastatic rates to lung. Tumor blood flow was significantly higher in the two FGF-transfected xenografts compared with the parent MCF7. Median tumor pO2 was also higher, and tumor oxygenation was preserved even for large tumors. The vascular density as determined by CD31 staining, however, was not markedly increased in tumors overexpressing angiogenic factors. We found that angiogenic factors preserve and augment neovascular function, thus facilitating tumor growth and progression.

  20. Significantly increased monounsaturated lipids relative to polyunsaturated lipids in six types of cancer microenvironment are observed by mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuai; Wang, Yanmin; Zhou, Dan; Li, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    Six different types of cancer (i.e., breast, lung, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, and thyroid cancer) have high rates of incidence or mortality worldwide. It has been shown that activation of de novo lipogenesis is an early and common event in the cancer microenvironment. In this study, we performed lipid imaging and profiling for 134 tissue samples from six different types of cancer using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 1,8-bis(dimethyl-amino)naphthalene as matrices in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis coupled with lipid distribution images revealed that significantly increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines relative to polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were observed in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. The immunohistochemical assay indicated that fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and choline kinase α were up-regulated in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. Our findings suggest that de novo lipogenesis was activated in six types of cancer to promote a biosynthesis of lipids with monounsaturated acyl chains and to suppress a biosynthesis of polyunsaturated lipids in the cancer microenvironment. PMID:25091112

  1. Significantly increased monounsaturated lipids relative to polyunsaturated lipids in six types of cancer microenvironment are observed by mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Wang, Yanmin; Zhou, Dan; Li, Zhili

    2014-08-05

    Six different types of cancer (i.e., breast, lung, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, and thyroid cancer) have high rates of incidence or mortality worldwide. It has been shown that activation of de novo lipogenesis is an early and common event in the cancer microenvironment. In this study, we performed lipid imaging and profiling for 134 tissue samples from six different types of cancer using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 1,8-bis(dimethyl-amino)naphthalene as matrices in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis coupled with lipid distribution images revealed that significantly increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines relative to polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were observed in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. The immunohistochemical assay indicated that fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and choline kinase α were up-regulated in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. Our findings suggest that de novo lipogenesis was activated in six types of cancer to promote a biosynthesis of lipids with monounsaturated acyl chains and to suppress a biosynthesis of polyunsaturated lipids in the cancer microenvironment.

  2. Significant increase in cyanide degradation by Bacillus sp. M01 PTCC 1908 with response surface methodology optimization.

    PubMed

    Javaheri Safa, Zohre; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Motallebi, Mostafa

    2017-11-10

    Cyanide is used in many industries despite its toxicity. Cyanide biodegradation is affordable and eco-friendly. Sampling from cyanide-contaminated areas from the Muteh gold mine and isolation of 24 bacteria were performed successfully. The selected bacteria-'Bacillus sp. M01'-showed maximum tolerance (15 mM) to cyanide and deposited in Persian Type Culture Collection by PTCC No.: 1908. In the primary experiments, effective factors were identified through the Plackett-Burman design. In order to attain the maximum degradation by Bacillus sp. M01 PTCC 1908, culture conditions were optimized by using response surface methodology. By optimizing the effective factor values and considering the interaction between them, the culture conditions were optimized. The degradation percentage was calculated using one-way ANOVA vs t test, and was found to have increased 2.35 times compared to pre-optimization. In all of the experiments, R2 was as high as 91%. The results of this study are strongly significant for cyanide biodegradation. This method enables the bacteria to degrade 86% of 10 mM cyanide in 48 h. This process has been patented in Iranian Intellectual Property Centre under Licence No: 90533.

  3. Strengthening of oxidation resistant materials for gas turbine applications. [treatment of silicon ceramics for increased flexural strength and impact resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics were treated to form compressive surface layers. On the silicon carbide, quenching and thermal exposure treatments were used, and on the silicon nitride, quenching, carburizing, and a combination of quenching and carburizing were used. In some cases substantial improvements in impact resistance and/or flexural strength were observed. The presence of compressive surface stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests.

  4. Torsion of monofilament and polyfilament sutures under tension decreases suture strength and increases risk of suture fracture.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, D B; Carey, E; Simms, C K; Hanly, A; Winter, D C

    2012-08-01

    A continuous running suture is the preferential method for abdominal closure. In this technique the suture is secured with an initial knot and successive tissue bites are taken. At each tissue bite, the needle is rotated through the tissue; in doing so, the suture can twist around the knot which acts as an anchor. To determine the effect of axial torsional forces on sutures used in abdominal closure. The effect of axial twisting on polydioxanone (PDS*II), polyglactin (Vicryl), polypropylene (Prolene) and nylon (Ethilon) sutures was investigated using a uniaxial testing device. The maximum tensile force withstood for untwisted sutures was determined: polydioxanone failed at a tensile force of 116.4±0.84 N, polyglactin failed at 113.9±2.4 N, polypropylene failed at 71.1±1.5 N and nylon failed at 61.8±0.5 N. Twisting decreased the maximum tensile force of all sutures; one complete twist per 10 mm (i.e., 15 twists) decreased the tensile strength of polydioxanone by 21%, polyglactin by 23%, polypropylene by 16% and nylon by 13%, p<0.001. Excessive twisting caused a nonlinear decrease in suture strength, with one twist per 75 mm (i.e., 20 twists) of polydioxanone decreasing strength by 39%, P<0.001. The effect of excessive twisting on the mechanical properties of sutures is a previously unrecognised phenomenon. Surgeons should be aware that this can result in a decrease in suture strength and reduce the elasticity of the material, and therefore need to adapt their practice to reduce the torsional force placed on sutures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  6. 500-Gray γ-Irradiation May Increase Adhesion Strength of Lyophilized Cadaveric Split-Thickness Skin Graft to Wound Bed.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Li, Chun-Chang; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2017-03-01

    Human cadaveric skin grafts are considered as the "gold standard" for temporary wound coverage because they provide a more conductive environment for natural wound healing. Lyophilization, packing, and terminal sterilization with gamma-ray can facilitate the application of cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts, but may alter the adhesion properties of the grafts. In a pilot study, we found that 500 Gy γ-irradiation seemed not to reduce the adherence between the grafts and wound beds. We conducted this experiment to compare the adherences of lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated skin grafts to that of lyophilized, nonirradiated grafts. Pairs of wounds were created over the backs of Sprague- Dawley rats. Pairs of "lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated" and "lyophilized, nonirradiated" cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts were fixed to the wound beds. Adhesion strength between the grafts and the wound beds was measured and compared. On post-skin-graft day 7 and day 10, the adhesion strength of γ-irradiated grafts was greater than that of the nonirradiated grafts. Because lyophilized cadaveric skin grafts can be vascularized and the collagen of its dermal component can be remodeled after grafting, the superior adhesion strength of 500-Gy γ-irradiated grafts can be explained by the collagen changes from irradiation.

  7. Beneficial use of off-specification fly ashes to increase the shear strength and stiffness of expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixtures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    The use of off-specification fly ashes to increase the shear strength and stiffness of an expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixture is investigated systematically in this study. The off-specification fly ashes used include a high-sulfur content and a high-...

  8. Trauma-induced coagulopathy upon emergency room arrival: still a significant problem despite increased awareness and management?

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Matthias; Mutschler, Manuel; Caspers, Michael; Nienaber, Ulrike; Jäcker, Vera; Driessen, Arne; Bouillon, Bertil; Maegele, Marc

    2017-11-23

    Over the last decade, the pivotal role of trauma-induced coagulopathy has been described and principal drivers have been identified. We hypothesized that the increased knowledge on coagulopathy of trauma would translate into a more cautious treatment, and therefore, into a reduced overall incidence rate of coagulopathy upon ER admission. Between 2002 and 2013, 61,212 trauma patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU® had a full record of coagulation parameters and were assessed for the presence of coagulopathy. Coagulopathy was defined by a Quick's value < 70% and/or platelet counts < 100,000/µl upon ER admission. For each year, the incidence of coagulopathy, the amount of pre-hospital administered i.v.-fluids and transfusion requirements were assessed. Coagulopathy upon ER admission was present in 24.5% of all trauma patients. Within the years 2002-2013, the annual incidence of coagulopathy decreased from 35 to 20%. Even in most severely injured patients (ISS > 50), the incidence of coagulopathy was reduced by 7%. Regardless of the injury severity, the amount of pre-hospital i.v.-fluids declined during the observed period by 51%. Simultaneously, morbidity and mortality of severely injured patients were on the decrease. During the 12 years observed, a substantial decline of coagulopathy has been observed. This was paralleled by a significant decrease of i.v.-fluids administered in the pre-hospital treatment. The reduced presence of coagulopathy translated into decreased transfusion requirements and mortality. Nevertheless, especially in the most severely injured patients, posttraumatic coagulopathy remains a frequent and life-threatening syndrome.

  9. Strength Training to Contraction Failure Increases Voluntary Activation of the Quadriceps Muscle Shortly After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Elin Karin; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Andersen, Lars Louis; Bandholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to investigate voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during one set of knee extensions performed until contraction failure in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. Design This was a cross-sectional study of 24 patients with total knee arthroplasty. One set of knee extensions was performed until contraction failure, using a predetermined 10 repetition maximum loading. In the operated leg, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral and medial vastus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles was recorded during the set. Muscle activity (%EMGmax) and median power frequency of the EMG power spectrum were calculated for each repetition decile (10%–100% contraction failure). Results Muscle activity increased significantly over contractions from a mean of 90.0 and 93.6 %EMGmax (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 99.3 and 105.5 %EMGmax at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.009 and 0.004). Median power frequency decreased significantly over contractions from a mean of 66.8 and 64.2 Hz (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 59.9 and 60.1 Hz at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.0006 and 0.0187). Conclusion In patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty, 10 repetition maximum–loaded knee extensions performed in one set until contraction failure increases voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during the set. Clinical Trials Gov-identifier: NCT01713140 to the abstract to increase trial transparency. PMID:26339729

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Chromosome Introgression Fragments from Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) Increase Fiber Strength in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Lu, Quanwei; Shi, Yuzhen; Xiao, Xianghui; Li, Pengtao; Gong, Juwu; Gong, Wankui; Liu, Aiying; Shang, Haihong; Li, Junwen; Ge, Qun; Song, Weiwu; Li, Shaoqi; Zhang, Zhen; Rashid, Md Harun Or; Peng, Renhai; Yuan, Youlu; Huang, Jinling

    2017-10-05

    As high-strength cotton fibers are critical components of high quality cotton, developing cotton cultivars with high-strength fibers as well as high yield is a top priority for cotton development. Recently, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) have been developed from high-yield Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) crossed with high-quality Sea Island cotton ( G. barbadense ). Here, we constructed a CSSL population by crossing CCRI45, a high-yield Upland cotton cultivar, with Hai1, a Sea Island cotton cultivar with superior fiber quality. We then selected two CSSLs with significantly higher fiber strength than CCRI45 (MBI7747 and MBI7561), and one CSSL with lower fiber strength than CCRI45 (MBI7285), for further analysis. We sequenced all four transcriptomes at four different time points postanthesis, and clustered the 44,678 identified genes by function. We identified 2200 common differentially-expressed genes (DEGs): those that were found in both high quality CSSLs (MBI7747 and MBI7561), but not in the low quality CSSL (MBI7285). Many of these genes were associated with various metabolic pathways that affect fiber strength. Upregulated DEGs were associated with polysaccharide metabolic regulation, single-organism localization, cell wall organization, and biogenesis, while the downregulated DEGs were associated with microtubule regulation, the cellular response to stress, and the cell cycle. Further analyses indicated that three genes, XLOC_036333 [mannosyl-oligosaccharide-α-mannosidase ( MNS1 )], XLOC_029945 ( FLA8 ), and XLOC_075372 ( snakin-1 ), were potentially important for the regulation of cotton fiber strength. Our results suggest that these genes may be good candidates for future investigation of the molecular mechanisms of fiber strength formation and for the improvement of cotton fiber quality through molecular breeding. Copyright © 2017 Lu et al.

  11. Observation of simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by grain refinement in a Fe-34.5Mn-0.04C steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. H.; Kang, J. M.; Peng, Y.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, T. S.; Huang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Fine grained Fe-34.5Mn-0.04C steel samples with fully recrystallized grain sizes of 3.8 to 2.0 μm were prepared by cold rolling followed by annealing a temperatures of either 650 °C or 800 °C. It is found that a simultaneous increase in both strength and ductility can be obtained by grain refinement, leading to an observation that the best combination of strength and ductility occurs in the sample with the finest recrystallized grain size.

  12. Decrease of muscle strength is associated with increase of activity limitations in early knee osteoarthritis: 3-year results from the cohort hip and cohort knee study.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, Martin; Holla, Jasmijn F; van der Leeden, Marike; Knol, Dirk L; Lems, Willem F; Roorda, Leo D; Dekker, Joost

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether a decrease in muscle strength over 3 years is associated with an increase in activity limitations in persons with early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), and to examine whether the longitudinal association between muscle strength and activity limitations is moderated by knee joint proprioception and laxity. A longitudinal cohort study with 3-year follow-up. Measurements were performed at the second (t0) and fifth (t1) year of the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee (CHECK) study. Statistical analyses included paired t tests, chi-square tests, and regression analyses. In regression analyses, the association between muscle strength and activity limitations was adjusted for confounders. A rehabilitation and rheumatology center. Subjects (N=146) with early symptomatic knee OA from the CHECK study. Not applicable. Muscle strength, proprioception, and laxity were assessed using specifically designed measurement devices. Self-reported and performance-based activity limitations were measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Get Up and Go test, the walk test, and the stair-climb test. A total of 116 women (79.5%) and 30 men (20.5%), with a mean age ± SD of 58.4±4.9 years and a mean body mass index ± SD of 25.5±3.6, were included in the study. Overall, small 3-year changes in muscle strength and activity limitations were observed. At the group level, the average muscle strength increased by 10% (1.0±0.3 to 1.1±0.3Nm/kg) over the 3 years. The 3-year decrease in muscle strength was independently associated with an increase in performance-based activity limitations on all 3 measures (B=-1.12, B=-5.83, and B=-1.25, respectively). Proprioception and laxity did not moderate this association. In patients with early knee OA, decreased muscle strength is associated with an increase in activity limitations. Our results are a step toward understanding the role of muscle weakness in the development of activity limitations

  13. Intrinsic 3D Prestressing: A New Route for Increasing Strength and Improving Toughness of Hybrid Inorganic Biocements.

    PubMed

    Schamel, Martha; Barralet, Jake E; Gelinsky, Michael; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe

    2017-09-01

    Cement is the most consumed resource and is the most widely used material globally. The ability to extrinsically prestress cementitious materials with tendons usually made from steel allows the creation of high-strength bridges and floors from this otherwise brittle material. Here, a dual setting cement system based on the combination of hydraulic cement powder with an aqueous silk fibroin solution that intrinsically generates a 3D prestressing during setting, dramatically toughening the cement to the point it can be cut with scissors, is reported. Changes of both ionic concentration and pH during cement setting are shown to create an interpenetrating silk fibroin inorganic composite with the combined properties of the elastic polymer and the rigid cement. These hybrid cements are self-densifying and show typical ductile fracture behavior when dry and a high elasticity under wet conditions with mechanical properties (bending and compressive strength) nearly an order of magnitude higher than the fibroin-free cement reference. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Salt-tolerant rootstock increases yield of pepper under salinity through maintenance of photosynthetic performance and sinks strength.

    PubMed

    Penella, Consuelo; Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Nebauer, Sergio G; Pellegrini, Elisa; San Bautista, Alberto; Remorini, Damiano; Nali, Cristina; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Angeles

    2016-04-01

    The performance of a salt-tolerant pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accession (A25) utilized as a rootstock was assessed in two experiments. In a first field experiment under natural salinity conditions, we observed a larger amount of marketable fruit (+75%) and lower Blossom-end Root incidence (-31%) in commercial pepper cultivar Adige (A) grafted onto A25 (A/A25) when compared with ungrafted plants. In order to understand this behavior a second greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine growth, mineral partitioning, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, antioxidant systems and proline content in A and A/A25 plants under salinity conditions (80 mM NaCl for 14 days). Salt stress induced significantly stunted growth of A plants (-40.6% of leaf dry weight) compared to the control conditions, while no alterations were observed in A/A25 at the end of the experiment. Accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in leaves and roots was similar in either grafted or ungrafted plants. Despite the activation of protective mechanisms (increment of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase activity and non-photochemical quenching), A plants showed severely reduced photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (-45.6% of AN390) and substantial buildup of malondialdehyde (MDA) by-product, suggesting the inability to counteract salt-triggered damage. In contrast, A/A25 plants, which had a constitutive enhanced root apparatus, were able to maintain the shoot and root growth under salinity conditions by supporting the maintained photosynthetic performance. No increases in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were observed in response to salinity, and MDA levels increased only slightly; indicating that alleviation of oxidative stress did not occur in A/A25 plants. In these plants the increased proline levels could protect enzymatic stability from salt-triggered damage, preserving the photosynthetic performance. The results could indicate that salt stress was vanished by

  15. Genetic selection to increase bone strength affects prevalence of keel bone damage and egg parameters in commercially housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, A; Fröhlich, E K F; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Harlander-Matauschek, A; Würbel, H; Toscano, M J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of keel bone damage as well as external egg parameters of 2 pure lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) bone strength were investigated in 2 aviary systems under commercial conditions. A standard LSL hybrid was used as a reference group. Birds were kept mixed per genetic line (77 hens of the H and L line and 201 or 206 hens of the LSL line, respectively, per pen) in 8 pens of 2 aviary systems differing in design. Keel bone status and body mass of 20 focal hens per line and pen were assessed at 17, 18, 23, 30, 36, 43, 52, and 63 wk of age. External egg parameters (i.e., egg mass, eggshell breaking strength, thickness, and mass) were measured using 10 eggs per line at both 38 and 57 wk of age. Body parameters (i.e. tarsus and third primary wing feather length to calculate index of wing loading) were recorded at 38 wk of age and mortality per genetic line throughout the laying cycle. Bone mineral density (BMD) of 15 keel bones per genetic line was measured after slaughter to confirm assignment of the experimental lines. We found a greater BMD in the H compared with the L and LSL lines. Fewer keel bone fractures and deviations, a poorer external egg quality, as well as a lower index of wing loading were found in the H compared with the L line. Mortality was lower and production parameters (e.g., laying performance) were higher in the LSL line compared with the 2 experimental lines. Aviary design affected prevalence of keel bone damage, body mass, and mortality. We conclude that selection of specific bone traits associated with bone strength as well as the related differences in body morphology (i.e., lower index of wing loading) have potential to reduce keel bone damage in commercial settings. Also, the housing environment (i.e., aviary design) may have additive effects. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Stressor-induced increase in muscle fatigability of young men and women is predicted by strength but not voluntary activation.

    PubMed

    Keller-Ross, Manda L; Pereira, Hugo M; Pruse, Jaclyn; Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Nielson, Kristy A; Hunter, Sandra K

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated mechanisms for the stressor-induced changes in muscle fatigability in men and women. Participants performed an isometric-fatiguing contraction at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until failure with the elbow flexor muscles. Study one (n = 55; 29 women) involved two experimental sessions: 1) a high-stressor session that required a difficult mental-math task before and during a fatiguing contraction and 2) a control session with no mental math. For some participants (n = 28; 14 women), cortical stimulation was used to examine mechanisms that contributed to muscle fatigability during the high-stressor and control sessions. Study two (n = 23; nine women) determined the influence of a low stressor, i.e., a simple mental-math task, on muscle fatigability. In study one, the time-to-task failure was less for the high-stressor session than control (P < 0.05) for women (19.4%) and men (9.5%): the sex difference response disappeared when covaried for initial strength (MVC). MVC force, voluntary activation, and peak-twitch amplitude decreased similarly for the control and high-stressor sessions (P < 0.05). In study two, the time-to-task failure of men or women was not influenced by the low stressor (P > 0.05). The greater fatigability, when exposed to a high stressor during a low-force task, was not exclusive to women but involved a strength-related mechanism in both weaker men and women that accelerated declines in voluntary activation and slowing of contractile properties.

