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  1. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Shawn R.; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C.; Allison, Katelyn F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. Purpose: To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: <10%, 10% to 20%, and >20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. Results: When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with <10% strength differences (OR, 15.4; 95% CI, 1.4-167.2; P = .03 ) and female Marines with 10% to 20% strength differences (OR, 13.9; 95% CI, 1.3-151.2; P = .04). No significant ORs were demonstrated in male Marines. Conclusion: Marines with larger magnitude internal rotation strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot

  2. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: <10%, 10% to 20%, and >20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with <10% strength differences (OR, 15.4; 95% CI, 1.4-167.2; P = .03 ) and female Marines with 10% to 20% strength differences (OR, 13.9; 95% CI, 1.3-151.2; P = .04). No significant ORs were demonstrated in male Marines. Marines with larger magnitude internal rotation strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between

  3. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P <0.05), except right ankle plantar flexors (P =0.09). There was a significant difference in the anteroposterior and mediolateral displacements and velocities. The O-K subjects had less anteroposterior displacement, greater mediolateral displacement, reduced anteroposterior velocity, and increased mediolateral velocity compared with controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  4. [Electrical acupoint stimulation increases athletes' rapid strength].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua-yuan; Liu, Tang-yi; Kuai, Le; Gao, Ming

    2006-05-01

    To search for a stimulation method for increasing athletes' performance. One hundred and fifty athletes were randomly divided into a trial group and a control group, 75 athletes in each group. Acupoints were stimulated with audio frequency pulse modulated wave and multi-blind method were used to investigate effects of the electric stimulation of acupoints on 30-meter running, standing long jumping and Cybex isokinetic testing index. The acupoint electric stimulation method could significantly increase athlete's performance (P < 0.05), and the biomechanical indexes, maximal peak moment of force (P < 0.05), force moment accelerating energy (P < 0.05) and average power (P < 0.05). Electrical acupoint stimulation can enhance athlete's rapid strength.

  5. At-home resistance tubing strength training increases shoulder strength in the trained and untrained limb.

    PubMed

    Magnus, C R A; Boychuk, K; Kim, S Y; Farthing, J P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to determine if an at-home resistance tubing strength training program on one shoulder (that is commonly used in rehabilitation settings) would produce increases in strength in the trained and untrained shoulders via cross-education. Twenty-three participants were randomized to TRAIN (strength-trained one shoulder; n = 13) or CONTROL (no intervention; n = 10). Strength training was completed at home using resistance tubing and consisted of maximal shoulder external rotation, internal rotation, scaption, retraction, and flexion 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Strength was measured via handheld dynamometry and muscle size measured via ultrasound. For external rotation strength, the trained (10.9 ± 10.9%) and untrained (12.7 ± 9.6%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (1.6 ± 13.2%; -2.7 ± 12.3%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). For internal rotation strength, the trained (14.8 ± 11.3%) and untrained (14.6 ± 10.1%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (6.4 ± 11.2%; 5.1 ± 8.8%; pooled across arm; P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for scaption strength (P = 0.056). TRAIN significantly increased muscle size in the training arm of the supraspinatus (1.90 ± 0.32 to 1.99 ± 0.31 cm), and the anterior deltoid (1.08 ± 0.37 to 1.21 ± 0.39 cm; P < 0.05). This study suggests that an at-home resistance tubing training program on one limb can produce increases in strength in both limbs, and has implications for rehabilitation after unilateral shoulder injuries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  7. Significance of acceleration period in a dynamic strength testing study.

    PubMed

    Chen, W L; Su, F C; Chou, Y L

    1994-06-01

    The acceleration period that occurs during isokinetic tests may provide valuable information regarding neuromuscular readiness to produce maximal contraction. The purpose of this study was to collect the normative data of acceleration time during isokinetic knee testing, to calculate the acceleration work (Wacc), and to determine the errors (ERexp, ERwork, ERpower) due to ignoring Wacc during explosiveness, total work, and average power measurements. Seven male and 13 female subjects attended the test by using the Cybex 325 system and electronic stroboscope machine for 10 testing speeds (30-300 degrees/sec). A three-way ANOVA was used to assess gender, direction, and speed factors on acceleration time, Wacc, and errors. The results indicated that acceleration time was significantly affected by speed and direction; Wacc and ERexp by speed, direction, and gender; and ERwork and ERpower by speed and gender. The errors appeared to increase when testing the female subjects, during the knee flexion test, or when speed increased. To increase validity in clinical testing, it is important to consider the acceleration phase effect, especially in higher velocity isokinetic testing or for weaker muscle groups.

  8. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  9. Resistance Training Increases the Variability of Strength Test Scores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    standard deviations for pretest and posttest strength measurements. This information was recorded for every strength test used in a total of 377 samples...significant if the posttest standard deviation consistently was larger than the pretest standard deviation. This condition could be satisfied even if...the difference in the standard deviations was small. For example, the posttest standard deviation might be 1% larger than the pretest standard

  10. Antimicrobial strength increases with group size: implications for social evolution.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christine; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Doug; Briscoe, David; Smith, Shannon; Wilson, Peter; Beattie, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    We hypothesize that aggregations of animals are likely to attract pathogenic micro-organisms and that this is especially the case for semisocial and eusocial insects where selection ultimately led to group sizes in the thousands or even millions, attracting the epithet 'superorganism'. Here, we analyse antimicrobial strength, per individual, in eight thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) that present increasing innate group sizes and show that species with the largest group size (100-700) had the strongest antimicrobials, those with smaller groups (10-80) had lower antimicrobial activity, while solitary species showed none. Species with large innate group sizes showed strong antimicrobial activity while the semisocial species showed no activity until group size increased sufficiently to make activity detectable. The eusocial species behaved in a similar way, with detectable activity appearing once group size exceeded 120. These analyses show that antimicrobial strength is determined by innate group size. This suggests that the evolution of sociality that, by definition, increases group size, may have had particular requirements for defences against microbial pathogens. Thus, increase in group size, accompanied by increased antibiotic strength, may have been a critical factor determining the 'point of no return', early in the evolution of social insects, beyond which the evolution of social anatomical and morphological traits was irreversible. Our data suggest that traits that increase group size in general are accompanied by increased antimicrobial strength and that this was critical for transitions from solitary to social and eusocial organization.

  11. Foam concrete of increased strength with the thermomodified peat additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudyakov, A. I.; Kopanitsa, N. O.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Kasatkina, A. V.; Prischepa, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research of foam concrete with thermomodified peat additives. The aim of the research was to study the effect of modifying additives on cement stone and foam concrete properties. Peat additives are prepared by heat treatment of peat at 600 °C. Two approaches of obtaining additives are examined: in condition of open air access (TMT-600) and in condition of limited air access (TMT-600-k). Compressive strength of a cement stone with modifiers found to be increased by 28.9 - 65.2%. Introducing peat modifiers into foam concrete mix leads to increase of compressive strength by 44-57% at 28- day age and heat conductivity of foam concrete decreases by 0.089 W/(m·°C).

  12. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-09-07

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space.

  13. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-11-15

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of S A 1 and significant increase of S A 2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion c w and lower to medium friction angle ϕ w . This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of c w and ϕ w under different confinements, different combinations of c w and ϕ w may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir.

  14. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio (SA1) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference (SA2) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion cw and friction angle ϕw of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of SA1 and significant increase of SA2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion cw and lower to medium friction angle ϕw. This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of cw and ϕw under different confinements, different combinations of cw and ϕw may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir. PMID:29140292

  15. A Behavioral Mechanism of How Increases in Leg Strength Improve Old Adults’ Gait Speed

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Azusa; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Kadono, Norio; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Kaetsu, Takamasa; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We examined a behavioral mechanism of how increases in leg strength improve healthy old adults’ gait speed. Leg press strength training improved maximal leg press load 40% (p = 0.001) and isometric strength in 5 group of leg muscles 32% (p = 0.001) in a randomly allocated intervention group of healthy old adults (age 74, n = 15) but not in no-exercise control group (age 74, n = 8). Gait speed increased similarly in the training (9.9%) and control (8.6%) groups (time main effect, p = 0.001). However, in the training group only, in line with the concept of biomechanical plasticity of aging gait, hip extensors and ankle plantarflexors became the only significant predictors of self-selected and maximal gait speed. The study provides the first behavioral evidence regarding a mechanism of how increases in leg strength improve healthy old adults’ gait speed. PMID:25310220

  16. Pseudotachylyte increases the post-slip strength of faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, Brooks; Lockner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Solidified frictional melts, or pseudotachylytes, are observed in exhumed faults from across the seismogenic zone. These unique fault rocks, and many experimental studies, suggest that frictional melting can be an important process during earthquakes. However, it remains unknown how melting affects the post-slip strength of the fault and why many exhumed faults do not contain pseudotachylyte. Analyses of triaxial stick-slip events on Westerly Granite (Rhode Island, USA) sawcuts at confining pressures from 50 to 400 MPa show evidence for frictional heating, including some events energetic enough to generate surface melt. Total and partial stress drops were observed with slip as high as 6.5 mm. We find that in dry samples following melt-producing stick slip, the shear failure strength increased as much as 50 MPa, while wet samples had <10 MPa strengthening. Microstructural analysis indicates that the strengthening is caused by welding of the slip surface during melt quenching, suggesting that natural pseudotachylytes may also strengthen faults after earthquakes. These results predict that natural pseudotachylyte will inhibit slip reactivation and possibly generate stress heterogeneities along faults. Wet samples do not exhibit melt welding, possibly because of thermal pressurization of water reducing frictional heating during slip.

  17. Vaccine to fibroblast growth factor 23 peptides increases eggshell strength.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z Z; Piepenburg, A J; Bütz, D E; Claus, J R; Cook, M E

    2018-03-01

    Strategies that would increase eggshell quality could be of considerable value to egg producers. This research demonstrated the effective use of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) peptide vaccines to increase eggshell quality of Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens (from 69 to 72 wk of age). Hens, fed a standard diet (containing 900 IU/kg vitamin D3), were intramuscularly injected (and boosted) with either a control vaccine (n = 14 hens) or one of 2 FGF-23 peptide vaccines (peptides NP1, GMNPPPYS; and NP7, YTSTERNSFH; n = 15 hens for each peptide). During peak antibody titer, eggs were collected for shell and internal quality analysis, hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatchability of fertilized eggs was determined. Laying hens vaccinated with either FGF-23 peptide NP1 or NP7 had increased (P < 0.05) plasma phosphate level (mmol/L; NP1 = 1.74, NP7 = 1.76, control = 1.47), egg specific gravity (NP1 = 1.083, NP7 = 1.083, control = 1.079), and eggshell strength (g of force; NP1 = 4002, NP7 = 4157, control = 3102) when compared to control vaccinated hens. FGF-23 peptide NP1 vaccinated hens also had increased eggshell thickness (mm, P < 0.001), shell weight (g, P = 0.032), and shell index (% of whole egg, P = 0.023) when compared to control vaccinated hens. FGF-23 peptide NP7 vaccinated hens tended to have decreased eggshell weight (P = 0.064) when compared to control vaccinated hens. Hatchability of fertilized eggs was not affected in incubations 1 and 3, but tended to be decreased (P = 0.097) by FGF-23 peptide NP1 vaccination in incubation 2. In conclusion, vaccines to FGF-23 peptides increased eggshell quality of laying hens with minimal adverse effects on egg internal quality. The effect of FGF-23 peptide vaccination on hatchability remains to be clarified.

  18. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K; Wright, Weston B; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G; Econs, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole-body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions.

  19. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M.; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O’Riley, Rita L.; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K.; Wright, Weston B.; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K.; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G.; Econs, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice over-expressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions. PMID:28013361

  20. Inspiratory muscle training increases inspiratory muscle strength in patients weaning from mechanical ventilation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Lisa; Reeve, Julie; Elkins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Does inspiratory muscle training improve inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, facilitate weaning, improve survival, and reduce the rate of reintubation and tracheostomy in adults receiving mechanical ventilation? Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials. Adults over 16 years of age receiving mechanical ventilation. Inspiratory muscle training versus sham or no inspiratory muscle training. Data were extracted regarding inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, the duration of unassisted breathing periods, weaning success and duration, reintubation and tracheostomy, survival, adverse effects, and length of stay. Three studies involving 150 participants were included in the review. The studies varied in time to commencement of the training, the device used, the training protocol, and the outcomes measured. Inspiratory muscle training significantly increased inspiratory muscle strength over sham or no training (weighted mean difference 8 cmH(2)O, 95% CI 6 to 9). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in weaning success or duration, survival, reintubation, or tracheostomy. Inspiratory muscle training was found to significantly increase inspiratory muscle strength in adults undergoing mechanical ventilation. Despite data from a substantial pooled cohort, it is not yet clear whether the increase in inspiratory muscle strength leads to a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, improved weaning success, or improved survival. Further large randomised studies are required to clarify the impact of inspiratory muscle training on patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PROSPERO CRD42011001132. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  2. Significant Impacts of Increasing Aridity on the Arid Soil Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Julia W; Califf, Katy; Cardona, Cesar; Copeland, Audrey; van Treuren, Will; Josephson, Karen L; Knight, Rob; Gilbert, Jack A; Quade, Jay; Caporaso, J Gregory; Maier, Raina M

    2017-01-01

    Global deserts occupy one-third of the Earth's surface and contribute significantly to organic carbon storage, a process at risk in dryland ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to climate-driven ecosystem degradation. The forces controlling desert ecosystem degradation rates are poorly understood, particularly with respect to the relevance of the arid-soil microbiome. Here we document correlations between increasing aridity and soil bacterial and archaeal microbiome composition along arid to hyperarid transects traversing the Atacama Desert, Chile. A meta-analysis reveals that Atacama soil microbiomes exhibit a gradient in composition, are distinct from a broad cross-section of nondesert soils, and yet are similar to three deserts from different continents. Community richness and diversity were significantly positively correlated with soil relative humidity (SoilRH). Phylogenetic composition was strongly correlated with SoilRH, temperature, and electrical conductivity. The strongest and most significant correlations between SoilRH and phylum relative abundance were observed for Acidobacteria , Proteobacteria , Planctomycetes , Verrucomicrobia , and Euryarchaeota (Spearman's rank correlation [ r s ] = >0.81; false-discovery rate [ q ] = ≤0.005), characterized by 10- to 300-fold decreases in the relative abundance of each taxon. In addition, network analysis revealed a deterioration in the density of significant associations between taxa along the arid to hyperarid gradient, a pattern that may compromise the resilience of hyperarid communities because they lack properties associated with communities that are more integrated. In summary, results suggest that arid-soil microbiome stability is sensitive to aridity as demonstrated by decreased community connectivity associated with the transition from the arid class to the hyperarid class and the significant correlations observed between soilRH and both diversity and the relative abundances of key microbial phyla

  3. [Significant increase of glucose transport activity in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Shou-jing; Zhao, Xi-long; Zhang, Ya-qing; Li, Kai-nan; Cui, Ji-hong; Li, Jing

    2008-02-01

    To study the expression level and significance of glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) in normal breast tissue, adenosis, adenoma and breast carcinoma. A total of 147 cases of female breast tissue samples, including 92 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, 26 cases of breast fibroadenoma, 24 cases of breast adenosis and 5 cases of normal breast tissues, were collected for quantitative detection of the expression of Glut-1 protein by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method) and Western blot, and its mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In normal breast tissue and benign lesions of the breast, Glut-1 was undetectable or only weakly detectable in cytoplasm of ductal and acinar epithelia. In contrast, the intensity of Glut-1 staining was significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinomas (P = 0.0002) with protein expression predominantly in cellular membrane and lesser in cytoplasm. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of Glut-1 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in invasive ductal carcinoma than fibroadenoma (P =0.001 for protein; P <0.05 for mRNA) and adenosis (P =0.001 for protein; P < 0.05 for mRNA). There was a significant difference among groups (P = 0.0002 for protein; P = 0.0001 for mRNA). Glucose transport activity, as indicated by Glut-1 protein and its mRNA expression, significantly increases in breast carcinoma than non-cancerous lesions. The over-expression of Glut-1 in breast carcinoma is tightly coupled with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, implying that Glut-1 may serve as a new marker in the early diagnosis and prognostication of breast malignancy as well as a new therapeutic target.

  4. Econometric analysis of the changing effects in wind strength and significant wave height on the probability of casualty in shipping.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sabine; Kumar, Shashi; Sakurada, Yuri; Shen, Jiajun

    2011-05-01

    This study uses econometric models to measure the effect of significant wave height and wind strength on the probability of casualty and tests whether these effects changed. While both effects are in particular relevant for stability and strength calculations of vessels, it is also helpful for the development of ship construction standards in general to counteract increased risk resulting from changing oceanographic conditions. The authors analyzed a unique dataset of 3.2 million observations from 20,729 individual vessels in the North Atlantic and Arctic regions gathered during the period 1979-2007. The results show that although there is a seasonal pattern in the probability of casualty especially during the winter months, the effect of wind strength and significant wave height do not follow the same seasonal pattern. Additionally, over time, significant wave height shows an increasing effect in January, March, May and October while wind strength shows a decreasing effect, especially in January, March and May. The models can be used to simulate relationships and help understand the relationships. This is of particular interest to naval architects and ship designers as well as multilateral agencies such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that establish global standards in ship design and construction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  6. Significance in the increase of women psychiatrists in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Soo In

    2008-01-01

    The number of female doctors has increased in Korea; 18.9% (13,083) of the total medical doctors registered (69,097) were women in 2006, compared to 13.6% (2,216) in 1975. The proportion of female doctors will jump up by 2010 considering that nearly 40% of the medical students are women as of today. This trend has had strong influence on the field of psychiatry; the percentage of women psychiatrists rose from 1.6 (6)% to 18% (453), from 1975 to 2006 and now women residents comprise 39% (206) of all. This is not only a reflection of a social phenomenon of the increase in professional women but also attributed to some specific characteristics of the psychiatry. Psychiatric practice may come more natural to women. While clinical activities of women psychiatrists are expanding, there are few women leaders and much less women are involving in academic activities in this field as yet. Though there is less sexual discrimination in the field of psychiatry, women psychiatrists are still having a lot of difficulties in balancing work and family matters. Many women psychiatrists also report they've ever felt an implied discrimination in their careers. In this study, we are to identify the characteristics of women psychiatrists and to explore the significance of the increase in women psychiatrists in Korea and the situation in which they are.

  7. The increase of compressive strength of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilorini, Rr. M. I. Retno; Santosa, Budi; Rejeki, V. G. Sri; Riangsari, M. F. Devita; Hananta, Yan's. Dianaga

    2017-03-01

    Polymer modified concrete is one of some concrete technology innovations to meet the need of strong and durable concrete. Previous research found that Moringa oleifera can be applied as natural polymer modifiers into mortars. Natural polymer modified mortar using Moringa oleifera is proven to increase their compressive strength significantly. In this resesearch, Moringa oleifera seeds have been grinded and added into concrete mix for natural polymer modified concrete, based on the optimum composition of previous research. The research investigated the increase of compressive strength of polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera as natural polymer modifiers. There were 3 compositions of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera referred to previous research optimum compositions. Several cylinder of 10 cm x 20 cm specimens were produced and tested for compressive strength at age 7, 14, and, 28 days. The research meets conclusions: (1) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera, with and without skin, has higher compressive strength compared to natural polymer modified mortar with Moringa oleifera and also control specimens; (2) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is achieved by specimens contains Moringa oleifera that is 0.2% of cement weight; and (3) The compressive strength increase of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is about 168.11-221.29% compared to control specimens

  8. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys. PMID:27488621

  9. Increased diffuse radiation fraction does not significantly accelerate plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, Alon; Krakauer, Nir

    2010-05-01

    ), will result in a measurable decrease (~0.6ppm) in the seasonal CO2 minimum. This holds regardless of whether the sink is the result of 1) An increase in NPP, or 2) The combined effect of a temperature-driven decrease in heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and no change in NPP. This is since both NPP and Rh peak in summer. By contrast, observations from the NOAA global CO2 monitoring network show the opposite change in the seasonal minimum in 1992 and 1993 (~0.2ppm increase) both at Mauna Loa, and in the Marine Boundary Layer mean (>20° N), which is hard to reconcile with increased NPP in northern summer. Another indicator of annual NPP is tree wood increment. Previous work (Krakauer et al., 2003) showed that the average response in tree ring series after past Pinatubo-size volcanic eruptions implied lower NPP north of 45° N, presumably as a result of shorter growing season and lower total irradiance induced by scattering aerosols, and no significant change in NPP at lower latitudes. Here we show that In 1992, after the Pinatubo eruption, ring width in the 25° N-45° N band was 99.3±2.9% of average (n=351 sites), similar to the average of 100.4±2.2% over past eruptions (n=15 eruptions) (Uncertainty is given as 2 SE.). These results are also inconsistent with substantial NPP enhancement, although a limitation of the tree-ring approach is that available measurements do not uniformly sample the latitude band. The combined evidence of tree rings and the CO2 seasonal cycle shows that the enhancement of NPP by scattering aerosols on annual timescales is weak. This result suggests that reducing aerosols through stricter pollution controls may strengthen the land carbon sink, while geo-engineering schemes which aim to mitigate global warming by spreading scattering aerosols in the stratosphere may weaken it.

  10. Neck Strength Imbalance Correlates With Increased Head Acceleration in Soccer Heading

    PubMed Central

    Dezman, Zachary D.W.; Ledet, Eric H.; Kerr, Hamish A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Soccer heading is using the head to directly contact the ball, often to advance the ball down the field or score. It is a skill fundamental to the game, yet it has come under scrutiny. Repeated subclinical effects of heading may compound over time, resulting in neurologic deficits. Greater head accelerations are linked to brain injury. Developing an understanding of how the neck muscles help stabilize and reduce head acceleration during impact may help prevent brain injury. Hypothesis: Neck strength imbalance correlates to increasing head acceleration during impact while heading a soccer ball. Study Design: Observational laboratory investigation. Methods: Sixteen Division I and II collegiate soccer players headed a ball in a controlled indoor laboratory setting while player motions were recorded by a 14-camera Vicon MX motion capture system. Neck flexor and extensor strength of each player was measured using a spring-type clinical dynamometer. Results: Players were served soccer balls by hand at a mean velocity of 4.29 m/s (±0.74 m/s). Players returned the ball to the server using a heading maneuver at a mean velocity of 5.48 m/s (±1.18 m/s). Mean neck strength difference was positively correlated with angular head acceleration (rho = 0.497; P = 0.05), with a trend toward significance for linear head acceleration (rho = 0.485; P = 0.057). Conclusion: This study suggests that symmetrical strength in neck flexors and extensors reduces head acceleration experienced during low-velocity heading in experienced collegiate players. Clinical Relevance: Balanced neck strength may reduce head acceleration cumulative subclinical injury. Since neck strength is a measureable and amenable strength training intervention, this may represent a modifiable intrinsic risk factor for injury. PMID:24459547

  11. The Wildland-Urban Interface: Increasing Significance, Complexity and Contribution

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, presentations at International Symposia on Society and Resource Management (ISSRM) have covered an increasingly broad scope of topics on natural resource issues. The wildland-urban interface (WUI) was a key topic of discussion at the ninth ISSRM in 2002: a reflection of the response by social scientists to increasing residential development...

  12. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-01

    p16 is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and is considered a tumor suppressor protein. Alterations in p16 protein expression are associated with tumor development and progression. However, the p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has not been investigated in the endometrium. Therefore, we evaluated stromal p16 expression in different types of endometrial lesions using immunohistochemistry. Differences in the p16 expression status according to the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 62, 26, and 36 cases of benign, precancerous, and malignant endometrial lesions, respectively. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas precancerous lesions showed a variable degree of staining proportion and intensity. Atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) had significantly higher stromal p16 expression levels than benign lesions. Endometrioid carcinoma (EC), serous carcinoma (SC), and carcinosarcoma showed significantly elevated stromal p16 expression levels compared with benign and precancerous lesions. In addition, there were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between AH/EIN and SEIC and between EC and SC. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among nonpathological endometrium, atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, and hyperplasia without atypia were not statistically significant. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma, and raise the possibility that p16 overexpression in the peritumoral stroma is associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior of endometrial SC. PMID:27902476

  13. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.

    PubMed

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-05-28

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.

  14. Increased medial olivocochlear reflex strength in normal-hearing, noise-exposed humans

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    tolerance (SLT) and tinnitus. These data provide evidence that MOCR strength is associated with NEB. The functional significance of increased MOCR strength is discussed. PMID:28886123

  15. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. PMID:28600344

  16. Laser Welded versus Resistance Spot Welded Bone Implants: Analysis of the Thermal Increase and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The first aim of this “ex vivo split mouth” study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Materials and Methods. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. Results. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Conclusion. Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength. PMID:25110731

  17. Laser welded versus resistance spot welded bone implants: analysis of the thermal increase and strength.

    PubMed

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this "ex vivo split mouth" study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength.

  18. The effect of increasing strength and approach velocity on triple jump performance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sam J; Yeadon, M R Fred; King, Mark A

    2016-12-08

    The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and approach velocity on optimal performance. The strength and approach velocity of the simulation model were each increased by up to 30% in 10% increments from baseline data collected from a national standard triple jumper. Increasing strength always resulted in an increased overall jump distance. Increasing approach velocity also typically resulted in an increased overall jump distance but there was a point past which increasing approach velocity without increasing strength did not lead to an increase in overall jump distance. Increasing both strength and approach velocity by 10%, 20%, and 30% led to roughly equivalent increases in overall jump distances. Distances ranged from 14.05m with baseline strength and approach velocity, up to 18.49m with 30% increases in both. Optimal phase ratios were either hop-dominated or balanced, and typically became more balanced when the strength of the model was increased by a greater percentage than its approach velocity. The range of triple jump distances that resulted from the optimisation process suggests that strength and approach velocity are of great importance for triple jump performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The significance of nanoparticles on bond strength of polymer concrete to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Douba, A.; Genedy, M.; Matteo, E. N.

    Here, polymer concrete (PC) is a commonly used material in construction due to its improved durability and good bond strength to steel substrate. PC has been suggested as a repair and seal material to restore the bond between the cement annulus and the steel casing in wells that penetrate formations under consideration for CO 2 sequestration. Nanoparticles including Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs), Aluminum Nanoparticles (ANPs) and Silica Nano particles (SNPs) were added to an epoxy-based PC to examine how the nanoparticles affect the bond strength of PC to a steel substrate. Slant shear tests were used to determine themore » bond strength of PC incorporating nanomaterials to steel; results reveal that PC incorporating nanomaterials has an improved bond strength to steel substrate compared with neat PC. In particular, ANPs improve the bond strength by 51% over neat PC. Local shear stresses, extracted from Finite Element (FE) analysis of the slant shear test, were found to be as much as twice the apparent/average shear/bond strength. These results suggest that the impact of nanomaterials is higher than that shown by the apparent strength. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements of epoxy with and without nanomaterials showed ANPs to influence curing of epoxy, which might explain the improved bond strength of PC incorporating ANPs.« less

  20. The significance of nanoparticles on bond strength of polymer concrete to steel

    DOE PAGES

    Douba, A.; Genedy, M.; Matteo, E. N.; ...

    2017-01-03

    Here, polymer concrete (PC) is a commonly used material in construction due to its improved durability and good bond strength to steel substrate. PC has been suggested as a repair and seal material to restore the bond between the cement annulus and the steel casing in wells that penetrate formations under consideration for CO 2 sequestration. Nanoparticles including Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs), Aluminum Nanoparticles (ANPs) and Silica Nano particles (SNPs) were added to an epoxy-based PC to examine how the nanoparticles affect the bond strength of PC to a steel substrate. Slant shear tests were used to determine themore » bond strength of PC incorporating nanomaterials to steel; results reveal that PC incorporating nanomaterials has an improved bond strength to steel substrate compared with neat PC. In particular, ANPs improve the bond strength by 51% over neat PC. Local shear stresses, extracted from Finite Element (FE) analysis of the slant shear test, were found to be as much as twice the apparent/average shear/bond strength. These results suggest that the impact of nanomaterials is higher than that shown by the apparent strength. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements of epoxy with and without nanomaterials showed ANPs to influence curing of epoxy, which might explain the improved bond strength of PC incorporating ANPs.« less

  1. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    dysfunction at baseline. The association between change in knee flexor strength and change in physical function was not significant, irrespective of baseline function status. In patients with severe physical dysfunction, an increase in knee extensor strength and improved physical function were associated. ANZCTR 12610000660088 . Registered 12 August 2010.

  2. The development of ultrahigh strength low alloy cast steels with increased toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Paul C.

    a high temperature HIP treatment, both the CVN and ductility of the alloy was found to increase while maintaining comparable ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) levels as compared to the original homogenization treatment. Austempering the (IC) 4340+ material led to a significant increase in CVN and ductility at the expense of UTS and yield strength as the primarily martensitic microstructure was converted to a mixed martensitic-bainitic structure. An initial heat of induction melted, aluminum deoxidized investment cast ES-1 with 0.06 wt % of aluminum showed that the average -40°F and +72°F impact toughness, % elongation, and UTS and YS of the fully heat treated investment cast + HIP ES-1 material lagged significantly behind that of the vacuum degassed cast + HIP ES-1 ingot material. Even though the % elongation and impact toughness of the investment cast ES-1 material changed between heat treatment conditions, the average UTS and YS values remained relatively unchanged throughout the heat treatments for the investment cast study. Etched micrographs of the investment cast ES-1 material showed evidence of significant differences in microsegregation reduction between the samples homogenized at 2125°F for 4 hours and those not homogenized at 2125°F for 4 hours. SEM fracture surface work performed on the investment cast material clearly showed that the induction melted investment and aluminum killed cast material contained significant amounts of MnS and Al2O3 inclusions that were not discovered in the vacuum degassed cast ingot material. Lastly, the results of a third heat of induction melted, aluminum deoxidized investment cast ES-1 material possessing just 0.01wt% of aluminum showed that the decrease in aluminum content from the first experimental heat did not improve the mechanical properties of the investment cast material. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. [Biomechanical investigation of the tensile strength of tendon sutures - locking sutures increase stability].

    PubMed

    Betz, C; Schleicher, P; Winkel, R; Hoffmann, R

    2013-02-01

    In this study we examined the tensile strength of core sutures of tendons. In particular, we examined the effect of having 2 or 4 stitch strands in the core suture as well as the effect of additional locking sutures on the tensile strength. 60 flexor tendons from the forepaws of freshly slaughtered swines were harvested for biomechanical testing. They were divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D) of 15 sutures each. Group A: core suture after Zechner with 2 strands; group B: modified core suture with 4 strands; group C: modified core suture with 2 strands and 4 locking sutures; group D: modified core suture with 4 strands and 4 locking sutures. The primary tensile strength of the sutures was measured in Newton using the testing machine with a traction speed of 0.1 mm/s. Simultaneously, the increasing space forming at the suture was filmed against graph paper. Our command variables were force measured in Newton when forming a space of 2 mm as well as the force at which the suture failed. Statistical analysis was carried out with the software SPSS to produce a multivariate analysis with a statistical significance of p<0.05. Results are presented as averages including the 1st and 3rd quartile (1Q/3Q). Under traction to form a 2 mm space, the force measured with group A was 14.2 N (12.9/15.1 N). In group B the force 22.5 N (20.0/24.7 N) was significantly higher (p<0.05). Group C required a traction force of 28.7 N (23.5/35.8 N) which was significantly higher than for groups A and B. Group D required the significantly highest traction force of 42.0 N (39.5/46.0 N) to produce a 2 mm space. The force required for the suture to fail in group A was 19.9 N (17.9/22.8 N), in group B: 26.2 N (24.5/29.7 N), in group C 32.0 N (27.1/40.1 N) and in Group D 46.5 N (41.5/50.0 N); the differences between the gloups were all statistically significant. The primary tensile strength of core sutures after Zechner on flexor tendons from the forepaws of swines was significantly increased by

  4. INCREASING DURATION OF TYPE 1 DIABETES PERTURBS THE STRENGTH-STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP AND INCREASES BRITTLENESS OF BONE

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Even, Jesse L.; Jo, Chan-Hee; Herbert, Erik G.; Murry, Matthew R.; Cockrell, Gael E.; Wahl, Elizabeth C.; Bunn, R. Clay; Lumpkin, Charles K.; Fowlkes, John L.; Thrailkill, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) increases the likelihood of a fracture. Despite serious complications in the healing of fractures among those with diabetes, the underlying causes are not delineated for the effect of diabetes on the fracture resistance of bone. Therefore, in a mouse model of T1DM, we have investigated the possibility that a prolonged state of diabetes perturbs the relationship between bone strength and structure (i.e., affects tissue properties). At 10, 15, and 18 weeks following injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes, diabetic male mice and age-matched controls were examined for measures of skeletal integrity. We assessed 1) the moment of inertia (IMIN) of the cortical bone within diaphysis, trabecular bone architecture of the metaphysis, and mineralization density of the tissue (TMD) for each compartment of the femur by microcomputed tomography and 2) biomechanical properties by three point bending test (femur) and nanoindentation (tibia). In the metaphysis, a significant decrease in trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular TMD was apparent after 10 weeks of diabetes. For cortical bone, type 1 diabetes was associated with decreased cortical TMD, IMIN, rigidity, and peak moment as well as a lack of normal age-related increases in the biomechanical properties. However, there were only modest differences in material properties between diabetic and normal mice at both whole bone and tissue-levels. As the duration of diabetes increased, bone toughness decreased relative to control. If the sole effect of diabetes on bone strength was due to a reduction in bone size, then IMIN would be the only significant variable explaining the variance in the maximum moment. However, general linear modeling found that the relationship between peak moment and IMIN depended on whether the bone was from a diabetic mouse and the duration of diabetes. Thus, these findings suggest that the elevated fracture risk among diabetics is impacted by complex changes in tissue

  5. Increased Tensile Strength of Carbon Nanotube Yarns and Sheets through Chemical Modification and Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Baker, James S.; Sola, Francisco; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; McCorkle, Linda S.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Gaier, James; Chen, Michelle; Meador, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent strength of individual carbon nanotubes offers considerable opportunity for the development of advanced, lightweight composite structures. Recent work in the fabrication and application of carbon nanotube (CNT) forms such as yarns and sheets has addressed early nanocomposite limitations with respect to nanotube dispersion and loading; and has pushed the technology toward structural composite applications. However, the high tensile strength of an individual CNT has not directly translated to macro-scale CNT forms where bulk material strength is limited by inter-tube electrostatic attraction and slippage. The focus of this work was to assess post processing of CNT sheet and yarn to improve the macro-scale strength of these material forms. Both small molecule functionalization and e-beam irradiation was evaluated as a means to enhance tensile strength and Youngs modulus of the bulk CNT material. Mechanical testing results revealed a tensile strength increase in CNT sheets by 57 when functionalized, while an additional 48 increase in tensile strength was observed when functionalized sheets were irradiated; compared to unfunctionalized sheets. Similarly, small molecule functionalization increased yarn tensile strength up to 25, whereas irradiation of the functionalized yarns pushed the tensile strength to 88 beyond that of the baseline yarn.

  6. Comparison between linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training to increase strength.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Jonato; Frollini, Anelena B; de Lima, Cristiane; Donatto, Felipe F; Foschini, Denis; de Cássia Marqueti, Rita; Figueira, Aylton; Fleck, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    To determine the most effective periodization model for strength and hypertrophy is an important step for strength and conditioning professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear (LP) and daily undulating periodized (DUP) resistance training on body composition and maximal strength levels. Forty men aged 21.5 +/- 8.3 and with a minimum 1-year strength training experience were assigned to an LP (n = 20) or DUP group (n = 20). Subjects were tested for maximal strength in bench press, leg press 45 degrees, and arm curl (1 repetition maximum [RM]) at baseline (T1), after 8 weeks (T2), and after 12 weeks of training (T3). Increases of 18.2 and 25.08% in bench press 1 RM were observed for LP and DUP groups in T3 compared with T1, respectively (p < or = 0.05). In leg press 45 degrees , LP group exhibited an increase of 24.71% and DUP of 40.61% at T3 compared with T1. Additionally, DUP showed an increase of 12.23% at T2 compared with T1 and 25.48% at T3 compared with T2. For the arm curl exercise, LP group increased 14.15% and DUP 23.53% at T3 when compared with T1. An increase of 20% was also found at T2 when compared with T1, for DUP. Although the DUP group increased strength the most in all exercises, no statistical differences were found between groups. In conclusion, undulating periodized strength training induced higher increases in maximal strength than the linear model in strength-trained men. For maximizing strength increases, daily intensity and volume variations were more effective than weekly variations.

  7. ANODAL TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (TDCS) INCREASES ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF SHOULDER ROTATORS MUSCLES IN HANDBALL PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    Hazime, Fuad Ahmad; da Cunha, Ronaldo Alves; Soliaman, Renato Rozenblit; Romancini, Ana Clara Bezerra; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2017-06-01

    Weakness of the rotator cuff muscles can lead to imbalances in the strength of shoulder external and internal rotators, change the biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint and predispose an athlete to injury. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has demonstrated promising results in a variety of health conditions. However few studies addressed its potential approach in the realm of athletics. The purpose of this study was to investigate if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technique increases the isometric muscle strength of shoulder external and internal rotators in handball athletes. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Eight female handball players aged between 17 and 21 years (Mean=19.65; SD=2.55) with 7.1 ± 4.8 years of experience in training, participating in regional and national competitions were recruited. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles was evaluated during and after 30 and 60 minutes post one session of anodal and sham current (2mA; 0.057mA/cm 2 ) with a one-week interval between stimulations. Compared to baseline, MVIC of shoulder external and internal rotators significantly increased after real but not sham tDCS. Between-group differences were observed for external and internal rotator muscles. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of external rotation increased significantly during tDCS, and 30 and 60 minutes post-tDCS for real tDCS compared to that for sham tDCS. For internal rotation MVIC increased significantly during and 60 minutes post-tDCS. The results indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation temporarily increases maximal isometric contractions of the internal and external rotators of the shoulder in handball players. 2.

  8. Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

  9. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  10. Resin cements formulated with thio-urethanes can strengthen porcelain and increase bond strength to ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Atais; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro; de Oliveira, Gabriel Rodrigues; Pfeifer, Carmem; Cesar, Paulo Francisco

    2018-06-01

    The use of thio-urethane oligomers has been shown to significantly improve the mechanical properties of resin cements (RCs). The aim of this study was to use thio-urethane-modified RC to potentially reinforce the porcelain-RC structure and to improve the bond strength to zirconia and lithium disilicate. Six oligomers were synthesized by combining thiols - pentaerythritol tetra-3-mercaptopropionate (PETMP, P) or trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP, T) - with di-functional isocyanates - 1,6-Hexanediol-diissocyante (HDDI) (aliphatic, AL) or 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene (BDI) (aromatic, AR) or Dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-Diisocyanate (HMDI) (cyclic, CC). Thio-urethanes (20 wt%) were added to a BisGMA/UDMA/TEGDMA organic matrix. Filler was introduced at 60 wt%. The microshear bond strength (μSBS), Weibull modulus (m), and failure pattern of RCs bonded to zirconia (ZR) and lithium disilicate (LD) ceramics was evaluated. Biaxial flexural test and fractographic analysis of porcelain discs bonded to RCs were also performed. The biaxial flexural strength (σ bf ) and m were calculated in the tensile surfaces of porcelain and RC structures (Z = 0 and Z = -t 2 , respectively). The μSBS was improved with RCs formulated with oligomers P_AL or T_AL bonded to LD and P_AL, P_AR or T_CC bonded to zirconia in comparison to controls. Mixed failures predominated in all groups. σ bf had superior values at Z = 0 with RCs formulated with oligomers P_AL, P_AR, T_AL, or T_CC in comparison to control; σ bf increased with all RCs composed by thio-urethanes at Z = -t 2 . Fractographic analysis revealed all fracture origins at Z = 0. The use of specific thio-urethane oligomers as components of RCs increased both the biaxial flexural strength of the porcelain-RC structure and the μSBS to LD and ZR. The current investigation suggests that it is possible to reinforce the porcelain-RC pair and obtain higher bond strength to LD and ZR with RCs

  11. Velocity-strengthening friction significantly affects interfacial dynamics, strength and dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Frictional interfaces abound in natural and man-made systems, yet their dynamics are not well-understood. Recent extensive experimental data have revealed that velocity-strengthening friction, where the steady-state frictional resistance increases with sliding velocity over some range, is a generic feature of such interfaces. This physical behavior has very recently been linked to slow stick-slip motion. Here we elucidate the importance of velocity-strengthening friction by theoretically studying three variants of a realistic friction model, all featuring identical logarithmic velocity-weakening friction at small sliding velocities, but differ in their higher velocity behaviors. By quantifying energy partition (e.g. radiation and dissipation), the selection of interfacial rupture fronts and rupture arrest, we show that the presence or absence of strengthening significantly affects the global interfacial resistance and the energy release during frictional instabilities. Furthermore, we show that different forms of strengthening may result in events of similar magnitude, yet with dramatically different dissipation and radiation rates. This happens because the events are mediated by rupture fronts with vastly different propagation velocities, where stronger velocity-strengthening friction promotes slower rupture. These theoretical results may have significant implications on our understanding of frictional dynamics. PMID:25598161

  12. Parameter optimization of fusion splicing of photonic crystal fibers and conventional fibers to increase strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Zhang, Zuchen; Song, Jingming; Wu, Chunxiao; Song, Ningfang

    2015-03-01

    A splicing parameter optimization method to increase the tensile strength of splicing joint between photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and conventional fiber is demonstrated. Based on the splicing recipes provided by splicer or fiber manufacturers, the optimal values of some major splicing parameters are obtained in sequence, and a conspicuous improvement in the mechanical strength of splicing joints between PCFs and conventional fibers is validated through experiments.

  13. Ischemic conditioning increases strength and volitional activation of paretic muscle in chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hyngstrom, Allison S; Murphy, Spencer A; Nguyen, Jennifer; Schmit, Brian D; Negro, Francesco; Gutterman, David D; Durand, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    Ischemic conditioning (IC) on the arm or leg has emerged as an intervention to improve strength and performance in healthy populations, but the effects on neurological populations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of a single session of IC on knee extensor strength and muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. Maximal knee extensor torque measurements and surface EMG were quantified in 10 chronic stroke survivors (>1 yr poststroke) with hemiparesis before and after a single session of IC or sham on the paretic leg. IC consisted of 5 min of compression with a proximal thigh cuff (inflation pressure = 225 mmHg for IC or 25 mmHg for sham) followed by 5 min of rest. This was repeated five times. Maximal knee extensor strength, EMG magnitude, and motor unit firing behavior were measured before and immediately after IC or sham. IC increased paretic leg strength by 10.6 ± 8.5 Nm, whereas no difference was observed in the sham group (change in sham = 1.3 ± 2.9 Nm, P = 0.001 IC vs. sham). IC-induced increases in strength were accompanied by a 31 ± 15% increase in the magnitude of muscle EMG during maximal contractions and a 5% decrease in motor unit recruitment thresholds during submaximal contractions. Individuals who had the most asymmetry in strength between their paretic and nonparetic legs had the largest increases in strength ( r 2  = 0.54). This study provides evidence that a single session of IC can increase strength through improved muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Present rehabilitation strategies for chronic stroke survivors do not optimally activate paretic muscle, and this limits potential strength gains. Ischemic conditioning of a limb has emerged as an effective strategy to improve muscle performance in healthy individuals but has never been tested in neurological populations. In this study, we show that ischemic conditioning on the paretic leg of chronic stroke survivors

  14. Significance of DNA bond strength in programmable nanoparticle thermodynamics and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiuyan; Hu, Jinglei; Hu, Yi; Wang, Rong

    2018-04-04

    Assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) coated with complementary DNA strands leads to novel crystals with nanosized basic units rather than classic atoms, ions or molecules. The assembly process is mediated by hybridization of DNA via specific base pairing interaction, and is kinetically linked to the disassociation of DNA duplexes. DNA-level physiochemical quantities, both thermodynamic and kinetic, are key to understanding this process and essential for the design of DNA-NP crystals. The melting transition properties are helpful to judge the thermostability and sensitivity of relative DNA probes or other applications. Three different cases are investigated by changing the linker length and the spacer length on which the melting properties depend using the molecular dynamics method. Melting temperature is determined by sigmoidal melting curves based on hybridization percentage versus temperature and the Lindemann melting rule simultaneously. We provide a computational strategy based on a coarse-grained model to estimate the hybridization enthalpy, entropy and free energy from percentages of hybridizations which are readily accessible in experiments. Importantly, the lifetime of DNA bond dehybridization based on temperature and the activation energy depending on DNA bond strength are also calculated. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis and the present experimental data. Our study provides a good strategy to predict the melting temperature which is important for the DNA-directed nanoparticle system, and bridges the dynamics and thermodynamics of DNA-directed nanoparticle systems by estimating the equilibrium constant from the hybridization of DNA bonds quantitatively.