  17. Stressor-induced increase in muscle fatigability of young men and women is predicted by strength but not voluntary activation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hugo M.; Pruse, Jaclyn; Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-DeLap, Bonnie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated mechanisms for the stressor-induced changes in muscle fatigability in men and women. Participants performed an isometric-fatiguing contraction at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until failure with the elbow flexor muscles. Study one (n = 55; 29 women) involved two experimental sessions: 1) a high-stressor session that required a difficult mental-math task before and during a fatiguing contraction and 2) a control session with no mental math. For some participants (n = 28; 14 women), cortical stimulation was used to examine mechanisms that contributed to muscle fatigability during the high-stressor and control sessions. Study two (n = 23; nine women) determined the influence of a low stressor, i.e., a simple mental-math task, on muscle fatigability. In study one, the time-to-task failure was less for the high-stressor session than control (P < 0.05) for women (19.4%) and men (9.5%): the sex difference response disappeared when covaried for initial strength (MVC). MVC force, voluntary activation, and peak-twitch amplitude decreased similarly for the control and high-stressor sessions (P < 0.05). In study two, the time-to-task failure of men or women was not influenced by the low stressor (P > 0.05). The greater fatigability, when exposed to a high stressor during a low-force task, was not exclusive to women but involved a strength-related mechanism in both weaker men and women that accelerated declines in voluntary activation and slowing of contractile properties. PMID:24526582

  18. Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Kearns, Charles F; Sato, Yoshiaki

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that low-intensity resistance training with restricted muscular venous blood flow (Kaatsu) causes muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. To investigate the effects of daily physical activity combined with Kaatsu, we examined the acute and chronic effects of walk training with and without Kaatsu on MRI-measured muscle size and maximum dynamic (one repetition maximum) and isometric strength, along with blood hormonal parameters. Nine men performed Kaatsu-walk training, and nine men performed walk training alone (control-walk). Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min), with a 1-min rest between bouts. Mean oxygen uptake during Kaatsu-walk and control-walk exercise was 19.5 (SD 3.6) and 17.2 % (SD 3.1) of treadmill-determined maximum oxygen uptake, respectively. Serum growth hormone was elevated (P < 0.01) after acute Kaatsu-walk exercise but not in control-walk exercise. MRI-measured thigh muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume increased by 4-7%, and one repetition maximum and maximum isometric strength increased by 8-10% in the Kaatsu-walk group. There was no change in muscle size and dynamic and isometric strength in the control-walk group. Indicators of muscle damage (creatine kinase and myoglobin) and resting anabolic hormones did not change in both groups. The results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow-walk training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain, despite the minimal level of exercise intensity. Kaatsu-walk training may be a potentially useful method for promoting muscle hypertrophy, covering a wide range of the population, including the frail and elderly.

  19. Can the Critical Power Model Explain the Increased Peak Velocity/Power During Incremental Test After Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training?

    PubMed

    Denadai, Benedito S; Greco, Camila C

    2017-08-01

    Denadai, BS and Greco, CC. Can the critical power model explain the increased peak velocity/power during incremental test after concurrent strength and endurance training? J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2319-2323, 2017-The highest exercise intensity that can be maintained at the end of a ramp or step incremental test (i.e., velocity or work rate at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max - Vpeak/Wpeak) can be used for endurance performance prediction and individualization of aerobic training. The interindividual variability in Vpeak/Wpeak has been attributed to exercise economy, anaerobic capacity, and neuromuscular capability, alongside the major determinant of aerobic capacity. Interestingly, findings after concurrent strength and endurance training performed by endurance athletes have challenged the actual contribution of these variables. The critical power model usually derived from the performance of constant-work rate exercise can also explain tolerance to a ramp incremental exercise so that, Vpeak/Wpeak can be predicted accurately. However, there is not yet discussion of possible concomitant improvements in the parameters of the critical power model and Vpeak/Wpeak after concurrent training and whether they can be associated with and therefore depend on different neuromuscular adaptations. Therefore, this brief review presents some evidence that the critical power model could explain the improvement of Vpeak/Wpeak and should be used to monitor aerobic performance enhancement after different concurrent strength- and endurance-training designs.

  20. Significant increases in global weathering during Oceanic Anoxic Events 1a and 2 indicated by calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Reynard, Linda M.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2011-09-01

    Calcium-isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) were measured in carbonate-rich sedimentary sections deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events 1a (Early Aptian) and 2 (Cenomanian-Turonian). In sections from Resolution Guyot, Mid-Pacific Mountains; Coppitella, Italy; and the English Chalk at Eastbourne and South Ferriby, UK, a negative excursion in δ 44/42Ca of ~ 0.20‰ and ~ 0.10‰ is observed for the two events. These δ 44/42Ca excursions occur at the same stratigraphic level as the carbon-isotope excursions that define the events, but do not correlate with evidence for carbonate dissolution or lithological changes. Diagenetic and temperature effects on the calcium-isotope ratios can be discounted, leaving changes in global seawater composition as the most probable explanation for δ 44/42Ca changes in four different carbonate sections. An oceanic box model with coupled strontium- and calcium-isotope systems indicates that a global weathering increase is likely to be the dominant driver of transient excursions in calcium-isotope ratios. The model suggests that contributions from hydrothermal activity and carbonate dissolution are too small and short-lived to affect the oceanic calcium reservoir measurably. A modelled increase in weathering flux, on the order of three times the modern flux, combined with increased hydrothermal activity due to formation of the Ontong-Java Plateau (OAE1a) and Caribbean Plateau (OAE2), can produce trends in both calcium and strontium isotopes that match the signals recorded in the carbonate sections. This study presents the first major-element record of a weathering response to Oceanic Anoxic Events.

  1. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    PubMed

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hematological Indices in Malian Children Change Significantly During a Malaria Season and with Increasing Age: Implications for Malaria Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Diakite, Mahamadou; Miura, Kazutoyo; Diouf, Ababacar; Konate, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul S; Doumbia, Saibou; Diakite, Seidina; Traore, Karim; Doumbouya, Mory; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M; Long, Carole A

    2016-08-03

    Standard hematological indices are commonly used in malaria epidemiological studies to measure anemia prevalence and calculate blood parasite densities. In Africa, few studies have investigated how these indices change during a malaria transmission season and with increasing age. To address these knowledge gaps, we collected blood from 169 healthy Malian children aged 3-12 years before (May 2010) and after (January 2011) a transmission season. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Ht), white blood cell (WBC) count, and WBC subsets were measured in paired blood samples, and the data were stratified by month (May, January) and age group (3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 years). From May to January, RBC count (4.53-4.70 × 10(6)/μL; P < 0.0001), Hb level (11.5-11.9 g/dL; P < 0.0001), and Ht (37.1-39.2%; P < 0.0001) increased, and WBC count (6.46-5.96 × 10(3)/μL; P = 0.0006) decreased. From May to January, the prevalence of WBC subsets also changed: 35-43% neutrophils, 6.5-7.6% monocytes, and 53-45% lymphocytes (P < 0.001). These seasonal changes were not associated with the number of malaria episodes experienced in the interim or the presence of RBC polymorphisms. In May, Hb (11.2, 11.4, and 11.8 g/dL; P = 0.0013) and Ht (36.5%, 36.7%, and 38.1%; P = 0.0154) increased and WBC count (8.04, 6.43, and 5.76 × 10(3)/μL; P < 0.0001) decreased with age group; similar differences were observed in January. These data suggest that season- and age-based reference values for hematological indices are needed to better estimate anemia prevalence and parasite density in malaria epidemiological studies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Pulmonary venous blood sampling significantly increases the yield of circulating tumor cells in early-stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rishindra M; Murlidhar, Vasudha; Zhao, Lili; Grabauskiene, Svetlana; Zhang, Zhuo; Ramnath, Nithya; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Carrott, Phillip; Lynch, William; Orringer, Mark B; Beer, David G; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    To identify circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients with early-stage lung cancer and to show that sampling pulmonary vein (PV) blood using microfluidic chip technology will yield significantly more CTCs. Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Reproducible detection of CTCs is limited currently in early stage tumors. Patients undergoing pulmonary resection had PV blood drawn before resection. Peripheral blood was sampled at preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative times. Samples were analyzed on microfluidic chips using antibody-based capture. A total of 32 patients with primary lung cancer were evaluated. Twenty patients had 1 or more CTCs detected in at least 1 sample (62.5%). The mean number of CTCs from peripheral vein sources at the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative time points was 1.3, 1.9, and 0.6 respectively. The average number of CTCs in the PV was 340.0 (range, 0.0-5422.50; P > .01). When PV CTCs were present, the number of CTCs was correlated with pathological tumor size (P = .0236). The number of PV CTCs was not correlated with any other clinical feature (eg, smoking status, preoperative or postoperative stage). Furthermore, the number of PV CTCs was significantly higher when preoperative bronchoscopic biopsy was performed, compared with computed tomography-guided biopsy (P = .0311). Seven patients had evidence of CTC clusters, or microemboli. With a single vein draining the entire tumor basin, lung cancers are unique, allowing the high-yield isolation of CTCs from the PV. This method may facilitate future studies to improve the detection and analysis of early-stage lung CTCs. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional significance of extent and timing of muscle activation during double poling on-snow with increasing speed.

    PubMed

    Zoppirolli, Chiara; Boccia, Gennaro; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico; Pellegrini, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the level of activation and timing of upper- and lower-body muscles during double poling at different speeds on snow. Nineteen well-trained cross-country skiers volunteered to double pole on a flat snowy track at different speeds (15, 18, 21 km h -1 ). The target speeds could be maintained by the skiers thanks to the use of an audio-pace system in combination with cones spaced equally alongside the track. Only 11 subjects were finally included in the analysis, since their actual speeds, calculated through a photocell system, were within ±0.5 km h -1 from those requested. Cycle and poling durations were measured from the recordings of an accelerometer attached to a wrist, while the pattern and the level of muscle activation were evaluated from electromyographyc signals. Double poling speed did not alter the sequence of muscle activation that started with hip flexors, continued with trunk flexors, shoulder, elbow and trunk extensors and ended with ankle plantar-flexors. However, higher speeds required an increasing involvement of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles (P < 0.05) as well as an anticipation of their activation before pole plant (P < 0.05). A progressively earlier activation of trunk and lower limb muscles is a coordinative strategy that allows rapid achievement of optimal body posture prior to the exertion of poling phase. Moreover, earlier activation of these muscles as the speed increases provides adequate muscle stiffness in the shoulder and core regions for the acceptance of the poling load.

  6. Application of a cell sheet-polymer film complex with temperature sensitivity for increased mechanical strength and cell alignment capability.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideaki; Shimizu, Kazunori; Nagamori, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating a cell sheet-polymer film complex involving a temperature-sensitive polymer that has enough mechanical strength that can be manipulated even by forceps. The polymer film can be removed by lowering the temperature after transplantation, demonstrating its potential use in regenerative medicine. Recently, tissue engineering involving cell sheets was developed, tissues being fabricated by layering of these cell sheets. This technique promises high density cell packing, which is important for native cell functions, and successful heart therapy using cardiac cell sheets has been reported. On the other hand, the fabrication of a large tissue using cell sheets is difficult because of fragility of the cell sheets. Here, we have developed a novel method in which cells are attached to a temperature-sensitive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide film mixed with laminin and collagen IV, and report that the cell sheet-polymer film complex can be manipulated with forceps. A cell sheet can be removed from the polymer film by lowering the temperature after the manipulation. We have utilized this technique for the primary myocardium and fabricated a physiologically active multi-layered cardiac cell sheet. By applying a micropattern to this polymer film, we have succeeded in making a skeletal muscle cell sheet in which myotubes are oriented in the desired direction. Overall, we showed that this method is useful for cell sheet manipulation, morphogenesis, and transplantation. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Growth hormone significantly increases the adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: comparison of subgroups and benefit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with Idiopathic Short Stature do not attain a normal adult height. The improvement of adult height with treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), at doses of 0.16 to 0.28 mg/kg/week is modest, usually less that 4 cm, and they remain short as adults. The benefit obtained seems dose dependent and benefits of 7.0 to 8.0 cm have been reported with higher doses of 0.32 to 0.4 mg/kg/week, but the number of studies is limited. The topic has remained controversial. Objective The objective was to conduct a retrospective analysis of our experience with 123 children with ISS treated with 0.32 ± 0.03 mg/kg/week of rhGH, with the aim of comparing the different subgroups of non-familial short stature, familial short stature, normal puberty, and delayed puberty and to assess the benefit by comparison with 305 untreated historical controls, from nine different randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. Results Eighty eight of our children (68 males and 20 females) attained an adult height or near adult height of -0.71 SDS (0.74 SD) (95% CI, -0.87 to -0.55) with a benefit over untreated controls of 9.5 cm (7.4 to 11.6 cm) for males and 8.6 cm (6.7 to 10.5 cm) for females. In the analysis of the subgroups, the adult height and adult height gain of children with non-familial short stature were significantly higher than of familial short stature. No difference was found in the cohorts with normal or delayed puberty in any of the subgroups, except between the non-familial short stature and familial short stature puberty cohorts. This has implications for the interpretation of the benefit of treatment in studies where the number of children with familial short stature in the controls or treated subjects is not known. The treatment was safe. There were no significant adverse events. The IGF-1 values were essentially within the levels expected for the stages of puberty. Conclusion Our experience was quite positive with normalization of

  8. Increasing Ti-6Al-4V brazed joint strength equal to the base metal by Ti and Zr amorphous filler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjeh, E., E-mail: navidganjehie@sina.kntu.ac.ir; Sarkhosh, H.; Bajgholi, M.E.

    2012-09-15

    Microstructural features developed along with mechanical properties in furnace brazing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using STEMET 1228 (Ti-26.8Zr-13Ni-13.9Cu, wt.%) and STEMET 1406 (Zr-9.7Ti-12.4Ni-11.2Cu, wt.%) amorphous filler alloys. Brazing temperatures employed were 900-950 Degree-Sign C for the titanium-based filler and 900-990 Degree-Sign C for the zirconium-based filler alloys, respectively. The brazing time durations were 600, 1200 and 1800 s. The brazed joints were evaluated by ultrasonic test, and their microstructures and phase constitutions analyzed by metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since microstructural evolution across the furnace brazed joints primarily depends on their alloying elements such as Cu, Ni andmore » Zr along the joint. Accordingly, existence of Zr{sub 2}Cu, Ti{sub 2}Cu and (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni intermetallic compounds was identified in the brazed joints. The chemical composition of segregation region in the center of brazed joints was identical to virgin filler alloy content which greatly deteriorated the shear strength of the joints. Adequate brazing time (1800 s) and/or temperature (950 Degree-Sign C for Ti-based and 990 Degree-Sign C for Zr-based) resulted in an acicular Widmanstaetten microstructure throughout the entire joint section due to eutectoid reaction. This microstructure increased the shear strength of the brazed joints up to the Ti-6Al-4V tensile strength level. Consequently, Ti-6Al-4V can be furnace brazed by Ti and Zr base foils produced excellent joint strengths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature or time was the main factors of controlling braze joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a Widmanstaetten microstructure generates equal strength to base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brittle intermetallic compounds like (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni/Cu deteriorate shear strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti and Zr base filler alloys were the best choice for

  9. Significant increase of quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum well by realizing step-flow growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Aiqin; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Liqun; Jiang, Lingrong; Ikeda, Masao; Zhang, Shuming; Li, Deyao; Wen, Pengyan; Cheng, Yang; Fan, Xiaowang; Yang, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) island morphologies have been widely reported for green light-emitting InGaN quantum well (QW) layers, but the step-flow morphology has not been obtained for a green InGaN QW layer to date. In this Letter, we first investigate the cause of the 2D island morphology of green InGaN QWs via a comparison study with blue InGaN QWs. The short diffusion lengths of adatoms at low growth temperatures were found to be the cause of the 2D island morphology for the green InGaN QW. Step-flow growth of green InGaN QWs was obtained by increasing the miscut angle of the c-plane GaN substrates from 0.20° to 0.48°, which reduces the atomic terrace width. Green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with step-flow morphologies were found to have sharper well/barrier interfaces than MQWs with 2D island morphologies. The internal quantum efficiency of the green InGaN/GaN MQWs with the step-flow morphology is double that of the corresponding MQWs with the 2D island morphology at an excitation power density of 6.4 kW/cm2. Additionally, the emission linewidth of the green InGaN/GaN MQWs with the step-flow morphology is greatly reduced. As a result, the threshold currents of green laser diodes with larger miscut angles are greatly reduced.

  10. Significant Increase in C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A in the Early Hours of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Negreva, Mariya; Georgiev, Svetoslav; Prodanova, Krasimira

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of data have been accumulated on inflammation in persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Our aim was to study the process in paroxysmal AF (PAF) by measuring plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen in dynamics. Methods The markers were investigated in 51 patients (26 males and 25 females; 59.84 ± 1.60 years) at hospital admission (baseline), 24 hours and 28 days after sinus rhythm restoration. Fifty-two controls (26 males and 26 females; 59.50 ± 1.46 years) were selected. Results At baseline, hs-CRP and SAA concentrations were higher in patients (8.12 ± 0.82 vs. 5.57 ± 0.21 mg/L, P = 0.003; 16.04 ± 0.93 vs. 5.12 ± 0.23 ng/mL, P < 0.001, respectively) and these changes persisted 24 hours after sinus rhythm restoration (8.16 ± 0.71 vs. 5.57 ± 0.21 mg/L, P < 0.001; 12.99 ± 0.75 vs. 5.12 ± 0.23 ng/mL, P < 0.001, respectively). On the 28th day, no significant difference was measured (5.42 ± 0.29 vs. 5.57 ± 0.21 mg/L, P = 0.68; 5.89 ± 0.38 vs. 5.12 ± 0.23 ng/mL, P = 0.08, respectively). At any measurement, fibrinogen levels did not differ between patients and controls (3.30 ± 0.17 vs. 3.22 ± 0.11 g/L, P = 0.70; 3.32 ± 0.11 vs. 3.22 ± 0.11 g/L, P = 0.52; 3.24 ± 0.13 vs. 3.22 ± 0.11 g/L, P = 0.90, respectively). Conclusion PAF is associated with dynamics in hs-CRP and SAA plasma levels. The results suggest that inflammation is closely related to the arrhythmia initiation. PMID:28197262

  11. Effects of increasing the allowable compressive stress at release on the shear strength of prestressed concrete girders.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, several research projects have been conducted to study the feasibility of increasing the allowable : compressive stress in concrete at prestress transfer, currently defined as 0.60f'ci in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specification...

  12. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Exercise and sport to increase bone strength in accordance with female lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun

    Among females who require the strategies for preventing osteoporosis, appropriate exercise and sport through all their life are important to increase or maintain bone mass. However, the type of exercise and sport applied to females is different in accordance with the lifecycle. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Thus, appropriate exercise and sport in accordance with the lifecycle are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis in females.

  13. Repetitive H-Wave® device stimulation and program induces significant increases in the range of motion of post operative rotator cuff reconstruction in a double-blinded randomized placebo controlled human study

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda LC; Chen, Thomas JH; Waite, Roger L; Downs, B William; Braverman, Eric R; Kerner, Mallory M; Savarimuthu, Stella M; DiNubile, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Background Albeit other prospective randomized controlled clinical trials on H-Wave Device Stimulation (HWDS), this is the first randomized double-blind Placebo controlled prospective study that assessed the effects of HWDS on range of motion and strength testing in patients who underwent rotator cuff reconstruction. Methods Twenty-two patients were randomly assigned into one of two groups: 1) H-Wave device stimulation (HWDS); 2) Sham-Placebo Device (PLACEBO). All groups received the same postoperative dressing and the same device treatment instructions. Group I was given HWDS which they were to utilize for one hour twice a day for 90 days postoperatively. Group II was given the same instructions with a Placebo device (PLACEBO). Range of motion was assessed by using one-way ANOVA with a Duncan Multiple Range Test for differences between the groups preoperatively, 45 days postoperatively, and 90 days postoperatively by using an active/passive scale for five basic ranges of motions: Forward Elevation, External Rotation (arm at side), External Rotation (arm at 90 degrees abduction), Internal Rotation (arm at side), and Internal Rotation (arm at 90 degrees abduction). The study also evaluated postoperative changes in strength by using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grade assessed strength testing. Results Patients who received HWDS compared to PLACEBO demonstrated, on average, significantly improved range of motion. Results confirm a significant difference for external rotation at 45 and 90 days postoperatively; active range at 45 days postoperatively (p = 0.007), active at 90 days postoperatively (p = 0.007). Internal rotation also demonstrated significant improvement compared to PLACEBO at 45 and 90 days postoperatively; active range at 45 days postoperatively (p = 0.007), and active range at 90 days postoperatively (p = 0.006). There was no significant difference between the two groups for strength testing. Conclusion HWDS compared to PLACEBO induces a

  14. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    PubMed

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Chi, Jean; Rarick, Rachel M; Altizer, Sonia

    2009-08-01

    Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when females scatter spores onto eggs and host plant leaves during oviposition; spores can also be transmitted between mating adults. Monarch larvae were experimentally infected and emerging adult females were mated and monitored in individual outdoor field cages. We provided females with fresh host plant material daily and quantified their lifespan and lifetime fecundity. Parasite transmission was measured by counting the numbers of parasite spores transferred to eggs and host plant leaves. We also quantified spores transferred from infected females to their mating partners. Infected monarchs had shorter lifespans and lower lifetime fecundity than uninfected monarchs. Among infected females, those with higher parasite loads transmitted more parasite spores to their eggs and to host plant leaves. There was also a trend for females with greater parasite loads to transmit more spores to their mating partners. These results demonstrate that high parasite loads on infected butterflies confer a strong fitness advantage to the parasite by increasing between-host transmission.

  16. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p < 0.05); however, lean mass was not significantly increased in either group (p = 0.068). Upper- (p = 0.024) and lower-body (p = 0.001) muscle strength and myosin heavy chain (MHC) 1 (p = 0.039) and MHC 2A (p = 0.027) were also significantly increased with resistance training. Serum IGF-1, GH, and HGF were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key points In response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content. In response to 56 days of

  17. Concerted action of two 3′ cap-independent translation enhancers increases the competitive strength of translated viral genomes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhiyou; Alekhina, Olga M.; Vassilenko, Konstantin S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several families of plant viruses evolved cap-independent translation enhancers (3′CITE) in the 3′ untranslated regions of their genomic (g)RNAs to compete with ongoing cap-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs. Umbravirus Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV)2 is the only example where three 3′CITEs enhance translation: the eIF4E-binding Panicum mosaic virus-like translational enhancer (PTE) and ribosome-binding 3′ T-shaped structure (TSS) have been found in viruses of different genera, while the ribosome-binding kl-TSS that provides a long-distance interaction with the 5′ end is unique. We report that the PTE is the key translation promoting element, but inhibits translation in cis and in trans in the absence of the kl-TSS by sequestering initiation factor eIF4G. PEMV2 strongly outcompeted a cellular mRNA mimic for translation, indicating that the combination of kl-TSS and PTE is highly efficient. Transferring the 3′–5′ interaction from the kl-TSS to the PTE (to fulfill its functionality as found in other viruses) supported translationin vitro, but gRNA did not accumulate to detectable levels in protoplasts in the absence of the kl-TSS. It was shown that the PTE in conjunction with the kl-TSS did not markedly affect the translation initiation rate but rather increased the number of gRNAs available for translation. A model is proposed to explain how 3′CITE-based regulation of ribosome recruitment enhances virus fitness. PMID:28934492

  18. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m 2 ) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm 2 ). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p < 0.05). After the training sessions, there were statistically significant differences between the groups for the scapular stabilizer muscles (p = 0.0263) and the lumbar muscles (p = 0.0001). For the scapular stabilizers, the initial/final values were 14.69 ± 2.80/14.79 ± 2.89 (control group) and 15.99 ± 3.54/17.44 ± 2.88 (Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. What Are Strength Training Activities?

    Cancer.gov

    Strength training is any practice or exercise specifically designed to increase muscle tone, strength, and fitness. Concerned that strength training will make you bulky and too muscle-y? You are not alone.

  20. Laser Application to the Root Surface Increases the Bonding Strength of Surface-Treated Prefabricated Glass-Fiber Posts in Teeth with Excessive Substance Loss.

    PubMed

    Gorus, Zuhal; Mese, Ayse; Dundar Yilmaz, Berivan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

    2018-01-06

    BACKGROUND This study examined the effect of roughening of the root surface using an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er: YAG) laser on the binding strength of teeth undergoing root canal treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety single-rooted teeth were used and assigned randomly to 9 groups (n=10 each). Root canals were prepared using the FlexMaster rotary system. An Er: YAG laser was applied to the root canals in Group 1, with no surface treatment of the glass-fiber post. In Group 2, aluminum oxide particles were applied. In Group 3, the laser was applied to the root canals, with Cojet treatment. Group 4 received laser treatment and Clearfil Ceramic Primer. In Group 5, Clearfil Ceramic Primer silane coupling was performed on post surfaces without laser treatment. In Group 6, hydrofluoric acid (HF) application was followed by Clearfil Ceramic Primer cementing of the glass post surfaces with laser application. In Group 7, HF acid treatment was performed without laser. In Group 8, the laser was applied, followed by sanding of post surfaces using Korox 50, and silane coupling with Clearfil Ceramic Primer. In Group 9, the post surfaces were sanded using Korox 50 with laser application to the root canals. The samples were subjected to a push-out experiment. The data were analyzed using Friedman's test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS A significant difference in bonding strength was found among the groups (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS Use of an Er: YAG laser in the root canal may be beneficial prior to bonding of glass posts.

  1. Curved Caps Raise Corrugation Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Jackson, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Construction concept increases strength-to-weight ratio of corrugated panels. Flat caps are replaced by curved caps in new concept for constructing corrugated panels. Geometry utilizes curved cap for wider cap/web attachment. Beading web prevents local buckling in web while allowing maximum separation between cap strips. Geometry offers significant weight saving over conventional geometry for wide range of loading.

  2. Depletion of CD25⁺ cells during acute toxoplasmosis does not significantly increase mortality in Swiss OF1 mice.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Haroon; Germon, Stéphanie; Berthon, Patricia; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Moiré, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The interleukin (IL)-2R alpha chain (CD25) is expressed on regulatory T cells (Treg), which constitute more than 85% of the CD25+ T cell population in a naïve mouse. CD25 is also expressed on effector T cells in mice suffering from an acute infection by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Lethal toxoplasmosis is accompanied by a significant loss of Treg in mice naturally susceptible to toxoplasmosis. The present study was done to explore the role of Treg cells using an anti-CD25 antibody-mediated depletion in mice naturally resistant to toxoplasmosis. Although a significant decrease in the percentage of Treg cells was observed following anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody injections, the depletion of CD25+ cells during acute toxoplasmosis did not significantly increase the mortality of Swiss OF1 mice and no significant difference was observed in the brain parasitic load between the mice in the depleted-infected and isotype-infected groups. We found no significant difference between the titres of total IgG in the sera of the mice from the two groups in the chronic phase. However, CD25+ cells depletion was followed by significantly higher levels of IL-12 in the serum of depleted mice than in that of mice injected with the isotype control antibody.

  3. Strength Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... big difference between strength training, powerlifting, and competitive bodybuilding! Strength training uses resistance methods like free weights, ... a person can lift at one time. Competitive bodybuilding involves evaluating muscle definition and symmetry, as well ...

  4. A fetal globin gene mutation in A gamma nondeletion hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin increases promoter strength in a nonerythroid cell.

    PubMed Central

    Rixon, M W; Gelinas, R E

    1988-01-01

    Single base substitutions have been identified in the promoter regions of A gamma-globin genes from individuals with certain types of nondeletion A gamma hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). The presence of these mutations is closely associated with the A gamma HPFH phenotype, but proof that they are the nondeletion HPFH determinants is lacking. To test directly whether these base substitutions can result in an increase in A gamma-globin gene transcription, we studied cosmid clones containing the G gamma- through beta-globin gene regions from individuals with Greek-type (G-to-A base substitution at -117) and Chinese-type (C-to-T base substitution at -196) A gamma HPFH in a transient expression assay. When tested as part of a cosmid clone, the Greek HPFH A gamma-globin gene consistently produced about 1.4 times as much RNA as the wild-type A gamma-globin gene when standardized against RNA transcribed from the G gamma genes in cis. The relative strengths of the normal and HPFH A gamma-globin gene promoters were also compared in transient expression assays with plasmids containing the A gamma-globin genes. Pseudo-wild-type A gamma-globin genes containing a short, transcriptionally neutral deletion were used so that two A gamma-globin genes that differed in their promoter sequences could be compared in the same transfection. The plasmid transient expression results indicated a 1.3- to 1.4-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels from the Greek-type A gamma HPFH promoter compared with the wild-type A gamma promoter, while no difference was documented between the Chinese-type A gamma HPFH promoter and the wild-type A gamma promoter. Images PMID:2451123

  5. Six months of disuse during hibernation does not increase intracortical porosity or decrease cortical bone geometry, strength, or mineralization in black bear (Ursus americanus) femurs.

    PubMed

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Bunnell, Kevin; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-07-22

    Disuse typically uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to bone loss which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases the risk of bone fracture. Previous studies suggest that bears can prevent bone loss during long periods of disuse (hibernation), but small sample sizes have limited the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the effects of hibernation on bone structure and strength in bears. Here we quantified the effects of hibernation on structural, mineral, and mechanical properties of black bear (Ursus americanus) cortical bone by studying femurs from large groups of male and female bears (with wide age ranges) killed during pre-hibernation (fall) and post-hibernation (spring) periods. Bone properties that are affected by body mass (e.g. bone geometrical properties) tended to be larger in male compared to female bears. There were no differences (p>0.226) in bone structure, mineral content, or mechanical properties between fall and spring bears. Bone geometrical properties differed by less than 5% and bone mechanical properties differed by less than 10% between fall and spring bears. Porosity (fall: 5.5+/-2.2%; spring: 4.8+/-1.6%) and ash fraction (fall: 0.694+/-0.011; spring: 0.696+/-0.010) also showed no change (p>0.304) between seasons. Statistical power was high (>72%) for these analyses. Furthermore, bone geometrical properties and ash fraction (a measure of mineral content) increased with age and porosity decreased with age. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse and age-related osteoporoses.

  6. Six months of disuse during hibernation does not increase intracortical porosity or decrease cortical bone geometry, strength, or mineralization in black bear (Ursus americanus) femurs

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Barlow, Lindsay N.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Bunnell, Kevin; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2009-01-01

    Disuse typically uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to bone loss which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases the risk of bone fracture. Previous studies suggest that bears can prevent bone loss during long periods of disuse (hibernation), but small sample sizes have limited the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the effects of hibernation on bone structure and strength in bears. Here we quantified the effects of hibernation on structural, mineral, and mechanical properties of black bear (Ursus americanus) cortical bone by studying femurs from large groups of male and female bears (with wide age ranges) killed during pre-hibernation (fall) and post-hibernation (spring) periods. Bone properties that are affected by body mass (e.g. bone geometrical properties) tended to be larger in male compared to female bears. There were no differences (p > 0.226) in bone structure, mineral content, or mechanical properties between fall and spring bears. Bone geometrical properties differed by less than 5% and bone mechanical properties differed by less than 10% between fall and spring bears. Porosity (fall: 5.5 ± 2.2%, spring: 4.8 ± 1.6%) and ash fraction (fall: 0.694 ± 0.011, spring: 0.696 ± 0.010) also showed no change (p > 0.304) between seasons. Statistical power was high (>72%) for these analyses. Furthermore, bone geometrical properties and ash fraction (a measure of mineral content) increased with age and porosity decreased with age. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse and age-related osteoporoses. PMID:19450804

  7. Increased expression of interleukin-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and its predicating significance in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guanglin; Yuan, Aping; Zhu, Li; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    The role and significance of interleukin (IL)-21 in the development of sporadic CRC have not been well defined. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the dynamics of the IL-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and to evaluate the impact of IL-21 on clinicopathological parameters and CRC prognosis. The real-time PCR results showed that the level of IL-21 in adenomas (n=50) and sporadic CRC (n=50) were significantly higher than that in normal controls (n=18), which were predominately observed in the adenoma/CRC stroma. Analysis revealed that IL-21 level was correlated with the overall survival time in CRC patients. Double immunofluorescence observations confirmed that IL-21 positive cells were mostly natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in the tumor stroma. These results indicate that significant increased IL-21 expression present within the adenoma/CRC microenvironment might have a potential predicating significance for survival time in patients with CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    PubMed

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was <1year in 32 patients, 1-5years in 81, and >5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing cytotechnologist workload above 100 slides per day using the ThinPrep imaging system leads to significant reductions in screening accuracy.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, Tarik M; Kirkpatrick, Joseph L; Cooper, Mackenzie K; Johnson, Mary L; Hawkins, Allison P; Renshaw, Andrew A

    2010-04-25

    With the current and projected shortage of a cytotechnologist (CT) workforce and the desire to reduce laboratory costs, increased productivity with automated assisted primary screening has become an attractive option for many laboratories. To the best of the authors' knowledge, longitudinal studies examining the effect of increasing workload on the performance of individual CTs have not been performed previously. Using the ThinPrep imaging system (TIS), the performance of 3 CTs with variable levels of experience were evaluated. Their productivity was noted to increase from an average of 87 to 118 slides per day. The analysis included comparisons of error rates, screening rates, and screening times, including a review of 22 fields of view (FOV). Poststudy interviews of the CTs were also performed. Increased workload was found to be proportional to the decreased percentage of cases that underwent full manual review (25.2% to 20.1%; P < .001), and decreased actual screening times (7.3 hours/day to 6.7 hours/day, and 5.0 minutes/slide to 3.7 minutes/slide). This resulted in a lower detection of total abnormal findings (10.4% to 8.3%; P < .001), atypical squamous cells (6.7% to 4.9%; P < .001), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (0.9 %to 0.7%; P = .37), as well as an increased false-negative fraction rate (3.8% to 7.0%; P = .08). The results of the current study indicate that an increased average CT workload >100 slides per day with the TIS appears to have been accomplished mostly through a reduction in the amount of time spent reviewing the 22 FOV and the percentage of cases that underwent full manual review, which resulted in a significantly reduced screening performance. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  10. Significant ecological impact on the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli with increased community use of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Oscar; Oteo, Jesús; Lázaro, Edurne; Aracil, Belén; de Abajo, Francisco; García-Cobos, Silvia; Ortega, Adriana; Campos, José

    2011-03-01

    To determine trends in ciprofloxacin resistance and co-resistance to other antibiotic classes in blood isolates of Escherichia coli, and to investigate if there is an ecological relationship to the community use of fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics. Forty-two Spanish hospitals of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network collected ciprofloxacin and other antibiotic susceptibility data for non-duplicate consecutive E. coli isolates from patients with bacteraemia between 2001 and 2009. The nationwide ambulatory use of antibiotics between 1997 and 2008 was determined by WHO methods, and the co-evolution of both parameters was further analysed. Of the 28 307 E. coli blood isolates, 27.9% were ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (CIPNS), increasing from 17.6% in 2001 to 32.7% in 2009. A continuous increase was observed between CIPNS and other resistances, including cephalosporin resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and non-susceptibility to both amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and tobramycin. Although the total use of antibiotics did not increase, community use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid increased by 307.2%, 62.6% and 70.1%, respectively. Yearly rates of CIPNS E. coli strongly correlated with the use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (r(2 )> 0.80; P < 0.005 in all cases). The rapid increase in CIPNS E. coli causing bacteraemia was closely related to the increase in resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, production of ESBLs and resistance to aminoglycosides. Community use of fluoroquinolones (mainly moxifloxacin and levofloxacin) and of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid represents a significant driver in the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteraemic E. coli.

  11. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Methods: Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index < 15, n = 15) and moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15, n = 39) participants in a single institute. There were no differences in age, sex, BMI, or visceral fat accumulation between the two groups. Twenty-one patients with moderate-to-severe OSA who received CPAP treatment also prospectively underwent the same testing following 3 months of CPAP treatment. Results: Although fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p < 0.01). After 3 months of CPAP treatment in 21 of the moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG/DAG did not change significantly, but other ghrelin-related parameters including AG/insulin significantly decreased compared with values before treatment but remained higher than in no or mild OSA. Conclusions: Among several important metabolic factors, ghrelin-related factors had the strongest associations with moderate-to-severe OSA. These results indicate that continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in

  12. Introduction of a thermophile-sourced ion pair network in the fourth beta/alpha unit of a psychophile-derived triosephosphate isomerase from Methanococcoides burtonii significantly increases its kinetic thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Dhaunta, Neeraj; Arora, Kanika; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthermophile proteins commonly have higher numbers of surface ionic interactions than homologous proteins from other domains of life. PfuTIM, a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from the hyperthermophile archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, contains an intricate network of 4 ion pairs in its 4th beta/alpha unit, (β/α)4, whereas MbuTIM, a triosephosphate isomerase from a psychrophile archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii, lacks this network. Notably, (β/α)4 is the first element of the structure formed during folding of certain TIM-type (beta/alpha)8 barrel proteins. Previously, we have shown that elimination of PfuTIM's ion pair network in PfuTIM significantly decreases its kinetic structural stability. Here, we describe the reciprocal experiment in which this ion pair network is introduced into MbuTIM, to produce MutMbuTIM. Recombinant MbuTIM displays multi-state unfolding with apparent Tm values of autonomous structural elements approaching, or above, 70°C, when a temperature scanning rate of 90°C/h is used. The protein displays significant intrinsic kinetic stability, i.e., there is a marked temperature scan rate-dependence of the Tm values associated with unfolding transitions. The Tm values drop by as much as ~10°C when the temperature scanning rate is lowered to 5°C/h. MutMbuTIM, incorporating PfuTIM's ion pair network, shows significantly higher apparent Tm values (raised by 4-6°C over those displayed by MbuTIM). MutMbuTIM also displays significantly higher kinetic thermal stability. Thus, it appears that the thermal stability of triosephosphate isomerase can be increased, or decreased, by either enhancing, or reducing, the strength of ion pair interactions stabilizing (β/α)4, presumably through reduced cooperativity (and increased autonomy) in unfolding transitions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Diabetes in the Torres Strait Islands of Australia: better clinical systems but significant increase in weight and other risk conditions among adults, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Robyn A; McCulloch, Bradley G; Campbell, Sandra K; Young, Dallas M

    2007-05-21

    To (i) assess changes in clinical indicators of adults diagnosed with diabetes and (ii) estimate changes in risk factors and incidence of diabetes among adults without diabetes living in the Torres Strait and Northern Peninsula Area Health Service District in Queensland from 1999 to 2005. (i) Annual audit of clinical records of Torres Strait Islander adults on diabetes registers in 21 primary care clinics, and (ii) a 5-year follow up of a community cohort of 207 Torres Strait Islander adults without diabetes who participated in the Well Person's Health Check in 2000-01 and 2005-06. Weight, height, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar (those without diabetes) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; those with diabetes) levels, blood pressure (BP), fasting triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and smoking status. The number of adults included on the diabetes register increased from 555 in 1999 to 1024 in 2005. The mean age of patients diagnosed with diabetes decreased from 53.3 to 51.5 years, and their mean weight increased from 86.8 kg to 95.6 kg. Mean HbA1c level remained unchanged at about 9%, but the proportion with HbA1c level < 7% increased from 18.4% to 26.1%, and the proportion prescribed insulin increased from 14% in 2002 to 22% in 2005. The proportion with BP < 140/90 mmHg increased from 40.3% in 1999 to 66.8% in 2005. In the sample of 207 adults without diabetes, from 2000 to 2006, there was a weight gain of about 1 kg per person per year, and an annual increase in waist circumference of 0.8 cm in men and 1.2 cm in women. Crude incidence of diabetes was 29 (95% CI, 19-41) per 1000 person-years. There was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar levels, and no change in smoking habits. Clinical care of adults with diabetes has improved and more people with diabetes are being diagnosed. However, weight gain and high rates of glycaemia remain a challenge and will result

  14. Pisces did not have increased heart failure: data-driven comparisons of binary proportions between levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect statistical significance levels.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Goldwasser, Meredith A

    2008-03-01

    We examined the impact on statistical inference when a chi(2) test is used to compare the proportion of successes in the level of a categorical variable that has the highest observed proportion of successes with the proportion of successes in all other levels of the categorical variable combined. Monte Carlo simulations and a case study examining the association between astrological sign and hospitalization for heart failure. A standard chi(2) test results in an inflation of the type I error rate, with the type I error rate increasing as the number of levels of the categorical variable increases. Using a standard chi(2) test, the hospitalization rate for Pisces was statistically significantly different from that of the other 11 astrological signs combined (P=0.026). After accounting for the fact that the selection of Pisces was based on it having the highest observed proportion of heart failure hospitalizations, subjects born under the sign of Pisces no longer had a significantly higher rate of heart failure hospitalization compared to the other residents of Ontario (P=0.152). Post hoc comparisons of the proportions of successes across different levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect inferences.

  15. Incorporation of Flaxseed Flour as a Dietary Source for ALA Increases Bone Density and Strength in Post-Partum Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2017-04-01

    In women, bone mass undergoes changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period, which has a risk for subsequent development of osteoporosis. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in femur quality during post-weaning of dam rats. After weaning, the rats were divided into control (C, n = 7) and experimental (F, n = 7) groups treated with a diet containing 25 g of flaxseed flour in the lactating period and 15 g in the maintenance period. After 51 days post-partum, serum hormone, fatty acids composition, bone compartments, computed tomography, and biomechanical analyses were determined. Food intake, length, body mass, hormone analysis, and total bone compartments showed similar results. For biomechanical and computed tomography analysis and fatty acids composition, the F group showed higher maximum force (+12%, p < 0.05), breaking strength (+25%, p < 0.05), rigidity (+17%, p < 0.0001), and femoral head radiodensity (+15%, p < 0.05) and presented lower total polyunsaturated fatty acids (-17%, p < 0.0001) and arachidonic acid (-44%, p < 0.0001) and higher ALA (+695%, p < 0.0001) and EPA (+160%, p < 0.05). Fatty acids composition of flaxseed flour, as well as its protein profile and calcium content, were able to improve the bone quality, which may be associated with lower serum levels of arachidonic acid and higher EPA, showing an anti-inflammatory profile and increased deposition of organic matrix during the post-weaning period, and may result in prevention of future osteoporosis.