  15. Increased sink strength offsets the inhibitory effect of sucrose on sugarcane photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael V; Machado, Eduardo C; Magalhães Filho, José R; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Martins, Márcio O; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (g s ), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the initial slope of A-C i curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthesis was inhibited by sucrose spraying in both genotypes, through decreases in V cmax , k, g s and ATP production driven by electron transport (J atp ). Photosynthesis of plants subjected to the combination of partial darkness and sucrose spraying was similar to photosynthesis of reference plants for both genotypes. Significant increases in V cmax , g s and J atp and marginal increases in k were noticed when combining partial darkness and sucrose spraying compared with sucrose spraying alone. Our data also revealed that increases in sink strength due to partial darkness offset the inhibition of sugarcane photosynthesis caused by sucrose spraying, enhancing the knowledge on endogenous regulation of sugarcane photosynthesis through the source-sink relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  17. The bioimpedance phase angle predicts low muscle strength, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality in old patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kristina; Wirth, Rainer; Neubauer, Maxi; Eckardt, Rahel; Stobäus, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the impact of low phase angle (PhA) values on muscle strength, quality of life, symptom severity, and 1-year mortality in older cancer patients. Prospective study with 1-year follow-up. Cancer patients aged >60 years. PhA was derived from whole body impedance analysis. The fifth percentile of age-, sex-, and body mass index-stratified reference values were used as cut-off. Quality of life was determined with the European Organization of Research and Treatment in Cancer questionnaire, reflecting both several function scales and symptom severity. Muscle strength was assessed by hand grip strength, knee extension strength, and peak expiratory flow. 433 cancer patients, aged 60-95 years, were recruited. Patients with low PhA (n = 197) exhibited decreased muscle strength compared with patients with normal PhA (hand grip strength: 22 ± 8.6 vs 28.9 ± 8.9 kg, knee extension strength: 20.8 ± 11.8 vs 28.1 ± 14.9 kg, and peak expiratory flow: 301.1 ± 118 vs 401.7 ± 142.6 L/min, P < .001). Physical function, global health status, and role function from the European Organization of Research and Treatment in Cancer questionnaire were reduced, and most symptoms (fatigue, anorexia, pain, and dyspnea) increased in patients with low PhA (P < .001). In a risk-factor adjusted regression analysis, PhA emerged as independent predictor of physical function (ß:-0.538, P = .023), hand grip strength (ß:-4.684, P < .0001), knee extension strength (ß:-4.548, P = .035), and peak expiratory flow (ß:-66.836, P < .0001). Low PhA moreover predicted 1-year mortality in the Cox proportional hazards regression model, whereas grip strength was no longer significant. PhA below the fifth reference percentile is highly predictive of decreased muscle strength, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality in old patients with cancer and should be evaluated in routine assessment. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by

  18. The effects of honey (Apis dorsata) supplements on increased bone strength in ovariectomized rat as animal model of osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudaniayanti, Ira Sari; Primarizky, Hardany; Nangoi, Lianny

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility and fracture risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of honey (Apis dorsata) supplements on increased bone strength in ovariectomized rat as animal models of osteoporosis. Twenty female rats at 3 months of age, weighing 150-200 g were used in the study. The rats were divided into five groups (n=4) : Sham operation group (SH); ovariectomy group no treatment(OVX); ovariectomy with treatment Apis dorsata 1g/Kg BW (AD-1); ovariectomy with treatment Apis dorsata 2g/Kg BW (AD-2); ovariectomy with treatment Apis dorsata 4g/Kg BW (AD-3). The treatment started to be given the next day after ovariectomy operation for 12 weeks. The Rats were sacrified within 12 weeks, and then the right femur were taken bone strength test. Based on the statistical analysis of the bone strength test, the greatest score belongs to the Sham operation group (SH) that have significant difference (p<0.05) with OVX group and AD-1 group, but there was no significant difference with AD-2 and AD-3 (p>0,05). In conclusion, honey (Apis dorsata) supplements has the effect of increasing bone strength in ovariectomized rat as animal models of osteoporosis, so that honey (Apis dorsata) supplements has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment for osteoporosis.

  19. Increasing FSW join strength by optimizing feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmadi, Djarot B.; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Siswanto, Eko

    2017-10-01

    Principally the join in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is formed due to mechanical bonding. At least there are two factors determines the quality of this join, first is the temperature in the area around the interface and secondly the intense of mixing forces in nugget zone to create the mechanical bonding. The adequate temperature creates good flowability of the nugget zone and an intensive mixing force produces homogeneous strong bonding. Based on those two factors in this research the effects of feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle of the FSW process to the tensile strength of resulted join are studied. The true experimental method was used. Feed rate was varied at 24, 42, 55 and 74 mm/minutes and from the experimental results, it can be concluded that the higher feed rate decreases the tensile strength of weld join and it is believed due to the lower heat embedded in the material. Inversely, the higher rotating speed increases the join’s tensile strength as a result of higher heat embedded in base metal and higher mixing force in the nugget zone. The rotating speed were 1842, 2257 and 2904 RPMs. The pin angle determines the direction of mixing force. With variation of pin angle: 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° the higher pin angle generally increases the tensile strength because of more intensive mixing force. For 12° pin angle the lower tensile strength is found since the force tends to push out the nugget area from the joint gap.

  20. Increasing Mechanical Strength of Gelatin Hydrogels by Divalent Metal Ion Removal

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Qi; Yates, Keegan; Vogt, Caleb; Qian, Zichen; Frost, Megan C.; Zhao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The usage of gelatin hydrogel is limited due to its instability and poor mechanical properties, especially under physiological conditions. Divalent metal ions present in gelatin such as Ca2+ and Fe2+ play important roles in the gelatin molecule interactions. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of divalent ion removal on the stability and mechanical properties of gelatin gels with and without chemical crosslinking. The gelatin solution was purified by Chelex resin to replace divalent metal ions with sodium ions. The gel was then chemically crosslinked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Results showed that the removal of divalent metal ions significantly impacted the formation of the gelatin network. The purified gelatin hydrogels had less interactions between gelatin molecules and form larger-pore network which enabled EDC to penetrate and crosslink the gel more efficiently. The crosslinked purified gels showed small swelling ratio, higher crosslinking density and dramatically increased storage and loss moduli. The removal of divalent ions is a simple yet effective method that can significantly improve the stability and strength of gelatin hydrogels. The in vitro cell culture demonstrated that the purified gelatin maintained its ability to support cell attachment and spreading. PMID:24736500

  1. CL316,243, a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, induces muscle hypertrophy and increased strength.

    PubMed

    Puzzo, Daniela; Raiteri, Roberto; Castaldo, Clotilde; Capasso, Raffaele; Pagano, Ester; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Gulisano, Walter; Drozd, Lisaveta; Lippiello, Pellegrino; Palmeri, Agostino; Scotto, Pietro; Miniaci, Maria Concetta

    2016-11-22

    Studies in vitro have demonstrated that β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle by promoting protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation. In this study, we evaluated whether activation of β3-ARs by the selective agonist CL316,243 modifies the functional and structural properties of skeletal muscles of healthy mice. Daily injections of CL316,243 for 15 days resulted in a significant improvement in muscle force production, assessed by grip strength and weight tests, and an increased myofiber cross-sectional area, indicative of muscle hypertrophy. In addition, atomic force microscopy revealed a significant effect of CL316,243 on the transversal stiffness of isolated muscle fibers. Interestingly, the expression level of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream targets and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was also found to be enhanced in tibialis anterior and soleus muscles of CL316,243 treated mice, in accordance with previous data linking β3-ARs to mTOR and NOS signaling pathways. In conclusion, our data suggest that CL316,243 systemic administration might be a novel therapeutic strategy worthy of further investigations in conditions of muscle wasting and weakness associated with aging and muscular diseases.

  2. Properties of hot-rolled sheets from ferritic steel with increased strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovich, Yu.; Isaenkova, M.; Dobrokhotov, P.; Stolbov, S.; Bannykh, O.; Bannykh, I.; Antsyferova, M.

    2017-10-01

    Sheets from ferritic steel 3 mm thick with increased strength after thermal hardening were studied by use of various X-ray methods and mechanical testing. Rolling of steel was carried out at 1100°C with rather great reductions per pass, so that plastic deformation of metal spread by the significant distance from the surface. The texture of sheet proved to have two sharply different layers: the inner layer of ˜40% thick with the usual rolling texture of BCC metals and the external layer with the rolling texture of FCC metals. At that, within the intermediate layer the texture is weakened. Texture formation within the external layer is conditioned by the process of dynamical deformation ageing: interstitial impurities from atmosphere block dislocations, prevent from their slip and at increased temperatures promote their collective climb. As a result, the direction of lattice rotation as well as the final rolling texture change. Due to texture layering, by impact testing of the sheet the plane of crack propagation must be changed when this crack reaches the inner layer, and then an additional energy for its further movement is required. Thermal hardening of the sheet retains the type of rolling texture, though results in some its scattering, but at the same time the breaking point of steel grows twice owing to formation of intermetallic particles.

  3. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Kênia Kp; Nascimento, Lucas R; Ada, Louise; Polese, Janaine C; Avelino, Patrick R; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-07-01

    After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8), showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14) and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25); it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96) compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. PROSPERO (CRD42015020683). [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016) Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 138-144]. Copyright © 2016 Australian

  4. Semantic priming increases word frequency judgments: Evidence for the role of memory strength in frequency estimation.

    PubMed

    Woltz, Dan J; Gardner, Michael K

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a systematic, nonlinear relationship between word frequency judgments and values from word frequency norms. This relationship could reflect a perceptual process similar to that found in the psychophysics literature for a variety of sensory phenomena. Alternatively, it could reflect memory strength differences that are expected for words of varying levels of prior exposure. Two experiments tested the memory strength explanation by semantically priming words prior to frequency judgments. Exposure to related word meanings produced a small but measurable increase in target word frequency ratings. Repetition but not semantic priming had a greater impact on low compared to high frequency words. These findings are consistent with a memory strength view of frequency judgments that assumes a distributed network with lexical and semantic levels of representation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, David; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Demolles, Deborah; Fielding, Roger A

    2011-11-01

    Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cost prohibitive for some older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention that provides real-time guidance and monitoring of resistance training in the home. A randomized clinical trial in 103 middle-aged or older participants. Participants were assigned to use of a theory-driven interactive voice response system designed to promote resistance training (Telephone-Linked Computer-based Long-term Interactive Fitness Trainer; n = 52) or to an attention control (n = 51) for a period of 12 months. Measurements of muscle strength, balance, walk distance, and mood were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. We observed increased strength, improved balance, and fewer depressive symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. Using generalized estimating equations modeling, group differences were statistically significant for knee flexion strength (p = .035), single-leg stance time (p = .029), and Beck Depression Inventory (p = .030). This computer-based telecommunications exercise intervention led to improvements in participants' strength, balance, and depressive symptoms. Because of their low cost and easy accessibility, computer-based interventions may be a cost-effective way of promoting exercise in the home.

  6. Does on-water resisted rowing increase or maintain lower-body strength?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 30 years, endurance volumes have increased by >20% among the rowing elite; therefore, informed decisions about the value of weight training over other possible activities in periodized training plans for rowing need to be made. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in lower-body strength development after two 14-week phases of intensive resisted on-water rowing, either incorporating weight training or rowing alone. Ten elite women performed 2 resisted rowing ("towing ropes," e.g., 8 × 3 minutes) plus 6 endurance (e.g., 16-28 km at 70-80% maximum heart rate) and 2 rate-regulated races (e.g., 8,000 m at 24 strokes per minute) on-water each week. After a 4-week washout phase, the 14-week phase was repeated with the addition of 2 weight-training sessions (e.g., 3-4 sets × 6-15 reps). Percent (±SD) and standardized differences in effects (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence limit) for 5-repetition leg pressing and isometric pulling strength were calculated from data ratio scaled for body mass, log transformed and adjusted for pretest scores. Resisted rowing alone did not increase leg pressing (-1.0 ± 5.3%, p = 0.51) or isometric pulling (5.3 ± 13.4%, p = 0.28) strength. In contrast, after weight training, a moderately greater increase in leg pressing strength was observed (ES = 0.72 ± 0.49, p = 0.03), although differences in isometric pulling strength were unclear (ES = 0.56 ± 1.69, p = 0.52). In conclusion, intensive on-water training including resisted rowing maintained but did not increase lower-body strength. Elite rowers or coaches might consider the incorporation of high-intensity nonfatiguing weight training concurrent to endurance exercise if increases in lower-body strength without changes in body mass are desired.

  7. Adaptive significance of small body size: strength and motor performance of school children in Mexico and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Little, B B; Shoup, R F; Buschang, P H

    1987-08-01

    The postulated superior functional efficiency in association with reduced body size under conditions of chronic protein-energy undernutrition was considered in school children from rural Mexico and coastal Papua New Guinea. Grip strength and three measures of motor performance were measured in cross-sectional samples of children 6-16 years of age from a rural agricultural community in Oaxaca, Mexico, and from the coastal community Pere on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. The strength and performance of a mixed-longitudinal sample of well nourished children from Philadelphia was used as a reference. The Oaxaca and Pere children are significantly shorter and lighter and are not as strong as the well nourished children. Motor performances of Pere children compare favorably to those of the better-nourished Philadelphia children, whereas those of the Oaxaca children are poorer. Throwing performance is more variable. When expressed relative to body size, strength is similar in the three samples, but the running and jumping performances of Pere children per unit body size are better than the relative performances of Oaxaca and Philadelphia children. Throwing performance per unit body size is better in the undernourished children. The influence of age, stature, and weight on the performance of Oaxaca and Pere children is generally similar to that for well nourished children. These results suggest that the hypothesized adaptive significance of small body size for the functional efficiency of populations living under conditions of chronic undernutrition varies between populations and with performance tasks.

  8. Tensile strength decreases and perfusion pressure of 3-holed polyamide epidural catheters increases in long-term epidural infusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pascal; Meyer, Urs; Schüpfer, Guido; Rukwied, Roman; Konrad, Christoph; Gerber, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an established method for pain management. The failure rate is 8% to 12% due to technical difficulties (catheter dislocation and/or disconnection; partial or total catheter occlusion) and management. The mechanical properties of the catheters, like tensile strength and flow rate, may also be affected by the analgesic solution and/or the tissue environment. We investigated the tensile strength and perfusion pressure of new (n=20), perioperatively (n=30), and postoperatively (n=73) used epidural catheters (20-gauge, polyamide, closed tip, 3 side holes; Perifix [B. Braun]). To prevent dislocation, epidural catheters were taped (n=5) or fixed by suture (n=68) to the skin. After removal, mechanical properties were assessed by a tensile-testing machine (INSTRON 4500), and perfusion pressure was measured at flow rates of 10, 20, and 40 mL/h. All catheters demonstrated a 2-step force transmission. Initially, a minimal increase of length could be observed at 15 N followed by an elongation of several cm at additional forces (7 N). Breakage occurred in the control group at 23.5±1.5 N compared with 22.4±1.6 N in perioperative and 22.4±1.7 N in postoperative catheters (P<0.05). Duration of catheter use had no effect on tensile strength, whereas perfusion pressure at clinically used flow rates (10 mL/h) increased significantly from 19±1.3 to 44±72 mm Hg during long-term (≥7 days) epidural analgesia (P<0.05, analysis of variance). Fixation by suture had no influence on tensile strength or perfusion pressure. Epidural catheter use significantly increases the perfusion pressure and decreases the tensile strength. Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

  9. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-05-13

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode.

  10. Inhibition of Activin Receptor Type IIB Increases Strength and Lifespan in Myotubularin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Michael W.; Read, Benjamin P.; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R.; Stein, Matthew J.; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Seehra, Jasbir S.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  11. Resolution Improvements in in Vivo1H NMR Spectra with Increased Magnetic Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetter, Rolf; Weisdorf, Sally A.; Rajanayagan, Vasantham; Terpstra, Melissa; Merkle, Hellmut; Truwit, Charles L.; Garwood, Michael; Nyberg, Scott L.; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    1998-11-01

    The measurement of cerebral metabolites using highly homologous localization techniques and similar shimming methods was performed in the human brain at 1.5 and 4 T as well as in the dog and rat brain at 9.4 T. In rat brain, improved resolution was achieved by shimming all first- and second-order shim coils using a fully adiabatic FASTMAP sequence. The spectra showed a clear improvement in spectral resolution for all metabolite resonances with increased field strength. Changes in cerebral glutamine content were clearly observed at 4 T compared to 1.5 T in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. At 9.4 T, glutamine H4 at 2.46 ppm was fully resolved from glutamate H4 at 2.37 ppm, as was the potential resonance from γ-amino-butyric acid at 2.30 ppm and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate at 2.05 ppm. Singlet linewidths were found to be as low as 6 Hz (0.015 ppm) at 9.4 T, indicating a substantial decrease in ppm linewidth with field strength. Furthermore, the methylene peak of creatine was partially resolved from phosphocreatine, indicating a close to 1:1 relationship in gray matter. We conclude that increasing the magnetic field strength increases spectral resolution also for1H NMR, which can lead to more than linear sensitivity gains.

  12. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, P C; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), using a single-blind two-period placebo-controlled cross-over design. Eleven patients received active 15 Hz rTMS over the contralateral motor cortex (hand area), in two periods of 5 days, for 30 min once a day at 80% of resting motor threshold, with a train length of 2 s and an intertrain interval of 4 s. Eight of these eleven patients were also included in the placebo treatment condition. Primary outcome measure was change in muscle strength as measured by dynamometry after treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the subjective change in muscle strength after treatment. In patients who received both treatments, active rTMS induced a significantly larger median increase in objectively measured muscle strength (24%) compared to placebo rTMS (6%; P < 0.04). Subjective ratings showed no difference due to treatment, i.e. patients did not perceive these objectively measured motor improvements (P = 0.40). Our findings suggest that rTMS by itself can potentially improve muscle weakness in functional neurological paresis disorder. Whereas patients' muscle strength increased as measured with dynamometry, patients did not report increased functioning of the affected hand, subjectively. The results may indicate that decreased muscle strength is not the core symptom and that rTMS should be added to behavioral approaches in functional neurological paresis. © 2015 EAN.

  13. Is a school-based physical activity intervention effective for increasing tibial bone strength in boys and girls?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity

  14. Undulatory physical resistance training program increases maximal strength in elderly type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gilberto Monteiro dos; Montrezol, Fábio Tanil; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Colantonio, Emilson; Gomes, Ricardo José; Marinho, Rodolfo; Moura, Leandro Pereira de; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a specific protocol of undulatory physical resistance training on maximal strength gains in elderly type 2 diabetics. The study included 48 subjects, aged between 60 and 85 years, of both genders. They were divided into two groups: Untrained Diabetic Elderly (n=19) with those who were not subjected to physical training and Trained Diabetic Elderly (n=29), with those who were subjected to undulatory physical resistance training. The participants were evaluated with several types of resistance training's equipment before and after training protocol, by test of one maximal repetition. The subjects were trained on undulatory resistance three times per week for a period of 16 weeks. The overload used in undulatory resistance training was equivalent to 50% of one maximal repetition and 70% of one maximal repetition, alternating weekly. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between pre-test and post-test over a period of 16 weeks. The average gains in strength were 43.20% (knee extension), 65.00% (knee flexion), 27.80% (supine sitting machine), 31.00% (rowing sitting), 43.90% (biceps pulley), and 21.10% (triceps pulley). Undulatory resistance training used with weekly different overloads was effective to provide significant gains in maximum strength in elderly type 2 diabetic individuals.

  15. Undulatory physical resistance training program increases maximal strength in elderly type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Gilberto Monteiro; Montrezol, Fábio Tanil; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Colantonio, Emilson; Gomes, Ricardo José; Marinho, Rodolfo; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of a specific protocol of undulatory physical resistance training on maximal strength gains in elderly type 2 diabetics. Methods The study included 48 subjects, aged between 60 and 85 years, of both genders. They were divided into two groups: Untrained Diabetic Elderly (n=19) with those who were not subjected to physical training and Trained Diabetic Elderly (n=29), with those who were subjected to undulatory physical resistance training. The participants were evaluated with several types of resistance training’s equipment before and after training protocol, by test of one maximal repetition. The subjects were trained on undulatory resistance three times per week for a period of 16 weeks. The overload used in undulatory resistance training was equivalent to 50% of one maximal repetition and 70% of one maximal repetition, alternating weekly. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between pre-test and post-test over a period of 16 weeks. Results The average gains in strength were 43.20% (knee extension), 65.00% (knee flexion), 27.80% (supine sitting machine), 31.00% (rowing sitting), 43.90% (biceps pulley), and 21.10% (triceps pulley). Conclusion Undulatory resistance training used with weekly different overloads was effective to provide significant gains in maximum strength in elderly type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:25628192

  16. Chronic effect of light resistance exercise after ingestion of a high-protein snack on increase of skeletal muscle mass and strength in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Sawada, Atsushi; Numao, Shigeharu; Suzuki, Masashige

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported on the possibility that light resistance exercise performed with a high plasma amino acid concentration resulting from the ingestion of a high-protein snack (HPS; 15 g protein, 18 g sugar) 3 h after a basal meal promotes the utilization of amino acids in peripheral tissues such as muscle in both rats and humans. In the present study, we further examined the effectiveness of a daily routine involving ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise (dumbbell exercise) in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle. Ten young adult males were subject to the following 3 conditions for 5 wk each, with sufficient recovery period between each condition: (1) Snack-Exercise (SE), (2) Snack-Sedentary (SS), and (3) No snack-Exercise (NE). The SE group showed a significant increase in lean body mass and total cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right forearm muscles along with a significant decrease in body fat mass. The SS group showed no change in body composition. Furthermore, the SE group showed significant increase in grip strength and isometric knee extensor muscle strength, while the SS group showed no increase in muscle strength. The NE group showed significant increase in grip strength. In conclusion, daily routine ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise is effective in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle.

  17. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo. We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy. PMID:27956698

  18. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  19. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  20. Early age strength increase of fly ash blended cement by a ternary hardening accelerating admixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Kien; Justnes, Harald; SINTEF Building and Infrastructure

    The applicability of a combination of sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN), diethanolamine (DEA) and glycerol (Gly) with small dosages as a ternary hardening accelerating admixture for fly ash blended cement (OPC-FA) was studied. The ternary admixture induced higher early and later age mortar strength at both low (5 °C) and normal (20 °C) temperature. Despite used in lower dosage the ternary admixture led to higher strength of the investigated OPC-FA system than other chemicals (e.g. sodium sulfate). Results obtained from isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the ternary admixture accelerated the cement hydration and increased the amountmore » of AFm (notably calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) in the hydration products. A synergistic effect between the three components of the accelerator on the hydration of OPC-FA system was observed.« less

  1. Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Laurent B; Reyes, Alvaro; Tran, Tai T; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Haff, G Gregory

    2014-12-01

    Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear. This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement. A computerized search was conducted in ADONIS, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. The analysis comprised 510 subjects and 85 effect sizes (ESs), nested with 26 experimental and 11 control groups and 15 studies. There is a transfer between increases in lower-body strength and sprint performance as indicated by a very large significant correlation (r = -0.77; p = 0.0001) between squat strength ES and sprint ES. Additionally, the magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by the level of practice (p = 0.03) and body mass (r = 0.35; p = 0.011) of the subject, the frequency of resistance-training sessions per week (r = 0.50; p = 0.001) and the rest interval between sets of resistance-training exercises (r = -0.47; p ≤ 0.001). Conversely, the magnitude of sprint improvement is not affected by the athlete's age (p = 0.86) and height (p = 0.08), the resistance-training methods used through the training intervention, (p = 0.06), average load intensity [% of 1 repetition maximum (RM)] used during the resistance-training sessions (p = 0.34), training program duration (p = 0.16), number of exercises per session (p = 0.16), number of sets per exercise (p = 0.06) and number of repetitions per set (p = 0.48). Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance. The magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by numerous subject characteristics and resistance

  2. Anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and strength and improves insulin sensitivity in old mice.

    PubMed

    Camporez, João-Paulo G; Petersen, Max C; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Moreira, Gabriela V; Jurczak, Michael J; Friedman, Glenn; Haqq, Christopher M; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2016-02-23

    Sarcopenia, or skeletal muscle atrophy, is a debilitating comorbidity of many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including normal aging. There are no approved therapies for sarcopenia, but the antihypertrophic myokine myostatin is a potential therapeutic target. Here, we show that treatment of young and old mice with an anti-myostatin antibody (ATA 842) for 4 wk increased muscle mass and muscle strength in both groups. Furthermore, ATA 842 treatment also increased insulin-stimulated whole body glucose metabolism in old mice, which could be attributed to increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake as measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Taken together, these studies provide support for pharmacological inhibition of myostatin as a potential therapeutic approach for age-related sarcopenia and metabolic disease.

  3. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode. PMID:25969895

  4. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M; Burks, Tyesha N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D; Leng, Sean X

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p=.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p=.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans.

  5. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M.; Burks, Tyesha N.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D.; Leng, Sean X.

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p<.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p<.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans. PMID:26997106

  6. Bisphosphonates significantly increase the activity of doxorubicin or vincristine against canine malignant histiocytosis cells.

    PubMed

    Hafeman, S D; Varland, D; Dow, S W

    2012-03-01

    Canine malignant histiocytosis (MH) is an aggressive neoplasm of macrophages and dendritic cells. It carries a poor prognosis because of the development of widespread metastasis and poor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, there is a large need for new treatments for MH. We hypothesized that bisphosphonates might be useful to increase the effectiveness of cytotoxic chemotherapy against MH. To address this question, we conducted in vitro screening studies using MH cell lines and a panel of 6 chemotherapy and 5 bisphosphonate drugs. The combination of clodronate with vincristine was found to elicit synergistic killing which was associated with a significant increase in cell cycle arrest. Second, zoledronate combined with doxorubicin also significantly increased cell killing. Zoledronate significantly increased the uptake of doxorubicin by MH cells. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that certain bisphosphonate drugs may increase the overall effectiveness of chemotherapy for MH in dogs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Bisphosphonates Significantly Increase the Activity of Doxorubicin or Vincristine Against Canine Malignant Histiocytosis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hafeman, S.D.; Varland, D.; Dow, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Canine malignant histiocytosis (MH) is an aggressive neoplasm of macrophages and dendritic cells. It carries a poor prognosis due to the development of widespread metastasis and poor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, there is a large need for new treatments for MH. We hypothesized that bisphosphonates might be useful to increase the effectiveness of cytotoxic chemotherapy against MH. To address this question, we conducted in vitro screening studies using MH cell lines and a panel of 6 chemotherapy and 5 bisphosphonate drugs. The combination of clodronate with vincristine was found to elicit synergistic killing which was associated with a significant increase in cell cycle arrest. Second, zoledronate combined with doxorubicin also significantly increased cell killing. Zoledronate significantly increased the uptake of doxorubicin by MH cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that certain bisphosphonate drugs may increase the overall effectiveness of chemotherapy for MH in dogs. PMID:22236140

  8. Tort reform is associated with significant increases in Texas physicians relative to the Texas population.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ronald M; West, Molly; Schirmer, Richard; Sirinek, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    Texas implemented comprehensive tort reform in 2003. We hypothesized that tort reform was followed by a significant increase of physicians practicing in Texas. To test this hypothesis, we compared the rate of physician growth prior to and following tort reform, and the number of licensed physicians and physicians per 100,000. Comparing before and after tort reform, the rate of increase in Texas physicians per 100,000 population increased significantly (p < 0.01). From 2002 to 2012, the Texas population increased 21 %. The number of actively practicing Texas physicians increased by 15,611 a 44 % increase (46 % metro areas vs. 9 % non-metro areas), an increase of 30 physicians per 100,000 population (p < 0.01). Non-metropolitan Texas had a net increase of 215 physicians; however, there was no change in the number of physicians per 100,000. Examining the data by trauma service areas (TSAs), 20 of 22 TSAs had an increase in both number of physicians and physicians per capita, five greater than 50 %. The post-tort reform period in Texas was associated with a significantly increased growth rate of physicians relative to the Texas population. Tort reform, as implemented in Texas, provides a needed framework for improving access to health care.

  9. Feedback increases benefits but not costs of retrieval practice: Retrieval-induced forgetting is strength independent.

    PubMed

    Tempel, Tobias; Frings, Christian

    2018-04-01

    We examined how the provision of feedback affected two separate effects of retrieval practice: strengthening of practiced information and forgetting of related, unpracticed information. Feedback substantially increased recall of retrieval-practiced items. This unsurprising result shows once again that restudy opportunities boost the benefits of testing. In contrast, retrieval-induced forgetting was unaffected by the manipulation and occurred in equal size with or without feedback. These findings demonstrate strength independence of retrieval-induced forgetting and thus support a theoretical account assuming that an inhibitory mechanism causes retrieval-induced forgetting. According to this theory, inhibition resolves competition that arises during retrieval attempts but is unrelated to the consequences of retrieval practice concerning practiced items. The present results match these assumptions and contradict the theoretical alternative that blocking by strengthened information might explain retrieval-induced forgetting. We discuss our findings against the background of previous studies.

  10. A soluble bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor increases bone mass and bone strength

    PubMed Central

    Baud’huin, Marc; Solban, Nicolas; Cornwall-Brady, Milton; Sako, Dianne; Kawamoto, Yoshimi; Liharska, Katia; Lath, Darren; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Underwood, Kathryn W.; Ucran, Jeffrey; Kumar, Ravindra; Pobre, Eileen; Grinberg, Asya; Seehra, Jasbir; Canalis, Ernesto; Pearsall, R. Scott; Croucher, Peter I.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases such as osteoporosis are associated with reduced bone mass. Therapies to prevent bone loss exist, but there are few that stimulate bone formation and restore bone mass. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGFβ superfamily, which act as pleiotropic regulators of skeletal organogenesis and bone homeostasis. Ablation of the BMPR1A receptor in osteoblasts increases bone mass, suggesting that inhibition of BMPR1A signaling may have therapeutic benefit. The aim of this study was to determine the skeletal effects of systemic administration of a soluble BMPR1A fusion protein (mBMPR1A–mFc) in vivo. mBMPR1A–mFc was shown to bind BMP2/4 specifically and with high affinity and prevent downstream signaling. mBMPR1A–mFc treatment of immature and mature mice increased bone mineral density, cortical thickness, trabecular bone volume, thickness and number, and decreased trabecular separation. The increase in bone mass was due to an early increase in osteoblast number and bone formation rate, mediated by a suppression of Dickkopf-1 expression. This was followed by a decrease in osteoclast number and eroded surface, which was associated with a decrease in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) production, an increase in osteoprotegerin expression, and a decrease in serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b) concentration. mBMPR1A treatment also increased bone mass and strength in mice with bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. In conclusion, mBMPR1A–mFc stimulates osteoblastic bone formation and decreases bone resorption, which leads to an increase in bone mass, and offers a promising unique alternative for the treatment of bone-related disorders. PMID:22761317

  11. Increased consumer density reduces the strength of neighborhood effects in a model system.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Andrew C; Underwood, Nora; Inouye, Brian D

    2017-11-01

    An individual's susceptibility to attack can be influenced by conspecific and heterospecifics neighbors. Predicting how these neighborhood effects contribute to population-level processes such as competition and evolution requires an understanding of how the strength of neighborhood effects is modified by changes in the abundances of both consumers and neighboring resource species. We show for the first time that consumer density can interact with the density and frequency of neighboring organisms to determine the magnitude of neighborhood effects. We used the bean beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, and two of its host beans, Vigna unguiculata and V. radiata, to perform a response-surface experiment with a range of resource densities and three consumer densities. At low beetle density, damage to beans was reduced with increasing conspecific density (i.e., resource dilution) and damage to the less preferred host, V. unguiculata, was reduced with increasing V. radiata frequency (i.e., frequency-dependent associational resistance). As beetle density increased, however, neighborhood effects were reduced; at the highest beetle densities neither focal nor neighboring resource density nor frequency influenced damage. These findings illustrate the importance of consumer density in mediating indirect effects among resources, and suggest that accounting for consumer density may improve our ability to predict population-level outcomes of neighborhood effects and our use of them in applications such as mixed-crop pest management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Targeting of Repeated Sequences Unique to a Gene Results in Significant Increases in Antisense Oligonucleotide Potency

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Timothy A.; Freier, Susan M.; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Watt, Andrew; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy for identifying potent RNase H-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) is presented. Our analysis of the human transcriptome revealed that a significant proportion of genes contain unique repeated sequences of 16 or more nucleotides in length. Activities of ASOs targeting these repeated sites in several representative genes were compared to those of ASOs targeting unique single sites in the same transcript. Antisense activity at repeated sites was also evaluated in a highly controlled minigene system. Targeting both native and minigene repeat sites resulted in significant increases in potency as compared to targeting of non-repeated sites. The increased potency at these sites is a result of increased frequency of ASO/RNA interactions which, in turn, increases the probability of a productive interaction between the ASO/RNA heteroduplex and human RNase H1 in the cell. These results suggest a new, highly efficient strategy for rapid identification of highly potent ASOs. PMID:25334092

  13. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%,more » respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.« less

  15. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Association of Increased Serum Ferritin With Impaired Muscle Strength/Quality in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Chie; Inaba, Masaaki; Ishimura, Eiji; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Shigeichi; Okuno, Senji

    2016-07-01

    We reported previously that muscle quality and muscle strength provide clinically relevant predictors for better survival in hemodialysis patients. Iron overload might impair muscle function by its accumulation in muscle in such patients. Serum ferritin, a marker for body iron store, was examined for its association with handgrip strength (HGS) and muscle quality which was defined as the ratio of HGS to arm lean mass measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 300 Japanese hemodialysis patients, age, hemodialysis duration, body mass index, and serum albumin were 58.0 ±12.0 (mean ± standard deviation) years, 4.2 (1.8-10.4) (median [25th-75th percentile]) years, 20.4 ± 2.8 kg/m(2), 4.0 ± 0.3 g/dL, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were 8.9 ± 1.2 g/dL, and 28.8 ± 3.9%, respectively, whereas transferrin saturation and serum ferritin were 29.8 ± 11.0% and 100 (54-172) ng/mL, respectively. Serum ferritin significantly correlated in a positive manner with the total dose of iron orally administered during the previous 6 months (r = 0.185, P = .0013). HGS and muscle quality were 23.1 ± 10.4 kg and 11.6 ± 3.8 kg/kg, respectively. In multivariate analysis to elucidate the factors associated with HGS and muscle quality in 300 hemodialysis patients, which included transferrin saturation and log serum ferritin, in addition to age, gender, hemodialysis duration, the presence/absence of diabetes, body mass index as independent variables, log serum ferritin emerged as a significant and independent factor which associated in a negative fashion with HGS (β = -0.091, P = .0395) and tendency toward negative association with muscle quality (β = -0.100, P = .0754). In summary, the present study demonstrated the significant association of serum ferritin with HGS and muscle quality in hemodialysis patients and thus suggested that we should be careful of iron overload to avoid its possible harmful effect on muscle in such patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney

  17. Dramatic Enhancement of Graphene Oxide/Silk Nanocomposite Membranes: Increasing Toughness, Strength, and Young's modulus via Annealing of Interfacial Structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxian; Ma, Ruilong; Hu, Kesong; Kim, Sunghan; Fang, Guangqiang; Shao, Zhengzhong; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate that stronger and more robust nacre-like laminated GO (graphene oxide)/SF (silk fibroin) nanocomposite membranes can be obtained by selectively tailoring the interfacial interactions between "bricks"-GO sheets and "mortar"-silk interlayers via controlled water vapor annealing. This facial annealing process relaxes the secondary structure of silk backbones confined between flexible GO sheets. The increased mobility leads to a significant increase in ultimate strength (by up to 41%), Young's modulus (up to 75%) and toughness (up to 45%). We suggest that local silk recrystallization is initiated in the proximity to GO surface by the hydrophobic surface regions serving as nucleation sites for β-sheet domains formation and followed by SF assembly into nanofibrils. Strong hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions between GO layers with SF nanofibrils result in enhanced shear strength of layered packing. This work presented here not only gives a better understanding of SF and GO interfacial interactions, but also provides insight on how to enhance the mechanical properties for the nacre-mimic nanocomposites by focusing on adjusting the delicate interactions between heterogeneous "brick" and adaptive "mortar" components with water/temperature annealing routines.

  18. Nanospray FAIMS Fractionation Provides Significant Increases in Proteome Coverage of Unfractionated Complex Protein Digests*

    PubMed Central

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Johnson, Richard S.; Saleem, Ramsey A.; Aitchison, John D.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that can be used to reduce sample complexity and increase dynamic range in tandem mass spectrometry experiments. FAIMS fractionates ions in the gas-phase according to characteristic differences in mobilities in electric fields of different strengths. Undesired ion species such as solvated clusters and singly charged chemical background ions can be prevented from reaching the mass analyzer, thus decreasing chemical noise. To date, there has been limited success using the commercially available Thermo Fisher FAIMS device with both standard ESI and nanoLC-MS. We have modified a Thermo Fisher electrospray source to accommodate a fused silica pulled tip capillary column for nanospray ionization, which will enable standard laboratories access to FAIMS technology. Our modified source allows easily obtainable stable spray at flow rates of 300 nL/min when coupled with FAIMS. The modified electrospray source allows the use of sheath gas, which provides a fivefold increase in signal obtained when nanoLC is coupled to FAIMS. In this work, nanoLC-FAIMS-MS and nanoLC-MS were compared by analyzing a tryptic digest of a 1:1 mixture of SILAC-labeled haploid and diploid yeast to demonstrate the performance of nanoLC-FAIMS-MS, at different compensation voltages, for post-column fractionation of complex protein digests. The effective dynamic range more than doubled when FAIMS was used. In total, 10,377 unique stripped peptides and 1649 unique proteins with SILAC ratios were identified from the combined nanoLC-FAIMS-MS experiments, compared with 6908 unique stripped peptides and 1003 unique proteins with SILAC ratios identified from the combined nanoLC-MS experiments. This work demonstrates how a commercially available FAIMS device can be combined with nanoLC to improve proteome coverage in shotgun and targeted type proteomics experiments. PMID:22186714

  19. Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Browder, Diane M.; Baker, Joshua N.; Lee, Angel; Spooner, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Shared stories have been shown to help increase emerging literacy skills in students with significant intellectual disabilities. One important literacy skill is the development of listening comprehension. In this study, least-to-most prompt system was used to promote listening comprehension during shared stories for two students with significant…

  20. Increasing Bone Mass and Bone Strength in Individuals with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Maximizing Response to Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0763 TITLE: Increasing Bone Mass and Bone Strength in Individuals with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Maximizing Response...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30 Sep 2016-29 Sep 2017 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Increasing Bone Mass and Bone Strength in Individuals with...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Rapid bone loss is a universal

  1. Therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate significantly increase extracellular dopamine in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G; Fowler, J S; Logan, J; Gerasimov, M; Maynard, L; Ding, Y; Gatley, S J; Gifford, A; Franceschi, D

    2001-01-15

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in children for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic effects are poorly understood. Whereas methylphenidate blocks the dopamine transporter (main mechanism for removal of extracellular dopamine), it is unclear whether at doses used therapeutically it significantly changes extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration. Here we used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (D2 receptor radioligand that competes with endogenous DA for binding to the receptor) to evaluate whether oral methylphenidate changes extracellular DA in the human brain in 11 healthy controls. We showed that oral methylphenidate (average dose 0.8 +/- 0.11 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular DA in brain, as evidenced by a significant reduction in B(max)/K(d) (measure of D2 receptor availability) in striatum (20 +/- 12%; p < 0.0005). These results provide direct evidence that oral methylphenidate at doses within the therapeutic range significantly increases extracellular DA in human brain. This result coupled with recent findings of increased dopamine transporters in ADHD patients (which is expected to result in reductions in extracellular DA) provides a mechanistic framework for the therapeutic efficacy of methylphenidate. The increase in DA caused by the blockade of dopamine transporters by methylphenidate predominantly reflects an amplification of spontaneously released DA, which in turn is responsive to environmental stimulation. Because DA decreases background firing rates and increases signal-to-noise in target neurons, we postulate that the amplification of weak DA signals in subjects with ADHD by methylphenidate would enhance task-specific signaling, improving attention and decreasing distractibility. Alternatively methylphenidate-induced increases in DA, a neurotransmitter involved with motivation and reward, could

  2. Creatine monohydrate supplementation during eight weeks of progressive resistance training increases strength in as little as two weeks without reducing markers of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Mojtaba; Abassi, Aboozar; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2018-05-02

    Creatine supplementation (Cr) increases strength during resistance training, but the time course of this strength increase is unclear. The aim was to determine the precise time course by which Cr could increase strength and whether Cr prevents muscle damage during eight weeks of resistance training. Young males were randomized (double blind) to Cr (n=9, 0.07g/kg/d) and placebo (n=9) during 8-weeks of resistance training (3d/week). Strength was assessed across six exercises every two weeks. Venous blood samples obtained at baseline, and 24 and 48 hours after the final resistance training session were assessed for creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] as measures of muscle damage. Strength was significantly higher in the Cr versus placebo group (p<0.05) after two weeks of training for three of the six exercises (bench press, leg press, shoulder press). By the end of the eight weeks of training, strength was significantly higher in the Cr versus placebo group (p<0.05) for four of the six exercises (bench press, leg press, shoulder press, and triceps extension, but not biceps curl or lat-pulldown). Creatine supplementation did not prevent muscle damage. Indeed, muscle damage markers increased in the Cr compared to placebo group (p<0.05). Cr increased muscular strength in as little as two weeks during a resistance training program; however, this was not accompanied by decreased muscle damage. Greater muscle damage with Cr may be due to a greater training intensity enabled by Cr supplementation. This might lead to greater protein turnover and enhanced muscle adaptation.

  3. Tassel Removal Positively Affects Biomass Production Coupled with Significantly Increasing Stem Digestibility in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  4. Enhanced astroglial Ca2+ signaling increases excitatory synaptic strength in the epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ferradas, Carla; Morales, Juan Carlos; Wellmann, Mario; Nualart, Francisco; Roncagliolo, Manuel; Fuenzalida, Marco; Bonansco, Christian

    2015-09-01

    The fine-tuning of synaptic transmission by astrocyte signaling is crucial to CNS physiology. However, how exactly astroglial excitability and gliotransmission are affected in several neuropathologies, including epilepsy, remains unclear. Here, using a chronic model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rats, we found that astrocytes from astrogliotic hippocampal slices displayed an augmented incidence of TTX-insensitive spontaneous slow Ca(2+) transients (STs), suggesting a hyperexcitable pattern of astroglial activity. As a consequence, elevated glutamate-mediated gliotransmission, observed as increased slow inward current (SICs) frequency, up-regulates the probability of neurotransmitter release in CA3-CA1 synapses. Selective blockade of spontaneous astroglial Ca(2+) elevations as well as the inhibition of purinergic P2Y1 or mGluR5 receptors relieves the abnormal enhancement of synaptic strength. Moreover, mGluR5 blockade eliminates any synaptic effects induced by P2Y1R inhibition alone, suggesting that the Pr modulation via mGluR occurs downstream of P2Y1R-mediated Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from astrocyte. Our findings show that elevated Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate gliotransmission from hyperexcitable astrocytes up-regulates excitatory neurotransmission in epileptic hippocampus, suggesting that gliotransmission should be considered as a novel functional key in a broad spectrum of neuropathological conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Identification of significant E0 strength in the 22+ → 21+ transitions of 58,60,62Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Smallcombe, J.; Reed, M. W.; Brown, B. A.; Stuchbery, A. E.; Lane, G. J.; Eriksen, T. K.; Akber, A.; Alshahrani, B.; de Vries, M.; Gerathy, M. S. M.; Holt, J. D.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Moukaddam, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Palalani, N.; Palazzo, T.; Peters, E. E.; Ramirez, A. P. D.; Stroberg, S. R.; Tornyi, T.; Yates, S. W.

    2018-04-01

    The E0 transition strength in the 22+ →21 + transitions of 58,60,62Ni have been determined for the first time following a series of measurements at the Australian National University (ANU) and the University of Kentucky (UK). The CAESAR Compton-suppressed HPGe array and the Super-e solenoid at ANU were used to measure the δ (E 2 / M 1) mixing ratio and internal conversion coefficient of each transition following inelastic proton scattering. Level half-lives, δ (E 2 / M 1) mixing ratios and γ-ray branching ratios were measured at UK following inelastic neutron scattering. The new spectroscopic information was used to determine the E0 strengths. These are the first 2+ →2+E0 transition strengths measured in nuclei with spherical ground states and the E0 component is found to be unexpectedly large; in fact, these are amongst the largest E0 transition strengths in medium and heavy nuclei reported to date.

  6. [Serum non-esterified fatty acids to albumin ratio increased significantly in children with nephrotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-Li; Wu, Jia; Bu, Xiao-Min; Wan, Shu-Jun; Guo, Peng-Tao; Ma, Yan-Juan; Wang, Jun-Jun

    2016-10-20

    To analyze serum levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and albumin (ALB) in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and investigate the clinical significance of altered serum NEFA to ALB ratio in children with NS in acute and remission phases. Serum levels of NEFA and ALB were measured in 55 NS children in acute phase, in 33 NS children in remission and in 122 healthy control children, and the ratio of NEFA to ALB was calculated. The other lipid/lipoprotein and renal function parameters were also analyzed in these children. Compared with the healthy control children, children with NS had a significantly decreased serum ALB level (t=11.152, P<0.001) and a significantly increased NEFA to ALB ratio (t=4.991, P<0.001). Compared with NS children in remission, those in acute phase showed a significantly decreased ALB (Z=7.822, P<0.001) and an increased NEFA to ALB ratio (t=4.991, P<0.001). In all the NS children, NEFA to ALB ratio was positively correlated with the levels of TC (r=0.564, P<0.001), TG (r=0.444, P<0.001), LDL-C (r=0.625, P<0.001), urea (r=0.437, P<0.001), creatinine (r=0.278, P=0.013), and uric acid (r=0.397, P<0.001), while negatively correlated with the level of total protein (r=-0.461, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that NEFA to ALB ratio was independently associated with serum urea levels (β=0.703, P=0.001; adjusted R 2 =0.494) after adjustment of other related factors. Serum NEFA to ALB ratio is significantly increased in NS children in close association with impaired kidney function, and may function as a novel parameter for assessing the development of NS.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis significantly increased recurrence risk after ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Ru; Hsieh, Fang-I; Lien, Li-Ming; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Tang, Sung-Chun; Chi, Nai-Fang; Sung, Yueh-Feng; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2018-06-02

    The effect of RA on recurrent stroke is unknown. Therefore, we examined effects of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on risk of stroke recurrence and investigated the interaction between RA and traditional cardiovascular risk factors on recurrence risk after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Of 3190 patients with IS or TIA recruited in this cohort study, 638 were comorbid with RA and 2552 without RA. Stroke recurrence, RA, lifestyle, lipid variables and other comorbidities were identified through linkage between a nationwide stroke database in Taiwan and the National Health Insurance claims database. Cox proportional hazard models with competing risk adjustment were used to evaluate the relationship between RA and recurrent stroke. Patients with RA showed a significantly increased risk of recurrent stroke, particular in recurrent IS/TIA. The increased risk of recurrent IS/TIA in RA patients may through the changes of triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio. A positive additive interaction was observed between RA and current smoking on the risk of recurrent IS/TIA. Significantly increased risks for recurrent IS/TIA were observed among RA patients who smoked > 40 years or those who smoked > 20 cigarettes/day. This study provides the first evidence that RA significantly increased recurrence IS/TIA risk. The changes of TG/HDL-C ratio may play some roles in the recurrence IS/TIA risk in RA patients. In addition, our results suggest that smoking increases the risk of recurrent IS/TIA in RA patients and reinforces the need for aggressive smoking cessation efforts in RA patients.

  8. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  9. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  10. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  11. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  12. Significant increase in salivary substance p level after a single oral dose of cevimeline in humans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Itoh, Hiroki; Amada, Kohei; Yamamura, Ryota; Sato, Yuhki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Cevimeline is a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist currently being developed as a therapeutic agent for xerostomia. We examined the effects of cevimeline on salivary and plasma levels of substance-P- (SP-), calcitonin-gene-related-peptide- (CGRP-), and vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide- (VIP-) like immunoreactive substances (ISs) in humans. An open-labeled crossover study was conducted on seven healthy volunteers. Saliva volume was measured, and saliva and venous blood samples were collected before and 30-240 min after a single oral dose of cevimeline or placebo. Salivary and plasma levels of SP-, CGRP-, and VIP-IS were measured using a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. A single oral dose of cevimeline resulted in significant increases in salivary but not plasma SP-IS level compared to placebo. Cevimeline administration did not alter the salivary or plasma levels of CGRP-IS or VIP-IS compared to placebo. Significant increases in salivary volume were observed after cevimeline administration compared to placebo. A significant correlation was observed between the total release of SP-IS and that of salivary volume. These findings suggest an association of SP with the enhancement of salivary secretion by cevimeline.

  13. Significant Increase in Salivary Substance P Level after a Single Oral Dose of Cevimeline in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Itoh, Hiroki; Amada, Kohei; Yamamura, Ryota; Sato, Yuhki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Cevimeline is a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist currently being developed as a therapeutic agent for xerostomia. We examined the effects of cevimeline on salivary and plasma levels of substance-P- (SP-), calcitonin-gene-related-peptide- (CGRP-), and vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide- (VIP-) like immunoreactive substances (ISs) in humans. An open-labeled crossover study was conducted on seven healthy volunteers. Saliva volume was measured, and saliva and venous blood samples were collected before and 30–240 min after a single oral dose of cevimeline or placebo. Salivary and plasma levels of SP-, CGRP-, and VIP-IS were measured using a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. A single oral dose of cevimeline resulted in significant increases in salivary but not plasma SP-IS level compared to placebo. Cevimeline administration did not alter the salivary or plasma levels of CGRP-IS or VIP-IS compared to placebo. Significant increases in salivary volume were observed after cevimeline administration compared to placebo. A significant correlation was observed between the total release of SP-IS and that of salivary volume. These findings suggest an association of SP with the enhancement of salivary secretion by cevimeline. PMID:23589717

  14. Significantly Increasing the Ductility of High Performance Polymer Semiconductors through Polymer Blending.

    PubMed

    Scott, Joshua I; Xue, Xiao; Wang, Ming; Kline, R Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin C; Dougherty, Daniel; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Bazan, Guillermo; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2016-06-08

    Polymer semiconductors based on donor-acceptor monomers have recently resulted in significant gains in field effect mobility in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). These polymers incorporate fused aromatic rings and have been designed to have stiff planar backbones, resulting in strong intermolecular interactions, which subsequently result in stiff and brittle films. The complex synthesis typically required for these materials may also result in increased production costs. Thus, the development of methods to improve mechanical plasticity while lowering material consumption during fabrication will significantly improve opportunities for adoption in flexible and stretchable electronics. To achieve these goals, we consider blending a brittle donor-acceptor polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), with ductile poly(3-hexylthiophene). We found that the ductility of the blend films is significantly improved compared to that of neat PCDTPT films, and when the blend film is employed in an OTFT, the performance is largely maintained. The ability to maintain charge transport character is due to vertical segregation within the blend, while the improved ductility is due to intermixing of the polymers throughout the film thickness. Importantly, the application of large strains to the ductile films is shown to orient both polymers, which further increases charge carrier mobility. These results highlight a processing approach to achieve high performance polymer OTFTs that are electrically and mechanically optimized.

  15. Progressive resistance training increases strength after stroke but this may not carry over to activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Simone; Ada, Louise; Alloggia, Daniella

    2018-04-01

    Does progressive resistance training improve strength and activity after stroke? Does any increase in strength carry over to activity? Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Adults who have had a stroke. Progressive resistance training compared with no intervention or placebo. The primary outcome was change in strength. This measurement had to be of maximum voluntary force production and performed in muscles congruent with the muscles trained in the intervention. The secondary outcome was change in activity. This measurement had to be a direct measure of performance that produced continuous or ordinal data, or with scales that produced ordinal data. Eleven studies involving 370 participants were included in this systematic review. The overall effect of progressive resistance training on strength was examined by pooling change scores from six studies with a mean PEDro score of 5.8, representing medium quality. The effect size of progressive resistance training on strength was 0.98 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.29, I 2 =0%). The overall effect of progressive resistance training on activity was examined by pooling change scores from the same six studies. The effect size of progressive resistance training on activity was 0.42 (95% CI -0.08 to 0.91, I 2 =54%). After stroke, progressive resistance training has a large effect on strength compared with no intervention or placebo. There is uncertainty about whether these large increases in strength carry over to improvements in activity. PROSPERO CRD42015025401. [Dorsch S, Ada L, Alloggia D (2018) Progressive resistance training increases strength after stroke but this may not carry over to activity: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 84-90]. Copyright © 2018 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  17. Castration and pregnancy of rural pigs significantly increase the prevalence of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Velasco, T; Tovar, V; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Beltrán, C; Villalobos, N; Aluja, A; Rodarte, L F; Sciutto, E; Larralde, C

    2002-08-30

    Cuentepec is a rural village of central Mexico, where 1300 pigs were bred at the time of the study in conditions that favor Taenia solium transmission. The tongues of 1087 (84%) of these pigs were visually examined and 33% were found to be cysticercotic. Castration of male pigs increased prevalence from 23 to 50% (P < 0.001) and pregnancy in sows also increased their prevalence from 28 to 59% (P < 0.001). Thus, endocrinological conditions characterized by low levels of androgens or high levels of female hormones probably influence the susceptibility of pigs to T. solium cysticercosis as observed in mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Delaying castration of male pigs and confinement of sows during pregnancy might significantly decrease the prevalence of pig-cysticercosis and help curb transmission without much cost or difficulty. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Unexpected significant increase in bulk conductivity of a dielectric arising from charge injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Bayer, Thorsten J. M.; Wang, Rui; Carter, Jared J.; Randall, Clive A.; Chen, Long-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Charge injection is a common phenomenon in heterostructures or devices containing metal-insulator interfaces under a voltage bias ranging from dielectric capacitors to electroluminescent and lasing devices. It is generally believed that charge injection only significantly increases the conductivity near the interfacial region or in capacitors with very thin dielectric layers. In this work, the impact of charge injection on bulk conductivity of a 0.5 mm thick Fe-doped SrTiO3 single crystal is investigated with a combination of experimental impedance measurements and computational modelling. It is found that the interfacial charge injection may increase the predicted bulk conductivity of a dielectric by more than one order of magnitude as a consequence of Schottky barrier height lowering.

  19. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume (≥ 10 m s−1) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total flash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values ≤0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total flash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total flash rate. PMID:29158622

  20. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Christopher J; Carey, Lawrence D; Schultz, Elise V; Blakeslee, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume (≥ 10 m s -1 ) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total flash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values ≤0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total flash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total flash rate.

  1. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps Versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume greater than or equal to 10 m(sup -1) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total ash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values 0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total ash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total ash rate.

  2. Iontophoresis significantly increases the trans-dentinal delivery of osteoprotegerin, alendronate, and calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, James A; Schwartz, Scott A; Schindler, William G; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the delivery of alendronate, calcitonin, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) through human dentin by both diffusion and iontophoresis for the potential treatment of invasive cervical resorption. Radiolabeled alendronate, calcitonin, and OPG were added to the top of a split chamber device that contained 1-mm thick dentin disks devoid of a smear layer. Transdentinal movement of medicaments by either random diffusion or application of an iontophoretic current was measured by analysis of gamma emission of effluent fractions. In addition, calcitonin delivery was evaluated at differing magnitudes of current (0-4 mA) by using the aforementioned chamber. Diffusion of all 3 medicaments was minimal. In contrast, the application of a 3-mA iontophoretic gradient significantly increased delivery for all 3 compounds at 10-, 20-, and 30-minute intervals. In addition, a linear increase in permeability was seen for calcitonin as milliamperes were increased from 0 to 4 (r = 0.947), with more than a 100-fold increase in delivery observed with iontophoresis. Delivery of the tested medicaments by using iontophoresis might prove to be a useful technique for treatment of invasive cervical resorption.

  3. High-resolution chromosomal microarrays in prenatal diagnosis significantly increase diagnostic power.

    PubMed

    Oneda, Beatrice; Baldinger, Rosa; Reissmann, Regina; Reshetnikova, Irina; Krejci, Pavel; Masood, Rahim; Ochsenbein-Kölble, Nicole; Bartholdi, Deborah; Steindl, Katharina; Morotti, Denise; Faranda, Marzia; Baumer, Alessandra; Asadollahi, Reza; Joset, Pascal; Niedrist, Dunja; Breymann, Christian; Hebisch, Gundula; Hüsler, Margaret; Mueller, René; Prentl, Elke; Wisser, Josef; Zimmermann, Roland; Rauch, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine for the first time the reliability and the diagnostic power of high-resolution microarray testing in routine prenatal diagnostics. We applied high-resolution chromosomal microarray testing in 464 cytogenetically normal prenatal samples with any indication for invasive testing. High-resolution testing revealed a diagnostic yield of 6.9% and 1.6% in cases of fetal ultrasound anomalies and cases of advanced maternal age (AMA), respectively, which is similar to previous studies using low-resolution microarrays. In three (0.6%) additional cases with an indication of AMA, an aberration in susceptibility risk loci was detected. Moreover, one case (0.2%) showed an X-linked aberration in a female fetus, a finding relevant for future family planning. We found the rate of cases, in which the parents had to be tested for interpretation of unreported copy number variants (3.7%), and the rate of remaining variants of unknown significance (0.4%) acceptably low. Of note, these findings did not cause termination of pregnancy after expert genetic counseling. The 0.4% rate of confined placental mosaicism was similar to that observed by conventional karyotyping and notably involved a case of placental microdeletion. High-resolution prenatal microarray testing is a reliable technique that increases diagnostic yield by at least 17.3% when compared with conventional karyotyping, without an increase in the frequency of variants of uncertain significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of <15 m ml(-1) . The significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  6. Reduced Bone Material Strength is Associated with Increased Risk and Severity of Osteoporotic Fractures. An Impact Microindentation Study.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Daysi Duarte; Eriksen, Erik Fink

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to test, whether bone material strength differs between different subtypes of osteoporotic fracture and assess whether it relates to vertebral fracture severity. Cortical bone material strength index (BMSi) was measured by impact microindentation in 66 women with osteoporotic fracture and 66 age- and sex-matched controls without fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers were also assessed. Vertebral fracture severity was graded by semiquantitative (SQ) grading. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the ability of BMSi to discriminate fractures. Subjects with osteoporotic fractures exhibited lower BMSi than controls (71.5 ± 7.3 vs. 76.4 ± 6.2, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and hip BMD, a significant negative correlation was seen between BMSi and vertebral fracture severity (r 2  = 0.19, p = 0.007). A decrease of one standard deviation (SD) in BMSi was associated with increased risk of fracture (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.35, 5.10, p = 0.004). ROC curve areas under the curve (AUC) for BMSi in subjects with vertebral fracture (VF), hip fracture (HF), and non-vertebral non-hip fracture (NVNHFx), (mean; 95% CI) were 0.711 (0.608; 0.813), 0.712 (0.576; 0.843), 0.689 (0.576; 0.775), respectively. Combining BMSi and BMD provided further improvement in the discrimination of fractures with AUC values of 0.777 (0.695; 0.858), 0.789 (0.697; 0.882), and 0.821 (0.727; 0.914) for VFx, HFx, and NVNHFx, respectively. Low BMSi of the tibial cortex is associated with increased risk of all osteoporotic fractures and severity of vertebral fractures.

  7. Pedi-cap color change precedes a significant increase in heart rate during neonatal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Doug; Rich, Wade; Leone, Tina; Garey, Donna; Finer, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Heart rate is the most important indicator of infant well-being during neonatal resuscitation. The Nellcor Pedi-Cap turns gold when exposed to exhaled gas with CO₂>15 mmHg. The aim of this study was to determine if Pedi-Cap gold color change during neonatal resuscitation precedes an increase in heart rate in babies with bradycardia receiving mask ventilation. This was a single-center retrospective review of video recordings and physiologic data of newborns with bradycardia receiving mask positive pressure ventilation during neonatal resuscitation. Subjects were included if the baby's HR<100 BPM within the first 90 s of resuscitation. The primary outcome was the change in HR prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change compared to the HR after Pedi-Cap gold color change. Forty-one newborns during the study period had HR<100 BPM and received mask positive pressure ventilation with a Pedi-Cap. The median heart rate 10s prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change was 75 BPM (IQR 62-85) and increased to 136 BPM (IQR 113-158) 30 s after gold color change (p<0.001). SpO₂ increased from 45 ± 17% prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change to 52 ± 17% 30s after gold color change (p=0.001). Colorimetric CO₂ detection during mask positive pressure ventilation in neonatal resuscitation precedes a significant increase in heart rate and SpO₂. The Pedi-Cap can be easily applied during resuscitation, requires no electricity, provides immediate feedback and may be a useful, simple tool early in resuscitation and may be especially useful in resource limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  9. Metabolic syndrome is a significant and independent risk factor for increased arterial stiffness in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroki; Kishi, Reiko; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the impact of MetS on arterial stiffness has not been fully established in the general Japanese population. We analyzed the relationship between MetS and the severity of arterial stiffness using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 2744 male and 358 female subjects aged 38-62 years, adjusted for conventional risk factors and C-reactive protein. The prevalence rates of MetS identified by Japanese criteria were 22.7% (n=624) and 7.8% (n=28) in male and female subjects, respectively. The subjects with MetS had significantly greater mean values of baPWV than those without MetS among both male and female subjects (1444+/-209 vs. 1294+/-165 cm/s in male subjects, P<0.001; 1379+/-151 vs. 1220+/-171 cm/s in female subjects, P<0.001). After adjustment for atherosclerotic variables such as age, smoking habits, total cholesterol and C-reactive protein, the odds ratio (OR) of MetS for increased baPWV was 3.65 in male subjects (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.99-4.47, P<0.001) and 8.02 in female subjects (95% CI: 3.18-20.25 P<0.001). In conclusion, MetS was identified as a significant and independent risk factor for increased arterial stiffness in both the male and female general population in Japan.

  10. Clinically Significant Pocket Hematoma Increases Long-Term Risk of Device Infection: BRUISE CONTROL INFECTION Study.

    PubMed

    Essebag, Vidal; Verma, Atul; Healey, Jeff S; Krahn, Andrew D; Kalfon, Eli; Coutu, Benoit; Ayala-Paredes, Felix; Tang, Anthony S; Sapp, John; Sturmer, Marcio; Keren, Arieh; Wells, George A; Birnie, David H

    2016-03-22

    The BRUISE CONTROL trial (Bridge or Continue Coumadin for Device Surgery Randomized Controlled Trial) demonstrated that a strategy of continued warfarin during cardiac implantable electronic device surgery was safe and reduced the incidence of clinically significant pocket hematoma (CSH). CSH was defined as a post-procedure hematoma requiring further surgery and/or resulting in prolongation of hospitalization of at least 24 h, and/or requiring interruption of anticoagulation. Previous studies have inconsistently associated hematoma with the subsequent development of device infection; reasons include the retrospective nature of many studies, lack of endpoint adjudication, and differing subjective definitions of hematoma. The BRUISE CONTROL INFECTION (Bridge or Continue Coumadin for Device Surgery Randomized Controlled Trial Extended Follow-Up for Infection) prospectively examined the association between CSH and subsequent device infection. The study included 659 patients with a primary outcome of device-related infection requiring hospitalization, defined as 1 or more of the following: pocket infection; endocarditis; and bloodstream infection. Outcomes were verified by a blinded adjudication committee. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of infection. The overall 1-year device-related infection rate was 2.4% (16 of 659). Infection occurred in 11% of patients (7 of 66) with previous CSH and in 1.5% (9 of 593) without CSH. CSH was the only independent predictor and was associated with a >7-fold increased risk of infection (hazard ratio: 7.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.9 to 20.5; p < 0.0001). Empiric antibiotics upon development of hematoma did not reduce long-term infection risk. CSH is associated with a significantly increased risk of infection requiring hospitalization within 1 year following cardiac implantable electronic device surgery. Strategies aimed at reducing hematomas may decrease the long-term risk of infection. (Bridge or Continue

  11. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  12. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  13. Significant increase of Curie temperature in nano-scale BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yueliang; Liao, Zhenyu; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-03

    The low Curie temperature (T{sub c} = 130 °C) of bulk BaTiO{sub 3} greatly limits its applications. In this work, the phase structures of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2.5 nm to 10 nm were studied at various temperatures by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with an in-situ heating holder. The results implied that each BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticle was composed of different phases, and the ferroelectric ones were observed in the shells due to the complicated surface structure. The ferroelectric phases in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained at 600 °C, suggesting a significant increase of T{sub c}. Based on the in-situ TEM resultsmore » and the data reported by others, temperature-size phase diagrams for BaTiO{sub 3} particles and ceramics were proposed, showing that the phase transition became diffused and the T{sub c} obviously increased with decreasing size. The present work sheds light on the design and fabrication of advanced devices for high temperature applications.« less

  14. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced bone breakage and increased bone strength in free range laying hens fed omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Tarlton, John F; Wilkins, Lindsay J; Toscano, Michael J; Avery, Nick C; Knott, Lynda

    2013-02-01

    The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the immediate precursors to a number of important mediators of immunity, inflammation and bone function, with products of omega-6 generally thought to promote inflammation and favour bone resorption. Western diets generally provide a 10 to 20-fold deficit in omega-3 PUFAs compared with omega-6, and this is thought to have contributed to the marked rise in incidence of disorders of modern human societies, such as heart disease, colitis and perhaps osteoporosis. Many of our food production animals, fed on grains rich in omega-6, are also exposed to a dietary deficit in omega-3, with perhaps similar health consequences. Bone fragility due to osteoporotic changes in laying hens is a major economic and welfare problem, with our recent estimates of breakage rates indicating up to 95% of free range hens suffer breaks during lay. Free range hens housed in full scale commercial systems were provided diets supplemented with omega-3 alpha linolenic acid, and the skeletal benefits were investigated by comparison to standard diets rich in omega-6. There was a significant 40-60% reduction in keel bone breakage rate, and a corresponding reduction in breakage severity in the omega-3 supplemented hens. There was significantly greater bone density and bone mineral content, alongside increases in total bone and trabecular volumes. The mechanical properties of the omega-3 supplemented hens were improved, with strength, energy to break and stiffness demonstrating significant increases. Alkaline phosphatase (an osteoblast marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (an osteoclast marker) both showed significant increases with the omega-3 diets, indicating enhanced bone turnover. This was corroborated by the significantly lower levels of the mature collagen crosslinks, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline, lysyl pyridinoline and histidinohydroxy-lysinonorleucine, with a corresponding significant shift in the mature

  16. Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton through diet niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Chang, Chun-Yi; García-Comas, Carmen; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-Hao

    2013-09-01

    1. The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate is a central topic in ecology. Recently, there has been a growing interest in size diversity because body size is sensitive to environmental changes and is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties. However, how size diversity affects ecosystem functioning is an important yet unclear issue. 2. To fill the gap, with large-scale field data from the East China Sea, we tested the novel hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton (H1) and compared it with five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: flatter zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation decreases the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton through trophic cascade (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). 3. The results of univariate analyses support the hypotheses based on zooplankton size diversity (H1), zooplankton size spectrum (H2), nutrient (H3) and zooplankton taxonomic diversity (H4), but not the hypotheses based on fish predation (H5) and temperature (H6). More in-depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea. 4. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators

  17. Increased muscle strength improves managing in activities of daily living in fall-prone community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Vaapio, Sari; Salminen, Marika; Vahlberg, Tero; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe whether an increase in knee extension strength is associated with improvements in managing in activities of daily living (ADL) and in self-perceived physical condition in fall-prone community-dwelling older women. Subjects (n=417) aged ≥ 65 years belonged either to intervention or control groups in a 12-month randomized controlled fall prevention trial. Isometric muscle strength of knee extension was measured with an adjustable dynamometer chair. Managing in activities of daily living was measured with structured questions about abilities to climb stairs, walk at least 400 meters, toilet, bath, go to the sauna, do light or heavy housework, and carry heavy loads. A question of self-perceived physical condition was also asked. Positive associations were found between increased knee extension strength and an increase in walking at least 400 meters (p<0.001), carrying heavy loads (p=0.004), and climbing stairs (p=0.007), and in self perceived physical condition (p=0.005) over a 12- month follow-up. In addition, low age, non-use of a walking aid, low number of prescribed medications, and good functional balance at baseline were associated with an increase in performance of these ADL functions. An increase in knee extension strength during the 12-month follow-up was associated with improvement in some ADL functions and improvement in self-perceived physical condition during the same period in fall-prone community-dwelling women.

  18. Repeated exposure to corticosterone increases depression-like behavior in two different versions of the forced swim test without altering nonspecific locomotor activity or muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Marks, Wendie; Fournier, Neil M; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2009-08-04

    We have recently shown that repeated high dose injections of corticosterone (CORT) reliably increase depression-like behavior on a modified one-day version of the forced swim test. The main purpose of this experiment was to compare the effect of these CORT injections on our one-day version of the forced swim test and the more traditional two-day version of the test. A second purpose was to determine whether altered behavior in the forced swim test could be due to nonspecific changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength. Separate groups of rats received a high dose CORT injection (40 mg/kg) or a vehicle injection once per day for 21 consecutive days. Then, half the rats from each group were exposed to the traditional two-day forced swim test and the other half were exposed to our one-day forced swim test. After the forced swim testing, all the rats were tested in an open field and in a wire suspension grip strength test. The CORT injections significantly increased the time spent immobile and decreased the time spent swimming in both versions of the forced swim test. However, they had no significant effect on activity in the open field or grip strength in the wire suspension test. These results show that repeated CORT injections increase depression-like behavior regardless of the specific parameters of forced swim testing, and that these effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength.

  19. Does extensive on-water rowing increase muscular strength and endurance?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Mike R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in aerobic condition, strength, and muscular endurance following 8 weeks of endurance rowing alone or in combination with weight-training. Twenty-two elite rowers were assigned to (1) rowing (n = 10, 250-270 km · week⁻¹) or (2) rowing (n = 12, 190-210 km · week⁻¹) plus four weight-training sessions each week. Pre and post mean and standardized effect-size (ES) differences in aerobic condition (watts at 4 mmol · L⁻¹) and strength (isometric pull, N), prone bench-pull (6-repetition maximum, 6-RM), 5- and 30-repetition leg-press and 60-repetition seated-arm-pull (J, performed on a dynamometer) normalized by body mass and log-transformed were analysed, after adjusting for gender. The standardized differences between groups were trivial for aerobic condition (ES [±90% CI] = 0.15; ±0.28, P = 0.37) and prone bench-pull (ES = 0.27; ±0.33, P = 0.18), although a moderate positive benefit in favour of rowing only was observed for the seated-arm-pull (ES = 0.42; ±0.4, P = 0.08). Only the weight-training group improved isometric pull (12.4 ± 8.9%, P < 0.01), 5-repetition (4.0 ± 5.7%, P < 0.01) and 30-repetition (2.4 ± 5.4%, P < 0.01) leg-press. In conclusion, while gains in aerobic condition and upper-body strength were comparable to extensive endurance rowing, weight-training led to moderately greater lower-body muscular-endurance and strength gains.

  20. Increase of reliability of contact networks of electric transport, due to increase of strength of the joint unit of pipes of different diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabitov, L. S.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshin, I. R.; Gatiyatov, I. Z.; Kuznetsov, I. L.

    2017-09-01

    The feature of the stress state of the supports of the contact networks is the presence of a joint of pipes of different diameters, the ultimate state of which is determined, as a rule, the strength of the weld. The proposed unit allows to increase the reliability and strength of the connection and also exclude the presence of a weld bead on the outer surface of the pipe of smaller diameter in the place of its attachment to the upper end of the support ring.

  1. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Impact of increasing ionic strength during synthesis, reflux, and hydrothermal aging

    SciTech Connect

    Isley, Sara L.; Jordan, David S.; Penn, R. Lee

    2009-01-08

    This work investigates the role of ionic strength during synthesis, reflux, and hydrothermal aging of sol-gel synthesized titanium dioxide. Research presented here uses X-ray diffraction data and Rietveld refinements to quantify anatase, brookite, and rutile phases as functions of synthetic and aging variables. In addition, the Scherrer equation is used to obtain average crystallite sizes for each phase quantified. Results presented in this work demonstrate that the most control over the sol-gel products can be obtained by modifying the pH during hydrolysis. In addition, while varying the ionic strength during reflux and hydrothermal aging can result in enhanced control overmore » the crystalline phase and crystallite size, the most control can be achieved by varying the ionic strength during synthesis. Finally, sol-gel synthesis at low pH (-0.6) and high-chloride concentration (3 M NaCl) produced a heterogeneous sample composed of nanocrystalline anatase (3.8 nm) and rutile (2.9 nm)« less

  2. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Nadja Rodrigues; Abdrahman, Ahmed; Greig, Carolyn; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Thornton, Catherine; Ratcliffe, Norman A; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Butt, Tariq M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR) inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMPH). Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  4. Cobicistat Significantly Increases Tacrolimus Serum Concentrations in a Renal Transplant Recipient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhe; Kane, Brenna M; Petty, Lindsay A; Josephson, Michelle A; Sutor, Jozefa; Pursell, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic booster in several fixed-dose combination products for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, significant drug-drug interactions are expected between cobicistat and medications that are metabolized primarily through the CYP3A pathway, including calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine). We describe a case of tacrolimus toxicity due to supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations when Stribild (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) was initiated for newly diagnosed HIV infection in a 50-year-old renal transplant recipient who was previously receiving a stable tacrolimus regimen. Drug-drug interaction via CYP3A inhibition was acknowledged, and weekly labs were ordered to allow for close monitoring of renal function and tacrolimus serum concentrations as recommended by Stribild prescribing information. The patient reported headache, insomnia, stomachache, and decreased urine output within 1 week of starting Stribild and was found to have acute kidney injury (serum creatinine [S cr ]concentration increasing from 1.5-2.3 mg/dl) and a serum tacrolimus concentration of 111.2 ng/ml at 1 week follow-up (goal trough level 4-6 ng/ml). Both tacrolimus and Stribild were withheld. In 15 days, the patient's tacrolimus serum concentration returned to goal. In the interim, he required twice/week clinic visits for laboratory assessments and an emergency department visit for management of hyperkalemia (potassium 6.5 mEq/L). Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine) was started about 4 weeks later after S cr returned to baseline, and his tacrolimus serum trough concentrations subsequently remained stable. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the extent, significance, and onset of cobicistat and tacrolimus drug-drug interaction in clinical practice. As more fixed-dose combination products

  5. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study.more » Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis

  6. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low rem...

  7. Increasing the Number of African American PhDs in the Sciences and Engineering A Strengths-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Hrabowski, Freeman A.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education, the percentage of African American students who receive PhDs in natural science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields remains disappointingly low. A multifaceted, strengths-based approach to intervention and research that holds great promise for increasing the number of African…

  8. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  9. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    PubMed Central

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  10. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg−1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  11. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-11-14

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.

  12. Scaling of surface-plasma reactors with a significantly increased energy density for NO conversion.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2012-03-30

    Comparative studies revealed that surface plasmas developing along a solid-gas interface are significantly more effective and energy efficient for remediation of toxic pollutants in air than conventional plasmas propagating in air. Scaling of the surface plasma reactors to large volumes by operating them in parallel suffers from a serious problem of adverse effects of the space charges generated at the dielectric surfaces of the neighboring discharge chambers. This study revealed that a conductive foil on the cathode potential placed between the dielectric plates as a shield not only decoupled the discharges, but also increased the electrical power deposited in the reactor by a factor of about forty over the electrical power level obtained without shielding and without loss of efficiency for NO removal. The shield had no negative effect on efficiency, which is verified by the fact that the energy costs for 50% NO removal were about 60 eV/molecule and the energy constant, k(E), was about 0.02 L/J in both the shielded and unshielded cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Deletion of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit allele Glu-A3a of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) significantly reduces dough strength and breadmaking quality.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shoumin; Han, Caixia; Ma, Chaoying; Gu, Aiqin; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Xixi; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2014-12-19

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), encoded by Glu-3 complex loci in hexaploid wheat, play important roles in the processing quality of wheat flour. To date, the molecular characteristics and effects on dough quality of individual Glu-3 alleles and their encoding proteins have been poorly studied. We used a Glu-A3 deletion line of the Chinese Spring (CS-n) wheat variety to conduct the first comprehensive study on the molecular characteristics and functional properties of the LMW-GS allele Glu-A3a. The Glu-A3a allele at the Glu-A3 locus in CS and its deletion in CS-n were identified and characterized by proteome and molecular marker methods. The deletion of Glu-A3a had no significant influence on plant morphological and yield traits, but significantly reduced the dough strength and breadmaking quality compared to CS. The complete sequence of the Glu-A3a allele was cloned and characterized, which was found to encode a B-subunit with longer repetitive domains and an increased number of α-helices. The Glu-A3a-encoded B-subunit showed a higher expression level and accumulation rate during grain development. These characteristics of the Glu-A3a allele could contribute to achieving superior gluten quality and demonstrate its potential application to wheat quality improvement. Furthermore, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) marker for the Glu-A3a allele was developed and validated using different bread wheat cultivars, including near-isogenic lines (NILs) and recombinant inbred lines (RILs), which could be used as an effective molecular marker for gluten quality improvement through marker-assisted selection. This work demonstrated that the LMW-GS allele Glu-A3a encodes a specific LMW-i type B-subunit that significantly affects wheat dough strength and breadmaking quality. The Glu-A3a-encoded B-subunit has a long repetitive domain and more α-helix structures as well as a higher expression level and accumulation rate during grain development

  14. Increase of tensile strength and toughness of bio-based diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with chitin nanowhiskers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian; Xue, Han; Feng, Zhiwei; Cheng, Binfeng; Yang, Haijie

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to reinforce and toughen thermoset epoxy resins. We describe a slurry-compounding technique to transfer a uniform dispersion of chitin nanowhiskers (CW) in ethanol into an epoxy matrix. The incorporation of the hydrophilic CW reinforces the oil-soluble diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). The resultant CW/epoxy bionanocomposites were transparent and showed considerably enhanced thermal and mechanical properties with tensile strength, modulus, toughness, and elongation at break being increased by 49%, 16%, 457%, and 250%, with only 2.5 wt.% CW. This improvement in strength and toughness is rare for thermoset epoxy/rigid nanofiller systems. We hypothesize that CW with many free amine groups could function not only as a nanofiller but also as a macromolecular polyamine hardener that participates in epoxy curing. The strong covalent interaction between the filler and the matrix allowed for efficient load transfer across the interfaces, which accounted for the greater strength and toughness.

  15. Increase of tensile strength and toughness of bio-based diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with chitin nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian; Xue, Han; Feng, Zhiwei; Cheng, Binfeng; Yang, Haijie

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to reinforce and toughen thermoset epoxy resins. We describe a slurry-compounding technique to transfer a uniform dispersion of chitin nanowhiskers (CW) in ethanol into an epoxy matrix. The incorporation of the hydrophilic CW reinforces the oil-soluble diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). The resultant CW/epoxy bionanocomposites were transparent and showed considerably enhanced thermal and mechanical properties with tensile strength, modulus, toughness, and elongation at break being increased by 49%, 16%, 457%, and 250%, with only 2.5 wt.% CW. This improvement in strength and toughness is rare for thermoset epoxy/rigid nanofiller systems. We hypothesize that CW with many free amine groups could function not only as a nanofiller but also as a macromolecular polyamine hardener that participates in epoxy curing. The strong covalent interaction between the filler and the matrix allowed for efficient load transfer across the interfaces, which accounted for the greater strength and toughness. PMID:28604774

  16. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  17. INCREASING AGE IS A RISK FACTOR FOR DECREASED POSTPARTUM PELVIC FLOOR STRENGTH

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Lieschen H.; Pickett, Stephanie D.; Peck, Jennifer D; Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Stone, Daniel E.; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors associated with decreased pelvic floor strength (PFS) after the first vaginal delivery in a cohort of low risk women Methods This is a secondary analysis of a prospective study examining the risk of pelvic floor injury in a cohort of primiparous women. All recruited participants underwent an examination, 3D ultrasound and measurement of pelvic floor strength (PFS) in the third trimester and repeated at 4 weeks-6 months postpartum using a perineometer. Results There were 84 women recruited for the study, and 70 completed the postpartum assessment. Average age was 28.4 years (SD, 4.8). There were 46 (66%) subjects with a vaginal delivery (VD) and 24 (34%) with a cesarean delivery (CD) who labored. Decreased PFS was observed more frequently in the VD group compared to the CD group (68% vs. 42%, p=0.03). In modified Poisson regression models controlling for mode of delivery and time of postpartum assessment, women who were age 25-29 (RR=2.80, 95% CI 1.03-7.57) and >=30 (RR=2.53, 95% CI 0.93-6.86)) were over 2.5 times more likely to have decreased postpartum PFS compared to women < 25 yo. Conclusions In this population, women age 25 and older were more than twice as likely to have a decrease in postpartum PFS. PMID:28067746

  18. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael A.; Bailey, Alyssa M.; Rondon, Matthew J.; McNerny, Erin M.; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6–12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups–exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and

  19. The strength of negative plant-soil feedback increases from the intraspecific to the interspecific and the functional group level.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Alexandra R; Schittko, Conrad; Petermann, Jana S

    2018-02-01

    One of the processes that may play a key role in plant species coexistence and ecosystem functioning is plant-soil feedback, the effect of plants on associated soil communities and the resulting feedback on plant performance. Plant-soil feedback at the interspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different species) has been studied extensively, while plant-soil feedback at the intraspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different accessions within a species) has only recently gained attention. Very few studies have investigated the direction and strength of feedback among different taxonomic levels, and initial results have been inconclusive, discussing phylogeny, and morphology as possible determinants. To test our hypotheses that the strength of negative feedback on plant performance increases with increasing taxonomic level and that this relationship is explained by morphological similarities, we conducted a greenhouse experiment using species assigned to three taxonomic levels (intraspecific, interspecific, and functional group level). We measured certain fitness-related aboveground traits and used them along literature-derived traits to determine the influence of morphological similarities on the strength and direction of the feedback. We found that the average strength of negative feedback increased from the intraspecific over the interspecific to the functional group level. However, individual accessions and species differed in the direction and strength of the feedback. None of our results could be explained by morphological dissimilarities or individual traits. Synthesis . Our results indicate that negative plant-soil feedback is stronger if the involved plants belong to more distantly related species. We conclude that the taxonomic level is an important factor in the maintenance of plant coexistence with plant-soil feedback as a potential stabilizing mechanism and should be addressed explicitly

  20. Transabdominal cerclage: the significance of dual pathology and increased preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, Roy G; Topping, Joanne; Quenby, Siobhan M

    2005-10-01

    Transabdominal cerclage is a recognised treatment for cervical weakness with a history of recurrent mid-trimester loss and a failed elective vaginal suture. The emergence of dual pathology, such as antiphospholipid syndrome and bacterial vaginosis, is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-5.8). The first 40 cases are described where strict adherence to an investigation protocol and consistent treatment plan has been implemented.

  1. Increased salinity triggers significant changes in the functional proteins of ANAMMOX bacteria within a biofilm community.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yabing; Yin, Cuiqin; Zhou, Zhongbo; Meng, Fangang

    2018-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) processes can potentially be influenced by salinity related to variable salinity in water environment. Here, we used 16S rRNA sequencing analysis combining with iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to reveal the response of microbial community and functional proteins to salinity, which was increased from 0 to 20 g L -1 with a step of 5 g L -1 (designed as S5, S10, S15 and S20) compared to control reactor (without salinity stress desined as S0). The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that a high salinity (20 g L -1 , S20) decreased the abundance of genus Candidatus Jettenia but increased that of Candidatus Kuenenia. A total of 1609 differentially expressed proteins were acquired in the three comparison groups (S5:S0, S20:S0 and S20:S5). Of these, 39 proteins co-occurred in the three salt-exposed samples. Hydrazine dehydrogenase (HDH; Q1PW30) and nitrate reductase (Q1PZD8) were up-regulated more than 3-folds in the exposure of 20 g-NaCl/L. The functional enrichment analysis further showed that some proteins responsible for ion binding, catalysis and oxidation-reduction reaction were up-regulated, which explained the physiological resilience of ANAMMOX bacteria under salinity stress. Additionally, ANAMMOX bacteria responded to salinity by modulating the electron transport systems, indicating that the cells retained a high potential for proton pumping, as well as the ATP production. Furthermore, the over-expression of HDH which associated with ANAMMOX metabolism, was potentially related to the increased abundance of halophilic Candidatus Kuenenia. These findings provide a comprehensive baseline for understanding the roles of salinity stresses in shaping the functional proteins of ANAMMOX bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance training is accompanied by increases in hip strength and changes in lower extremity biomechanics during running.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kelli R; Earl, Jennifer E; O'Connor, Kristian M; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2009-01-01

    Movement and muscle activity of the hip have been shown to affect movement of the lower extremity, and been related to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased hip strength affects lower extremity mechanics during running. Within subject, repeated measures design. Fifteen healthy women volunteered. Hip abduction and external rotation strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Three-dimensional biomechanical data of the lower extremity were collected during running using a high-speed motion capture system. Measurements were made before, at the mid-point, and after a 6-week strengthening program using closed-chain hip rotation exercises. Joint range of motion (rearfoot eversion, knee abduction, hip adduction, and internal rotation), eversion velocity, eversion angle at heel strike, and peak joint moments (rearfoot inversion, knee abduction, hip abduction, and external rotation) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (P strength. Hip abduction (P=0.009) and external rotation strength (P<0.0005) increased by 13% and 23%, respectively. Eversion range of motion decreased (P=0.05), hip adduction range of motion increased (P=0.05), and a trend of decreased hip internal rotation range of motion (P=0.08) were found. Rearfoot inversion moment (P=0.02) and knee abduction moment (P=0.05) decreased by 57% and 10%, respectively. The hip abductors and external rotators were strengthened, leading to an alteration of lower extremity joint loading which may reduce injury risk. These exercises could be used in the rehabilitation, or prevention, of lower extremity injuries.

  3. Stratigraphic potential of Bolboforma significantly increased by new finds in the North Atlantic and South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Karowe, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Until now, the genus Bolboforma, a problematic group of calcareous microfossils, has been recorded only in Oligocene to Pliocene marine sedimentary rocks, chiefly in the eastern North Atlantic region. We add to this eastern North Atlantic record six new sites and eleven undescribed species from the continental slopes of Ireland and Morocco. More significantly, we record, for the first time, abundant assemblages of Bolboforma on the western side of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Seven boreholes on the continental shelf and slope of New Jersey and Virginia contain ten species, three of which are new. Two species are present in two outcrops in eastern Mississippi and four are present in a borehole in the coastal plain of Virginia. On the Lord Howe Rise, west of New Zealand, a DSDP corehole has yielded a rich assemblage including four undescribed species. In addition to expanding the geographic distribution of Bolboforma, our work extends the known stratigraphic range downward into the upper Eocene on both sides of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Our findings firmly support the inference of a planktonic life style for Bolboforma, which implies a significant potential for biostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic, and paleoenvironmental studies, on both a local and global scale. We recommend a concerted effort to further document the nature and distribution of Bolboforma.