  16. Prostatic specific antigen and bone scan in the diagnosis and follow-up of prostate cancer. Can diagnostic significance of PSA be increased?

    PubMed

    Bantis, Athanasios; Grammaticos, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is currently the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males and constitutes a major health issue in developed countries. On the other hand, the majority of PC cases are considered clinically not significant and certainly not lethal. These discrepancies highlight the need for the early detection of especially those cases that have aggressive features and call for early and radical intervention. The clinical use of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) towards this end is recognized as inadequate since PSA is prostate specific, but not a PC specific marker, as it is known to increase in other prostate diseases such as benign hyperplasia, inflammations, transrectal ultrasound examination, biopsy and after transurethral prostatectomy. However due to lack of other more specific markers, digital rectal examination combined with serum PSA are suggested for PC screening and diagnosis. With regard to advanced disease where bone involvement is the rule, nuclear medicine bone scan using radioactive bisphosphonates such as technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate is quite common and reliable technique for detecting and monitoring bone metastases. The major advantage of nuclear scintigraphy is its ability to reveal bone metastases significantly earlier than the conventional X-ray imaging techniques. PSA density, velocity, doubling time and free to total PSA ratio increase the significance of serum PSA in diagnosing PC. The combination of an increased PSA (>20ng/mL) and a high biopsy Gleason score (>8) enhances the possibility of bone metastases (P<0001) and mandates a bone scan. In conclusion, serum PSA testing is currently recommended in symptomatic PC patients for disease staging and treatment monitoring and in asymptomatic selected population groups aged more than 50 years. It is reasonable to suggest that PSA density, velocity, doubling time and free to total PSA ratio or combining PSA with Gleason score shall greatly increase PSA specificity in detecting PC

  17. Medically Significant Infections Are Increased in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Treated With Etanercept: Results From the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Southwood, Taunton R.; Kearsley‐Fleet, Lianne; Lunt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between anti–tumor necrosis factor therapy and increased rates of infection is widely documented in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Findings in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been less well documented. The aims of this analysis were to compare the rates of medically significant infections (MSIs) in children with JIA treated with etanercept (ETN) versus methotrexate (MTX) and to compare the rates between combination therapy with ETN plus MTX and monotherapy with ETN. Methods A total of 852 ETN‐treated children and 260 MTX‐treated children had been recruited to the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study (BSPAR‐ETN). MSIs included infections that resulted in death or hospitalization or were deemed medically significant by the clinician. This on‐drug analysis followed the patients until the first MSI, treatment discontinuation, the last followup, or death. Cox proportional hazards models, which were adjusted using propensity deciles, were used to compare rates of MSI between cohorts. Sensitivity analyses were conducted specifically with regard to serious infections (SIs), which were defined as those requiring hospitalization or treatment with intravenous antibiotics/antivirals. Results The ETN‐treated cohort was older and had a longer disease duration, but the disease activity was similar between the cohorts. A total of 133 first MSIs were reported (109 with ETN and 24 with MTX). Patients receiving ETN had higher rates of MSI than did the controls (propensity decile adjusted hazard ratio 2.13 [95% confidence interval 1.22–3.74]). The risk of MSI was higher whether patients were receiving combination or monotherapy. Sensitivity analysis showed no between‐group difference in the rate of SIs, which were much less common. Conclusion ETN therapy is associated with an increased risk of MSI; however, this increased risk disappears when considering only SIs, which

  18. Alumina fiber strength improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

  19. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  20. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeted disruption of BMP signaling through type IA receptor (BMPR1A) in osteocyte suppresses SOST and RANKL, leading to dramatic increase in bone mass, bone mineral density and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Shuxian, Lin; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Phipps, Matthew; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Yuan, Hui; Kim, Harry K W; Feng, Jian Q

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest a critical role of osteocytes in controlling skeletal development and bone remodeling although the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study investigated BMP signaling in osteocytes by disrupting Bmpr1a under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed a striking osteosclerotic phenotype with increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and mineral density as assessed by X-ray and micro-CT. The bone histomorphometry, H&E, and TRAP staining revealed a dramatic increase in trabecular and cortical bone masses but a sharp reduction in osteoclast number. Moreover, there was an increase in BrdU positive osteocytes (2-5-fold) and osteoid volume (~4-fold) but a decrease in the bone formation rate (~85%) in the cKO bones, indicating a defective mineralization. The SEM analysis revealed poorly formed osteocytes: a sharp increase in cell numbers, a great reduction in cell dendrites, and a remarkable change in the cell distribution pattern. Molecular studies demonstrated a significant decrease in the Sost mRNA levels in bone (>95%), and the SOST protein levels in serum (~85%) and bone matrices. There was a significant increase in the β-catenin (>3-fold) mRNA levels as well as its target genes Tcf1 (>6-fold) and Tcf3 (~2-fold) in the cKO bones. We also showed a significant decrease in the RANKL levels of serum proteins (~65%) and bone mRNA (~57%), and a significant increase in the Opg mRNA levels (>20-fold) together with a significant reduction in the Rankl/Opg ratio (>95%), which are responsible for a sharp reduction in the cKO osteoclasts. The values of mechanical strength were higher in cKO femora (i.e. max force, displacement, and work failure). These results suggest that loss of BMP signaling specifically in osteocytes dramatically increases bone mass presumably through simultaneous inhibition of RANKL and SOST, leading to osteoclast inhibition and Wnt activation together. Finally, a working hypothesis is

  2. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Schweizer, Patrick A; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality after HTX. Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year) were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone). Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan-Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival. Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0%) received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105). Further, Kaplan-Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this group (P=0.0123). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596), 2-year (P=0.8620), 5-year (P=0.2737), or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786). Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX.

  3. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Schweizer, Patrick A; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O

    2016-01-01

    Background Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX). Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality after HTX. Methods Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year) were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone). Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival. Results Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0%) received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105). Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this group (P=0.0123). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596), 2-year (P=0.8620), 5-year (P=0.2737), or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786). Conclusion Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with

  4. Priming Vaccination With Influenza Virus H5 Hemagglutinin Antigen Significantly Increases the Duration of T cell Responses Induced by a Heterologous H5 Booster Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, Daniel F.; Lottenbach, Kathleen; Goll, Johannes B.; Hill, Heather; Winokur, Patricia L.; Patel, Shital M.; Brady, Rebecca C.; Chen, Wilbur H.; Edwards, Kathryn; Creech, C. Buddy; Frey, Sharon E.; Blevins, Tamara P.; Salomon, Rachelle; Belshe, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Influenza A(H5N1) virus and other avian influenza virus strains represent major pandemic threats. Like all influenza A virus strains, A(H5N1) viruses evolve rapidly. Innovative immunization strategies are needed to induce cross-protective immunity. Methods. Subjects primed with clade 1 H5 antigen, with or without adjuvant, and H5-naive individuals were boosted with clade 2 H5 antigen. The impact of priming on T cells capable of both proliferation and cytokine production after antigen restimulation was assessed. Results. Subjects previously vaccinated with clade 1 H5 antigen developed significantly enhanced clade 2 H5 cross-reactive T cell responses detectable 6 months after vaccination with clade 2 H5 antigen. Priming dose (15 µg vs 45 or 90 µg) had no effect on magnitude of heterotypic H5 T cell responses. In contrast, age at priming negatively modulated both the magnitude and duration of heterotypic H5 T cell responses. Elderly subjects developed significantly less heterotypic H5 T cell boosting, predominantly for T cells capable of cytokine production. Adjuvant had a positive albeit weaker effect than age. The magnitude of CD4+ interferon–γ producing T cells correlated with H5 antibody responses. Conclusions. H5 heterotypic priming prior to onset of an A(H5N1) pandemic may increase magnitude and duration of immunity against a newly drifted pandemic H5 virus. PMID:27443611

  5. No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2014-08-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reassortant H5N1 avian influenza viruses containing PA or NP gene from an H9N2 virus significantly increase the pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoli; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Jiongjiong; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Yunpeng; Li, Qunhui; He, Dongchang; Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Xu, Xiulong; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-30

    Reassortment between different influenza viruses is a crucial way to generate novel influenza viruses with unpredictable virulence and transmissibility, which may threaten the public health. As currently in China, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes are endemic in poultry in many areas, while they are prone to reassort with each other naturally. In order to evaluate the risk of the reassortment to public health, A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 [GS/10(H5N1)] virus was used as a backbone to generate a series of reassortants, each contained a single internal gene derived from the predominant S genotype of the A/Chicken/Jiangsu/WJ57/2012 [WJ/57(H9N2)]. We next assessed the biological characteristics of these assortments, including pathogenicity, replication efficiency and polymerase activity. We found that the parental WJ/57(H9N2) and GS/10(H5N1) viruses displayed high genetic compatibility. Notably, the H5N1 reassortants containing the PA or NP gene from WJ/57(H9N2) virus significantly increased virulence and replication ability in mice, as well as markedly enhanced polymerase activity. Our results indicate that the endemicity of H9N2 and H5N1 in domestic poultry greatly increases the possibility of generating new viruses by reassortment that may pose a great threat to poultry industry and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A daily adjustable progressive resistance exercise protocol and functional training to increase quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in an elderly homebound patient following a total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ardali, Gunay

    2014-05-01

    There is no routinely prescribed protocol to address quadriceps weakness and functional impairments following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this case report is to introduce and describe the early use of a daily adjustable progressive resistance exercise (DAPRE) protocol as an adjunct to standard rehabilitation to maximize quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in an elderly homebound patient following a TKA. A 61-year-old female was referred to home care physical therapy for 6 weeks following left TKA due to functional deficits and inability to activate the weak left quadriceps muscle. In phase I, the patient received three visits with emphasis on edema management, improving left knee range of motion, and reducing pain. Phase II consisted of two main components: (1) a DAPRE protocol aimed at maximizing the quadriceps strength and (2) functional training aimed at improving normal gait patterns, transfers, and dynamic balance. The patient made substantial improvements in both quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in the first seven weeks following the TKA. The patient had a pain free return to daily living activities. The results suggest that early initiation of a DAPRE protocol was free of adverse events and improved quadriceps strength and functional performance for this patient.

  8. CD34+ hemopoietic precursor and stem cells traffic in peripheral blood of celiac patients is significantly increased but not directly related to epithelial damage severity.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, F; Semeraro, F P; Coradduzza, G; Manelli, M; Scarcia, G; Pezzuto, F; Serio, G

    2008-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy of the small bowel resulting from a local TH1-mediated reaction to wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins with the development of auto-antibodies to transglutaminases. As well as for other chronic inflammatory diseases, genetic background and environmental factors participate to pathogenesis. An increased traffic of CD34+ hemopoietic precursor and stem cells (HPC) has been reported in peripheral blood (PB) of subjects with allergic diseases that share in their pathogenesis immuno-mediated reactions, genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the present work was to investigate the CD34+ cell traffic and H2/H1 polarization of lymphoid T-cell lineage, in the peripheral blood of subjects with CD, by means of flow-cytometric techniques. Group A of control was of 20 healthy subjects, aged 5 to 58 years. Study population (Group B) was of twenty-eight patients, all females aged 13 to 70, receiving firstly a CD diagnosis at the SS Annunziata Hospital Digestive Physiopathology Out-standings' by means of clinical, serologic and small intestinal biopsy findings. Peripheral CD34+ HPCs were significantly increased in Group B (median value 0.16) when compared with Group A (median value 0.03) (p 0.0001) but did not correlate either with anti-transglutaminase (tTG) antibody levels (IgA: p 0.226; IgG: p 0.810) or with histological damage severity (p 0.41) that, on the contrary, was significantly related with anti-tTG IgA antibodies (p 0.027). Celiac circulating CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes expressed a chemokine-receptor pattern Th2-skewed in all but three patients investigated. Concluding, the CD34+ HPC highly increased peripheral traffic observed in celiac disease appears more related to a basic and emerging as common defect shared by chronic inflammatory diseases than to the gliadin-specific Th1 local reactions. Data are consistent with a potential NFkappaB deficiency and consequent prevalence of apoptotic versus

  9. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n) reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, Svetlana V; Kvasha, Margarita A; Khrabrova, Daria A; Kirsanova, Olga V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Malinovskaya, Elena M; Veiko, Natalia N; Ivanov, Alexander A; Koval, Vasiliy S; Zhuze, Alexei L; Tashlitsky, Vadim H; Umriukhin, Pavel E; Kutsev, Sergey I; Gromova, Elizaveta S

    2018-01-01

    Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n) are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n) produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome. It is shown that DBP(n) are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n) are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n) demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n) promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n) in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n). It is concluded that DBP (n) are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area) and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n) induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n) significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed; it

  10. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  11. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  12. Combination of vaniprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin significantly increases the rate of SVR in treatment-experienced patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Stoehr, Albrecht; Gane, Edward J; Serfaty, Lawrence; Lawitz, Eric; Zhou, Amy; Bourque, Michael; Bhanja, Sanhita; Strizki, Julie; Barnard, Richard J O; Hwang, Peggy M T; DiNubile, Mark J; Mobashery, Niloufar

    2014-06-01

    The combination of vaniprevir (a NS3/4A protease inhibitor) with peginterferon and ribavirin was shown to increase rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) significantly, compared with peginterferon and ribavirin alone, in treatment-experienced patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis. We performed a blinded, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of vaniprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin in patients with cirrhosis who did not respond to prior therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin. Treatment-experienced patients (88% white and 35% prior null responders) with HCV genotype 1 infection and compensated cirrhosis were assigned randomly to groups given vaniprevir (600 mg twice daily) with peginterferon and ribavirin for 24 weeks (n = 16), vaniprevir (600 mg twice daily) for 24 weeks with peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (n = 14), vaniprevir (300 mg twice daily) with peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (n = 15), vaniprevir (600 mg twice daily) with peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (n = 15), or placebo with peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (n = 14, control). Cirrhosis was documented by liver biopsy (84%) or noninvasive methods (16%). Before randomization, participants were stratified based on their historical response to peginterferon and ribavirin. In the primary analysis, SVR rates among patients in the respective vaniprevir groups were 9 of 15 (60.0%), 9 of 13 (69.2%), 8 of 15 (53.3%), and 10 of 13 (76.9%), compared with 2 of 14 (14.3%) in the control group (pairwise P values ≤ .016). Cirrhotic patients with null or partial responses to prior therapy achieved SVR less often than patients with prior breakthrough or relapse, although 42.1% of prior null responders in the vaniprevir groups achieved SVRs. Patients in the vaniprevir groups more frequently experienced mild-moderate nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea than controls; 5% developed grade 2 anemia compared with none in the

  13. Epilepsy by the Numbers: Epilepsy deaths by age, race/ethnicity, and gender in the United States significantly increased from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Greenlund, Sujay F; Croft, Janet B; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-04-01

    To inform public health efforts to prevent epilepsy-related deaths, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER; Wonder.cdc.gov) to examine any-listed epilepsy deaths for the period 2005-2014 by age groups (≤24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-84, ≥85years), sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native). Epilepsy deaths were defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes G40.0-G40.9. The total number of deaths per year with epilepsy as any listed cause ranged from 1760 in 2005 to 2962 in 2014. Epilepsy was listed as the underlying cause of death for about 54% of all deaths with any mention of epilepsy in 2005 and for 43% of such deaths in 2014. Age-adjusted epilepsy mortality rates (as any-listed cause of death) per 100,000 significantly increased from 0.58 in 2005 to 0.85 in 2014 (47% increase). In 2014, deaths among the non-Hispanic Black population (1.42 deaths per 100,000) were higher than among non-Hispanic White (0.86 deaths per 100,000) and Hispanic populations (0.70 deaths per 100,000). Males had a higher mortality rate than females (1.01 per 100,000 versus 0.74 per 100,000 in 2014), and those aged 85years or older had the highest mortality among age groups. Results highlight the need for heightened action to prevent and monitor epilepsy-associated mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  15. N- and C-terminal truncations of a GH10 xylanase significantly increase its activity and thermostability but decrease its SDS resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fei; Huang, Jingxuan; Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Hang; Long, Liangkun; Chen, Kaixiang; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    XynII from Volvariella volvacea has high sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistance, with the potential for industrial applications under harsh conditions. It consists of a single glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) catalytic domain but contains an additional unique 10 and 4 amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. In this study, five XynII derivatives with N- and/or C-terminus deletions were constructed to determine the effects of these regions on enzyme activity, substrate specificity, thermostability, and SDS resistance. Our results revealed that N- and/or C-terminal truncations significantly increased enzyme activity and thermostability, but reduced SDS resistance. Specifically, the XynIIΔNC4 mutant had 2.53-fold more catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards beechwood xylan than wild-type and 3.0-fold more thermostability (t 1/2 [55°C]). XynIIΔNC4 displayed 3.33-, 4.38-, 1.37-, and 1.98-fold more activity against xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, and xylohexaose, respectively, than XynII did. However, its half-life (t 1/2) in 4 % SDS was only 1.72 h, while that of XynII was 4.65 h. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that deletion of N- and C-terminal segments caused minor changes in secondary structure. Our observations suggest that the extra N- and C-terminal segments in wild-type XynII evolved to strengthen the interaction between these regions of the protein, making the local structure more rigid and reducing structural flexibility. In this way, N- and C-terminal truncations increased the thermostability and activity of XynII on different xylans and linear xylooligosaccharides, but reduced its resistance to SDS.

  16. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  17. A simple heat dissociation method increases significantly the ELISA detection sensitivity of the nonstructural-1 glycoprotein in patients infected with DENV type-4.

    PubMed

    Lima, Monique da Rocha Queiroz; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo de; Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Sousa, Carla Santos de; Silva, Manoela Heringer da; Santos, Flavia Barreto dos

    2014-08-01

    The secreted form of the dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein has been shown to be useful for the diagnosis of DENV infections in patients' serum samples. In a number of studies, the sensitivity of the commercially available DENV NS1 glycoprotein detection assays was higher against some DENV serotypes (DENV-1>DENV-3>DENV-2=DENV-4) than others and were also lower using patients' serum samples with secondary versus primary DENV infections. In this study, 471 DENV-4 positive acute phase patients' serum samples were selected from a large panel collected in Brazil from March 2011 to October 2012 by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation followed by serotype determination. The sera from primary (n=228) and secondary (n=238) DENV-4 infections were identified using IgM and IgG capture ELISAs. The sensitivity of a commercial DENV NS1 glycoprotein detection ELISA was then assessed when these serum samples were not pre-treated or pre-treated by acid or heat dissociation prior to being tested. Acid and heat dissociation of patients' serum samples with primary and secondary DENV-4 infections increased significantly the sensitivity of the DENV NS1 glycoprotein detection ELISA from 54.4% to 77.2% (p<0.05) and 82% (p<0.05) and from 39.1% to 63.9% (p<0.05) and 73.1% (p<0.05), respectively. Treatment of DENV infected patients' serum samples using simple and rapid heat dissociation step (100°C for 5min) was, therefore, shown to be very useful for increasing the sensitivity of the DENV NS1 glycoprotein detection ELISA using serum samples from either primary or secondary DENV infected patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Population-based cohort study suggesting a significantly increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, I-Lin; Lu, Chin-Li; Li, Chia-Chun; Tsai, Sheng-Han; Chen, Chiung-Zuei; Hu, Susan C; Li, Chung-Yi

    2018-02-03

    To investigate whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health insurance claim data to investigate the association of T2DM with the risk of COPD. A total of 716,623 pairs of people (patients with T2DM and their age-, sex-, and calendar year-matched controls) were identified in 2002-2003 and were followed until the occurrence of newly-diagnosed COPD or the end of 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate COPD incidence to T2DM. People with T2DM experienced a higher incidence rate of COPD than controls (159.6 vs 122.7 per 10 4 person-years). After controlling for confounders, T2DM significantly increased the hazard of COPD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-1.16). Stratified analysis indicated that the association between T2DM and COPD was slightly greater in women than in men (HR, 1.15 vs. 1.11) and in people aged <65 years than in people aged ≥65 years (HR, 1.17 vs. 1.05 in men; 1.16 vs. 1.13 in women). Our findings demonstrated a modest association of T2DM with the risk of developing COPD, possibly shedding light into the adverse effects of hyperglycemia on pulmonary function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Significant increase in factual knowledge with web-assisted problem-based learning as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum.