  4. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  5. Clinical significance of increased serum levels of FGF-23 in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Florez, Helena; Mandelikova, Stanislava; Filella, Xavier; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Peris, Pilar

    2017-12-30

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) can be associated with the development of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, caused by the production of FGF-23 by dysplastic bone tissue. This study analysed FGF-23 levels in patients with FD, and their association with disease activity and serum phosphate values. Twelve adult patients with FD were included in the study. Clinical history, disease extension and activity and treatments received were reviewed, and the relationship of those values with FGF-23 and serum P levels was analysed. FGF-23 was elevated in 6/12 patients (50%). Patients with high FGF-23 levels had similar age and disease activity and extension than those who did not. No differences were observed in serum phosphate values between both groups (increased FGF-23: 3.9±0.9 mg/dl vs. decreased FGF-23: 3.5±0.6 mg/dl). In fact, none of the patients with increased FGF-23 had low serum phosphate values. Adult FD patients frequently present elevated FGF-23 values with no serum phosphate level repercussion, suggesting an alteration in the processing of this protein in the dysplastic bone tissue for this pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  7. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  8. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  9. Modern Environmental Health Hazards: A Public Health Issue of Increasing Significance in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C.; Sanders III, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa’s environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent’s disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. Data sources We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. Data synthesis The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Conclusion Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa’s disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa’s environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future. PMID:19590675

  10. Increased fatigability of external anal sphincter in inflammatory bowel disease: significance in fecal urgency and incontinence.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios A; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Tatsioni, Athina; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

    2010-11-01

    Fatigability of external anal sphincter (EAS) has not been studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We evaluated EAS fatigability in IBD patients with and without fecal incontinence (FI) and urgency, and correlated fatigability with demographic and clinical factors, and EAS endosonography. Fifty-eight consecutive IBD cases and 14 healthy volunteers completed Bristol stool form and a FI severity scale. Groups I, II and III included 27 patients with urgency including 13 with concomitant FI, 31 patients without FI or urgency, and 14 controls, respectively. We performed stationary pull-through manometry with an 8-channel water-perfused catheter. Fatigue rate (FR) was calculated by linear regression during a 20-s anal squeeze, and fatigue rate index (FRI) as the ratio of squeeze pressure increment to FR. EAS thickness and deficits were evaluated with an endoanal 10-MHz probe. Patients underwent sigmoidoscopy. Group I demonstrated a higher Bristol score, more frequent defecations, and more EAS defects compared to group II. Resting, peak squeeze pressures and EAS thickness did not differ between groups. FR was increased in group I versus II, and in group II versus III; FRI was decreased in group I versus II and in group II versus III (p<0.001, adjusting for age and BMI). Gender, oral glucocorticoids, presence of proctitis, perianal disease and EAS defects did not interact with group membership on FR or FRI. IBD is associated with increased fatigue rate and decreased fatigue rate index. These differences were even more striking in patients with incontinence or urgency. Copyright © 2010 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks gestation) with 14 matched normotensive controls, as well as 15 cases late-onset preeclampsia (>34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. An educational measure to significantly increase critical knowledge regarding interfacility patient transfers.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torben K; Skiba, James F; Sozener, Cemal B

    2015-06-01

    Patient transfers among medical facilities are high-risk situations. Despite this, there is very little training of physicians regarding the medical and legal aspects of transport medicine. To examine the effects of a one hour, educational intervention on Emergency Medicine (EM) residents' and Critical Care (CC) fellows' knowledge regarding the medical and legal aspects of interfacility patient transfers. Prior to the intervention, physician knowledge regarding 12 key concepts in patient transfer was assessed using a pre-test instrument. A one hour, interactive, educational session followed immediately thereafter. Following the intervention, a post-intervention test was given between two and four weeks after delivery. Participants were also asked to describe any prior transportation-medicine-related education, their opinions as they relate to the relevance of the topic, and their comfort levels with patient transfers before and after the intervention. Only a minority of participants had received any formal training in patient transfers prior to the intervention, despite dealing with patient transfers on a frequent, often daily, basis. Both groups improved in several categories on the post-intervention test. They reported improved comfort levels with the medicolegal aspects of interfacility patient transfers after the intervention and felt well-prepared to manage transfers in their daily practice. A one hour, educational intervention objectively increased EM and CC physician trainees' understanding of some of the medicolegal aspects of interfacility patient transfers. The study demonstrated a lack of previous training on this important topic and improved levels of comfort with transfers after study participation.

  13. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    PubMed

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Few Ramachandran Angle Changes Provide Interaction Strength Increase in Aβ42 versus Aβ40 Amyloid Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastidas, Oscar H.; Green, Benjamin; Sprague, Mary; Peters, Michael H.

    2016-11-01

    The pathology of Alzheimer’s disease can ultimately be traced to the increased aggregation stability of Aβ42 peptides which possess two extra residues (Ile 41 & Ala 42) that the non-pathological strain (Aβ40) lacks. We have found Aβ42 fibrils to exhibit stronger energies in inter-chain interactions and we have also identified the cause for this increase to be the result of different Ramachandran angle values in certain residues of the Aβ42 strain compared to Aβ40. These unique angle configurations result in the peptide planes in the fibril structures to be more vertical along the fibril axis for Aβ42 which thus reduces the inter-atomic distance between interacting atoms on vicinal peptide chains thereby increasing the electrostatic interaction energies. We lastly postulate that these different Ramachandran angle values could possibly be traced to the unique conformational folding avenues sampled by the Aβ42 peptide owing to the presence of its two extra residues.

  16. PKMζ Inhibition Reverses Learning-Induced Increases in Hippocampal Synaptic Strength and Memory during Trace Eyeblink Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Madroñal, Noelia; Gruart, Agnès; Sacktor, Todd C.; Delgado-García, José M.

    2010-01-01

    A leading candidate in the process of memory formation is hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a persistent enhancement in synaptic strength evoked by the repetitive activation of excitatory synapses, either by experimental high-frequency stimulation (HFS) or, as recently shown, during actual learning. But are the molecular mechanisms for maintaining synaptic potentiation induced by HFS and by experience the same? Protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C isoform, plays a key role in the maintenance of LTP induced by tetanic stimulation and the storage of long-term memory. To test whether the persistent action of PKMζ is necessary for the maintenance of synaptic potentiation induced after learning, the effects of ZIP (zeta inhibitory peptide), a PKMζ inhibitor, on eyeblink-conditioned mice were studied. PKMζ inhibition in the hippocampus disrupted both the correct retrieval of conditioned responses (CRs) and the experience-dependent persistent increase in synaptic strength observed at CA3-CA1 synapses. In addition, the effects of ZIP on the same associative test were examined when tetanic LTP was induced at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse before conditioning. In this case, PKMζ inhibition both reversed tetanic LTP and prevented the expected LTP-mediated deleterious effects on eyeblink conditioning. Thus, PKMζ inhibition in the CA1 area is able to reverse both the expression of trace eyeblink conditioned memories and the underlying changes in CA3-CA1 synaptic strength, as well as the anterograde effects of LTP on associative learning. PMID:20454458

  17. Acute Responses of Strength and Running Mechanics to Increasing and Decreasing Pain in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bazett-Jones, David M.; Huddleston, Wendy; Cobb, Stephen; O'Connor, Kristian; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Context:  Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is typically exacerbated by repetitive activities that load the patellofemoral joint, such as running. Understanding the mediating effects of changes in pain in individuals with PFP might inform injury progression, rehabilitation, or both. Objective:  To investigate the effects of changing pain on muscular strength and running biomechanics in those with PFP. Design:  Crossover study. Setting:  University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants:  Seventeen participants (10 men, 7 women) with PFP. Intervention(s):  Each participant completed knee pain-reducing and pain-inducing protocols in random order. The pain-reducing protocol consisted of 15 minutes of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) around the patella. The pain-inducing protocol was sets of 20 repeated single-legged squats (RSLS). Participants completed RSLS sets until either their pain was within at least 1 cm of their pain during an exhaustive run or they reached 10 sets. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Pain, isometric hip and trunk strength, and running mechanics were assessed before and after the protocols. Dependent variables were pain, normalized strength (abduction, extension, external rotation, lateral trunk flexion), and peak lower extremity kinematics and kinetics in all planes. Pain scores were analyzed using a Friedman test. Strength and mechanical variables were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The α level was set at P < .05. Results:  Pain was decreased after the TENS (pretest: 3.10 ± 1.95, posttest: 1.89 ± 2.33) and increased after the RSLS (baseline: 3.10 ± 1.95, posttest: 4.38 ± 2.40) protocols (each P < .05). The RSLS protocol resulted in a decrease in hip-extension strength (baseline: 0.355 ± 0.08 kg/kg, posttest: 0.309 ± 0.09 kg/kg; P < .001). Peak plantar-flexion angle was decreased after RSLS (baseline: −13.97° ± 6.41°, posttest: −12.84° ± 6.45°; P = .003). Peak hip

  18. Acute Responses of Strength and Running Mechanics to Increasing and Decreasing Pain in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Bazett-Jones, David M; Huddleston, Wendy; Cobb, Stephen; O'Connor, Kristian; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E

    2017-05-01

      Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is typically exacerbated by repetitive activities that load the patellofemoral joint, such as running. Understanding the mediating effects of changes in pain in individuals with PFP might inform injury progression, rehabilitation, or both.   To investigate the effects of changing pain on muscular strength and running biomechanics in those with PFP.   Crossover study.   University research laboratory.   Seventeen participants (10 men, 7 women) with PFP.   Each participant completed knee pain-reducing and pain-inducing protocols in random order. The pain-reducing protocol consisted of 15 minutes of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) around the patella. The pain-inducing protocol was sets of 20 repeated single-legged squats (RSLS). Participants completed RSLS sets until either their pain was within at least 1 cm of their pain during an exhaustive run or they reached 10 sets.   Pain, isometric hip and trunk strength, and running mechanics were assessed before and after the protocols. Dependent variables were pain, normalized strength (abduction, extension, external rotation, lateral trunk flexion), and peak lower extremity kinematics and kinetics in all planes. Pain scores were analyzed using a Friedman test. Strength and mechanical variables were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The α level was set at P < .05.   Pain was decreased after the TENS (pretest: 3.10 ± 1.95, posttest: 1.89 ± 2.33) and increased after the RSLS (baseline: 3.10 ± 1.95, posttest: 4.38 ± 2.40) protocols (each P < .05). The RSLS protocol resulted in a decrease in hip-extension strength (baseline: 0.355 ± 0.08 kg/kg, posttest: 0.309 ± 0.09 kg/kg; P < .001). Peak plantar-flexion angle was decreased after RSLS (baseline: -13.97° ± 6.41°, posttest: -12.84° ± 6.45°; P = .003). Peak hip-extension (pretest: -2.31 ± 0.46) and hip-abduction (pretest: -2.02 ± 0.35) moments decreased after both the TENS (extension

  19. Perceptual learning increases the strength of the earliest signals in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bao, Min; Yang, Lin; Rios, Cristina; He, Bin; Engel, Stephen A

    2010-11-10

    Training improves performance on most visual tasks. Such perceptual learning can modify how information is read out from, and represented in, later visual areas, but effects on early visual cortex are controversial. In particular, it remains unknown whether learning can reshape neural response properties in early visual areas independent from feedback arising in later cortical areas. Here, we tested whether learning can modify feedforward signals in early visual cortex as measured by the human electroencephalogram. Fourteen subjects were trained for >24 d to detect a diagonal grating pattern in one quadrant of the visual field. Training improved performance, reducing the contrast needed for reliable detection, and also reliably increased the amplitude of the earliest component of the visual evoked potential, the C1. Control orientations and locations showed smaller effects of training. Because the C1 arises rapidly and has a source in early visual cortex, our results suggest that learning can increase early visual area response through local receptive field changes without feedback from later areas.

  20. One year of abaloparatide, a selective peptide activator of the PTH1 receptor, increased bone mass and strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Varela, Aurore; Chouinard, Luc; Lesage, Elisabeth; Guldberg, Robert; Smith, Susan Y; Kostenuik, Paul J; Hattersley, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Abaloparatide is a novel 34 amino acid peptide selected to be a potent and selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1) signaling pathway. The effects of 12months of abaloparatide treatment on bone mass, bone strength and bone quality was assessed in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. SD rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery at 6months of age and left untreated for 3months to allow OVX-induced bone loss. Eighteen OVX rats were sacrificed after this bone depletion period, and the remaining OVX rats received daily s.c. injections of vehicle (n=18) or abaloparatide at 1, 5 or 25μg/kg/d (n=18/dose level) for 12months. Sham controls (n=18) received vehicle daily. Bone changes were assessed by DXA and pQCT after 0, 3, 6 or 12months of treatment, and destructive biomechanical testing was conducted at month 12 to assess bone strength and bone quality. Abaloparatide dose-dependently increased bone mass at the lumbar spine and at the proximal and diaphyseal regions of the tibia and femur. pQCT revealed that increased cortical bone volume at the tibia was a result of periosteal expansion and endocortical bone apposition. Abaloparatide dose-dependently increased structural strength of L4-L5 vertebral bodies, the femur diaphysis, and the femur neck. Increments in peak load for lumbar spine and the femur diaphysis of abaloparatide-treated rats persisted even after adjusting for treatment-related increments in BMC, and estimated material properties were maintained or increased at the femur diaphysis with abaloparatide. The abaloparatide groups also exhibited significant and positive correlations between bone mass and bone strength at these sites. These data indicate that gains in cortical and trabecular bone mass with abaloparatide are accompanied by and correlated with improvements in bone strength, resulting in maintenance or improvement in bone quality. Thus, this study demonstrated that long-term daily administration of abaloparatide to

  1. Tightening slip knots in raw and degummed silk to increase toughness without losing strength.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Maria F; Berardo, Alice; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-02-12

    Knots are fascinating topological elements, which can be found in both natural and artificial systems. While in most of the cases, knots cannot be loosened without breaking the strand where they are tightened, herein, attention is focused on slip or running knots, which on the contrary can be unfastened without compromising the structural integrity of their hosting material. Two different topologies are considered, involving opposite unfastening mechanisms, and their influence on the mechanical properties of natural fibers, as silkworm silk raw and degummed single fibers, is investigated and quantified. Slip knots with optimized shape and size result in a significant enhancement of fibers energy dissipation capability, up to 300-400%, without affecting their load bearing capacity.

  2. Tightening slip knots in raw and degummed silk to increase toughness without losing strength

    PubMed Central

    Pantano, Maria F.; Berardo, Alice; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    Knots are fascinating topological elements, which can be found in both natural and artificial systems. While in most of the cases, knots cannot be loosened without breaking the strand where they are tightened, herein, attention is focused on slip or running knots, which on the contrary can be unfastened without compromising the structural integrity of their hosting material. Two different topologies are considered, involving opposite unfastening mechanisms, and their influence on the mechanical properties of natural fibers, as silkworm silk raw and degummed single fibers, is investigated and quantified. Slip knots with optimized shape and size result in a significant enhancement of fibers energy dissipation capability, up to 300–400%, without affecting their load bearing capacity. PMID:26868855

  3. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    PubMed

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p<0.01). The resultant Sost(-/-) united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p<0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The strength of attentional biases reduces as visual short-term memory load increases

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite our visual system receiving irrelevant input that competes with task-relevant signals, we are able to pursue our perceptual goals. Attention enhances our visual processing by biasing the processing of the input that is relevant to the task at hand. The top-down signals enabling these biases are therefore important for regulating lower level sensory mechanisms. In three experiments, we examined whether we apply similar biases to successfully maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We presented participants with targets alongside distracters and we graded their perceptual similarity to vary the extent to which they competed. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the more items held in VSTM before the onset of the distracters, the more perceptually distinct the distracters needed to be for participants to retain the target accurately. Experiment 3 extended these behavioral findings by demonstrating that the perceptual similarity between target and distracters exerted a significantly greater effect on occipital alpha amplitudes, depending on the number of items already held in VSTM. The trade-off between VSTM load and target-distracter competition suggests that VSTM and perceptual competition share a partially overlapping mechanism, namely top-down inputs into sensory areas. PMID:23576694

  5. Nandrolone decanoate and load increase remodeling and strength in human supraspinatus bioartificial tendons.

    PubMed

    Triantafillopoulos, Ioannis K; Banes, Albert J; Bowman, Karl F; Maloney, Melissa; Garrett, William E; Karas, Spero G

    2004-06-01

    To date, no studies document the effect of anabolic steroids on rotator cuff tendons. Controlled laboratory study. Anabolic steroids enhance remodeling and improve the biomechanical properties of bioartificially engineered human supraspinatus tendons. Bioartificial tendons were treated with either nandrolone decanoate (nonload, steroid, n = 18), loading (load, nonsteroid, n = 18), or both (load, steroid, n = 18). A control group received no treatment (nonload, nonsteroid [NLNS], n = 18). Bioartificial tendons' remodeling was assessed by daily scanning, cytoskeletal organization by staining, matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels by ELISA assay, and biomechanical properties by load-to-failure testing. The load, steroid group showed the greatest remodeling and the best organized actin cytoskeleton. Matrix metallo-proteinase-3 levels in the load, steroid group were greater than those of the nonload, nonsteroid group (P <.05). Ultimate stress and ultimate strain in the load, steroid group were greater than those of the nonload, nonsteroid and nonload, steroid groups (P <.05). The strain energy density in the load, steroid group was greater when compared to other groups (P <.05). Nandrolone decanoate and load acted synergistically to increase matrix remodeling and biomechanical properties of bioartificial tendons. Data suggest anabolic steroids may enhance production of bioartificial tendons and rotator cuff tendon healing in vitro. More research is necessary before such clinical use is recommended.

  6. Aquatic Therapy Improves Outcomes for Subacute Stroke Patients by Enhancing Muscular Strength of Paretic Lower Limbs Without Increasing Spasticity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Yi-Zhao; Huang, Li-Ping; Bai, Bei; Zhou, Shi; Yin, Miao-Miao; Zhao, Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hong-Tu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic exercise program designed to enhance muscular strength in paretic lower limbs in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-six subacute stroke patients were randomly divided to a conventional or an aquatic group (n = 18 each). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 8 wks of training. For the paretic lower limbs, maximum isometric voluntary contraction strength of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris caput longus and the tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius was measured. Cocontraction ratios during knee extension and flexion and ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were calculated respectively. In addition, Modified Ashworth Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, and Barthel Index were assessed. Compared with the conventional intervention, the aquatic intervention resulted in significantly higher knee extension (P = 0.002) and ankle plantarflexion torque (P = 0.002), accompanied with a significantly lower knee extension cocontraction ratio in the paretic limb (P = 0.000). Functional Ambulation Category (P = 0.009) and Barthel Index (P = 0.024) were greater in aquatic group than conventional group posttreatment. Modified Ashworth Scale scores did not show any differences between groups. Aquatic exercise enhanced muscle strength in paretic lower limbs and improved muscle cocontraction without increasing spasticity in subacute stroke patients.

  7. A simulation study of the strength of evidence in the recommendation of medications based on two trials with statistically significant results

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2017-01-01

    A typical rule that has been used for the endorsement of new medications by the Food and Drug Administration is to have two trials, each convincing on its own, demonstrating effectiveness. “Convincing” may be subjectively interpreted, but the use of p-values and the focus on statistical significance (in particular with p < .05 being coined significant) is pervasive in clinical research. Therefore, in this paper, we calculate with simulations what it means to have exactly two trials, each with p < .05, in terms of the actual strength of evidence quantified by Bayes factors. Our results show that different cases where two trials have a p-value below .05 have wildly differing Bayes factors. Bayes factors of at least 20 in favor of the alternative hypothesis are not necessarily achieved and they fail to be reached in a large proportion of cases, in particular when the true effect size is small (0.2 standard deviations) or zero. In a non-trivial number of cases, evidence actually points to the null hypothesis, in particular when the true effect size is zero, when the number of trials is large, and when the number of participants in both groups is low. We recommend use of Bayes factors as a routine tool to assess endorsement of new medications, because Bayes factors consistently quantify strength of evidence. Use of p-values may lead to paradoxical and spurious decision-making regarding the use of new medications. PMID:28273140

  8. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored. The increase in body weight in the LD + MCT (1.1 ± 1.0 kg) and LD + LCT (0.8 ± 1.1 kg) groups was greater than that in the control group (-0.5 ± 0.9 kg) (P < 0.05). After 3 mo, participants in the LD + MCT group had a 13.1% increase in right-hand grip strength (1.2 ± 1.0 kg, P < 0.01), a 12.5% increase in walking speed (0.078 ± 0.080 m/s, P < 0.05), a 68.2% increase in a 10-s leg open-and-close test performance (2.31 ± 1.68 n/10 s, P < 0.001), and a 28.2% increase in peak expiratory flow (53 ± 59 L/min, P < 0.01). No significant improvements in muscle mass, strength, or function were observed in the LD + LCT or control groups. The combined supplementation of MCTs (6 g), leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol at dinner may improve muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017567. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Method of increasing the phase stability and the compressive yield strength of uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    A uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy characterized by high strength, high ductility and stable microstructure is fabricated by an improved thermal mechanical process. A homogenous ingot of the alloy which has been reduced in thickness of at least 50% in the two-step forging operation, rolled into a plate with a 75% reduction and then heated in vacuum at a temperature of about 750.degree. to 850.degree. C. and then quenched in water is subjected to further thermal-mechanical operation steps to increase the compressive yield strength approximately 30%, stabilize the microstructure, and decrease the variations in mechanical properties throughout the plate is provided. These thermal-mechanical steps are achieved by cold rolling the quenched plate to reduce the thickness thereof about 8 to 12%, aging the cold rolled plate at a first temperature of about 325.degree. to 375.degree. C. for five to six hours and then aging the plate at a higher temperature ranging from 480.degree. to 500.degree. C. for five to six hours prior to cooling the billet to ambient conditions and sizing the billet or plate into articles provides the desired increase in mechanical properties and phase stability throughout the plate.

  10. Genome-wide linkage scan for maximum and length-dependent knee muscle strength in young men: significant evidence for linkage at chromosome 14q24.3.

    PubMed

    De Mars, G; Windelinckx, A; Huygens, W; Peeters, M W; Beunen, G P; Aerssens, J; Vlietinck, R; Thomis, M A I

    2008-05-01

    Maintenance of high muscular fitness is positively related to bone health, functionality in daily life and increasing insulin sensitivity, and negatively related to falls and fractures, morbidity and mortality. Heritability of muscle strength phenotypes ranges between 31% and 95%, but little is known about the identity of the genes underlying this complex trait. As a first attempt, this genome-wide linkage study aimed to identify chromosomal regions linked to muscle and bone cross-sectional area, isometric knee flexion and extension torque, and torque-length relationship for knee flexors and extensors. In total, 283 informative male siblings (17-36 years old), belonging to 105 families, were used to conduct a genome-wide SNP-based multipoint linkage analysis. The strongest evidence for linkage was found for the torque-length relationship of the knee flexors at 14q24.3 (LOD = 4.09; p<10(-5)). Suggestive evidence for linkage was found at 14q32.2 (LOD = 3.00; P = 0.005) for muscle and bone cross-sectional area, at 2p24.2 (LOD = 2.57; p = 0.01) for isometric knee torque at 30 degrees flexion, at 1q21.3, 2p23.3 and 18q11.2 (LOD = 2.33, 2.69 and 2.21; p<10(-4) for all) for the torque-length relationship of the knee extensors and at 18p11.31 (LOD = 2.39; p = 0.0004) for muscle-mass adjusted isometric knee extension torque. We conclude that many small contributing genes rather than a few important genes are involved in causing variation in different underlying phenotypes of muscle strength. Furthermore, some overlap in promising genomic regions were identified among different strength phenotypes.

  11. Three-fold increase of M1 strength in 40Ar at 10 MeV excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Werner; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tonchev, Anton

    2017-09-01

    We reexamined the excitation energy region of 40Ar around 9.8 MeV with the goal of determining the known M1 strength located at 9.76 MeV more accurately. The physics motivation was based on the fact that i) the neutrino-nucleus interaction cross section is proportional to the M1 strength of a nucleus, ii) DUNE, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at SURF will be using liquid argon as detector medium, iii) the energy spectrum of supernova neutrinos is peaked at approximately 10 MeV. Mono-energetic and linearly polarized photons of 9.88 MeV were produced via Compton backscattering of 548 nm FEL photons from 543 MeV electrons at the High-Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS) facility at TUNL. The 1.25 cm diameter photon beam with energy spread of 300 keV (FWHM) interacted with argon gas contained in a high-pressure cell. The cell was viewed with HPGe detectors placed at 90o relative to the incident photon beam in the horizontal and vertical planes to distinguish between E1 and M1 de-excitation γ-rays. Our re-measurement provided an increase in M1 strength by a factor of approximately 3, mostly due to the discovery that the known level in 40Ar at 9.84 MeV is of M1 character and not of E1 character, as previously thought. In addition to the already known M1 state at 9.76 MeV, we observed weaker M1 states at 9.70, 9.81, 9.87, and 9.89 MeV.

  12. Increasing the strength and bioactivity of collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of 3D-printed polymer fibers.

    PubMed

    Mozdzen, Laura C; Rodgers, Ryan; Banks, Jessica M; Bailey, Ryan C; Harley, Brendan A C

    2016-03-01

    substrates have significant potential for addressing these defects. However, the high porosity required to facilitate cell infiltration and nutrient transport often dictates that the resultant biomaterials has insufficient biomechanical strength. Here we describe the use of three-dimensional printing techniques to generate customizable fiber arrays from ABS polymer that can be incorporated into a collagen scaffold under development for tendon repair applications. Notably, the mechanical performance of the fiber-scaffold composite can be defined by the fiber array independent of the bioactivity of the collagen scaffold design. Further, the fiber array provides a substrate for growth factor delivery to aid healing. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sublingual testosterone replacement improves muscle mass and strength, decreases bone resorption, and increases bone formation markers in hypogonadal men--a clinical research center study.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Eyre, D R; Clark, R; Kleinberg, D; Newman, C; Iranmanesh, A; Veldhuis, J; Dudley, R E; Berman, N; Davidson, T; Barstow, T J; Sinow, R; Alexander, G; Swerdloff, R S

    1996-10-01

    To study the effects of androgen replacement therapy on muscle mass and strength and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal men, we administered sublingual testosterone (T) cyclodextrin (SLT; 5 mg, three times daily) to 67 hypogonadal men (baseline serum T, < 8.4 nmol/L) recruited from 4 centers in the U.S.: Torrance (n = 34), Durham (n = 12), New York (n = 9), and Salem (n = 12). Subjects who had received prior T therapy were withdrawn from injections for at least 6 weeks and from oral therapy for 4 weeks. Body composition, muscle strength, and serum and urinary bone turnover markers were measured before and after 6 months of SLT. We have shown previously that this regimen for 60 days will maintain adequate serum T levels and restore sexual function. Total body (P = 0.0104) and lean body mass (P = 0.007) increased with SLT treatment in the 34 subjects in whom body composition was assessed. There was no significant change in total body fat or percent fat. The increase in lean body mass was mainly in the legs; the right leg lean mass increased from 8.9 +/- 0.3 kg at 0 months to 9.2 +/- 0.3 kg at 6 months (P = 0.0008). This increase in leg lean mass was associated with increased leg muscle strength, assessed by leg press (0 months, 139.0 +/- 4.0 kg; 6 months, 147.7 +/- 4.2 kg; P = 0.0038). SLT replacement in hypogonadal men led to small, but significant, decreases in serum Ca (P = 0.0029) and the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (P = 0.0066), which were associated with increases in serum PTH (P = 0.0001). At baseline, the urinary type I collagen-cross linked N-telopeptides/creatinine ratio [75.6 +/- 7.9 nmol bone collagen equivalents (BCE/mmol] was twice the normal adult male mean (41.0 +/- 3.6 nmol BCE/mmol) and was significantly decreased in response to SLT treatment at 6 months (68.2 +/- 7.7 nmol BCE/mmol; P = 0.0304) without significant changes in urinary creatinine. Serum skeletal alkaline phosphatase did not change. In addition, SLT replacement caused significant

  14. A significant increase in both basal and maximal calcineurin activity in the rat pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kurz, J E; Sheets, D; Parsons, J T; Rana, A; Delorenzo, R J; Churn, S B

    2001-07-01

    This study focused on the effects of status epilepticus on the activity of calcineurin, a neuronally enriched, calcium-dependent phosphatase. Calcineurin is an important modulator of many neuronal processes, including learning and memory, induction of apoptosis, receptor function and neuronal excitability. Therefore, a status epilepticus-induced alteration of the activity of this important phosphatase would have significant physiological implications. Status epilepticus was induced by pilocarpine injection and allowed to continue for 60 min. Brain region homogenates were then assayed for calcineurin activity by dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenol phosphate. A significant status epilepticus-dependent increase in both basal and Mn(2+)-dependent calcineurin activity was observed in homogenates isolated from the cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. This increase was resistant to 150 nM okadaic acid, but sensitive to 50 microM okadaic acid. The increase in basal activity was also resistant to 100 microM sodium orthovanadate. Both maximal dephosphorylation rate and substrate affinity were increased following status epilepticus. However, the increase in calcineurin activity was not found to be due to an increase in calcineurin enzyme levels. Finally, increase in calcineurin activity was found to be NMDA-receptor activation dependent. The data demonstrate that status epilepticus resulted in a significant increase in both basal and maximal calcineurin activity.

  15. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  16. Genome-wide linkage scan for maximum and length-dependent knee muscle strength in young men: significant evidence for linkage at chromosome 14q24.3

    PubMed Central

    De Mars, G; Windelinckx, A; Huygens, W; Peeters, M W; Beunen, G P; Aerssens, J; Vlietinck, R; Thomis, M A I

    2008-01-01

    Background: Maintenance of high muscular fitness is positively related to bone health, functionality in daily life and increasing insulin sensitivity, and negatively related to falls and fractures, morbidity and mortality. Heritability of muscle strength phenotypes ranges between 31% and 95%, but little is known about the identity of the genes underlying this complex trait. As a first attempt, this genome-wide linkage study aimed to identify chromosomal regions linked to muscle and bone cross-sectional area, isometric knee flexion and extension torque, and torque–length relationship for knee flexors and extensors. Methods: In total, 283 informative male siblings (17–36 years old), belonging to 105 families, were used to conduct a genome-wide SNP-based multipoint linkage analysis. Results: The strongest evidence for linkage was found for the torque–length relationship of the knee flexors at 14q24.3 (LOD  = 4.09; p<10−5). Suggestive evidence for linkage was found at 14q32.2 (LOD  = 3.00; P = 0.005) for muscle and bone cross-sectional area, at 2p24.2 (LOD  = 2.57; p = 0.01) for isometric knee torque at 30° flexion, at 1q21.3, 2p23.3 and 18q11.2 (LOD  = 2.33, 2.69 and 2.21; p<10−4 for all) for the torque–length relationship of the knee extensors and at 18p11.31 (LOD  = 2.39; p = 0.0004) for muscle-mass adjusted isometric knee extension torque. Conclusions: We conclude that many small contributing genes rather than a few important genes are involved in causing variation in different underlying phenotypes of muscle strength. Furthermore, some overlap in promising genomic regions were identified among different strength phenotypes. PMID:18178634

  17. A significant increase in both basal and maximal calcineurin activity following fluid percussion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Jonathan E; Parsons, J Travis; Rana, Aniruddha; Gibson, Cynthia J; Hamm, Robert J; Churn, Severn B

    2005-04-01

    Calcineurin, a neuronally enriched, calcium-stimulated phosphatase, is an important modulator of many neuronal processes, including several that are physiologically related to the pathology of traumatic brain injury. This study examined the effects of moderate, central fluid percussion injury on the activity of this important neuronal enzyme. Animals were sacrificed at several time-points postinjury and cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar homogenates were assayed for calcineurin activity by dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenol phosphate. A significant brain injury-dependent increase was observed in both hippocampal and cortical homogenates under both basal and maximally-stimulated reaction conditions. This increase persisted 2-3 weeks post-injury. Brain injury did not alter substrate affinity, but did induce a significant increase in the apparent maximal dephosphorylation rate. Unlike the other brain regions, no change in calcineurin activity was observed in the cerebellum following brain injury. No brain region tested displayed a significant change in calcineurin enzyme levels as determined by Western blot, demonstrating that increased enzyme synthesis was not responsible for the observed increase in activity. The data support the conclusion that fluid percussion injury results in increased calcineurin activity in the rat forebrain. This increased activity has broad physiological implications, possibly resulting in altered cellular excitability or a greater likelihood of neuronal cell death.

  18. ACTN3 genotype is associated with increases in muscle strength in response to resistance training in women.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Priscilla M; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Thompson, Paul D; Hubal, Monica J; Urso, Maria; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Seip, Richard L; Hoffman, Eric P

    2005-07-01

    The alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) gene encodes a protein of the Z disk of myofibers, and a polymorphism of ACTN3 results in complete loss of the protein. The ACTN3 genotype (R577X) has been found to be associated with performance in Australian elite athletes (Yang N, MacArthur DG, Gulbin JP, Hahn AG, Beggs AH, Easteal S, and North K. Am J Hum Genet 73: 627-631, 2003). We studied associations between ACTN3 genotype and muscle size [cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and elbow flexor isometric (MVC) and dynamic [1-repetition maximum (1-RM)] strength in a large group of men (N = 247) and women (N = 355) enrolled in a 12-wk standardized elbow flexor/extensor resistance training program of the nondominant arm at one of eight study centers. We found no association between ACTN3 R577X genotype and muscle phenotype in men. However, women homozygous for the ACTN3 577X allele (XX) had lower baseline MVC compared with heterozygotes (P < 0.05) when adjusted for body mass and age. Women homozygous for the mutant allele (577X) demonstrated greater absolute and relative 1-RM gains compared with the homozygous wild type (RR) after resistance training when adjusted for body mass and age (P < 0.05). There was a trend for a dose-response with genotype such that gains were greatest for XX and least for RR. Significant associations were validated in at least one ethnic subpopulation (Caucasians, Asians) and were independent of training volume. About 2% of baseline MVC and of 1-RM strength gain after training were attributable to ACTN3 genotype (likelihood-ratio test P value, P = 0.01), suggesting that ACTN3 is one of many genes contributing to genetic variation in muscle performance and adaptation to exercise.

  19. Strength training increases the size of the satellite cell pool in type I and II fibres of chronically painful trapezius muscle in females.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Abigail L; Andersen, Lars L; Frandsen, Ulrik; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2011-11-15

    While strength training has been shown to be effective in mediating hypertrophy and reducing pain in trapezius myalgia, responses at the cellular level have not previously been studied. This study investigated the potential of strength training targeting the affected muscles (SST, n = 18) and general fitness training (GFT, n = 16) to augment the satellite cell (SC) and macrophage pools in the trapezius muscles of women diagnosed with trapezius myalgia. A group receiving general health information (REF, n = 8) served as a control. Muscle biopsies were collected from the trapezius muscles of the 42 women (age 44 ± 8 years; mean ± SD) before and after the 10 week intervention period and were analysed by immunohistochemistry for SCs, macrophages and myonuclei. The SC content of type I and II fibres was observed to increase significantly from baseline by 65% and 164%, respectively, with SST (P < 0.0001), together with a significant correlation between the baseline number of SCs and the extent of hypertrophy (r = -0.669, P = 0.005). SST also resulted in a 74% enhancement of the trapezius macrophage content (P < 0.01), accompanied by evidence for the presence of an increased number of actively dividing cells (Ki67(+)) post-SST (P < 0.001). GFT resulted in a significant 23% increase in the SC content of type II fibres, when expressed relative to myonuclear number only (P < 0.05). No changes in the number of myonuclei per fibre or myonuclear domain were detected in any group. These findings provide strong support at the cellular level for the potential of SST to induce a strong myogenic response in this population.

  20. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    PubMed

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Adult Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates anabolic response to sclerostin antibody treatment with increased bone mass and strength.

    PubMed

    Sinder, B P; White, L E; Salemi, J D; Ominsky, M S; Caird, M S; Marini, J C; Kozloff, K M

    2014-08-01

    Treatments to reduce fracture rates in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta are limited. Sclerostin antibody, developed for treating osteoporosis, has not been explored in adults with OI. This study demonstrates that treatment of adult OI mice respond favorably to sclerostin antibody therapy despite retention of the OI-causing defect. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk. Although OI fracture risk is greatest before puberty, adults with OI remain at risk of fracture. Antiresorptive bisphosphonates are commonly used to treat adult OI, but have shown mixed efficacy. New treatments which consistently improve bone mass throughout the skeleton may improve patient outcomes. Neutralizing antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) are a novel anabolic therapy that have shown efficacy in preclinical studies by stimulating bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Scl-Ab in an adult 6 month old Brtl/+ model of OI that harbors a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly > Cys substitution on Col1a1. Six-month-old WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated with Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2×/week) or Veh for 5 weeks. OCN and TRACP5b serum assays, dynamic histomorphometry, microCT and mechanical testing were performed. Adult Brtl/+ mice demonstrated a strong anabolic response to Scl-Ab with increased serum osteocalcin and bone formation rate. This anabolic response led to improved trabecular and cortical bone mass in the femur. Mechanical testing revealed Scl-Ab increased Brtl/+ femoral stiffness and strength. Scl-Ab was successfully anabolic in an adult Brtl/+ model of OI.

  2. A myostatin inhibitor (propeptide-Fc) increases muscle mass and muscle fiber size in aged mice but does not increase bone density or bone strength.

    PubMed

    Arounleut, Phonepasong; Bialek, Peter; Liang, Li-Fang; Upadhyay, Sunil; Fulzele, Sadanand; Johnson, Maribeth; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    Loss of muscle and bone mass with age are significant contributors to falls and fractures among the elderly. Myostatin deficiency is associated with increased muscle mass in mice, dogs, cows, sheep and humans, and mice lacking myostatin have been observed to show increased bone density in the limb, spine, and jaw. Transgenic overexpression of myostatin propeptide, which binds to and inhibits the active myostatin ligand, also increases muscle mass and bone density in mice. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that in vivo inhibition of myostatin using an injectable myostatin propeptide (GDF8 propeptide-Fc) would increase both muscle mass and bone density in aged (24 mo) mice. Male mice were injected weekly (20 mg/kg body weight) with recombinant myostatin propeptide-Fc (PRO) or vehicle (VEH; saline) for four weeks. There was no difference in body weight between the two groups at the end of the treatment period, but PRO treatment significantly increased mass of the tibialis anterior muscle (+ 7%) and increased muscle fiber diameter of the extensor digitorum longus (+ 16%) and soleus (+ 6%) muscles compared to VEH treatment. Bone volume relative to total volume (BV/TV) of the femur calculated by microCT did not differ significantly between PRO- and VEH-treated mice, and ultimate force (Fu), stiffness (S), toughness (U) measured from three-point bending tests also did not differ significantly between groups. Histomorphometric assays also revealed no differences in bone formation or resorption in response to PRO treatment. These data suggest that while developmental perturbation of myostatin signaling through either gene knockout or transgenic inhibition may alter both muscle and bone mass in mice, pharmacological inhibition of myostatin in aged mice has a more pronounced effect on skeletal muscle than on bone. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  4. Increased expression of Rab coupling protein in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    DAI, YAOZHANG; LIU, YONG; HUANG, DONGHAI; YU, CHANGYUN; CAI, GENGMING; PI, LEIMING; REN, CAIPING; CHEN, GEORGIA Z.; TIAN, YONGQUAN; ZHANG, XIN

    2012-01-01

    The role of Rab coupling protein (RCP) has not been previously investigated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The aim of this study was to explore RCP protein expression and its clinicopathological significance in SCCHN. RCP protein expression in 95 SCCHN samples, 18 vocal nodule epithelia and 16 leukoplakia epithelia samples was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome. Our data indicated that vocal nodule epithelia, leukoplakia epithelia and SCCHN showed a gradual increase in the expression of RCP protein. RCP overexpression was significantly associated with T classification, clinical staging, lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Survival analysis revealed that a high RCP expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. In conclusion, RCP protein may contribute to the malignant progression of SCCHN, and serves as a novel prognostic marker in patients with SCCHN. PMID:22783424

  5. Increased expression of Rab coupling protein in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yaozhang; Liu, Yong; Huang, Donghai; Yu, Changyun; Cai, Gengming; Pi, Leiming; Ren, Caiping; Chen, Georgia Z; Tian, Yongquan; Zhang, Xin

    2012-06-01

    The role of Rab coupling protein (RCP) has not been previously investigated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The aim of this study was to explore RCP protein expression and its clinicopathological significance in SCCHN. RCP protein expression in 95 SCCHN samples, 18 vocal nodule epithelia and 16 leukoplakia epithelia samples was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome. Our data indicated that vocal nodule epithelia, leukoplakia epithelia and SCCHN showed a gradual increase in the expression of RCP protein. RCP overexpression was significantly associated with T classification, clinical staging, lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Survival analysis revealed that a high RCP expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. In conclusion, RCP protein may contribute to the malignant progression of SCCHN, and serves as a novel prognostic marker in patients with SCCHN.

  6. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review.

    PubMed

    Crone, Brian C; Garland, Jay L; Sorial, George A; Vane, Leland M

    2016-11-01

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low removal efficiencies (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), and Nutrients), alkalinity demand, and potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have limited its application to warmer climates. Although well designed anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) are able to effectively treat DWW at psychrophilic temperatures (10-30 °C), lower temperatures increase methane solubility leading to increased energy losses in the form of dissolved methane in the effluent. Estimates of dissolved methane losses are typically based on concentrations calculated using Henry's Law but advection limitations can lead to supersaturation of methane between 1.34 and 6.9 times equilibrium concentrations and 11-100% of generated methane being lost in the effluent. In well mixed systems such as AnMBRs which use biogas sparging to control membrane fouling, actual concentrations approach equilibrium values. Non-porous membranes have been used to recover up to 92.6% of dissolved methane and well suited for degassing effluents of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors which have considerable solids and organic contents and can cause pore wetting and clogging in microporous membrane modules. Microporous membranes can recover up to 98.9% of dissolved methane in AnMBR effluents which have low COD and SS concentrations. Sequential Down-flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors have been used to recover between 57 and 88% of dissolved methane from Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor effluent at concentrations of greater than 30% and oxidize the rest for a 99% removal of total dissolved methane. They can also remove 90% of suspended solids and COD in UASB effluents and produce a high quality effluent. In

  7. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic perturbations that impair functional trait interactions lead to reduced bone strength and increased fragility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M.; Bigelow, Erin M.R.; Nolan, Bonnie T.; Faillace, Meghan E.; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Functional adaptation may complicate the choice of phenotype used in genetic studies that seek to identify genes contributing to fracture susceptibility. Often, genetic variants affecting one trait are compensated by coordinated changes in other traits. Bone fracture is a prototypic example because mechanical function of long bones (stiffness and strength) depends on how the system coordinately adjusts the amount (cortical area) and quality (tissue-mineral density, TMD) of bone tissue to mechanically offset the natural variation in bone robustness (total area/length). We propose that efforts aimed at identifying genes regulating fracture resistance will benefit from better understanding how functional adaptation contributes to the genotype-phenotype relationship. We analyzed the femurs of C57BL/6J – ChrA/J/NaJ Chromosome Substitution Strains (CSSs) to systemically interrogate the mouse genome for chromosomes harboring genes that regulate mechanical function. These CSSs (CSS-i, i = the substituted chromosome) showed changes in mechanical function on the order of -26.6 to 11.5% relative to the B6 reference strain after adjusting for body size. Seven substitutions showed altered robustness, cortical area, or TMD, but no effect on mechanical function (CSS-4, 5, 8, 9, 17, 18, 19); six substitutions showed altered robustness, cortical area, or TMD, and reduced mechanical function (CSS-1, 2, 6, 10, 12, 15); and one substitution also showed reduced mechanical function but exhibited no significant changes in the three physical traits analyzed in this study (CSS-3). A key feature that distinguished CSSs that maintained function from those with reduced function was whether the system adjusted cortical area and TMD to the levels needed to compensate for the natural variation in bone robustness. These results provide a novel biomechanical mechanism linking genotype with phenotype, indicating that genes control function not only by regulating individual traits, but also by

  9. Increased expression of VEGF121/VEGF165-189 ratio results in a significant enhancement of human prostate tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Catena, Raul; Muniz-Medina, Vanessa; Moralejo, Beatriz; Javierre, Biola; Best, Carolyn J M; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Green, Jeffrey E; Baker, Carl C; Calvo, Alfonso

    2007-05-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic factor upregulated in many tumors. The alternative splicing of VEGF mRNA renders 3 major isoforms of 121, 165 and 189 amino-acids in humans (1 less amino-acid for each mouse VEGF isoform). We have designed isoform specific real time QRT-PCR assays to quantitate VEGF transcripts in mouse and human normal and malignant prostates. In the human normal prostate, VEGF(165) was the predominant isoform (62.8% +/- 5.2%), followed by VEGF(121) (22.5% +/- 6.3%) and VEGF(189) (p < 0.001) (14.6% +/- 2.1%). Prostate tumors showed a significant increase in the percentage of VEGF(121) and decreases in VEGF(165) (p < 0.01) and VEGF(189) (p < 0.05). However, the amount of total VEGF mRNA was similar between normal and malignant prostates. VEGF(164) was the transcript with the highest expression in the mouse normal prostate. Unlike human prostate cancer, tumors from TRAMP mice demonstrated a significant increase in total VEGF mRNA levels and in each of the VEGF isoforms, without changes in the relative isoform ratios. Morpholino phosphorodiamide antisense oligonucleotide technology was used to increase the relative amount of VEGF(121) while proportionally decreasing VEGF(165) and VEGF(189) levels in human prostate cell lines, through the modification of alternative splicing, without changing transcription levels and total amount of VEGF. The increase in the VEGF(121)/VEGF(165-189) ratio in PC3 cells resulted in a dramatic increase in prostate tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Our results underscore the importance of VEGF(121) in human prostate carcinoma and demonstrate that the relative expression of the different VEGF isoforms has an impact on prostate carcinogenesis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Reconstruction of metabolic module with improved promoter strength increases the productivity of 2-phenylethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyue; Jiang, Mingyue; Guo, Xuena; Liu, Zhaozheng; He, Xiuping

    2018-04-11

    2-phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important aromatic compound with a lovely rose-like scent. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a desirable microbe for 2-PE production but its natural yield is not high, and one or two crucial genes' over-expression in S. cerevisiae did not improve 2-PE greatly. A new metabolic module was established here, in which, permease Gap1p for L-phenylalanine transportation, catalytic enzymes Aro8p, Aro10p and Adh2p in Ehrlich pathway respectively responsible for transamination, decarboxylation and reduction were assembled, besides, glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh2p was harbored for re-supplying another substrate 2-oxoglutarate, relieving product glutamate repression and regenerating cofactor NADH. Due to different promoter strengths, GAP1, ARO8, ARO9, ARO10, ADH2 and GDH2 in the new modularized YS58(G1-A8-A10-A2)-GDH strain enhanced 11.6-, 15.4-, 3.6-, 17.7-, 12.4- and 7.5-folds respectively, and crucial enzyme activities of aromatic aminotransferases and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase were 4.8- and 7-folds respectively higher than that of the control. Under the optimum medium and cell density, YS58(G1-A8-A10-A2)-GDH presented efficient 2-PE synthesis ability with ~ 6.3 g L -1 of 2-PE titer in 5-L fermenter reaching 95% of conversation ratio. Under fed-batch fermentation, 2-PE productivity at 24 h increased 29% than that of single-batch fermentation. Metabolic modularization with promoter strategy provides a new prospective for efficient 2-PE production.

  11. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Hsin; Lee, Ching-Yi

    2016-01-01

    For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator "a". The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator "a" can reflect intracranial conditions. Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20-25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter "a". The overall mean for indicator "a" was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of "a" in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (p<0.001). The indicator "a" of a pressure-volume curve can reflect the dynamic intracranial condition and is comparable in different situations. A significantly larger indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is always observed in severe intracranial mass lesions with cerebral edema. A significantly smaller indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is observed in hydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator "a" is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume pressure indicator.

  12. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator “a”. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator “a” can reflect intracranial conditions. Methods Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20–25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter “a”. Results The overall mean for indicator “a” was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of “a” in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (p<0.001). Conclusion The indicator “a” of a pressure-volume curve can reflect the dynamic intracranial condition and is comparable in different situations. A significantly larger indicator “a” with increased intracranial pressure is always observed in severe intracranial mass lesions with cerebral edema. A significantly smaller indicator “a” with increased intracranial pressure is observed in hydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator “a” is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume

  13. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  14. Mutagenesis of a bacteriophage lytic enzyme PlyGBS significantly increases its antibacterial activity against group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2007-04-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of neonatal meningitis and sepsis worldwide. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is the current prevention strategy given to pregnant women with confirmed vaginal GBS colonization. Due to antibiotic resistance identified in GBS, we previously developed another strategy using a bacteriophage lytic enzyme, PlyGBS, to reduce vaginal GBS colonization. In this study, various DNA mutagenesis methods were explored to produce PlyGBS mutants with increased lytic activity against GBS. Several hyperactive mutants were identified that contain only the endopeptidase domain found in the N-terminal region of PlyGBS and represent only about one-third of the wild-type PlyGBS in length. Significantly, these mutants not only have 18-28-fold increases in specific activities compared to PlyGBS, but they also have a similar activity spectrum against several streptococcal species. One of the hyperactive mutants, PlyGBS90-1, reduced the GBS colonization from >5 logs of growth per mouse to <50 colony-forming units (cfu) 4 h post treatment ( approximately 4-log reduction) using a single dose in a mouse vaginal model. A reduction in GBS colonization before delivery should significantly reduce neonatal GBS infection providing a safe alternative to IAP.

  15. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Schaff, Cody W.; Horne, Alexandra J.; Lessner, Faith H.

    2014-01-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens. PMID:24222618

  16. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  17. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. METHODS: A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. RESULTS: The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers. PMID:26937145

  18. The Use of Intraoperative Sensors Significantly Increases the Patient-Reported Rate of Improvement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chow, James C; Breslauer, Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Albeit multifactorial, patient satisfaction is predominantly driven by postoperative pain and function. Unfortunately, approximately 20% of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) recipients are dissatisfied with the outcome of their surgery. Objective balancing of the soft tissue envelope may contribute to significant decrease in pain and increase in function when compared with traditional subjective methods. In an effort to confirm this, a cohort of manual TKA patient outcomes was compared with sensor-assisted TKA outcomes. One hundred fourteen patients (57 manual, 57 sensor assisted) received primary TKA. Both cohorts were matched for confounding variables. The dependent variables in this study were 6-month patient-reported outcome measures, including Knee Society Score and Oxford Knee Score. The range of motion and incidence of arthrofibrosis were also captured for both cohorts. The rate of improvement of all patient-reported outcome scores and subscores and range of motion was significantly higher in the sensor-assisted cohort. The rate of arthrofibrosis was lower in the sensor-assisted cohort but not statistically significant. The authors rejected the null hypothesis and concluded that the rate of improvement in objective, patient-reported outcome measures was higher in the sensor-assisted cohort than the manual cohort from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e648-e651.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  20. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cos...

  1. A mouse anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and improves muscle strength and contractility in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its humanized equivalent, domagrozumab (PF-06252616), increases muscle volume in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    St Andre, Michael; Johnson, Mark; Bansal, Prashant N; Wellen, Jeremy; Robertson, Andrew; Opsahl, Alan; Burch, Peter M; Bialek, Peter; Morris, Carl; Owens, Jane

    2017-11-09

    The treatments currently approved for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a progressive skeletal muscle wasting disease, address the needs of only a small proportion of patients resulting in an urgent need for therapies that benefit all patients regardless of the underlying mutation. Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of ligands and is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Loss of myostatin has been shown to increase muscle mass and improve muscle function in both normal and dystrophic mice. Therefore, myostatin blockade via a specific antibody could ameliorate the muscle weakness in DMD patients by increasing skeletal muscle mass and function, thereby reducing patients' functional decline. A murine anti-myostatin antibody, mRK35, and its humanized analog, domagrozumab, were developed and their ability to inhibit several TGB-β ligands was measured using a cell-based Smad-activity reporter system. Normal and mdx mice were treated with mRK35 to examine the antibody's effect on body weight, lean mass, muscle weights, grip strength, ex vivo force production, and fiber size. The humanized analog (domagrozumab) was tested in non-human primates (NHPs) for changes in skeletal muscle mass and volume as well as target engagement via modulation of circulating myostatin. Both the murine and human antibodies are specific and potent inhibitors of myostatin and GDF11. mRK35 is able to increase body weight, lean mass, and muscle weights in normal mice. In mdx mice, mRK35 significantly increased body weight, muscle weights, grip strength, and ex vivo force production in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Further, tibialis anterior (TA) fiber size was significantly increased. NHPs treated with domagrozumab demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in lean mass and muscle volume and exhibited increased circulating levels of myostatin demonstrating target engagement. We demonstrated that the potent anti-myostatin antibody mRK35 and

  2. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A History of Falls is Associated with a Significant Increase in Acute Mortality in Women after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Foster, Emma J; Barlas, Raphae S; Wood, Adrian D; Bettencourt-Silva, Joao H; Clark, Allan B; Metcalf, Anthony K; Bowles, Kristian M; Potter, John F; Myint, Phyo K

    2017-10-01

    The risks of falls and fractures increase after stroke. Little is known about the prognostic significance of previous falls and fractures after stroke. This study examined whether having a history of either event is associated with poststroke mortality. We analyzed stroke register data collected prospectively between 2003 and 2015. Eight sex-specific models were analyzed, to which the following variables were incrementally added to examine their potential confounding effects: age, type of stroke, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification, previous comorbidities, frailty as indicated by the prestroke modified Rankin Scale score, and acute illness parameters. Logistic regression was applied to investigate in-hospital and 30-day mortality, and Cox proportional-hazards models were applied to investigate longer-term outcomes of mortality. In total, 10,477 patients with stroke (86.1% ischemic) were included in the analysis. They were aged 77.7±11.9 years (mean±SD), and 52.2% were women. A history of falls was present in 8.6% of the men (n=430) and 20.2% of the women (n=1,105), while 3.8% (n=189) of the men and 12.9% of the women (n=706) had a history of both falls and fractures. Of the outcomes examined, a history of falls alone was associated with increased in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-1.71] and 30-day mortality (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.03-1.73) in women in the fully adjusted models. The Cox proportional-hazards models for longer-term outcomes and the history of falls and fractures combined showed no significant results. The history of falls is an important factor for acute stroke mortality in women. A previous history of falls may therefore be an important factor to consider in the short-term stroke prognosis, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 Korean Neurological Association

  4. Hypoalbuminemia Is Significantly Associated with Increased Clearance Time of High Dose Methotrexate in Patients Being Treated for Lymphoma or Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Samantha; Buie, Larry; Adel, Nelly; Goldman, Debra A.; Devlin, Sean M.; Douer, Dan

    2017-01-01

    As a weak acid, methotrexate (MTX) is bound to serum albumin and has variable protein binding. The purpose of this study was to assess serum albumin’s relationship with MTX pharmacokinetics by comparing MTX clearance and toxicities between patients with normal serum albumin to those with hypoalbuminemia. This single-center retrospective study included adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma who received their first MTX at a dose ≥ 1 gram/m2. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin ≤ 3.4 g/dL. MTX clearance was defined as the first documented time the MTX level ≤ 0.05 micromolar. Fisher’s Exact tests and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests were used to examine differences in toxicities and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess relationship with time to clearance. Of 523 patients identified, 167 patients were evaluable. One hundred thirty five patients had normal serum albumin and 32 had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a higher proportion of patients experiencing edema, ascites or pleural effusions (34% vs. 12% p=0.006) and the concomitant use of nephrotoxic agents (41% vs. 20% p=0.021). Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a significantly longer time to methotrexate clearance (median: 96 hours vs 72 hour p=0.004). In addition, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher proportion of hyperbilirubinemia and significantly longer hospitalization (median 14 days vs. 5 days p<0.001). In conclusion, hypoalbuminemia was associated with increased time to MTX clearance and increase length of hospitalization. High dose MTX is safe to administer in patients with low albumin levels, with appropriate leucovorin rescue and good supportive care. PMID:27542957

  5. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com; Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY; Packianathan, Satyaseelan

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patientsmore » were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.« less

  6. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, M; Citak, M; Tilkorn, D-J; Meindl, R; Schildhauer, T A; Fehmer, T

    2011-11-01

    Retrospective chart review. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mortality rate and further specific risk factors for Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Division of Spinal Cord Injury, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. All patients with a SCI and a Fournier's gangrene treated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. Following parameters were taken form patients medical records: age, type of SCI, cause of Fournier's gangrene, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, co morbidity factors and mortality rate. In addition, laboratory parameter including the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score and microbiological findings were analyzed. Clinical diagnosis was made via histological examination. A total of 16 male patients (15 paraplegic and one tetraplegic) were included in the study. In 81% of all cases, the origin of Fournier's gangrene was a pressure sore. The median LRINEC score on admission was 6.5. In the vast majority of cases, a polybacterial infection was found. No patient died during the hospital stay. The mean number of surgical debridements before soft tissue closure was 1.9 and after a mean time interval of 39.1 days wound closure was performed in all patients. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing Fournier's gangrene in patients with SCI. We reported the results of our patients to increase awareness among physicians and training staff working with patients with a SCI in order to expedite the diagnosis.

  7. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  8. Little evidence for significant increases of methane emissions from oil and gas operations in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, X.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M.; Miller, B.; Kofler, J.; Newberger, T.; McKain, K.; Wolter, S.; Montzka, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies on whether methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas (ONG) operations in the U.S. have increased are still inconclusive. To provide observational evidence we carefully analyzed the in-situ CH4 measurements from the NOAA/ESRL Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN) for the best estimates of CH4 trends for 2006-2016. Methane data from more than 20 surface and aircraft sites across the U.S. were included in this study. Variations of sampling frequencies in different seasons were taken into account for accurate trend detection. Correlations among measurements within short sampling intervals were also considered for uncertainty estimates. We found that most of our sites had similar CH4 trends of 6 ppb/yr, which was comparable with the recent global background CH4 trend. Substantially higher growth rates were found at the Southern Great Plain site in Oklahoma (SGP, downwind of the Eagle Ford, Barnett Shale and Woodford ONG fields) and the Dahlen sites in North Dakota (DND, downwind of the Bakken ONG field), which indicated influences from regional ONG activities. Ethane (C2H6) measurements from SGP (C2H6 measurements were not available from DND) and propane (C3H8) measurements from both SPG and DND exhibited significant increasing trends, while trends at other sites were either non-significant (trend < 2*S.D.) or only marginally significant. Linear correlations were well identified for surface C3H8 and CH4 enhancements at these two sites, relative to observations at higher altitudes. However, by applying the observed enhancement ratios of surface C3H8 /CH4 and the C3H8 trends (as indicator for ONG emissions) on CH4 trend estimates, we would infer much larger surface CH4 trends than what we actually observed at these two sites. This discrepancy suggests that using enhancement ratios of C3H8 /CH4 is not likely a reliable approach to compute CH4 emission trends.

  9. Single- vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlumberger, Andreas; Stec, Justyna; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Compared the effects of single- and multiple-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training. Both training groups had significant strength improvements in leg extension. In the seated bench press, only the three-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength. There were higher strength gains overall in the…

  10. Strengthening of oxidation resistant materials for gas turbine applications. [treatment of silicon ceramics for increased flexural strength and impact resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics were treated to form compressive surface layers. On the silicon carbide, quenching and thermal exposure treatments were used, and on the silicon nitride, quenching, carburizing, and a combination of quenching and carburizing were used. In some cases substantial improvements in impact resistance and/or flexural strength were observed. The presence of compressive surface stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests.

  11. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  12. 500-Gray γ-Irradiation May Increase Adhesion Strength of Lyophilized Cadaveric Split-Thickness Skin Graft to Wound Bed.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Li, Chun-Chang; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2017-03-01

    Human cadaveric skin grafts are considered as the "gold standard" for temporary wound coverage because they provide a more conductive environment for natural wound healing. Lyophilization, packing, and terminal sterilization with gamma-ray can facilitate the application of cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts, but may alter the adhesion properties of the grafts. In a pilot study, we found that 500 Gy γ-irradiation seemed not to reduce the adherence between the grafts and wound beds. We conducted this experiment to compare the adherences of lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated skin grafts to that of lyophilized, nonirradiated grafts. Pairs of wounds were created over the backs of Sprague- Dawley rats. Pairs of "lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated" and "lyophilized, nonirradiated" cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts were fixed to the wound beds. Adhesion strength between the grafts and the wound beds was measured and compared. On post-skin-graft day 7 and day 10, the adhesion strength of γ-irradiated grafts was greater than that of the nonirradiated grafts. Because lyophilized cadaveric skin grafts can be vascularized and the collagen of its dermal component can be remodeled after grafting, the superior adhesion strength of 500-Gy γ-irradiated grafts can be explained by the collagen changes from irradiation.

  13. Adipose-Derived Stem-Cell-Seeded Non-Cross-Linked Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Increases Cellular Infiltration, Vascular Infiltration, and Mechanical Strength of Ventral Hernia Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Iyyanki, Tejaswi S.; Dunne, Lina W.; Zhang, Qixu; Hubenak, Justin; Turza, Kristin C.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) facilitate wound healing by improving cellular and vascular recruitment to the wound site. Therefore, we investigated whether ASCs would augment a clinically relevant bioprosthetic mesh—non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix (ncl-PADM)—used for ventral hernia repairs in a syngeneic animal model. ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Brown Norway rats, expanded, and labeled with green fluorescent protein. ASCs were seeded (2.5×104 cells/cm2) onto ncl-PADM for 24 h before surgery. In vitro ASC adhesion to ncl-PADM was assessed at 0.5, 1, and 2 h after seeding, and cell morphology on ncl-PADM was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Ventral hernia defects (2×4 cm) were created and repaired with ASC-seeded (n=31) and control (n=32) ncl-PADM. Explants were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after surgery. Explant remodeling outcomes were evaluated using gross evaluation (bowel adhesions, surface area, and grade), histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining), immunohistochemical analysis (von Willebrand factor VIII), fluorescent microscopy, and mechanical strength measurement at the tissue-bioprosthetic mesh interface. Stem cell markers CD29, CD90, CD44, and P4HB were highly expressed in cultured ASCs, whereas endothelial and hematopoietic cell markers, such as CD31, CD90, and CD45 had low expression. Approximately 85% of seeded ASCs adhered to ncl-PADM within 2 h after seeding, which was further confirmed by scanning electron microcopy examination. Gross evaluation of the hernia repairs revealed weak omental adhesion in all groups. Ultimate tensile strength was not significantly different in control and treatment groups. Conversely, elastic modulus was significantly greater at 4 weeks postsurgery in the ASC-seeded group (p<0.001). Cellular infiltration was significantly higher in the ASC-seeded group at all time points (p<0.05). Vascular infiltration was

  14. Adipose-derived stem-cell-seeded non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix increases cellular infiltration, vascular infiltration, and mechanical strength of ventral hernia repairs.

    PubMed

    Iyyanki, Tejaswi S; Dunne, Lina W; Zhang, Qixu; Hubenak, Justin; Turza, Kristin C; Butler, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) facilitate wound healing by improving cellular and vascular recruitment to the wound site. Therefore, we investigated whether ASCs would augment a clinically relevant bioprosthetic mesh-non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix (ncl-PADM)-used for ventral hernia repairs in a syngeneic animal model. ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Brown Norway rats, expanded, and labeled with green fluorescent protein. ASCs were seeded (2.5×10(4) cells/cm(2)) onto ncl-PADM for 24 h before surgery. In vitro ASC adhesion to ncl-PADM was assessed at 0.5, 1, and 2 h after seeding, and cell morphology on ncl-PADM was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Ventral hernia defects (2×4 cm) were created and repaired with ASC-seeded (n=31) and control (n=32) ncl-PADM. Explants were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after surgery. Explant remodeling outcomes were evaluated using gross evaluation (bowel adhesions, surface area, and grade), histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining), immunohistochemical analysis (von Willebrand factor VIII), fluorescent microscopy, and mechanical strength measurement at the tissue-bioprosthetic mesh interface. Stem cell markers CD29, CD90, CD44, and P4HB were highly expressed in cultured ASCs, whereas endothelial and hematopoietic cell markers, such as CD31, CD90, and CD45 had low expression. Approximately 85% of seeded ASCs adhered to ncl-PADM within 2 h after seeding, which was further confirmed by scanning electron microcopy examination. Gross evaluation of the hernia repairs revealed weak omental adhesion in all groups. Ultimate tensile strength was not significantly different in control and treatment groups. Conversely, elastic modulus was significantly greater at 4 weeks postsurgery in the ASC-seeded group (p<0.001). Cellular infiltration was significantly higher in the ASC-seeded group at all time points (p<0.05). Vascular infiltration was

  15. Modification of the Structure of Low-Carbon Pipe Steel by Helical Rolling, and the Increase in Its Strength and Cold Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyagina, L. S.; Gordienko, A. I.; Pochivalov, Yu. I.; Smirnova, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports the investigation results on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon pipe steel after helical rolling. The processing of the steel leads to the refinement of ferritic grains from 12 (for the coarse-grained state) to 5 μm, to the strengthening of ferrite by carbide particles, a decrease in the total fraction of perlite grains, a more uniform alternation of ferrite and perlite, and the formation of regions with bainitic structure. The mechanical properties of the steel have been determined in the conditions of static and dynamic loading in the range of test temperatures from +20 to-70°C. As a result of processing, the ultimate tensile strength increases (from 650 to 770 MPa at a rolling temperature from 920°C) and the viscoplastic properties at negative temperatures are improved significantly. The ductile-brittle transition temperature of the rolled steel decreases from-32 to-55°C and the impact toughness at the test temperature-40°C increases eight times compared to the initial state of the steel.

  16. Beneficial use of off-specification fly ashes to increase the shear strength and stiffness of expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixtures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    The use of off-specification fly ashes to increase the shear strength and stiffness of an expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixture is investigated systematically in this study. The off-specification fly ashes used include a high-sulfur content and a high-...

  17. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Chromosome Introgression Fragments from Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) Increase Fiber Strength in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Lu, Quanwei; Shi, Yuzhen; Xiao, Xianghui; Li, Pengtao; Gong, Juwu; Gong, Wankui; Liu, Aiying; Shang, Haihong; Li, Junwen; Ge, Qun; Song, Weiwu; Li, Shaoqi; Zhang, Zhen; Rashid, Md Harun Or; Peng, Renhai; Yuan, Youlu; Huang, Jinling

    2017-10-05

    As high-strength cotton fibers are critical components of high quality cotton, developing cotton cultivars with high-strength fibers as well as high yield is a top priority for cotton development. Recently, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) have been developed from high-yield Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) crossed with high-quality Sea Island cotton ( G. barbadense ). Here, we constructed a CSSL population by crossing CCRI45, a high-yield Upland cotton cultivar, with Hai1, a Sea Island cotton cultivar with superior fiber quality. We then selected two CSSLs with significantly higher fiber strength than CCRI45 (MBI7747 and MBI7561), and one CSSL with lower fiber strength than CCRI45 (MBI7285), for further analysis. We sequenced all four transcriptomes at four different time points postanthesis, and clustered the 44,678 identified genes by function. We identified 2200 common differentially-expressed genes (DEGs): those that were found in both high quality CSSLs (MBI7747 and MBI7561), but not in the low quality CSSL (MBI7285). Many of these genes were associated with various metabolic pathways that affect fiber strength. Upregulated DEGs were associated with polysaccharide metabolic regulation, single-organism localization, cell wall organization, and biogenesis, while the downregulated DEGs were associated with microtubule regulation, the cellular response to stress, and the cell cycle. Further analyses indicated that three genes, XLOC_036333 [mannosyl-oligosaccharide-α-mannosidase ( MNS1 )], XLOC_029945 ( FLA8 ), and XLOC_075372 ( snakin-1 ), were potentially important for the regulation of cotton fiber strength. Our results suggest that these genes may be good candidates for future investigation of the molecular mechanisms of fiber strength formation and for the improvement of cotton fiber quality through molecular breeding. Copyright © 2017 Lu et al.

  18. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  19. Innovative strength training-induced neuroplasticity and increased muscle size and strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy: an experimenter-blind case study--three-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Dong A; Lee, Jung Ah; Hwang, Pil Woo; Lee, Min Jin; You, Sung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In children with cerebral palsy (CP), the never-learned-to-use (NLTU) effect and underutilization suppress the normal development of cortical plasticity in the paretic limb, which further inhibits its functional use and increases associated muscle weakness. To highlight the effects of a novel comprehensive hand repetitive intensive strengthening training system on neuroplastic changes associated with upper extremity (UE) muscle strength and motor performance in children with spastic hemiplegic CP. Two children with spastic hemiplegic CP were recruited. Intervention with the comprehensive hand repetitive intensive strengthening training system was provided for 60 min a day, three times a week, for 10 weeks. Neuroplastic changes, muscle size, strength, and associated motor function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, and standardized motor tests, respectively. The functional MRI data showed that the comprehensive hand repetitive intensive strengthening training intervention produced measurable neuroplastic changes in the neural substrates associated with motor control and learning. These neuroplastic changes were associated with increased muscle size, strength and motor function. These results provide compelling evidence of neuroplastic changes and associated improvements in muscle size and motor function following innovative upper extremity strengthening exercise.

  20. Genetic selection to increase bone strength affects prevalence of keel bone damage and egg parameters in commercially housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, A; Fröhlich, E K F; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Harlander-Matauschek, A; Würbel, H; Toscano, M J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of keel bone damage as well as external egg parameters of 2 pure lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) bone strength were investigated in 2 aviary systems under commercial conditions. A standard LSL hybrid was used as a reference group. Birds were kept mixed per genetic line (77 hens of the H and L line and 201 or 206 hens of the LSL line, respectively, per pen) in 8 pens of 2 aviary systems differing in design. Keel bone status and body mass of 20 focal hens per line and pen were assessed at 17, 18, 23, 30, 36, 43, 52, and 63 wk of age. External egg parameters (i.e., egg mass, eggshell breaking strength, thickness, and mass) were measured using 10 eggs per line at both 38 and 57 wk of age. Body parameters (i.e. tarsus and third primary wing feather length to calculate index of wing loading) were recorded at 38 wk of age and mortality per genetic line throughout the laying cycle. Bone mineral density (BMD) of 15 keel bones per genetic line was measured after slaughter to confirm assignment of the experimental lines. We found a greater BMD in the H compared with the L and LSL lines. Fewer keel bone fractures and deviations, a poorer external egg quality, as well as a lower index of wing loading were found in the H compared with the L line. Mortality was lower and production parameters (e.g., laying performance) were higher in the LSL line compared with the 2 experimental lines. Aviary design affected prevalence of keel bone damage, body mass, and mortality. We conclude that selection of specific bone traits associated with bone strength as well as the related differences in body morphology (i.e., lower index of wing loading) have potential to reduce keel bone damage in commercial settings. Also, the housing environment (i.e., aviary design) may have additive effects. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Stressor-induced increase in muscle fatigability of young men and women is predicted by strength but not voluntary activation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hugo M.; Pruse, Jaclyn; Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-DeLap, Bonnie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated mechanisms for the stressor-induced changes in muscle fatigability in men and women. Participants performed an isometric-fatiguing contraction at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until failure with the elbow flexor muscles. Study one (n = 55; 29 women) involved two experimental sessions: 1) a high-stressor session that required a difficult mental-math task before and during a fatiguing contraction and 2) a control session with no mental math. For some participants (n = 28; 14 women), cortical stimulation was used to examine mechanisms that contributed to muscle fatigability during the high-stressor and control sessions. Study two (n = 23; nine women) determined the influence of a low stressor, i.e., a simple mental-math task, on muscle fatigability. In study one, the time-to-task failure was less for the high-stressor session than control (P < 0.05) for women (19.4%) and men (9.5%): the sex difference response disappeared when covaried for initial strength (MVC). MVC force, voluntary activation, and peak-twitch amplitude decreased similarly for the control and high-stressor sessions (P < 0.05). In study two, the time-to-task failure of men or women was not influenced by the low stressor (P > 0.05). The greater fatigability, when exposed to a high stressor during a low-force task, was not exclusive to women but involved a strength-related mechanism in both weaker men and women that accelerated declines in voluntary activation and slowing of contractile properties. PMID:24526582

  2. High-frequency, low-intensity vibrations increase bone mass and muscle strength in upper limbs, improving autonomy in disabled children.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M Loreto; Hernández, Marta; Holmgren, Luz J; Sanhueza, Enrique; Escobar, Raúl G

    2011-08-01

    Disuse osteoporosis in children is a progressive disease that can affect quality of life. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration (HFLMV) acts as an anabolic signal for bone and muscle. We undertook a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of regional HFLMV in disabled children. Sixty-five children 6 to 9 year of age were randomized into three groups: placebo, 60 Hz, and 90 Hz. In the two active groups, a 0.3-g mechanical vibration was delivered to the radii and femurs for 5 minutes each day. After 6 months, the main endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at the ultradistal radius (UDR), 33% radii (33%R), and femoral necks (FN). Secondary endpoints were area and bone mineral content (BMC) at the UDR, 33%R, and FN; grip force of the upper and lower limbs; motor function; and PedsQL evaluation. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Fifty-seven children (88%) completed the protocol. A significant increase was observed in the 60-Hz group relative to the other groups in BMD at the UDR (p = .011), in grip force of the upper limbs (p = .035), and in the "daily activities item" (p = .035). A mixed model to evaluate the response to intervention showed a stronger effect of 60 Hz on patients with cerebral palsy on the UDR and that between-subject variability significantly affected the response. There were no reported side effects of the intervention. This work provides evidence that regional HFLMV is an effective and safe strategy to improve bone mass, muscle strength, and possibly independence in children with motor disabilities. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Validity, Significance, Strengths, Limitations, and Evidentiary Value of Real-World Clinical Data for Combination Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease: Comparison of Efficacy and Effectiveness Studies

    PubMed Central

    Atri, Alireza; Rountree, Susan D.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Doody, Rachelle S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled efficacy trials (RCTs), the scientific gold standard, are required for regulatory approval of Alzheimer's disease (AD) interventions, yet provide limited information regarding real-world therapeutic effectiveness. Objective: To compare the nature of evidence regarding the combination of approved AD treatments from RCTs versus long-term observational controlled studies (LTOCs). Methods Comparisons of strengths, limitations, and evidence level for monotherapy [cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) or memantine] and combination therapy (ChEI + memantine) in RCTs versus LTOCs. Results RCTs examined highly selected populations over months. LTOCs collected data across multiple AD stages in large populations over many years. RCTs and LTOCs show similar patterns favoring combination over monotherapy over placebo/no treatment. Long-term combination therapy compared to monotherapy reduced cognitive and functional decline and delayed time to nursing home admission. Persistent treatment was associated with slower decline. While LTOCs used control groups, adjusted for multiple covariates, had higher external validity, and favorable ethical, practical and cost considerations, their limitations included potential selection bias due to lack of placebo comparisons and randomization. Conclusions Naturalistic LTOCs provide complementary long-term level II evidence to complement level I evidence from short-term RCTs regarding therapeutic effectiveness in AD that may otherwise be unobtainable. A coordinated strategy/consortium to pool LTOC data from multiple centers to estimate long-term comparative effectiveness, risks/benefits, and costs of AD treatments is needed. PMID:22327239

  4. Pelvic floor muscle training increases pelvic floor muscle strength more in post-menopausal women who are not using hormone therapy than in women who are using hormone therapy: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Ignácio Antônio, Flávia; Herbert, Robert D; Bø, Kari; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur Sá; Lara, Lúcia Alves Silva; Franco, Maira de Menezes; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

    2018-06-15

    Are there differences in the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training on pelvic floor muscle strength and urinary incontinence symptoms in postmenopausal women who are and are not using hormone therapy? Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors, and intention-to-treat analysis. Ninety-nine postmenopausal women, 38 of whom were using daily systemic oestrogen/progestogen therapy. The experimental group (n=51) received an intensive supervised pelvic floor muscle training protocol, and the control group (n=48) received no intervention. The randomisation was stratified by hormone therapy use. Change in pelvic floor muscle strength assessed with manometry at 12 weeks. Prevalence and severity of urinary incontinence symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Eighty-eight women provided data that could be included in the analysis. Pelvic floor muscle training increased pelvic floor muscle strength by 8.0 cmH 2 O (95% CI 3.4 to 12.6) in women not using hormone therapy and by -0.9 cmH 2 0 (95% CI -6.5 to 4.8) in women using hormone therapy (interaction p=0.018). A sensitivity analysis showed that the greater training effect in women who were not using hormone therapy was still apparent if the analysis was conducted on percentage change in strength rather than absolute change in strength. There was also a significantly greater effect of training in women not using hormone therapy on prevalence of urinary incontinence symptoms (ratio of odds ratios=7.4; interaction p=0.028). The difference in effects on severity of urinary incontinence symptoms was not statistically significant (interaction p=0.37). Pelvic floor muscle training increases pelvic floor muscle strength more in women who are not using hormone therapy than in women using hormone therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02549729. [Ignácio Antônio F, Herbert RD, Bø K, Rosa-e-Silva ACJS, Lara LAS, Franco MdM, Ferreira CHJ (2018) Pelvic floor muscle training increases pelvic floor muscle

  5. Turbulence significantly increases pressure and fluid shear stress in an aortic aneurysm model under resting and exercise flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Khanafer, Khalil M; Bull, Joseph L; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Berguer, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The numerical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in use do not take into account the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the development of local turbulence. This study examines the influence of pulsatile, turbulent, non-Newtonian flow on fluid shear stresses and pressure changes under rest and exercise conditions. We numerically analyzed pulsatile turbulent flow, using simulated physiological rest and exercise waveforms, in axisymmetric-rigid aortic aneurysm models (AAMs). Discretization of governing equations was achieved using a finite element scheme. Maximum turbulence-induced shear stress was found at the distal end of an AAM. In large AAMs (dilated to undilated diameter ratio = 3.33) at peak systolic flow velocity, fluid shear stress during exercise is 70.4% higher than at rest. Our study provides a numerical, noninvasive method for obtaining detailed data on the forces generated by pulsatile turbulent flow in AAAs that are difficult to study in humans and in physical models. Our data suggest that increased flow turbulence results in increased shear stress in aneurysms. While pressure readings are fairly uniform along the length of an aneurysm, the kinetic energy generated by turbulence impacting on the wall of the distal half of the aneurysm increases fluid and wall shear stress at this site. If the increased fluid shear stress results in further dilation and hence further turbulence, wall stress may be a mechanism for aneurysmal growth and eventual rupture.

  6. Twelve years of dengue surveillance in Belgian travellers and significant increases in the number of cases in 2010 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, J; Cnops, L; van Esbroeck, M

    2015-09-01

    During 12 years of surveillance in Belgium, dengue virus (DENV) infection was diagnosed in 676 of 7771 (8.7%) returning travellers by the use of ELISA, RT-PCR, and/or antigen detection. Men and women were equally infected. The mean age of the patients was 36.78 years (range, 3-77 years). Most of the infections occurred after a stay in Asia (55.9%), followed by the Americas (31.8%), Africa (7.2%), Oceania (1.0%), and Europe (0.4%). The number of patients coming from Africa increased as of 2009, to reach a proportion of 17% in 2011. The most prevalent serotype was DENV-1, followed by DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. Two remarkable increases in dengue incidence were noticed in 2010 and 2013. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Jeremiah, Kidola; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Aabye, Martine G; Jensen, Lotte; Jensen, Andreas V; Grewal, Harleen M S; Magnussen, Pascal; Changalucha, John; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Friis, Henrik

    2011-04-01

    Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi-micronutrient supplementation led to a higher handgrip gain (1.22 kg; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.94; P = 0.001) but had no effects on other outcomes. The effects of multi-micronutrient supplementation were modified by HIV infection (P-interaction = 0.002). Among HIV- patients, multi-micronutrient supplementation increased weight gain by 590 g (95% CI = -40, 1210; P = 0.07) and handgrip strength by 1.6 kg (95% CI = 0.78, 2.47; P < 0.001), whereas among HIV+ patients, it reduced weight gain by 1440 g (95% CI = 290, 2590; P = 0.002) and had no effect on handgrip strength (0.07 kg; 95% CI = -1.30, 1.46; P = 0.91). The reduced weight gain among HIV+ patients receiving multi-micronutrient supplementation seemed to be explained by a higher proportion of patients reporting fever. At 5 mo, the effects on weight were sustained, whereas there was no effect on handgrip strength. In conclusion, multi-micronutrient supplementation given as a biscuit is beneficial among HIV- PTB patients and may be recommended to TB programs. More research is needed to develop an effective supplement for HIV+ PTB patients.

  8. Increasing Ti-6Al-4V brazed joint strength equal to the base metal by Ti and Zr amorphous filler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjeh, E., E-mail: navidganjehie@sina.kntu.ac.ir; Sarkhosh, H.; Bajgholi, M.E.

    Microstructural features developed along with mechanical properties in furnace brazing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using STEMET 1228 (Ti-26.8Zr-13Ni-13.9Cu, wt.%) and STEMET 1406 (Zr-9.7Ti-12.4Ni-11.2Cu, wt.%) amorphous filler alloys. Brazing temperatures employed were 900-950 Degree-Sign C for the titanium-based filler and 900-990 Degree-Sign C for the zirconium-based filler alloys, respectively. The brazing time durations were 600, 1200 and 1800 s. The brazed joints were evaluated by ultrasonic test, and their microstructures and phase constitutions analyzed by metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since microstructural evolution across the furnace brazed joints primarily depends on their alloying elements such as Cu, Ni andmore » Zr along the joint. Accordingly, existence of Zr{sub 2}Cu, Ti{sub 2}Cu and (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni intermetallic compounds was identified in the brazed joints. The chemical composition of segregation region in the center of brazed joints was identical to virgin filler alloy content which greatly deteriorated the shear strength of the joints. Adequate brazing time (1800 s) and/or temperature (950 Degree-Sign C for Ti-based and 990 Degree-Sign C for Zr-based) resulted in an acicular Widmanstaetten microstructure throughout the entire joint section due to eutectoid reaction. This microstructure increased the shear strength of the brazed joints up to the Ti-6Al-4V tensile strength level. Consequently, Ti-6Al-4V can be furnace brazed by Ti and Zr base foils produced excellent joint strengths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature or time was the main factors of controlling braze joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a Widmanstaetten microstructure generates equal strength to base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brittle intermetallic compounds like (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni/Cu deteriorate shear strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti and Zr base filler alloys were the best choice for

  9. Effects of increasing the allowable compressive stress at release on the shear strength of prestressed concrete girders.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, several research projects have been conducted to study the feasibility of increasing the allowable : compressive stress in concrete at prestress transfer, currently defined as 0.60f'ci in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specification...

  10. Was there significant tax evasion after the 1999 50 cent per pack cigarette tax increase in California?

    PubMed Central

    Emery, S; White, M; Gilpin, E; Pierce, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study investigates the extent of tax evasion in the 6–12 months after the implementation of California's $0.50/pack excise tax increase. Design and setting: Retrospective data analysis from the 1999 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), a random digit dialled telephone survey of California households. Main outcome measures: Sources of cigarettes, average daily cigarette consumption, and reported price paid. Results: Very few (5.1 (0.7)% (±95% confidence limits)) of California smokers avoided the excise tax by usually purchasing cigarettes from non- or lower taxed sources, such as out-of-state outlets, military commissaries, or the internet. The vast majority of smokers purchased their cigarettes from the most convenient and expensive sources: convenience stores/gas (petrol) stations (45.0 (1.9)%), liquor/drug stores (16.4 (1.6)%), and supermarkets (8.8 (1.2)%). Conclusions: Despite the potential savings, tax evasion by individual smokers does not appear to pose a serious threat to California's excise tax revenues or its tobacco control objectives. PMID:12035006

  11. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    PubMed

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2017-10-02

    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  14. Significant increase in the apparent incidence of essential thrombocythemia related to new WHO diagnostic criteria: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Girodon, François; Bonicelli, Gilles; Schaeffer, Céline; Mounier, Morgane; Carillo, Serge; Lafon, Ingrid; Carli, Paule Marie; Janoray, Inès; Ferrant, Emmanuelle; Maynadié, Marc

    2009-01-01

    To observe the effect of the new World Health Organization (WHO) criteria on the incidence of myeloproliferative neoplasms, we performed a retrospective study of a population-based registry in the Côte d’Or area, France, from 1980 to 2007. A total of 524 myeloproliferative neoplasms were registered for the 1980–2007 period, including 135 polycythemia vera, 308 essential thrombocythemia and 81 idiopathic myelofibroses. No change in the incidence of either polycythemia vera or idiopathic myelofibrosis was observed for the 2005–2007 period, compared to 1980–2004. On the contrary, a pronounced increase in the incidence of essential thrombocythemia was noted after 2005, mainly due to the use of JAK2 mutation screening and a lower threshold of platelet count. Our study confirms the relevance of the new WHO diagnostic criteria in allowing earlier diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. PMID:19377078

  15. Simultaneous increase in the strength, plasticity, and corrosion resistance of an ultrafine-grained Ti-4Al-2V pseudo-alpha-titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Kopylov, V. I.; Nokhrin, A. V.; Bakhmet'ev, A. M.; Sandler, N. G.; Kozlova, N. A.; Tryaev, P. V.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. S.; Ershova, A. V.; Gryaznov, M. Yu.; Chegurov, M. K.; Sysoev, A. N.; Smirnova, E. S.

    2017-05-01

    The influence of severe plastic deformation on the structural-phase state of grain boundaries in a Ti-4Al-2V (commercial PT3V grade) pseudo-alpha-titanium alloy has been studied. It is established that increase in the strength, plasticity, and corrosion resistance of this alloy is related to the formation of an ultrafine- grained structure. In particular, it is shown that an increase in the resistance to hot-salt intergranular corrosion is due to diffusion-controlled redistribution of aluminum and vanadium atoms at the grain boundaries of titanium formed during thermal severe plastic deformation.

  16. Growth hormone significantly increases the adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: comparison of subgroups and benefit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with Idiopathic Short Stature do not attain a normal adult height. The improvement of adult height with treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), at doses of 0.16 to 0.28 mg/kg/week is modest, usually less that 4 cm, and they remain short as adults. The benefit obtained seems dose dependent and benefits of 7.0 to 8.0 cm have been reported with higher doses of 0.32 to 0.4 mg/kg/week, but the number of studies is limited. The topic has remained controversial. Objective The objective was to conduct a retrospective analysis of our experience with 123 children with ISS treated with 0.32 ± 0.03 mg/kg/week of rhGH, with the aim of comparing the different subgroups of non-familial short stature, familial short stature, normal puberty, and delayed puberty and to assess the benefit by comparison with 305 untreated historical controls, from nine different randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. Results Eighty eight of our children (68 males and 20 females) attained an adult height or near adult height of -0.71 SDS (0.74 SD) (95% CI, -0.87 to -0.55) with a benefit over untreated controls of 9.5 cm (7.4 to 11.6 cm) for males and 8.6 cm (6.7 to 10.5 cm) for females. In the analysis of the subgroups, the adult height and adult height gain of children with non-familial short stature were significantly higher than of familial short stature. No difference was found in the cohorts with normal or delayed puberty in any of the subgroups, except between the non-familial short stature and familial short stature puberty cohorts. This has implications for the interpretation of the benefit of treatment in studies where the number of children with familial short stature in the controls or treated subjects is not known. The treatment was safe. There were no significant adverse events. The IGF-1 values were essentially within the levels expected for the stages of puberty. Conclusion Our experience was quite positive with normalization of

  17. TGF-β1 Improves Biomechanical Strength by Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Without Increasing the Number of Tenogenic Lineage Cells in a Rat Rotator Cuff Repair Model.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Hitoshi; Shukunami, Chisa; Tokunaga, Takuya; Karasugi, Tatsuki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Taniwaki, Takuya; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    , whereas the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-13 significantly decreased at 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. TGF-β1 enhances formation of tough fibrous tissues at the healing site by inhibiting MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression to increase collagen accumulation but without the growth of tenogenic lineage cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 could be used for enhancing biomechanical strength after RC surgical repair.

  18. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  19. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alan T.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hall, Gillian C.; Ford, Ian; Mills, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment. Methods The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions. Results Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4–2.6]. High dose was classified as 40–80mg daily and low dose 10–20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2–12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9–2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0–2.2] for HDS. Conclusions The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small. PMID:26983033

  20. Significant increase in IgG4+ plasma cells in gastric biopsy specimens from patients with pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Bedeir, Ahmed S; Lash, Richard H; Lash, Jonathan G; Ray, Mukunda B

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the presence of IgG4+ plasma cells in gastric mucosal biopsy samples from patients with atrophic gastritis (AG) and a history of pernicious anaemia (PA) (AG+PA+). Gastric mucosal biopsy specimens from 46 patients with AG+PA+ were investigated. As controls, we evaluated specimens from patients with AG but no history of PA (AG+ PA-) (n=25), normal histology (n=25), mild chronic inactive gastritis (MCIG) (n=25) or Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HP) (n=25). IgG4+ plasma cells were detected by two immunohistochemical methods: (1) using a monoclonal antibody, the average of the three most cellular high-power fields was counted in areas with the highest density of IgG4+ plasma cells; (2) using a dual-chromagen stain for both IgG4 and CD138 (plasma cell marker), the number of IgG4+ cells per 200 CD138+ plasma cells was counted. The latter was used to ensure that the number of IgG4+ cells was not simply related to the degree of inflammation (density of plasma cells). Identical results were obtained with the two staining methods. Increased numbers of IgG4+ plasma cells were present in 37% of patients with AG+PA+, but in none with AG+PA-, MCIG, HP or normal gastric biopsy results (100% specific, p=0.0001). IgG4+ plasma cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of PA and may be a useful marker for its diagnosis.

  1. Increasing the oscillation frequency of strong magnetic fields above 101 kHz significantly raises peripheral nerve excitation thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Irving N.; Stepanov, Pavel Y.; Fricke, Stanley T.; Probst, Roland; Urdaneta, Mario; Warnow, Daniel; Sanders, Howard; Glidden, Steven C.; McMillan, Alan; Starewicz, Piotr M.; Reilly, J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    subjects. Results: For 0.4 T pulses at 2, 25, 59, 101, and 183 kHz, stimulation was reported by 22 (84.6%), 24 (92.3%), 15 (57.7%), 2 (7.7%), and 1 (3.8%) subjects, respectively. Conclusions: The probability of PNS due to brief biphasic time-varying sinusoidal magnetic fields with magnetic excursions up to 0.4 T is shown to decrease significantly at and above 101 kHz. This phenomenon may have particular uses in dynamic scenarios (e.g., cardiac imaging) and in studying processes with short decay times (e.g., electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, bone and solids imaging). The study suggests the possibility of new designs for human and preclinical MRI systems that may be useful in clinical practice and scientific research. PMID:22559628

  2. Influence of van der Waals forces on increasing the strength and toughness in dynamic fracture of nanofibre networks: a peridynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobaru, F.