    PubMed

    Raupach, T; Münscher, C; Pukrop, T; Anders, S; Harendza, S

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice examination of factual knowledge in cardiology and pneumology. A virtual problem-based learning environment for medical students supervised by postgraduate teachers was created. Seventy-four out of 183 fourth-year medical students volunteered to use the online module while attending a 6-week cardio-respiratory curriculum in summer 2007. Of these, 40 were randomly selected to be included (intervention group); the remaining 34 served as an internal control group. Analysis of all written exams taken during the preceding term showed that both groups were comparable (86.4 ± 1.1 vs. 85.9 ± 1.1%; p = 0.751). Students in the intervention group scored significantly higher in the final course assessment than students allocated to the control group (84.8 ± 1.3 vs. 79.5 ± 1.4%; p = 0.006; effect size 0.67). Thus, additional problem-based learning with an online module as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum lead to higher students' scores in an exam testing factual knowledge. Whether using this teaching format increases overall student motivation to engage in the learning process needs to be further investigated.

  20. Significant increase in factual knowledge with web-assisted problem-based learning as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Münscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice examination of factual knowledge in cardiology and pneumology. A virtual problem-based learning environment for medical students supervised by postgraduate teachers was created. Seventy-four out of 183 fourth-year medical students volunteered to use the online module while attending a 6-week cardio-respiratory curriculum in summer 2007. Of these, 40 were randomly selected to be included (intervention group); the remaining 34 served as an internal control group. Analysis of all written exams taken during the preceding term showed that both groups were comparable (86.4 ± 1.1 vs. 85.9 ± 1.1%; p = 0.751). Students in the intervention group scored significantly higher in the final course assessment than students allocated to the control group (84.8 ± 1.3 vs. 79.5 ± 1.4%; p = 0.006; effect size 0.67). Thus, additional problem-based learning with an online module as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum lead to higher students’ scores in an exam testing factual knowledge. Whether using this teaching format increases overall student motivation to engage in the learning process needs to be further investigated. PMID:19774475

  1. Bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells express such a low level of functional B2 receptors that bradykinin does not significantly increase their aldosterone production.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, L; Richard, D E; Poirier, S N; Poitras, M; Guillemette, G

    1998-03-01

    BAG cells express functional B2 receptors. The weak production of second messengers and the rapid desensitization process could explain why BK fails to increase aldosterone production in these cells. Since functional B2 receptors are expressed in BAG cells it is likely that under some specific physiological or pathological conditions these receptors may play a significant role in aldosterone secretion. However these conditions remain to be determined.

  2. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro exposure to the herbicide atrazine inhibits T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production and significantly increases the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Thueson, Lindsay E; Emmons, Tiffany R; Browning, Dianna L; Kreitinger, Joanna M; Shepherd, David M; Wetzel, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-[ethylamino]-6-[isopropylamino]-s-triazine) is the most common water contaminant in the United States. Atrazine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and is classified as an estrogen disrupting compound because it elevates estrogen levels via induction of the enzyme aromatase. Previous studies have shown that atrazine exposure alters the function of innate immune cells such as NK cells, DC, mast cells, and macrophages. In this study we have examined the impact of in vitro atrazine exposure on the activation, proliferation, and effector cytokine production by primary murine CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We found that atrazine exposure significantly inhibited CD4(+) T cell proliferation and accumulation as well as the expression of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the effects were more pronounced in cells from male animals. These effects were partially mimicked by pharmacological reagents that elevate intracellular cAMP levels and addition of exogenous rmIL-2 further inhibited proliferation and CD25 expression. Consistent with these findings, atrazine exposure during T cell activation resulted in a 2- to 5-fold increase in the frequency of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increase of Flexural Strength of Red Ceramic Pieces Incorporated with Ornamental Rock Waste: Application of Weibull Statistic for Determination of Best Firing Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzarollo, C. B.; Xavier, G. C.; Alexandre, J.; Azevedo, A. R. G.; Monteiro, S. N.

    Ceramic materials exhibit dispersion results after being subjected to various levels of stress, from the point of view of mechanical strength. With the focus on sustainable development and to improve the strength of these material, was incorporated ornamental rock waste into clay in up to 10% in mass to conform some samples, that was fired to 750°C, 850°C and 950°C and submitted to technological tests. This paper presents an analysis of the technological properties of the samples through the use of Weibull statistic to determine which the best firing temperature for these red ceramic materials. The Weibull Modulus indicates a greater homogeneity for samples with 10R at 950°C.

  6. Grip strength and endurance in rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Cutts, A; Bollen, S R

    1993-01-01

    The performance of competition climbers in laboratory-based tests of pinch and whole hand grip strength and endurance was compared to that of non-climbers of the same age, sex and physique. Climbers performed significantly better, indicating higher stresses acting in the flexor mechanism, possibly predisposing injury. Attempts were made to correlate the performance in the tests to climbing achievement, measured by current technical climbing standards. Although pinch grip strength increased with the length of climbing experience, there was no evidence that strength in the hands alone guarantees success in competition climbing.

  7. Caryocar brasiliense oil improves cardiac function by increasing Serca2a/PLB ratio despite no significant changes in cardiovascular risk factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lidiane Guedes; Moreno, Lauane Gomes; Melo, Dirceu Sousa; Costa-Pereira, Liliane Vanessa; Carvalho, Mayara Medeiros de Freitas; Silva, Paulo Henrique Evangelista; Alves, Ana Maria; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Dias-Peixoto, Marco Fabrício; Esteves, Elizabethe Adriana

    2017-02-08

    Caryocar brasiliense (pequi) oil is high in monounsaturated fat acids (MUFA), especially oleic, and in carotenoids, which have been associated with protection against cardiovascular disease. However, this food is poorly studied in this context, especially in the cardiac function. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a long-term intake of pequi oil in systemic cardiovascular risk factors and in the ex vivo cardiac function of rats. Previously, we determined fatty acids and carotenoids in pequi oil. Next, male rats were divided in C - control group feed a standard diet, and PO - pequi oil group fed the same diet added pequi oil (+2.25 g.100 g-1). After 15 weeks, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, heart rate, hepatic lipids were accessed and visceral fat pads were harvested. Hearts were used for the ex vivo cardiac function, histologic assays, SERCA2a and phospholanban (PLB) determinations. In agreement with scientific data, pequi oil had expressive amounts MUFA, especially oleic acid, and carotenoids. Hepatic triglycerides (TG) were reduced by pequi oil intake (p < 0.05). All others cardiovascular risk factors were not changed. The intrinsic heart rate was lower in PO group (p < 0.05). SERCA2a content was higher in this group (p < 0.05), without affecting PLB. Also, SERCA2a/PLB ratio increased in PO group (p < 0.05). Pequi oil intake improved cardiac function ex vivo, despite no significant changes in systemic cardiovascular risk factors. The higher lipid offer in pequi oil diet, its composition in oleic acid and carotenoids could be related to those effects.

  8. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Peripheral blood cell telomere length measurements indicate that hematopoietic stem cell turnover is not significantly increased in whole blood and apheresis PLT donors.

    PubMed

    Scheding, Stefan; Ersöz, Inci; Hartmann, Ulrike; Bartolvic, Kerol; Balabanov, Stefan; Salama, Abdulgabar; Kanz, Lothar; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2003-08-01

    The telomere length (TEL) of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can be used to estimate hematopoietic stem cell turnover. The current study investigated whether the repetitive stimulation of the hematopoietic system caused by regular whole blood (WB) and PLT donations would affect PBL TEL. PBLs were obtained from healthy donors (n=94) with a history of at least 3 years of WB donation (median, 7.7 years; range, 3.0-43.0 years) plus additional apheresis PLT donations. The median (range) numbers of WB and PLT donations were 22.0 (6.0-194.0) and 42.0 (7.0-336.0), respectively. Additionally, samples were obtained from healthy nondonors (n=47). PBL TEL was measured with fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry (flow-FISH). Flow-FISH results were expressed in molecular equivalents of soluble fluorochrome units (MESF; 1000 MESF=1 kMESF) either as absolute (TEL) or as age-adjusted TEL (DeltaTEL). Donor granulocyte and lymphocyte TELs were 12.6 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) and 13.2 +/- 0.3 kMESF, respectively. No differences were observed when compared with corresponding nondonor data (granulocytes, 12.5 +/- 0.4 kMESF; lymphocytes, 13.6 +/- 0.5 kMESF). Furthermore, DeltaTEL values did not differ between the two groups and were not different from previously established reference values. In addition, neither donor data for age-adjusted TEL for granulocytes nor DeltaTEL for lymphocytes were correlated with either total years or total numbers of WB and/or PLT donations. Long-term WB and PLT donation does not affect PBW TEL as measured by flow-FISH, arguing against a significantly increased stem cell turnover.

  10. Effect of increased load of high-strength food wastewater in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge on bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) has been widely used to improve reactor performance, especially methane production. In this study, we applied two different operating temperatures (thermophilic and mesophilic) and gradually increased the load of food wastewater (FWW) to investigate the bacterial communities during the AcoD of waste activated sludge (WAS) and FWW. As the load of FWW was increased, methane production rate (MPR; L CH4/L d) and methane content (%) in both Thermophilic AcoD (TAcoD) and Mesophilic AcoD (MAcoD) increased significantly; the highest MPR and methane content in TAcoD (1.423 L CH4/L d and 68.24%) and MAcoD (1.233 L CH4/L d and 65.21%) were observed when the FWW mixing ratio was 75%. However, MPR and methane yield in both reactors decreased markedly and methane production in TAcoD ceased completely when only FWW was fed into the reactor, resulting from acidification of the reactor caused by accumulation of organic acids. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed a decrease in bacterial diversity in TAcoD and a markedly different composition of bacterial communities between TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load. For example, Bacterial members belonging to two genera Petrotoga (assigned to phylum Thermotogae) and Petrimonas (assigned to phylum Bacteroidetes) became dominant in TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load, respectively. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed higher bacterial and archaeal populations (expressed as 16S rRNA gene concentration) in TAcoD than MAcoD with an increase in FWW load and showed maximum population when the FWW mixing ratio was 75% in both reactors. Collectively, this study demonstrated the dynamics of key bacterial communities in TAcoD and MAcoD, which were highly affected by the load of FWW. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reliability of health-related quality-of-life assessments made by older adults and significant others for health states of increasing cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gina; Sene, Modou; Arcand, Marcel

    2017-01-07

    Older adults are encouraged by many organizations to engage in advance care planning in the event of decisional incapacity. Planning for future health care often involves anticipating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in states of reduced cognitive functioning. No study has yet examined whether anticipated HRQoL is stable over time. The accuracy with which significant others can predict how an older adult envisions HRQoL in a future state of cognitive impairment is also unknown. We investigated the extent to which health-related quality-of-life ratings made by older adults and designated proxies for health states of increasing cognitive impairment are consistent over time and agree with each other. Results are based on HRQoL ratings made on a 5-point Likert scale by 235 community-based elder-proxy dyads on three occasions. Ratings were obtained for the older adult's current health state as well as under the assumption that he/she had a mild to moderate stroke, incurable brain cancer or severe dementia. Data were analyzed using both traditional approaches (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots) and the theory of generalizability. We found ratings to be reasonably consistent over time and in good agreement within dyads, even more so as implied cognitive functioning worsened. Across health states, ratings over time or within elder-proxy dyads were no more than one category apart in over 87% of cases. Using the theory of generalizability, we further found that, of the two facets investigated, rater had a greater influence on score variability than occasion. These findings underscore the importance of discussing health-related quality-of-life issues during advance care planning and involving designated proxies in the discussion to enhance their understanding of the role that HRQoL should play in actual decision-making situations. Medical decision-making may be influenced by healthcare providers' and family members' assessments of an

  12. Introgression of genes for cotton leaf curl virus resistance and increased fiber strength from Gossypium stocksii into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Nazeer, W; Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Tipu, A L; Mahmood, A; Zhou, B

    2014-02-21

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease is a major hurdle for successful cotton production in Pakistan. There has been considerable economic loss due to this disease during the last decade. It would be desirable to have cotton varieties resistant to this disease. We explored the possibility of transferring virus resistant genes from the wild species Gossypium stocksii into MNH-786, a cultivar of G. hirsutum. Hybridization was done under field condition at the Cotton Research Station, Multan, during 2010-11. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones. F1 seeds were treated with 0.03% colchicine solution for 6 h and germinated. Cytological observations at peak squaring/flowering stage showed that these plants were hexaploid, having 2n = 6x = 78 chromosomes. The F1 plants showed intermediate expression for leaf size, leaf area, petiole length, bracteole number and size, bracteole area, bracteole dentation, flower size, pedicel size, and petal number and size. Moreover it possessed high fiber strength of 54.4 g/tex, which is 54% greater than that of the check variety, i.e. MNH-786 (G. hirsutum). The F1 population did not show any symptom of CLCuVD in the field, tested by grafting with CLCuVD susceptible rootstock (var. S12). We conclude that it is possible to transfer CLCuVD resistance and high fiber strength from G. stocksii to G. hirsutum.

  13. Age and Grip Strength Predict Hand Dexterity in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jason A.; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M.; Edwards, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  14. Age and grip strength predict hand dexterity in adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jason A; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M; Edwards, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  15. Eye-Tracking Reveals that the Strength of the Vertical-Horizontal Illusion Increases as the Retinal Image Becomes More Stable with Fixation.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Philippe A; Peel, Hayden J; Landry, Oriane

    2017-01-01

    The closer a line extends toward a surrounding frame, the longer it appears. This is known as a framing effect. Over 70 years ago, Teodor Künnapas demonstrated that the shape of the visual field itself can act as a frame to influence the perceived length of lines in the vertical-horizontal illusion. This illusion is typically created by having a vertical line rise from the center of a horizontal line of the same length creating an inverted T figure. We aimed to determine if the degree to which one fixates on a spatial location where the two lines bisect could influence the strength of the illusion, assuming that the framing effect would be stronger when the retinal image is more stable. We performed two experiments: the visual-field and vertical-horizontal illusion experiments. The visual-field experiment demonstrated that the participants could discriminate a target more easily when it was presented along the horizontal vs. vertical meridian, confirming a framing influence on visual perception. The vertical-horizontal illusion experiment determined the effects of orientation, size and eye gaze on the strength of the illusion. As predicted, the illusion was strongest when the stimulus was presented in either its standard inverted T orientation or when it was rotated 180° compared to other orientations, and in conditions in which the retinal image was more stable, as indexed by eye tracking. Taken together, we conclude that the results provide support for Teodor Künnapas' explanation of the vertical-horizontal illusion.

  16. Down-Regulating γ-Gliadins in Bread Wheat Leads to Non-Specific Increases in Other Gluten Proteins and Has No Major Effect on Dough Gluten Strength

    PubMed Central

    Pistón, Fernando; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Rodríguez-Quijano, Marta; Barro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Background Gliadins are a major component of gluten proteins but their role in the mixing of dough is not well understood because their contribution to wheat flour functional properties are not as clear as for the glutenin fraction. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic lines of bread wheat with γ-gliadins suppressed by RNAi are reported. The effects on the gluten protein composition and on technological properties of flour were analyzed by RP-HPLC, by sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) test and by Mixograph analysis. The silencing of γ-gliadins by RNAi in wheat lines results in an increase in content of all other gluten proteins. Despite the gluten proteins compensation, in silico analysis of amino acid content showed no difference in the γ-gliadins silenced lines. The SDSS test and Mixograph parameters were slightly affected by the suppression of γ-gliadins. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, it is concluded that γ-gliadins do not have an essential functional contribution to the bread-making quality of wheat dough, and their role can be replaced by other gluten proteins. PMID:21935456

  17. Community reinforcement training for family and significant others of drug abusers: a unilateral intervention to increase treatment entry of drug users.

    PubMed

    Kirby, K C; Marlowe, D B; Festinger, D S; Garvey, K A; La Monaca, V

    1999-08-02

    We randomly assigned 32 concerned family members and significant others (FSOs) of drug users (DUs) to a community reinforcement training intervention or a popular 12-step self-help group. We measured problems arising from the DU's behavior, social functioning of the DU and FSO, and mood of the FSO at baseline and 10 weeks later. We also monitored the FSOs' treatment attendance and treatment entry of the DUs. The treatment groups showed equal reductions from baseline to follow-up in problems and improvements in social functioning and mood of the FSO. However the community reinforcement intervention was significantly better at retaining FSOs in treatment and inducing treatment entry of the DUs.

  18. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  19. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) increases the risk for progression to multiple myeloma: an observational study of 2935 MGUS patients

    PubMed Central

    Suchecki, Patricia; Prokop, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignancy preceding multiple myeloma (MM) or related disorders. In MGUS, renal impairment caused by deposition of the monoclonal immunoglobulins or free light-chains monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We analysed the prevalence of renal impairment, clinical features and the long-term outcome in 2935 patients with MGUS. Methods Between 1/2000 and 8/2016, 2935 adult patients with MGUS were identified in our database. Results In 44/2935 (1.5%) patients MGRS was diagnosed. In MGRS patients, significantly more progressions to MM were observed than in MGUS patients (18% vs. 3%; P<0.001). MGRS patients showed a higher risk for progression (HR 3.3 [1.5-7.4]) in the Cox model. Median time to progression was 23 years for MGUS and 18.8 years for MGRS patients. Corresponding progression rate was 8.8 [7.2-10.7] per 1000 patient-years (py) for MGUS patients and 30.6 [15.3–61] for the MGRS group. Risk for progression within the first year after diagnosis was 1% [0.6-1.4] in the MGUS group and 10% [4-29] among MGRS patients. Conclusion The significantly higher risk for progression to MM means MGRS patients should be monitored carefully and treated in a specialized centre. PMID:29416776

  20. A diet with 3% of energy from a mixture of Omega-3 fatty acids significantly increases in vivo lipid peroxidation in postmenopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are recommended by public health organizations to reduce the risk of disease. However, n-3 PUFA are susceptible to an increase in lipid peroxidation in the human body. As part of a crossover dietary intervention study of a diet (20% of energy ...

  1. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Significant Increase in Factual Knowledge with Web-Assisted Problem-Based Learning as Part of an Undergraduate Cardio-Respiratory Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raupach, T.; Munscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice…

  3. Significant association of increased PD-L1 and PD-1 expression with nodal metastasis and a poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maruse, Y; Kawano, S; Jinno, T; Matsubara, R; Goto, Y; Kaneko, N; Sakamoto, T; Hashiguchi, Y; Moriyama, M; Toyoshima, T; Kitamura, R; Tanaka, H; Oobu, K; Kiyoshima, T; Nakamura, S

    2018-01-26

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor PD-1 are immune checkpoint molecules that attenuate the immune response. Blockade of PD-L1 enhances the immune response in a variety of tumours and thus serves as an effective anti-cancer treatment. However, the biological and prognostic roles of PD-L1/PD-1 signalling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of PD-L1/PD-1 signalling with the prognosis of OSCC patients to assess its potential therapeutic relevance. The expression of PD-L1 and of PD-1 was determined immunohistochemically in 97 patients with OSCC and the association of this expression with clinicopathological characteristics was examined. Increased expression of PD-L1 was found in 64.9% of OSCC cases and increased expression of PD-1 was found in 61.9%. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that increased expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 positively correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis. The expression of CD25, an activated T-cell marker, was negatively correlated with the labelling index of PD-L1 and PD-1. Moreover, the patient group with PD-L1-positive and PD-1-positive expression showed a more unfavourable prognosis than the group with PD-L1-negative and PD-1-negative expression. These data suggest that increased PD-L1 and PD-1 expression is predictive of nodal metastasis and a poor prognosis and is possibly involved in cancer progression via attenuating the immune response. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  5. Rapid increase of overweight and obesity among primary school-aged children in the Caribbean; high initial BMI is the most significant predictor.

    PubMed

    Mumena, Walaa A; Francis-Granderson, Isabella; Phillip, Leroy E; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    To examine predictors of increasing overweight among children in two developing countries. Primary school children (6-10 y at baseline, n  = 336) and their caregivers.Longitudinal data were collected in 2012, with follow-up 18 months later. Data on children's height, weight and dietary intake were collected within 8 primary public schools in Trinidad and 7 schools in St. Kitts. Caregivers' demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. At baseline, children's age and sex and caregivers' BMI, age, and marital status and reported dietary intake were similar across all weight groups. The incidence of overweight and obesity among children was 8.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Dietary intake at baseline was not related to becoming overweight or obese. Similarly there were no differences in reported intake among children who became overweight or obese except that they consumed fewer fruits (0.54±0.92 vs. 0.98±1.66, p  = 0.017). Misreporting of energy intake was higher among overweight/obese children as compared to those who were not overweight/obese (27% vs. 17%, p  = 0.047). The baseline predictors of increasing BMI (adjusted) of the children were older age, higher baseline BMI z-score and higher height-for-age (HFA) z-score; caregiver BMI, children's energy intake (with adjustment for misreporting) did not predict changes in children's BMI. The increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children is a serious problem in the Caribbean. Heavier children are at elevated risk of continued rapid increase in their weight status, pointing to the need for early intervention.