    2007-07-01

    The peridynamic method is used here to analyse the effect of van der Waals forces on the mechanical behaviour and strength and toughness properties of three-dimensional nanofibre networks under imposed stretch deformation. The peridynamic formulation allows for a natural inclusion of long-range forces (such as van der Waals forces) by considering all interactions as 'long-range'. We use van der Waals interactions only between different fibres and do not need to model individual atoms. Fracture is introduced at the microstructural (peridynamic bond) level for the microelastic type bonds, while van der Waals bonds can reform at any time. We conduct statistical studies to determine a certain volume element for which the network of randomly oriented fibres becomes quasi-isotropic and insensitive to statistical variations. This qualitative study shows that the presence of van der Waals interactions and of heterogeneities (sacrificial bonds) in the strength of the bonds at the crosslinks between fibres can help in increasing the strength and toughness of the nanofibre network. Two main mechanisms appear to control the deformation of nanofibre networks: fibre reorientation (caused by deformation and breakage) and fibre accretion (due to van der Waals interaction). Similarities to the observed toughness of polymer adhesive in the abalone shell composition are explained. The author would like to dedicate this work to the 60th anniversary of Professor Subrata Mukherjee.

  3. Amnion-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Increase Gain of Incisional Breaking Strength and Decrease Incidence and Severity of Acute Wound Failure

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Liyu; Franz, Michael G.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Smith, Charlotte A.; Marshall, Vivienne S.; Robson, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Acute wound failure is a common complication following surgical procedures and trauma. Laparotomy wound failure leads to abdominal dehiscence and incisional hernia formation. Delayed recovery of wound-breaking strength is one mechanism for laparotomy wound failure. Early fascial wounds are relatively acellular, and there is a delay in the appearance of acute wound growth factors and cytokines. The objective of this study was to accelerate and improve laparotomy wound healing using amnion-derived multipotent cells (AMPs). AMPs' nonimmunogenic phenotype and relative abundance support its role as a cell therapy. Methods: AMPs were injected into the load-bearing layer of rat abdominal walls prior to laparotomy, and cell viability was confirmed. Wound mechanical properties were measured over 28 days. The incidence and severity of laparotomy wound failure was measured in an incisional hernia model. Results: AMP cells were viable in laparotomy wounds for at least 28 days and did not migrate to other tissues. Laparotomy wound-breaking strength was increased by postoperative day 7 following AMP therapy. AMP therapy reduced the incidence of hernia formation and the size of hernia defects. Histology suggested stimulated wound fibroplasia and angiogenesis. Conclusions: AMP cell therapy reduces the incidence of laparotomy wound failure by accelerating the recovery of wound-breaking strength. This results in fewer incisional hernias and smaller hernia defects. PMID:18091982

  4. Shrub invasion of desert grassland increases the strength of system feedbacks through enhanced flow-path connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, L.; Wainwright, J.

    2012-04-01

    The invasion of desert grasslands by shrubs is a process that is associated with strong ecohydrological feedbacks. As shrubs invade into grasslands, runoff-generating areas become more connected, due to changes in vegetation cover and distribution. Previous field-based experimentation has demonstrated that runoff-generating areas over grassland can become highly connected, but only under extremely large rainfall events that tend to occur infrequently. In contrast, on shrub-dominated hillslopes, it has been observed that bare areas become connected even under relatively small rainfall events. In this study we carry out a scenario-based modelling analysis, using Model for Assessing Hillslope to Landscape Erosion, Runofff, And Nutrients (MAHLERAN), to investigate changes in hydrological connectivity at over a trajectory of shrub invasion, from a grassland end member to a shrubland end member under different rainfall and antecedent soil-moisture conditions. We hypothesize that (i) as shrubs invade into grasslands the connectivity of flow paths will increase, transporting water, sediment and nutrients over greater distances leading to an increased loss of essential resources from hillslopes and (ii) the extent to which flow paths become connected will be sensitive to antecedent soil-moisture conditions, and therefore that the timing as well as magnitude of runoff events will be important, but less so with increasing levels of shrub encroachment. We quantify hydrological connectivity by using a metric to calculate the maximum length of runoff-generating cells contributing flow to a point, to quantify the connectivity of runoff and entrained sediment. The metric is normalized relative to the maximum potential flow-path length to enable standardized comparisons between plots of different types. Results show that there are critical thresholds for large flow- and sediment-production events, which are a function of both rainfall type and antecedent moisture. The implication

  5. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p < 0.05); however, lean mass was not significantly increased in either group (p = 0.068). Upper- (p = 0.024) and lower-body (p = 0.001) muscle strength and myosin heavy chain (MHC) 1 (p = 0.039) and MHC 2A (p = 0.027) were also significantly increased with resistance training. Serum IGF-1, GH, and HGF were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key points In response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content. In response to 56 days of

  6. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m 2 ) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm 2 ). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p < 0.05). After the training sessions, there were statistically significant differences between the groups for the scapular stabilizer muscles (p = 0.0263) and the lumbar muscles (p = 0.0001). For the scapular stabilizers, the initial/final values were 14.69 ± 2.80/14.79 ± 2.89 (control group) and 15.99 ± 3.54/17.44 ± 2.88 (Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.

    PubMed

    Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production.

  8. What Are Strength Training Activities?

    Cancer.gov

    Strength training is any practice or exercise specifically designed to increase muscle tone, strength, and fitness. Concerned that strength training will make you bulky and too muscle-y? You are not alone.

  9. Free-solution electrophoretic separations of DNA–drag-tag conjugates on glass microchips with no polymer network and no loss of resolution at increased electric field strength

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Kerby, Matthew B.; Niedringhaus, Thomas P.; Lin, Jennifer S.; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Barron, Annelise E.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the potential for high-resolution electrophoretic separations of ssDNA-protein conjugates in borosilicate glass microfluidic chips, with no sieving media and excellent repeatability. Using polynucleotides of two different lengths conjugated to moderately cationic protein polymer drag-tags, we measured separation efficiency as a function of applied electric field. In excellent agreement with prior theoretical predictions of Slater et al., resolution is found to remain constant as applied field is increased up to 700 V/cm, the highest field we were able to apply. This remarkable result illustrates the fundamentally different physical limitations of Free-Solution Conjugate Electrophoresis (FSCE)-based DNA separations relative to matrix-based DNA electrophoresis. Single-stranded DNA separations in “gels” have always shown rapidly declining resolution as the field strength is increased; this is especially true for ssDNA > 400 bases in length. FSCE’s ability to decouple DNA peak resolution from applied electric field suggests the future possibility of ultra-rapid FSCE sequencing on chips. We investigated sources of peak broadening for FSCE separations on borosilicate glass microchips, using six different protein polymer drag-tags. For drag-tags with four or more positive charges, electrostatic and adsorptive interactions with pHEA-coated microchannel walls led to appreciable band-broadening, while much sharper peaks were seen for bioconjugates with nearly charge-neutral protein drag-tags. PMID:21500207

  10. Increasing hepatitis B viral load is associated with risk of significant liver fibrosis in HBeAg-negative but not HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Croagh, Catherine M N; Bell, Sally J; Slavin, John; Kong, Yu X G; Chen, Robert Y; Locarnini, Stephen; Desmond, Paul V

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the association between demographical features, serum ALT and HBV DNA and the prevalence of significant fibrosis and inflammation on liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. In this cross-sectional study of patients on St Vincent's Hospital HBV database, patients were classified into three groups on the basis of HBeAg status and HBV DNA level and the prevalence of significant (F2/3/4) fibrosis and (A2/3) inflammation in each group was established. Patients were also divided into HBeAg-positive and -negative groups and examined for the prevalence of significant fibrosis/inflammation in the strata of HBV DNA and ALT. Predictors of significant fibrosis and inflammation in HBeAg-positive and -negative patients were examined by logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety four patients (HBeAg positive=198; HBeAg negative=196) with liver biopsy were identified. Fifty-eight percent of HBeAg-negative patients with HBV DNA >25,000 IU/ml had F2/3/4 fibrosis. HBV DNA and F2/3/4 were positively correlated in HBeAg-negative patients [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, P=0.001] but inversely correlated in HBeAg-positive patients (OR 0.71, P=0.03). HBV DNA was an independent predictor of significant fibrosis in HBeAg negative (P=0.03) but not HBeAg-positive patients. In HBeAg-positive patients, age was the only predictor of significant fibrosis (P=0.001) and ALT the only predictor of significant inflammation (P=0.003). In the whole cohort there was a close positive association between inflammation and fibrosis. Increasing levels of HBV DNA are associated with increasing prevalence of significant fibrosis only in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB.

  11. Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC  =  15.00) and PTAFR (FC  =  13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

  12. Six months of disuse during hibernation does not increase intracortical porosity or decrease cortical bone geometry, strength, or mineralization in black bear (Ursus americanus) femurs

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Barlow, Lindsay N.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Bunnell, Kevin; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2009-01-01

    Disuse typically uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to bone loss which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases the risk of bone fracture. Previous studies suggest that bears can prevent bone loss during long periods of disuse (hibernation), but small sample sizes have limited the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the effects of hibernation on bone structure and strength in bears. Here we quantified the effects of hibernation on structural, mineral, and mechanical properties of black bear (Ursus americanus) cortical bone by studying femurs from large groups of male and female bears (with wide age ranges) killed during pre-hibernation (fall) and post-hibernation (spring) periods. Bone properties that are affected by body mass (e.g. bone geometrical properties) tended to be larger in male compared to female bears. There were no differences (p > 0.226) in bone structure, mineral content, or mechanical properties between fall and spring bears. Bone geometrical properties differed by less than 5% and bone mechanical properties differed by less than 10% between fall and spring bears. Porosity (fall: 5.5 ± 2.2%, spring: 4.8 ± 1.6%) and ash fraction (fall: 0.694 ± 0.011, spring: 0.696 ± 0.010) also showed no change (p > 0.304) between seasons. Statistical power was high (>72%) for these analyses. Furthermore, bone geometrical properties and ash fraction (a measure of mineral content) increased with age and porosity decreased with age. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse and age-related osteoporoses. PMID:19450804

  13. Endosperm-specific co-expression of recombinant soybean ferritin and Aspergillus phytase in maize results in significant increases in the levels of bioavailable iron.

    PubMed

    Drakakaki, Georgia; Marcel, Sylvain; Glahn, Raymond P; Lund, Elizabeth K; Pariagh, Sandra; Fischer, Rainer; Christou, Paul; Stoger, Eva

    2005-12-01

    We have generated transgenic maize plants expressing Aspergillus phytase either alone or in combination with the iron-binding protein ferritin. Our aim was to produce grains with increased amounts of bioavailable iron in the endosperm. Maize seeds expressing recombinant phytase showed enzymatic activities of up to 3 IU per gram of seed. In flour paste prepared from these seeds, up to 95% of the endogenous phytic acid was degraded, with a concomitant increase in the amount of available phosphate. In seeds expressing ferritin in addition to phytase, the total iron content was significantly increased. To evaluate the impact of the recombinant proteins on iron absorption in the human gut, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. We found that phytase in the maize seeds was associated with increased cellular iron uptake, and that the rate of iron uptake correlated with the level of phytase expression regardless of the total iron content of the seeds. We also investigated iron bioavailability under more complex meal conditions by adding ascorbic acid, which promotes iron uptake, to all samples. This resulted in a further increase in iron absorption, but the effects of phytase and ascorbic acid were not additive. We conclude that the expression of recombinant ferritin and phytase could help to increase iron availability and enhance the absorption of iron, particularly in cereal-based diets that lack other nutritional components.

  14. Serum podocalyxin is significantly increased in early-onset preeclampsia and may represent a novel marker of maternal endothelial cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhao, Min; Nie, Guiying

    2017-11-01

    Podocalyxin is a glomerular podocyte protein and increased in urine of preeclampsia. However, podocalyxin is also expressed in endothelial cells of other organs. Here we investigated whether podocalyxin is detectable in pregnant serum and whether the levels are altered in preeclampsia. Podocalyxin was determined by ELISA in sera collected from normal pregnancy across gestation (n = 44) and from preeclamptic pregnancies at diagnosis (n = 34) with gestation-age-matched controls (n = 68). Immunohistochemistry examined podocalyxin in placentas and in 32 human tissues on a tissue array. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with interleukin (IL)-6 and podocalyxin was analysed by ELISA and western blotting. Podocalyxin was detected in serum of normal pregnancy, with levels increasing progressively with advancing gestation. Podocalyxin serum levels were significantly elevated in preeclampsia, especially the early-onset subtype. Within the placenta, blood vessels but not trophoblasts expressed podocalyxin, and preeclampsia didn't differ from controls. Endothelial cells in all 32 human organs examined, as well as HUVECs, expressed podocalyxin. Its levels increased in the conditioned media but decreased in the lysates when HUVECs were treated with IL-6. Podocalyxin likely derived from maternal endothelial cells is present in pregnant serum and significantly increased in early-onset preeclampsia. Podocalyxin release was stimulated by IL-6 in HUVECs.

  15. Simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by decreasing interface energy between Zn and Al phases in cast Al-Zn-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Choi, Eun-Ae; Park, Hyun Woong; Lim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jehyun; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Hwang, Nong-Moon; Kim, Kwangho

    2017-09-22

    Cast-Al alloys that include a high amount of the second element in their matrix have comparatively high strength but low ductility because of the high volume fraction of strengthening phases or undesirable inclusions. Al-Zn alloys that have more than 30 wt% Zn have a tensile strength below 300 MPa, with elongation under 5% in the as-cast state. However, we found that after substitution of 2% Zn by Cu, the tensile strength of as-cast Al-Zn-Cu alloys was 25% higher and ductility was four times higher than for the corresponding Al-35% Zn alloy. Additionally, for the Al-43% Zn alloy with 2% Cu after 1 h solution treatment at 400 °C and water quenching, the tensile strength unexpectedly reached values close to 600 MPa. For the Al-33% Zn alloy with 2% Cu, the tensile strength was 500 MPa with 8% ductility. The unusual trends of the mechanical properties of Al-Zn alloys with Cu addition observed during processing from casting to the subsequent solution treatment were attributed to the precipitation of Zn in the Al matrix. The interface energy between the Zn particles and the Al matrix decreased when using a solution of Cu in Zn.

  16. Increased expression of interleukin-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and its predicating significance in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guanglin; Yuan, Aping; Zhu, Li; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    The role and significance of interleukin (IL)-21 in the development of sporadic CRC have not been well defined. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the dynamics of the IL-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and to evaluate the impact of IL-21 on clinicopathological parameters and CRC prognosis. The real-time PCR results showed that the level of IL-21 in adenomas (n=50) and sporadic CRC (n=50) were significantly higher than that in normal controls (n=18), which were predominately observed in the adenoma/CRC stroma. Analysis revealed that IL-21 level was correlated with the overall survival time in CRC patients. Double immunofluorescence observations confirmed that IL-21 positive cells were mostly natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in the tumor stroma. These results indicate that significant increased IL-21 expression present within the adenoma/CRC microenvironment might have a potential predicating significance for survival time in patients with CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alumina fiber strength improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

  18. Significance of an Increase in Diastolic Blood Pressure during a Stress Test in Terms of Comorbidities and Long-term Total and CV Mortality.

    PubMed

    Sydó, Nóra; Sydó, Tibor; Gonzalez Carta, Karina A; Hussain, Nasir; Merkely, Béla; Murphy, Joseph G; Squires, Ray W; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Allison, Thomas G

    2018-05-15

    A decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with exercise is considered normal, but the significance of an increase in DBP has not been validated. Our aim was to determine the relationship of DBP increasing on a stress test regarding comorbidities and mortality. Our database was reviewed from 1993-2010 using the first stress test of a patient. Non-Minnesota residence, baseline CV disease, rest DBP <60 or >100 mmHg, and age <30 or ≥80 were exclusion criteria. DBP response was classified Normal if peak DBP-rest DBP <0, Borderline 0-9, Abnormal ≥10mmHg. Mortality was determined from Mayo Clinic records and Minnesota Death Index. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of DBP response to presence of comorbidities. Cox regression was used to determine total and CV mortality risk by DBP response. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex and resting DBP. 20760 patients were included (51±11 years, female n=7314). Rest/peak averaged DBP 82±8/69 ±15 mmHg in normal vs 79±9/82±9 mmHg in borderline vs 76±9/92±11 mmHg in abnormal DBP response. There were 1582 deaths (8%) with 557 (3%) CV deaths over 12±5 years of follow-up. In patients with borderline and abnormal DBP response, odds ratios for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and current smoking were significant, while hazard ratios for total and CV death were not significant compared to patients with normal DBP response. DBP response to exercise is significantly associated with important comorbidities at the time of the stress test but does not add to the prognostic yield of stress test.

  19. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Methods: Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index < 15, n = 15) and moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15, n = 39) participants in a single institute. There were no differences in age, sex, BMI, or visceral fat accumulation between the two groups. Twenty-one patients with moderate-to-severe OSA who received CPAP treatment also prospectively underwent the same testing following 3 months of CPAP treatment. Results: Although fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p < 0.01). After 3 months of CPAP treatment in 21 of the moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG/DAG did not change significantly, but other ghrelin-related parameters including AG/insulin significantly decreased compared with values before treatment but remained higher than in no or mild OSA. Conclusions: Among several important metabolic factors, ghrelin-related factors had the strongest associations with moderate-to-severe OSA. These results indicate that continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in

  1. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    PubMed

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was <1year in 32 patients, 1-5years in 81, and >5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeted disruption of BMP signaling through type IA receptor (BMPR1A) in osteocyte suppresses SOST and RANKL, leading to dramatic increase in bone mass, bone mineral density and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Shuxian, Lin; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Phipps, Matthew; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Yuan, Hui; Kim, Harry K W; Feng, Jian Q

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest a critical role of osteocytes in controlling skeletal development and bone remodeling although the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study investigated BMP signaling in osteocytes by disrupting Bmpr1a under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed a striking osteosclerotic phenotype with increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and mineral density as assessed by X-ray and micro-CT. The bone histomorphometry, H&E, and TRAP staining revealed a dramatic increase in trabecular and cortical bone masses but a sharp reduction in osteoclast number. Moreover, there was an increase in BrdU positive osteocytes (2-5-fold) and osteoid volume (~4-fold) but a decrease in the bone formation rate (~85%) in the cKO bones, indicating a defective mineralization. The SEM analysis revealed poorly formed osteocytes: a sharp increase in cell numbers, a great reduction in cell dendrites, and a remarkable change in the cell distribution pattern. Molecular studies demonstrated a significant decrease in the Sost mRNA levels in bone (>95%), and the SOST protein levels in serum (~85%) and bone matrices. There was a significant increase in the β-catenin (>3-fold) mRNA levels as well as its target genes Tcf1 (>6-fold) and Tcf3 (~2-fold) in the cKO bones. We also showed a significant decrease in the RANKL levels of serum proteins (~65%) and bone mRNA (~57%), and a significant increase in the Opg mRNA levels (>20-fold) together with a significant reduction in the Rankl/Opg ratio (>95%), which are responsible for a sharp reduction in the cKO osteoclasts. The values of mechanical strength were higher in cKO femora (i.e. max force, displacement, and work failure). These results suggest that loss of BMP signaling specifically in osteocytes dramatically increases bone mass presumably through simultaneous inhibition of RANKL and SOST, leading to osteoclast inhibition and Wnt activation together. Finally, a working hypothesis is

  3. Pisces did not have increased heart failure: data-driven comparisons of binary proportions between levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect statistical significance levels.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Goldwasser, Meredith A

    2008-03-01

    We examined the impact on statistical inference when a chi(2) test is used to compare the proportion of successes in the level of a categorical variable that has the highest observed proportion of successes with the proportion of successes in all other levels of the categorical variable combined. Monte Carlo simulations and a case study examining the association between astrological sign and hospitalization for heart failure. A standard chi(2) test results in an inflation of the type I error rate, with the type I error rate increasing as the number of levels of the categorical variable increases. Using a standard chi(2) test, the hospitalization rate for Pisces was statistically significantly different from that of the other 11 astrological signs combined (P=0.026). After accounting for the fact that the selection of Pisces was based on it having the highest observed proportion of heart failure hospitalizations, subjects born under the sign of Pisces no longer had a significantly higher rate of heart failure hospitalization compared to the other residents of Ontario (P=0.152). Post hoc comparisons of the proportions of successes across different levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect inferences.

  4. Experimental and DFT Studies of the Electron-Withdrawing Ability of Perfluoroalkyl (R F) Groups: Electron Affinities of PAH(R F) n Increase Significantly with Increasing R F Chain Length

    SciTech Connect

    San, Long K.; Spisak, Sarah N.; Dubceac, Cristina

    Two series of aromatic compounds with perfluoroalkyl (RF) groups of increasing length, 1,3,5,7-naphthalene(RF)4 and 1,3,5,7,9-corannulene(RF)5, have been prepared and their electronic properties studied by low-temperature PES (i.e., gas-phase electron affinity (EA) measurements). These and many related compounds were also studied by DFT calculations. The data demonstrate unambiguously that the electron-withdrawing ability of RF substituents increases significantly and uniformly from CF3 to C2F5 to n-C3F7 to n-C4F9.

  5. Experimental and DFT Studies of the Electron-Withdrawing Ability of Perfluoroalkyl (R-F) Groups: Electron Affinities of PAH(R-F)(n) Increase Significantly with Increasing R-F Chain Length

    SciTech Connect

    San, Long K.; Spisak, Sarah N.; Dubceac, Cristina

    2018-01-26

    Two series of aromatic compounds with perfluoroalkyl (RF) groups of increasing length, 1,3,5,7-naphthalene(RF)4 and 1,3,5,7,9-corannulene(RF)5, have been prepared and their electronic properties studied by low-temperature PES (i.e., gas-phase electron affinity (EA) measurements). These and many related compounds were also studied by DFT calculations. The data demonstrate unambiguously that the electron-withdrawing ability of RF substituents increases significantly and uniformly from CF3 to C2F5 to n-C3F7 to n-C4F9.

  6. Uterine fibroids with positive 18F-FDG PET/CT image and significantly increased CA19-9: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Shao, Xiaonan

    2017-12-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common pelvic solid tumors and common to 25% of women. F-fluorodexyglucose (F-FDG) is an energy metabolism tracer. Although FDG is generally concentrated in malignant lesions with high glucose metabolism, it can also accumulate in normal tissues, benign lesions, and inflammatory sites. The exact mechanism of FDG uptake by uterine fibroids is not clear. Here, we report a case of uterine fibroids with positive F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging and significantly increased CA19-9. The patient was a 43-year-old woman and admitted to our hospital because of "1-year-extended menstrual periods." At admission, she had normal CA125, AFP, and CEA level and CA19-9>1000.00 U/mL. Gynecological transvaginal ultrasound found enlarged uterus with an anterior hypoechoic area of 3.9 × 4.2 cm. CT and contrast-enhanced CT showed significantly enhanced mass shadow on the left anterior wall of uterus. F-FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG metabolism of tumor in the anterior wall of the uterus. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed. Pathological examination demonstrated subserosal leiomyoma. Her CA19-9 level dropped to 91.50 U/mL 1 day after surgery. Significantly elevated CA19-9 was positioned in the uterus by PET/CT imaging, which not only avoided unnecessary gastrointestinal endoscopy and reduced the suffering of patients, but also strengthened the operation confidence in gynecologists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  8. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  10. Prognostic Significance of Creatinine Increases During an Acute Heart Failure Admission in Patients With and Without Residual Congestion: A Post Hoc Analysis of the PROTECT Data.

    PubMed

    Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gad; Senger, Stefanie; Edwards, Christopher; Cleland, John G; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cursack, Guillermo C; Milo, Olga; Teerlink, John R; Givertz, Michael M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Dittrich, Howard C; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Voors, Adriaan A; Davison, Beth A

    2018-05-01

    The importance of a serum creatinine increase, traditionally considered worsening renal function (WRF), during admission for acute heart failure has been recently debated, with data suggesting an interaction between congestion and creatinine changes. In post hoc analyses, we analyzed the association of WRF with length of hospital stay, 30-day death or cardiovascular/renal readmission and 90-day mortality in the PROTECT study (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function). Daily creatinine changes from baseline were categorized as WRF (an increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more) or not. Daily congestion scores were computed by summing scores for orthopnea, edema, and jugular venous pressure. Of the 2033 total patients randomized, 1537 patients had both available at study day 14. Length of hospital stay was longer and 30-day cardiovascular/renal readmission or death more common in patients with WRF. However, these were driven by significant associations in patients with concomitant congestion at the time of assessment of renal function. The mean difference in length of hospital stay because of WRF was 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) more days ( P =0.0019), and the hazard ratio for WRF on 30-day death or heart failure hospitalization was 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.09) times higher ( P =0.0205), in significantly congested than nonsignificantly congested patients. A similar trend was observed with 90-day mortality although not statistically significant. In patients admitted for acute heart failure, WRF defined as a creatinine increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL was associated with longer length of hospital stay, and worse 30- and 90-day outcomes. However, effects were largely driven by patients who had residual congestion at the time of renal function assessment. URL: https

  11. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-08-15

    There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index < 15, n = 15) and moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15, n = 39) participants in a single institute. There were no differences in age, sex, BMI, or visceral fat accumulation between the two groups. Twenty-one patients with moderate-to-severe OSA who received CPAP treatment also prospectively underwent the same testing following 3 months of CPAP treatment. Although fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p < 0.01). After 3 months of CPAP treatment in 21 of the moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG/DAG did not change significantly, but other ghrelin-related parameters including AG/insulin significantly decreased compared with values before treatment but remained higher than in no or mild OSA. Among several important metabolic factors, ghrelin-related factors had the strongest associations with moderate-to-severe OSA. These results indicate that continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in OSA patients existed at least within 3 months of

  12. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (P<0.05) improved tear fluid volume already after 30 days treatment. Schirmer test showed an increase from baseline 16.3±2.6 mm to 24.4±4.8 mm (P<0.05) with 30 mg MaquiBright™ and from 18.7±1.9 mm to 27.6±3.4 mm with 60 mg (P<0.05), respectively. Following treatment with 30 mg MaquiBright™ for further 30 days, tear fluid volume dropped slightly to 20.5±2.8 mm, whereas the improvement persisted with 60 mg treatment at 27.1±2.7 mm after 60 days treatment (P<0.05 vs. baseline). The burden of eye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg

  13. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    PubMed

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  14. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  15. Factors Significantly Associated With the Increased Prevalence of Carotid Atherosclerosis in a Northeast Chinese Middle-aged and Elderly Population: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xi-Feng; Lai, Ya-Xin; Gu, Jian-Qiu; Wang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Ai-Hua; Shan, Zhong-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is associated with many serious cardiovascular diseases; hence, it is necessary to identify factors related to its occurrence in order to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis among the population residing in Northeast China.This epidemiological survey was conducted in a representative group of relatively healthy community residents. All participants answered questions about their medical histories and underwent physical examination, blood biochemical analysis, and ultrasonography examinations of their necks and abdomens. The prevalence rates of carotid atherosclerosis under different factors and conditions were then analyzed.The results of this study showed that age, gender, and diabetes significantly affected the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in this Northeast Chinese population. In addition, gender-based subgroup analysis revealed additional factors correlated with the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in men or women, although their correlations were not significant in the overall population. While high serum TC and LDL-C levels were risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in men, it showed no clear correlation with the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in women. In contrast, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in female participants with high serum TG level, hypertension, obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were higher than that of the control population, a trend not observed in male participants.Older age, male sex, and diabetes were independently associated with increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis in Northeast China. These findings could lead to improved screening for carotid atherosclerosis for better disease management.

  16. No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2014-08-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-08-01

    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reassortant H5N1 avian influenza viruses containing PA or NP gene from an H9N2 virus significantly increase the pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoli; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Jiongjiong; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Yunpeng; Li, Qunhui; He, Dongchang; Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Xu, Xiulong; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-30

    Reassortment between different influenza viruses is a crucial way to generate novel influenza viruses with unpredictable virulence and transmissibility, which may threaten the public health. As currently in China, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes are endemic in poultry in many areas, while they are prone to reassort with each other naturally. In order to evaluate the risk of the reassortment to public health, A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 [GS/10(H5N1)] virus was used as a backbone to generate a series of reassortants, each contained a single internal gene derived from the predominant S genotype of the A/Chicken/Jiangsu/WJ57/2012 [WJ/57(H9N2)]. We next assessed the biological characteristics of these assortments, including pathogenicity, replication efficiency and polymerase activity. We found that the parental WJ/57(H9N2) and GS/10(H5N1) viruses displayed high genetic compatibility. Notably, the H5N1 reassortants containing the PA or NP gene from WJ/57(H9N2) virus significantly increased virulence and replication ability in mice, as well as markedly enhanced polymerase activity. Our results indicate that the endemicity of H9N2 and H5N1 in domestic poultry greatly increases the possibility of generating new viruses by reassortment that may pose a great threat to poultry industry and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The metabolic cost of changing walking speeds is significant, implies lower optimal speeds for shorter distances, and increases daily energy estimates.

    PubMed

    Seethapathi, Nidhi; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2015-09-01

    Humans do not generally walk at constant speed, except perhaps on a treadmill. Normal walking involves starting, stopping and changing speeds, in addition to roughly steady locomotion. Here, we measure the metabolic energy cost of walking when changing speed. Subjects (healthy adults) walked with oscillating speeds on a constant-speed treadmill, alternating between walking slower and faster than the treadmill belt, moving back and forth in the laboratory frame. The metabolic rate for oscillating-speed walking was significantly higher than that for constant-speed walking (6-20% cost increase for ±0.13-0.27 m s(-1) speed fluctuations). The metabolic rate increase was correlated with two models: a model based on kinetic energy fluctuations and an inverted pendulum walking model, optimized for oscillating-speed constraints. The cost of changing speeds may have behavioural implications: we predicted that the energy-optimal walking speed is lower for shorter distances. We measured preferred human walking speeds for different walking distances and found people preferred lower walking speeds for shorter distances as predicted. Further, analysing published daily walking-bout distributions, we estimate that the cost of changing speeds is 4-8% of daily walking energy budget. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. The metabolic cost of changing walking speeds is significant, implies lower optimal speeds for shorter distances, and increases daily energy estimates

    PubMed Central

    Seethapathi, Nidhi; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Humans do not generally walk at constant speed, except perhaps on a treadmill. Normal walking involves starting, stopping and changing speeds, in addition to roughly steady locomotion. Here, we measure the metabolic energy cost of walking when changing speed. Subjects (healthy adults) walked with oscillating speeds on a constant-speed treadmill, alternating between walking slower and faster than the treadmill belt, moving back and forth in the laboratory frame. The metabolic rate for oscillating-speed walking was significantly higher than that for constant-speed walking (6–20% cost increase for ±0.13–0.27 m s−1 speed fluctuations). The metabolic rate increase was correlated with two models: a model based on kinetic energy fluctuations and an inverted pendulum walking model, optimized for oscillating-speed constraints. The cost of changing speeds may have behavioural implications: we predicted that the energy-optimal walking speed is lower for shorter distances. We measured preferred human walking speeds for different walking distances and found people preferred lower walking speeds for shorter distances as predicted. Further, analysing published daily walking-bout distributions, we estimate that the cost of changing speeds is 4–8% of daily walking energy budget. PMID:26382072

  1. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  2. In Vivo Administration of a JAK3 Inhibitor during Acute SIV Infection Leads to Significant Increases in Viral Load during Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Byrareddy, Siddappa N.; Albrecht, Christina; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Mayne, Ann E.; Dunbar, Paul; Russo, Robert; Little, Dawn M.; Villinger, Tara; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies reported herein are the first to document the effect of the in vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor for defining the potential role of NK cells during acute SIV infection of a group of 15 rhesus macaques (RM). An additional group of 16 MHC/KIR typed RM was included as controls. The previously optimized in vivo dose regimen (20 mg/kg daily for 35 days) led to a marked depletion of each of the major NK cell subsets both in the blood and gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) during acute infection. While such depletion had no detectable effects on plasma viral loads during acute infection, there was a significant sustained increase in plasma viral loads during chronic infection. While the potential mechanisms that lead to such increased plasma viral loads during chronic infection remain unclear, several correlates were documented. Thus, during acute infection, the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor besides depleting all NK cell subsets also decreased some CD8+ T cells and inhibited the mobilization of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the blood and their localization to the GIT. Of interest is the finding that the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor during acute infection also resulted in the sustained maintenance during chronic infection of a high number of naïve and central memory CD4+ T cells, increases in B cells in the blood, but decreases in the frequencies and function of NKG2a+ NK cells within the GIT and blood, respectively. These data identify a unique role for JAK3 inhibitor sensitive cells, that includes NK cells during acute infection that in concert lead to high viral loads in SIV infected RM during chronic infection without affecting detectable changes in antiviral humoral/cellular responses. Identifying the precise mechanisms by which JAK3 sensitive cells exert their influence is critical with important implications for vaccine design against lentiviruses. PMID:24603870

  3. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-09-22

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis

  4. Emerged HA and NA Mutants of the Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Viruses with Increasing Epidemiological Significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009–10

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tsai, Chu-Han; Chu, Kuan-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Chang-Chun; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Wu, Ko-Wen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shen, Yea-Huei; Huang, Li-Min; Lee, Ping-Ing; Yang, ChingLai; Compans, Richard; Rouse, Barry T.; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas -Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post–peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K) was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001). E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure). In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post–peak (p = 0.000004) in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001). This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001) and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001). Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  5. Epilepsy by the Numbers: Epilepsy deaths by age, race/ethnicity, and gender in the United States significantly increased from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Greenlund, Sujay F; Croft, Janet B; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-04-01

    To inform public health efforts to prevent epilepsy-related deaths, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER; Wonder.cdc.gov) to examine any-listed epilepsy deaths for the period 2005-2014 by age groups (≤24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-84, ≥85years), sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native). Epilepsy deaths were defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes G40.0-G40.9. The total number of deaths per year with epilepsy as any listed cause ranged from 1760 in 2005 to 2962 in 2014. Epilepsy was listed as the underlying cause of death for about 54% of all deaths with any mention of epilepsy in 2005 and for 43% of such deaths in 2014. Age-adjusted epilepsy mortality rates (as any-listed cause of death) per 100,000 significantly increased from 0.58 in 2005 to 0.85 in 2014 (47% increase). In 2014, deaths among the non-Hispanic Black population (1.42 deaths per 100,000) were higher than among non-Hispanic White (0.86 deaths per 100,000) and Hispanic populations (0.70 deaths per 100,000). Males had a higher mortality rate than females (1.01 per 100,000 versus 0.74 per 100,000 in 2014), and those aged 85years or older had the highest mortality among age groups. Results highlight the need for heightened action to prevent and monitor epilepsy-associated mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  7. Significant increase in factual knowledge with web-assisted problem-based learning as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Münscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice examination of factual knowledge in cardiology and pneumology. A virtual problem-based learning environment for medical students supervised by postgraduate teachers was created. Seventy-four out of 183 fourth-year medical students volunteered to use the online module while attending a 6-week cardio-respiratory curriculum in summer 2007. Of these, 40 were randomly selected to be included (intervention group); the remaining 34 served as an internal control group. Analysis of all written exams taken during the preceding term showed that both groups were comparable (86.4 ± 1.1 vs. 85.9 ± 1.1%; p = 0.751). Students in the intervention group scored significantly higher in the final course assessment than students allocated to the control group (84.8 ± 1.3 vs. 79.5 ± 1.4%; p = 0.006; effect size 0.67). Thus, additional problem-based learning with an online module as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum lead to higher students’ scores in an exam testing factual knowledge. Whether using this teaching format increases overall student motivation to engage in the learning process needs to be further investigated. PMID:19774475

  8. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  9. Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline-albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization.

    PubMed

    Dinardo, C L; Bonifácio, S L; Mendrone, A

    2014-01-01

    Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when testing samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being tested and stored to avoid the transfusion of uncrossmatched ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a LISS-albumin enhancer to intensify antigen-antibody reaction after 5 minutes of 37oC incubation and compare this performance with that of other enhancers, gel, and conventional tube testing. Second, the study evaluated the impact of this method's implementation in the C:T ratio (crossmatched to transfused RBC units) of a transfusion laboratory. Ninety serum samples containing alloantibodies of potential clinical significance were tested against phenotyped RBCs using four different methods: (1) tube with LISS-albumin enhancer (5 minutes of incubation), (2) tube with LISS-albumin and PEG (15 minutes of incubation), (3) gel, and (4) conventional tube method (60 minutes of incubation). In parallel, the study compared the C:T ratio of a tertiary-hospital transfusion laboratory in two different periods: 3 months before and 3 months after the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol. The use of LISS-albumin with 5 minutes of incubation exhibited the same performance as LISS-albumin, PEG, and gel with 15 minutes of incubation. Conventional tube method results were equally comparable, but reactions were significantly less intense, except for anti-c (p = 0.406). Accuracy was 100 percent for all selected methods. After the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol, the C:T ratio fell from 2.74 to 1.29 (p < 0.001). IAT-XM can have its incubation time reduced to 5 minutes with the use of LISS

  10. CD4+ T Cells Coexpressing CD134 (OX40) Harbor Significantly Increased Levels of Human Herpesvirus 6B DNA Following Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Joshua C; Green, Jaime S; Thomm, Angela M; Knox, Konstance K; Verneris, Michael R; Lund, Troy C

    2016-12-15

    Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) commonly reactivates after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) and is associated with delayed engraftment, fever, rash, and central nervous system dysfunction. Recently, CD134 (OX40) has been implicated as a potential viral entry receptor. We evaluated CD4 + CD134 + / neg-lo and CD8 + CD134 + / neg-lo cells at day 28 after UCBT in 20 subjects with previously documented HHV-6 reactivation and persistent viremia. Analysis of CD4 + CD134 + cells as compared to CD4 + CD134 neg-lo cells showed 0.308 versus 0.129 copies of HHV-6B/cell (P = .0002). CD8 + CD134 +/neg-lo cells contained little to no HHV-6B copies. Following UCBT, CD4 + CD134 + cells harbor significantly increased levels of HHV-6B, suggesting that CD134 (OX40) may facilitate viral entry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Polyaniline as a new type of hole-transporting material to significantly increase the solar water splitting performance of BiVO4 photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Ye, Kai-Hang; Yu, Xiang; Zhu, Jiaqian; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Yuanming

    2018-07-01

    Polyaniline (PANI), with its low cost, chemical stability and high conductivity, is used as a hole transporting layer to fabricate NiOOH/PANI/BiVO4 (NPB) photoanode, of which the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance is significantly enhanced. The remarkable water oxidation photocurrent of NPB photoanode achieves 3.31 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE under AM 1.5G solar light irradiation, which is greatly increased compared with that of pristine BiVO4 (0.89 mA cm-2 under the same condition). The maximal incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency achieves 83.3% at 430 nm at 1.23 V vs. RHE and the maximal applied bias photo-to-current efficiency reaches 1.20% at 0.68 V vs. RHE, which are nearly five and ten times higher than that of pristine BiVO4 photoanode, respectively. This NPB photoanode exhibits excellent stability with about 97.22% Faraday efficiency after PEC water splitting for 3 h. The exciting results demonstrate that PANI shows great potential as a hole-transporting layer for photoanode and NPB is an efficient and stable photoanode material with a great potential application in PEC water splitting. Overall, this work provides an excellent reference on designing and fabricating photoanode materials for the future.

  12. Prognostic significance of the null genotype of glutathione S-transferase-T1 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: increased early death after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Naoe, T; Tagawa, Y; Kiyoi, H; Kodera, Y; Miyawaki, S; Asou, N; Kuriyama, K; Kusumoto, S; Shimazaki, C; Saito, K; Akiyama, H; Motoji, T; Nishimura, M; Shinagawa, K; Ueda, R; Saito, H; Ohno, R

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the prognostic significance of genetic polymorphism in glutathione-S transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione-S transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), the products of which are associated with drug metabolism as well as with detoxication, in 193 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) other than M3. Of the patients, 64.2% were either homozygous or heterozygous for GSTT1 (GSTT1(+)), while 35.8% showed homozygous deletions of GSTT1 (GSTT1(-)). The GSTT1(-) group had a worse prognosis than the GSTT1(+) group (P = 0.04), whereas other genotypes did not affect the outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that GSTT1(-) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (relative risk: 1.53; P = 0.026) but not for disease-free survival of 140 patients who achieved complete remission (CR). The rate of early death after the initiation of chemotherapy was higher in the GSTT1(-) group than the GSTT1(+) group (within 45 days after initial chemotherapy, P = 0.073; within 120 days, P = 0.028), whereas CR rates and relapse frequencies were similar. The null genotype of GSTT1 might be associated with increased toxicity after chemotherapy.

  13. The Oral Bioavailability of Trans-Resveratrol from a Grapevine-Shoot Extract in Healthy Humans is Significantly Increased by Micellar Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Castro, Laura A; Schiborr, Christina; David, Franziska; Ehrt, Heidi; Voggel, Jenny; Sus, Nadine; Behnam, Dariush; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Frank, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 contains abundant resveratrol monomers and oligomers with health-promoting potential. However, the oral bioavailability of these compounds in humans is low (˂1-2%). The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of resveratrol from vineatrol by micellar solubilization. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, six men) randomly ingested a single dose of 500 mg vineatrol (30 mg trans-resveratrol, 75 mg trans-ε-viniferin) as native powder or liquid micelles. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and over 24 h after intake. Resveratrol and viniferin were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma trans-resveratrol concentrations were 5.0-fold and 10.6-fold higher, respectively, after micellar supplementation relative to the native powder. However, no detectable amounts of trans-ε-viniferin were found in either plasma or urine. The transepithelial permeability of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin across differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was consistent to the absorbed fractions in vivo. The oral bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from the grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 was significantly increased using a liquid micellar formulation, without any treatment-related adverse effects, making it a suitable system for improved supplementation of trans-resveratrol. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High-frequency resistance training is not more effective than low-frequency resistance training in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gederson K; Franco, Cristiane M; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2018-02-27

    We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (p<0.001) muscle strength [LFRT and HFRT: bench press = 5.6 kg (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.9 - 9.4) and 9.7 kg (95%CI: 4.6 - 14.9) and squat = 8.0 kg (95%CI: 2.7 - 13.2) and 12.0 kg (95%CI: 5.1 - 18.1), respectively] and lean tissue mass (p = 0.007) [LFRT and HFRT: total body lean mass = 0.5 kg (95%CI: 0.0 - 1.1) and 0.8 kg (95%CI: 0.0 - 1.6), respectively] with no difference between groups (bench press, p = 0.168; squat, p = 0.312 and total body lean mass, p = 0.619). Thus, HFRT and LFRT are similar overload strategies for promoting muscular adaptation in well-trained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.

  15. Nordic Walking Can Be Incorporated in the Exercise Prescription to Increase Aerobic Capacity, Strength, and Quality of Life for Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bullo, Valentina; Gobbo, Stefano; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Blasio, Andrea; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Zaccaria, Marco; Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize and analyze the effects of Nordic Walking on physical fitness, body composition, and quality of life in the elderly. Keyword "Nordic Walking" associated with "elderly" AND/OR "aging" AND/OR "old subjects" AND/OR "aged" AND/OR "older adults" were used in the online database MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Only studies written in English language and published in peer-reviewed journals were considered. A meta-analysis was performed and effect sizes calculated. Fifteen studies were identified; age of participants ranged from 60 to 92 years old. Comparing with a sedentary group, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking was able to improve dynamic balance (0.30), functional balance (0.62), muscle strength of upper (0.66) and lower limbs (0.43), aerobic capacity (0.92), cardiovascular outcomes (0.23), body composition (0.30), and lipid profile (0.67). It seemed that Nordic Walking had a negative effect on static balance (-0.72). Comparing with a walking (alone) training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved the dynamic balance (0.30), flexibility of the lower body (0.47), and quality of life (0.53). Walking training was more effective in improving aerobic capacity (-0.21). Comparing Nordic Walking with resistance training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved dynamic balance (0.33), muscle strength of the lower body (0.39), aerobic capacity (0.75), flexibility of the upper body (0.41), and the quality of life (0.93). Nordic Walking can be considered as a safe and accessible form of aerobic exercise for the elderly population, able to improve cardiovascular outcomes, muscle strength, balance ability, and quality of life.