  6. Protein-energy wasting significantly increases healthcare utilization and costs among patients with chronic kidney disease: a propensity-score matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Cheng, Rhoda Wen-Yi; Wang, Michael Yao-Hsien; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is highly prevalent, and has prognostic implications for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, few studies have investigated the impact of malnutrition, or protein-energy wasting (PEW), on healthcare utilization and medical expenditure among CKD patients. Using claim data from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan, this study identified patients with CKD between 2009-2013 and categorized them into those with mild, moderate, or severe CKD. Cases with PEW after CKD was diagnosed were propensity-score matched with controls in a 1:4 ratio. Healthcare resource utilization metrics were compared, including outpatient and emergency department visits, frequency and duration of hospitalization, and the cumulative costs associated with different CKD severity. From among 347,501 CKD patients, eligible cohorts of 66,872 with mild CKD (49.2%), 27,122 with moderate CKD (19.9%), and 42,013 with severe CKD (30.9%) were selected. Malnourished CKD patients had significantly higher rates of hospitalization (p < .001 for all severities) and re-admission (p = .015 for mild CKD, p = .002 for severe CKD) than non-malnourished controls. Cumulative medical costs for outpatient and emergency visits, and hospitalization, were significantly higher among all malnourished CKD patients than non-malnourished ones (p < .001); total medical costs were also higher among malnourished patients with mild (62.9%), moderate (59.6%), or severe (43.6%) CKD compared to non-malnourished patients (p < .001). In a nationally-representative cohort, CKD patients with PEW had significantly more healthcare resource utilization and higher aggregate medical costs than those without, across the spectrum of CKD: preventing PEW in CKD patients should receive high priority if we would like to reduce medical costs.

  7. Distribution of Report on Procedures to Estimate Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission Increases from Mobile and Area Sources for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Increment Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2005 and 2050

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China’s forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China’s forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr−1 (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr−1; 1 Tg = 1012 g). Our findings suggest that China’s forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050. PMID:26110831

  9. The effect of drying degree on pulverulent rate and strength of lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Guo, Qihai; Ding, Li; Wu, Daohong

    2017-04-01

    In order to obtain the drying characteristics of lignite, the effects of drying temperature and drying time on the pulverulent rate and strength of Tianji lignite were researched. The experimental results showed that lignite appeared obvious shrinkage, cracking and powdering in the process of drying. The fall strength and compressive strength of dry lignite decreased with the increase of dehydration rate. With the increase of drying time, the damage degree of pore structure of lignite increased, and part of the pore structure was blocked. With the increase of drying temperature, the damage degree of coal pore structure increased, and the pulverulent rate increased obviously, and fall strength and compressive strength decreased significantly. In order to improve the dehydration rate, fall strength and compressive strength, and reduce pulverulent rate, the drying time should be less than 4 hours, and drying temperature should be about 200°C.

  10. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    PubMed

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with hypobaric ropivacaine in sitting position significantly increases the incidence of hypotension in parturients undergoing cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhendong; Shen, Fuyi; Zhang, Yueqi; Tao, Yiyi; Chen, Xiubing; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2017-04-01

    Maternal position during induction of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) may affect hemodynamics and block characteristics. This study aimed to assess whether the sitting position is more likely to induce hypotension and higher block level than the lateral position in CSEA with hypobaric ropivacaine. Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II parturients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomized into three groups: the sitting, left-lateral, and right-lateral position groups. The L3-4 interspace was selected as the puncture site, and subarachnoid injection of 2.5 mL 0.5% hypobaric ropivacaine was administered. After the epidural catheter was inserted and fixed, the patient's position was changed to the left-leaning supine position. The blood pressure was measured once every 1 min followed by once every 3 min after the delivery. The sensory block level was regularly measured. A total of 88 parturients were included in this study. The incidences of hypotension in the sitting, left-lateral, and right-lateral position groups were 72%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, P = 0.012. Incidence and total dose of the phenylephrine supplement in the sitting position group were significantly higher than in the other two groups. The sitting position group showed a significantly higher block level (T4 [T3, T4]) as compared to the left-lateral (T6 [T5, T6]) and right-lateral position groups (T6 [T4, T6]), P < 0.01. The Apgar scores of neonates at 1 min and 5 min, and the pH values of the umbilical arterial and venous blood were similar among the three groups. As compared to the lateral positions, CSEA with hypobaric ropivacaine in the sitting position is more likely to cause hypotension and excessively high block level. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Screening of endocrine organ-specific humoral autoimmunity in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome reveals a significant increase in diabetes-specific immunoreactivity in comparison with healthy control men.

    PubMed

    Panimolle, Francesca; Tiberti, Claudio; Granato, Simona; Semeraro, Antonella; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Anzuini, Antonella; Lenzi, Andrea; Radicioni, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of humoral endocrine organ-specific autoimmunity in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) by investigating the autoantibody profile specific to type 1 diabetes (T1DM), Addison's disease (AD), Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), and autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (AG). Sixty-one adult Caucasian 47,XXY KS patients were tested for autoantibodies specific to T1DM (Insulin Abs, GAD Abs, IA-2 Abs, Znt8 Abs), HT (TPO Abs), AD (21-OH Abs), and AG (APC Abs). Thirty-five of these patients were not undergoing testosterone replacement therapy TRT (Group 1) and the remaining 26 patients started TRT before the beginning of the study (Group 2). KS autoantibody frequencies were compared to those found in 122 control men. Six of 61 KS patients (9.8 %) were positive for at least one endocrine autoantibody, compared to 6.5 % of controls. Interestingly, KS endocrine immunoreactivity was directed primarily against diabetes-specific autoantigens (8.2 %), with a significantly higher frequency than in controls (p = 0.016). Two KS patients (3.3 %) were TPO Ab positive, whereas no patients were positive for AD- and AG-related autoantigens. The autoantibody endocrine profile of untreated and treated KS patients was not significantly different. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that endocrine humoral immunoreactivity is not rare in KS patients and that it is more frequently directed against type 1 diabetes-related autoantigens, thus suggesting the importance of screening for organ-specific autoimmunity in clinical practice. Follow-up studies are needed to establish if autoantibody-positive KS patients will develop clinical T1DM.

  13. Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Terracol, Gilles; Talluri, Jacopo; Maugeri, Roberto; Guido, Davide; Faliva, Milena A; Solerte, Bruno S; Fioravanti, Marisa; Lukaski, Henry; Perna, Simone

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to attenuate the adverse effects of age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function include increased physical activity and nutritional supplementation. This study tested the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with whey protein (22 g), essential amino acids (10.9 g, including 4 g leucine), and vitamin D [2.5 μg (100 IU)] concurrent with regular, controlled physical activity would increase fat-free mass, strength, physical function, and quality of life, and reduce the risk of malnutrition in sarcopenic elderly persons. A total of 130 sarcopenic elderly people (53 men and 77 women; mean age: 80.3 y) participated in a 12-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation trial. All participants concurrently took part in a controlled physical activity program. We examined body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a handgrip dynamometer, and blood biochemical indexes of nutritional and health status, and evaluated global nutritional status, physical function, and quality of life before and after the 12 wk of intervention. Compared with physical activity and placebo, supplementation plus physical activity increased fat-free mass (1.7-kg gain, P < 0.001), relative skeletal muscle mass (P = 0.009), android distribution of fat (P = 0.021), handgrip strength (P = 0.001), standardized summary scores for physical components (P = 0.030), activities of daily living (P = 0.001), mini nutritional assessment (P = 0.003), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.002), and lowered C-reactive protein (P = 0.038). Supplementation with whey protein, essential amino acids, and vitamin D, in conjunction with age-appropriate exercise, not only boosts fat-free mass and strength but also enhances other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402608. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. [Muscular strength development by electromagnetic stimulation].

    PubMed

    Gorodnichev, R M; Beliaev, A G; Pivovarova, E A; Shliakhtov, V N

    2014-01-01

    A new tool for muscular strength development by electromagnetic stimulation (MS) of muscular during voluntary contraction has been described. 18 healthy subjects (men) took part in the research. They were devided into two groups--control (CG) and experimental (EG). Subjects of CG and EG have equal muscular strength parameters. M. gastrocnemius of subjects in EG was exposed to MS (1.8 T, 5 Hz) during training exercises (plantar foot flection). The subjects of CG did not receive MS. The torque of plantar foot flection of EG subjects increased significantly (24%) during 10 days training. The torque of plantar foot flection of CG subjects did not change significantly. We hypothesize increasing of muscular strength of EG subjects was result of high-threshold motor units activation under MS.

  15. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined Strength and Endurance Training: Functional and Morphological Adaptations to Ten Weeks of Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-29

    AD-A261 059 _______"___________" _______________________ II/I/I/IhIII/III/I/IIi/I/I /IIIII /JI/iII COMBINED STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING...P.O. BOX 85122 SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92186-5122 NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND BETHESDA, MARYLAND Combined Strength and Endurance ...combined strength and endurance training resulted in significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, muscular strength and power, and muscle hypertrophy

  17. Failure strength of icy lithospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1987-01-01

    Lithospheric strengths derived from friction on pre-existing fractures and ductile flow laws show that the tensile strength of intact ice under applicable conditions is actually an order of magnitude stronger than widely assumed. It is demonstrated that this strength is everywhere greater than that required to initiate frictional sliding on pre-existing fractures and faults. Because the tensile strength of intact ice increases markedly with confining pressure, it actually exceeds the frictional strength at all depths. Thus, icy lithospheres will fail by frictional slip along pre-existing fractures at yeild stresses greater than previously assumed rather than opening tensile cracks in intact ice.

  18. Instructional Approaches that Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…

  19. Attitude Strength.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  20. Increasing Valid Profiles in Phallometric Assessment of Sex Offenders with Child Victims: Combining the Strengths of Audio Stimuli and Synthetic Characters.

    PubMed

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Renaud, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles. Three modalities (audio, visual, and audiovisual) were compared using two groups (15 sex offenders with child victims and 15 non-offenders). Both the new visual and audiovisual stimuli resulted in a 13% increase in the number of valid profiles at 2.5 mm, when compared to the standard audio stimuli. Furthermore, the new audiovisual stimuli generated a 34% increase in penile responses. All three modalities were able to discriminate between the two groups by their responses to the adult and child stimuli. Lastly, sexual interest indices for all three modalities could accurately classify participants in their appropriate groups, as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis (i.e., audio AUC = .81, 95% CI [.60, 1.00]; visual AUC = .84, 95% CI [.66, 1.00], and audiovisual AUC = .83, 95% CI [.63, 1.00]). Results suggest that computer-generated characters allow accurate discrimination of sex offenders with child victims and can be added to already validated stimuli to increase the number of valid profiles. The implications of audiovisual stimuli using computer-generated characters and their possible use in PPG evaluations are also discussed.

  1. Sperm competition and the evolution of precopulatory weapons: Increasing male density promotes sperm competition and reduces selection on arm strength in a chorusing frog.

    PubMed

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-10-01

    Sperm competition theory assumes a trade-off between precopulatory traits that increase mating success and postcopulatory traits that increase fertilization success. Predictions for how sperm competition might affect male expenditure on these traits depend on the number of competing males, the advantage gained from expenditure on weapons, and the level of sperm competition. However, empirical tests of sperm competition theory rarely examine precopulatory male expenditure. We investigated how variation in male density affects precopulatory sexual selection on male weaponry and the level of sperm competition in the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana, where males use their arms as weapons in male-male combat. We measured body size and arm girth of 439 males, and recorded their mating success in the field. We found density-dependent selection acting on arm girth. Arm girth was positively associated with mating success, but only at low population densities. Increased male density was associated with higher risk and intensity of sperm competition arising from multimale amplexus, and a reversal in the direction of selection on arm girth. Opposing patterns of pre- and postcopulatory selection may account for the negative covariation between arm girth and testes across populations of this species. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    PubMed

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p < 0.001) and physiological cross-sectional area (16.1 vs. 18.1 cm 2 , p = 0.032). There were no significant changes to muscle fascicle length, stiffness, or eccentric hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  3. Twelve weeks' progressive resistance training combined with protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes increases upper leg lean tissue mass, muscle strength and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

    PubMed

    Francis, Peter; Mc Cormack, William; Toomey, Clodagh; Norton, Catherine; Saunders, Jean; Kerin, Emmet; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-12-01

    The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50-70 years women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) for 12 weeks. Of the 57 women, 29 also engaged in a PRT intervention (PRO + PRT). In comparison to the PRO group (n = 28), those in the PRO + PRT group had an increase in upper leg LTM [0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.01) kg vs. 0.13 (95% CI 0.08-0.18) kg, P = 0.027], as measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; an increase in knee extensor (KE) torque [-1.6 (95% CI -7.3 to 4.4 N m) vs. 10.2 (95% CI 4.3-15.8 N m), P = 0.007], as measured from a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (Con-Trex MJ; CMV AG); and an increase in extended gait speed [-0.01 (95% CI -0.52-0.04) m s -1 vs. 0.10 (95% CI 0.05-0.22) m s -1 , P = 0.001] as measured from a maximal 900 m effort. There was no difference between groups in the time taken to complete 5 chair rises or the number of chair rises performed in 30 s (P > 0.05). PRT in healthy older women ingesting a dietary protein supplement is an effective strategy to improve upper leg LTM, KE torque and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

  4. Effect of static wrist position on grip strength

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Praveen; Nayak, Saumyakumar S.; Kiswar, Asif M.; Sabapathy, S. Raja

    2011-01-01

    Background: Grip strength after wrist arthrodesis is reported to be significantly less than normal. One of the reasons suggested for this decrease in grip strength is that the arthrodesis was performed in a suboptimal position. However, there is no consensus on the ideal position of wrist fusion. There is a paucity of studies evaluating the effect of various fixed positions of the wrist on grip strength and therefore, there is no guide regarding the ideal position of wrist fusion. The authors′ aim was to determine the grip strength in various fixed positions of the wrist and subsequently to find out in which position of wrist fusion the grip strength would be maximal. Materials and Methods: One hundred healthy adults participated in the study. For the purpose of this study, the authors constructed splints to hold the wrist in five different fixed positions: 45, 30 and 15 degrees of wrist extension, neutral and 30 degrees of wrist flexion. The grip strength in all the participants was measured bilaterally, first without a splint and then with each splint sequentially. Results: The average grip strength without the splint was 34.3 kg for right and 32.3 kg for the left hand. Grip strength decreased by 19–25% when the wrist was splinted. The maximum average grip strength with a splint on was recorded at 45 degrees of extension (27.9 kg for right and 26.3 kg for left side). There was a gradual increase in the grip strength with increase in wrist extension but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.29). The grip strength was significantly less in flexed position of the wrist (P < 0.001). PMID:21713161

  5. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  6. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2more » shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The

  7. Down-regulating γ-gliadins in bread wheat leads to non-specific increases in other gluten proteins and has no major effect on dough gluten strength.

    PubMed

    Pistón, Fernando; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Rodríguez-Quijano, Marta; Barro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Gliadins are a major component of gluten proteins but their role in the mixing of dough is not well understood because their contribution to wheat flour functional properties are not as clear as for the glutenin fraction. Transgenic lines of bread wheat with γ-gliadins suppressed by RNAi are reported. The effects on the gluten protein composition and on technological properties of flour were analyzed by RP-HPLC, by sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) test and by Mixograph analysis. The silencing of γ-gliadins by RNAi in wheat lines results in an increase in content of all other gluten proteins. Despite the gluten proteins compensation, in silico analysis of amino acid content showed no difference in the γ-gliadins silenced lines. The SDSS test and Mixograph parameters were slightly affected by the suppression of γ-gliadins. Therefore, it is concluded that γ-gliadins do not have an essential functional contribution to the bread-making quality of wheat dough, and their role can be replaced by other gluten proteins.

  8. EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED MUSIC ON MAXIMAL BENCH PRESS STRENGTH AND STRENGTH ENDURANCE.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Di Michele, Rocco; Merni, Franco

    2015-06-01

    Listening to music during strength workouts has become a very common practice. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of listening to self-selected music on strength performances. Thirty-one resistance-trained men (M age = 24.7 yr., SD = 5.9; M height = 178.7 cm, SD = 4.7; M body mass = 83.54 kg, SD = 12.0) were randomly assigned to either a Music group (n = 19) or to a Control group (n = 12). Both groups took part in two separate sessions; each session consisted in a maximal strength test (1-RM) and a strength-endurance test (repetitions to failure at 60% 1-RM) using the bench press exercise. The music group listened to music in the second assessment session, while the control group performed both tests without music. Listening to music induced a significant increase of strength endurance performance and no effects on maximal strength. These findings have implications for the use of music during strength workouts.

  9. Age and gender responses to strength training and detraining.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, J T; Hurlbut, D E; Martel, G F; Tracy, B L; Ivey, F M; Metter, E J; Fozard, J L; Fleg, J L; Hurley, B F

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age and gender on the strength response to strength training (ST) and detraining. Eighteen young (20-30 yr) and 23 older (65-75 yr) men and women had their one-repetition maximum (1 RM) and isokinetic strength measured before and after 9 wk of unilateral knee extension ST (3 d x wk(-1)) and 31 wk of detraining. The young subjects demonstrated a significantly greater (P < 0.05) increase in 1 RM strength (34+/-3%; 73+/-5 vs 97+/-6 kg; P < 0.01) than the older subjects (28+/-3%; 60+/-4 vs 76+/-5 kg, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in strength gains between men and women in either age group with 9 wk of ST or in strength losses with 31 wk of detraining. Young men and women experienced an 8+/-2% decline in 1 RM strength after 31 wk of detraining (97+/-6 vs 89+/-6 kg, P < 0.05). This decline was significantly less than the 14+/-2% decline in the older men and women (76+/-5 vs 65+/-4 kg, P < 0.05). This strength loss occurred primarily between 12 and 31 wk of detraining with a 6+/-2% and 13+/-2% decrease in the young and older subjects, respectively, during this period. These results demonstrate that changes in 1 RM strength in response to both ST and detraining are affected by age. However, ST-induced increases in muscular strength appear to be maintained equally well in young and older men and women during 12 wk of detraining and are maintained above baseline levels even after 31 wk of detraining in young men, young women, and older men.

  10. Relationship between eggshell strength and keratan sulfate of eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Young Wan; Son, Mi Jin; Yun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2007-08-01

    Eggshell strength is an important factor in an effort to minimize eggshell breakage, which is a significant problem in the egg production industry. In the current study, we isolated and quantified the specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the calcified eggshell and shell membranes, which are related to eggshell strength. Our data suggest that GAGs exist in calcified eggshell may influence morphology of shell but do not affect on increase of shell amount while GAGs of shell membranes are maybe highly associated with shell strength with an increase of shell weight. Shell strength showed a strong correlation with the content of GAGs (r=0.942, p<0.0005) and a weak relationship with uronic acid content (r=0.564, p=0.056) in shell membranes. Monosaccharides in shell membranes were determined by Bio-LC analysis for the identification of any specific GAGs related with shell strength. It indicates that the galactose content as a component of keratan sulfate (KS) has a significant correlation with eggshell strength (r=0.985, p<0.0005). These results suggest that eggshell strength is proportional to the KS content of eggshell membranes with an increase of eggshell weight.

  11. Effects of detraining subsequent to strength training on neuromuscular function in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, A; Mälkiä, E; Häkkinen, K; Jäppinen, I; Laitinen, L; Hannonen, P

    1997-10-01

    The effects of detraining subsequent to strength training on neuromuscular function were examined in 39 recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Eighteen age- and sex-matched healthy people (H) served as controls. Patients were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (PE), who carried out progressive strength training for 6 months, or to the control group (PC), who maintained only their habitual physical activities. After 6 months, PE returned to their earlier physical activities and strength training was terminated. At baseline, the maximal strength of the trunk extensors (not significant), grip strength and maximal dynamic strength and the shape of the force-time curve of the knee extensors were lower in PE and PC (P < 0.05-0.001) than in H. Strength training in PE led to remarkable increases (P < 0.05-0.001) in the maximal strength of all muscle groups without changes in the shape of the force-time curve. The increases in muscle strength in PE obtained by strength training were lost to a great degree during the detraining period for the isometric trunk extension (P < 0.01) and flexion (P < 0.01) strength and for the dynamic knee extension strength (P < 0.05), but not for the grip strength. In PC, trunk extension and flexion strength decreased significantly throughout the study period. At the post-test, all the strength values in both patient groups were much lower than in H. RA is a chronic disease which seems to need continuous physical exercise with sufficient intensity to minimize/prevent the loss of muscle strength and functional capacity.

  12. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  14. Short-Term Strength Deficit Following Zone 1 Replantations

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Woo Cheol; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Hand strength deficit following digital replantation is usually attributed to the mechanical deficiency of the replanted digit. Zone 1 replantation, however, should not be associated with any mechanical deficit, as the joint and tendon are intact. We evaluate short-term motor functions in patients who have undergone single-digit zone 1 replantation. Methods A single-institution retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent zone 1 replantation. Hand and pinch strengths were evaluated using standard dynamometers. Each set of measurements was pooled according to follow-up periods (within 1 month, 1 to 2 months, 2 to 3 months, and after 3 months). The uninjured hand was used as reference for measurements. Results The review identified 53 patients who had undergone zone 1 replantation and presented for follow-up visits. Compared to the uninjured hand, dynamometer measurements revealed significantly less strength for the hand with replanted digit at one month. The relative mean grip, pulp, and key pinch strength were 31%, 46%, and 48% of the uninjured hand. These three strength measurements gradually increased, with relative strength measurements of 59%, 70%, and 78% for 4-month follow up. Conclusions Despite the lack of joint or tendon injury, strength of the injured hand was significantly lower than that of the uninjured hand during the 4 months following replantation. Improved rehabilitation strategies are needed to diminish the short-term negative impact that an isolated zone 1 replantation has on the overall hand strength. PMID:26430634

  15. Norms for hand grip strength in children aged 6-12 years in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohammed Taher Ahmed; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al Baker, Shaheerah

    2015-02-01

    There were two main objectives of this study: to establish normative values of hand grip strengths for 6-12-year-old children in Saudi Arabia and to compare results with existing Western data. Five-hundred twenty-five children from the central area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were recruited. Hand grip strength was measured using a standard adjustable electronic hand dynamometer. The grip strength increased with advancing age in both genders, but grip strength for boys was significantly stronger than that of girls. There was no significant difference in hand grip strength according to the type of hand dominance. The hand strength of the Saudi children appeared to be lower than that of Western children. The reported values of hand grip strength will allow therapists to compare scores from typical and atypical children according to the age, gender, and body measures.

  16. [Bond strength between nonprecious metal alloy and porcelain. Part (1). Bond strength with press condensing method (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Koji, K

    1976-05-01

    For the purpose of finding out the method which is able to evaluate nonprecious metal/porcelain bond strength easily, Ceramco procelain was fused to casted Wiron "S" (3 mm diameter), by means of 5 types of press condensing methods; the bond strength was measured by pull out method and these condensing methods were compared. Results are follows: (1) No significant difference was observed between conventional condensing method and press condensing method (condensing pressure; 472-1 415 kg/cm2), and the bond strength of Ceramco Paint-O-Pake porcelain to Wiron "S" was about 245-369 kg/cm2. (2) Bond strength was decreased with the decrease of the fused length of procelain. (3) Bond strength was increased approximately three times, when specimens were mounted by dental stone.

  17. Maximal strength, power, and aerobic endurance adaptations to concurrent strength and sprint interval training.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K; Paquette, Max R; Murlasits, Zsolt

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine whether concurrent sprint interval and strength training (CT) would result in compromised strength development when compared to strength training (ST) alone. In addition, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion (TTE) were measured to determine if sprint interval training (SIT) would augment aerobic performance. Fourteen recreationally active men completed the study. ST (n = 7) was performed 2 days/week and CT (n = 7) was performed 4 days/week for 12 weeks. CT was separated by 24 h to reduce the influence of acute fatigue. Body composition was analyzed pre- and post-intervention. Anaerobic power, one-repetition maximum (1RM) lower- and upper-body strength, VO2max and TTE were analyzed pre-, mid-, and post-training. Training intensity for ST was set at 85 % 1RM and SIT trained using a modified Wingate protocol, adjusted to 20 s. Upper- and lower-body strength improved significantly after training (p < 0.001) with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). VO2max increased 40.9 ± 8.4 to 42.3 ± 7.1 ml/kg/min (p < 0.05) for CT, whereas ST remained unchanged. A significant difference in VO2max (p < 0.05) was observed between groups post-intervention (CT: 42.3 ± 7.1 vs. ST: 36.0 ± 3.0 ml/kg/min). A main effect for time and group was observed in TTE (p < 0.05). A significant main effect for time was observed in average power (p < 0.05). Preliminary findings suggest that performing concurrent sprint interval and strength training does not attenuate the strength response when compared to ST alone, while also improves aerobic performance measures, such as VO2max at the same time.

  18. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with quantified trunk rotational strength training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Kevin L; Asher, Marc A; Burton, Douglas C; Liu, Wen

    2008-07-01

    Prospective clinical trial. To test the hypothesis that quantified trunk rotational strength training will equalize any strength asymmetry, increase strength overall, and stabilize adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bracing, the only generally accepted form of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis nonoperative therapy, has many shortcomings. Paraspinal muscle abnormalities, which have been extensively documented in these patients, are generally considered to be secondary. A normal female's trunk strength in flexion and extension decreases from her juvenile to adolescent years, whereas a male's increases. Patients received a 4-month supervised followed by a 4-month home trunk rotational strength training program. Trunk rotational strength was measured in both directions at 5 positions at baseline, 4 months, and 8 months. The patients were followed clinically. Fifteen patients (12 females and 3 males), with an average age of 13.9 years and an average main Cobb of 33 degrees were enrolled. At baseline there was no significant asymmetry. After 4 months of supervised strength training, involving an average of 32 training sessions, each lasting about 25 minutes, their strength had significantly increased by 28% to 50% (P<0.005 to P<0.001). After 4 months of unsupervised home strength training their strengths were unchanged. The 3 patients with baseline curves of 50 to 60 degrees all had main or compensatory curve progression and 2 had surgery. For patients with 20 to 40-degree curves, survivorship from main curve progression of >or=6 degrees was 100% at 8 months, but decreased to 64% at 24 months. Quantified trunk rotational strength training significantly increased strength. It was not effective for curves measuring 50 to 60 degrees. It appeared to help stabilize curves in the 20 to 40-degree ranges for 8 months, but not for 24 months. Periodic additional supervised strength training may help the technique to remain effective, although additional experimentation will be

  19. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant

  20. Dynamic strength of molecular adhesion bonds.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E; Ritchie, K

    1997-01-01

    In biology, molecular linkages at, within, and beneath cell interfaces arise mainly from weak noncovalent interactions. These bonds will fail under any level of pulling force if held for sufficient time. Thus, when tested with ultrasensitive force probes, we expect cohesive material strength and strength of adhesion at interfaces to be time- and loading rate-dependent properties. To examine what can be learned from measurements of bond strength, we have extended Kramers' theory for reaction kinetics in liquids to bond dissociation under force and tested the predictions by smart Monte Carlo (Brownian dynamics) simulations of bond rupture. By definition, bond strength is the force that produces the most frequent failure in repeated tests of breakage, i.e., the peak in the distribution of rupture forces. As verified by the simulations, theory shows that bond strength progresses through three dynamic regimes of loading rate. First, bond strength emerges at a critical rate of loading (> or = 0) at which spontaneous dissociation is just frequent enough to keep the distribution peak at zero force. In the slow-loading regime immediately above the critical rate, strength grows as a weak power of loading rate and reflects initial coupling of force to the bonding potential. At higher rates, there is crossover to a fast regime in which strength continues to increase as the logarithm of the loading rate over many decades independent of the type of attraction. Finally, at ultrafast loading rates approaching the domain of molecular dynamics simulations, the bonding potential is quickly overwhelmed by the rapidly increasing force, so that only naked frictional drag on the structure remains to retard separation. Hence, to expose the energy landscape that governs bond strength, molecular adhesion forces must be examined over an enormous span of time scales. However, a significant gap exists between the time domain of force measurements in the laboratory and the extremely fast scale

  1. Effects of coating with different ceromers on the impact strength, transverse strength and elastic modulus of polymethyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Gül, Esma Başak; Atala, Mustafa Hayati; Eşer, Bekir; Polat, Nilüfer Tülin; Asiltürk, Meltem; Gültek, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) after coating with different ceromers. For transverse strength and modulus of elasticity tests, specimens of 65×10×2.5 mm dimensions were prepared (5 groups, n=10). For impact strength test, specimens of 60×7.5×4 mm dimensions were prepared (5 groups, n=10). Test group specimens were coated with one of four different types of ceromers, and specimens in the control group were not coated. After specimens were tested for transverse and impact strengths, the data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Conover post hoc tests (p<0.05). GLYMOTEOS-TiO2 and A174-TEOS significantly increased the transverse strength of PMMA. All ceromers caused a statistically significant increase in the elastic modulus of PMMA. While GLYMO-TEOS-ZrO2 significantly decreased the impact strength, the other ceromers did not cause any statistically significant difference in impact strength. Coating with ceromers substantially improved the mechanical properties of PMMA.

  2. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  3. Muscle architecture and strength: adaptations to short-term resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Tyler C; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Emerson, Nadia S; Beyer, Kyle S; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Muscle morphology and architecture changes in response to 6 weeks of progressive resistance training were examined in healthy older adults. In this randomized, controlled design, muscle strength, quality, and architecture were evaluated with knee extension, DEXA, and ultrasound, respectively, in 25 older adults. Resistance training resulted in significant increases in strength and muscle quality of 32% and 31%, respectively. Cross-sectional area of the vastus lateralis increased by 7.4% (p ≤ 0.05). Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of the thigh, a composite measure of muscle architecture, was related significantly to strength (r = 0.57; p ≤ 0.01) and demonstrated a significant interaction after training (p ≤ 0.05). Change in PCSA of the vastus lateralis was associated with change in strength independent of any other measure. Six weeks of resistance training was effective at increasing strength, muscle quality, and muscle morphology in older adult men and women. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  5. Increased Number of Circulating CD8/CD26 T Cells in the Blood of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Is Associated with Augmented Binding of Adenosine Deaminase and Higher Muscular Strength Scores

    PubMed Central

    Soslow, Jonathan H.; Markham, Larry W.; Burnette, W. Bryan; Galindo, Cristi L.; Feoktistov, Igor; Raucci, Frank J.; Damon, Bruce M.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Ryzhov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder that leads to cardiac and skeletal myopathy. The complex immune activation in boys with DMD is incompletely understood. To better understand the contribution of the immune system into the progression of DMD, we performed a systematic characterization of immune cell subpopulations obtained from peripheral blood of DMD subjects and control donors. We found that the number of CD8 cells expressing CD26 (also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2) was increased in DMD subjects compared to control. No differences, however, were found in the levels of circulating factors associated with pro-inflammatory activation of CD8/CD26 cells, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), granzyme B, and interferon-γ (IFNγ). The number of CD8/CD26 cells correlated directly with quantitative muscle testing (QMT) in DMD subjects. Since CD26 mediates binding of adenosine deaminase (ADA) to the T cell surface, we tested ADA-binding capacity of CD8/CD26 cells and the activity of bound ADA. We found that mononuclear cells (MNC) obtained from DMD subjects with an increased number of CD8/CD26 T cells had a greater capacity to bind ADA. In addition, these MNC demonstrated increased hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine. Altogether, our data demonstrated that (1) an increased number of circulating CD8/CD26 T cells is associated with preservation of muscle strength in DMD subjects, and (2) CD8/CD26 T cells from DMD subjects mediated degradation of adenosine by adenosine deaminase. These results support a role for T cells in slowing the decline in skeletal muscle function, and a need for further investigation into contribution of CD8/CD26 T cells in the regulation of chronic inflammation associated with DMD. PMID:29326589

  6. Increased Number of Circulating CD8/CD26 T Cells in the Blood of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Is Associated with Augmented Binding of Adenosine Deaminase and Higher Muscular Strength Scores.

    PubMed

    Soslow, Jonathan H; Markham, Larry W; Burnette, W Bryan; Galindo, Cristi L; Feoktistov, Igor; Raucci, Frank J; Damon, Bruce M; Sawyer, Douglas B; Ryzhov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder that leads to cardiac and skeletal myopathy. The complex immune activation in boys with DMD is incompletely understood. To better understand the contribution of the immune system into the progression of DMD, we performed a systematic characterization of immune cell subpopulations obtained from peripheral blood of DMD subjects and control donors. We found that the number of CD8 cells expressing CD26 (also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2) was increased in DMD subjects compared to control. No differences, however, were found in the levels of circulating factors associated with pro-inflammatory activation of CD8/CD26 cells, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), granzyme B, and interferon-γ (IFNγ). The number of CD8/CD26 cells correlated directly with quantitative muscle testing (QMT) in DMD subjects. Since CD26 mediates binding of adenosine deaminase (ADA) to the T cell surface, we tested ADA-binding capacity of CD8/CD26 cells and the activity of bound ADA. We found that mononuclear cells (MNC) obtained from DMD subjects with an increased number of CD8/CD26 T cells had a greater capacity to bind ADA. In addition, these MNC demonstrated increased hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine. Altogether, our data demonstrated that (1) an increased number of circulating CD8/CD26 T cells is associated with preservation of muscle strength in DMD subjects, and (2) CD8/CD26 T cells from DMD subjects mediated degradation of adenosine by adenosine deaminase. These results support a role for T cells in slowing the decline in skeletal muscle function, and a need for further investigation into contribution of CD8/CD26 T cells in the regulation of chronic inflammation associated with DMD.

  7. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Dynamometry is increasingly used as an objective measurement of muscle strength in neurological diseases. No study has applied dynamometry in untreated newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 21 MG patients before and after initial anti-myasthenic treatment. Isometric strength was compared with MG evaluation scales. Muscle strength was reduced for knee extensors and shoulder abductors but normal for ankle extensors. Isometric muscle strength did not correlate significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%; range -1.8-49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG evaluation scales. This supports the use of dynamometry in MG patients, especially for evaluation of the effect of anti-myasthenic treatment. Muscle Nerve 54: 709-714, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The influence of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty using a subscapularis tenotomy on shoulder strength.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Keith M; Osborn, Roy; Schweinle, Will E; Zens, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    There is limited evidence describing the influence of total shoulder arthroplasty on strength. The hypothesis was that after total shoulder arthroplasty, strength would improve compared with the preoperative state but remain inferior to that of the nonoperative shoulder. An additional aim was to determine whether strength improvement was associated with improvements in outcome scores and motion. Thirty-six patients underwent total shoulder arthroplasty, with 31 patients (86%) having 1 year of follow-up for all outcomes. Patient-determined outcomes (Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score; Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation rating; and shoulder activity level), range of motion, and strength were assessed. Isometric strength was determined for scaption and external rotation, as well as the liftoff test, belly-press test, and bear-hug test. All strength measures improved, with significant increases in external rotation, the liftoff test, and the bear-hug test, but remained inferior to the nonoperative-side strength. Improved strength in the belly-press test was associated with greater improvement in Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores. Improvements in scaption and belly-press testing were associated with improvements in active flexion. Strength improvements in the liftoff test were associated with improved internal rotation in 90° of abduction. Patients with improvements in strength had improvements in their shoulder activity level from baseline to final follow-up, whereas patients without improved strength test findings did not have improved shoulder activity levels. Total shoulder arthroplasty improved external rotation, liftoff, and bear-hug strength testing. Operative shoulder strength remained inferior to strength of the nonoperative shoulder. Patients with improvements in strength were more likely to have greater improvements in outcome scores and range of motion. Improvements in the

  9. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. K.; Wheeler, L.; Mathias, D.

    2016-12-01

    The entry and break-up of small asteroids were simulated with a hydrocode to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. A strong asteroid, such as a monolithic boulder, structurally fail and deposit most of their energy around the altitude at which dynamic ram pressure exceeds the cohesive strength of the asteroid. A weaker asteroid, such as a loose rubble pile, will structurally fail at high altitude, but continue to fly through the atmosphere as a single unit until reaching lower altitudes where the increased aerodynamic pressure is sufficient to disrupt and disperse the rubble resulting in a flare. Airburst from weak asteroids consequently have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.This study focuses on small NEO asteroids which are likely to airburst rather than impact the ground where the damage created on the ground depends strongly on the altitude at which most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management. Airbursting asteroids are not a threat on a national level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured by flying glass.

  10. Wear and flexural strength comparisons of alumina/feldspar resin infiltrated dental composites.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, A R; Lachman, N; Walker, M; Botha, T

    2008-11-01

    Incorporating a feldspar chemical bond between alumina filler particles is expected to increase the wear-resistant and flexural strength properties. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of the feldspar chemical bonding between alumina filler particles on wear and flexural strength of experimental alumina/feldspar dental composites. It was hypothesized that wear resistance and flexural strength would be significantly increased with increased feldspar mass. Alumina was chemically sintered and bonded with 30% and 60% feldspar mass, silanized and infiltrated with UDMA resin to prepare the dental restorative composite material. Higher wear-resistant characteristics resulted with increased feldspar mass of up to 60% (p < 0.05). Higher flexural strength characteristics resulted as the feldspar mass was increased up to 60% (p > 0.05). Feldspar chemical bonding between the alumina particles may improve on the wear-resistance and flexural strength of alumina/feldspar composites.

  11. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  12. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer S; McDonald, Robert J; Ekins, Jacob B; Tin, Anthony S; Costes, Sylvain; Hudson, Tamara M; Schroeder, Dana J; Kallmes, Kevin; Kaufmann, Scott H; Young, Philip M; Lu, Aiming; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David F

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males). Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90), but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140). Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25%) increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure.

  13. Correlation of flexural strength of coupons versus strength of crowns fabricated with different zirconia materials with and without aging.

    PubMed

    Alghazzawi, Tariq F; Janowski, Gregg M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of a correlation between flexural strength and simulated crown strength; a correlation between crown strength and mode of fracture; an effect of aging on the flexural strength; and an effect of aging on the crown strength. Two hundred forty zirconia specimens were fabricated with 2 different designs, fully contoured crown shape specimens (n = 120) and rectangular coupons (n = 120), to provide 10 specimens each of 6 brands of zirconia (Lava Plus High Translucency [3M ESPE], Argen HT [Argen Corp], Zirlux [Ardent], BruxZir [Glidewell Laboratories], ZenoStar [Wieland Dental], and DDBioZX(2) [Dental Direkt]). One-half of each sample type was given a severe, simulated low-temperature aging treatment. The coupons were tested by 3-point flexural strength, and crowns were tested after luting to metallic abutments using resin cement. Statistical significance was evaluated by 2-factor analysis of variance (P = .05). Aging increased the mean (standard deviation [SD]) flexural strength for the following groups: Argen HT (995 [140] megapascals versus 677 [121] MPa before aging), Zirlux (939 [101] MPa versus 826 [169] MPa before aging), and ZenoStar (954 [81] MPa versus 764 [77] MPa before aging). There were statistical differences for the mean (SD) crown strengths for the following aged crowns: DDBioZX(2) had higher magnitudes (9,755 [1,095] MPa) than ZenoStar (8,864 [976] MPa), whereas Lava Plus High Translucency crowns had higher magnitudes (9,871 [942] MPa) than ZenoStar (8,864 [976] MPa). There was no effect of aging on the crown strength. There were statistical differences in the mode of fracture for the zirconia crowns between the following groups: nonaged and aged BruxZir (P = .014), nonaged and aged ZenoStar (P = .0226), and nonaged and aged Lava Plus High Translucency (P < .0001). There was no correlation between flexural strength and crown strength. There was no direct correlation between ranking of flexural

  14. Development of high strength high toughness third generation advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Codrick John

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS's) are emerging as very important engineering materials for structural applications. These steels have high specific strength and thus will contribute significantly to weight reduction in automotive and other structural component. In this investigation two such low carbon low alloy steels (LCLA) with high silicon content (1.6-2wt %) has been developed. These two steel alloys were subjected to single step and two step austempering in the temperature range of 260-399°C to obtain desired microstructures and mechanical properties. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 2 hours in a molten salt bath. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography. Quantitative analysis was carried out by image analysis technique. The effect of austempering temperature on the mechanical properties of these two alloys was examined. The influence of microstructures on the mechanical properties of alloys was also studied. Austempering heat treatment resulted in fine carbide free bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite microstructure in the samples austempered above Ms temperature, whereas tempered martensite and austenite microstructure was obtained in samples austempered below Ms temperature. Yield strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness were found to increase as the austempering temperature decreases, whereas ductility increases as the austempering temperature increases. Tensile strength in the range of 1276MPa -1658 MPa and the fracture toughness in the range of 80-141MPa√m were obtained in these two steels. Volume fractions of different phases present and their lath sizes are related to the mechanical properties. Austempered samples consisting of mixed microstructure of bainitic ferrite and tempered martensite phases resulted in the exceptional combination of strength and toughness.