  16. Distinct structural changes detected by X-ray fiber diffraction in stabilization of F-actin by lowering pH and increasing ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Makino, K; Yamashita, I; Namba, K; Maéda, Y

    2001-02-01

    Lowering pH or raising salt concentration stabilizes the F-actin structure by increasing the free energy change associated with its polymerization. To understand the F-actin stabilization mechanism, we studied the effect of pH, salt concentration, and cation species on the F-actin structure. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns recorded from highly ordered F-actin sols at high density enabled us to detect minute changes of diffraction intensities and to precisely determine the helical parameters. F-actin in a solution containing 30 mM NaCl at pH 8 was taken as the control. F-actin at pH 8, 30 to 90 mM NaCl or 30 mM KCl showed a helical symmetry of 2.161 subunits per turn of the 1-start helix (12.968 subunits/6 turns). Lowering pH from 8 to 6 or replacing NaCl by LiCl altered the helical symmetry to 2.159 subunits per turn (12.952/6). The diffraction intensity associated with the 27-A meridional layer-line increased as the pH decreased but decreased as the NaCl concentration increased. None of the solvent conditions tested gave rise to significant changes in the pitch of the left-handed 1-start helix (approximately 59.8 A). The present results indicate that the two factors that stabilize F-actin, relatively low pH and high salt concentration, have distinct effects on the F-actin structure. Possible mechanisms will be discussed to understand how F-actin is stabilized under these conditions.

  17. Introgression of genes for cotton leaf curl virus resistance and increased fiber strength from Gossypium stocksii into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Nazeer, W; Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Tipu, A L; Mahmood, A; Zhou, B

    2014-02-21

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease is a major hurdle for successful cotton production in Pakistan. There has been considerable economic loss due to this disease during the last decade. It would be desirable to have cotton varieties resistant to this disease. We explored the possibility of transferring virus resistant genes from the wild species Gossypium stocksii into MNH-786, a cultivar of G. hirsutum. Hybridization was done under field condition at the Cotton Research Station, Multan, during 2010-11. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones. F1 seeds were treated with 0.03% colchicine solution for 6 h and germinated. Cytological observations at peak squaring/flowering stage showed that these plants were hexaploid, having 2n = 6x = 78 chromosomes. The F1 plants showed intermediate expression for leaf size, leaf area, petiole length, bracteole number and size, bracteole area, bracteole dentation, flower size, pedicel size, and petal number and size. Moreover it possessed high fiber strength of 54.4 g/tex, which is 54% greater than that of the check variety, i.e. MNH-786 (G. hirsutum). The F1 population did not show any symptom of CLCuVD in the field, tested by grafting with CLCuVD susceptible rootstock (var. S12). We conclude that it is possible to transfer CLCuVD resistance and high fiber strength from G. stocksii to G. hirsutum.

  18. Strength and durability of concrete: Effects of cement paste-aggregate interfaces. Part 2: Significance of transition zones on physical and mechanical properties of portland cement mortar; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.F.F.; Cohen, M.D.; Chen, W.F.

    1998-08-01

    The research was based on a two-part basic research investigation studying the effects of cement paste-aggregate interfaces (or interfacial transition zones-ITZ) on strength and durability of concrete. Part 1 dealt with the theoretical study and Part 2 dealt with the experimental.

  19. Iopanoic acid-induced decrease of circulating T3 causes a significant increase in GH responsiveness to GH releasing hormone in thyrotoxic patients.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Dias, J C; Lengyel, A M

    1999-10-01

    Thyroid hormones participate in GH synthesis and secretion, and an impaired GH response to many pharmacological stimuli, including GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has been found in thyrotoxicosis. Although the mechanisms involved in this process have not been fully elucidated, there is evidence that thyroid hormones could act at both hypothalamic and pituitary levels. There are no data in the literature about the effect of an acute reduction of circulating T3 levels on GH secretion in hyperthyroidism. The GH responsiveness to GHRH was therefore evaluated in a group of hyperthyroid patients during short-term treatment with iopanoic acid. Iopanoic acid is a compound that induces a rapid decrease in serum T3 levels, mainly by inhibition of peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. To the authors' knowledge, there is no evidence of a direct effect of iopanoic acid on GH secretion. Hyperthyroid patients were submitted to a GHRH test (100 microg, i.v.) before (day 0), and on days 4, 7 and 15 after oral treatment with iopanoic acid (3 g every 3 days) and propylthiouracil (200 mg every 8 h). A group of normal control subjects was also submitted to a single GHRH test (100 microg, i.v.). Nine patients with thyrotoxicosis (eight women, one man), with a mean age of 34 years, were studied. All patients had high serum levels of total T3 and total T4, and suppressed TSH levels. None of them had taken any medication for at least 3 months before the study. The patients were compared with a group of nine control subjects (five women, four men) with a mean age of 31 years. GH and TSH were measured by immunofluorometric assays. Total T3, total T4 and IGF-I were determined by radioimmunoassay. Albumin levels were measured by a colorimetric method. Iopanoic acid induced a rapid and maintained decrease in serum T3 concentrations, with a significant reduction on days 4, 7 and 15 compared with pre-treatment values. In hyperthyroidism, peak GH levels (mean +/- SE mU/l) after GHRH were significantly

  20. Direct targeting of risk factors significantly increases the detection of liver cirrhosis in primary care: a cross-sectional diagnostic study utilising transient elastography.

    PubMed

    Harman, David J; Ryder, Stephen D; James, Martin W; Jelpke, Matthew; Ottey, Dominic S; Wilkes, Emilie A; Card, Timothy R; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Guha, Indra Neil

    2015-05-03

    To assess the feasibility of a novel diagnostic algorithm targeting patients with risk factors for chronic liver disease in a community setting. Prospective cross-sectional study. Two primary care practices (adult patient population 10,479) in Nottingham, UK. Adult patients (aged 18 years or over) fulfilling one or more selected risk factors for developing chronic liver disease: (1) hazardous alcohol use, (2) type 2 diabetes or (3) persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver function enzyme with negative serology. A serial biomarker algorithm, using a simple blood-based marker (aspartate aminotransferase:ALT ratio for hazardous alcohol users, BARD score for other risk groups) and subsequently liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE). Diagnosis of clinically significant liver disease (defined as liver stiffness ≥8 kPa); definitive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. We identified 920 patients with the defined risk factors of whom 504 patients agreed to undergo investigation. A normal blood biomarker was found in 62 patients (12.3%) who required no further investigation. Subsequently, 378 patients agreed to undergo TE, of whom 98 (26.8% of valid scans) had elevated liver stiffness. Importantly, 71/98 (72.4%) patients with elevated liver stiffness had normal liver enzymes and would be missed by traditional investigation algorithms. We identified 11 new patients with definite cirrhosis, representing a 140% increase in the number of diagnosed cases in this population. A non-invasive liver investigation algorithm based in a community setting is feasible to implement. Targeting risk factors using a non-invasive biomarker approach identified a substantial number of patients with previously undetected cirrhosis. The diagnostic algorithm utilised for this study can be found on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02037867), and is part of a continuing longitudinal cohort study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  1. Down-Regulating γ-Gliadins in Bread Wheat Leads to Non-Specific Increases in Other Gluten Proteins and Has No Major Effect on Dough Gluten Strength

    PubMed Central

    Pistón, Fernando; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Rodríguez-Quijano, Marta; Barro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Background Gliadins are a major component of gluten proteins but their role in the mixing of dough is not well understood because their contribution to wheat flour functional properties are not as clear as for the glutenin fraction. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic lines of bread wheat with γ-gliadins suppressed by RNAi are reported. The effects on the gluten protein composition and on technological properties of flour were analyzed by RP-HPLC, by sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) test and by Mixograph analysis. The silencing of γ-gliadins by RNAi in wheat lines results in an increase in content of all other gluten proteins. Despite the gluten proteins compensation, in silico analysis of amino acid content showed no difference in the γ-gliadins silenced lines. The SDSS test and Mixograph parameters were slightly affected by the suppression of γ-gliadins. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, it is concluded that γ-gliadins do not have an essential functional contribution to the bread-making quality of wheat dough, and their role can be replaced by other gluten proteins. PMID:21935456

  2. Eye-Tracking Reveals that the Strength of the Vertical-Horizontal Illusion Increases as the Retinal Image Becomes More Stable with Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Chouinard, Philippe A.; Peel, Hayden J.; Landry, Oriane

    2017-01-01

    The closer a line extends toward a surrounding frame, the longer it appears. This is known as a framing effect. Over 70 years ago, Teodor Künnapas demonstrated that the shape of the visual field itself can act as a frame to influence the perceived length of lines in the vertical-horizontal illusion. This illusion is typically created by having a vertical line rise from the center of a horizontal line of the same length creating an inverted T figure. We aimed to determine if the degree to which one fixates on a spatial location where the two lines bisect could influence the strength of the illusion, assuming that the framing effect would be stronger when the retinal image is more stable. We performed two experiments: the visual-field and vertical-horizontal illusion experiments. The visual-field experiment demonstrated that the participants could discriminate a target more easily when it was presented along the horizontal vs. vertical meridian, confirming a framing influence on visual perception. The vertical-horizontal illusion experiment determined the effects of orientation, size and eye gaze on the strength of the illusion. As predicted, the illusion was strongest when the stimulus was presented in either its standard inverted T orientation or when it was rotated 180° compared to other orientations, and in conditions in which the retinal image was more stable, as indexed by eye tracking. Taken together, we conclude that the results provide support for Teodor Künnapas’ explanation of the vertical-horizontal illusion. PMID:28392764

  3. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    PubMed

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    .007). Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  5. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Wei, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, stress intensity, and yield strength on the kinetics of gaseous hydrogen assisted crack propagation in 18Ni maraging steels were investigated experimentally. It was found that crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity was characterized by an apparent threshold for crack growth, a stage where the growth rate increased sharply, and a stage where the growth rate was unchanged over a significant range of stress intensity. Cracking proceeded on load application with little or no detectable incubation period. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased with increasing yield strength.

  6. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating thatmore » immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.« less

  7. Seat strength in rear body block tests.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; White, Samuel D

    2016-07-03

    This study collected and analyzed available testing of motor vehicle seat strength in rearward loading by a body block simulating the torso of an occupant. The data were grouped by single recliner, dual recliner, and all belts to seat (ABTS) seats. The strength of seats to rearward loading has been evaluated with body block testing from 1964 to 2008. The database of available tests includes 217 single recliner, 65 dual recliner, and 18 ABTS seats. The trends in seat strength were determined by linear regression and differences between seat types were evaluated by Student's t-test. The average peak moment and force supported by the seat was determined by decade of vehicle model year (MY). Single recliner seats were used in motor vehicles in the 1960s to 1970s. The average strength was 918 ± 224 Nm (n = 26) in the 1960s and 1,069 ± 293 Nm (n = 65) in the 1980s. There has been a gradual increase in strength over time. Dual recliner seats started to phase into vehicles in the late 1980s. By the 2000s, the average strength of single recliner seats increased to 1,501 ± 335 Nm (n = 14) and dual recliner seats to 2,302 ± 699 Nm (n = 26). Dual recliner seats are significantly stronger than single recliner seats for each decade of comparison (P < .001). The average strength of ABTS seats was 4,395 ± 1,185 in-lb for 1989-2004 MY seats (n = 18). ABTS seats are significantly stronger than single or dual recliner seats (P < .001). The trend in ABTS strength is decreasing with time and converging toward that of dual recliner seats. Body block testing is an quantitative means of evaluating the strength of seats for occupant loading in rear impacts. There has been an increase in conventional seat strength over the past 50 years. By the 2000s, most seats are 1,700-3,400 Nm moment strength. However, the safety of a seat is more complex than its strength and depends on many other factors.

  8. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A diet with 3% of energy from a mixture of Omega-3 fatty acids significantly increases in vivo lipid peroxidation in postmenopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are recommended by public health organizations to reduce the risk of disease. However, n-3 PUFA are susceptible to an increase in lipid peroxidation in the human body. As part of a crossover dietary intervention study of a diet (20% of energy ...

  10. Significant Increase in Factual Knowledge with Web-Assisted Problem-Based Learning as Part of an Undergraduate Cardio-Respiratory Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raupach, T.; Munscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice…

  11. First Australian trial of the birth-training device Epi-No: a highly significantly increased chance of an intact perineum.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor T; Heath, Penny; Heather, Campbell

    2004-08-01

    A German report suggested significantly better outcomes in terms of perineal care, second stage length and neonatal outcome for users of Epi-No. To carry out a pilot study of the first use of the Epi-No birth training device in Australia for women having their first baby. Forty-eight primigravidae having their confinement at Birralee Birthing Unit who used the device compared to all other primigravida who delivered during the same period. The study shows a highly significantly improved outcome for the perineum when users are compared to primigravid non-user controls. We could not demonstrate decreased instrumental delivery rates nor a better outcome in term of Apgar scores. The Epi-No device should be offered as an option to all primigravidae to use during the late third trimester.

  12. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. Harvests from bone marrow donors who weigh less than their recipients are associated with a significantly increased probability of a suboptimal harvest yield.

    PubMed

    Anthias, Chloe; Billen, Annelies; Arkwright, Rebecca; Szydlo, Richard M; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of bone marrow (BM) harvest yield in determining transplant outcomes, but little is known regarding donor and procedure variables associated with achievement of an optimal yield. We hypothesized that donor demographics and variables relating to the procedure were likely to impact the yield (total nucleated cells [TNCs]/kg recipient weight) and quality (TNCs/mL) of the harvest. To test our hypothesis, BM harvests of 110 consecutive unrelated donors were evaluated. The relationship between donor or procedure characteristics and the BM harvest yield was examined. The relationship between donor and recipient weight significantly influenced the harvest yield; only 14% of BM harvests from donors who weighed less than their recipient achieved a TNC count of more than 4 × 10(8) /kg compared to 56% of harvests from donors heavier than their recipient (p = 0.001). Higher-volume harvests were significantly less likely to achieve an optimal yield than lower-volume harvests (32% vs. 78%; p = 0.007), and higher-volume harvests contained significantly fewer TNCs/mL, indicating peripheral blood contamination. BM harvest quality also varied significantly between collection centers adding to recent concerns regarding maintenance of BM harvest expertise within the transplant community. Since the relationship between donor and recipient weight has a critical influence yield, we recommend prioritizing this secondary donor characteristic when selecting from multiple well-matched donors. Given the declining number of requests for BM harvests, it is crucial that systems are developed to train operators and ensure expertise in this procedure is retained. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Factors associated with clinically significant increased walking time in multiple sclerosis: results of a survival analysis of short-term follow-up data from a clinical database.

    PubMed

    Miller, Deborah M; Thompson, Nicolas R; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Fox, Robert J; Hartman, Jen; Schwetz, Kathleen; Conway, Devon S; Rudick, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Because multiple sclerosis (MS) is variable and unpredictable, if symptom worsening could be predicted, patients may feel better prepared to manage changes in function. The objective of this paper is to study the prediction of walking impairment in MS. We retrieved data for all MS patients at our center (2008-2009), including baseline and follow-up timed 25-foot walk (T25FW) times. We assessed the incidence of ≥20% worsening in T25FW by developing two survival models: (1) disease course and (2) Multiple Sclerosis Performance Scales (MSPS) score. The outcome was days until ≥20% worsening in T25FW. Covariates were disease subtype, years since diagnosis, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score, and demographics. Data were interval censored; missing data were handled with multiple imputation. Of 1544 patients, 309 (20%) experienced ≥20% worsening T25FW. For disease course, time to worsening was significantly shorter for secondary progressive vs. relapsing-remitting disease (p < 0.001). For MSPS, patients with lower baseline MSPS scores progressed more slowly (p = 0.001). In both models, sex, baseline T25W, and time since diagnosis were significantly associated with worsening. In the disease course model, PHQ 9 score may be related to worsening (p = 0.07). These findings suggest factors associated with worsening in T25FW and a potential approach to establishing indicators associated with clinically significant change. © The Author(s), 2014.

  15. Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Terracol, Gilles; Talluri, Jacopo; Maugeri, Roberto; Guido, Davide; Faliva, Milena A; Solerte, Bruno S; Fioravanti, Marisa; Lukaski, Henry; Perna, Simone

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to attenuate the adverse effects of age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function include increased physical activity and nutritional supplementation. This study tested the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with whey protein (22 g), essential amino acids (10.9 g, including 4 g leucine), and vitamin D [2.5 μg (100 IU)] concurrent with regular, controlled physical activity would increase fat-free mass, strength, physical function, and quality of life, and reduce the risk of malnutrition in sarcopenic elderly persons. A total of 130 sarcopenic elderly people (53 men and 77 women; mean age: 80.3 y) participated in a 12-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation trial. All participants concurrently took part in a controlled physical activity program. We examined body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a handgrip dynamometer, and blood biochemical indexes of nutritional and health status, and evaluated global nutritional status, physical function, and quality of life before and after the 12 wk of intervention. Compared with physical activity and placebo, supplementation plus physical activity increased fat-free mass (1.7-kg gain, P < 0.001), relative skeletal muscle mass (P = 0.009), android distribution of fat (P = 0.021), handgrip strength (P = 0.001), standardized summary scores for physical components (P = 0.030), activities of daily living (P = 0.001), mini nutritional assessment (P = 0.003), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.002), and lowered C-reactive protein (P = 0.038). Supplementation with whey protein, essential amino acids, and vitamin D, in conjunction with age-appropriate exercise, not only boosts fat-free mass and strength but also enhances other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402608. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  17. Significant association of increased PD-L1 and PD-1 expression with nodal metastasis and a poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maruse, Y; Kawano, S; Jinno, T; Matsubara, R; Goto, Y; Kaneko, N; Sakamoto, T; Hashiguchi, Y; Moriyama, M; Toyoshima, T; Kitamura, R; Tanaka, H; Oobu, K; Kiyoshima, T; Nakamura, S

    2018-07-01

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor PD-1 are immune checkpoint molecules that attenuate the immune response. Blockade of PD-L1 enhances the immune response in a variety of tumours and thus serves as an effective anti-cancer treatment. However, the biological and prognostic roles of PD-L1/PD-1 signalling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of PD-L1/PD-1 signalling with the prognosis of OSCC patients to assess its potential therapeutic relevance. The expression of PD-L1 and of PD-1 was determined immunohistochemically in 97 patients with OSCC and the association of this expression with clinicopathological characteristics was examined. Increased expression of PD-L1 was found in 64.9% of OSCC cases and increased expression of PD-1 was found in 61.9%. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that increased expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 positively correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis. The expression of CD25, an activated T-cell marker, was negatively correlated with the labelling index of PD-L1 and PD-1. Moreover, the patient group with PD-L1-positive and PD-1-positive expression showed a more unfavourable prognosis than the group with PD-L1-negative and PD-1-negative expression. These data suggest that increased PD-L1 and PD-1 expression is predictive of nodal metastasis and a poor prognosis and is possibly involved in cancer progression via attenuating the immune response. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein-energy wasting significantly increases healthcare utilization and costs among patients with chronic kidney disease: a propensity-score matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Cheng, Rhoda Wen-Yi; Wang, Michael Yao-Hsien; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is highly prevalent, and has prognostic implications for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, few studies have investigated the impact of malnutrition, or protein-energy wasting (PEW), on healthcare utilization and medical expenditure among CKD patients. Using claim data from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan, this study identified patients with CKD between 2009-2013 and categorized them into those with mild, moderate, or severe CKD. Cases with PEW after CKD was diagnosed were propensity-score matched with controls in a 1:4 ratio. Healthcare resource utilization metrics were compared, including outpatient and emergency department visits, frequency and duration of hospitalization, and the cumulative costs associated with different CKD severity. From among 347,501 CKD patients, eligible cohorts of 66,872 with mild CKD (49.2%), 27,122 with moderate CKD (19.9%), and 42,013 with severe CKD (30.9%) were selected. Malnourished CKD patients had significantly higher rates of hospitalization (p < .001 for all severities) and re-admission (p = .015 for mild CKD, p = .002 for severe CKD) than non-malnourished controls. Cumulative medical costs for outpatient and emergency visits, and hospitalization, were significantly higher among all malnourished CKD patients than non-malnourished ones (p < .001); total medical costs were also higher among malnourished patients with mild (62.9%), moderate (59.6%), or severe (43.6%) CKD compared to non-malnourished patients (p < .001). In a nationally-representative cohort, CKD patients with PEW had significantly more healthcare resource utilization and higher aggregate medical costs than those without, across the spectrum of CKD: preventing PEW in CKD patients should receive high priority if we would like to reduce medical costs.

  19. Distribution of Report on Procedures to Estimate Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission Increases from Mobile and Area Sources for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Increment Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  1. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2005 and 2050

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China’s forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China’s forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr−1 (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr−1; 1 Tg = 1012 g). Our findings suggest that China’s forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050. PMID:26110831

  2. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China's forests between 2005 and 2050.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-06-25

    China's forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China's forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China's forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(15) g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr(-1) (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr(-1); 1 Tg = 10(12) g). Our findings suggest that China's forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050.

  3. Relationship Between Muscle Strength Asymmetry and Body Sway in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hitoshi; Kai, Yoshihiro; Murata, Shin; Osugi, Hironori; Anami, Kunihiko; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Imagita, Hidetaka

    2018-05-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle strength asymmetry and body sway while walking. We studied 63 older adult women. Strong side and weak side of knee extension strength, toe grip strength, hand grip strength, and body sway while walking were measured. The relationship between muscle strength asymmetry for each muscle and body sway while walking was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Regarding the muscles recognized to have significant correlation with body sway, the asymmetry cutoff value causing an increased sway was calculated. Toe grip strength asymmetry was significantly correlated with body sway. Toe grip strength asymmetry causing an increased body sway had a cutoff value of 23.5%. Our findings suggest toe grip strength asymmetry may be a target for improving gait stability.

  4. Sieve-based device for MALDI sample preparation. I. Influence of sample deposition conditions in oligonucleotide analysis to achieve significant increases in both sensitivity and resolution.

    PubMed

    Molin, Laura; Cristoni, Simone; Crotti, Sara; Bernardi, Luigi Rossi; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-11-01

    Spraying of oligonucleotide-matrix solutions through a stainless steel (ss) sieve (38 microm, 450 mesh) leads to the formation, on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sample holder, of uniformly distributed microcrystals, well separated from each other. When the resulting sample holder surface is irradiated by laser, abundant molecular species form, with a clear increase in both intensity and resolution with respect to values obtained by 'Dried Droplet', 'Double Layer', and 'Sandwich' deposition methods. In addition, unlike the usual situation, the sample is perfectly homogeneous, and identical spectra are obtained by irradiating different areas. On one hand, the data indicate that this method is highly effective for oligonucleotide MALDI analysis, and on the other, that it can be validly employed for fully automated MALDI procedures.

  5. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  6. Operative Management of Adult Spinal Deformity Results in Significant Increases in QALYs Gained Compared to Nonoperative Management: Analysis of 479 Patients With Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Justin K; Hostin, Richard; Robinson, Chessie; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Burton, Douglas C; Hart, Robert A; Kelly, Michael P; Keefe, Malla; Polly, David; Bess, Shay; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P

    2018-03-01

    Retrospective review of prospective multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) database. To compare the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) between operative and nonoperative treatments for ASD patients. Operative management of ASD repeatedly demonstrates improvements in HRQOL over nonoperative treatment. However, little is reported regarding QALY improvements after surgical correction of ASD. Inclusion criteria: ≥18 years, ASD. Health utility values were calculated from SF6D scores and used to calculate QALYs at minimum 2 years from the baseline utility value as well as at 1, 2, and 3 years for the available patients. A 1:1 propensity score matching using six baseline variables was conducted to account for the nonrandom distribution of operative and nonoperative treatments. Four hundred seventy-nine patients were included (OP:258, 70.7%, NONOP:221, 47.1%). One hundred fifty-one (OP:90, NONOP:61) had complete 1, 2, and 3 year data available for QALY trending. Unmatched results are not listed in the abstract. Mean baseline utility scores were statistically similar between the matched groups (OP: 0.609 ± 0.093, NONOP: 0.600 ± 0.091, P = 0.6401) and at 2 year min postop mean OP QALY was greater than NONOP (1.377 ± 0.345 vs. 1.256 ± 0.286, respectively, P < 0.01). For the subanalysis cohort, mean OP QALYs at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperative were all significantly greater than NONOP, P < 0.03 for all (1 yr: 0.651 ± 0.089 vs. 0.61 ± 0.079, 2 yr: 1.29 ± 0.157 vs. 1.189 ± 0.141, and 3 yr: 1.903 ± 0.235 vs. 1.749 ± 0.198, respectively). Matched OP had a larger QALYs gained (from baseline) at 2 year minimum postoperative (0.112 ± 0.243 vs. 0.008 ± 0.195, P < 0.01). For subanalysis of patients with complete 1 to 3 years data, OP had a significantly larger QALYs gained at 1, 2, and 3 years compared with NONOP: 1 year (0.073 ± 0.121 vs. 0.029 ± 0.082, P = 0.0447), 2 years (0.167 ± 0

  7. Rescreening for abnormal vaginal flora in pregnancy and re-treating with clindamycin vaginal cream significantly increases cure and improvement rates.

    PubMed

    Lamont, R F; Taylor-Robinson, D; Bassett, P

    2012-08-01

    We investigated 199 pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) who received clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) for three days and compared with 205 women treated with placebo. The vaginal flora was assessed at each visit. At the second visit, 71% in the CVC group were cured/improved, compared with 12% in the placebo group (P < 0.001). At visit 3 about 90% who responded to initial CVC treatment were still cured/improved. Of women who initially failed to respond to CVC and were given an additional seven-day course, 33% were cured/improved by the third visit, compared with 15% who failed to respond to placebo initially and were given a further seven-day course (P = 0.02). By visit 4, half the women in the CVC group who received additional treatment remained cured/improved, compared with 26% who had additional placebo (P = 0.004). In the CVC group, a change from abnormal to normal rose from 71% (visit 2) to 76% (visit 3) and 79% (visit 4). A similar trend was seen in women who received placebo but the proportions were significantly lower (12%, 24% and 33%, respectively). There is value in rescreening and re-treating women who remain BV-positive after initial clindamycin treatment.

  8. The oral bioavailability of curcumin from micronized powder and liquid micelles is significantly increased in healthy humans and differs between sexes.

    PubMed

    Schiborr, Christina; Kocher, Alexa; Behnam, Dariush; Jandasek, Josef; Toelstede, Simone; Frank, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin revealed various health-beneficial properties in numerous studies. However its bioavailability is low due to its limited intestinal uptake and rapid metabolism. The aim of our project was to develop novel curcumin formulations with improved oral bioavailability and to study their safety as well as potential sex-differences. In this crossover study, healthy subjects (13 women, 10 men) took, in random order, a single oral dose of 500 mg curcuminoids as native powder, micronized powder, or liquid micelles. Blood and urine samples were collected for 24 h and total curcuminoids and safety parameters were quantified. Based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the micronized curcumin was 14-, 5-, and 9-fold and micellar curcumin 277-, 114-, and 185-fold better bioavailable than native curcumin in women, men, and all subjects, respectively. Thus, women absorbed curcumin more efficiently than men. All safety parameters remained within the reference ranges following the consumption of all formulations. Both, the micronized powder and in particular the liquid micellar formulation of curcumin significantly improved its oral bioavailability without altering safety parameters and may thus be ideally suited to deliver curcumin in human intervention trials. The observed sex differences in curcumin absorption warrant further investigation. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Attitude Strength.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  10. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Targeting CXCR1/2 Significantly Reduces Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity and Increases the Efficacy of Inhibiting HER2 via HER2-dependent and -independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagdeep K.; Farnie, Gillian; Bundred, Nigel J.; Simões, Bruno M; Shergill, Amrita; Landberg, Göran; Howell, Sacha; Clarke, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are an important therapeutic target as they are predicted to be responsible for tumour initiation, maintenance and metastases. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Breast cancer cell line studies indicate that IL-8 via its cognate receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, is important in regulating breast CSC activity. We investigated the role of IL-8 in the regulation of CSC activity using patient-derived breast cancers and determined the potential benefit of combining CXCR1/2 inhibition with HER2-targeted therapy. Experimental design CSC activity of metastatic and invasive human breast cancers (n=19) was assessed ex vivo using the mammosphere colony forming assay. Results Metastatic fluid IL-8 level correlated directly with mammosphere formation (r=0.652; P<0.05; n=10). Recombinant IL-8 directly increased mammosphere formation/self-renewal in metastatic and invasive breast cancers (n=17). IL-8 induced activation of EGFR/HER2 and downstream signalling pathways and effects were abrogated by inhibition of SRC, EGFR/HER2, PI3K or MEK. Furthermore, lapatinib inhibited the mammosphere-promoting effect of IL-8 in both HER2-positive and negative patient-derived cancers. CXCR1/2 inhibition also blocked the effect of IL-8 on mammosphere formation and added to the efficacy of lapatinib in HER2-positive cancers. Conclusions These studies establish a role for IL-8 in the regulation of patient-derived breast CSC activity and demonstrate that IL-8/CXCR1/2 signalling is partly mediated via a novel SRC and EGFR/HER2-dependent pathway. Combining CXCR1/2 inhibitors with current HER2-targeted therapies has potential as an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce CSC activity in breast cancer and improve the survival of HER2-positive patients. PMID:23149820

  12. Increasing Valid Profiles in Phallometric Assessment of Sex Offenders with Child Victims: Combining the Strengths of Audio Stimuli and Synthetic Characters.

    PubMed

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Renaud, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles. Three modalities (audio, visual, and audiovisual) were compared using two groups (15 sex offenders with child victims and 15 non-offenders). Both the new visual and audiovisual stimuli resulted in a 13% increase in the number of valid profiles at 2.5 mm, when compared to the standard audio stimuli. Furthermore, the new audiovisual stimuli generated a 34% increase in penile responses. All three modalities were able to discriminate between the two groups by their responses to the adult and child stimuli. Lastly, sexual interest indices for all three modalities could accurately classify participants in their appropriate groups, as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis (i.e., audio AUC = .81, 95% CI [.60, 1.00]; visual AUC = .84, 95% CI [.66, 1.00], and audiovisual AUC = .83, 95% CI [.63, 1.00]). Results suggest that computer-generated characters allow accurate discrimination of sex offenders with child victims and can be added to already validated stimuli to increase the number of valid profiles. The implications of audiovisual stimuli using computer-generated characters and their possible use in PPG evaluations are also discussed.

  13. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    PubMed

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Site-directed immobilization of a genetically engineered anti-methotrexate antibody via an enzymatically introduced biotin label significantly increases the binding capacity of immunoaffinity columns.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Kaitlynn R; Smith, Christopher A; Hofstetter, Heike; Horn, James R; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effect of random vs. site-directed immobilization techniques on the performance of antibody-based HPLC columns was investigated using a single-domain camelid antibody (VHH) directed against methotrexate (MTX) as a model system. First, the high flow-through support material POROS-OH was activated with disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC), and the VHH was bound in a random manner via amines located on the protein's surface. The resulting column was characterized by Frontal Affinity Chromatography (FAC). Then, two site-directed techniques were explored to increase column efficiency by immobilizing the antibody via its C-terminus, i.e., away from the antigen-binding site. In one approach, a tetra-lysine tail was added, and the antibody was immobilized onto DSC-activated POROS. In the second site-directed approach, the VHH was modified with the AviTag peptide, and a biotin-residue was enzymatically incorporated at the C-terminus using the biotin ligase BirA. The biotinylated antibody was subsequently immobilized onto NeutrAvidin-derivatized POROS. A comparison of the FAC analyses, which for all three columns showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999), revealed that both site-directed approaches yield better results than the random immobilization; the by far highest efficiency, however, was determined for the immunoaffinity column based on AviTag-biotinylated antibody. As proof of concept, all three columns were evaluated for quantification of MTX dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Validation using UV-detection showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.04-12μM (R(2)>0.993). The lower limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were found to be independent of the immobilization strategy and were 40nM and 132nM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 11.6%, and accuracy was between 90.7% and 112%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AviTag-system in chromatography, and the first

  15. Significant figures.

    PubMed

    Badrick, Tony; Hickman, Peter E

    2008-08-01

    * For consistency of reporting the same number of significant figures should be used for results and reference intervals. * The choice of the reporting interval should be based on analytical imprecision (measurement uncertainty).

  16. A method to determine shear adhesive strength of fibrin sealants.

    PubMed

    Sierra, D H; Feldman, D S; Saltz, R; Huang, S

    1992-01-01

    The adhesive strength of fibrin sealants has not been rigorously evaluated to date. The adhesive strength of six different concentrations of cryoprecipitated fibrinogen as well as the commercially available fibrin tissue adhesive Tissucol was tested under controlled conditions utilizing split-thickness skin grafts as the test adherand. This test configuration permitted the modeling of bonding strength for attachment of skin grafts as well as incorporate established engineering test standards for adhesives. An increase in fibrin concentration corresponded with an increase in shear adhesive strength. No significant increases in adhesive strength were attained after 5 min of bonding for all tested concentrations, except for the commercial adhesive, which attained the adhesive strength of an equivalent concentration of cryoprecipitated adhesive after 90 min. The adhesive strength, however, was an order of magnitude less than reported values of the tensile strength of fibrin material for similar concentrations. Therefore, it is important that the surgeon use a sufficiently high fibrinogen concentration for the specific clinical indication. The method of fibrin sealant preparation and/or the compounding adjuncts appear to have an effect on the development of adhesive strength.

  17. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  18. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    PubMed

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p < 0.001) and physiological cross-sectional area (16.1 vs. 18.1 cm 2 , p = 0.032). There were no significant changes to muscle fascicle length, stiffness, or eccentric hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  19. [Significance of physical training on prevention in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Baum, K

    2002-07-01

    The loss of strength, coordination, endurance, and flexibility with increasing age is only partly due to the aging process itself. A major factor is physical activity, i.e. the influence of implicit or explicit training stimuli. All elements of physical performance can be improved through training even in the very old, if the intensity and frequency of training are adequate. For the elderly, strength and coordination are particularly important elements of training since they constitute a prerequisite for an independent way of living. To minimize the cardiovascular risks during strength training, we developed and tested a new method which leads to significantly smaller increases in blood pressure than conventional approaches.

  20. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  1. Fatigue strength of socket welded pipe joint

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Makoto; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Takayoshi

    1995-12-01

    Fully reversed four point bending fatigue tests were carried out on small diameter socket welded joints made of carbon steels. Experimental parameters were pipe diameter, thicknesses of pipe and socket wall, throat depth and shape of fillet welds, slip-on and diametral gaps in the socket welding, lack of penetration at the root of fillet welds, and peening of fillet welds. In most cases a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet, but in the case of higher stress amplitude, it tended to start from the toe of fillet. The standard socket welded joint for a pipe with amore » 50 mm nominal diameter showed a relatively low fatigue strength of 46 MPa in stress amplitude at the 10{sup 7} cycles failure life. This value corresponds to about 1/5 of that for the smoothed base metal specimens in axial fatigue. The fatigue strength decreased with increasing pipe diameter, and increased with increasing thickness of the pipe and socket wall. The effects of throat depth and shape of fillet welds on fatigue strength were not significant. Contrary to expectation, the fatigue strength of a socket welded joint without slip-on gap is Higher than that of the joint with a normal gap. A lack of penetration at the root deleteriously reduced fatigue strength, showing 14 MPa in stress amplitude at the 10{sup 7} cycles failure life for the 50 mm diameter socket joint.« less

  2. The strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeier, Konrad L; Hofmann, Gunther O; Mückley, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Currently available polyaxial locking plates represent the consequent enhancement of fixed-angle, first-generation locking plates. In contrast to fixed-angle locking plates which are sufficiently investigated, the strength of the new polyaxial locking options has not yet been evaluated biomechanically. This study investigates the mechanical strength of single polyaxial interfaces of different volar radius plates. Single screw-plate interfaces of the implants Palmar 2.7 (Königsee Implantate und Instrumente zur Osteosynthese GmbH, Allendorf, Germany), VariAx (Stryker Leibinger GmbH & Co. KG, Freiburg, Germany) und Viper (Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ, USA) were tested by cantilever bending. The strength of 0 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees screw locking angle was obtained during static and dynamic loading. The Palmar 2.7 interfaces showed greater ultimate strength and fatigue strength than the interfaces of the other implants. The strength of the VariAx interfaces was about 60% of Palmar 2.7 in both, static and dynamic loading. No dynamic testing was applied to the Viper plate because of its low ultimate strength. By static loading, an increase in screw locking angle caused a reduction of strength for the Palmar 2.7 and Viper locking interfaces. No influence was observed for the VariAx locking interfaces. During dynamic loading; angulation had no influence on the locking strength of Palmar 2.7. However, reduction of locking strength with increasing screw angulation was observed for VariAx. The strength of the polyaxial locking interfaces differs remarkably between the examined implants. Depending on the implant an increase of the screw locking angle causes a reduction of ultimate or fatigue strength, but not in all cases a significant impact was observed.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of transverse and impact strength of different high strength denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhinav; Tewari, R K

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the impact strength and transverse strength of the high-impact denture base materials. A conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin was used as a control. The entire experiment was divided into four main groups with twenty specimens each according to denture base material selected Trevalon, Trevalon Hi, DPI Tuff and Metrocryl Hi. These groups were further subgrouped into the two parameters selected, impact strength and flexural strength with ten specimens each. These specimens were then subjected to transverse bend tests with the help of Lloyds instrument using a three point bend principle. Impact tests were undertaken using an Izod-Charpy digital impact tester. This study was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance using Fisher f-test and Bonferroni t-test. There was a significant improvement in the impact strength of high-impact denture base resins as compared to control (Trevalon). However, in terms of transverse bend tests, only DPI Tuff showed higher transverse strength in comparison to control. Trevalon Hi and Metrocryl Hi showed a decrease in transverse strength. Within the limits of this in vitro study, (1) There is a definite increase in impact strength due to the incorporation of butadiene styrene rubber in this high strength denture base materials as compared to Trevalon used as a control. (2) Further investigations are required to prevent the unduly decrease of transverse strength. (3) It was the limitation of the study that the exact composition of the high-impact resins was not disclosed by the manufacturer that would have helped in better understanding of their behavior.

  4. Polyimide Film of Increased Tear Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; Hinkley, J. A.; Ezzell, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    High-temperature linear aromatic polyimide with improved resistance to tearing made by new process that incorporates elastomer into polyimide. Linear aromatic condensation polyimides are materials of prime choice for use as films and coatings on advanced spacecraft and aircraft where durability at temperatures in range of 200 to 300 degree C required. Elastomer-containing polyimide film with improved toughness proves useful for applications where resistance to tearing and long-term thermal stability necessary. Desired resistance to tearing achieved by careful control of amount and chemical composition of added elastomer.

  5. Knee strength ratios in competitive female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Murawa, Michal; Mackala, Krzysztof; Dworak, Lechoslaw Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    Knee strength ratios are related to the movement patterns, sport-specific training and knee injuries in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the ratios in the concentric isokinetic strength of the hamstrings and quadriceps and the isometric strength of the knee extensors. In female basketball players (n = 14) and female volleyball players (n = 12) were evaluated: the hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratio (H/Q) and side-to-side peak torque ratio (TR) for hamstrings and quadriceps; the ratio of the maximal bilateral strength to the summed maximal unilateral strength (B/U) and side-to-side maximal strength ratio (SR) for knee extensors. For the H/Q values, a 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test were computed. The H/Q values increased from 48.0 (3.9)% at 60°/s to 70.4 (7.9)% at 300°/s. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the H/Q values between 300°/s and 180°/s, 300°/s and 60°/s in basketball and volleyball athletes, and between 180°/s and 60°/s only in basketball athletes (p < .05). Significantly higher H/Q results at 60°/s demonstrated basketball players than volleyball players (p < .05). Differences in the TR and SR mean values ranged from 4.4% to 8.6% and indicated no significant side-to-side strength deficits (p > .05). In both groups, greater isometric strength developed bilaterally was found (B/U > 100%). The findings revealed the magnitude of knee strength ratios in female athletes determined by sport-specific movements in basketball and volleyball. This study highlighted the importance of the bilateral strength deficit and muscular balance between the hamstrings and quadriceps in basketball and volleyball athletes in activities related to their movement patterns and specific training. PMID:29315348

  6. Circuit strength training improves muscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

    PubMed

    Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Aidar, Felipe J; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo; Patrocínio de Oliveira, Cláudia E; de Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; Magalhães Curty, Victor; Menezes Touguinha, Henrique; Caputo Ferreira, Maria E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit strength training on the muscle strength, functional autonomy and anthropometric indicators of the elderly. Were included 65 women divided in two groups: strength training (TG, n= 34) and control group (CG, n = 31). The strength-training group was subjected to a circuit shaped training program, three days per week, for a period of 12 weeks. In each training session, the circuit was repeated three times. In each circuit, all exercises wereperformed once, with 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise, with 30-seconds intervals between each exercise. TG showed significantly changes in body composition post 12 weeks, as decreases in body weight (Δ -1.5±1.8 kg) and BMI (Δ-0.57 ±0.74 kg/m²), and decreases in abdominal (Δ -3±1.61 cm), waist (Δ -1 ± 1.61 cm), hip (Δ -2.75±1.44 cm) and waist hip ratio circumference (Δ -0.02 ± 0.15 cm). For functional autonomy, TG showed increases post 12 weeks by 30-second chair stand (Δ 3.5±0.4 reps), six minute walk (Δ60.95±7.91 m), back scratch (Δ 3.2 ± 1.36 cm), and time up and go tests (Δ -1,62 ±0,15s). TG also showed increases in muscle strength post 12 weeks in both leg press (Δ 11±1,29 kg) and lat pulldown (Δ11 ±0,75 Kg). For CG, Body composition, functional autonomy and muscle strength did not improved in any moment. Hence, circuit strength training provides significant improvements inmuscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

  7. Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength. The effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Ohberg, L; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied calf muscle strength in 7 men and 4 women (mean age, 40.9 +/- 10.1 years) who had surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 2 weeks followed by a stepwise increasing strength training program. Strength measurements (peak torque and total work) were done preoperatively (Week 0) and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. We measured isokinetic concentric plantar flexion strength at 90 and 225 deg/sec and eccentric flexion strength at 90 deg/sec on both the injured and noninjured sides. Preoperatively, concentric and eccentric strength were significantly lower on the injured side at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Postoperatively, concentric peak torque on the injured side decreased significantly between Weeks 0 and 16 and increased significantly between Weeks 26 and 52 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than that on the noninjured side at all periods and at both velocities. The eccentric strength was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but increased significantly until at Week 52 no significant differences between the sides could be demonstrated. It seems, therefore, that the recovery in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength after surgery for Achilles tendinosis is slow. We saw no obvious advantages in recovery of muscle strength with a short immobilization time (2 weeks) versus a longer (6 weeks) period used in a previous study.

  8. Shoulder Strength Requirements for Upper Limb Functional Tasks: Do Age and Rotator Cuff Tear Status Matter?

    PubMed

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R

    2017-12-01

    Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p < .001, p < .001) and external rotation (p < .001, p = .017) strength than the young adults, respectively. Presence of a tear significantly increased percentage of internal rotation strength compared to young (p < .001) and uninjured older adults (p = .008). Marked differences in strength demand across tasks indicate the need for evaluating a diversity of functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss, which may lead to disability.

  9. Unilateral and Immediate Stimulation of Acupuncture Points Xiaohai (SI8) and Jianwaishu (SI14) of the Small Intestine Meridian Increases Electromyographic Activity and Strength in the Ipsilateral and Contralateral Upper Trapezius Muscle.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Leandro L; de Araujo, Fernanda L B; da Silva, Fernanda A M; Mucciaroni, Thaís S; de Araujo, João E

    2016-10-01

    We previously showed that a yin meridian of the upper limb decreased electromyographic activity (root mean square) and muscle strength ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of stimulation. Here, we tested the upper trapezius (UT) muscle response after stimulation of a yang meridian of the upper limb, the small intestine (SI). Thirty-eight healthy volunteers were randomized into the following groups: UT muscle (SI14), distant of the UT muscle (SI8), without stimulation (CG), and sham (R3). An acupuncturist certificated by the Brazilian Society of Physical Therapists and Acupuncturists performed the needle insertion. Each volunteer received only one stimulation to the right upper limb. The evaluation occurred before, 5 minutes after, and 20 minutes after needle withdrawal. The root mean square activity increased on the right side in the UT muscle for the SI8 and SI14 groups (F 3,37  = 4.67; p < 0.025) at the 20-minute evaluation. The most vigorous response occurred on the contralateral side because the effects were maintained for 5 minutes after withdrawal (F 3,37  = 4.52; p < 0.025). Both groups showed an increase in the UT muscle strength at the 20-minute evaluation (F 3,37  = 3.41; p < 0.025). The CG and R3 groups did not show any changes. Our data indicate that SI a yang meridian increases the UT muscle response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Single-stranded DNA condensed with poly-L-lysine results in nanometric particles that are significantly smaller, more stable in physiological ionic strength fluids and afford higher efficiency of gene delivery than their double-stranded counterparts.

    PubMed

    Molas, M; Bartrons, R; Perales, J C

    2002-08-15

    Nonviral gene transfer vectors have been actively studied in the past years in order to obtain structural entities with minimum size and defined shape. The final size of a gene transfer vector, which is compacted into unimolecular complexes, is directly proportional to the mass of the nucleic acid to be compacted. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of producing ssDNA vectors and their biophysical and biological characterization. We have obtained ssDNA/poly-L-lysine complexes that are significantly smaller than their double-stranded counterparts. We have also identified a lesser aggregative behavior of compacted single-stranded vs. double-stranded DNA vectors in the presence of physiological NaCl concentrations. Expression of compacted ssDNA is observed in hepatoma cell lines. Moreover, we have successfully delivered galactosylated ssDNA complexes into cells that express the asialoglycoprotein receptor via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The reduced size and biophysical behavior of ssDNA vectors may provide an advantage for transfection of eukaryotic cells.

  11. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  12. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  13. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Application of Strength Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength…

  15. Vacuum Strength of Two Candidate Glasses for a Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Timothy Andrew; Tucker, Dennis S.; Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2007-01-01

    The strengths of two candidate glass types for use in a space observatory were measured. Samples of ultra-low expansion glass (ULE) and borosilicate (Pyrex) were tested in air and in vacuum at room temperature (20 degrees C) and in vacuum after being heated to 200 degrees C. Both glasses tested in vacuum showed a significant increase in strength over those tested in air. However, there was no statistical difference between the strength of samples tested in vacuum at room temperature and those tested in vacuum after heating to 200 degrees C.

  16. Muscle hypertrophy, strength development, and serum hormones during strength training in elderly women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Valkeinen, H; Häkkinen, K; Pakarinen, A; Hannonen, P; Häkkinen, A; Airaksinen, O; Niemitukia, L; Kraemer, W J; Alén, M

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effects of strength training on maximal force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles and serum hormone concentrations in elderly females with fibromyalgia (FM). Twenty-six patients with FM were randomly assigned to a training (FMT; n = 13; mean age 60 years) or a control (FMC; n = 13; 59 years) group. FMT performed progressive strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. The measurements included maximal isometric and concentric leg extension forces, EMG activity of the vastus lateralis and medialis, CSA of the quadriceps femoris, and serum concentrations of testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol. Subjectively perceived symptoms of FM were also assessed. All patients were able to complete the training. In FMT strength training led to increases of 36% (p<0.001) and 33% (p<0.001) in maximal isometric and concentric forces, respectively. The CSA increased by 5% (p<0.001) and the EMG activity in isometric action by 47% (p<0.001) and in concentric action by 57% (p<0.001). Basal serum hormone concentrations remained unaltered during strength training. The subjective perceived symptoms showed a minor decreasing tendency (ns). No statistically significant changes occurred in any of these parameters in FMC. Progressive strength training increases strength, CSA, and voluntary activation of the trained muscles in elderly women with FM, while the measured basal serum hormone concentrations remain unaltered. Strength training benefits the overall physical fitness of the patients without adverse effects or any exacerbation of symptoms and should be included in the rehabilitation programmes of elderly patients with FM.

  17. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  18. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant

  19. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    PubMed

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase

  20. Relationship between low handgrip strength and quality of life in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seo Young; Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon

    2018-06-19

    Handgrip strength is strongly related to muscle power in the extremities and is an important index for diagnosing sarcopenia. We evaluated the relationship between handgrip strength and quality of life (QoL) in Korean men and women. We analyzed 4620 participants (2070 men and 2550 women) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI-3 (2015). Low handgrip strength was defined as the lower quartile of handgrip strength in the study population. QoL was evaluated according to the European Quality of Life Scale-Five Dimensions (EQ-5D). The relationship between handgrip strength and QoL was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The odds ratios (ORs) for low handgrip strength significantly increased as age increased for both men and women. The ORs for low handgrip strength increased as body mass index decreased in men. In men with low handgrip strength, the OR for having problems in mobility (OR 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-2.98) and having pain or discomfort (1.53, 1.04-2.24) significantly increased. In women with low handgrip strength, the OR for having problems in mobility (2.12, 1.02-2.87), problems in usual activities (2.04, 1.46-2.85), and having pain or discomfort (1.48, 1.15-1.90) significantly increased. Men with low handgrip strength had poor QoL on the mobility and pain/discomfort dimensions of EQ-5D, whereas women with low handgrip strength had poor QoL on mobility, usual activities, and pain/discomfort dimensions. Management to improve handgrip strength is necessary for achieving better QoL.

  1. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    Small NEO asteroids (<Ø140m) may not be a threat on a national or global level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured, mostly due to broken glass. The ground damage from a small asteroid depends strongly on the altitude at which they "burst" where most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management.Strong asteroids, such as a monolithic boulder, fail and create peak energy deposition close to the altitude at which ram dynamic pressure exceeds the material cohesive strength. Weaker asteroids, such as a rubble pile, structurally fail at higher altitude, but it requires the increased aerodynamic pressure at lower altitude to disrupt and disperse the rubble. Consequently the resulting airbursts have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.In this study hydrocode simulations of the entry and break-up of small asteroids were performed to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. This presentation will show movies of the simulations, the results of peak burst height, and the comparison to semi-analytical models.

  2. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  3. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Young, James D; Whitten, Joseph H D; Reid, Jonathan C; Quigley, Patrick J; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D; Hodgson, Daniel D; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  4. Chronic effect of static stretching on strength performance and basal serum IGF-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Borges Bastos, Carmen L; Miranda, Humberto; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Portal, Maria de Nazaré; Gomes, M Thiago; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva; Winchester, Jason B

    2013-09-01

    Improving the process of how physical performance is enhanced is one of the main topics evaluated by physiologists. This process often involves athletes and nonathletic populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the chronic response to 10 weeks of static stretching exercises carried out before and during a strength training program for 8 exercises on an 8 repetition maximum (8RM) test performance, and basal serum insulinlike growth factor (IGF-1) levels. Thirty recreationally trained volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: (a) SBST (performed a warm-up with a static stretching protocol before each strength training session); (b) SDST (before each training set, a static stretching exercise was performed); and (c) OST (entire session was performed without any type of stretching exercise). Strength and IGF-1 levels were collected at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the entire experimental procedure. All the exercises showed a significant increase in muscle strength for the OST group. However, the results revealed a significant increase in the muscle strength for only a few exercises in the SBST (LP, LE) and SDST (LP) experimental conditions. Significant statistical differences were found between SBST and SDST for all the exercises in the OST experimental condition. Furthermore, the IGF-1 expression showed no significant differences in the intragroup analysis. However, the OST group showed higher values (p < 0.05) in the posttest when compared with those of the other groups (increased significantly only in the OST experimental condition). It has been concluded that, although all the groups showed an increase in muscular strength, the strength training performed without any type of stretching exercise, regardless of whether the stretching is performed before or during the lifting session, can more effectively increase muscle strength and basal serum IGF-1 levels. It was concluded that strength training, with or without the use

  5. The cross education of strength and skill following unilateral strength training in the upper and lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Green, Lara A; Gabriel, David A

    2018-04-18

    Cross education is the strength gain or skill improvement transferred to the contralateral limb following unilateral training or practice. The present study examined the transfer of both strength and skill following a strength training program. Forty participants (20M, 20F) completed a 6-week unilateral training program of dominant wrist flexion or dorsiflexion. Strength, force variability, and muscle activity were assessed pre-training, post-training, and following 6-weeks of detraining (retention). Analyses of covariance compared the experimental limb (trained or untrained) to the control (dominant or non-dominant). There were no sex differences in the training response. Cross education of strength at post-training was 6% (p<0.01) in the untrained arm and 13% (p<0.01) in the untrained leg. Contralateral strength continued to increase following detraining to 15% in the arm (p<0.01) and 14% in the leg (p<0.01). There was no difference in strength gains between upper and lower limbs (p>0.05). Cross education of skill (force variability) demonstrated greater improvements in the untrained limbs compared to the control limbs during contractions performed without concurrent feedback. Significant increases in V-wave amplitude (p=0.02) and central activation (p<0.01) were highly correlated with contralateral strength gains. There was no change in agonist amplitude or motor unit firing rates in the untrained limbs (p>0.05). The neuromuscular mechanisms mirrored the force increases at post-training and retention supporting central drive adaptations of cross education. The continued strength increases at retention identified the presence of motor learning in cross education, as confirmed by force variability.

  6. Changes in boron fiber strength due to surface removal by chemical etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of chemical etching on the tensile strength of commercial boron/tungsten fibers were investigated. Fibers with as-received diameters of 203, 143, and 100 micrometers were etched to diameters as small as 43 micrometers. The etching generally resulted in increasing fiber tensile strength with decreasing fiber diameter. And for the 203 micrometer fibers there was an accompanying significant decrease in the coefficient of variation of the tensile strength for diameters down to 89 micrometers. Heat treating these fibers above 1,173 K in a vacuum caused a marked decrease in the average tensile strength of at least 80 percent. But after the fibers were etched, their strengths exceeded the as-received strengths. The tensile strength behavior is explained in terms of etching effects on surface flaws and the residual stress pattern of the as-received fibers.

  7. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Dynamometry is increasingly used as an objective measurement of muscle strength in neurological diseases. No study has applied dynamometry in untreated newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 21 MG patients before and after initial anti-myasthenic treatment. Isometric strength was compared with MG evaluation scales. Muscle strength was reduced for knee extensors and shoulder abductors but normal for ankle extensors. Isometric muscle strength did not correlate significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%; range -1.8-49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG evaluation scales. This supports the use of dynamometry in MG patients, especially for evaluation of the effect of anti-myasthenic treatment. Muscle Nerve 54: 709-714, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The added value of measuring thumb and finger strength when comparing strength measurements in hypoplastic thumb patients.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, H M Ties; Selles, Ruud W; de Kraker, Marjolein; Stam, Henk J; Hovius, Steven E R

    2013-10-01

    When interventions to the hand are aimed at improving function of specific fingers or the thumb, the RIHM (Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer) is a validated tool and offers more detailed information to assess strength of the involved joints besides grip and pinch measurements. In this study, strength was measured in 65 thumbs in 40 patients diagnosed with thumb hypoplasia. These 65 thumbs were classified according to Blauth. Longitudinal radial deficiencies were also classified. The strength measurements comprised of grip, tip, tripod and key pinch. Furthermore palmar abduction and opposition of the thumb as well as abduction of the index and little finger were measured with the RIHM. For all longitudinal radial deficiency patients, grip and pinch strength as well as palmar abduction and thumb opposition were significantly lower than reference values (P<0.001). However, strength in the index finger abduction and the little finger abduction was maintained or decreased to a lesser extent according to the degree of longitudinal radial deficiency. All strength values decreased with increasing Blauth-type. Blauth-type II hands (n=15) with flexor digitorum superficialis 4 opposition transfer including stabilization of the metacarpophalangeal joint showed a trend toward a higher opposition strength without reaching statistical significance (P=0.094),however compared to non-operated Blauth-type II hands (n=6) they showed a lower grip strength (P=0.019). The RIHM is comparable in accuracy to other strength dynamometers. Using the RIHM, we were able to illustrate strength patterns on finger-specific level, showing added value when evaluating outcome in patients with hand related problems. © 2013.

  9. The strength of metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, William J.

    1992-11-01

    There is intensive interest in metal matrix composites (MMCs) for automotive components, and the first production applications in Japan use discontinuous fibers as the reinforcements. These fibers are randomly oriented, resulting in an MMC with isotropic properties. However, there are conflicting reports on the tensile strengths attainable. In some cases, the strength increases with increasing volume fraction (V f) of fibers, while in other cases, there is little or no benefit. A simple method is proposed to calculate the strength of this type of MMC. It is shown that the fibers oriented perpendicular to the stress direction play a key role, and the strength depends upon the strength of the interfacial bond. Upper and lower limits of the composite strength are calculated. If the bond strength is larger than the matrix strength, the composite strength has a maximum value which increases with V f. If the bond strength is weaker than the matrix, the composite strength has a minimum value which is either weakly dependent or even independent of V f. These calculations are in good agreement with examples taken from the literature of aluminum composites reinforced with either A12O3, graphite, or SiC. The strength of the matrix alloy is shown to be a very important parameter: weak alloys are easily strengthened, while in certain cases, strong alloys may be weakened.

  10. Effects of neck strength training on isometric neck strength in rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a neck strengthening program on the isometric neck strength profile of male rugby union players. Controlled laboratory study. Professional rugby union club. Fifteen professional and 10 semiprofessional rugby union players. The 15 professional players undertook a 5-week neck strengthening intervention, which was performed twice per week, whereas the 10 semiprofessional players acted as the control group. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a hand-held dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left-side flexion (LSF), and right-side flexion (RSF). Preintervention and postintervention evaluations were undertaken. No significant between-group differences in isometric neck strength were noted preintervention. A significant main effect for time was observed (P < 0.05), whereby the intervention group increased isometric neck strength in all planes after the 5-week intervention (F preintervention = 334.45 ± 39.31 N vs F postintervention 396.05 ± 75.55 N; E preintervention = 606.19 ± 97.34 vs E postintervention = 733.88 ± 127.16 N; LSF preintervention = 555.56 ± 88.34 N vs LSF postintervention = 657.14 ± 122.99 N; RSF preintervention = 570.00 ± 106.53 N vs RSF postintervention = 668.00 ± 142.18 N). No significant improvement in neck strength was observed for control group participants. The results of the present study indicate that a 5-week neck strengthening program improves isometric neck strength in rugby union players, which may have implications for injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation. The strengthening program described in the present study may facilitate rehabilitation specialists in the development of neck injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation protocols.

  11. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert J.; Ekins, Jacob B.; Tin, Anthony S.; Costes, Sylvain; Hudson, Tamara M.; Schroeder, Dana J.; Kallmes, Kevin; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Young, Philip M.; Lu, Aiming; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David F.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males). Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90), but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140). Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25%) increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure. PMID:29309426

  12. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    DOE PAGES

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi; ...

    2016-11-23

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forcesmore » produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  13. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forcesmore » produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  14. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  15. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  16. Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-02-10

    To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shoulder strength imbalances as injury risk in handball.

    PubMed

    Edouard, P; Degache, F; Oullion, R; Plessis, J-Y; Gleizes-Cervera, S; Calmels, P

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to analyze whether internal (IR) and external (ER) rotator shoulder muscles weakness and/or imbalance collected through a preseason assessment could be predictors of subsequent shoulder injury during a season in handball players. In preseason, 16 female elite handball players (HPG) and 14 healthy female nonathletes (CG) underwent isokinetic IR and ER strength test with use of a Con-Trex® dynamometer in a seated position with 45° shoulder abduction in scapular plane, at 60, 120 and 240°/s in concentric and at 60°/s in eccentric, for both sides. An imbalanced muscular strength profile was determined using -statistically selected cut-offs from CG values. For HPG, all newly incurred shoulder injuries were reported during the season. There were significant differences between HPG and CG only for dominant eccentric IR strength, ER/IR ratio at 240°/s and for IRecc/ERcon ratio. In HPG, IR and ER strength was higher, and ER/IR ratios lower for dominant than for nondominant side. The relative risk was 2.57 (95%CI: 1.60-3.54; P<0.05) if handball players had an imbalanced muscular strength profile. In youth female handball players IR and ER muscle strength increases on the dominant side without ER/IR imbalances; and higher injury risk was associated with imbalanced muscular strength profile. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Associations of Grip Strength and Change in Grip Strength With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in a European Older Population

    PubMed Central

    Prasitsiriphon, Orawan; Pothisiri, Wiraporn

    2018-01-01

    Objective: (1) To examine the associations between 3 measures of grip strength: static grip strength, change in grip strength, and the combination of grip strength and its change, with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and (2) to determine which measure is the most powerful predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among the European older population. Method: Data come from the first 4 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). A Cox proportional hazard model and a competing risk regression model were used to assess the associations. To determine the best predictor, Akaike information criterion was applied. Results: Grip strength and the combination of grip strength and its change were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Change in grip strength was correlated with only all-cause mortality. Among the 3 measures, the static measure of grip strength was the best predictor of cardiovascular mortality whereas the combined measure is that of all-cause mortality. Discussion: Grip strength is a significant indicator of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The combination of grip strength and its change can be used to increase the accuracy for prediction of all-cause mortality among older persons.

  19. The male contraceptive regimen of testosterone and levonorgestrel significantly increases lean mass in healthy young men in 4 weeks, but attenuates a decrease in fat mass induced by testosterone alone.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Karen L; Anawalt, Bradley D; Amory, John K; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J

    2003-03-01

    In hypogonadal men, testosterone (T) in replacement dosages is known to increase fat-free mass (lean mass) and decrease fat mass. In young eugonadal men, similar dosages of T increase lean mass, but much higher dosages of T are required to decrease total body fat mass. Current T-based male hormonal contraceptive regimens include a second agent, such as a progestin, to maximize inhibition of pituitary gonadotropins and improve efficacy. To study the effect of such combinations on body composition, we randomized healthy, young, eugonadal men into four combinations of exogenous T and the progestin, levonorgestrel (LNG): 1) 100 mg T enanthate, im, weekly plus 125 micro g LNG, orally, daily (T+LNG); 2) T plus placebo LNG (T alone); 3) placebo T plus LNG (LNG alone); and 4) placebo T plus placebo LNG (placebo). We then analyzed body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry after 4 and 8 wk of treatment. T+LNG significantly increased total lean mass after 4 and 8 wk of treatment (3.5 +/- 0.9% and 4.2 +/- 1.2%, respectively; P < 0.05) and truncal lean mass after 4 and 8 wk of treatment (4.7 +/- 0.9% and 5.0 +/- 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with baseline and placebo. T alone also increased total and truncal lean mass significantly compared with placebo after 4 wk of treatment, but not compared with baseline (3.3 +/- 1.4% and 3.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively; P < 0.05 vs. placebo), suggesting an additive effect of T and LNG to increase lean mass. Fat mass significantly decreased in the abdomen in men administered T alone compared with LNG alone (-4.9 +/- 2.8%; P < 0.05). Fat mass significantly increased in the abdomen with LNG alone (4.1 +/- 1.0%; P < 0.05) compared with baseline and was unchanged with the combination of T+LNG, suggesting that LNG attenuates the decrease in fat mass seen with T alone. There was no change in weight or body mass index in any group during the study. This study shows that in young eugonadal men 1) T alone rapidly increases lean mass

  20. High-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life model and application.

    PubMed

    Hui-li, Wang; Si-feng, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue performance of high-strength bolt was studied. Based on the fracture mechanics theory and the Gerberich-Chen formula, the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture crack model and the fatigue life model were established. The high-strength bolt crack depth and the fatigue life under corrosion environment were quantitatively analyzed. The factors affecting high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life were discussed. The result showed that the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture biggest crack depth reduces along with the material yield strength and the applied stress increases. The material yield strength was the major factor. And the high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life reduced along with the increase of material strength, the applied stress or stress amplitude. The stress amplitude influenced the most, and the material yield strength influenced the least. Low bolt strength and a low stress amplitude level could extend high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life.

  1. Associations Between Balance and Muscle Strength, Power Performance in Male Youth Athletes of Different Maturity Status.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Raouf; Chaouachi, Anis; Makhlouf, Issam; Granacher, Urs; Behm, David G

    2016-11-01

    Balance, strength and power relationships may contain important information at various maturational stages to determine training priorities. The objective was to examine maturity-specific relationships of static/dynamic balance with strength and power measures in young male athletes. Soccer players (N = 130) aged 10-16 were assessed with the Stork and Y balance (YBT) tests. Strength/power measures included back extensor muscle strength, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 3-hop jump tests. Associations between balance with strength/power variables were calculated according to peak-height-velocity (PHV). There were significant medium-large sized correlations between all balance measures with back extensor strength (r = .486-.791) and large associations with power (r = .511-.827). These correlation coefficients were significantly different between pre-PHV and circa PHV as well as pre-PHV and post-PHV with larger associations in the more mature groups. Irrespective of maturity-status, SLJ was the best strength/power predictor with the highest proportion of variance (12-47%) for balance (i.e., Stork eyes opened) and the YBT was the best balance predictor with the highest proportion of variance (43-78%) for all strength/power variables. The associations between balance and muscle strength/power measures in youth athletes that increase with maturity may imply transfer effects from balance to strength/power training and vice versa in youth athletes.

  2. FTY720-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) electrospun scaffold significantly increases microvessel density over 7 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57b16/J mice: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Bowers, D T; Chhabra, P; Langman, L; Botchwey, E A; Brayman, K L

    2011-11-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds could improve islet transplant success by physically mimicking the shape of extracellular matrix and by acting as a drug-delivery vehicle. Scaffolds implanted in alternate transplant sites must be prevascularized or very quickly vascularized following transplantation to prevent hypoxia-induced islet necrosis. The local release of the S1P prodrug FTY720 induces diameter enlargement and increases in length density. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate length and diameter differences between diabetic and nondiabetic animals implanted with FTY720-containing electrospun scaffolds using intravital imaging of dorsal skinfold window chambers. Electrospun mats of randomly oriented fibers we created from polymer solutions of PLAGA (50:50 LA:GA) with and without FTY720 loaded at a ratio of 1:200 (FTY720:PLAGA by wt). The implanted fiber mats were 4 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 mm thick. Increases in length density and vessel diameter were assessed by automated analysis of images over 7 days in RAVE, a Matlab program. Image analysis of repeated measures of microvessel metrics demonstrated a significant increase in the length density from day 0 to day 7 in the moderately diabetic animals of this preliminary study (P < .05). Furthermore, significant differences in length density at day 0 and day 3 were found between recently STZ-induced moderately diabetic and nondiabetic animals in response to FTY720 local release (P < .05, Student t test). Driving the islet revascularization process using local release of factors, such as FTY720, from biodegradable polymers makes an attractive system for the improvement of islet transplant success. Preliminary study results suggest that a recently induced moderately diabetic state may potentiate the mechanism by which local release of FTY720 from polymer fibers increases length density of microvessels. Therefore, local release of S1P receptor-targeted drugs is under further investigation for improvement of

  3. Heavyweight cement concrete with high stability of strength parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudyakov, Konstantin; Nevsky, Andrey; Danke, Ilia; Kudyakov, Aleksandr; Kudyakov, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The present paper establishes regularities of basalt fibers distribution in movable cement concrete mixes under different conditions of their preparation and their selective introduction into mixer during the mixing process. The optimum content of basalt fibers was defined as 0.5% of the cement weight, which provides a uniform distribution of fibers in the concrete volume. It allows increasing compressive strength up to 51.2% and increasing tensile strength up to 28.8%. Micro-structural analysis identified new formations on the surface of basalt fibers, which indicates the good adhesion of hardened cement paste to the fibers. Stability of concrete strength parameters has significantly increased with introduction of basalt fibers into concrete mix.

  4. Influence of dentin pretreatment on bond strength of universal adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare bond strength of different universal adhesives under three different testing conditions: when no pretreatment was applied, after 37% phosphoric acid etching and after glycine application. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used as a substitute for human teeth. Five different universal adhesives were tested: Futurabond M+, Scotchbond Universal, Clearfil Universal Bond, G-Premio BOND, Peak Universal Bond. The adhesive systems were applied following each manufacturer’s instructions. The teeth were randomly assigned to three different dentin surface pretreatments: no pretreatment agent (control), 37% phosphoric acid etching, glycine pretreatment. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine in order to measure and compare bond strength values. Results: The Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance and the Mann–Whitney test were applied to assess significant differences among the groups. Dentin pretreatments provided different bond strength values for the adhesives tested, while similar values were registered in groups without dentin pretreatment. Conclusions: In the present report, dentin surface pretreatment did not provide significant differences in shear bond strength values of almost all groups. Acid pretreatment lowered bond strength values of Futurabond and Peak Universal Adhesives, whereas glycine pretreatment increased bond strength values of G Praemio Bond adhesive system. PMID:28642929

  5. Influence of dentin pretreatment on bond strength of universal adhesives.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare bond strength of different universal adhesives under three different testing conditions: when no pretreatment was applied, after 37% phosphoric acid etching and after glycine application. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used as a substitute for human teeth. Five different universal adhesives were tested: Futurabond M+, Scotchbond Universal, Clearfil Universal Bond, G-Premio BOND, Peak Universal Bond. The adhesive systems were applied following each manufacturer's instructions. The teeth were randomly assigned to three different dentin surface pretreatments: no pretreatment agent (control), 37% phosphoric acid etching, glycine pretreatment. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine in order to measure and compare bond strength values. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test were applied to assess significant differences among the groups. Dentin pretreatments provided different bond strength values for the adhesives tested, while similar values were registered in groups without dentin pretreatment. Conclusions: In the present report, dentin surface pretreatment did not provide significant differences in shear bond strength values of almost all groups. Acid pretreatment lowered bond strength values of Futurabond and Peak Universal Adhesives, whereas glycine pretreatment increased bond strength values of G Praemio Bond adhesive system.

  6. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  7. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  8. Character Strengths and Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Strengths-Based Approach from Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited focus in the disability field on assessing and intervening to promote strengths of character. However, character strengths have received significant attention in the broader field of positive psychology. This paper provides an overview of the growing science of character strengths and explores why and how character strengths…

  9. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-07-01

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface. The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is significantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.

  10. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  11. Strength Modeling Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.

    1985-01-01

    Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

  12. ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.

  13. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical activities of daily living (ADL). To improve internal validity of the assessment of mid-thigh intermuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and knee extensors MV, a 10-week unilateral ST program using the untrained leg as an internal control preceded 12 weeks of whole-body ST. Strength, power, and FFM increased significantly with ST (all p < 0.05), whereas rapid walk, 5 chair stands, and get up and go time decreased significantly with ST in the overall group (all p < 0.05). Women improved significantly in both walking test times (both p < 0.05) but not in the stair climb test, whereas men improved in the stair climb test (p < 0.05) but not in walking test times. Multiple regression analysis revealed the highest R2 (0.28) for the change in chair stands time, followed by stair climb and usual walk at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. ST improves performance in functional tasks important for ADLs. Changes in strength, power, and FFM are predictors of ST-induced improvements in these tasks. PMID:19910811

  14. Resistance Training for Muscle Weakness in Multiple Sclerosis: Direct Versus Contralateral Approach in Individuals With Ankle Dorsiflexors' Disparity in Strength.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Cabboi, Maria Paola; Dragone, Daniele; Ginatempo, Francesca; Ortu, Enzo; De Natale, Edoardo Rosario; Mercante, Beniamina; Mureddu, Giovanni; Bua, Guido; Deriu, Franca

    2017-07-01

    To compare effects of contralateral strength training (CST) and direct strength training of the more affected ankle dorsiflexors on muscle performance and clinical functional outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibiting interlimb strength asymmetry. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. Individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (N=30) and mild-to-moderate disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤6) presenting with ankle dorsiflexors' strength disparity. Participants were randomly assigned to a CST (n=15) or direct strength training (n=15) group performing 6 weeks of maximal intensity strength training of the less or more affected dorsiflexors, respectively. Maximal strength, endurance to fatigue, and mobility outcomes were assessed before, at the intervention end, and at 12-week follow-up. Strength and fatigue parameters were measured after 3 weeks of training (midintervention). In the more affected limb of both groups, pre- to postintervention significant increases in maximal strength (P≤.006) and fatigue endurance (P≤.04) were detected along with consistent retention of these improvements at follow-up (P≤.04). At midintervention, the direct strength training group showed significant improvements (P≤.002), with no further increase at postintervention, despite training continuation. Conversely, the CST group showed nonsignificant strength gains, increasing to significance at postintervention (P≤.003). In both groups, significant pre- to postintervention improvements in mobility outcomes (P≤.03), not retained at follow-up, were observed. After 6 weeks of training, CST proved as effective as direct strength training in enhancing performance of the more affected limb with a different time course, which may have practical implications in management of severely weakened limbs where direct strength training is not initially possible. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers.

    PubMed

    McLaine, Sally J; Ginn, Karen A; Fell, James W; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of shoulder pain in young swimmers is high. Shoulder rotation strength and the ratio of internal to external rotation strength have been reported as potential modifiable risk factors associated with shoulder pain. However, relative strength measures in elevated positions, which include flexion and extension, have not been established for the young swimmer. The aim of this study was to establish clinically useful, normative shoulder strength measures and ratios for swimmers (14-20 years) without shoulder pain. Cross-sectional, observational study. Swimmers (N=85) without a recent history of shoulder pain underwent strength testing of shoulder flexion and extension (in 140° abduction); and internal and external rotation (in 90° abduction). Strength tests were performed in supine using a hand-held dynamometer and values normalised to body weight. Descriptive statistics were calculated for strength and strength ratios (flexion:extension and internal:external rotation). Differences between groups (based on gender, history of pain, test and arm dominance) were explored using independent and paired t tests. Normative shoulder strength values and ratios were established for young swimmers. There was a significant difference (p<0.002) in relative strength between males and females for all tests with no differences in strength ratios. Relative strength of the dominant and non-dominant shoulders (except for extension); and for swimmers with and without a history of shoulder pain was not significantly different. A normal shoulder strength profile for the young swimmer has been established which provides a valuable reference for the clinician assessing shoulder strength in this population. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Methods Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Results Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p < 0.05, ANOVA, post hoc Dunn’s test). Plasma glutamate remained unchanged and cerebral glutamate was decreased without any signs of cerebral impairment. Urea and ammonia were significantly increased within normal limits without signs of organ dysfunction (urea: from 2.7 ± 1.6 to 5.5 ± 1.5 mmol/ l; ammonia: from 12 ± 6.3 to 26 ± 8.3 μmol/ l; p < 0.05, ANOVA, post hoc Dunn’s test). Conclusions High dose L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0

  17. Effects of blood contamination on resin-resin bond strength.

    PubMed

    Eiriksson, Sigurdur O; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2004-02-01

    Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin-resin bond strength. The top surfaces of 64, 4-mm composite blocks (Z-250, Renew, APX, Pertac II) were untreated as the control, or were treated as follows: blood applied and dried on the surface (Treatment 1), blood applied, rinsed, dried (Treatment 2), blood applied, rinsed, and an adhesive applied (Single Bond, One-Step, Clearfil SE, Prompt L-Pop) (Treatment 3). Fresh composite was applied and light-cured in 2-mm increments. After 24 h storage in water, the specimens were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs, trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2), and loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p<0.05). Control values ranged from 45.1 MPa for Pertac II to 71.5 MPa for APX. Untreated blood contamination resulted in resin-resin bond strengths of only 1.0-13.1 MPa. Rinsing raised bond strengths to over 40 MPa for each material. Use of an adhesive further increased bond strengths except for Pertac II. Rinsing blood from contaminated surfaces increases the resin-resin bond strength significantly and the application of an appropriate adhesive increases the bond strength to control levels.

  18. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  19. Discovery of novel mGluR1 antagonists: a multistep virtual screening approach based on an SVM model and a pharmacophore hypothesis significantly increases the hit rate and enrichment factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Bo; Yang, Ling-Ling; Feng, Shan; Zhou, Jian-Ping; Huang, Qi; Xie, Huan-Zhang; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2011-03-15

    Development of glutamate non-competitive antagonists of mGluR1 (Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1) has increasingly attracted much attention in recent years due to their potential therapeutic application for various nervous disorders. Since there is no crystal structure reported for mGluR1, ligand-based virtual screening (VS) methods, typically pharmacophore-based VS (PB-VS), are often used for the discovery of mGluR1 antagonists. Nevertheless, PB-VS usually suffers a lower hit rate and enrichment factor. In this investigation, we established a multistep ligand-based VS approach that is based on a support vector machine (SVM) classification model and a pharmacophore model. Performance evaluation of these methods in virtual screening against a large independent test set, M-MDDR, show that the multistep VS approach significantly increases the hit rate and enrichment factor compared with the individual SB-VS and PB-VS methods. The multistep VS approach was then used to screen several large chemical libraries including PubChem, Specs, and Enamine. Finally a total of 20 compounds were selected from the top ranking compounds, and shifted to the subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies, which results will be reported in the near future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro study of transverse strength of fiber reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Mosharraf, R; Hashemi, Z; Torkan, S

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement with fiber is an effective method for considerable improvement in flexural properties of indirect composite resin restorations. The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the transverse strength of composite resin bars reinforced with pre-impregnated and non-impregnated fibers. Thirty six bar type composite resin specimens (3×2×25 mm) were constructed in three groups. The first group was the control group (C) without any fiber reinforcement. The specimens in the second group (P) were reinforced with pre-impregnated fibers and the third group (N) with non-impregnated fibers. These specimens were tested by the three-point bending method to measure primary transverse strength. Data were statistically analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. There was a significant difference among the mean primary transverse strength in the three groups (P<0.001). The post-hoc (Tukey) test showed that there was a significant difference between the pre-impregnated and control groups in their primary transverse strength (P<0.001). Regarding deflection, there was also a significant difference among the three groups (P=0.001). There were significant differences among the mean deflection of the control group and two other groups (P(C&N)<.001 and P(C&P)=.004), but there was no significant difference between the non-and pre-impregnated groups (P(N&P)=.813). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that reinforcement with fiber considerably increased the transverse strength of composite resin specimens, but impregnation of the fiber used implemented no significant difference in the transverse strength of composite resin samples.

  1. Serum hCG-β levels of postovulatory day 12 and 14 with the sequential application of hCG-β fold change significantly increased predictability of pregnancy outcome after IVF-ET cycle.

    PubMed

    Sung, Nayoung; Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Koo, H S; Yang, K M

    2016-09-01

    To investigate hCG-β level on postovulatory day (POD) 12 and its fold increase as predictors for pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. A retrospective cohort study was performed in total 1408 fresh and 598 frozen cycles between November 2008 and October 2011, which resulted in biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, or live birth of singleton pregnancy. The serum hCG-β levels of POD 12 and 14 were compared among biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, and live birth groups. The cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 hCG-β levels and the degree of hCG-β increase from POD 12 to 14 were determined for each pregnancy outcome. POD 12 and 14 hCG-β levels stratified based on pregnancy outcomes were significantly different among the biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, and live birth in both fresh and frozen cycles. Serum hCG-β levels of POD 12 and 14 and the fold increase of hCG-β levels from POD 12 to 14 significantly predict pregnancy outcomes after fresh and frozen cycles. Among these, the cutoff value of POD 14 hCG-β had the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). In fresh cycles, the cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 serum hCG-β levels for clinical pregnancies were 30.2 mIU/mL (sensitivity 81.3 %, specificity 79.6 %, and PPV 92.3 %) and 70.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 88.4 %, specificity 85.2 %, and PPV 94.7 %). In pregnancies with POD 12 serum hCG-β levels ≥30.2 mIU/mL, the cutoff level of increase of hCG-β for clinical pregnancy was 2.56 (sensitivity 73.6 %, specificity 72.4 %, and PPV 97.8 %). Sequential application of cutoff values such as POD 12 hCG-β and fold increase of hCG-β improved predictability of pregnancy outcome as compared with that of POD 12 hCG-β alone. The cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 serum hCG-β levels for live birth were 40.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 75.2 %, specificity 72.6 %, PPV 78.9 %) and 104.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 80.3 %, specificity 74.1 %, PPV 80.8 %). In the frozen

  2. Effects of strength training on muscle strength characteristics, functional capabilities, and balance in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko H S; Sallinen, Janne M; Kraemer, William J; Alen, Markku J; Häkkinen, Keijo K T

    2006-05-01

    Progressive strength training can lead to substantial increases in maximal strength and mass of trained muscles, even in older women and men, but little information is available about the effects of strength training on functional capabilities and balance. Thus, the effects of 21 weeks of heavy resistance training--including lower loads performed with high movement velocities--twice a week on isometric maximal force (ISOmax) and force-time curve (force produced in 500 milliseconds, F0-500) and dynamic 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength of the leg extensors, 10-m walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance test (DYN.D) were investigated in 26 middle-aged (MI; 52.8 +/- 2.4 years) and 22 older women (O; 63.8 +/- 3.8 years). 1RM, ISOmax, and F0-500 increased significantly in MI by 28 +/- 10%, 20 +/- 19%, 31 +/- 34%, and in O by 27 +/- 8%, 20 +/- 16%, 18 +/- 45%, respectively. 10WALK (MI and O, p < 0.001) shortened and DYN.D improved (MI and O, p < 0.001). The present strength-training protocol led to large increases in maximal and explosive strength characteristics of leg extensors and in walking speed, as well to an improvement in the present dynamic balance test performance in both age groups. Although training-induced increase in explosive strength is an important factor for aging women, there are other factors that contribute to improvements in dynamic balance capacity. This study indicates that total body heavy resistance training, including explosive dynamic training, may be applied in rehabilitation or preventive exercise protocols in aging women to improve dynamic balance capabilities.

  3. Retention of neodymium by dolomite at variable ionic strength as probed by batch and column experiments.

    PubMed

    Emerson, H P; Zengotita, F; Richmann, M; Katsenovich, Y; Reed, D T; Dittrich, T M

    2018-10-01

    The results presented in this paper highlight the complexity of adsorption and incorporation processes of Nd with dolomite and significantly improve upon previous work investigating trivalent actinide and lanthanide interactions with dolomite. Both batch and mini column experiments were conducted at variable ionic strength. These data highlight the strong chemisorption of Nd to the dolomite surface (equilibrium K d 's > 3000 mL/g) and suggest that equilibrium adsorption processes may not be affected by ionic strength based on similar results at 0.1 and 5.0 M ionic strength in column breakthrough and equilibrium batch (>5 days) results. Mini column experiments conducted over approximately one year also represent a significant development in measurement of sorption of Nd in the presence of flow as previous large-scale column experiments did not achieve breakthrough likely due to the high loading capacity of dolomite for Nd (up to 240 μg/g). Batch experiments in the absence of flow show that the rate of Nd removal increases with increasing ionic strength (up to 5.0 M) with greater removal at greater ionic strength for a 24 h sampling point. We suggest that the increasing ionic strength induces increased mineral dissolution and re-precipitation caused by changes in activity with ionic strength that lead to increased removal of Nd through co-precipitation processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns and correlates of grip strength change with age in Afro-Caribbean men.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Kimberly Y Z; Bunker, Clareann H; Sheu, Yahtyng; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2012-05-01

    muscle strength is essential for physical functions and an indicator of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Among the factors associated with muscle strength loss with age, ethnicity has been shown to play an important role. to examine the patterns and correlates of muscle strength change with age in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older Afro-Caribbean men. handgrip strength and body composition were measured in 1,710 Afro-Caribbean men. Data were also collected for demographic variables, medical history and lifestyle behaviours. the age range of the study population was 29-89 years. Grip strength increased below age 50 years, and decreased after age 50 years over 4.5-year follow-up. The average loss in grip strength was 2.2% (0.49% per year) for ages 50 years or older and 3.8% (0.64% per year) for ages 65 years or older. The significant independent predictors of grip strength loss included older age, a greater body mass index, lower initial arm lean mass and greater loss of arm lean mass. Afro-Caribbean men experience a significant decline in muscle strength with advanced age. The major independent factors associated with strength loss were similar to other ethnic groups, including age, body weight and lean mass.

  5. Does maximum torque mean optimal pullout strength of screws?

    PubMed

    Tankard, Sara E; Mears, Simon C; Marsland, Daniel; Langdale, Evan R; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2013-04-01

    To determine the relationship between insertion torque and pullout strength of 3.5-mm-diameter cortical screws in cadaveric humeri with different bone mineral densities (BMDs). Five pairs of human humeri from each of 3 BMD groups (normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic) were used. Holes were drilled in each humerus, and maximum insertion torque (T(max)) was measured by tightening a screw until stripping occurred. In the remaining holes, screws were tightened to 50%, 70%, or 90% of the T(max). A servohydraulic testing machine pulled each screw out at 1 mm/s while resulting force and axial displacement were recorded at 10 Hz. The authors checked for an effect of insertion torque (percent T(max)) on pullout strength using a general linearized and latent mixed model (Stata10), controlling for cortical thickness and BMD (T-score). Pullout strength for normal and osteoporotic bone was greatest for screws inserted to 50% T(max) and was significantly greater than that at T(max) but not significantly different from that at 70% or 90% T(max). For osteopenic bone, pullout strength was greatest at 70% peak torque, but it was not significantly different from the pullout strength at the 50% or 90% T(max) levels. Tightening screws beyond 50% T(max) does not increase pullout strength of the screw and may place bone at risk for damage that might result in loss of fixation. Even after adjusting for bone thickness and density, there is no clear relationship between pullout strength and screw torque.

  6. Elbow isokinetic strength characteristics among collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G; Wilson, James T; Meister, Keith

    2012-05-01

    To compare the bilateral strength characteristics of the wrist flexors, extensors, pronators, and supinators among baseball players. Cross-sectional. Laboratory. 30 collegiate baseball players with no recent history of upper extremity injury. Bilateral pronation, supination, wrist flexion, and wrist extension peak torque (PT) and peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) strength were measured at speeds of 90 and 180°/second. Paired t-tests showed that the throwing arm of baseball players produced significantly less PT/BW strength for supination at 90°/second compared to the non-throwing arm (P = .001). The throwing arm produced significantly more PT/BW strength for pronation (P = .001) at 180°/second compared to the non-throwing arm. Furthermore, the throwing arm had more PT and PT/BW strength for wrist extension (P < .005) at 180°/second. Conversely, the throwing arm had less PT and PT/BW strength for supination (P < .004) and wrist flexion (P < .004) at 180°/second compared to the non-throwing arm. Significant bilateral strength differences exist in pronation, supination, wrist flexion, and wrist extension among collegiate baseball players. With the steady increase in ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow among baseball players and the proven resistance to valgus force provided by the flexor-pronator mass of the elbow, the results of this study may prove beneficial in the prevention, evaluation, and rehabilitation of such dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the strength of random fiber networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deogekar, S.; Picu, R. C.

    2018-07-01

    Damage accumulation and failure in random fiber networks is of importance in a variety of applications, from design of synthetic materials, such as paper and non-wovens, to accidental tearing of biological tissues. In this work we study these processes using three-dimensional models of athermal fiber networks, focusing attention on the modes of failure and on the relationship between network strength and network structural parameters. We consider network failure at small and large strains associated with the rupture of inter-fiber bonds. It is observed that the strength increases linearly with the network volume fraction and with the bond strength, while the stretch at peak stress is inversely related to these two parameters. A small fraction of the bonds rupture before peak stress and this fraction increases with increasing failure stretch. Rendering the bond strength stochastic causes a reduction of the network strength. However, heterogeneity retards damage localization and increases the stretch at peak stress, therefore promoting ductility.

  8. Clinicopathological factors increased the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules with atypical or follicular lesions of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) risk factor of malignancy in thyroid nodule with AUS/FLUS

    PubMed Central

    Hong, In Ki; Kim, Jun Ho; Cho, Young Up; Park, Shin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) in thyroid nodules is presently most commonly used to identify whether these nodules are benign or malignant. However, atypical or follicular lesions of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), as categorized in the Bethesda System for reporting the results of FNA, cannot be classified as benign or malignant. Therefore, several clinical factors should be considered to assess the risk of malignancy in patients with AUS/FLUS. The purpose of the present study was to determine which clinical factor increased the risk of malignancy in patients with AUS/FLUS. Methods A retrospective study was done on 129 patients with fine needle aspiration categorized as AUS/FLUS from January 2011 through April 2015. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the independent effect of risk factors such as age, sex, size of nodule, atypical descriptors, and ultrasonography criteria for malignancy. Results We identified that the presence of spiculated margin (odds ratio [OR], 5.655; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.114-15.131; P = 0.001), nuclear grooving (OR, 3.697; 95% CI, 1.409-9.701; P = 0.008), irregular nuclei (OR, 3.903; 95% CI, 1.442-10.560; P = 0.001) were shown to be significantly related to malignancy on univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusion We recommend that surgical resection of thyroid nodules be considered in patients with AUS/FLUS showing the histologic findings such as nuclear grooving, irregular nuclei along with spiculated margin of ultrasonographic finding. PMID:27073790

  9. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Azusa; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario; Chen, Yonghong

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular fu