  15. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  16. Monitoring 6-Month Trajectory of Grip Strength Improves the Prediction of Long-Term Change in Grip Strength in Disabled Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Guralnik, Jack M.; Beamer, Brock A.; Fried, Linda P.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aims to assess the degree and heterogeneity of decline in grip strength in the short term (6 months) and the clinical relevance of short-term decline to long-term decline (2.5 years) in grip strength in disabled older women. Methods. Eighty-four community-dwelling disabled women aged 65 years or older were evaluated on a weekly basis over 6 months, followed by an additional five semi-annual visits for a total follow-up of 3 years. The study outcome is maximum isometric handgrip strength in the nondominant hand. Linear random effects models were used to characterize population- as well as individual-level change in grip strength over time. Results. In the weekly assessments over the initial 6 months, individual-level short-term change in grip strength was detectable (mean = −0.12kg/month; p = .06), heterogeneous (range: −2.03±0.95kg/month), and independent of absolute grip strength at baseline (mean = 18.4kg). Additionally, among women with grip strength greater than 16.7kg at baseline, the long-term rate of decline in grip strength was accelerated by 0.15kg/year (p = .014) for every 0.5 standard deviation (0.25kg/month) increase in the short-term rate of decline. The baseline absolute grip strength, however, was not significantly associated with the long-term rate of decline (correlation = −0.36, p = .105). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that short-term change in grip strength is detectable and meaningful for disabled older women and it is the individual’s past trajectory of grip strength relative to her current strength level, not her current absolute strength per se, that is important for predicting future strength decline. PMID:25167868

  17. Strength and Body Weight in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ervin, R. Bethene; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Wang, Chia-Yih; Miller, Ivey M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity in youth has been positively associated with health and may help prevent obesity. The purpose of this study is to provide reference values on 4 core, upper, and lower body measures of muscle strength among US children and adolescents and to investigate the association between these measures of strength and weight status. METHODS We assessed muscular strength using 4 different tests (plank, modified pull-up, knee extension, and grip strength) in 1224 youth aged 6 to 15 years collected during the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Mean and median estimates are provided by gender, age, and weight status. Weight status was defined based on standard categories of obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight using the gender-specific BMI-for-age Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. RESULTS There were significant positive trends with age for each of the strength tests (P < .001) except the modified pull-up among girls. The length of time the plank was held decreased as weight status increased for both girls and boys (P < .001). As weight status increased the number of modified pull-ups decreased (P < .001 boys and girls). Scores on the knee extension increased as weight status increased (P < .01). Grip strength increased as weight status increased (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS Increasing weight status had a negative association with measures of strength that involved lifting the body, but was associated with improved performances on tests that did not involve lifting the body. PMID:25157016

  18. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi; Cournoyer, Michael Edward

    2016-11-23

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.

  19. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    DOE PAGES

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi; ...

    2016-11-23

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forcesmore » produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  20. Long-term omeprazole and esomeprazole treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial growth factor receptor expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hritz, Istvan; Herszenyi, Laszlo; Molnar, Bela; Tulassay, Zsolt; Pronai, Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment on patients with reflux esophagitis and its in vivo effect on apoptosis, p53- and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. METHODS: After informed consent was obtained, gastric biopsies of the antrum were taken from patients with reflux oesophagitis prior to and after 6 mo of 20 mg omeprazole (n = 14) or 40 mg esomeprazole (n = 12) therapy. Patients did not take any other medications known to affect the gastric mucosa. All patients were Helicobacter pylori negative as confirmed by rapid urease test and histology, respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR, and p53 expression were measured by immunohistochemical techniques. At least 600 glandular epithelial cells were encountered and results were expressed as percentage of total cells counted. Was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Although there was a trend towards increase of cell proliferation and EGFR expression both in omeprazole and esomeprazole treated group, the difference was not statistically significant. Neither apoptosis nor p53 expression was affected. CONCLUSION: Long-term PPI treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and EGFR expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression. PMID:16094717

  1. Long-term omeprazole and esomeprazole treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial growth factor receptor expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Hritz, Istvan; Herszenyi, Laszlo; Molnar, Bela; Tulassay, Zsolt; Pronai, Laszlo

    2005-08-14

    To study the effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment on patients with reflux esophagitis and its in vivo effect on apoptosis, p53- and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. After informed consent was obtained, gastric biopsies of the antrum were taken from patients with reflux oesophagitis prior to and after 6 mo of 20 mg omeprazole (n = 14) or 40 mg esomeprazole (n = 12) therapy. Patients did not take any other medications known to affect the gastric mucosa. All patients were Helicobacter pylori negative as confirmed by rapid urease test and histology, respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR, and p53 expression were measured by immunohistochemical techniques. At least 600 glandular epithelial cells were encountered and results were expressed as percentage of total cells counted. Was considered statistically significant. Although there was a trend towards increase of cell proliferation and EGFR expression both in omeprazole and esomeprazole treated group, the difference was not statistically significant. Neither apoptosis nor p53 expression was affected. Long-term PPI treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and EGFR expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression.

  2. Pelvic muscle strength after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Sarah; Blomquist, Joan L; Nugent, Joann M; McDermott, Kelly C; Muñoz, Alvaro; Handa, Victoria L

    2012-11-01

    The objective was to estimate the effect of vaginal childbirth and other obstetric exposures on pelvic muscle strength 6-11 years after delivery and to investigate the relationship between pelvic muscle strength and pelvic floor disorders. Among 666 parous women, pelvic muscle strength was measured with a perineometer 6-11 years after delivery. Obstetric exposures were classified by review of hospital records. Pelvic floor outcomes, including stress incontinence, overactive bladder, anal incontinence, and prolapse symptoms, were assessed with a validated questionnaire. Pelvic organ support was assessed using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to estimate the univariable associations of obstetric exposures and pelvic floor outcomes with peak muscle strength. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between obstetric exposures and muscle strength. In comparison with women who delivered all of their children by cesarean, peak muscle strength and duration of contraction were reduced among women with a history of vaginal delivery (39 compared with 29 cm H2O, P<.001). Pelvic muscle strength was further reduced after history of forceps delivery (17 cm H2O, P<.001). After vaginal delivery, reduced pelvic muscle strength was associated with symptoms of anal incontinence (P=.028) and pelvic organ prolapse on examination (P=.025); these associations were not observed among those who had delivered exclusively by cesarean. Pelvic muscle strength almost a decade after childbirth is affected by vaginal delivery and by forceps delivery. Although statistically significant, some of the differences observed were small in magnitude. II.

  3. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  4. Normative Values for Grip and Pinch Strength for 6- to 19-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    McQuiddy, Victoria A; Scheerer, Carol R; Lavalley, Ryan; McGrath, Timothy; Lin, Li

    2015-09-01

    To provide current normative data for grip and pinch strength in children and young adults aged 6 to 19 years as well as to examine the effect of age, sex, and hand dominance on grip and pinch strength. Descriptive cross-sectional. Two grade schools, 2 high schools, and 1 university. Participants (N=1508; 741 male students and 767 female students) aged 6 to 19 years. Not applicable. Means and SDs were calculated for each strength measurement (grip, tip pinch, lateral pinch, palmar pinch) and stratified by age and sex. Analysis of covariance and 2-sample t tests were used to analyze the data. The analyses demonstrated that age and sex had a significant effect on hand strength values, as evidenced by increasing hand strength with age as well as greater hand strength in males than in females. Hand dominance was not shown to have a significant effect on hand strength. The results of this study were statistically significantly different from previously published normative values, with most hand strength values being lower than those published 28 years ago. Having updated normative data are paramount for rehabilitation practitioners to compare the grip and pinch strength of their clients with the average values to objectively assess impairment and tracking progress. The statistical significance observed for most data collected in this study as compared with those previously published supports the need for continually updating normative data. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-02-10

    To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of grip span on lateral pinch grip strength.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Carrie L; Mirka, Gary A; Kaber, David B

    2002-01-01

    Repetitive, high-force pinch grip exertions are common in many occupational activities. The goal of the current study was to quantify the relationship between lateral pinch grip span (distance between thumb and index finger) and lateral pinch grip strength. An experiment was conducted in which 40 participants performed maximal lateral pinch grip exertions at 11 levels of grip span distances (0, 10%, ... 100% of maximum functional lateral pinch grip span distance). The results show a significant effect of lateral pinch grip span, with strength at the maximum functional lateral pinch grip span 40% higher than that found at the smallest lateral pinch grip span considered. Between these two endpoints, strength increased monotonically with increasing pinch grip span. The application of these results in pinch grip design criteria for both high-force and long-duration exertions is discussed. Potential applications of this research include the design of hand tools and controls for which significant force is applied by the user.

  7. High-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life model and application.

    PubMed

    Hui-li, Wang; Si-feng, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue performance of high-strength bolt was studied. Based on the fracture mechanics theory and the Gerberich-Chen formula, the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture crack model and the fatigue life model were established. The high-strength bolt crack depth and the fatigue life under corrosion environment were quantitatively analyzed. The factors affecting high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life were discussed. The result showed that the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture biggest crack depth reduces along with the material yield strength and the applied stress increases. The material yield strength was the major factor. And the high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life reduced along with the increase of material strength, the applied stress or stress amplitude. The stress amplitude influenced the most, and the material yield strength influenced the least. Low bolt strength and a low stress amplitude level could extend high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life.

  8. The effects of hydraulic resistance strength training in pre-pubertal males.

    PubMed

    Weltman, A; Janney, C; Rians, C B; Strand, K; Berg, B; Tippitt, S; Wise, J; Cahill, B R; Katch, F I

    1986-12-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness and safety of hydraulic resistance strength training in young males, 26 pre-pubertal males (mean age = 8.2 +/- 1.3 yr) completed a 14-wk strength training study. Subjects were evaluated before and after the 14-wk experimental period for pubertal state (Tanner's sexual maturity rating, serum testosterone, and serum dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate). Effectiveness of the strength training program was determined by measuring pre-post differences in: isokinetic strength for flexion and extension at the knee and elbow joints at two speeds (30 degrees and 90 degrees X s-1) (KIN COM, Chattecx, Inc., Chattanooga, TN), flexibility, standing long jump, vertical jump, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen consumption, and creatinine phosphokinase. Safety of strength training was assessed by biphasic musculoskeletal scintigraphy before and after the program and by physician evaluation of complaints by subjects. Strength training subjects (N = 16) participated in a 45 min/session, 3 session/wk, 14-wk supervised strength training program with an attendance rate of 91.5%. Participants performed concentric work using hydraulic resistance equipment (Hydra-Fitness Industries, Belton, TX). Eccentric work was not performed. Control subjects (N = 10) did not strength train but did participate in sport activities and activities of daily living. Results indicated that strength training subjects increased isokinetic strength as a result of strength training (average concentric work/repetition increases by 18.5 to 36.6% for the eight motions tested; torque scores over the first 90% of the range of motion increases by 13.1 to 45.1% for the eight motions tested). These changes were significantly greater than changes seen in the control group (P less than 0.05). Strength training subjects also demonstrated significant improvements (as compared to control subjects) in vertical jump (+10.4%), flexibility (+8.4%), and maximal oxygen consumption [+19

  9. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oseni, O. W.; Audu, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 - 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

  10. Effects of resistance training duration on muscular strength retention 6-month posttraining in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Kyle A; Bemben, Debra A; Brickman, Sandy E; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Older individuals are at a greater risk for falling, and this risk has been linked to age-related declines in strength and balance. It has been demonstrated that older individuals can increase strength and function from properly designed, supervised training programs; however, little is known about the regressive effects of a detraining period in this participant population once the training intervention has ended. This study examined changes in strength 6 months after training following a 40- or 80-week supervised progressive resistance training program. Of the 25 men and 44 women (aged 55-75 years) who returned for testing 6 months after training, 38 had continued to exercise on their own (Ex) and 31 stopped training (NoEx). This represents 40.8% of the original 169 participants that were contacted. Individual measures of strength were averaged to represent a measure of mean upper body or lower body strength. Changes in mean 1RM (one repetition maximum) strength and percent changes in strength were analyzed for PRE (pretraining), POST (posttraining), and 6MP (6 months post) time points by mixed-factor ANOVAs (analyses of variance). Upper and lower body strengths were still significantly higher than baseline values, 6MP training for both groups. However, the longer-duration (80 week) training program provided a greater, although non-statistically significant, ability to maintain strength at higher levels at 6MP training compared to the strength values obtained at the end of the two different training periods. In addition, lower body strength was better maintained than measures of upper body strength independent of initial training duration. : This study confirms that older individuals can tolerate a progressive strength training program of significant duration and that older individuals may undergo a regression of strength at a similar pace to young individuals. Supervised strength training represents an efficacious intervention for improving strength in older

  11. Influence of composition on the adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Hong, Guang; Hayashida, Kentaro; Maeda, Takeshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of composition on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength between denture adhesives and the denture base. Two types of water-soluble polymers (methoxy ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer [PVM-MA] and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC]) were used. Samples were divided into three groups. Group 1 contained only PVM-MA; Group 2 contained only CMC; and Group 3 contained PVM-MA and CMC. The initial viscosity and adhesive strength were measured. For Group 1, the initial viscosity increased significantly as PVM-MA content increased. The adhesive strength of Group 1 lasted longer than Group 2. The adhesive strength of Group 3 varied greatly. The ratio of CMC and PVM-MA has a significant effect on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of denture adhesives. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve the durability of a denture adhesive by combining different water-soluble polymers.

  12. Effect of diode laser irradiation on compressive strength of dental amalgam

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Mitra; Fekrazad, Reza; Alaghemand, Homayoun; Hamzeh, Mahtab

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the biggest disadvantages of dental amalgam is that gaining its ultimate strength is a slow process. The use of a rapid-setting amalgam with high early compressive strength could be a better option in preventing early fractures in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of diode laser irradiation on compressive strength of dental amalgam. Methods A case-control study was performed on 180 amalgam samples made at the Tehran Dental Material Research Center in 2014. Fifteen and thirty minute compressive strength of regular setting and fast setting amalgams were measured as control. In case groups, the samples were irradiated by 810nm diode laser with power of 1 and 2 watt and in pulsed and continuous mode, and compressive strength was measured after 15 and 30 minutes. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 18 using one and two way ANOVA and Scheffe multiple comparisons test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results Numerous kinds of laser irradiation led to a significant increase in compressive strength compared to regular setting control groups. Fifteen minutes-compressive strength of regular-setting amalgam irradiated by 2 watt laser was significantly more than fast-setting control group (p<0.05). Conclusion Irradiation by 810nm diode laser can significantly increase the compressive strength of dental amalgam especially in the first 15 minutes. PMID:28607639

  13. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Lucy; Ribot, Cecile; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Wösten, Han A B; de Vries, Ronald P

    2009-08-12

    L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH.

  14. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm.

  15. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm. PMID:27313372

  16. Effect of gestational weight gain as well as rehabilitation training on postnatal pelvic muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wu, R F; Hu, Y; Qi, F; Xiao, A M; Ma, Z; Chen, Y; Zhang, W Y; Liu, X; Wang, Z C

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of gestational weight gain on postnatal pelvic muscle strength and the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with biofeedback training on strength recovery. A total of 126 mothers six to eight weeks after term delivery were recruited at Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from August 2010 to July 2011. According to gestational weight gain, they were divided into two groups: the < 15 kg (A) and > or = 15 kg (B) groups. Pelvic floor muscle fibre strength was determined. Target low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with biofeedback training was conducted. After training, pelvic floor muscle fiber strength was determined again for effect evaluation. Before training, types I and II pelvic floor muscle fiber strength of group B was noticeably lower than that of group A (p < 0.05). After rehabilitation, the pelvic floor muscle strength of both groups significantly increased (p < 0.05). However, types I and II pelvic floor muscle fiber strength of group B was still significantly lower than that of group A (p < 0.05). Gestational weight gain negatively influences pelvic floor muscles. Low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with biofeedback training improves postnatal pelvic floor muscle fiber strength. A less gestational weight increase indicates faster postnatal pelvic muscle strength recovery and a better rehabilitative effect.

  17. Push-Out Bond Strength of Bioceramic Materials in a Synthetic Tissue Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Razmi, Hasan; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Sajadi, Sepideh; Dummer, Paul MH.; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the push-out bond strength of EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM) and Bioaggregate (BA), new bioceramic materials, to that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a synthetic tissue fluid, for either 1 week or 2 months. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and twenty root sections were filled with ProRoot MTA, BA, or ERRM. Each tested material was then randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 20): root sections were immersed in PBS for 1 week or 2 months. The bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. After that, the failure modes were examined with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The push-out data and failure mode categories were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and chi-square tests, respectively. Results: The bond strength of ERRM was significantly higher than that of BA and MTA at both incubation periods. No significant difference was found between the bond strength of MTA and BA at either 1 week or 2 months. Increasing the incubation time to 2 months resulted in a significant increase in bond strength of all the materials. The failure mode was mainly mixed for MTA and BA, but cohesive for ERRM at both incubation periods. Conclusion: ERRM had significantly higher bond strength to root canal walls compared to MTA and BA. Increasing the incubation time significantly improved the bond strength and bioactive reaction products of all materials. PMID:24910665

  18. Influence of dentin pretreatment on bond strength of universal adhesives.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare bond strength of different universal adhesives under three different testing conditions: when no pretreatment was applied, after 37% phosphoric acid etching and after glycine application. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used as a substitute for human teeth. Five different universal adhesives were tested: Futurabond M+, Scotchbond Universal, Clearfil Universal Bond, G-Premio BOND, Peak Universal Bond. The adhesive systems were applied following each manufacturer's instructions. The teeth were randomly assigned to three different dentin surface pretreatments: no pretreatment agent (control), 37% phosphoric acid etching, glycine pretreatment. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine in order to measure and compare bond strength values. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test were applied to assess significant differences among the groups. Dentin pretreatments provided different bond strength values for the adhesives tested, while similar values were registered in groups without dentin pretreatment. Conclusions: In the present report, dentin surface pretreatment did not provide significant differences in shear bond strength values of almost all groups. Acid pretreatment lowered bond strength values of Futurabond and Peak Universal Adhesives, whereas glycine pretreatment increased bond strength values of G Praemio Bond adhesive system.

  19. Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sawczyn, Stanisław; Mishchenko, Viktor; Moska, Waldemar; Sawczyn, Michał; Jagiełło, Marina; Kuehne, Tatiana; Nowak, Robert; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m−2) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8–16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training. PMID:28352690

  20. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-07-01

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface. The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is significantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.

  1. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S

    2014-07-01

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface. The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is significantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.

  2. Character Strengths and Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Strengths-Based Approach from Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited focus in the disability field on assessing and intervening to promote strengths of character. However, character strengths have received significant attention in the broader field of positive psychology. This paper provides an overview of the growing science of character strengths and explores why and how character strengths…

  3. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  4. Correlation between muscle electrophysiology and strength after fibular nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Won, Yu Hui; Kim, Kang-Won; Choi, Jun Tak; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    Muscle strength measurement is important when evaluating the degree of impairment in patients with nerve injury. However, accurate and objective evaluation may be difficult in patients with severe pain or those who intentionally try to avoid full exertion. We investigated the usefulness of the affected-to-unaffected side electrophysiological parameter ratios as a measure of objective ankle dorsiflexion (ADF) strength in patients with unilateral fibular nerve injury (FNI). ADF strength was measured in patients with FNI via handheld dynamometer and manual muscle test (MMT). Fibular nerve compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude and latency and ADF strength of the affected side were presented as ratios to the corresponding measurements of the unaffected side. We analysed the correlation of the CMAP ratio with the ADF strength ratio using a dynamometer and compared the CMAP ratios according to MMT grade. Fifty-two patients with FNI were enrolled. The mean CMAP latency ratio did not differ between MMT groups (p = 0.573). The CMAP amplitude ratio proportionally increased with the quantified ADF strength ratio via dynamometer increase (ρ = 0.790; p < 0.001), but the CMAP latency ratio and the quantified ADF strength ratio did not significantly correlate (ρ = 0.052; p = 0.713). The average CMAP amplitude ratio significantly differed between MMT groups (p < 0.001), and post hoc tests showed significant differences in all paired comparisons except of Fair and Good grades (p = 0.064). Electrophysiological parameter ratio, such as the affected-to-unaffected side CMAP amplitude ratio, might be sensitive parameters for ADF power estimation after FNI.

  5. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  6. Resistance Training for Muscle Weakness in Multiple Sclerosis: Direct Versus Contralateral Approach in Individuals With Ankle Dorsiflexors' Disparity in Strength.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Cabboi, Maria Paola; Dragone, Daniele; Ginatempo, Francesca; Ortu, Enzo; De Natale, Edoar